Sample records for firefighters

  1. Firefighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

  2. Firefighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes of operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

  3. Firefighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Firefighters are like astronauts. They both face dangerous, even hostile environments such as a building full of fire and the vacuum of space. They are both get breathing air from tanks on their backs. Early in the 1970's, NASA began working to improve firefighter breathing systems, which had hardly changed since the 1940s. NASA's Johnson Space Center conducted a 4-year program that applied technology from the portable life support systems used by Apollo astronauts on the moon. The new breathing system is made up of an air bottle, a frame and harness, a face mask, and a warning device. The new system weighs less than 20 pounds, one-third less than the old gear. The new air bottle provides 30 minutes of breathing air, as much as the old system. Like a good hiker's backpack, the new system puts the weight on the firefighter's hips rather than the shoulders. The face mask provides better visibility and the warning device lets the firefighter know when air in the bottle is low. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

  4. Firefighters' Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

  5. INL@Work Firefighter

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

  6. INL@Work Firefighter

    ScienceCinema

    Baron, Wendy

    2013-05-28

    Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

  7. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  8. Outfitting Wildland Firefighters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lexi Krock

    This interactive flash-based poster shows the equipment that firefighters use in their work, along with how they use it. Simply click on a piece of equipment, and a sidebar explains its use and history in firefighting.

  9. FIREFIGHTER POCKET CARDS

    E-print Network

    TEXAS FIREFIGHTER POCKET CARDS UPDATED: FEBRUARY 2014 #12;#12;i Table of Contents Guide.............................................................................. Predictive Service Area Map................................................... Firefighter Pocket Cards 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 62 68 69 #12;1 Firefighter's Guide to Percentiles

  10. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 ?g/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 ?g/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  11. Improved Gloves for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J.

    1983-01-01

    New firefighter's gloves are more flexible and comfortable than previous designs. Since some firefighters prefer gloves made of composite materials while others prefer dip-coated gloves, both types were developed. New gloves also find uses in foundries, steelmills, and other plants where they are substituted for asbestos gloves.

  12. Improved Clothing for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Application of space technology should reduce incidence of injuries, heat exhaustion, and fatigue in firefighters. Using advanced materials and design concepts of aerospace technology, protective gear was fabricated and tested for the heat, face, torso, hand and foot. In tests, it was found that new gear protects better than conventional firefighter gear, weighs 40 percent less, and reduces wearer's energy expenditure by 25 percent.

  13. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  14. Advanced Transceivers for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blood, B. D.; Gandhi, O. P.; Radke, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents concept of improved portable radio transceiver for firefighters. Based in part on study of propagation of radio waves in such environments as high-rise buildings, ships, and tunnels. Study takes into account possible health hazard posed by personal tranceivers and needs and wishes expressed by firefighters in interviews. Conceptual radio attaches to clothing to allow hands-free use; voice-actuated with microphone worn at throat. Speaker placed near wearer's shoulder. Flexible antenna placed either horizontally across shoulders, vertically at one shoulder, or on transceiver itself.

  15. 6.EE Firefighter Allocation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A town's total allocation for firefighter's wages and bene?ts in a new budget is \\$600,000. If wages are calculated at \\$40,000 per firefighter and ben...

  16. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  17. Characterization of Firefighter Smoke Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Z. Fabian; Jacob L. Borgerson; Pravinray D. Gandhi; C. Stuart Baxter; Clara Sue Ross; James E. Lockey; James M. Dalton

    A study of firefighter exposure was undertaken as part of a larger smoke exposure study. Teams of Chicago Fire Department\\u000a firefighters were issued equipment for monitoring exposure conditions during structural fire suppression activity (knockdown\\u000a and overhaul) and search and rescue operations. Potential inhalation exposure was characterized by outfitting firefighters\\u000a with direct-reading gas meters and personal cascade impactors. The gas meters

  18. Environmental study of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, J; Jones, W; Burkhart, J; Noonan, G

    1991-12-01

    A study of firefighter exposures was undertaken at the request of the U.S. Fire Administration. This work was part of a larger study which included field evaluation of the performance of the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) worn by firefighters during structural firefighting. Measurements were made for a variety of contaminants including CO, CO2, benzene, HCN, HCl, H2SO4, HF, acrolein, CH4, formaldehyde and PNAs. Many of the analyses were performed by collection of bag samples followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a field mobile spectrometer. Measurements were also made using solid sorbent tubes and direct-reading meters. Sampling was done both during the knockdown and during overhaul phases of structural firefighting. Also, in order to estimate exposures including those when the SCBAs were worn, measurements were made both inside and outside the SCBA facepiece. Carbon monoxide was the most common contaminant found during knockdown, and about 10% of the samples were greater than 1500 ppm. Formaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, sulphuric acid and hydrogen fluoride all exceeded their respective short-term exposure limits (STEL) on some occasions. Approximately 50% of the knockdown samples for acrolein exceeded the STEL. During overhaul, when masks were usually not worn, many of the contaminants found during knockdown were detected, but typically at much lower concentrations. Inside-mask sampling data suggest that exposure to low concentrations of a variety of compounds is occurring but this is believed to be principally the result of early mask removal or of non-use during knockdown rather than of leakage. The three basic sampling approaches (bag sampling, sorbent tubes and direct-reading meters) proved in this study to be complementary and served to maximize our ability to detect and quantify a wide range of combustion products. PMID:1768008

  19. Firefighter command training virtual environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tazama U. St. Julien; Christopher D. Shaw

    2003-01-01

    The Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment is being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration with the Atlanta Fire Department. The VE allows the user to: navigate around the environment, viewing a house on fire from any angle; command firefighters and watch them execute those commands; and see realistic fire and smoke behavior reacting to changes in the environment. The VE

  20. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions. PMID:25816168

  1. Characterization of Firefighter Exposures During Fire Overhaul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn M. Bolstad-Johnson; Jefferey L. Burgess; Clifton D. Crutchfield; Steve Storment; Richard Gerkin; Jeffrey R. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have characterized firefighter exposures during fire suppression. However, minimal information is available regarding firefighter exposures during overhaul, when firefighters look for hidden fire inside attics, ceilings, and walls, often without respiratory protection. A comprehensive air monitoring study was conducted to characterize City of Phoenix firefighter exposures during the overhaul phase of 25 structure fires. Personal samples were collected

  2. Posttraumatic stress reactions in volunteer firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Bryant; Allison G. Harvey

    1996-01-01

    Volunteer firefighters in NSW were surveyed for experiences of posttraumatic stress. Firefighters were asked to describe their experiences of stress and indices were obtained of psychological disturbance. Findings indicated that most firefighters felt that their safety had been threatened. One-quarter of firefighters indicated that they experienced significant levels of posttraumatic stress, although many respondents attributed their stress to personal events.

  3. Slow firefighting M.E. Messinger

    E-print Network

    Bonato, Anthony

    Slow firefighting M.E. Messinger S.P. Yarnell Mount Allison University #12;Slow firefighting M graph At step , the pyro burns vertex At step , the firefighter "moves" and then the pyro "moves" select burned vertices? ·burn a particular set of vertices? ·avoid containment? pyro firefighter ·minimize

  4. KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with an aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Kennedy Space Center aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle supports heavy traffic at the Space Coast Regional Airport in Titusville, Florida, where aircraft capable of carrying water were staged during the recent brushfires throughout Florida. Aircraft were supporting firefighting efforts in Brevard, Volusia, and Flagler counties.

  5. The firefighter problem with more than one firefighter on trees

    E-print Network

    Bazgan, Cristina; Ries, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the complexity of the firefighter problem and related problems on trees when more than one firefighter is available at each time step, and answer several open questions of Finbow and MacGillivray 2009. More precisely, when $b \\geq 2$ firefighters are allowed at each time step, the problem is NP-complete for trees of maximum degree $b+2$ and polynomial-time solvable for trees of maximum degree $b+2$ when the fire breaks out at a vertex of degree at most $b+1$. Moreover we present a polynomial-time algorithm for a subclass of trees, namely $k$-caterpillars.

  6. Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

  7. Physiological responses during shipboard firefighting.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B L; Hagan, R D; Banta, G; Williams, F

    1995-03-01

    This study determined the level of heat strain experienced by U.S. Navy personnel while combating fires aboard a damage control research ship. Male volunteers (n = 9), wearing the standard Navy firefighting ensemble, were recorded for core temperature (Tre), skin temperatures (weighted mean, Tmsk), and heart rate (HR) during three fire test days. During the tests, air temperatures in the compartment containing the fire to be extinguished averaged 470 +/- 170 degrees C, while air temperatures in the compartment from which the fire was fought ranged from 40 to 125 degrees C. Dressing in the ensemble and execution of preliminary firefighting activities led to a gradual increase in Tre, Tmsk, and HR; while during active firefighting, Tre, Tmsk, and HR increased rapidly. For all tests, the rate of Tmsk rise (8.73 degrees C.h-1) exceeded the rate of Tre rise (2.95 degrees C.h-1), leading to convergence of these values. Average peak values for all tests were: Tre, 39.2 +/- 1.0 degrees C; Tmsk, 39.5 +/- 0.9 degrees C; body heat storage (HS), 2.02 +/- 0.77 kcal.kg-1; rate of HS during firefighting, 170 +/- 92 kcal.m-2.h-1; HR, 186 +/- 13 bpm. Our findings quantify the limits of tolerance of heat strain encountered during shipboard firefighting. PMID:7661831

  8. Parameterized Complexity of Firefighting Revisited

    E-print Network

    Cygan, Marek; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan

    2011-01-01

    The Firefighter problem is to place firefighters on the vertices of a graph to prevent a fire with known starting point from lighting up the entire graph. In each time step, a firefighter may be permanently placed on an unburned vertex and the fire spreads to its neighborhood in the graph in so far no firefighters are protecting those vertices. The goal is to let as few vertices burn as possible. This problem is known to be NP-complete, even when restricted to bipartite graphs or to trees of maximum degree three. Initial study showed the Firefighter problem to be fixed-parameter tractable on trees in various parameterizations. We complete these results by showing that the problem is in FPT on general graphs when parameterized by the number of burned vertices, but has no polynomial kernel on trees, resolving an open problem. Conversely, we show that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the number of unburned vertices, even on bipartite graphs. For both parameterizations, we additionally give refined ...

  9. Safety climate and firefighter injury: model development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D M DeJoy; K Kunadharaju; T D Smith

    2010-01-01

    Without question, firefighting is a dangerous occupation. Each year in the U.S., over 100 firefighters die in the line of duty and over 80 000 are injured. These numbers have not improved during the past 25 years and, in fact, have been trending upward for the past decade. Firefighter professional associations and advocacy groups have increasingly called for changes to

  10. Lolo Interagency Hotshot Crew Senior Firefighter

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    OUTREACH Lolo Interagency Hotshot Crew Senior Firefighter GS-0462-4/5 NORTHERN REGION LOLO NATIONAL/HCREW-4/5G (Merit) OCRP-462-IHC/HCREW-4/5DP (Demo) Minimum NWCG Qualifications: Firefighter Type 1 (FFT1) S-290 Intermediate Fire Behavior Duties The Senior Firefighter position serves as an experienced

  11. Using Virtual Environments to Train Firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Tate; Linda E. Sibert; Tony King

    1997-01-01

    Using virtual environments for training and mission rehearsal gives US Navy firefighters an edge in fighting real fires. A test run on the ex-USS Shadwell measured the improvement. The results suggest that virtual environments serve effectively for training and mission rehearsal for shipboard firefighting. VE training provides a flexible environment where a firefighter can not only learn an unfamiliar part

  12. Firefighter Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite there being a significant amount of research investigating workplace learning, research exploring firefighter workplace learning is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore how firefighters conceptualize, report, and practice workplace learning. The researcher also investigated how firefighters

  13. Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaodong Jiang; Nicholas Y. Chen; Jason I. Hong; Kevin Wang; Leila Takayama; James A. Landay

    2004-01-01

    Based on an extensive field study of current firefighting practices, we have developed a system called Siren to support tacit communication between firefighters with multiple levels of redundancy in both communication and user alerts. Siren provides a foundation for gathering, integrating, and distributing contextual data, such as location and temperature. It also simplifies the devel- opment of firefighting applications using

  14. Fit-testing for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Brickman, C P

    1999-01-01

    When fit-testing firefighters who may be required to wear an SCBA unit in the positive pressure mode for IDLH or structural firefighting applications, use these guidelines. 1. The firefighter shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the firefighter. 2. Before a firefighter may be required to use the SCBA, he/she must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. If different makes, models, styles, and sizes of facepieces are used, the firefighter must be fit-tested for each. 3. Based on current interpretations and guidance, OSHA requires firefighters to be quantitatively or qualitatively fit-tested while in the negative pressure mode. 4. Quantitative fit-testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece and breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece. 5. Qualitative fit-testing can be accomplished by converting the user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the SCBA facepiece. 6. If after passing the fit-test the firefighter subsequently determines the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, he/she shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and be retested. 7. The new standard requires initial and at least annual fit-testing using quantitative or qualitative fit-testing protocols. 8. Additional fit-testing may be required whenever physical changes to the employee occur that may affect respirator fit, such as facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious change in body weight. PMID:9891408

  15. Firefighting Women and Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosell, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Survey responses were received from 37 of 103 department chiefs and 206 of 1,108 female firefighters. The 58% who reported sexual harassment indicated greater stress, sexual stereotyping, acts of violence, use of sick leave, and fear. Although most departments have a policy, over half of those harassed did not report incidents. (SK)

  16. Air contaminants encountered by firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT D. TREITMAN; WILLIAM A. BURGESS; AVRAM GOLD

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of eight air contaminants suspected of causing acute and chronic health problems for firefighters were measured in over 200 fires in the City of Boston using a personal air sampler. Threatening concentrations of both carbon monoxide and acrolein were found in a small proportion of the fires. Less hazardous levels of hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen dioxide and

  17. Automatic and Robust Breadcrumb System Deployment for Indoor Firefighter Applications

    E-print Network

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    Automatic and Robust Breadcrumb System Deployment for Indoor Firefighter Applications Hengchang Liu, implementation and eval- uation of an automatic and robust breadcrumb system for firefighter applications. Our General Terms Applications, Algorithms, Design, Experimentation Keywords Breadcrumb systems, firefighter

  18. Data Mining and Ergonomic Evaluation of Firefighter’s Motion Based on Decision Tree Classification Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lifang Yang; Tianjiao Zhao

    \\u000a It is effective means to promote firefighter’s clothing design through research of firefighters’ motion. In this paper, substantive\\u000a data and picture information are obtained by investigation methods. Based on the survey, the motion is systematically classified\\u000a according to both intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. The decision tree classification model for firefighters’ motion\\u000a is obtained by pattern recognition technique. The key

  19. 3/2 Firefighters are not enough

    E-print Network

    Feldheim, Ohad N

    2010-01-01

    The firefighter problem is a monotone dynamic process in graphs that can be viewed as modeling the use of a limited supply of vaccinations to stop the spread of an epidemic. In more detail, a fire spreads through a graph, from burning vertices to their unprotected neighbors. In every round, a small amount of unburnt vertices can be protected by firefighters. How many firefighters per turn, on average, are needed to stop the fire from advancing? We prove tight lower and upper bounds on the amount of firefighters needed to control a fire in the Cartesian planar grid and in the strong planar grid, resolving two conjectures of Ng and Raff.

  20. A Case of Poisoned Firefighters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bethany A Cook (New Mexico State University Biology)

    2007-02-26

    This activity was developed for an introductory biology course for science majors. The activity is intended to reinforce the basic concepts of cellular respiration (including the electron transport chain and generation of the proton motive force) and to link O2 transport explicitly to cellular respiration. Students are initially engaged by considering the cases of firefighters exposed to smoke that could contain carbon monoxide (CO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN).

  1. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  2. Perceptions of work stress in Australian firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen C. Moran; Evelyn Colless

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed 747 firefighters on their perceptions of work stress. The current emphasis in the fire brigades is on the management of traumatic or critical incident stress, but other work stressors may also be important. The firefighters rated their jobs as more stressful than other occupations, and psychological work stress as highest among a set of potential sources and

  3. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Marine Firefighting: (i) Remote assessment and consultation Firefighter in voice contact with QI/Master/Operator. (ii) On-site fire assessment Firefighter representative on site. (iii) External firefighting teams...

  4. Human-Computer Interaction Techniques in Firefighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Denef; Schloss Birlinghoven

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the design of human computer interaction techniques for ubiquitous computing solutions in firefighting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Research Area: Human-Computer Interaction Design for Safety Critical Ubiquitous Computing.

  5. Fixed Parameter Tractable Algorithm for Firefighting Problem

    E-print Network

    Leung, Ming Lam

    2011-01-01

    The firefighter problem is defined as below. A fire initially breaks out at a vertex r on a graph G. In each step, a firefighter chooses to protect one vertex, which is not yet burnt. And the fire spreads out to its unprotected neighboring vertices afterwards. The objective of the problem is to choose a sequence of vertices to protect, in order to save maximum number of vertices from the fire. In this paper, we will introduce a parameter k into the firefighter problem and give several FPT algorithms using a random separation technique of Cai, Chan and Chan. We will prove firefighter problem is FPT on general graph if we take total number of vertices burnt to be a parameter. If we parameterize the number of protected vertices, we discover several FPT algorithms of the firefighter problem on degree bounded graph and unicyclic graph. Furthermore, we also study the firefighter problem on weighted and valued graph, and the problem with multiple fire sources on degree-bounded graph.

  6. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A firefighter waits for his companions before tackling the flames on a simulated aircraft. Firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  7. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters in full gear wait to approach a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. The firefighters are with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

  8. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A training officer controls elements of a fire training exercise at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters tackled flames from a burning simulated aircraft.

  9. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...âTankerman-PICâ Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for an original “Tankerman-PIC” endorsement shall present a certificate of successful completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved...

  10. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...âTankerman-PICâ Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for an original “Tankerman-PIC” endorsement shall present a certificate of successful completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212 Section 404.1212... § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social...of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

  12. A MVC prototype for the landmarke firefighter navigation system

    E-print Network

    Beigl, Michael

    A MVC prototype for the landmarke firefighter navigation system Markus Scholz, Leonardo Ramirez Berning, Matthias Budde, Dimana Shishkova, Till Riedel and Michael Beigl I. INTRODUCTION FirefightersIT@Work project was to search for alternative approaches to support firefighters. From their work

  13. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212 Section 404.1212... § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social...of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

  14. Advanced Wildland Firefighter Deadline to Apply: April 10, 2012

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    Advanced Wildland Firefighter Academy Deadline to Apply: April 10, 2012 The Alaska Advanced Wildland Firefighter Academy is now accepting applications for its 2012 training session May 27-June 10 level firefighters. The course includes training in the use of portable pumps and water, wildland fire

  15. Correlates of work injury frequency and duration among firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Liao; Richard D. Arvey; Richard J. Butler; Steven M. Nutting

    2001-01-01

    This study examined demographic, personality, and economic incentive correlates of workplace injuries suffered by 171 firefighters over a 12-year period. Results showed that female firefighters experienced more injuries than male firefighters. Several Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales (Conversion Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviate, and Social Introversion) were positively related to injury frequency. Regression analyses revealed that age, tenure, gender, marital status,

  16. Baseline Measurements of Smoke Exposure Among Wildland Firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

    2004-01-01

    Extensive measurements of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters are summarized, showing that firefighters can be exposed to significant levels of carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants, including formaldehyde, acrolein, and respirable particulate matter. Benzene was also measured and found to be well below permissible exposure limits, with the highest concentrations occurring among firefighters working with engines and torches burning petroleum-based fuel.

  17. Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment Tazama U. St. Julien

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Chris

    Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment Tazama U. St. Julien stjulien@cc.gatech.edu Chris The Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment is being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration on fire from any angle; command firefighters and watch them execute those commands; and see realistic fire

  18. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212 Section 404.1212... § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social...of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

  19. Wildland Firefighter Training Opportunity Deadline to Apply: April 20, 2012

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    Wildland Firefighter Training Opportunity Deadline to Apply: April 20, 2012 The Alaska Basic Wildland Firefighter Academy is now accepting nominations for its 2012 training session May 20-26, 2012 in Tok, Alaska. This academy is designed to train participants with no wildland firefighter skills

  20. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A firefighter (right) holds a water hose in readiness as others enter a smoke-filled simulated aircraft. The activities are part of fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters have already extinguished flames from the aircraft.

  1. Fitness for work evaluation of firefighters in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Movasatian, Farid; Momenzadeh, Akram Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Firefighting is extremely strenuous and physically demanding work and involves ability to cope with emergency life-or-death situations. Because of the high physical demands of firefighting, successful job performance and minimizing of morbidity and mortality depends on fitness for duty. The firefighting department of Tehran does not perform periodic medical assessment for firefighters. The aim of this study was to evaluate medical fitness among firefighters in Tehran. In this cross sectional study we examined 147 firefighters. Medical and occupational history obtained by interview, then we performed physical examination, blood tests, ECG, spirometry and audiometry. Then results compared with guidelines for firefighters in the USA, Australia and the United Kingdom. Seven percent of our participants had a kind of pulmonary dysfunction and 25% had some degrees of hearing loss. A considerable percent of them had modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors. Thirteen participitants were unfit for this job that among them; ten firefighters were unfit based on vision capability, one case due to hypertention and two cases because of pulmonary dysfunction. Because of hazardouse nature of firefighting; preplacement, periodic medical evaluations and assesment of fitness for firefighters in Iran is highly recommended. Establishment of fitness criteria for firefighters in Iran is necessery to perform assigned functions safely. PMID:23690108

  2. Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

  3. Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

  4. Exposure of firefighters to toxic air contaminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AVRAM GOLD; W. M. A. BURGESS; EDWARD V. CLOUGHERTY

    1978-01-01

    A personal sampling apparatus for firefighters was developed to sample the fire atmosphere for CO, CO2, O2, NO2, HCI, HCN and particulate content. Two fire companies made ninety successful sample runs during structural fires. CO presented a potential acute hazard and particulate concentrations were high. HCN was detected at low levels in half the samples. HCI was detected in only

  5. Fire Service Training. Firefighting Procedures. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers firefighting procedures and principles. Emphasis is placed on pre-fire planning, the techniques for applying a plan to a course of action, and the selection of proper fire fighting procedures to meet specific needs. Besides the methods of…

  6. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards...DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements §...

  7. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards...DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements §...

  8. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

  9. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

  10. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

  11. Determining Best Practices to Reduce Occupational Health Risks in Firefighters.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Suzanne L; Phillips, Jonathan S; Twilbeck, Travis J

    2015-07-01

    McDonough, SL, Phillips, JS, and Twilbeck, TJ. Determining best practices to reduce occupational health risks in firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 29(7): 2041-2044, 2015-The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters. PMID:25563676

  12. Virtual environments for shipboard firefighting training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Tate; Linda Sibert; T. King

    1997-01-01

    A virtual environment (VE) of portions of the ex-USS Shadwell, the Navy's full-scale fire research and test ship, has been developed to study the feasibility of using immersive VE as a tool for shipboard firefighting training and mission rehearsal. The VE system uses a head-mounted display and 3D joystick to allow users to navigate through and interact with the environment.

  13. Rheology of fire-fighting foams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Gardiner; B. Z. Dlugogorski; G. J. Jameson

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the rheological properties of compressed-air foams and contains velocity profiles of foams flowing through straight horizontal tubes. It is shown that a master equation can be derived from the experimental data to account for a range of expansion ratios and pressures normally encountered during pumping of polyhedral-in-structure fire-fighting foams. The experimental data come from a Poiseuille-flow rheometer

  14. A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E S Hansen

    1990-01-01

    This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess

  15. Mortality among firefighters from three northwestern United States cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P A Demers; N J Heyer; L Rosenstock

    1992-01-01

    To explore whether exposure among firefighters to fire smoke could lead to an increased risk of cancer, lung disease, and heart disease, the mortality of 4546 firefighters who were employed by the cities of Seattle and Tacoma, WA and Portland, OR for at least one year between 1944 and 1979 were compared with United States national mortalities and with mortality

  16. Wildland Smoke Exposure Values and Exhaled Breath Indicators in Firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Vera Martins; Pedro Cascão; Jorge Humberto Amorim; Joana Valente; Carlos Borrego; António Jorge Ferreira; Carlos Robalo Cordeiro; Domingos Xavier Viegas; Roger Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from forest fires contains significant amounts of gaseous and particulate pollutants. Firefighters exposed to wildland fire smoke can suffer from several acute and chronic adverse health effects. Consequently, exposure data are of vital importance for the establishment of cause\\/effect relationships between exposure to smoke and firefighter health effects. The aims of this study were to (1) characterize the relationship

  17. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters in full gear douse a fire on a simulated aircraft. The firefighters, who are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  18. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters surround a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. Those at left wait their turn as the crew on the right turn their hoses toward the fire. The firefighters are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

  19. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  20. Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Firefighter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This competency-based education curriculum, developed by firefighters and educators in West Virginia, is designed for use as a resource for the development of improved firefighter training programs. It consists of an introductory note to the instructor and 140 competency sheets. These sheets deal with tasks in the following areas: general…

  1. Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Juha Ari; Koponen, Jani; Koikkalainen, Janne; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eight firefighters' exposure to Sthamex 3% AFFF (aqueous film forming foam) in the simulation of aircraft accidents at Oulu airport in Finland. Study was conducted in 2010 before limitation for the use of PFOA and PFOS in AFFFs. Due to prospective limitation also eight commercially available AFFFs were evaluated from occupational and environmental point of view to find substitutive AFFFs for future. The firefighters' exposure to twelve perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) was analyzed in order to observe the signs of accumulation during three consecutive training sessions. The firefighters' short-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) was analyzed by urinalysis of 2-butoxyacetic acid (2-BAA). For the background information also the concentration of PFAS in used AFFF-liquid was analyzed. Fire fighters' serum PFHxS and PFNA concentrations seemed to increase during the three training sessions although they were not the main PFAS in used AFFF. The statistical significance for the elevations was not able to test due to limited size of test group. In two training sessions, the average urinary excretions of 2-BAA exceeded the reference limit of the occupationally unexposed population. In the evaluations of the firefighting foams, non-fluorine based products were favored and the alcohol resistance properties of foams were recommended for consideration due to the increasing use of biofuels. PMID:25447453

  2. KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with a railroad tanker car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Kennedy Space Center railroad tanker car loaded with 20,000 gallons of water and retrofitted with a special attachment for directly filling fire trucks was transported to the scene of a fire in north Brevard County to assist with firefighting efforts.

  3. Selected physiological and psychological responses to live-fire drills in different configurations of firefighting gear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. SMITH; S. J. PETRUZZELLO

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected physiological and psychological responses to strenuous live-fire drills in different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) performed three sets of firefighting drills in a training structure that contained live fires in two different configurations of firefighting gear. On separate days subjects wore: (a) the NFPA 1500 (1987)

  4. Safety limits for a firefighter proximity suit.

    PubMed

    Reischl, U; Reischl, P

    1978-07-01

    A standard one-piece firefighter proximity suit (jumpsuit style) was tested for heat accumulation and hood compartment ventilation. Large increases in temperature of the skin and hood compartmental air were recorded. Oxygen and carbon dioxide were monitored and hypoxic conditions found. Using the O2 and CO2 data, mathematical regression analyses were performed to predict the time exposures allowed for firemen entering various ambient atmospheric conditions. The short permissible exposure periods predicted for the proximity suit suggests limited usefulness and the need for immediate improvements in the design of the suit. PMID:696611

  5. Polymer Fabric Protects Firefighters, Military, and Civilians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In 1967, NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. In 2005, the PBI fiber and polymer business was sold to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form. PBI is now used in numerous firefighting, military, motor sports, and other applications.

  6. Field Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Work Capacity of Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter’s ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters’ aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs?=??0.65 and ?0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL·min?1) and relative (mL·kg?1·min?1) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs?=??0.79 to 0.55 and ?0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters’ work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s·kg?1), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter’s aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  7. Plasma catecholamine levels and neurobehavioral problems in Indian firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ray, Manas R; Basu, Chandreyi; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Banik, Sampa; Lahiri, Twisha

    2006-05-01

    Firefighting is a stressful and hazardous job. Persons engaged in firefighting are highly exposed to work-related stress as well as to smoke containing a host of chemicals potentially harmful to human health. In order to elucidate whether firefighting affects neuroendocrine and behavioral responses of firefighters, plasma catecholamine (CA) levels and the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms in 62 firefighters (all males, mean age 43 yr) and 52 control subjects matched for age and sex were examined in this study. Self-reported neurobehavioral symptoms data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and personal interview. Concentrations of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Compared with matched controls, the firefighters showed higher prevalence (p<0.05) of neurobehavioral symptoms such as burning sensation in the extremities, tingling and numbness, transient loss of memory, and depression, but no significant difference was recorded in the prevalences of anxiety, vertigo and dizziness. The firefighters demonstrated a more than two-fold (p<0.05) rise in plasma levels of E and NE, but the plasma DA level was relatively unchanged. Controlling age and smoking as possible confounders, firefighting was found to be associated with raised E (OR=2.15; 95% CI, 0.98-4.52), and NE levels (OR=2.24 95% CI, 1.22-3.61). In conclusion, the job of firefighting appears to be associated with stimulation of sympathetic activity and a rise in the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms. PMID:16788283

  8. Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study. PMID:24467725

  9. Fat future for firefighters? Changes in prevalence of obesity in Scottish local authority firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ide, C W

    2012-11-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in adult obesity in the Scotland during the past two decades, but little research has been undertaken into populations defined specifically by occupation. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of obesity in a group of local authority firefighters arising early in their careers, between enlistment and initial examination for a large goods vehicle (LGV) licence. The body mass index (BMI) from initial LGV medical examinations of firefighters during a 30-month period up to the end of September 2005 was compared with that at enlistment. Enlistment and LGV BMI data were available for 114 firefighters, all men. Of 114, 77 (68%) of LGV examinations took place within five years of enlistment. None were obese (BMI ?30) at enlistment, but by LGV medical the BMI of 88 (84%) had increased, and nine (8%) were obese. Assuming uniform accrual, BMI increased annually at rates varying between 0.06% and 2.25% (mean, 0.56; standard deviation [SD], 0.42). For the nine obese, this was 0.29-2.25% (mean, 1.06; SD, 0.61). In a population for which fitness is an essential selection criterion, the implied decline of fitness as measured by rising BMI in a short period should be cause for concern. PMID:23028175

  10. DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE OF BOAT UNDER THE WATERLINE. ZINCS ARE ALSO ADDED HERE TO PRESERVE THE METAL. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York, New York County, NY

  11. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., turn their hoses toward the fire on the simulated aircraft.

  12. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to pomptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to pomptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  14. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to pomptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to pomptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  16. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to pomptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  17. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of...

  18. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of...

  19. Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting Xiaodong Jiang1

    E-print Network

    Madiraju, Praveen

    reassessment of dynamic situations, and close co- ordination within teams. Furthermore, the smoke, heat to be opportunistic because the constant movement of firefighters in a complex urban structure makes it difficult

  20. Physical Work Limits for Toronto Firefighters in Warm Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Selkirk; T. M. McLellan

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between time to reach critical end points (tolerance time [TT] and metabolic rate for three different environmental temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 35°C, 50% relative humidity), while wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Thirty-seven Toronto firefighters (33 male and 4 female) were divided into four work groups defined as Heavy (H, n

  1. Cardiovascular disease in US firefighters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Smith, Denise L; Tsismenakis, Antonios J; Baur, Dorothee M; Kales, Stefanos N

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of on-duty death among firefighters (45% of on-duty fatalities) and a major cause of morbidity. CVD in the fire service also has adverse public safety implications as well as significant cost impacts on government agencies. Over the last decade, our understanding of CVD among firefighters has significantly improved and provides insight into potential preventive strategies. The physiology of cardiovascular arousal and other changes that occur in association with acute firefighting activities have been well-characterized. However, despite the strenuous nature of emergency duty, firefighters' prevalence of low fitness, obesity, and other CVD risk factors are high. Unique statistical approaches have documented that on-duty CVD events do not occur at random in the fire service. They are more frequent at certain times of day, certain periods of the year, and are overwhelmingly more frequent during strenuous duties compared with nonemergency situations. Moreover, as expected on-duty CVD events occur almost exclusively among susceptible firefighters with underlying CVD. These findings suggest that preventive measures with proven benefits be applied aggressively to firefighters. Furthermore, all fire departments should have entry-level medical evaluations, institute periodic medical and fitness evaluations, and require rigorous return to work evaluations after any significant illness. Finally, on the basis of the overwhelming evidence supporting markedly higher relative risks of on-duty death and disability among firefighters with established coronary heart disease, most firefighters with clinically significant coronary heart disease should be restricted from participating in strenuous emergency duties. PMID:21646874

  2. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard...DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.402 What firefighting...

  3. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a...DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements §...

  4. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard...DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.402 What firefighting...

  5. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 ...DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the...

  6. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 ...DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the...

  7. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...Guard [USCG-2012-0848] Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills...continuing response to the explosion, fire and sinking of the Mobile Offshore Drilling...voluntary guidance concerning lifesaving and fire-fighting equipment, training, and...

  8. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. 139.315 Section 139.315...139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An index is required by paragraph (c) of this...

  9. Effect of fire smoke on some biochemical parameters in firefighters of Saudi Arabia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulrahman L Al-Malki; Ameen M Rezq; Mohamed H Al-Saedy

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Firefighters who are facing fires, are frequently exposed to hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, benzene, sulphur dioxide, etc. This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes in activity involved firefighters in comparison to normal subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two groups of male firefighters volunteered to participate in the study. The

  10. Wildland firefighter safety zones: a review of past science and summary of future needs

    E-print Network

    Wildland firefighter safety zones: a review of past science and summary of future needs B. W Highway 10 W. Missoula, MT 59802. Email: bwbutler@fs.fed.us Abstract. Current wildland firefighter safety, constant flame temperature and high flame emissivity. Firefighter entrapments and injuries occur across

  11. The responses of African American women firefighters to gender harassment at work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice D. Yoder; Patricia Aniakudo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe the responses of African American women firefighters to sexual and gender harassment. Surveys and interviews of 22 firefighters nationwide uncovered universal exposure to harassment. Contrary to prior studies, most of which involved white college students and white collar workers, all these firefighters used externally focused, direct response strategies. Nineteen women directly

  12. Firefighter Training Virtual Environment (sketches_0264) Tazama U. St. Julien, Chris D. Shaw

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Chris

    Firefighter Training Virtual Environment (sketches_0264) Tazama U. St. Julien, Chris D. Shaw The Firefighter Training Simulation is a virtual environment being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration firefighters to perform different actions to help put out virtual fires. This simulation was developed using

  13. Selected physiological and psychobiological responses to physical activity in different configurations of firefighting gear

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. SMITH; S. J. PETRUZZELLO; J. M. KRAMER; S. E. WARNER; B. G. BONE; J. E. MISNER

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to examine selected physiological and psychobiological responses to different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) walked on a treadmill (3·5?km · h, 10% grade) for 15?min in three different clothing configurations. On separate days subjects wore: (a) ‘station blues’, (b) a hip boot configuration of firefighting gear, and (c) the current ‘NFPA 1500

  14. “OUTSIDER WITHIN” THE FIREHOUSESubordination and Difference in the Social Interactions of African American Women Firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANICE D. YODER; PATRICIA ANIAKUDO

    1997-01-01

    From the perspective of African American women firefighters, the authors examine the social interactions that make them excluded “outsiders within” their firehouses and different from not only dominant white men but also other subordinated groups of Black men and white women firefighters. Drawing on extensive survey data from 24 Black women career firefighters nationwide and detailed interviews with 22 of

  15. Micronucleus Frequencies and Nuclear Anomalies in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells of Firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manas Ranjan Ray; Chandreyi Basu; Senjuti Mukherjee; Sanghita Roychowdhury; Twisha Lahiri

    KEYWORDS Buccal epithelium; firefighter; micronucleus assay ABSTRACT To determine the genotoxic effects of combustion fumes on the target tissues, micronucleus (MN) assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of 47 firefighters. Compared to a mean value of 1.25 MN per 1000 cells in 40 matched controls, the firefighters had 3.91 MN per 1000 epithelial cells in their oral

  16. Exposure of firefighters to diesel emissions in fire stations

    SciTech Connect

    Froines, J.R.; Hinds, W.C.; Duffy, R.M.; Lafuente, E.J.; Liu, W.C.

    1987-03-01

    Personal sampling techniques were used to evaluate firefighter exposure to particulates from diesel engine emissions. Selected fire stations in New York, Boston and Los Angeles were studied. Firefighter exposure to total particulates increased with the number of runs conducted during an 8-hr period. In New York and Boston where the response level ranged from 7 to 15 runs during an 8-hr shift, the resulting exposure levels of total airborne particulates from diesel exhaust were 170 to 480 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (TWA). Methylene chloride extracts of the diesel particulates averaged 24% of the total. The authors' findings suggest that additional research is necessary to assess fire station concentrations of vehicle diesel exhaust that may have adverse health consequences to firefighters.

  17. Lesbian firefighters: shifting the boundaries between masculinity and femininity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the interaction between gender and sexuality, comparing the experiences of lesbian and heterosexual women firefighters in the UK. It finds that female firefighters are constructed in terms of their sexuality. Lesbians may find it easier than heterosexual women to be accepted into the "watch culture," in which "masculinity" is highly prized and fitting in with colleagues is seen as essential for performing the job safely. Lesbians who come out at work may also avoid unwanted sexual attention, which is often problematic for heterosexual women who are stereotyped as being sexually available to male firefighters. While the acceptance of lesbian sexuality is based largely on the adoption of characteristics defined as "masculine," lesbians also provide a challenge to accepted models of "femininity." PMID:19042297

  18. Comparison of aerobic capacity in annually certified and uncertified volunteer firefighters.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Rodney L; Heath, Edward M

    2013-05-01

    The leading cause of mortality among firefighters has been cardiac arrest precipitated by stress and overexertion with volunteer firefighters having double the death rate from this cause compared with career firefighters. In an attempt to reduce on-duty sudden cardiac deaths, annual fitness testing, and certification, has been widely instigated in wildland firefighters, who have half the cardiac arrest death rate of structural firefighters. The hypothesis was that annual fitness testing would serve as motivation to produce higher cardiorespiratory fitness. This study compared predicted aerobic capacity in annually certified and uncertified volunteer firefighters. Each firefighter performed a submaximal treadmill test to predict V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. Certified volunteer firefighters, who participated in annual fitness testing, had a predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 39.9 ± 8.4 ml·kg·min. Uncertified volunteer firefighters had a predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 37.8 ± 8.5 ml·kg·min. Annual fitness testing during the certification process did not contribute to statistically higher (F2,78 = 0.627, p = 0.431) V[Combining Dot Above]O2max levels in certified volunteer firefighters. Although there was no significant difference in predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values for certified and uncertified volunteer firefighters, it was reported that 30% of volunteer firefighters had predicted aerobic capacities below the recommended minimum V[Combining Dot Above]O2max level of 33.5 ml·kg·min. Current annual fitness testing for volunteer firefighters does not seem to be effective. Thus, the study emphasizes the need of a higher priority for firefighter fitness programs to best ensure the safety of firefighters and the public. PMID:22744416

  19. Exploring Physical Health in a Sample of Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Stacy; Gillespie, Gordon L; Christianson, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Firefighters' work responsibilities involve strenuous physical activity and exposure to extremely stressful situations. The purpose of this research study was to describe the physical activity, stress, and culture promoting or inhibiting a healthy work environment. A descriptive qualitative study design was used with a convenience sample of firefighters from an urban Midwestern public fire service. Respondents participated in focus groups from which data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Themes derived from the data were Stressors Affecting Physical Health, Barriers to Physical Health, Facilitators of Physical Health, and Motivators for Physical Health. Future research is needed to test interventions based on the study findings. PMID:26012517

  20. Challenges and successes in recruiting firefighters for hearing loss prevention research.

    PubMed

    Hong, OiSaeng; Fiola, Lauren Ann; Feld, Jamie

    2013-06-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant occupational health problem in the United States, affecting more than 1 million firefighters. Noise hazards include vehicles, sirens, and power tools. Additionally, firefighters are commonly exposed to ototoxic chemicals. Because the use of hearing protection is not universally required for firefighters, firefighters must be educated about NIHL to ensure they take personal responsibility for hearing loss prevention. This study discusses challenges associated with recruiting firefighters to participate in a randomized, controlled trial testing a web-based hearing protection training program. Successful recruitment strategies included collaboration with key stakeholders, a flexible and convenient computer-based intervention, expansion to multiple recruitment sites, and interactive outreach to potential participants. Future research should use quantitative methods to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of specific recruitment strategies to facilitate firefighter enrollment in research studies. Developing and testing effective hearing protection interventions for firefighters is a crucial first step toward preventing NIHL in this population. PMID:23701004

  1. A Firefighting Training Unit for the Royal Navy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Describes efforts to modernize the firefighting training facilities of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom through the use of computer-controlled simulations of ship fires. The structure of a prototype compartment and the control system that sets up various training scenarios and modulates the environment in response to actions by the trainees…

  2. A Heat Transfer Model for Firefighters' Protective Clothing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Mell; J. Randall Lawson

    2000-01-01

    An accurate and flexible model of heat transfer through firefighter protective clothing has many uses, including investigating the degree of protection, in terms of burn injury and heat stress, of a particular fabric assembly and analyzing cheaply and quickly the expected performance of new or candidate fabric designs or fabric combinations.

  3. Provocation, Hostility, Aggression, and Victimization: Firefighters and Incarcerated Felons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, E. Carlene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines self-reported histories of victimization among two groups of men. Violence, provocation, hostility, and aggression inventories were administered to a prosocial group of firefighters and an antisocial group of incarcerated felons. Fourteen of the 15 possible behavioral-abuse correlations were significant when both groups were considered…

  4. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., wait while the NASA/USAF water carrier truck directs its water cannon toward a burning simulated aircraft (out of view).

  5. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer vehicle from Naval Station Mayport, Fla., stands by during fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. In the background is the simulated aircraft that was set on fire for the exercise. Firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station (in the background) gather around the site of the extinguished flames.

  6. Factors Related to Sleep Disorders among Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders in male firefighters working in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Methods Self-administered questionnaires including the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form, Psychosocial Well-Being Index-Short Form, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Beck-Depression Inventory-2 as well as surveys collecting socio-demographic characteristics and work-related factors were given to 730 male firefighters. After exclusion for missing data, 657 male firefighters were included, and logistic regression analysis adjusted for the work-related factors, psychosocial factors, and general risk factors were used to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and associated factors. Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 48.7%. Shift work (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI?=?1.02-2.45), musculoskeletal symptoms (adjusted OR 2.89, 95% CI?=?2.02-4.14), and depression (adjusted OR 7.04 95% CI?=?4.03-12.30) were associated with sleep disorders. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms, shift work, and depression are associated with sleep disorders. Integrated health management is needed to promote good sleep quality among firefighters. PMID:24864191

  7. Pilot task-based assessment of noise levels among firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, RL; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational noise exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based noise exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential noise exposure sources, and to use collected task-based noise levels to create noise exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of noise-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for noise of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. METHODS Task-based noise exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These levels were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr noise exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. RESULTS Task-based noise levels were found to range from 82–109 dBA, with the highest levels resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate potential for overexposure to noise from a variety of firefighting tasks and equipment, and suggest a need for further exposure characterization and additional hearing loss prevention efforts. RELEVANCE TO INDUSTRY Firefighters may be at risk of noise-induced hearing loss, which can affect their fitness for duty and ability to respond effectively to emergencies. The results of this study suggest that additional efforts at hearing loss prevention among firefighters are warranted. PMID:24443622

  8. Biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams in water.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, A; Bergendahl, J; Rangwala, A

    2015-07-01

    Fluorinated fire-fighting foams may be released into the environment during fire-fighting activities, raising concerns due to the potential environmental and health impacts for some fluorinated organics. The current study investigated (1) the biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams, and (2) the applicability of current standard measures used to assess biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams. The biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams was evaluated using a 28-day dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Die-Away Test. It was found that all three materials, diluted in water, achieved 77-96% biodegradability, meeting the criteria for "ready biodegradability". Defluorination of the fluorinated organics in the foam during biodegradation was measured using ion chromatography. It was found that the fluorine liberated was 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated initial amount, indicating incomplete degradation of fluorinated organics, and incomplete CF bond breakage. Published biodegradability data may utilize biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) metrics to quantify organics. COD and TOC of four fluorinated compounds were measured and compared to the calculated carbon content or theoretical oxygen demand. It was found that the standard dichromate-based COD test did not provide an accurate measure of fluorinated organic content. Thus published biodegradability data using COD for fluorinated organics quantification must be critically evaluated for validity. The TOC measurements correlated to an average of 91% of carbon content for the four fluorinated test substances, and TOC is recommended for use as an analytical parameter in fluorinated organics biodegradability tests. PMID:25813673

  9. The effect of a novel tactical training program on physical fitness and occupational performance in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Ross; Clasey, Jody L; Palmer, Thomas; Symons, Thorburn B; Abel, Mark G

    2015-03-01

    Structural firefighting is a dangerous and physically demanding profession. Thus, it is critical that firefighters exercise regularly to maintain optimal physical fitness levels. However, little is known about optimal training methods for firefighters, and exercise equipment is often not available to on-duty firefighters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a novel supervised on-duty physical training program on the physical fitness and occupational performance of structural firefighters. Twenty professional male firefighters were divided into a supervised exercise group (SEG; n = 11) and a control group (CG; n = 9). The SEG participated in a 12-week circuit training intervention. The SEG exercised for 1 hour on 2 d·wk. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects performed a battery of physical fitness tests and a simulated fire ground test (SFGT). At baseline, there were no significant differences (p = 0.822) in the completion rate of the SFGT in the SEG (82%) vs. the CG (78%). After the intervention, a significantly greater proportion of the firefighters in the SEG completed the SFGT compared with the CG (SEG = 100% vs. CG = 56%; p < 0.013). In addition, the SEG demonstrated significant improvements in body mass, fat mass, and body mass index (p ? 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that training with firefighter equipment improved occupational performance and anthropometric outcomes in incumbent firefighters. Furthermore, implementing a supervised exercise program using firefighter equipment can be done so in a safe and feasible manner. PMID:25162645

  10. Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.

    PubMed

    Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that can produce hazardous levels of noise, this study showed that the average noise levels experienced by firefighters was below generally accepted guidelines. PMID:23339379

  11. Vol. 34, No. 13 Friday, July 15, 2011 Lake City, Hinsdale County, Colorado 81235 U.S.P.S. No. 436-630 Firefighters Respond

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Joe

    -630 Firefighters Respond to Lightning Strike Fire at High Bridge Ranch Firefighters from Lake City Fire/Rescue, U spread to adjacent acreage without the firefighters' efforts, he said. In addition to Holley, others

  12. Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during firefighting by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed

    Moen, B E; Ovrebø, S

    1997-06-01

    Firefighters may be exposed to carcinogenic agents in the smoke from fires, and there has been some concern regarding firefighters' risk of developing occupational-related cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in most fires, posing a cancer risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PAH exposure among firefighters. Students (n = 9) and teachers (n = 4) at a firefighter training school delivered urine samples before and 6 to 7 hours after extinguishing burning diesel fuel. The urine samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for 1-hydroxypyrene. A small but significant increase in 1-hydroxypyrene levels in the urine was found after the firefighting. This means that firefighting may cause exposure to PAHs. Although the exposure levels were low in this study, they may be different during other types of fires. PMID:9211208

  13. Physiological Effects of Boot Weight and Design on Men and Women Firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina L. Turner; Sharon Chiou; Joyce Zwiener; Darlene Weaver; James Spahr

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two leather (L1, L2) and two rubber (R1, R2) boots on firefighters’ metabolic and respiratory variables during simulated firefighting tasks. Twenty-five men and 25 women, while wearing full turnout clothing, a 10.5-kg backpack, gloves, helmet, and one of four randomly assigned pairs of firefighter boots, walked for 6 min

  14. Failure of firefighter escape rope under dynamic loading and elevated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Horn; P. Kurath

    \\u000a Fire Service escape rope systems are a firefighter’s last resort for a controlled exit from elevated floors of a burning structure\\u000a when conditions rapidly deteriorate. The escape rope is likely to be deployed from a room that is at least partially involved\\u000a with fire and must support a fully loaded firefighter making a hasty exit, resulting in dynamic loading. These

  15. Line of duty deaths among U.S. firefighters: an analysis of fatality investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D M DeJoy; K Kunadharaju; T D Smith

    2010-01-01

    Firefighting is a high hazard occupation. In the U.S. alone, over 100 firefighters die in the line-of-duty each year and over 80 000 are injured. In this presentation, we summarise results from an independent analysis of firefighter fatality investigations completed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) between 2004 and 2008 (N=143). Of the 143 investigation reports

  16. Physiological responses of firefighters and performance predictors during a simulated rescue of hospital patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erna D. von Heimburg; Anna Kari R. Rasmussen; Jon Ingulf Medbø

    2006-01-01

    There is incomplete information about how physically demanding rescue work may be. The aim therefore of this paper was to examine the physiological responses of firefighters during a simulated rescue of hospital patients and to relate the firefighters' performance to their endurance, strength and working technique. Fourteen part-time male firefighters with a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 4.4 ± 0.3 l\\/min (mean ± SD) served

  17. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF FIREFIGHTING AND ACTIVE COOLING DURING REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Duncan, Michael D.; Hu, Chengcheng; Littau, Sally R.; Caseman, Delayne; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Davis-Gorman, Grace; McDonagh, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the cardiovascular and hemostatic effects of fire suppression and post-exposure active cooling. Methods Forty-four firefighters were evaluated prior to and after a 12 minute live-fire drill. Next, 50 firefighters undergoing the same drill were randomized to post-fire forearm immersion in 10°C water or standard rehabilitation. Results In the first study, heart rate and core body temperature increased and serum C-reactive protein decreased but there were no significant changes in fibrinogen, sE-selectin or sL-selectin. The second study demonstrated an increase in blood coagulability, leukocyte count, factors VIII and X, cortisol and glucose, and a decrease in plasminogen and sP-selectin. Active cooling reduced mean core temperature, heart rate and leukocyte count. Conclusions Live-fire exposure increased core temperature, heart rate, coagulability and leukocyte count; all except coagulability were reduced by active cooling. PMID:23090161

  18. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 ?g/m(3) to 2700 ?g/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 ?g/m(3) to 355 ?g/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles. PMID:25679824

  19. Physiological determinants of the candidate physical ability test in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Sheaff, Andrew K; Bennett, Angela; Hanson, Erik D; Kim, You-Sin; Hsu, Jeffrey; Shim, Jae K; Edwards, Steven T; Hurley, Ben F

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative importance of physiological characteristics during firefighting performance, as assessed by the Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT). Subjects included career and volunteer firefighters aged 18-39 (N = 33). Upper- and lower-body strength, muscle endurance, lower body muscle power, body composition analysis, aerobic capacity, anaerobic fitness, and the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure response to stair climbing were assessed to determine the physiological characteristics of the subjects. To quantify firefighting performance, the CPAT was administered by members of the fire service. Absolute and relative mean power during the Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT), relative peak power during the WAnT, and absolute maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were significantly higher in those who passed the CPAT (N = 18), compared to those who failed (N = 15; p < 0.01). Mean power during the WAnT, fatigue index during WAnT, absolute VO2max, upper body strength, grip strength, and the HR response to stair climbing were significantly related to CPAT performance time (p < 0.01). Absolute VO2max and anaerobic fatigue resistance during WAnT best predicted CPAT performance (Adj. R2 = 0.817; p < 0.001). Performance on the ceiling breach and pull was the only CPAT task that was not significantly related to the physiological characteristics assessed. Measures of anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness best predict overall CPAT performance, and individual task performance. Remedial programs aimed at improving firefighting performance should target anaerobic and aerobic fitness qualities. PMID:20938354

  20. Comparison of firefighters and non-firefighters and the test methods used regarding the effects of personal protective equipment on individual mobility.

    PubMed

    Son, Su-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Muraki, Satoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the current pilot test method and ascertain reliable measurements for a standard test method of mobility with personal protective equipment (PPE), such as physical performance and balance ability tests; 2) to compare two participant groups (firefighters versus non-firefighters) and to investigate whether non-firefighters are appropriate as a standard participant group in the field of PPE or not. Totally, 18 participants (nine professional firefighters and nine untrained males) performed the current pilot test method consisting of a balance test, completed prior to and after a performance test. Significant differences were found between PPE conditions and CON (the control clothing ensemble: T-shirt, shorts, and running shoes) for the functional balance test, physical performance test, heart rate, and subjective evaluations in firefighters group. Therefore, the present pilot test method is valid as a standard test method for assessing mobility while wearing PPE. Moreover, the present result shows that firefighters are more reliable than non-firefighters in testing of PPE with current test methods. PMID:24462474

  1. Exposure of firefighters to particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C Stuart; Hoffman, Joseph D; Knipp, Michael J; Reponen, Tiina; Haynes, Erin N

    2014-01-01

    Firefighting continues to be among the most hazardous yet least studied occupations in terms of exposures and their relationship to occupational disease. Exposures are complex, involving mixtures of particles and chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Adverse health effects associated with these agents include elevated incidences of coronary heart disease and several cancers. PAHs have been detected at fire scenes, and in the firehouse rest area and kitchen, routinely adjoining the truck bay, and where firefighters spend a major part of each shift. An academic-community partnership was developed with the Cincinnati Fire Department with the goal of understanding active firefighters' airborne and dermal PAH exposure. PAHs were measured in air and particulates, and number and mass concentrations, respectively, of submicron (0.02-1 ?m) and PM2.5 (2.5 ?m diameter and less) particles during overhaul events in two firehouses and a University of Cincinnati administrative facility as a comparison location. During overhaul firefighters evaluate partially combusted materials for re-ignition after fire extinguishment and commonly remove Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). Face and neck wipes were also collected at a domestic fire scene. Overhaul air samples had higher mean concentrations of PM2.5 and submicron particles than those collected in the firehouse, principally in the truck bay and kitchen. Among the 17 PAHs analyzed, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene were generally detectable. Naphthalene was present in 7 out of 8 overhaul activities, in 2 out of 3 firehouse (kitchen and truck bay) samples, and in none collected from the control site. In firefighter face and neck wipes a greater number of PAHs were found, several of which have carcinogenic activity, such as benzofluoranthene, an agent also found in overhaul air samples. Although the concentration for naphthalene, and all other individual PAHs, was very low, the potential simultaneous exposure to multiple chemicals even in small quantities in combination with high ultrafine particle exposure deserves further study. It is recommended that personal respiratory and skin protection be worn throughout the overhaul process. PMID:24512044

  2. Cardiac strain associated with high-rise firefighting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous studies have reported the physiological strain associated with firefighting, cardiac responses during a large-scale fire operation have not been reported and cardiac responses have not been compared based on crew assignment. The aims of this study were (1) to characterize cardiac strain during simulated high-rise firefighting, and (2) to compare the cardiac strain associated with different work assignments (fire suppression vs. search and rescue) and different modes of vertical ascent (stairs vs. elevator). Firefighters (N = 42) completed one assignment (fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support) during one of two trials that differed by ascent mode. Assignments were divided into three phases: Ascent (ascend lobby to 8th floor), Staging (remain in holding area on 8th floor), and Work (perform primary responsibilities). When comparing assignments within the same ascent mode, mean heart rate (HRmean) was higher (p = 0.031) for fire suppression than for search and rescue during Work in the stair trial (170 ± 14 vs. 155 ± 11 beats/min). Search and rescue crews experienced greater cumulative cardiac strain (HRmean × duration) during Work than did fire suppression crews (stairs: 1978 ± 366 vs. 1502 ± 190 beats; elevator: 1755 ± 514 vs. 856 ± 232 beats; p<0.05). When comparing ascent mode, HRmean and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were higher (35-57 beats/min; p?0.001) for both fire suppression and search and rescue during Ascent and Staging phases in the stairs vs. the elevator trial. During Work, HRmean was higher (p = 0.046) for search and rescue in the stairs vs. the elevator trial (155 ± 11 vs. 138 ± 19 beats/min). HRmean and HRpeak were 47 and 34 beats/min higher (p < 0.01), respectively, when materials were transported to the staging area using the stairs compared with the elevator. Study findings suggest that high-rise firefighting results in considerable cardiac strain and that search and rescue and material support crews experienced more cardiac strain than fire suppression crews due primarily to differences in assignment duration. Furthermore, using stairs to transport firefighters and equipment to upper floors results in significantly greater cardiac strain than using the elevator. PMID:25369509

  3. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section...DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request...

  4. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section...DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request...

  5. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

  6. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

  7. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

  8. 77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations AGENCY: The National...with Composite Protection for Wildland Fire- Fighting Operations; Notice of...

  9. Physician Weight Recommendations for Overweight and Obese Firefighters, United States, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Michelle Lynn; Brown, Austin Lane; Poston, Walker Seward Carlos; Haddock, Christopher Keith; Jahnke, Sara Anne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction National guidelines state that health care professionals (HCPs) should advise patients on the importance of maintaining a healthy weight. Firefighters have high rates of obesity, and cardiovascular events are the leading cause of line-of-duty deaths in firefighters. This study assessed the association of age and body mass index (BMI) with HCP weight recommendations among male firefighters. Methods We used data on self-reported HCP weight recommendations and measured BMI from a 2011–2012 national sample of male firefighters (N = 1,002). HCP recommendations were recorded as no advice, maintain, gain, or lose weight, and BMI was categorized as normal (<25.0 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), class I obese (30.0–34.9 kg/m2), and class II or III obese (?35.0 kg/m2). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the odds of receiving weight advice by age and BMI categories. Results Most firefighters (96%) reported visiting an HCP in the past year. Most (69%) firefighters and 48% of class I to III obese firefighters reported receiving no weight advice. Higher BMI predicted HCP advice to lose weight (odds ratio class I obese vs normal weight: 12.98; 95% confidence interval: 5.38–31.34). Younger firefighters were less likely to receive weight loss advice than older firefighters, except among those who were class II or III obese. Conclusions HCPs are important sources of health information for firefighters. Overweight and obese firefighters, particularly those who are younger, do not consistently receive HCP advice to lose weight. This marks a missed opportunity to prevent further weight gain and reduce obesity-related health outcomes. PMID:25010998

  10. Hearing among male firefighters: a comparison with hearing data from screened and unscreened male population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Sun; Hong, Oi Saeng; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether hearing loss is associated with firefighting. We conducted cross-sectional study comparing hearing threshold levels (HTLs) of 912 male firefighters with two hearing databases obtained from an otologically normal male Korean population (KONP) and a non-industrial noise-exposed male Korean population (KNINEP), considering age and the main roles of firefighters. Firefighters' age-adjusted HTLs were significantly worse than those of KONP (prevalence ratio (PR)=5.29, P<0.001)but not different from those of KNINEP (PR=0.99, P=0.550). Rescuers (PR=1.005, P<0.001) had worse hearing than the KNINEP after age adjustment. Comparison of firefighters' HTLs (50th and 90th percentiles) with those of KONP and KNINEP by age and frequency showed that firefighters' HTLs had significant increases (poorer hearing) across most age groups and frequencies compared with KONP. Compared with KNINEP, firefighters' HTLs were worse in the younger age groups (<45 years) but not different in the older age groups (>45 years). In conclusion, the hearing thresholds of younger firefighters and rescuers were worse than expected by normal aging alone. Future research should include longitudinal studies to consider variable risk factors, such as military service, smoking, and so on. PMID:25352160

  11. CARBON MONOXIDE AND WATER VAPOR CONTAMINATION OF COMPRESSED BREATHING AIR FOR FIREFIGHTERS AND DIVERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Austin; D. J. Ecobichon; G. Dussault; C. Tirado

    1997-01-01

    Compressed breathing air, used in self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) by firefighters and other categories of workers as well as by recreational and commercial divers, is prepared with the aid of high-pressure compressors operating in the range of 5000 psig. There have been reports of unexplained deaths of SCUBA divers and anecdotal accounts of decreased time to exhaustion in firefighters using

  12. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  13. Ubiquitous computing for firefighters: field studies and prototypes of large displays for incident command

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaodong Jiang; Jason I. Hong; Leila A. Takayama; James A. Landay

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how field studies, interviews, and low-fidelity prototypes can be used to inform the design of ubiquitous computing systems for firefighters. We describe the artifacts and processes used by firefighters to assess, plan, and communicate during emergency situations, showing how accountability affects these decisions, how their current Incident Command System supports these tasks, and some drawbacks

  14. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Firefighters: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Russ Hauser; Ichiro Kawachi; Dimitrios Liarokapis; David C. Christiani; Stefanos N. Kales

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Obesity, despite being a significant determinant of fitness for duty, is reaching epidemic levels in the workplace. Firefighters’ fitness is important to their health and to public safety.Research Methods and Procedures: We examined the distribution of BMI and its association with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Massachusetts firefighters who underwent baseline (1996) and annual medical examinations through

  15. Handy navigation in ever-changing spaces: an ethnographic study of firefighting practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Denef; Leonardo Ramirez; Tobias Dyrks; Gunnar Stevens

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic study, conducted to gain an insight of the practices around navigation of firefighters on the first line of intervention. We argue that the common approach of looking only at the technical aspects is incomplete. We show instead, that navigation of firefighters in ever-changing spaces is a collective craft or art, where technology is only one

  16. Stress and Strain among Police, Firefighters, and Government WorkersA Comparative Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL PENDLETON; EZRA STOTLAND; PHILIP SPIERS; EDWARD KIRSCH

    1989-01-01

    Matched samples of police officers, firefighters, and other municipal workers were compared with regard to self-reports of stress and various mental, physical, and behavioral problems reflecting strain resulting from stress. The police reported more stress than the other groups. Nonetheless, strain was greatest among municipal workers, while the police and firefighters did not differ markedly. It was concluded that police

  17. Serum heavy metals and hemoglobin related compounds in Saudi Arabia firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L

    2009-01-01

    Background Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including heavy metals, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane and some particulates. Many of these materials have been implicated in the triggering of several diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of fire smoke exposure on serum heavy metals and possible affection on iron functions compounds (total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation percent, ferritin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity blood hemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin,). Subjects and methods Two groups of male firefighter volunteers were included; the first included 28 firefighters from Jeddah city, while the second included 21 firefighters from Yanbu city with an overall age rang of 20–48 years. An additional group of 23 male non-firefighters volunteered from both cities as normal control subjects. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for relevant parameters. Results The results obtained showed that there were no statistically significant changes in the levels of serum heavy metals in firefighters as compared to normal control subjects. Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin were statistically increased in Jeddah firefighters, (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05 respectively) and Yanbu firefighters, (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001 respectively) as compared to normal control group while serum TIBC and UIBC were statistically decreased in Yanbu firefighters as compared to Jeddah firefighters, (p < 0.005 and p < 0.005 respectively) and normal control group, (p < 0.005 and p < 0.01 respectively). On the other hand, serum transferrin saturation percent was elevated in only Yanbu firefighters, (p < 0.05) as compared to Jeddah firefighters. Besides, there was no statistically significant change in blood hemoglobin and serum iron on comparison between all studied groups. Conclusion Such results might point to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to avoid such hazardous health effects (elevated Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin and decreased serum TIBC and UIBC) that might endanger firefighters working under dangerous conditions. Firefighters must be under regular medical follow-up through standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for early detection of any serum biochemical or blood hematological changes. PMID:19583874

  18. Preventing fire-related occupational deaths: residential sprinklers save civilians, property, and firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Keshia M; Frattaroli, Shannon; Somers, Scott

    2015-02-01

    Residential fires are an important public health problem, with proven strategies to prevent death and injury. Residential sprinkler systems are one such strategy. While the benefits of this technology tend to center on civilian lives and property, there are also benefits for firefighters. The purpose of this article is to describe these benefits and discuss residential sprinkler systems as a strategy to reduce the risk of firefighter injury and death. Because of the benefits for firefighter safety, firefighters' knowledge about fire prevention, and their authority on this topic, firefighters are an essential stakeholder for raising awareness among the public and policymakers about the existence of and benefits associated with residential sprinkler systems. PMID:25816165

  19. Development and validation of a fitness screening protocol for firefighter applicants.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, N; Jamnik, V K

    1992-09-01

    It is imperative that fitness screening protocols for firefighter applicants embody the specific physical requirements of fighting fires. Based on the physiological characterization of experienced firefighters performing essential tasks, a test battery was developed that includes both job related performance tests and a combination of health related and performance related laboratory tests of physical fitness. Fifty-three firefighters with an average of 5.4 years of experience completed the battery and provided Likert scale comparisons of the tests with actual firefighting operations for criterion validation. "Acceptable" through "maximum" times were established for the job related performance tests, and "minimum" through "optimum" standards were developed for the physical fitness tests. Guidelines for the medical screening of firefighter applicants are also described. In addition, an overall scoring procedure was formulated for the ranking of acceptable applicants. PMID:1325259

  20. Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call “cardiovascular strain”. The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters. PMID:24602344

  1. Volatile Organic Compounds Off-gassing from Firefighters' Personal Protective Equipment Ensembles after Use.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E; Booher, Donald; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Horn, Gavin P; Dalton, James

    2015-06-01

    Firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) ensembles will become contaminated with various compounds during firefighting. Some of these compounds will off-gas following a response, which could result in inhalation exposure. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated during controlled structure burns that subsequently off-gassed from the firefighters' PPE, and were systemically absorbed and exhaled in firefighters' breath. Three crews of five firefighters performed entry, suppression, and overhaul during a controlled burn. We used evacuated canisters to sample air inside the burn structure during active fire and overhaul. After each burn, we placed PPE from two firefighters inside clean enclosures and sampled the air using evacuated canisters over 15 min. Firefighters' exhaled breath was collected ?1 hr before and 4-14 min after each burn. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the evacuated canister samples were analyzed for 64 VOCs and the exhaled breath samples were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene (BTEXS). Fourteen of the same VOCs were detected off-gassing from PPE in 50% or more of the samples. Compared to background levels, we measured >5 fold increases in mean off-gas concentrations of styrene, benzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, acetone, and cyclohexane. Several of the compounds detected off-gassing from PPE were also measured at concentrations above background during active fire and overhaul, including benzene, propene, and styrene. The overhaul and off-gas air concentrations were well below applicable short-term occupational exposure limits. Compared to pre-burn levels, we measured >2 fold increases in mean breath concentrations of benzene, toluene, and styrene after the burns. Air concentrations of BTEXS measured off-gassing from firefighters' used PPE and in firefighters' post-burn exhaled breath were significantly correlated. The firefighters may have absorbed BTEXS through both the dermal route (during firefighting) and inhalation route (from off-gassing PPE after firefighting). Firefighters should be made aware of the potential for inhalation exposure when doffing and traveling in confined vehicles with contaminated PPE and take measures to minimize this exposure pathway. PMID:25751596

  2. Performance differences between males and females on simulated firefighting tasks.

    PubMed

    Misner, J E; Plowman, S A; Boileau, R A

    1987-10-01

    Males and females were compared on several physical performance test items. The tests included five tasks used by the City of Chicago to select firefighters as well as four new test items that were designed to reflect recent changes in firefighting procedures. Sixty-two subjects (37 males, 25 females) 17-31 years of age were tested twice with 1 week intervening on a battery of tests that included measurements of body size and composition and the nine physical performance tests. Results indicated that the tests were reliable, but substantial improvement was observed on all items from the first test to the second test. Also, fatness was found to have a negative influence on physical tasks in which the body weight was translocated either vertically or horizontally; conversely, fat-free weight had a positive influence on performance in tasks requiring application of force such as lifting, carrying, and striking activities. Finally, females demonstrated lower scores than males on all physical performance items. PMID:3681490

  3. High Resolution 12-lead Electrocardiograms of On-Duty Professional Firefighters: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mary G.; Thevenin, Bernard J.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular deaths among on-duty firefighters are high; double that of police officers and quadruple that of first responders. The aim of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of obtaining high resolutions ECGs of on-duty firefighters useful for detecting ECG predictors for cardiac events. Methods Twenty-eight professional firefighters (age, 46 ± 6 years) wore a 12-lead ECG Holter for 24 hours (16 hours while on-duty and 8 hours post-duty). All activities including fire and medical calls were monitored. Results On average the recordings were 92% analyzable. All were in sinus with a heart rate of 80 ±11bpm (35–188 range). The average rr50 over the 24-hour Holter study was 6.2 ±6% (range: 1–23%) and rms-SD was 81 ± 55 (range: 24–209). Using the QRS/Tsimple formula, the average spatial QRS-T angle was 104 ±17 degrees (range 78–132 degrees). Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia occurred irrespectively of activity or time of day in three (11%) firefighters, which was significantly higher than in comparable normal populations (p<0.05). Conclusions This preliminary work demonstrates that it is feasible to obtain high resolution ECGs during firefighting activities and further points to the high prevalence of arrhythmias among firefighters. The strategy of continuous field monitoring of firefighters could provide new insight into the association between their specific professional lifestyle and high cardiac risks. PMID:21206348

  4. Self-reported short- and long-term respiratory effects among PVC-exposed firefighters

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, J.S. (Columbia Univ., NY (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were studied to assess respiratory effects at 5-6 wk post-incident and again 22 mo following the fire. Exposed subjects reported significantly more frequent and severe respiratory symptoms at both time points than did firefighter controls. In longitudinal analyses, a number of symptoms persisted over time, and acute symptom scores were significantly correlated with chronic scores. At Time 2, approximately 18% of exposed firefighters, compared with none of the controls, reported that since the time of the PVC exposure, a physician had told them that they had either asthma and/or bronchitis.

  5. Analysis of Firetruck Crashes and Associated Firefighter Injuries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

  6. An Examination of the Preferences for Leadership Style of Firefighters of Different Rank and Generational Cohort 

    E-print Network

    Odom, Summer Rachelle Felton

    2012-07-16

    and their perceptions of the importance of leadership behaviors. A need exists to quantify for practitioners and other professionals in HRD whether any differences exist among generations with regard to their leadership style preference. Firefighters have recognized...

  7. Fire and Ice - Safety, Comfort, and Getting the Firefighters' Job Done

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Butzer, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Daily life for firefighters consists of working with life-threatening hazards in hostile environments. A major hazard is excessive ambient heat. New hazards have arisen from protective gear that was intended to increase survival time of firefighters while finding and rescuing victims. The insulation is so good now that a firefighter's metabolic heat buildup cannot escape. This forces body core temperatures to life threatening levels in about 20 minutes of moderate activity. Using NASA space suit technology, Oceaneering Space Systems developed a liquid cooling garment prototype that will remove up to 250 watts of metabolic heat. After testing and certification as an approved accessory for firefighter use, this garment will be available for use by any individual encapsulated in protective clothing. This demonstration will present a high surface area circulated liquid cooling garment displayed on a mannequin and available for attendees to try on to experience the effects of active cooling.

  8. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to promptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to promptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to promptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to promptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...available firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to promptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable...

  13. Analysis of firetruck crashes and associated firefighter injuries in the United States.

    PubMed

    Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

  14. US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

  15. Effect of firefighters' personal protective equipment on gait.

    PubMed

    Park, Huiju; Kim, Seonyoung; Morris, Kristen; Moukperian, Melissa; Moon, Youngjin; Stull, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    The biomechanical experiment with eight male and four female firefighters demonstrates that the effect of adding essential equipment: turnout ensemble, self-contained breathing apparatus, and boots (leather and rubber boots), significantly restricts foot pronation. This finding is supported by a decrease in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral excursion of center of plantar pressure (COP) trajectory during walking. The accumulation of this equipment decreases COP velocity and increases foot-ground contact time and stride time, indicating increased gait instability. An increase in the flexing resistance of the boots is the major contributor to restricted foot pronation and gait instability as evidenced by the greater decrease in excursion of COP in leather boots (greater flexing resistance) than in rubber boots (lower resistance). The leather boots also shows the greatest increase in foot contact time and stride time. These negative impacts can increase musculoskeletal injuries in unfavorable fire ground environments. PMID:25683530

  16. Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-11-01

    Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

  17. Physical work limits for Toronto firefighters in warm environments.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, G A; McLellan, T M

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between time to reach critical end points (tolerance time [TT] and metabolic rate for three different environmental temperatures (25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C, 50% relative humidity), while wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Thirty-seven Toronto firefighters (33 male and 4 female) were divided into four work groups defined as Heavy (H, n = 9), Moderate (M, n = 9), Light (L, n = 10), and Very Light (VL, n = 9). At 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C, TT (min) decreased from 56 to 47 to 41 for H, 92 to 65 to 54 for M, 134 to 77 to 67 for L, and 196 to 121 to 87 for VL. Significant differences in TT were observed across all group comparisons, excluding M versus L at 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and H versus M at 35 degrees C. Comparing 25 degrees C to 30 degrees C, M, L, and VL had significant decreases in TT, whereas only VL had a significant decrease when 30 degrees C was compared to 35 degrees C. For 25 degrees C to 30 degrees C, the relative change in TT was significantly greater for L (37%) and VL (41%) compared with H (16%) and M (26%). For 30 degrees C to 35 degrees C, the relative change among the groups was similar and approximately 17%. During passive recovery at 35 degrees C, rectal temperature (T(re)) continued to increase 0.5 degrees C above T(re final), whereas heart rate declined significantly. These findings show the differential impact of environmental conditions at various metabolic rates on TT while wearing FPC and SCBA. Furthermore, these findings reveal passive recovery may not be sufficient to reduce T(re) below pre-recovery levels when working at higher metabolic rates in hot environments. PMID:15204859

  18. Line-of-duty deaths among U.S. firefighters: An analysis of fatality investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumar Kunadharaju; Todd D. Smith; David M. DeJoy

    2011-01-01

    More than 100 firefighters die in the line-of-duty in the U.S. each year and over 80,000 are injured. This study examined all firefighter fatality investigations (N=189) completed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for fatalities occurring between 2004 and 2009. These investigations produced a total of 1167 recommendations for corrective actions. Thirty-five high frequency recommendations were

  19. Active Versus Passive Cooling During Work in Warm Environments While Wearing Firefighting Protective Clothing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Selkirk; T. M. McLellan; J. Wong

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and selfcontained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35°C, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the heat-stress trials. Subjects walked at 4.5 km·h with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50 min) and rest (30

  20. Assessment of Factors Affecting the Continuing Performance of Firefighters’ Protective Clothing: A Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moein Rezazadeh; David A. Torvi

    2011-01-01

    There has been some research into the level of damage and changes to important properties of firefighters’ protective clothing\\u000a after exposure to conditions such as elevated temperature and ultra violet radiation. However, at this time, the results are\\u000a not comprehensive enough to develop a standard procedure to estimate the remaining useful life of firefighters’ protective\\u000a clothing. There is also a

  1. Incident-Related Stressors, Locus of Control, Coping, and Psychological Distress Among Firefighters in Northern Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Brown; Gerry Mulhern; Stephen Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This study was an investigation into the associations between incident-related stressors, locus of control, coping, and psychological distress in firefighters in Northern Ireland during the time of political violence. Among 248 male firefighters, greater psychological distress was associated with greater frequency of incident-related negative emotions, external locus of control, less task- and emotion-focused coping, and greater avoidance coping. It was

  2. Association Between Lung Function and Exposure to Smoke Among Firefighters at Prescribed Burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Slaughter; Jane Q. Koenig; Timothy E. Reinhardt

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of exposures to PM3.5, acrolein, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide on lung function in a group of firefighters performing prescribed burns. Spirometric measurements were made on 65 firefighters at the beginning, midpoint, and end of their work shift, while exposure was measured over the entire day. The interquartile range (IQR) of daily personal PM3.5 exposures was

  3. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanos N Kales; Elpidoforos S Soteriades; Stavros G Christoudias; David C Christiani

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51

  4. Influence of genetic susceptibility on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine of firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Chul Hong; Hye-Sook Park; Eun-Hee Ha

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESOxidative DNA damage has been implicated in carcinogenesis. The DNA damage can be assessed from the urinary excretion of the DNA-repair product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). The factors were investigated that influenced the excretion of urinary 8-OH-dG in 78 firefighters.METHODS53 Out of 78 firefighters were exposed to fire within 5 days of the study and 25 were not. 8-OH-dG was measured by

  5. Air-quality management alternatives: United States Air Force fire-fighter training facilities. Doctoral thesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brewer

    1988-01-01

    Air-pollutant emissions from fire-fighter training fires are a small portion of all annual air emissions from fixed and mobile sources at an Air Force installation. However, a single-practice fire burning 300 gallons of aviation fuel releases an estimated one ton of criteria air pollutants during a one- to five-minute period. Bases report conducting fire-fighter training 4 to 134 times per

  6. The physical demands upon (Dutch) fire-fighters in relation to the maximum acceptable energetic workload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurriaan Bos; Eric Mol; Bart Visser; Monique HW Frings-Dresen

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the tasks and activities that make physical demands on Dutch fire-fighters and to compare them with a guideline related to the development of excessive fatigue. The occupational physical demands on Dutch fire-fighters were assessed by conducting a task analysis during 85 24-h shifts. While workplace observations on the duration and frequency of

  7. The effect of pre-warming on performance during simulated firefighting exercise.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Mol, Eric; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the effect of active pre-warming on speed and quality of performance during simulated firefighting exercise. Twelve male firefighters performed two trials in counterbalanced order. They were either pre-warmed by 20-min cycling at 1.5 Watt kg(-)(1) body mass (WARM) or remained thermoneutral (CON) prior to a simulated firefighting activity. After the pre-warming, gastrointestinal temperature (P < 0.001), skin temperature (P = 0.002), and heart rate (P < 0.001) were higher in WARM than in CON. During the firefighting activity, rating of perceived exertion, thermal sensation and discomfort were higher for WARM than for CON. Finish time of the firefighting activity was similar, but the last task of the activity was completed slower in WARM than in CON (P = 0.04). In WARM, self-reported performance quality was lower than in CON (P = 0.04). It is concluded that pre-warming reduces the speed during the last part of simulated firefighting activity and reduces self-reported quality of performance. PMID:24816137

  8. Effects of Liquid Cooling Garments on Recovery and Performance Time in Individuals Performing Strenuous Work Wearing a Firefighter Ensemble

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Hyun Kim; Aitor Coca; W. Jon Williams; Raymond J. Roberge

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages

  9. Biomonitoring of chemical exposure among New York City firefighters responding to the World Trade Center fire and collapse.

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Philip; Osterloh, John; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Sam P; Grainger, James; Jones, Robert; Blount, Ben; Calafat, Antonia; Turner, Wayman; Feldman, Debra; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Lushniak, Boris D; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David

    2003-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 exposed New York City firefighters to smoke and dust of unprecedented magnitude and duration. The chemicals and the concentrations produced from any fire are difficult to predict, but estimates of internal dose exposures can be assessed by the biological monitoring of blood and urine. We analyzed blood and urine specimens obtained from 321 firefighters responding to the WTC fires and collapse for 110 potentially fire-related chemicals. Controls consisted of 47 firefighters not present at the WTC. Sampling occurred 3 weeks after 11 September, while fires were still burning. When reference or background ranges were available, most chemical concentrations were found to be generally low and not outside these ranges. Compared with controls, the exposed firefighters showed significant differences in adjusted geometric means for six of the chemicals and significantly greater detection rates for an additional three. Arrival time was a significant predictor variable for four chemicals. Special Operations Command firefighters (n = 95), compared with other responding WTC firefighters (n = 226), had differences in concentrations or detection rate for 14 of the chemicals. Values for the Special Operations Command firefighters were also significantly different from the control group values for these same chemicals and for two additional chemicals. Generally, the chemical concentrations in the other firefighter group were not different from those of controls. Biomonitoring was used to characterize firefighter exposure at the WTC disaster. Although some of the chemicals analyzed showed statistically significant differences, these differences were generally small. PMID:14644665

  10. This certificate program was developed in response to concerns about the structural health of U.S. public use firefighting aircraft. Learn about the critical factors involved

    E-print Network

    Thomases, Becca

    .S. public use firefighting aircraft. Learn about the critical factors involved in aircraft health management.extension.ucdavis.edu/aviation .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. n Aviation safety officers n Emergency services pilots n Forest firefighter aviators n Border patrol

  11. Acute health effects among firefighters exposed to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, J.S.; Gutterman, E.M. (New York State Psychiatric Institute (USA)); Schwartz, S.; Link, B.; Gorman, S.M. (Columbia Univ., New York (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Firefighters are frequently being called on to fight fires that are chemical in nature. In the aftermath of a chemical fire in Plainfield, New Jersey on March 20-21, 1985, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study which surveyed 80 firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as well as 15 nonexposed firefighter subjects. By means of an 81-item symptom checklist, exposed firefighters reported more frequent and severe symptoms at 5-6 weeks post incident. This was true for a total symptomatology score as well as 19 individual items. Some of the items with an elevated risk were consistent with exposure to hydrogen chloride, the main pyrolysis product of polyvinyl chloride. Other items with an elevated risk appeared to be related to smoke inhalation while others seemed psychosocial in nature. Analyses conducted within the exposed firefighter group showed that fighting the fire the first day, being a truckman, and residence within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the firehouse were significant risk factors for high total symptom scores. These risk factors may have been associated with level or duration of exposure to the toxic substances produced during the fire.

  12. The effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy with traumatised firefighters in Saudi Arabia: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Mohammed; Hunt, Nigel; Thomas, Shirley

    2015-03-01

    Firefighters are exposed to many traumatic events. The psychological costs of this exposure increase the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study examined the effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) as a short-term treatment for reducing PTSD symptoms among Saudi firefighters. A randomized waiting-list control study was conducted with 34 traumatized firefighters were randomly allocated to NET or Waiting-list Control (WLC). The NET group received four therapy sessions of 60-90 min over a three-week period; those in the WLC condition received the same sessions after a three-week waiting period. Participants in both groups were assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3 and 6 month follow ups. NET led to significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression compared with WLC. After the WLC group received treatment, it showed the same improvements as the NET group. This occurred immediately post-treatment in both groups, but was not sustained at 3 and 6 month follow ups. Coping strategies and social support led to significant changes only in follow up times. NET was effective in reducing PTSD symptoms in traumatised Saudi firefighters. This finding could be helpful in the management of PTSD among people who work as first responders such as firefighters, police officers and emergency medical personal, as well as security officers. PMID:25701801

  13. Air-quality management alternatives: United States Air Force fire-fighter training facilities. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Air-pollutant emissions from fire-fighter training fires are a small portion of all annual air emissions from fixed and mobile sources at an Air Force installation. However, a single-practice fire burning 300 gallons of aviation fuel releases an estimated one ton of criteria air pollutants during a one- to five-minute period. Bases report conducting fire-fighter training 4 to 134 times per year, burning 100 to 2000 gallons of fuel per fire. Based on current emissions-inventory methodology, 4 installations emit over 100 tons of air pollutants annually from fire-fighter practice fires. A research methodology utilizing questionnaires, interviews, and site visits is developed and applied. This method enabled fire-prevention and environmental-management experts and professionals to provide data, opinions, and to evaluate candidate air-quality management alternatives. Analysis of survey data, interview findings, opinions, and management alternative evaluations integrated with air-quality-management indexes developed through this research lead to the study conclusions and recommendations. Implications for future policy and actions include recommendations to improve recording and reporting data via Facility Use and Firefighter Training Indexes. If adopted, the policy and actions would result in a more-efficient and standardized fire-fighter training program Air Force-wide. Further research is needed to verify air-emission factors, and to determine concentrations of PAH emissions in smoke and fugitive soot particles.

  14. Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with a firefighting response - Indiana and Michigan, June 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-01

    On June 20, 2011, the Indiana Department of Homeland Security notified the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) of an Indiana fire station that reported gastrointestinal illness among a substantial percentage of their workers, causing missed workdays and one hospitalization as a result of cryptosporidiosis. All ill firefighters had responded to a barn fire in Michigan, 15 miles from the Michigan-Indiana border on June 6; responding firefighters from Michigan also had become ill. ISDH immediately contacted the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) concerning this outbreak. The investigation was led by MDCH in partnership with ISDH and the Michigan local health department (LHD). Among 34 firefighters who responded to the fire, 33 were interviewed, and 20 (61%) reported gastrointestinal illness ?12 days after the fire. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in human stool specimens, calf fecal samples, and a swimming pond. Based on these findings, the following public health recommendations were issued: 1) discontinue swimming in the pond, 2) practice thorough hygiene to reduce fecal contamination and fecal-oral exposures, and 3) decontaminate firefighting equipment properly. No additional primary or secondary cases associated with this exposure have been reported. The findings highlight a novel work-related disease exposure for firefighters and the need for public education regarding cryptosporidiosis prevention. PMID:22398843

  15. Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire GTR-NRS-P-84 CAN ACCEPTABLE RISK BE DEFINED IN WILDLAND FIREFIGHTING?

    E-print Network

    ACCEPTABLE RISK BE DEFINED IN WILDLAND FIREFIGHTING? David Clancy Owner and Principal Consultant, Human, fire managers, and firefighters, who must ensure that risks are managed at a level that is as low for--or consensus on--defining "acceptable risk" in the field of firefighting. Risk assessment

  16. PHO T O S BY PA U L MICH NA/ pmichna@dailyherald.com firefighters from the Glenslde Fire Protection District work on the wreckage Wednesday during a

    E-print Network

    Nickrent, Daniel L.

    PHO T O S BY PA U L MICH NA/ pmichna@dailyherald.com firefighters from the Glenslde Fire Protection@dailyherald.com High school students got a chance to see firefighters and paramedics in action Wednes- day during Musulin, 18, of Wheaton poses as avictim whlle Ad- dison firefighter Matt Hennessy checks his symptoms

  17. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

  18. Determination of Firefighter Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzene During Fire Fighting Using Measurement of Biological Indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chantal Caux; Cindy OBrien; Claude Viau

    2002-01-01

    In accomplishing their duties, firefighters are potentially exposed to a vast array of toxic combustion and pyrolysis products such as benzene, carbon monoxide, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAH and benzene was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t -muconic acid, respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period

  19. Occupational stress and strain in relation to personal protective equipment of Japanese firefighters assessed by a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Son, Su-Young; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate differences in actual work environments, mobility and satisfaction between firefighters wearing aluminized and non-aluminized personal protective equipment (PPE), and to suggest a proper standard test method for Japanese firefighters' PPE. A survey from two cities in Japan (City A: aluminized PPE; City B: non aluminized PPE) was undertaken. A total of 525 firefighters from City A and 757 from City B participated. Firefighters spent 22.5 min (City A) and 27.3 min (City B) on average firefighting with the full set of PPE in one incident, but the heat strain experienced among firefighters from City A was twice that of firefighters from City B (57.5% and 28.4%). Firefighters spent 65.9 min on one incident and 24.2 min for suppression of fire with the full set of PPE on average. The toughest task that caused physical strain in City A was 'stair climbing' and in City B was 'drawing up a hose filled with water'. The most restricted body region due to PPE was the knee for both groups. Evaluations revealed that the aluminized fire jacket had worse ventilation and mobility than the non-aluminized, while the non-aluminized one received with more unfavorable evaluations for water resistance and maintainability. PMID:23196389

  20. Personal carbon monoxide exposures among firefighters at prescribed forest burns in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K H; Shulman, S; Stock, A L; Naeher, L P

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to combustion products from wildland fires causes respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The authors evaluated carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of a group of wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in the southeastern United States of America. A total of 149 person-days of samples were collected using data logging CO monitors. A questionnaire was administered to collect data on job tasks and self-reported smoke exposure. Overall, the highest exposures were seen amongst firefighters assigned to holding and mop-up tasks (geometric mean [GM]: 2.6 ppm), whereas the lowest were associated with lighting and jobs such as burn boss (GM: 1.6 and 0.3 ppm, respectively). The self-reported smoke exposure showed a significant linear trend with increasing CO exposure. The numbers of acres burned or burn duration, however, were not good predictors of exposure. PMID:23298425

  1. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Kales, Stefanos N; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Christoudias, Stavros G; Christiani, David C

    2003-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556); training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3) and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8) carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ? 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9), current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4), hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1), and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6). Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths. PMID:14613487

  2. Systemic exposure to PAHs and benzene in firefighters suppressing controlled structure fires.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P; Dalton, James

    2014-08-01

    Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre-exposure levels for round 1. We found statistically significant positive correlations between external exposures (i.e. personal air concentrations of PAHs) and biomarkers (i.e. change in urinary PAH metabolite levels in round 1 and change in breath concentrations of benzene in round 2). The results suggest that firefighters wearing full protective ensembles absorbed combustion products into their bodies. The PAHs most likely entered firefighters' bodies through their skin, with the neck being the primary site of exposure and absorption due to the lower level of dermal protection afforded by hoods. Aromatic hydrocarbons could have been absorbed dermally during firefighting or inhaled during the doffing of gear that was off-gassing contaminants. PMID:24906357

  3. Systemic Exposure to PAHs and Benzene in Firefighters Suppressing Controlled Structure Fires

    PubMed Central

    Fent, Kenneth W.; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D.; Stiegel, Matthew A.; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P.; Dalton, James

    2014-01-01

    Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre-exposure levels for round 1. We found statistically significant positive correlations between external exposures (i.e. personal air concentrations of PAHs) and biomarkers (i.e. change in urinary PAH metabolite levels in round 1 and change in breath concentrations of benzene in round 2). The results suggest that firefighters wearing full protective ensembles absorbed combustion products into their bodies. The PAHs most likely entered firefighters’ bodies through their skin, with the neck being the primary site of exposure and absorption due to the lower level of dermal protection afforded by hoods. Aromatic hydrocarbons could have been absorbed dermally during firefighting or inhaled during the doffing of gear that was off-gassing contaminants. PMID:24906357

  4. Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

  5. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    The annuity of an air traffic controller retiring under § 842.207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208 is— (a) One and seven-tenths percent of average pay multiplied by 20 years;...

  6. Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies; Student Manual, Part B. Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

    A course designed to develop performance capabilities in the student of the fire service is presented in a manual. Each chapter is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the material covered in class. Specific objectives are: (1) To train "Support Assistant" B personnel to augment and assist firefighters, (2) To train personnel to…

  7. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk. PMID:20582769

  8. Cancer Risk Among Firefighters: A Review and Meta-analysis of 32 Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace K. LeMasters; Ash M. Genaidy; Paul Succop; James Deddens; Tarek Sobeih; Heriberto Barriera-Viruet; Kari Dunning; James Lockey

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to review 32 studies on firefighters and to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the cancer risk using a meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive search of computerized databases and bibliographies from identified articles was performed. Three criteria used to assess the probable, possible, or unlikely risk for 21 cancers included pattern of meta-relative risks, study type,

  9. When pranks become harassment: The case of african American women firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice D. Yoder; Patricia Aniakudo

    1996-01-01

    Surveys and interviews with 22 African American women firefighters suggest that a key to defining gender harassment rests in the organizational climate. Eight subtle as well as overt climatic indicators of gender harassment are identified. “Initiation rites” into a work group or “pranks” become harassing when they occur in a context of exclusion rather than ultimate inclusion. Although such harassment

  10. Daily stressors and social support availability as predictors of depressed mood in male firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P. Roy; Andrew Steptoe

    1994-01-01

    The influence of daily stressors and social support availability on depressed mood was assessed over a 9-month period in 68 male firefighters. At 3-monthly intervals, an abbreviated Daily Stress Index (DSI) was completed for 16 days prior to administration of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). After negative affectivity, depressed mood and daily stress levels 3 months previously had been taken

  11. Human factors in firefighting: ergonomic, cardiopulmonary, and psychogenic stress-related issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tee L. Guidotti

    1992-01-01

    There are many issues in firefighting that involve human factors and cardiopulmonary conditioning. Population-based mortality and disability surveillance studies suggest a relatively small but significant excess of disability but not mortality from nonmalignant cardiovascular disease for fire fighters. More targeted cohort and case-control studies do not support such an excess and instead suggest a strong healthy worker effect. Pulmonary function

  12. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required. PMID:24472292

  13. Serum heavy metals and hemoglobin related compounds in Saudi Arabia firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulrahman L Al-Malki

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including heavy metals, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane and some particulates. Many of these materials have been implicated in the triggering of several diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of fire smoke exposure on serum heavy metals and possible affection on iron functions compounds

  14. A heat transfer model for incorporating carbon foam fabrics in firefighter's garment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgafy, Ahmed; Mishra, Sarthak

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, a numerical study was performed to predict and investigate the performance of a thermal protection system for firefighter's garment consisting of carbon foam fabric in both the outer shell and the thermal liner elements. Several types of carbon foam with different thermal conductivity, porosity, and density were introduced to conduct a parametric study. Additionally, the thickness of the introduced carbon foam fabrics was varied to acquire optimum design. Simulation was conducted for a square planar 2D geometry of the clothing comprising of different fabric layers and a double precision pressure-based implicit solver, under transient state condition was used. The new anticipated thermal protection system was tested under harsh thermal environmental conditions that firefighters are exposed to. The parametric study showed that employing carbon foam fabric with one set of designed parameters, weight reduction of 33 % in the outer shell, 56 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 2 % at the inner edge of the garment was achieved when compared to the traditional firefighter garment model used by Song et al. (Int J Occup Saf Ergon 14:89-106, 2008). Also, carbon foam fabric with another set of designed parameters resulted in a weight reduction of 25 % in the outer shell, 28 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 6 % at the inner edge of the garment. As a result, carbon foam fabrics make the firefighter's garment more protective, durable, and lighter in weight.

  15. The Impact of Obesity on Back and Core Muscular Endurance in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, John M.; Nuzzo, James L.; Chen, Ren; Quillen, William S.; Verna, Joe L.; Miro, Rebecca; Dagenais, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between obesity and measures of back and core muscular endurance in firefighters. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in career firefighters without low back pain. Obesity measures included body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Muscular endurance was assessed with the Modified Biering Sorensen (back) and Plank (core) tests. Relationships were explored using t-tests and regression analyses. Results. Of the 83 participants enrolled, 24 (29%) were obese (BMI ? 30). Back and core muscular endurance was 27% lower for obese participants. Significant negative correlations were observed for BMI and body fat percentage with back and core endurance (r = ?0.42 to ?0.52). Stepwise regression models including one obesity measure (BMI, body fat percentage, and fat mass/fat-free mass), along with age and self-reported physical exercise, accounted for 17–19% of the variance in back muscular endurance and 29–37% of the variance in core muscular endurance. Conclusions. Obesity is associated with reduced back and core muscular endurance in firefighters, which may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Obesity should be considered along with back and core muscular endurance when designing exercise programs for back pain prevention in firefighters. PMID:23213491

  16. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...geographical-specific appendices of your VRP, the salvage and marine firefighting...geographical-specific appendices of your VRP, adjacent to the name of the resource provider...emergency towing vessels are listed in your VRP. Your VRP must identify towing...

  17. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...geographical-specific appendices of your VRP, the salvage and marine firefighting...geographical-specific appendices of your VRP, adjacent to the name of the resource provider...emergency towing vessels are listed in your VRP. Your VRP must identify towing...

  18. The Effects of Injury and Accidents on Self-rated Depression in Male Municipal Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between self-rated depression and experiences of injury and accidents in municipal firefighters. Methods A panel survey of 186 municipal firefighters measured with depressive symptoms according to the Beck's depression index (BDI) was conducted. The effects of job-related injuries and accidents were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires that were taken once in a 12-month period from 2005 to 2006. Firefighters were classified into the Depression Group or Control Group based on follow-up BDI results with a cutoff level that was set to having "over mild depression." Results The depression Group was comprised of 17 (9.1%) workers, including 9 firefighters who met had sufficient BDI scores twice in the 2-year test period and newly sufficient BDI scores in the follow-up test. A significantly higher number of subjects in the Depression Group experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period as compared to the Control Group (15.4% vs. 1.5%, p=0.04). Firefighters who experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period had a 7.4 times higher risk of being in the Depression Group than those who had not. As compared to accidents, near-miss accidents revealed stronger risks related to being classified as in the Depression group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-18.18 vs. Adjusted OR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.08-16.58). Conclusion The above results suggest that we should establish an effective program to promote mental health for groups at high risk for self-rated depression, including persons who have experienced consecutive injuries and accidents as well as near-miss injuries. PMID:22953198

  19. Multivariate statistical assessment of predictors of firefighters' muscular and aerobic work capacity.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Antti, Henrik; Malm, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Physical capacity has previously been deemed important for firefighters physical work capacity, and aerobic fitness, muscular strength, and muscular endurance are the most frequently investigated parameters of importance. Traditionally, bivariate and multivariate linear regression statistics have been used to study relationships between physical capacities and work capacities among firefighters. An alternative way to handle datasets consisting of numerous correlated variables is to use multivariate projection analyses, such as Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction and predictive power of field and laboratory tests, respectively, on firefighters' physical work capacity on selected work tasks. Also, to study if valid predictions could be achieved without anthropometric data. The second aim was to externally validate selected models. The third aim was to validate selected models on firefighters' and on civilians'. A total of 38 (26 men and 12 women) + 90 (38 men and 52 women) subjects were included in the models and the external validation, respectively. The best prediction (R2) and predictive power (Q2) of Stairs, Pulling, Demolition, Terrain, and Rescue work capacities included field tests (R2 = 0.73 to 0.84, Q2 = 0.68 to 0.82). The best external validation was for Stairs work capacity (R2 = 0.80) and worst for Demolition work capacity (R2 = 0.40). In conclusion, field and laboratory tests could equally well predict physical work capacities for firefighting work tasks, and models excluding anthropometric data were valid. The predictive power was satisfactory for all included work tasks except Demolition. PMID:25775243

  20. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data.

  1. Assessing the risk to firefighters from chemical vapors and gases during vehicle fire suppression.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E

    2011-03-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of vehicle fires, very few studies investigating firefighters' potential inhalation exposures during vehicle fire suppression have been conducted. In this paper, we present an assessment of firefighters' health risk from vehicle fire suppression that accounts for the mixture of gases and vapors likely to be found in these fires. Summa canisters were used to collect emissions from the engine and cabin fires of a single vehicle and were analyzed for 75 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Firefighters' breathing zone concentrations (BZCs) of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, isocyanates, and carbon monoxide were measured during the suppression of three vehicle fires. The Summa canister and BZC data were used to develop a simple model for predicting BZCs for the compounds that were not measured in the firefighters' breathing zones. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated by dividing the predicted and measured BZCs by the most conservative short-term exposure limits (STELs) or ceiling limits. Hazard indices (HIs) were determined by adding HQs for compounds grouped by the target organ for acute health effects. Any HIs above unity represented unacceptable risks. According to this mixture analysis, the estimated 95(th) percentile of the exposure distribution for the study population represents ? 9.2 times the acceptable level of risk to the respiratory tract and eyes. Furthermore, chemicals known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens contributed to > 45% of these HIs. While STELs are not usually based on carcinogenicity, maintaining exposures below STELs may protect individuals from the biological stress that could result from short-term exposures to carcinogens over time. Although vehicle fires are suppressed quickly (<10 min), this assessment suggests that firefighters have the potential to be overexposed to acute toxins during vehicle fire suppression and should therefore wear self-contained breathing apparatus at all times during vehicle fire response. PMID:21274476

  2. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required...

  3. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required...

  4. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required...

  5. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required...

  6. Effects of firefighters' self-contained breathing apparatus' weight and its harness design on the physiological and subjective responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilham Bakri; Joo-Young Lee; Kouhei Nakao; Hitoshi Wakabayashi; Yutaka Tochihara

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of firefighters' self-contained breathing apparatus' (SCBA) weight and its harness design on the physiological and subjective responses, eight male students performed treadmill exercise under four conditions: the 8 kg firefighter protective clothing (PC) (Control), the PC + an 11 kg SCBA with an old harness (Test A), the PC + a 6.4 kg SCBA with an old harness (Test

  7. A comparative study of drainage characteristics in AFFF and FFFP compressed-air fire-fighting foams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Magrabi; B. Z. Dlugogorski; G. J. Jameson

    2002-01-01

    Drainage measurements are commonly used for assessing the quality, water-retention ability and stability of aqueous foams used in fire-fighting applications. A new experimental technique is proposed in this paper, for measuring the drainage rate of liquid from compressed-air fire-fighting foams. The procedure outlined here provides advancement in precision over that prescribed by the standard for low expansion foams (NFPA 11,

  8. Hypomethylation of dual specificity phosphatase 22 promoter correlates with duration of service in firefighters and is inducible by low-dose benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Bin; Baxter, C. Stuart; Lam, Hung-Ming; Yeramaneni, Samrat; Levin, Linda; Haynes, Erin; Ho, Shuk-mei

    2012-01-01

    Objective Firefighters are chronically exposed to smoke and products of incomplete combustion, which frequently contain PAHs. This study examined the possibility of an association between PAH-induced epigenetic alterations and occupational firefighting exposure. Methods Promoter methylation was analyzed in four genes in blood DNA from 18 firefighters (FF) and 20 non-firefighting controls (Non-FF). Jurkat and NPrEC cells were treated with benzo[a]pyrene to ascertain the epigenetic effects of this type of agent. Results FF had a higher prevalence of DUSP22 promoter hypomethylation in blood DNA (p=0.03) and the extent of hypomethylation correlated with duration of firefighting service (p=0.04), but not with age. Benzo[a]pyrene reduced promoter methylation and increased gene expression of the same gene in Jurkat and NPrEC cells. Conclusions Cumulative occupational exposure to combustion-derived PAHs during firefighting can cause epigenetic changes in promoters of specific genes. PMID:22796920

  9. Modeling heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during flash fire exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a model of heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during a flash fire exposure is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of coupled heat and moisture transport on the protective performance of the garment. Computational results show the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the fabric during the exposure to the flash fire as well as during the cool-down period. Moreover, the duration of the exposure during which the garment protects the firefighter from getting second and third degree burns from the flash fire exposure is numerically predicted. A complete model for the fire-fabric-air gap-skin system is presented.

  10. Physiological Responses to Wearing a Prototype Firefighter Ensemble Compared with a Standard Ensemble

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jon Williams; Aitor Coca; Raymond Roberge; Angie Shepherd; Jeffrey Powell; Ronald E. Shaffer

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological responses to wearing a standard firefighter ensemble (SE) and a prototype ensemble (PE) modified from the SE that contained additional features, such as magnetic ring enclosures at the glove-sleeve interface, integrated boot-pant interface, integrated hood-SCBA facepiece interface, and a novel hose arrangement that rerouted self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) exhaust gases back into the upper portion

  11. Comparison of two cool vests on heat-strain reduction while wearing a firefighting ensemble

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Bennett; R. D. Hagan; K. A. Huey; C. Minson; D. Cain

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a six-pack versus a four-pack cool vest in reducing heat strain in men dressed in firefighting ensemble, while resting and exercising in a warm\\/humid environment [34.4°C (day bulb), 28.9°C (wet bulb)]. Male volunteers (n = 12) were monitored for rectal temperature (T\\u000are), mean skin temperature (T\\u000ask), heart rate, and energy expenditure during

  12. A Wireless Sensor Network and Incident Command Interface for Urban Firefighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Wilson; Vikas Bhargava; Andrew Redfern; Paul Wright

    2007-01-01

    The Fire Information and Rescue Equipment project at UC Berkeley has developed a prototype wireless sensor network (WSN) and Incident Command (IC) interface for urban and industrial firefighting and emergency response. A fixed WSN deployment in the building acts as a backbone for communication between mobile personnel and Incident Command. The Telos Sky mote 802.15.4 platform with the TinyOS operating

  13. Fire-fighting mobile robotics and interdisciplinary design-comparative perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Pack; Robert Avanzato; David J. Ahlgren; Igor M. Verner

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate the benefits of an autonomous fire-fighting robot design competition as an effective tool for undergraduate education. It presents experiences at the United States Air Force Academy, USAF Academy, CO; Pennsylvania State University-Abington; and Trinity College, Hartford, CT, together with the results of the contest surveys conducted in collaboration with The Technion*Israel Institute

  14. Prospective study of hepatic, renal, and haematological surveillance in hazardous materials firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Kales, S; Polyhronopoulos, G; Aldrich, J; Mendoza, P; Suh, J; Christiani, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate possible health effects related to work with hazardous materials as measured by end organ effect markers in a large cohort over about 2 years, and in a subcohort over 5 years.?METHODS—Hepatic, renal, and haematological variables were analysed from 1996-98 in hazardous materials firefighters including 288 hazardous materials technicians (81%) and 68 support workers (19%). The same end organ effect markers in a subcohort of the technicians were also analysed (n=35) from 1993-98. Support workers were considered as controls because they are also firefighters, but had a low potential exposure to hazardous materials.?RESULTS—During the study period, no serious injuries or exposures were reported. For the end organ effect markers studied, no significant differences were found between technicians and support workers at either year 1 or year 3. After adjustment for a change in laboratory, no significant longitudinal changes were found within groups for any of the markers except for creatinine which decreased for both technicians (p<0.001) and controls (p<0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—Health effects related to work are infrequent among hazardous materials technicians. Haematological, hepatic, and renal testing is not required on an annual basis and has limited use in detecting health effects in hazardous materials technicians.???Keywords: hazardous materials; firefighters; medical surveillance PMID:11160986

  15. Smokeless Tobacco and Dual Use among Firefighters in the Central United States

    PubMed Central

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in the fire service, whose personnel need to maintain high levels of health and fitness given the rigorous physical and mental job requirements. We examined the relationships among variables associated with SLT use and dual tobacco use (SLT and smoking) among 353 male career firefighters. Around 13% of male career firefighters reported being current exclusive SLT users, and 2.6% used both cigarettes and SLT. Age-adjusted models revealed that race, binge drinking, and dietary fat consumption were positively associated with exclusive SLT use when compared to nontobacco users. SLT users were much more likely to binge drink (OR = 3.98, P < .01) and consume high fat foods (OR = 1.94, P < .05). Only high dietary fat consumption was a strong correlate (OR = 8.41, P < .05) of dual use when compared to nontobacco users. SLT and dual tobacco use are associated with significant health risks. Detailed information on the predictors of SLT use among firefighters will aid in developing more effective tobacco prevention and cessation intervention in fire service. PMID:23533451

  16. Air management and physiological responses during simulated firefighting tasks in a high-rise structure.

    PubMed

    Williams-Bell, F Michael; Boisseau, Geoff; McGill, John; Kostiuk, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L

    2010-03-01

    Air consumption, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide output (VCO(2)) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER=VCO(2)/VO(2)) were measured directly from the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) as 36 professional firefighters (three women) completed scenarios of high-rise stair climbing and fifth floor search and rescue. During stair climbing VO(2) was 75+/-8% VO(2max) (mean+/-SD), RER=1.10+/-0.10, and heart rate=91+/-3% maximum (based on maximum treadmill data). Firefighters stopped climbing on consuming 55% of the air cylinder then descended. In the fifth floor search and rescue VO(2) was slightly lower than stair climbing but RER remained elevated (1.13+/-0.12) reflecting high anaerobic metabolism. The first low air alarm sounded, indicating 25% of the air remaining in a "30-min cylinder", during the stair climb at 8 min with 19 of 36 sounding before 12 min. Aggressive air management strategies are required for safety in high-rise firefighting. PMID:19683700

  17. A modified SCBA facepiece for accurate metabolic data collection from firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Richard M; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Motl, Robert W; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Horn, Gavin P

    2015-01-01

    To better assess the energy expenditure and exertion of firefighters during simulated firefighting activities, a commercial firefighter self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) facepiece was modified to interface with a portable metabolic monitoring device (Cosmed K4b(2)) while still functioning as a positive pressure SCBA air supply. To validate the device, standard National Fire Protection Association 1981 SCBA function tests were conducted and 14 subjects performed variable-workload assessments using all combinations of two test devices (Cosmed K4b(2) and metabolic cart) and two masks (modified SCBA facepiece and stock manufacturer-supplied breath collection). Metabolic data collected with the Cosmed K4b(2) via the modified facepiece were found to be accurate when compared to a ParvoMedics Truemax 2400 metabolic cart (average per cent difference: 4.6%). This modified facepiece design is suitable for use in metabolic studies requiring the utilisation of an SCBA system. Furthermore, the well-established overestimation of oxygen consumption from the Cosmed K4b(2) system was replicated. PMID:25323675

  18. Long term health complaints following the Amsterdam Air Disaster in police officers and fire?fighters

    PubMed Central

    Huizink, A C; Slottje, P; Witteveen, A B; Bijlsma, J A; Twisk, J W R; Smidt, N; Bramsen, I; van Mechelen, W; van der Ploeg, H M; Bouter, L M; Smid, T

    2006-01-01

    Background On 4 October 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Fire?fighters and police officers assisted with the rescue work. Objectives To examine the long term health complaints in rescue workers exposed to a disaster. Methods A historical cohort study was performed among police officers (n?=?834) and fire?fighters (n?=?334) who performed at least one disaster related task and reference groups of their non?exposed colleagues (n?=?634 and n?=?194, respectively). The main outcome measures included digestive, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous system, airway, skin, post?traumatic stress, fatigue, and general mental health complaints; haematological and biochemical laboratory values; and urinalysis outcomes. Results Police officers and fire?fighters who were professionally exposed to a disaster reported more physical and mental health complaints, compared to the reference groups. No clinically relevant statistically significant differences in laboratory outcomes were found. Conclusions This study is the first to examine long term health complaints in a large sample of rescue workers exposed to a disaster in comparison to reference groups of non?exposed colleagues. Findings show that even in the long term, and in the absence of laboratory abnormalities, rescue workers report more health complaints. PMID:16644894

  19. Physical fitness profile of professional Italian firefighters: differences among age groups.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Cignitti, Lamberto; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Firefighters perform many tasks which require a high level of fitness and their personal safety may be compromised by the physiological aging process. The aim of the study was to evaluate strength (bench-press), power (countermovement jump), sprint (20 m) and endurance (with and without Self Contained Breathing Apparatus - S.C.B.A.) of 161 Italian firefighters recruits in relation to age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr; 31-35 yr; 36-40 yr; 41-42 yr). Descriptive statistics and an ANOVA were calculated to provide the physical fitness profile for each parameter and to assess differences (p < 0.05) among age groups. Anthropometric values showed an age-effect for height and BMI, while performances values showed statistical differences for strength, power, sprint tests and endurance test with S.C.B.A. Wearing the S.C.B.A., 14% of all recruits failed to complete the endurance test. We propose that the firefighters should participate in an assessment of work capacity and specific fitness programs aimed to maintain an optimal fitness level for all ages. PMID:23849328

  20. The reciprocal relationship between work characteristics and employee burnout and engagement: a longitudinal study of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ângelo, R P; Chambel, M J

    2015-04-01

    The paradigm of this study is positive occupational psychology, with the job demands-resources model as the research model and the Conservation of Resources theory as the general stress theory. The research design analyses the job demands-resources model's dynamic nature with normal and reversed causation effects between work characteristics and psychological well-being among Portuguese firefighters. In addition, we analyse a positive (engagement) dimension and a negative (burnout) dimension in the firefighters' well-being, because previously, studies have merely focused on the strain or stress of these professionals. The research questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 651 firefighters, and a two-wave full panel design was used. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the causal direction of the relationship between organizational demands and burnout is reciprocal. Also, we found that the reciprocal model, including cross-lagged reciprocal relationships between organizational demands/supervisory support and burnout/engagement, respectively, is what fits the data best. Practical implications to develop organizational change programmes and suggestions for future research regarding the promotion of occupational health are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24124018

  1. Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Balilionis, Gytis; Casaru, Catalina; Geary, Colleen; Schumacker, Randall E; Neggers, Yasmin H; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D; Richardson, Mark T; Bishop, Phillip A; Green, James M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N = 10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400 mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consisted of 2 bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise in the heat with two brief 15-min rest periods between each exercise phase. Exercise induced significant dehydration (>3%) and elevated rectal temperature (>38.9 °C), for all three conditions. Neither caffeine nor menthol reduced perceived exertion compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Mood ratings (i.e., alertness, hedonic tone, tension) significantly deteriorated over time (p < 0.05), but there was no difference among the three conditions. Simple reaction time, short-term memory, and retrieval memory did not alter with treatments or repeated evaluations. Reaction accuracy from a math test remained unchanged throughout the experimental period; reaction time from the math test was significantly faster after exposure to the heat (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, exhaustive exercise in the heat severely impacted mood, but minimally impacted cognition. These treatments failed to show ergogenic benefits in a simulated firefighting paradigm in a hot environment. PMID:23891504

  2. Characterization of the metabolic demands of simulated shipboard Royal Navy fire-fighting tasks.

    PubMed

    Bilzon, J L; Scarpello, E G; Smith, C V; Ravenhill, N A; Rayson, M P

    2001-06-20

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the metabolic demand of simulated shipboard fire-fighting procedures currently practised by men and women in the Royal Navy (RN) and to identify a minimum level of cardiovascular fitness commensurate with satisfactory performance. Thirty-four males (M) and 15 females (F) volunteered as subjects for this study (n=49). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and heart rate (fcmax) of each subject was assessed during a standardized treadmill test. During the main trials, volunteers were randomly assigned to complete several 4-min simulated shipboard fire-fighting tasks (boundary cooling (BC), drum carry (DC), extinguisher carry (EC), hose run (HR), ladder climb (LC)), at a work rate that was endorsed as a minimum acceptable standard. Heart rate (fc) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded at 10-s intervals during rest, exercise and recovery. Participants completed all tasks within an allocated time with the exception of the DC task, where 11 subjects (all females) failed to maintain the endorsed work rate. The DC task elicited the highest (p<0.01) group mean peak metabolic demand (PMD) in males (43 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) and females (42 ml min(-1) kg (-1)) who were able to maintain the endorsed work rate. The BC task elicited the lowest PMD (23 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), whilst the remaining three tasks elicited a remarkably similar PMD of 38-39 ml min(-1) kg(-1). The human endurance limit while wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) dictates that RN personnel are only able to fire-fight for 20-30 min, while wearing a full fire-fighting ensemble (FFE) and performing a combination of the BC, HR and LC tasks, which have a group mean metabolic demand of 32.8 ml min(-1) kg(-1). Given that in healthy subjects fire-fighting can be sustained at a maximum work intensity of 80% VO2max when wearing SCBA for this duration, it is recommended that all RN personnel achieve a VO2max of 41 ml min(-1) kg(-1) as an absolute minimum standard. Subjects with a higher VO2max than the above quoted minimum are able to complete the combination of tasks listed with greater metabolic efficiency and less fatigue. PMID:11450875

  3. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO2Theta) above which lactate accumulates was 23 (8) ml/kg/min. The chronotropic index, a measure of cardiovascular strain during XT was 35 (8) /L compared with reference values for men of 40 /L. Total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were 202 (34),126 (29), and 55 (15) mg/dl, respectively. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors, 2 subjects had resting hypertension (BP.140/90), and 23 had pre-hypertension (.120/80 but <140/90). Seven had exaggerated exercise induced hypertension but only one had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data. CONCLUSIONS A-ECG screening correctly identified the individual with CAD although there was no trend for A-ECG parameters to distinguish those with elevated BP or multiple risk factors but normal XT ECG. We have demonstrated that a new technology, advanced-ECG, can be introduced for remote firefighter risk assessment. This simple, time and cost-effective approach to risk identification that can be acquired remotely and transmitted securely can detect individuals potentially at risk for line-of-duty death. Additional research is needed to further document its value.

  4. Contribution of occupation and diet to white blood cell polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Rothman, N; Correa-Villaseñor, A; Ford, D P; Poirier, M C; Haas, R; Hansen, J A; O'Toole, T; Strickland, P T

    1993-01-01

    Wildland (forest) firefighters are exposed to a wide range of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in forest fire smoke. PAH undergo metabolic activation and can subsequently bind to DNA. In this study, we investigated the association between occupational and dietary PAH exposures and the formation of WBC PAH-DNA adducts in a population of wildland firefighters. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using an antiserum elicited against benzo(a)pyrene-modified DNA was used to measure PAH-DNA adducts in WBC obtained from 47 California firefighters at two time points, early and late in the 1988 forest fire season. PAH-DNA adduct levels were not associated with cumulative hours of recent firefighting activity. However, firefighters who consumed charbroiled food within the previous week had elevated PAH-DNA adduct levels, which were related to frequency of charbroiled food intake. These findings suggest that dietary sources of PAH contribute to PAH-DNA adduct levels in peripheral WBC and should be evaluated when using this assay to assess occupational and environmental PAH exposure. PMID:8348057

  5. Assessment of Health Effects in New York City Firefighters after Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs): The Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry J. Kelly; Edmond Connelly; Gustave A. Reinhold; Mike Byrne; David J. Prezant

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the

  6. Acute Symptoms in Firefighters who Participated in Collection Work after the Community Hydrogen Fluoride Spill Accident

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze the relationship between clinical status and work characteristics of firefighters and other public officers who engaged on collection duties in the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill that occurred on September 27, 2012, in Gumi City, South Korea. Methods We investigated the clinical status, personal history, and work characteristics of the study subjects and performed physical examination and several clinical examinations, including chest radiography, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and blood testing in 348 firefighters, police officers, volunteer firefighters, and special warfare reserved force who worked at the hydrogen fluoride spill area. Results The subjects who worked near the accident site more frequently experienced eye symptoms (p?=?0.026), cough (p?=?0.017), and headache (p?=?0.003) than the subjects who worked farther from the accident site. The longer the working hours at the accident area, the more frequently the subjects experienced pulmonary (p?=?0.027), sputum (p?=?0.043), and vomiting symptoms (p?=?0.003). The subjects who did not wear respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced dyspnea than those who wore respiratory protective devices (p?=?0.013). In the pulmonary function test, the subjects who worked near the accident site had a higher decease in forced vital capacity than the subjects who worked farther from the site (p?=?0.019); however, no statistical association was found between serum calcium/phosphate level, echocardiography result, chest radiographic result, and probation work characteristics. Conclusions The subjects who worked near the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill, worked for an extended period, or worked without wearing respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced upper/lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms. Further follow-up examination is needed for the workers who were exposed to hydrogen fluoride during their collection duties in the chemical plant in Gumi City. PMID:24472575

  7. Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights

    SciTech Connect

    Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

    2006-03-09

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

  8. The evaluation of CBRN canisters for use by firefighters during overhaul.

    PubMed

    Currie, Jennifer; Caseman, Delayne; Anthony, T Renee

    2009-07-01

    Air-purifying respirators (APRs) have been proposed to provide an additional respiratory protection option for structural firefighters involved in overhaul operations and wildland firefighters, where particulate and aldehyde exposures have been documented. Previous studies (Anthony et al., 2007) developed test methods to evaluate APR cartridges and canisters for use in overhaul activities, where initial findings indicated that multi-gas cartridges may not be effective. This study evaluated the performance of three chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) canisters (MSA, 3M, and Scott) and one multi-gas canister similar in appearance to CBRN canisters but without CBRN certification (3M FR-64040). Challenge concentrations typical of overhaul exposures were generated by combusting common household materials. Twelve tests were conducted, using random canister selection, where challenge air and air filtered by the canisters were tested. All tests examined penetration of CO; NO(2); SO(2); respirable dust; aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acrolein, and glutaraldehyde; and hydrogen cyanide. Six of the tests also investigated naphthalene, benzene, and hydrogen chloride, but challenge concentrations from the simulated overhaul smoke were near the limit of detection (LOD) and were two orders of magnitude below short-term or ceiling concentrations of concern and were eliminated from further study with the combustion materials used in this study. In all tests, an irritant index was computed to evaluate the aggregate penetration of contaminants in the smoke mixture, using 15- and 30-min occupational exposure limits as well as assessing individual penetrations. In all cases, the challenge concentration irritant index exceeded unity, ranging from 2.3 to 21. For all 12 tests, the APR canister reduced the overall irritant index to levels below unity, indicating that these canisters would provide protection for firefighters working in overhaul environments. However, in some tests, levels of carbon monoxide were higher than recommended for persons wearing APRs. Since these canisters do not protect against carbon monoxide, firefighters must still rely on direct reading warning to indicate high CO levels, indicating the need to leave the area if wearing an APR, as these APR canisters would be inappropriate. PMID:19443851

  9. Acute Toxicity of Firefighting Chemical Formulations to Four Life Stages of Fathead Minnow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P. Gaikowski; Steven J. Hamilton; Kevin J. Buhl; Susan F. McDonald; Cliff H. Summers

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FIREFIGHTING STUDENTS DURING SIMULATED SMOKE-DIVING IN THE HEAT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirpa Lusa; Veikko Louhevaara; Juhani Smolander; Mika Kivimäki; Olli Korhonen

    1993-01-01

    While wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and fire-protective clothing, 35 healthy firefighting students aged 19–27 years performed smoke-diving (entry into a smoke-filled room) during a simulated shipboard fire. The mean (±SD) ambient temperature inside the simulator was 119±12°C, and the task lasted 17±4?min. All subjects were fit according to their maximal oxygen consumption, which was 52.4±5.2?mL\\/min\\/kg (4.08±0.45?l\\/min). During the smoke-diving

  11. Autonomous UAV-based mapping of large-scale urban firefights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snarski, Stephen; Scheibner, Karl; Shaw, Scott; Roberts, Randy; LaRow, Andy; Breitfeller, Eric; Lupo, Jasper; Nielson, Darron; Judge, Bill; Forren, Jim

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with very low false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type. The combined results of the high-intensity firefight data collect and a detailed systems study demonstrate the readiness of the FightSight concept for full system development and integration.

  12. Physiological responses and air consumption during simulated firefighting tasks in a subway system.

    PubMed

    Williams-Bell, F Michael; Boisseau, Geoff; McGill, John; Kostiuk, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L

    2010-10-01

    Professional firefighters (33 men, 3 women), ranging in age from 30 to 53 years, participated in a simulation of a subway system search and rescue while breathing from their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). We tested the hypothesis that during this task, established by expert firefighters to be of moderate intensity, the rate of air consumption would exceed the capacity of a nominal 30-min cylinder. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, and air consumption were measured with a portable breath-by-breath gas exchange analysis system, which was fully integrated with the expired port of the SCBA. The task involved descending a flight of stairs, walking, performing a search and rescue, retreat walking, then ascending a single flight of stairs to a safe exit. This scenario required between 9:56 and 13:24 min:s (mean, 12:10 ± 1:10 min:s) to complete, with an average oxygen uptake of 24.3 ± 4.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (47 ± 10 % peak oxygen uptake) and heart rate of 76% ± 7% of maximum. The highest energy requirement was during the final single-flight stair climb (30.4 ± 5.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). The average respiratory exchange ratio (carbon dioxide output/oxygen uptake) throughout the scenario was 0.95 ± 0.08, indicating a high carbon dioxide output for a relatively moderate average energy requirement. Air consumption from the nominal "30-min" cylinder averaged 51% (range, 26%-68%); however, extrapolation of these rates of consumption suggested that the low-air alarm, signalling that only 25% of the air remains, would have occurred as early as 11 min for an individual with the highest rate of air consumption, and at 16 min for the group average. These data suggest that even the moderate physical demands of walking combined with search and rescue while wearing full protective gear and breathing through the SCBA impose considerable physiological strain on professional firefighters. As well, the rate of air consumption in these tasks classed as moderate, compared with high-rise firefighting, would have depleted the air supply well before the nominal time used to describe the cylinders. PMID:20962923

  13. Association of cardio-ankle vascular index with physical fitness and cognitive symptoms in aging Finnish firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lindholm; A. Punakallio; S. Lusa; M. Sainio; E. Ponocny; R. Winker

    Purpose  Monitoring cardiovascular risk factors is important in health promotion among firefighters. The assessment of arterial stiffness\\u000a (AS) may help to detect early signs of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between aerobic\\u000a fitness, cognitive symptoms and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as a measure for AS among Finnish firefighters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The data are one part of a large

  14. Effect of aspirin on acute changes in peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function following exertional heat stress in firefighters: The factorial group results of the Enhanced Firefighter Rehab Trial.

    PubMed

    Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Hostler, David; Winger, Daniel G; Wang, Li; Reis, Steven E

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function, which are independent predictors of cardiac events, are abnormal in firefighters. We examined the effects of aspirin on peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function in firefighters. Fifty-two firefighters were randomized to receive daily 81 mg aspirin or placebo for 14 days before treadmill exercise in thermal protection clothing, and a single dose of 325 mg aspirin or placebo immediately following exertion. Peripheral arterial augmentation index adjusted for a heart rate of 75 (AI75) and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) were determined immediately before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after exertion. Low-dose aspirin was associated with lower AI75 (-15.25±9.25 vs -8.08±10.70, p=0.014) but not RHI. On repeated measures analysis, treatment with low-dose aspirin before, but not single-dose aspirin after exertion, was associated with lower AI75 following exertional heat stress (p=0.018). Low-dose aspirin improved peripheral arterial stiffness and wave reflection but not endothelial function in firefighters. PMID:25939657

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances in a firefighting training ground (FTG), distribution and potential future release.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Christine; Paxman, Christopher J; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-10-15

    The present study investigates the occurrence and fate of 15 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and one fluorotelomer sulfonate from a firefighting training ground (FTG) that was contaminated by intensive use of aqueous film forming foams (AFFF). The contamination levels and their spatial and vertical distribution are assessed in the structure. At the surface of the pad, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is the dominant PFASs measured, with concentration varying from 10 to 200?gg(-1). PFASs were also detected in a concrete core at up to 12cm depth, suggesting the vertical movement and higher transport potential of shorter chain compounds. The estimated mass load of linear PFOS in this specific pad was >300g with a total of 1.7kg for the sum of all PFASs analyzed. The kinetics of desorption of PFOS, PFOA and 6:2FTS from the concrete into an overlaying static water volume has been measured under field conditions at two constant temperatures. Fitting the desorption data and estimated rainfall/runoff to a kinetic model suggests that this and similar firefighting training pads will likely remain a source of PFASs for many decades (t0.5=25 years for PFOS). PMID:25966923

  16. Carbon monoxide and water vapor contamination of compressed breathing air for firefighters and divers.

    PubMed

    Austin, C C; Ecobichon, D J; Dussault, G; Tirado, C

    1997-12-12

    Compressed breathing air, used in self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) by firefighters and other categories of workers as well as by recreational and commercial divers, is prepared with the aid of high-pressure compressors operating in the range of 5000 psig. There have been reports of unexplained deaths of SCUBA divers and anecdotal accounts of decreased time to exhaustion in firefighters using SCBAs. Compressed breathing air has been found to contain elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor that are consistent with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) poisoning and freezing of the user's regulator on the breathing apparatus. The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFK equation) was used to estimate COHb levels at rest and at maximum exercise when exposed to different levels of CO in contaminated breathing air. The results demonstrated that, at maximum exercise, the COHb ranged from 6.0 to 17% with the use of 1 to 4 SCBA cylinders contaminated by 250 ppm CO. Standard operating procedures have been developed at the Montreal Fire Department to minimize the risk of compressed breathing air contamination. Results of the quality analysis/quality control program indicate that implementation of these procedures has improved the quality of the compressed breathing air. Recommendations are made for improvement of the air testing procedures mandated by the Canadian CAN3 180.1-M85 Standard on Compressed Breathing Air and Systems. PMID:9388533

  17. A fractionation of the physiological burden of the personal protective equipment worn by firefighters.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Lewis, Michael C; Notley, Sean R; Peoples, Gregory E

    2012-08-01

    Load carriage increases physiological strain, reduces work capacity and elevates the risk of work-related injury. In this project, the separate and combined physiological consequences of wearing the personal protective equipment used by firefighters were evaluated. The overall impact upon performance was first measured in 20 subjects during a maximal, job-related obstacle course trial and an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion (with and without protective equipment). The fractional contributions of the thermal protective clothing, helmet, breathing apparatus and boots were then separately determined during steady-state walking (4.8 km h(-1), 0% gradient) and bench stepping (20 cm at 40 steps min(-1)). The protective equipment reduced exercise tolerance by 56% on a treadmill, with the ambulatory oxygen consumption reserve (peak minus steady-state walking) being 31% lower. For the obstacle course, performance declined by 27%. Under steady-state conditions, the footwear exerted the greatest relative metabolic impact during walking and bench stepping, being 8.7 and 6.4 times greater per unit mass than the breathing apparatus. Indeed, the relative influence of the clothing on oxygen cost was at least three times that of the breathing apparatus. Therefore, the most efficient way to reduce the physiological burden of firefighters' protective equipment, and thereby increase safety, would be to reduce the mass of the boots and thermal protective clothing. PMID:22143844

  18. Effects of exercise therapy on muscular strength in firefighters with back pain.

    PubMed

    Moon, Tae-Young; Kim, Jee-Hee; Gwon, Hak-Ju; Hwan, Bang-Sung; Kim, Gyoung-Yong; Smith, Neal; Han, Gun-Soo; Lee, Hyo-Cheol; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine how an exercise program focusing on muscular strength could aid firefighters with chronic lower back pain. [Subjects] The research subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, the experimental group (n=8) and the control (n=8). [Methods] The experimental group performed two types of exercise programs four times per week for 8 weeks under supervision. Tests were performed before and after the 8 weeks of exercise in accordance with the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency's program. [Results] At the end of the 8 weeks of the rehabilitation program, abdominal muscular strength were significantly increased in the experimental group, and this indicates that the exercise therapy was effective for improvement of muscular strength. [Conclusion] We found that exercise therapy is an effective intervention that can reduce the pain of patients with chronic lower back pain. The firefighters with chronic lower back pain who participated in this study exhibited enhanced lower back muscular strength and obtained some additional benefits. They need regular exercise. PMID:25931685

  19. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Hyder, Melissa L.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R. Sue; Poston, Walker S. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25830073

  20. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sara A; Hyder, Melissa L; Haddock, Christopher K; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R Sue; Poston, Walker S Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34-0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42-3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25830073

  1. [The energy cost and the use of individual protective devices in firefighters].

    PubMed

    Serra, A; Denti, S; Masia, P; Pintore, P; Sanna Randaccio, F

    1998-01-01

    Firefighters are required to wear fire-protection devices when involved in hazardous work situations. To determine whether fire protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) affect maximal physical work performance and to assess their additional energy requirement, we studied a cohort of Italian firemen while performing a rapid air-stair climbing (Mt. 29). Heart rate (HR) and maximal speed (time/distance) were measured in 23 firemen during the exercises, performed either wearing fire protection clothing and SCBA (p2) and service dress (p1). We also measured maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, indirect determination), WBGT and the speed/HR ratio (iR) as an arbitrary index of physical work performance. The participant reached the sub-maximal HR in both exercises (p1 87.01%; p2 88.84%). Fire protection devices significantly reduced the exercise maximal speed (p < 0.001) and increased the maximal HR (p < 0.01). IR index was significantly (p < 0.001) lower for p2, indicating a reduction of physical work performance (-26.9%); VO2 max was inversely related with mean and maximal HR (p < 0.001). These results suggest that only well trained firefighters should be employed in emergency actions requiring fire protection devices and SCBA. PMID:9987615

  2. The Management of Heat Stress for the Firefighter: A Review of Work Conducted on Behalf of the Toronto Fire Service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom M. McLELLAN; Glen A. SELKIRK

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a summary of research conducted through a grant provided by the Workplace Safety Insurance Board of Ontario. The research was divided into two phases; first, to define safe work limits for firefighters wearing their protective clothing and working in warm environments; and, the second, to examine strategies to reduce the thermal burden and extend the operational effectiveness

  3. Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogen, David S.

    The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

  4. Firefighters. Grade Two. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Joan; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational cluster of public service, this unit entitled "Firefighters" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC) element (life-role…

  5. Trauma-exposed firefighters: relationships among posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, resource availability, coping and critical incident stress debriefing experience.

    PubMed

    Sattler, David N; Boyd, Bill; Kirsch, Julie

    2014-12-01

    This project examines protective factors associated with resilience/posttraumatic growth and risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress among firefighters exposed to critical incidents. The participants were 286 (257 men and 29 women) volunteer and paid firefighters in Whatcom County, Washington. Participants completed an anonymous survey asking about demographics, critical incident exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, resource availability, coping, occupational stress and critical incident stress debriefing experience. Most participants had significant critical incident exposure, and about half had attended critical incident stress debriefing sessions. Posttraumatic growth was associated with being female, critical incident exposure, critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic stress symptoms (negative association), occupational support, occupation satisfaction, occupational effort, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping and personal characteristic resources. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with years of firefighting, burnout, occupational effort and disengagement coping and negatively associated with critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic growth, social support, internal locus of control, personal characteristic resources, energy resources and condition resources. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory and show that the maintenance and acquisition of resources can offset losses and facilitate resilience/posttraumatic growth. Implications of the findings for enhancing firefighter resources, facilitating resilience and minimizing occupational stressors are discussed. PMID:25476961

  6. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...specific fire plan must also be given to the resource provider(s) instead of the NFPA 1405 pre-fire plan, and be attached to the VRP. (2) The marine firefighting resource provider(s) you are required to identify in your plan must be given a copy...

  7. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...specific fire plan must also be given to the resource provider(s) instead of the NFPA 1405 pre-fire plan, and be attached to the VRP. (2) The marine firefighting resource provider(s) you are required to identify in your plan must be given a copy...

  8. Physiological effects of boot weight and design on men and women firefighters.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nina L; Chiou, Sharon; Zwiener, Joyce; Weaver, Darlene; Spahr, James

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two leather (L1, L2) and two rubber (R1, R2) boots on firefighters' metabolic and respiratory variables during simulated firefighting tasks. Twenty-five men and 25 women, while wearing full turnout clothing, a 10.5-kg backpack, gloves, helmet, and one of four randomly assigned pairs of firefighter boots, walked for 6 min at 3 mph (4.8 km/hr) on a level treadmill while carrying a 9.5-kg hose and climbed a stair ergometer for 6 min at 45 steps per min without the hose. Minute ventilation (VE), absolute and relative oxygen consumption (VO2 and VO2 ml kg min(-1), respectively), CO(2) production (VCO2), heart rate (HR), and peak inspiratory (PIF) and expiratory (PEF) flow rates were measured, and an average of the breath-by-breath data from minute 6 was used for analysis. During treadmill exercise, a 1-kg increase in boot weight caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in VE (9%), VO2 (5 - 6%), VCO2 (8%), and HR (6%) for men, whereas a 1-kg increase caused significant increases in VO2 (3 - 4.5%) and VCO2 (4%) for women. During stair ergometry, a 1-kg increase in boot weight caused significant increases in VE(approximately 3%), relative VO2 (approximately 2%), VCO2 (3%), and PIF (approximately 4%) in men and women (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in absolute VO2 (approximately 3.5%) in men only. Mean increases in metabolic and respiratory variables per 1-kg increase in boot weight were in the 5 to 12% range observed previously for men during treadmill walking but were considerably smaller for women. Mean increases in oxygen consumption during stair ergometry were statistically significant but were smaller in the current study than previously observed and may not be practically significant. There was no significant effect of boot design in addition to boot weight for either mode of exercise. PMID:20521197

  9. Greater physical fitness is associated with better air ventilation efficiency in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gendron, P; Freiberger, E; Laurencelle, L; Trudeau, F; Lajoie, C

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting is a hazardous task associated with a heavy workload where task duration may be limited by air cylinder capacity. Increased fitness may lead to better air ventilation efficiency and task duration at a given heavy work intensity. This study compared performance, air ventilation and skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during a maximal graded walking test (GWT), a 10 METS (metabolic equivalent) treadmill test (T10) and a simulated work circuit (SWC). Participants (n = 13) who performed the SWC in a shorter time had significantly lower air cylinder ventilation values on the T10 (r = -0.495), better peak oxygen consumption (r = -0.924) during the GWT and significantly greater skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during the SWC (HbDiff, r = 0.768). These results demonstrate that the fastest participants on the SWC had better air ventilation efficiency that could prolong interventions in difficult situations requiring air cylinder use. PMID:25479992

  10. Technology transfer from space to earth - The NASA Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Anuskiewicz, T.; Keune, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    Responding to the recent demand of fire services for a better equipment, NASA has prepared two improved versions of Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) by taking advantage of the spacesuit design. In the new FBS, the conventional oxygen tube is replaced by a 40% lighter air tube with twice as much pressure. The load is attached to a wide waist belt and distributed on the hips instead of the shoulder, thus making it easier to carry. The two versions of the FBS are essentially the same, the only difference being the capacities of the air tubes. Also the face mask used is smaller, lighter and provides better vision and mobility. The FBS had a notable impact, with the fire departments reporting improved efficiency. Unlike other technology transfer cases, the FBS concept is commercially successful in finding diverse fields of application.

  11. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  12. A comparison of cooling techniques in firefighters after a live burn evolution

    PubMed Central

    Colburn, Deanna; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Morley, Julia L; Goss, Fredric L; Chen, Yi-Fan; Moore, Charity G; Hostler, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective We compared two active cooling devices to passive cooling in a moderate (?22°C) temperature environment on heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tc) recovery when applied to firefighters following 20 min. of fire suppression. Methods Firefighters (23 male, 2 female) performed 20 minutes of fire suppression at a live fire evolution. Immediately following the evolution, the subjects removed their thermal protective clothing and were randomized to receive forearm immersion (FI), ice water perfused cooling vest (CV) or passive (P) cooling in an air-conditioned medical trailer for 30 minutes. Heart rate and deep gastric temperature were monitored every five minutes during recovery. Results A single 20-minute bout of fire suppression resulted in near maximal HR (175±13 - P, 172±20 - FI, 177±12 beats•min?1 - CV) when compared to baseline (p < 0.001), a rapid and substantial rise in Tc (38.2±0.7 - P, 38.3±0.4 - FI, 38.3±0.3° - CV) compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and mass lost from sweating of nearly one kilogram. Cooling rates (°C/min) differed (p = 0.036) by device with FI (0.05±0.04) providing higher rates than P (0.03±0.02) or CV (0.03±0.04) although differences over 30 minutes were small and recovery of body temperature was incomplete in all groups. Conclusions During 30 min. of recovery following a 20-minute bout of fire suppression in a training academy setting, there is a slightly higher cooling rate for FI and no apparent benefit to CV when compared to P cooling in a moderate temperature environment. PMID:21294631

  13. Firefighter feedback during active cooling: A useful tool for heat stress management?

    PubMed

    Savage, Robbie J; Lord, Cara; Larsen, Brianna L; Knight, Teagan L; Langridge, Peter D; Aisbett, Brad

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring an individual's thermic state in the workplace requires reliable feedback of their core temperature. However, core temperature measurement technology is expensive, invasive and often impractical in operational environments, warranting investigation of surrogate measures which could be used to predict core temperature. This study examines an alternative measure of an individual's thermic state, thermal sensation, which presents a more manageable and practical solution for Australian firefighters operating on the fireground. Across three environmental conditions (cold, warm, hot & humid), 49 Australian volunteer firefighters performed a 20-min fire suppression activity, immediately followed by 20 min of active cooling using hand and forearm immersion techniques. Core temperature (Tc) and thermal sensation (TS) were measured across the rehabilitation period at five minute intervals. Despite the decline in Tc and TS throughout the rehabilitation period, there was little similarity in the magnitude or rate of decline between each measure in any of the ambient conditions. Moderate to strong correlations existed between Tc and TS in the cool (0.41, p<0.05) and hot & humid (0.57, p<0.05) conditions, however this was resultant in strong correlation during the earlier stages of rehabilitation (first five minutes), which were not evident in the latter stages. Linear regression revealed TS to be a poor predictor of Tc in all conditions (SEE=0.45-0.54°C) with a strong trend for TS to over-predict Tc (77-80% of the time). There is minimal evidence to suggest that ratings of thermal sensation, which represent a psychophysical assessment of an individual's thermal comfort, are an accurate reflection of the response of an individual's core temperature. Ratings of thermal sensation can be highly variable amongst individuals, likely moderated by local skin temperature. In account of these findings, fire managers require a more reliable source of information to guide decisions of heat stress management. PMID:25455942

  14. Active versus passive cooling during work in warm environments while wearing firefighting protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, G A; McLellan, T M; Wong, J

    2004-08-01

    This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35 degrees Celsius, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the heat-stress trials. Subjects walked at 4.5 km.h(-1) with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50 min) and rest (30 min) schedule. Work continued until rectal temperature (T(re)) reached 39.5 degrees Celsius, or heart rate (HR) reached 95% of maximum or exhaustion. One of three cooling strategies, forearm submersion (FS), mister (M), and passive cooling (PC) were employed during the rest phases. Tolerance time (TT) and total work time (WT) (min) were significantly increased during FS (178.7 +/- 13.0 and 124.7 +/- 7.94, respectively) and M (139.1 +/- 8.28 and 95.1 +/- 4.96, respectively), compared with PC (108.0 +/- 3.59 and 78.0 +/- 3.59). Furthermore, TT and WT were significantly greater in FS compared with M. Rates of T(re) increase, HR and T-(sk) were significantly lower during active compared with passive cooling. In addition, HR and T(re) values in FS were significantly lower compared with M after the first rest phase. During the first rest phase, T(re) dropped significantly during FS (approximately 0.4 degree Celsius) compared with M (approximately 0.08 degree Celsius) while PC increased (approximately 0.2 degree Celsius). By the end of the second rest period T(re) was 0.9 degree Celsius lower in FS compared with M. The current findings suggest that there is a definite advantage when utilizing forearm submersion compared with other methods of active or passive cooling while wearing FPC and SCBA in the heat. PMID:15238305

  15. Induced Sputum Assessment in New York City Firefighters Exposed to World Trade Center Dust

    PubMed Central

    Fireman, Elizabeth M.; Lerman, Yehuda; Ganor, Eliezer; Greif, Joel; Fireman-Shoresh, Sharon; Lioy, Paul J.; Banauch, Gisela I.; Weiden, Michael; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2004-01-01

    New York City Firefighters (FDNY-FFs) were exposed to particulate matter and combustion/pyrolysis products during and after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse. Ten months after the collapse, induced sputum (IS) samples were obtained from 39 highly exposed FDNY-FFs (caught in the dust cloud during the collapse on 11 September 2001) and compared to controls to determine whether a unique pattern of inflammation and particulate matter deposition, compatible with WTC dust, was present. Control subjects were 12 Tel-Aviv, Israel, firefighters (TA-FFs) and 8 Israeli healthcare workers who were not exposed to WTC dust. All controls volunteered for this study, had never smoked, and did not have respiratory illness. IS was processed by conventional methods. Retrieved cells were differentially counted, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), particle size distribution (PSD), and mineral composition were measured. Differential cell counts of FDNY-FF IS differed from those of health care worker controls (p < 0.05) but not from those of TA-FFs. Percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils increased with greater intensity of WTC exposure (< 10 workdays or ? 10 workdays; neutrophils p = 0.046; eosinophils p = 0.038). MMP-9 levels positively correlated to neutrophil counts (p = 0.002; r = 0.449). Particles were larger and more irregularly shaped in FDNY-FFs (1–50 ?m; zinc, mercury, gold, tin, silver) than in TA-FFs (1–10 ?m; silica, clays). PSD was similar to that of WTC dust samples. In conclusion, IS from highly exposed FDNY-FFs demonstrated inflammation, PSD, and particle composition that was different from nonexposed controls and consistent with WTC dust exposure. PMID:15531443

  16. Mortality and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of US firefighters from San Francisco, Chicago and Philadelphia (1950–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Robert D; Kubale, Travis L; Yiin, James H; Dahm, Matthew M; Hales, Thomas R; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia H; Beaumont, James J; Waters, Kathleen M; Pinkerton, Lynne E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine mortality patterns and cancer incidence in a pooled cohort of 29 993 US career firefighters employed since 1950 and followed through 2009. Methods Mortality and cancer incidence were evaluated by life table methods with the US population referent. Standardised mortality (SMR) and incidence (SIR) ratios were determined for 92 causes of death and 41 cancer incidence groupings. Analyses focused on 15 outcomes of a priori interest. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the potential for significant bias. Results Person-years at risk totalled 858 938 and 403 152 for mortality and incidence analyses, respectively. All-cause mortality was at expectation (SMR=0.99, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.01, n=12 028). There was excess cancer mortality (SMR=1.14, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.18, n=3285) and incidence (SIR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, n=4461) comprised mainly of digestive (SMR=1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34, n=928; SIR=1.17, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.25, n=930) and respiratory (SMR=1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17, n=1096; SIR=1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.24, n=813) cancers. Consistent with previous reports, modest elevations were observed in several solid cancers; however, evidence of excess lymphatic or haematopoietic cancers was lacking. This study is the first to report excess malignant mesothelioma (SMR=2.00, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.49, n=12; SIR=2.29, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.19, n=35) among US firefighters. Results appeared robust under differing assumptions and analytic techniques. Conclusions Our results provide evidence of a relation between firefighting and cancer. The new finding of excess malignant mesothelioma is noteworthy, given that asbestos exposure is a known hazard of firefighting. PMID:24142974

  17. Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

  18. Predictors of postevent distress and growth among firefighters after work-related emergencies--A cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Doris; Knuth, Daniela; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2015-05-01

    Firefighters may experience posttraumatic stress symptomatology (i.e., postevent distress) as a consequence of exposure to work-related distressing incidents. However, positive psychological changes (i.e., postevent growth) should also be taken into account. The aim of this cross-national study was to investigate both postevent distress and growth in firefighters following distressing incidents. A sample of 1,916 firefighters from 8 predominantly European countries recalled a work-related distressing incident. Two hierarchical regression analyses were run to reveal predictors of postevent distress and growth, respectively. Predictors included person pre-event characteristics, objective (e.g., type of incident, time since incident, fatalities) and subjective (e.g., perceived life-threat, peri-event distress, most distressing aspect) incident features, and the participant's country. Postevent distress was measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and growth by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form (PTGI-SF). The final models explained 29% of the variation in postevent distress and 26% in growth. Postevent distress and growth were predicted by different variables. Country differences were found after controlling for all other variables. Further research is needed to explain these differences. PMID:25961115

  19. Protection of firefighters against combustion aerosol particles: simulated workplace protection factor of a half-mask respirator (pilot study).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, James; Yermakov, Michael; Reponen, Tiina; Kulkarni, Pramod; Qi, Chaolong; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the penetration of ultrafine particles originated by combustion of different materials into elastomeric half-mask respirators equipped with two P100 filters. We determined the Simulated Workplace Protection Factor (SWPF) for 11 firefighters wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators and performing activities simulating those conducted during fire overhaul operations. The tests were performed in a controlled laboratory setting. A newly-developed battery-operated Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer (PAMS) was used to measure size-resolved aerosol particle concentrations outside (C(out)) and inside (Cin) of an air-purifying respirator donned on a firefighter, and the SWPF was calculated as C(out)/C(in). Based on the total aerosol concentration, the "total" SWPF ranged from 4,222 (minimum) to 35,534 (maximum) with values falling primarily in a range from 11,171 (25 percentile) to 26,604 (75 percentile) and a median value being ?15,000. This is consistent with the recently reported fit factor (FF) data base.((1)) The size-resolved SWPF data revealed a dependency on the particle size. It was concluded that a portable device such as PAMS can be used on firefighters during overhaul operations (as well as on other workers wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators) to monitor the aerosol concentrations in real time and ultimately help prevent overexposure. PMID:25625543

  20. The impact of different types of textile liners used in protective footwear on the subjective sensations of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Irzma?ska, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents ergonomic evaluation of footwear used with three types of textile liners differing in terms of design and material composition. Two novel textile composite liners with enhanced hygienic properties were compared with a standard liner used in firefighter boots. The study involved 45 healthy firefighters from fire and rescue units who wore protective footwear with one of the three types of liners. The study was conducted in a laboratory under a normal atmosphere. The ergonomic properties of the protective footwear and liners were evaluated according to the standard EN ISO 20344:2012 as well as using an additional questionnaire concerning the thermal and moisture sensations experienced while wearing the footwear. The study was conducted on a much larger group of subjects (45) than that required by the ISO standard (3) to increase the reliability of subjective evaluations. Some statistically significant differences were found between the different types of textile liners used in firefighter boots. It was confirmed that the ergonomic properties of protective footwear worn in the workplace may be improved by the use of appropriate textile components. PMID:25479972

  1. Determination of firefighter exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene during fire fighting using measurement of biological indicators.

    PubMed

    Caux, Chantal; O'Brien, Cindy; Viau, Claude

    2002-05-01

    In accomplishing their duties, firefighters are potentially exposed to a vast array of toxic combustion and pyrolysis products such as benzene, carbon monoxide, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAH and benzene was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t-muconic acid, respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period extending for 20 h following the end of exposure during a fire. A control sample was also obtained from each participant after at least four days without involvement in fire fighting activities. Only one control 1-hydroxypyrene measurement exceeded the value of 0.32 micromol/mol creatinine considered as the 95th percentile of a normal reference population in this study. Following exposure, 38 percent of the maximum values of all samples collected from each firefighter exceeded this reference value. The highest single value observed in this study was 3.6 micromol/mol creatinine. None of the control samples had a t,t-muconic acid concentration above the limit of detection. A large number (81%) of post-fire samples also had nonquantifiable concentrations of this metabolite. Among 43 firefighters in this study, 17 had measurable excretion of this metabolite in any of the urine samples after fire fighting and, of the latter group, only 6 had t,t-muconic acid concentrations exceeding 1.1 mmol/mol creatinine, a value considered to correspond to a benzene-air concentration of approximately 1 ppm according to the literature. There is clear evidence that fire fighting activities are associated with exposure to PAH above environmental background, as assessed by 1-hydroxypyrene measurements, despite the use of protective equipment. However, in comparison with observations made in other cohorts of industrial workers with known polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure, firefighters' exposure in this study was low. Similarly, based on t,t-muconic acid determinations, exposure to benzene was rather low in this study. For both contaminants, observation of low exposure could be due to either low concentrations of the contaminant during fire fighting or to the efficiency of protective equipment worn. PMID:12018402

  2. Hearing effects from intermittent and continuous noise exposure in a study of Korean factory workers and firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background South Korea and surrounding countries in East Asia are believed to have the highest proportion in the world of high frequency hearing loss due to occupational noise exposure, yet there has been limited information published in international journals, and limited information for control of noise in local workplaces beyond strategies from western countries. We exploit medical surveillance information from two worker groups to enhance local knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and explore the possible importance of shift work to risk. Methods Four-years of hearing data were evaluated for 81 male farm machine factory workers and 371 male firefighters who had successfully completed a health examination and questionnaires for the duration of the study period. The averages of hearing thresholds at 2, 3, and 4 kHz were used as the primary end-point for comparison. Repeat measure analysis adjusted for age, exposure duration and smoking status was used to measure the difference in hearing threshold between the two groups. Results Noise levels were measured in the factory at a mean of 82 dBA, with a range of 66-97. No concurrent measurements were taken for the firefighters, but historic comparison values showed a wider range but a similar mean of 76-79 dBA. Although losses during follow-up were negligible, the factory workers had significantly (P < 0.0001) more hearing loss at the baseline of the study than the firefighters in both ears at 2, 3, and 4 kHz, adjusted for age, duration of employment and smoking status. Among those with 10 years of employment, mean losses at these frequencies among the factory workers fell into the impairment range (> 25 dB loss). Firefighters also showed increased losses associated with longer exposure duration, but these were significantly less marked. Losses at lower frequencies (< or = 1 kHz) were negligible in both groups. Conclusions Korean work environments with continuous noise exposure in the measured range should consider implementation of a hearing conservation program. Further evaluation of hearing loss in workers exposed to irregular or intermittent high noise levels, such as firefighters, is also warranted. PMID:22284753

  3. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow.

    PubMed

    Gaikowski, M P; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; McDonald, S F; Summers, C H

    1996-08-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13-32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19-32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135-787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168-2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519-6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50 for each formulation). PMID:8812194

  4. A new hand-cooling device to enhance firefighter heat strain recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Bishop, Phillip A; Casaru, Catalina; Davis, J K

    2009-05-01

    This study tested a new portable cooling device for fire fighting recovery. Participants (N = 8) walked and did arm curls (time-weighted VO(2): 1.6 L x min(-1) on a treadmill for 40 min in a heated chamber (wet bulb globe temperature: 33.7 degrees C; relative humidity: 40-45%) while wearing firefighter turn-out gear and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Immediately on finishing exercise, participants recovered for 40 min with either a hand-cooling device or seated passive recovery at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C, 35% RH in a repeated-measures counterbalanced design. The cooling device had little impact on recovery during the first 30 min; however, compared with passive cooling, the cooling device resulted in significantly lower rectal temperature (T(re)) during the last 10 min. Relative to starting T(re) of the recovery period, Delta T(re) at 35 min had fallen 0.51 +/- 0.19 degrees C (passive) and 0.76 +/- 0.30 degrees C (active) (p = 0.03); and at 40 min Delta T(re) had fallen 0.63 +/- 0.17 degrees C (passive) and 0.88 +/- 0.31 degrees C (active) (p = 0.03). Cooling capacity of the device calculated from Delta T(re) over the whole recovery period averaged about 144% of passive. Reductions in heat storage enhance worker safety and performance in hot environments. PMID:19242856

  5. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  6. Passive acoustic monitoring of human physiology during activity indicates health and performance of soldiers and firefighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-04-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed a unique gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor that has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin. This facilitates the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repels ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. The sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth produce excellent signatures for detection and spectral analysis of diverse physiological events. Acoustic signal processing detects heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. Comfortable acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Noise-canceling sensor arrays help remove out-of-phase motion noise and enhance covariant physiology by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and two additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist acoustic sensors will indicate systolic blood pressure. Larger torso-sized arrays can be used to acoustically inspect the lungs and heart, or built into beds for sleep monitoring. Acoustics is an excellent input for sensor fusion.

  7. HKR CONNECTIONS C H O O L O F H U M A N K I N E T I C S A N D R E C R E A T I O N N E W S L E T T E RFA L L I S S U E 2 0 1 2 To qualify as a firefighter,

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    RFA L L I S S U E 2 0 1 2 To qualify as a firefighter, potential candidates have to pass a grueling firefighters but the rest of the tests were new for them. AHS co-ordinator Liam Kelly said there was a lot requirements of firefighting, find a facility that would work, we had to get the equipment built, buy

  8. Effects of liquid cooling garments on recovery and performance time in individuals performing strenuous work wearing a firefighter ensemble.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages of 15 min exercise at 75% VO2max, and 10 min rest following each exercise stage. During each session, one of the following six conditions was administered in a randomized order: control (no cooling, CON); air ventilation of exhaust SCBA gases rerouted into the PFE (AV); top cooling garment (TCG); TCG combined with AV (TCG+AV); a shortened whole body cooling garment (SCG), and SCG combined with AV (SCG+AV). Results showed that total PT completed was longer under SCG and SCG+AV compared with CON, AV, TCG, and TCG+AV (p<0.01). Magnitude of core temperature (Tc) elevation was significantly decreased when SCG was utilized (p<0.01), and heart rate recovery rate (10 min) was enhanced under SCG, SCG+AV, TCG, and TCG+AV compared with CON (p<0.05). Estimated Esw rate (kg·h(-1)) was the greatest in CON, 1.62 (0.37), and the least in SCG+AV 0.98 (0.44): (descending order: CON>AV>TCG=TCG+AV>SCG>SCG+AV) without a statistical difference between the conditions (p<0.05). Results of the present study suggest that the application of LCG underneath the PFE significantly improves the recovery during a short period of rest and prolongs performance time in subsequent bouts of exercise. LCG also appears to be an effective method for body cooling that promotes heat dissipation during uncompensable heat stress. PMID:21660834

  9. Restriction to movement in fire-fighter protective clothing: evaluation of alternative sleeves and liners.

    PubMed

    Huck, J

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alternative designs and liner configurations in fire-fighter protective clothing, or 'turnout gear', to determine the restriction to wearer movement imposed by each. The independent variables were: (1) two alternative sleeve designs (i e, a 'traditional' sleeve design and a prototype sleeve design, featuring additional gusset width and altered armseye position) plus a station uniform worm without any protective clothing and/or equipment; (2) three liner configuration variations (i e, a 'traditional' liner configuration, incorporation of one additional liner, and incorporation of two additional liners); and (3) wearing or not wearing an SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus). The dependent variables for this study were: (1) range of movement in four upper body joints; and (2) a semantic differential scale to evaluate wearers' subjective evaluation of each protective ensemble. Nine male subjects were used. For each of the four joint movements measured (i e, shoulder flexion/extension, shoulder adduction/abduction, shoulder rotation, elbow flexion/extension), a Leighton Flexometer was strapped to the subject at the appropriate body location. The subject was instructed to take the body position indicated. A reading was taken, then the subject was asked to move the body segment to the fullest extent possible in the direction indicated by the researcher. A second reading (representing range of movement) was taken. This procedure was repeated three times for each movement. After the test, subjects were instructed to fill out a semantic differential scale which described their subjective evaluations of the clothing/ equipment configuration. Results showed greater wearer range of movement in the elbow area for the prototype sleeve design over the more traditional sleeve design. Incorporation of additional liners resulted in higher wearer acceptability for the turnout coats than when these liners were not used. As expected, use of an SCBA was extremely restrictive to mobility, and made the protective ensemble less acceptable to wearers. PMID:15676803

  10. Do fire-fighters develop specific ventilatory responses in order to cope with exercise whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus?

    PubMed

    Donovan, K J; McConnell, A K

    1999-07-01

    In the present study we compared the ventilatory performance whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during exercise, of a group of male fire-fighters (FF, n = 8), with a matched group of male civilians (CV, n = 7). The mean (SEM) physiological characteristics of the subjects (FF vs CV) were: age 31 (2) years vs 32 (4) years; height 179 (2) cm vs 183 (3) cm, P < 0.05; mass 80 (2) kg vs 84 (3) kg; maximum oxygen uptake 4.52 (0.14) 1 x min(-1) vs 4.39 (0.27) 1 x min(-1). Volunteers performed a 23-minute fire-fighting simulation (Firetest), without and with SCBA (Fire-fighter II, Siebe-Gorman/North Safety, Cheshire, UK). During SCBA wear, the FF group used significantly less air and rated their breathlessness significantly lower than the CV group. The mean tidal volume (V(T)) of the FF group remained constant between non-SCBA and SCBA wear conditions, but the CV group increased their mean V(T) by 18%, (P < 0.01). There were no significant between-group differences during the Firetest in total breath duration, inspiratory or expiratory duration, breathing frequency (fb), or heart rate. These data suggest that the respiratory responses of firefighters while wearing SCBA, which are characterised by increases in (fb) but not V(T), may help to reduce their breathlessness during exercise while wearing SCBA. PMID:10408320

  11. Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire GTR-NRS-P-84 WILDLAND FIREFIGHTERS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT

    E-print Network

    with ADHD are at increased risk for academic failure, behavioral problems, substance #12;Proceedings WILDLAND FIREFIGHTERS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) Charles G. Palmer, Ed.D. Phyllis of Montana Alysha Spear University of Montana Abstract.--Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

  12. Physiological responses to wearing a prototype firefighter ensemble compared with a standard ensemble.

    PubMed

    Williams, W Jon; Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond; Shepherd, Angie; Powell, Jeffrey; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological responses to wearing a standard firefighter ensemble (SE) and a prototype ensemble (PE) modified from the SE that contained additional features, such as magnetic ring enclosures at the glove-sleeve interface, integrated boot-pant interface, integrated hood-SCBA facepiece interface, and a novel hose arrangement that rerouted self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) exhaust gases back into the upper portion of the jacket. Although the features of the PE increased the level of encapsulation of the wearer that could lead to increased physiological stress compared with the SE, it was hypothesized that the rerouted exhaust gases provided by the PE hose assembly would (1) provide convective cooling to the upper torso, (2) reduce the thermal stress experienced by the wearer, and (3) reduce the overall physiological stress imposed by the PE such that it would be either less or not significantly different from the SE. Ten subjects (seven male, three female) performed treadmill exercise in an environmental chamber (22°C, 50% RH) at 50% [image omitted]O(2max) while wearing either the SE with an SCBA or the PE with an SCBA either with or without the hose attached (designated PEWH and PENH, respectively). Heart rate (HR), rectal and intestinal temperatures (T(re), T(in)), sweat loss, and endurance time were measured. All subjects completed at least 20 min of treadmill exercise during the testing. At the end of exercise, there was no difference in T(re) (p = 0.45) or T(in) (p = 0.42), HR, or total sweat loss between the SE and either PEWH or PENH (p = 0.59). However, T(sk) was greater in PEWH and PENH compared with SE (p < 0.05). Total endurance time in SE was greater than in either PEWH or PENH (p < 0.05). Thus, it was concluded that the rerouting of exhaust gases to the jacket did not provide significant convective cooling or reduce thermal stress compared with the SE under the mild conditions selected, and the data did not support the hypotheses of the present study. PMID:21154108

  13. Absolute vs. weight-related maximum oxygen uptake in firefighters: fitness evaluation with and without protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus among age group.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  14. The management of heat stress for the firefighter: a review of work conducted on behalf of the Toronto Fire Service.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Selkirk, Glen A

    2006-07-01

    This report provides a summary of research conducted through a grant provided by the Workplace Safety Insurance Board of Ontario. The research was divided into two phases; first, to define safe work limits for firefighters wearing their protective clothing and working in warm environments; and, the second, to examine strategies to reduce the thermal burden and extend the operational effectiveness of the firefighter. For the first phase, subjects wore their protective ensemble and carried their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and performed very light, light, moderate or heavy work at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C. Thermal and evaporative resistance coefficients were obtained from thermal manikin testing that allowed the human physiological responses to be compared with modeled data. Predicted continuous work times were then generated using a heat strain model that established limits for increases in body temperature to 38.0 degrees C, 38.5 degrees C and 39.0 degrees C. Three experiments were conducted for the second phase of the project. The first study revealed that replacing the duty uniform pants that are worn under the bunker pants with shorts reduced the thermal strain for activities that lasted longer than 60 min. The second study examined the importance of fluid replacement. The data revealed that fluid replacement equivalent to at least 65% of the sweat lost increased exposure time by 15% compared with no fluid replacement. The last experiment compared active and passive cooling. Both the use of a mister or forearm and hand submersion in cool water significantly increased exposure time compared with passive cooling that involved only removing most of the protective clothing. Forearm and hand submersion proved to be most effective and produced dramatic increases in exposure time that approximated 65% compared with the passive cooling procedure. When the condition of no fluid replacement and passive cooling was compared with fluid replacement and forearm and hand submersion, exposure times were effectively doubled with the latter condition. The heat stress wheel that was generated can be used by Commanders to determine safe work limits for their firefighters during activities that involve wearing their protective clothing and carrying their SCBA. PMID:16922185

  15. From infancy to adolescence: the development and future of the national firefighter near-miss reporting system.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Lacovara, Alicia V

    2015-02-01

    The National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System (NFFNMRS) is a voluntary adverse event reporting system designed as a repository to which firefighters submit information on the hazards seen in their work, detailing the events that led to near-misses and injuries. This descriptive article discusses the development of the system since its inception, the strengths and limitations of the resultant data, and the improvements to be made to ensure the system's usefulness. Especially in their infancy, near-miss systems are very dependent on funding and sensitive to any reductions as they head toward steady-state reporting. This sustainability factor has significant implications for continued reporting to the system and the ultimate utility of the data. Very few such data systems exist for occupational health surveillance. PMID:25816170

  16. "Awake, smoky, and hot": providing an evidence-base for managing the risks associated with occupational stressors encountered by wildland firefighters.

    PubMed

    Aisbett, B; Wolkow, A; Sprajcer, M; Ferguson, S A

    2012-09-01

    To curtail the spread of wildfire, firefighters are often required to work long hours in hot, smoky conditions with little rest between consecutive shifts. In isolation, heat, smoke, and sleep disruption can have a detrimental impact on cognitive and physical abilities. Far less is known, however, about the combined impact that heat, smoke, and sleep disruption can have on firefighters' performance during wildfire suppression or on human performance in general. The available literature, though scant, suggests that audio and visual tracking may be degraded after sustained heat exposure following one night of sleep deprivation. Exposure to heat and carbon monoxide, in contrast, appears to have only limited impact on cognitive performance, even after physical exercise. Heat and carbon monoxide exposure does, however, increase physiological exertion to a given work or exercise bout. To the authors' knowledge, there are no published studies that have explored the impacts of heat exposure following sleep disruption on physical work performance, sleep disruption and smoke exposure on physical or cognitive work, or the combined impacts of sleep disruption, smoke and heat exposure on cognitive or physical work. While more integrative research is needed, the current review provides a summary of the available evidence and an indication of the degree of confidence agencies can have in the research. This will allow both the scientific community and agencies to make informed recommendations regarding the management of wildland firefighters' health and safety on the fireground. PMID:22264875

  17. Specialisation and training for fire-fighters driving heavy rescue vehicles: consequences for the development of operators?

    PubMed

    Vidal-Gomel, Christine; Delgoulet, Catherine; Gébaï, Déborah

    2012-01-01

    This work was undertaken in France at the request of a local fire and rescue school in order to conduct an analysis of driving two types of heavy rescue vehicle with a view to improving training. This study took place in a context of specialisation: the drivers of these vehicles will henceforth only perform this type of task. Consequently, specific training has been designed in advance. Our study concerns the improvement of this training, taking account of the particularities of driving these vehicles in emergency situations typical to the profession of fire-fighters. The results stress first that driving of rescue vehicles in emergency situations is a multidimensional collective activity. Driving strategies identified share certain common objectives: "optimising trajectories", warn other road users, anticipate their behaviour and leave room for manoeuvre to counter and react to any unexpected behaviour. They include risks management for the potential victims of the incident and the risk of accidents during the journey. These initial results help identify certain recommendations for the training courses dealing with driving vehicles in emergency situations. They also provide a warning concerning the possible consequences of driver specialisation. PMID:22317522

  18. Elevated levels of PFOS and PFHxS in firefighters exposed to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF).

    PubMed

    Rotander, Anna; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Aylward, Lesa; Kay, Margaret; Mueller, Jochen F

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) was evaluated in 149 firefighters working at AFFF training facilities in Australia by analysis of PFOS and related compounds in serum. A questionnaire was designed to capture information about basic demographic factors, lifestyle factors and potential occupational exposure (such as work history and self-reported skin contact with foam). The results showed that a number of factors were associated with PFAA serum concentrations. Blood donation was found to be linked to low PFAA levels, and the concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS were found to be positively associated with years of jobs with AFFF contact. The highest levels of PFOS and PFHxS were one order of magnitude higher compared to the general population in Australia and Canada. Study participants who had worked ten years or less had levels of PFOS that were similar to or only slightly above those of the general population. This coincides with the phase out of 3M AFFF from all training facilities in 2003, and suggests that the exposures to PFOS and PFHxS in AFFF have declined in recent years. Self-reporting of skin contact and frequency of contact were used as an index of exposure. Using this index, there was no relationship between PFOS levels and skin exposure. This index of exposure is limited as it relies on self-report and it only considers skin exposure to AFFF, and does not capture other routes of potential exposure. Possible associations between serum PFAA concentrations and five biochemical outcomes were assessed. The outcomes were serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, and uric acid. No statistical associations between any of these endpoints and serum PFAA concentrations were observed. PMID:26001497

  19. Evaluating the physical demands on firefighters using track-type stair descent devices to evacuate mobility-limited occupants from high-rise buildings.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Hedman, Glenn E; Reichelt, Paul A; Park, Sanghyun; Conrad, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    The physical demands on firefighting personnel were investigated when using different types of track-type stair descent devices designed for the emergency evacuation of high rise buildings as a function of staircase width and evacuation urgency. Twelve firefighters used five track-type stair descent devices during simulated urgent and non-urgent evacuations. The devices were evaluated under two staircase width conditions (1.12, and 1.32 m), and three devices were also evaluated under a narrower staircase condition (0.91 m). Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) data, spine motion, heart rates, Borg Scale ratings, task durations and descent velocities. Stair descent speeds favored the devices that had shorter fore/aft dimensions when moving through the landing. EMG results indicated that there were tradeoffs due to design features, particularly on the landings where the physical demands tended to be greater. On the landings, devices that could be rolled on four wheels reduced the deltoid and bicep activation levels. PMID:25113864

  20. Novel fluorinated surfactants tentatively identified in firefighters using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and a case-control approach.

    PubMed

    Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Kay, Margaret; Mueller, Jochen F; Gómez Ramos, María José

    2015-02-17

    Fluorinated surfactant-based aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are made up of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and are used to extinguish fires involving highly flammable liquids. The use of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in some AFFF formulations has been linked to substantial environmental contamination. Recent studies have identified a large number of novel and infrequently reported fluorinated surfactants in different AFFF formulations. In this study, a strategy based on a case-control approach using quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS) and advanced statistical methods has been used to extract and identify known and unknown PFAS in human serum associated with AFFF-exposed firefighters. Two target sulfonic acids [PFOS and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS)], three non-target acids [perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS), and perfluorononanesulfonic acid (PFNS)], and four unknown sulfonic acids (Cl-PFOS, ketone-PFOS, ether-PFHxS, and Cl-PFHxS) were exclusively or significantly more frequently detected at higher levels in firefighters compared to controls. The application of this strategy has allowed for identification of previously unreported fluorinated chemicals in a timely and cost-efficient way. PMID:25611076

  1. The Myths and Realities of Age Limits for Law Enforcement and Firefighting Personnel. A Report by the Chairman of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    A study examined current age limitation policies affecting Federal public safety personnel and the interrelationship between job performance and aging. The study concluded that mandatory retirement of competent law enforcement officers and firefighters is unnecessary and wasteful and that the Federal Government's failure to recognize this problem…

  2. Paradata for 'Review of Three Dimensional Water Fog Techniques for Firefighting Liu, Z.; Kashef, A.; Lougheed, G.D.; Bnichou, N. IRC-RR-124 December 2002 http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/ircpubs ii'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Review of Three Dimensional Water Fog Techniques for Firefighting Liu, Z.; Kashef, A.; Lougheed, G.D.; Bnichou, N. IRC-RR-124 December 2002 http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/ircpubs ii'

  3. Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: A pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and levoglucosan.

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, R.; Naeher, L., P.; Paulsen, M.; Dunn, R.; Stock, A.; Simpson, C., D.

    2009-04-01

    Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest ServiceFSavannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribedburn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 701±95 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n¼9). PM2.5 and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM2.5 exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample size, this pilot study demonstrates that urinary MP concentrations may be effective biomarkers of occupational exposure to wood smoke among wildland firefighters.

  4. Comparison of rehydration regimens for rehabilitation of firefighters performing heavy exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Reis, Steven E; Kong, Pui Wah; Morley, Julia; Gallagher, Michael; Suyama, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fire suppression activities results in cardiovascular stress, hyperthermia, and hypohydration. Fireground rehabilitation (rehab) is recommended to blunt the deleterious effects of these conditions. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that three rehydration fluids provided after exercise in thermal protective clothing (TPC) would produce different heart rate or core temperature responses during a second bout of exercise in TPC. Methods: On three occasions, 18 euhydrated firefighters (16 males, 2 females) wearing TPC completed a standardized, 50-minute bout of upper and lower body exercise in a hot room that mimicked the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) rehabilitation guidelines of “two cylinders before rehab” (20 min work, 10 min recovery, 20 min work). After an initial bout of exercise, subjects were randomly assigned water, sport drink, or an intravenous (IV) infusion of normal saline equal to the amount of body mass lost during exercise. After rehydration, the subject performed a second bout of exercise. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, and exercise duration were compared with a two-way ANOVA. Results: Subjects were firefighters aged 28.2±11.3 years with a VO2peak of 37.4±3.4 ml/kg/min. 527±302 mL of fluid were provided during the rehabilitation period. No subject could complete either the pre- or post-rehydration 50-minute bout of exercise. Mean (SD) time to exhaustion (min) was longer (p<0.001) in bout 1 (25.9±12.9 min. water, 28.0±14.1 min. sport drink, 27.4±13.8 min. IV) compared to bout 2 (15.6±9.6 min. water, 14.7±8.6 min. sport drink, 15.7±8.0 min. IV) for all groups but did not differ by intervention. All subjects approached age predicted maximum heart rate at the end of bout 1 (180±11 bpm) and bout 2 (176±13 bpm). Core temperature rose 1.1±0.7°C during bout 1 and 0.5±0.4°C during bout 2. Core temperature, heart rate, and exercise time during bout 2 did not differ between rehydration fluids. Conclusions: Performance during a second bout of exercise in TPC did not differ when firefighters were rehydrated with water, sport drink, or IV normal saline when full rehydration is provided. Of concern was the inability of all subjects to complete two consecutive periods of heavy exercise in TPC suggesting the NFPA “two cylinders before rehab” guideline may not be appropriate in continuous heavy work scenarios. PMID:20095824

  5. Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Firefighters Compared with Police Officers and Sedentary Clerks

    PubMed Central

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauß, Markus; Littwitz, Henning; Garg, Pankaj; Dworrak, Birgit; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between the physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity levels and metabolic parameters among German civil servants. A main focus in this study was to examine the group differences rather than measuring the absolute values in an occupational group. Methods We prospectively examined 198 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], 55 police officers [POs] and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]). For each parameter, the groups were compared using a linear regression adjusted for age. Results The 97 FFs showed a similar maximal aerobic power (VO2max l/min) of 3.17±0.44 l/min compared with the POs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 3.13±0.62 l/min (estimated difference, POs vs. FFs: 0.05, CI: -0.12-0.23, p=0.553). The maximal aerobic power of the FFs was slightly higher than that of the SCs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 2.85±0.52 l/min (-0.21, CI: -0.39-0.04, p=0.018 vs. FFs). The average physical activity (in metabolic equivalents [METS]/week) of the FFs was 3818.8±2843.5, whereas those of the POs and SCs were 2838.2±2871.9 (-808.2, CI: 1757.6-141.2, p=0.095) and 2212.2±2292.8 (vs. FFs: -1417.1, CI: -2302-531.88, p=0.002; vs. POs: -2974.4, CI: -1611.2-393.5, p=0.232), respectively. For the FFs, the average body fat percentage was 17.7%±6.2, whereas it was 21.4%±5.6 for the POs (vs. FFs: 2.75, CI: 0.92-4.59, p=0.004) and 20.8%±6.5 for the SCs (vs. FFs: 1.98, CI: -0.28-4.25, p=0.086; vs. POs: -0.77, CI: 3.15-1.61, p=0.523). The average waist circumference was 89.8 cm±10.0 for the FFs, 97.8 cm±12.4 (5.63, CI: 2.10-9.15, p=0.002) for the POs, and 97.3±11.7 (vs. FFs: -4.89, CI: 1.24-8.55, p=0.009; vs. POs: -0.73, CI: -5.21-3.74, p=0.747) for the SCs. Conclusions The FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. The PO group had the highest cardiovascular risk of all of the groups because it included more participants with metabolic syndrome; furthermore, the POs had an average of 2.75% higher body fat, lower HDL cholesterol values and higher waist circumferences compared with the FFs and higher LDL cholesterol values compared with the SCs. Our data indicate that sedentary occupations appear to be linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men. PMID:26186442

  6. Firefighter's Breathing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  7. Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

  8. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

    2014-06-01

    A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

  9. Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N?=?70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1?77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N?=?123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect. PMID:24146820

  10. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Inspect hose and nozzle to be sure they are clear. Dry chemical (cartridge-operated type) Examine pressure cartridge and replace if end is punctured or if cartridge is otherwise determined to have leaked or to be in unsuitable...

  11. 46 CFR 11.303 - Advanced firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...3) Inspect and service fire-detection and extinguishing systems and equipment. (i) Fire detection. Fire-detection systems; fixed fire-extinguishing systems; portable and mobile fire-extinguishing equipment, including...

  12. Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters

    ScienceCinema

    Canfield, Jesse

    2014-06-02

    A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

  13. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge...Weigh cylinder. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge...cylinders. Recharge cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of...

  14. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge...Weigh cylinder. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge...cylinders. Recharge cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of...

  15. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge...Weigh cylinder. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge...cylinders. Recharge cylinder if weight loss exceeds 10 percent of...

  16. in this issue 1 SDM Tackles Firefighting

    E-print Network

    Gabrieli, John

    Certificate Program Benefits Wachovia 14 Engineering Systems Symposium New Class in MBSE 16 SDM January just can't resist sharing the many fascinat- ing stories that have crossed our desks concerning SDM students and activities. Let me highlight just a few. In the area of project management and product devel

  17. 76 FR 71048 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...the Nation's fire service leadership and have been accepted by DHS...departments that serve different types of communities. These are described...priorities for training in all types of communities include NFPA...safety Frequency of use and type of jurisdiction served...

  18. 75 FR 23785 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...professionals representing the leadership of the nine major fire service...the Nation's fire service leadership and have been accepted by...communications procedures, or similar types of interdisciplinary, inter-jurisdictional...that service these different types of communities. CBRNE...

  19. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...consent of the COTP. (d) Each compartment, including a closed vehicle...must be provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation...

  20. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...consent of the COTP. (d) Each compartment, including a closed vehicle...must be provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation...

  1. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...consent of the COTP. (d) Each compartment, including a closed vehicle...must be provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation...

  2. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...consent of the COTP. (d) Each compartment, including a closed vehicle...must be provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation...

  3. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...consent of the COTP. (d) Each compartment, including a closed vehicle...must be provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation...

  4. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 131.535 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED...month, one must be held before the vessel leaves port if reasonable and practicable...not later than 24 hours after the vessel leaves port in any event. (c) Each fire...

  5. Agile techniques to avoid firefighting at a start-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Blotner

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the creation and evolution of the (modified) agile methodology implemented at Sabrix, Inc., a start-up enterprise-class software company. The company was delivering alpha quality software to early adopter customers on a weekly basis, using urgency as the primary driver for product development. New features and bug fixes were completed in a manner similar to a soccer game

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP OF REM DREAMING AND ECOLOGICAL RISK AMONG FIREFIGHTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacey Rucas; Alissa Miller; Rikki Murphy; Alex Roa; Michael Muehlenbein

    We tested the ecological theory of dreaming to address the question of whether REM dreams and their associated emotional content alter in quantity or intensity to reflect the environment and the level of risk required in order to survive. This research hypothesized that individuals experience more intense survival, competitive, and reproductive dreams in risky environments that require more waking time.

  7. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Generally, these positions are in the organized police and fire departments of incorporated...member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Generally, these positions are in the organized police and fire departments of incorporated...member of the “police” which is an organized civil force for maintaining order, preventing and detecting crimes, and enforcing laws. The terms...

  9. FIRE-FIGHTING ROBOT INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIONS: EDUCATION THROUGH INTERDISCIPLINARY DESIGN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Ahlgren; Igor M. Verner

    This paper introduces the Trinity College Fire- Fighting Home Robot Contest (TCFFHRC), evaluates the curricular impact of the contest at university and high- school levels, and provides examples of student projects inspired by the contest. We evaluate the contest by analyzing participant survey data from the 2000, and 2001 contests, and we present our conclusions about the educational benefits of

  10. FIRE SCIENCE The associate of applied science degree in either municipal fire

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    PROCESS · EMT: Emergency Medical Technician I · IFSAC Firefighter I · IFSAC Firefighter II · Rapid Intervention Technician · NWCG Wildland Firefighter · Principles of Emergency Services · Rescue Practices student firefighter positions are also available through the University Fire Department, one of the few

  11. Autonomous UAV-based mapping of large-scale urban firefights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Snarski; Karl Scheibner; Scott Shaw; Randy Roberts; Andy LaRow; Eric Breitfeller; Jasper Lupo; Darron Nielson; Bill Judge; Jim Forren

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational

  12. 14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...water for foam production must be equipped with a turret. Vehicle turret discharge capacity must be as follows: (1...gallons, but less than 2,000 gallons, must have a turret discharge rate of at least 500 gallons per...

  13. 78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...Cooperative Agreements and Inventory AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...the property belongs to the Forest Service, the inventory system facilitates reports...agency participants to the Forest Service on the status...

  14. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...services. (4) Resource provider has personnel with documented training certification and degree experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider has 24-hour availability of personnel and...

  15. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...services. (4) Resource provider has personnel with documented training certification and degree experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider has 24-hour availability of personnel and...

  16. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...services. (4) Resource provider has personnel with documented training certification and degree experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider has 24-hour availability of personnel and...

  17. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...services. (4) Resource provider has personnel with documented training certification and degree experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider has 24-hour availability of personnel and...

  18. Persistent Hyperreactivity and Reactive Airway Dysfunction in Firefighters at the World Trade Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela I. Banauch; Dawn Alleyne; Raoul Sanchez; Kattia Olender; Hillel W. Cohen; Michael Weiden; Kerry J. Kelly; David J. Prezant

    and control subjects to be hyperreactive (95% confidence interval, 1.8-25.2; p 0.004), and hyperreactivity persisted in 55% of those hyperreactive at 1 and\\/or 3 months. In highly exposed subjects, hyperreactivity 1 or 3 months post-collapse was the sole predictor for reactive airways dysfunction (p 0.021). In conclusion, develop- ment and persistence of hyperreactivity and reactive airways dys- function were strongly

  19. Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies; Student Manual, Part A. Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

    A manual intended to help fire departments and Civil Defense organizations train people to support regular fire forces during a national emergency is presented. It contains 11 chapters: Introduction, Modern Weapons and Radioactive Fallout, Role of Fire Service in Civil Defense, Local Fire Department Organization, Role of Support Assistants in…

  20. A Textile Antenna for Off-Body Communication Integrated Into Protective Clothing for Firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Hertleer; Hendrik Rogier; Luigi Vallozzi; Lieva Van Langenhove

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of intelligent textile systems to increase the wearer's level of protection has exposed the necessity of wearable communication tools and has led to research in textile antennas. However, most textile fabrics are quite thin (0.5 mm), making it challenging for antenna designers to provide an antenna which operates adequately and resiliently in the 2.4-2.4835-GHz industrial-scientific-medical bandwidth. Flexible pad

  1. A Tale of Two Factories: Successful Resistance to Sweatshops and the Limits of Firefighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. S. Ross

    2006-01-01

    College-based U.S. anti-sweatshop activists led two solidarity campaigns challenging the proposition that global capitalism and capital mobil- ity necessarily subvert local victories of workers and their unions. Critical to working-class advances are worker self defense, alliance with reformers, and positive governmental policy, but, in two cases, Kukdong\\/Mexmode in Mexico and BJ&B in the Dominican Republic, the third pillar of decency

  2. Smoke Exposure Among Firefighters at Prescribed Burns in the Pacific Northwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar; Andrew J. S. Hanneman

    SummarySeveral suggestions are presented for managing smoke exposure at prescribedburns. First, a risk assessment is underway and, when completed, could be used toassess the long-term health risks among prescribed burners. Second, a smoke exposuremanagement program could be implemented to reduce overexposures to smokeat prescribed fires. This program would include the following elements:. Improve smoke exposure hazard awareness training.. Monitor CO

  3. Emergency Duties and Deaths from Heart Disease among Firefighters in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanos N. Kales; Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Costas A. Christophi; David C. Christiani

    2007-01-01

    Results Deaths from coronary heart disease were associated with suppressing a fire (32.1% of all such deaths), responding to an alarm (13.4%), returning from an alarm (17.4%), engaging in physical training (12.5%), responding to nonfire emergencies (9.4%), and performing nonemergency duties (15.4%). As compared with the odds of death from coronary heart disease during nonemergency duties, the odds were 12.1

  4. The technology application process as applied to a firefighter's breathing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    The FBS Program indicated that applications of advanced technology can result in an improved FBS that will satisfy the requirements defined by municipal fire departments. To accomplish this technology transfer, a substantial commitment of resources over an extended period of time has been required. This program has indicated that the ability of NASA in terms of program management such as requirement definition, system analysis, and industry coordination may play as important a role as specific sources of hardware technology. As a result of the FBS program, a sequence of milestones was passed that may have applications as generalized milestones and objectives for any technical application program.

  5. Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants contained in firefighting water

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Title: Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants osmosis efficiently treated the water from fire extinguishment. In this work we focused on the reverse osmosis step. Polyamide and cellulose acetate membrane materials were screened in a flat sheet cell

  6. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...required under § 139.317 must be equipped with two-way voice radio communications that provide for contact with at least...environment and optimize daytime and nighttime visibility and identification. (g) Vehicle readiness. Each vehicle required...

  7. Analysis and design of human-robot swarm interaction in firefighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir M. Naghsh; Jeremi Gancet; Andry Tanoto; Chris Roast

    2008-01-01

    In a variety of emergency settings robot assistance has been identified as highly valuable, providing remote, and thus safe, access and operation. There are many different forms of human-robot interactions, allowing a team of humans and robots to take advantage of skills of each team member. A relatively new area of research considers interactions between human and a team of

  8. A Comparison of Firefighters and Police Officers: The Influence of Gender and Relationship Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Tammy J.

    2010-01-01

    Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany, M.…

  9. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E

    2003-07-01

    The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity. PMID:12836977

  10. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...experience to work in the specific regional geographic environment(s) that the vessel operates in (e.g., bottom type, water turbidity, water depth, sea state and temperature extremes). (13) Resource provider has the logistical and...

  11. Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  12. Reinvesting the IT Dollar: From IT Firefighting to Quality Strategic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    Describes how organizations can become effective, efficient managers of the large maintenance part of their information technology budgets by using service management processes. Discusses the example of the University of Sydney Library's use of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) set of service management practices. (EV)

  13. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...analysis needs to be completed. (v) Hull and bottom survey Survey completed. (vi) Emergency towing Towing vessel...inland waters, nearshore or offshore areas or the Great Lakes, you must ensure the listed salvage and marine...

  14. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...analysis needs to be completed. (v) Hull and bottom survey Survey completed. (vi) Emergency towing Towing vessel...inland waters, nearshore or offshore areas or the Great Lakes, you must ensure the listed salvage and marine...

  15. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine...the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan as found in §...

  16. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine...the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan as found in §...

  17. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine...the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan as found in §§...

  18. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Bleeding. (ii) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (iii) Shock. (iv) Primary patient survey. (v) Injuries to the skull, spine, chest, and extremities. (vi) Internal injuries. (vii) Moving patients. (viii) Burns. (ix)...

  19. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Bleeding. (ii) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (iii) Shock. (iv) Primary patient survey. (v) Injuries to the skull, spine, chest, and extremities. (vi) Internal injuries. (vii) Moving patients. (viii) Burns. (ix)...

  20. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Bleeding. (ii) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (iii) Shock. (iv) Primary patient survey. (v) Injuries to the skull, spine, chest, and extremities. (vi) Internal injuries. (vii) Moving patients. (viii) Burns. (ix)...

  1. 14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Bleeding. (ii) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (iii) Shock. (iv) Primary patient survey. (v) Injuries to the skull, spine, chest, and extremities. (vi) Internal injuries. (vii) Moving patients. (viii) Burns. (ix)...

  2. The Upper Respiratory Pyramid: Early Factors and Later Treatment Utilization in World Trade Center Exposed Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Justin K.; Webber, Mayris P.; Liu, Xiaoxue; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Glaser, Michelle S.; Weakley, Jessica; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Glass, Lara; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated early post 9/11 factors that could predict rhinosinusitis healthcare utilization costs up to 11 years later in 8,079 World Trade Center-exposed rescue/recovery workers. Methods We used bivariate and multivariate analytic techniques to investigate utilization outcomes; we also used a pyramid framework to describe rhinosinusitis healthcare groups at early (by 9/11/2005) and late (by 9/11/2012) time points. Results Multivariate models showed that pre-9/11/2005 chronic rhinosinusitis diagnoses and nasal symptoms predicted final year healthcare utilization outcomes more than a decade after WTC exposure. The relative proportion of workers on each pyramid level changed significantly during the study period. Conclusions Diagnoses of chronic rhinosinusitis within 4 years of a major inhalation event only partially explain future healthcare utilization. Exposure intensity, early symptoms and other factors must also be considered when anticipating future healthcare needs. PMID:24898816

  3. 2009-10 CATALOG *Designates only grades of "C" or better may EMERGENCY SERVICES -WILDLAND be used to fulfill this requirement.

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    Firefighter I, Series I 3 ENGL 111 Intro to Acad. Wrtg 3 FIRE 137 Firefighter I, Series IV 3 FIRE 133 Firefighter I, Series II 3 FIRE 151 Wildland Fire Control I 3 FIRE 135 Firefighter I, Series III 3 FIRE 252/Society/Culture 3 FIRE 153 Advance Wildland Firefighter 3 Fire elective(s) (see list)* 0-6 Advisor Approved elective

  4. Minimizing Movement Erik D. Demaine

    E-print Network

    Demaine, Erik

    the coordinated motion of a large collection of ob- jects (representing anything from a robot swarm or firefighter = NP. 1 Introduction Consider a group of firefighters surrounding a forest fire. Each firefighter of firefighters. To form an effective communication network (for voice or data traffic), the firefighters' radios

  5. The effect of energy drinks on cortisol levels, cognition and mood during a fire-fighting exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra I. Sünram-Lea; Jane Owen-Lynch; Sarita J. Robinson; Emma Jones; Henglong Hu

    Rationale  Acute stress has been associated with changes in cognitive performance and mood, and these have been in part associated with\\u000a stress-related increased release of cortisol. Both glucose and caffeine consumed in isolation have been shown to moderate\\u000a cortisol response and affect cognitive performance and affect mood; however, there has been very little research into their\\u000a behavioural and physiological effects when

  6. The Use of Prehospital Ketamine for Control of Agitation in a Metropolitan Firefighter-based EMS System.

    PubMed

    Keseg, David; Cortez, Eric; Rund, Douglas; Caterino, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Prehospital personnel frequently encounter agitated, combative, and intoxicated patients in the field. In recent years, ketamine has been described as an effective sedative agent to treat such patients; however, a paucity of research exists describing the use of prehospital ketamine. The objective of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of the Columbus Division of Fire's experience with utilizing ketamine in the prehospital setting. We hypothesized that ketamine administration improves patient condition, is effective at sedating patients, and does not result in endotracheal intubation in the prehospital setting or in the emergency department (ED). Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort chart review of Columbus Division of Fire patient care reports and hospital records from destination hospitals in the central Ohio region between October 2010 and October 2012. All patients receiving ketamine administered by Columbus Division of Fire personnel for sedation were included. Patients 17 years and younger were excluded. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients noted to have an "improved" condition recorded in the data field of the patient care report. The secondary outcomes were the effectiveness of sedation and the performance of endotracheal intubation. Results. A total of 36 patients met inclusion criteria over the study period. Data were available on 35 patients for analysis. The mean IV dose of ketamine was 138 mg (SD = 59.5, 100-200). The mean IM dose of ketamine was 324 mg (SD = 120, 100-500). Prehospital records noted an improvement in patient condition after ketamine administration in 32 cases (91%, 95% CI 77-98%). Six patients required sedation post-ketamine administration either by EMS (2) or in the ED (4) (17%, 95% CI 6.5-34%). Endotracheal intubation was performed in eight (23%, 95% CI 10-40%) patients post-ketamine administration. Conclusion. We found that in a cohort of patients administered ketamine, paramedics reported a subjective improvement in patient condition. Endotracheal intubation was performed in 8 patients. PMID:25153713

  7. Brave Firefighters, Endangered National Icons and Bumbling Land Managers: Network TV Myths about the 1988 Yellowstone Wildfires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Conrad

    Research shows that reporters often seek out the most available news sources rather than those who have the most expertise, that journalists tend to focus on specific events rather than the context in which they occur, and that news stories are presented as stylized social constructs rather than as factual accounts of what happened. A study…

  8. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

  9. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

  10. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

  11. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

  13. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 predict healing of WTC-lung injury in New York City firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rationale After 9/11/2001, most FDNY workers had persistent lung function decline but some exposed workers recovered. We hypothesized that the protease/anti-protease balance in serum soon after exposure predicts subsequent recovery. Methods We performed a nested case–control study measuring biomarkers in serum drawn before 3/2002 and subsequent forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) on repeat spirometry before 3/2008. Serum was assayed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1,2,3,7,8,9,12 and 13) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1,2,3,4). The representative sub-cohort defined analyte distribution and a concentration above 75th percentile defined elevated biomarker expression. An FEV1 one standard deviation above the mean defined resistance to airway injury. Logistic regression was adjusted for pre-9/11 FEV1, BMI, age and exposure intensity modeled the association between elevated biomarker expression and above average FEV1. Results FEV1 in cases and controls declined 10% of after 9/11/2001. Cases subsequently returned to 99% of their pre-exposure FEV1 while decline persisted in controls. Elevated TIMP-1 and MMP-2 increased the odds of resistance by 5.4 and 4.2 fold while elevated MMP-1 decreased it by 0.27 fold. Conclusions Resistant cases displayed healing, returning to 99% of pre-exposure values. High TIMP-1 and MMP-2 predict healing. MMP/TIMP balance reflects independent pathways to airway injury and repair after WTC exposure. PMID:24447332

  14. Chitotriosidase is a Biomarker for the Resistance to World Trade Center Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soo Jung; Nolan, Anna; Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Kwon, Sophia; Naveed, Bushra; Schenck, Edward; Tsukiji, Jun; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Weiden, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose World Trade Center (WTC) exposure caused airflow obstruction years after exposure. Chitinases and IgE are innate and humoral mediators of obstructive airway disease. We investigated if serum expression of chitinases and IgE early after WTC exposure predicts subsequent obstruction. Methods With a nested case-control design, 251 FDNY personnel had chitotriosidase, YKL-40 and IgE measured in serum drawn within months of 9/11/2001. The main outcome was subsequent Forced Expiratory Volume after one second/Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) less than the lower limit of normal (LLN). Cases (N=125) had abnormal FEV1/FVC whereas controls had normal FEV1/FVC (N=126). In a secondary analysis, resistant cases (N=66) had FEV1 (?107%) one standard deviation above the mean. Logistic regression adjusted for age, BMI, exposure intensity and post-exposure FEV1/FVC modeled the association between early biomarkers and later lung function. Results Cases and Controls initially lost lung function. Controls recovered to pre-9/11 FEV1 and FVC while cases continue to decline. Cases expressed lower serum chitotriosidase and higher IgE levels. Increase in IgE increased the odds of airflow obstruction and decreased the odds of above average FEV1. Alternately, increasing chitotriosidase decreased the odds of abnormal FEV1/FVC and increased the odds of FEV1?107%. Serum YKL-40 was not associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in this cohort. Conclusions Increased serum chitotriosidase reduces the odds of developing obstruction after WTC-particulate matter exposure and is associated with recovery of lung function. Alternately, elevated IgE is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and progressive lung function decline. PMID:23744081

  15. 5 CFR 550.1306 - Relationship to other entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1306 Relationship to other entitlements. (a) A firefighter who is compensated under...pay, and hazardous duty pay. A firefighter is not entitled to receive...

  16. 44 CFR 208.40 - Reimbursement of fringe benefit costs during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DHS an additional 3 percent of the firefighter's converted compensation for the...on the number of hours worked by a firefighter. The City should bill DHS an additional 12 percent of the firefighter's total compensation during...

  17. 5 CFR 842.809 - Transitional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842...service as a law enforcement officer or firefighter, within the meaning of these terms...length of law enforcement officer and firefighter service under 5 U.S.C....

  18. 29 CFR 553.103 - “Same type of services” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...as discussed in § 553.102. Similarly, a firefighter cannot volunteer as a firefighter for the same public agency. (c) Examples...department who serves as a volunteer city firefighter; and an office employee of a city...

  19. 29 CFR 553.103 - “Same type of services” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...as discussed in § 553.102. Similarly, a firefighter cannot volunteer as a firefighter for the same public agency. (c) Examples...department who serves as a volunteer city firefighter; and an office employee of a city...

  20. 5 CFR 550.1304 - Overtime hourly rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1304 Overtime hourly rates of pay. (a) For a firefighter who is covered by (i.e., ...of pay equals 11/2 times the firefighter hourly rate of basic pay for...

  1. 5 CFR 550.1306 - Relationship to other entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1306 Relationship to other entitlements. (a) A firefighter who is compensated under...pay, and hazardous duty pay. A firefighter is not entitled to receive...

  2. 44 CFR 208.40 - Reimbursement of fringe benefit costs during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DHS an additional 3 percent of the firefighter's converted compensation for the...on the number of hours worked by a firefighter. The City should bill DHS an additional 12 percent of the firefighter's total compensation during...

  3. 5 CFR 531.607 - Computing hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly locality rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section, for a firefighter whose pay is computed under 5 U.S.C. 5545b, a firefighter hourly locality rate is computed...part 550, subpart M. Also, such a firefighter's weekly and biweekly locality...

  4. 5 CFR 842.809 - Transitional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842...service as a law enforcement officer or firefighter, within the meaning of these terms...length of law enforcement officer and firefighter service under 5 U.S.C....

  5. 5 CFR 550.1301 - Purpose, applicability, and administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1301 Purpose, applicability...governing the pay of covered Federal firefighters. It implements sections 5542...Applicability. This subpart applies to any firefighter as defined in § 550.1302....

  6. 5 CFR 550.1301 - Purpose, applicability, and administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1301 Purpose, applicability...governing the pay of covered Federal firefighters. It implements sections 5542...Applicability. This subpart applies to any firefighter as defined in § 550.1302....

  7. 5 CFR 531.607 - Computing hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly locality rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section, for a firefighter whose pay is computed under 5 U.S.C. 5545b, a firefighter hourly locality rate is computed...part 550, subpart M. Also, such a firefighter's weekly and biweekly locality...

  8. 5 CFR 842.803 - Conditions for coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842...a rigorous law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions...secondary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the...

  9. 5 CFR 550.1304 - Overtime hourly rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1304 Overtime hourly rates of pay. (a) For a firefighter who is covered by (i.e., ...of pay equals 11/2 times the firefighter hourly rate of basic pay for...

  10. 5 CFR 850.401 - Electronic notice of coverage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MODERNIZATION Submission of Law Enforcement, Firefighter, and Nuclear Materials Courier Retirement...notice of law enforcement officer, firefighter, or nuclear materials retirement...for which law enforcement officer, firefighter, or nuclear materials courier...

  11. 24 CFR 291.540 - Owner-occupancy term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician submits...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician that...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician is...

  12. 24 CFR 291.510 - Overview of the GNND Sales Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician to...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician finances...enforcement officers, teachers, and firefighters/emergency medical technicians...

  13. 5 CFR 550.1307 - Authority to regularize paychecks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1307 Authority to...eliminate variation in the amount of firefighters' biweekly paychecks caused by work...that result in varying hours in the firefighters' tours of duty from pay period...

  14. 24 CFR 291.510 - Overview of the GNND Sales Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician to...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician finances...enforcement officers, teachers, and firefighters/emergency medical technicians...

  15. 5 CFR 550.1306 - Relationship to other entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1306 Relationship to other entitlements. (a) A firefighter who is compensated under...pay, and hazardous duty pay. A firefighter is not entitled to receive...

  16. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...provided by 5 CFR 550.162(c). (6) Firefighter overtime pay. (i) A firefighter compensated under part 550, subpart M...receive basic pay and overtime pay for the firefighter's regular tour of duty (as defined...

  17. 5 CFR 550.1307 - Authority to regularize paychecks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1307 Authority to...eliminate variation in the amount of firefighters' biweekly paychecks caused by work...that result in varying hours in the firefighters' tours of duty from pay period...

  18. 44 CFR 208.40 - Reimbursement of fringe benefit costs during Activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DHS an additional 3 percent of the firefighter's converted compensation for the...on the number of hours worked by a firefighter. The City should bill DHS an additional 12 percent of the firefighter's total compensation during...

  19. 5 CFR 550.1304 - Overtime hourly rates of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1304 Overtime hourly rates of pay. (a) For a firefighter who is covered by (i.e., ...of pay equals 11/2 times the firefighter hourly rate of basic pay for...

  20. 5 CFR 850.401 - Electronic notice of coverage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MODERNIZATION Submission of Law Enforcement, Firefighter, and Nuclear Materials Courier Retirement...notice of law enforcement officer, firefighter, or nuclear materials retirement...for which law enforcement officer, firefighter, or nuclear materials courier...

  1. 5 CFR 550.1301 - Purpose, applicability, and administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1301 Purpose, applicability...governing the pay of covered Federal firefighters. It implements sections 5542...Applicability. This subpart applies to any firefighter as defined in § 550.1302....

  2. 5 CFR 550.1307 - Authority to regularize paychecks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1307 Authority to...eliminate variation in the amount of firefighters' biweekly paychecks caused by work...that result in varying hours in the firefighters' tours of duty from pay period...

  3. 29 CFR 553.103 - “Same type of services” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...as discussed in § 553.102. Similarly, a firefighter cannot volunteer as a firefighter for the same public agency. (c) Examples...department who serves as a volunteer city firefighter; and an office employee of a city...

  4. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...provided by 5 CFR 550.162(c). (6) Firefighter overtime pay. (i) A firefighter compensated under part 550, subpart M...receive basic pay and overtime pay for the firefighter's regular tour of duty (as defined...

  5. 5 CFR 531.607 - Computing hourly, daily, weekly, and biweekly locality rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...paragraph (a) of this section, for a firefighter whose pay is computed under 5 U.S.C. 5545b, a firefighter hourly locality rate is computed...part 550, subpart M. Also, such a firefighter's weekly and biweekly locality...

  6. 5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...provided by 5 CFR 550.162(c). (6) Firefighter overtime pay. (i) A firefighter compensated under part 550, subpart M...receive basic pay and overtime pay for the firefighter's regular tour of duty (as defined...

  7. 5 CFR 842.803 - Conditions for coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842...a rigorous law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions...secondary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the...

  8. 24 CFR 291.540 - Owner-occupancy term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician submits...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician that...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician is...

  9. 24 CFR 291.510 - Overview of the GNND Sales Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician to...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician finances...enforcement officers, teachers, and firefighters/emergency medical technicians...

  10. 5 CFR 842.803 - Conditions for coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842...a rigorous law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions...secondary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the...

  11. 5 CFR 842.809 - Transitional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842...service as a law enforcement officer or firefighter, within the meaning of these terms...length of law enforcement officer and firefighter service under 5 U.S.C....

  12. 24 CFR 291.540 - Owner-occupancy term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician submits...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician that...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician is...

  13. Universit Paris-Dauphine attribu par la bibliothque

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of bounded degree 87 5.4 Parameterized complexity in the general case 89 5.4.1 Firefighter 89 5.4.2 Bounded Firefighter 90 5.4.3 Dual Firefighter 91 5.5 Parameterized algorithms 93 5.5.1 Dual Firefighter parameterized by kb and b 93 5.5.2 Firefighting on trees 94 5.5.3 Firefighting on tree-like graphs 100 5.6 Parameter

  14. Minimizing Movement ERIK D. DEMAINE

    E-print Network

    Demaine, Erik

    (representing anything from a robot swarm or firefighter team to map labels or network messages) to achieve of firefighters surrounding a forest fire. Each firefighter is equipped with a reliable but short-range radio) for triangulating and sharing the approx- imate positions of firefighters. To form an effective communication

  15. Minimizing Movement ERIK D. DEMAINE

    E-print Network

    Demaine, Erik

    of objects (representing anything from a robot swarm or firefighter team to map labels or network messages of firefighters surrounding a forest fire. Each firefighter is equipped with a reliable but short­range radio) for triangulating and sharing the approx­ imate positions of firefighters. To form an e#ective communication network

  16. October 23 -November 2, 2014 Classes will run from 8:30 a.m. 5 p.m.

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Management Academy #12;Topic Course # Course Title Dates Firefighter Type 1 / Incident Commander Type 5 (ICT5) - Option A S-131 Firefighter Type 1 10/26 S-211 Portable Pumps and Water Usage 10/27 - 10/29 Firefighter Type 1 / Incident Commander Type 5 (ICT5) - Option B S-131 Firefighter Type 1 10/26 S-212 Wildland Fire

  17. Theoretical Computer Science 434 (2012) 1122 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Bonato, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    : Firefighter Surviving rate Random regular graphs Infinite random graph a b s t r a c t The firefighter problem-steps. A firefighter protects one vertex in each round which is not yet burned. While maximizing the number of saved vertices usually requires a strategy on the part of the firefighter, the fire itself spreads without any

  18. Tok Area Forester Tok Alaska 99780

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    ? ________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What are the quality traits of a firefighter? Which one is the most important to you

  19. Incident Data Analysis Using Data Mining Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Veltman, Lisa M.

    2010-01-16

    of each type of victim such as student, firefighter, employee, general public, and police officer. ? Number of people using each type of personal protective equipment (PPE) ranging from Level A to level D as well as those using firefighter turnout gear..., gloves, hardhats, and steel toed boots. ? Number of victims in each of 8 age categories?employee, responder, general public, career firefighter, volunteer firefighter, firefighter (not specified), police officer, EMT personnel, hospital personnel...

  20. Thermal protective uniforms and hoods: impact of design modifications and water content on burn prevention in New York City firefighters: laboratory and field results

    PubMed Central

    Prezant, D; Malley, K; Barker, R; Guerth, C; Kelly, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine (1) the effectiveness of hoods in reducing head burns, (2) the impact of clothes worn under the protective outer uniform (modern = long sleeve shirt and long pants; modified modern = short sleeve T-shirt and short pants) on burns, and (3) whether water content (dry, damp or saturated) affects the level of thermal protection. Setting—Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY). Methods—Laboratory tests (fully dressed manikin) evaluated the different uniform and water conditions when exposed to an average 24 cal/cm2 heat flux, approximately 2250°F air temperature. FDNY field results compared (1) head burns during winters wearing the hood to winters without hood and (2) upper and lower extremity burns during summers wearing traditional, modern, and modified modern uniforms. Results—Laboratory tests showed that thermal protection was: (1) dramatically improved by the hood with protection increasing as water content increased and (2) not significantly different between modern and modified modern uniforms, regardless of water content. FDNY field results confirmed these tests showing (1) significant decreases in neck burns (by 54%), ear burns (by 60%), and head burn totals (by 46%) wearing the hood and (2) no significant differences in upper or lower extremity burns wearing modern compared with modified modern uniforms. Conclusions—Based on combined laboratory and field results, we strongly recommend the use of modern thermal protective hoods and the modified modern uniform. PMID:11565971

  1. Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-06-01

    Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

  2. The Comparative Effectiveness of Levels of Training and Years of Work Experience in Firefighters as Determining Factors in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Melva W.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been known by other names and not well studied prior to returning Vietnam veterans who suffered psychological dysfunction. However, the term PTSD became part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders in 1981. Since that time PTSD has been researched extensively in veterans. However,…

  3. 75 FR 13337 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...phase II (design). Runway 6 localizer (construction). Aircraft rescue and firefighting building (construction). Fiber optics for aircraft rescue and firefighting building. Runway 6/24 rehabilitation phase II (construction)....

  4. 44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

  5. 5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory...C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and firefighters in primary and secondary positions. A mandatory...

  6. 44 CFR 150.3 - Nomination process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Nomination process. (a) The Nominating Officials nominating Firefighters and Civil Defense Officers shall submit their nominations...depending on the category of the nominee, as follows: (1) Firefighter: FEMA, Attention: Superintendent, National Fire...

  7. 5 CFR 831.904 - Conditions for coverage in secondary positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.904 Conditions for coverage in secondary positions...employing agency head to be a secondary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions of 5...

  8. 31 CFR 29.334 - Deposit service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...of the deposit completed prior to June 30, 1997. (b) Police and Firefighters Plan. No credit is allowed for Federal Benefit Payments under the Police and Firefighters Plan for any period of civilian service that was not subject to...

  9. 5 CFR 831.911 - Oversight of coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.911 Oversight of coverage determinations. ...Upon deciding that a position is a law enforcement officer or firefighter position, each agency head must notify OPM...

  10. 44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.5 Review process and evaluation...applications that are determined to best address the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program's established priorities during...

  11. 44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

  12. First Contract Arbitration: Issues and Design Arnold Zack1

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    of firefighter and 31 percent of police cases were resolved by arbitration; between 1995 and 2007 only seven percent of firefighter and nine percent of police negotiations required arbitration. All others were

  13. 20 CFR 404.1206 - Retirement system coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...or (8) The employees in police officers' positions or firefighters' positions, or both. If State law requires a State...applies to the coverage of services in police officers' and firefighters' positions in States and interstate instrumentalities...

  14. 5th Workshop on GRAph Searching, Theory and Applications

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are provided and the picture is far from clear. Pawel Pralat, Ryerson University The firefighter problem Consider the following k-many firefighter problem on a finite graph G = (V, E). Suppose that a fire breaks

  15. 5 CFR 831.901 - Applicability and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.901 Applicability and purpose. (a...special retirement eligibility for law enforcement officers and firefighters employed under the Civil Service Retirement...

  16. 44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1206 - Retirement system coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...or (8) The employees in police officers' positions or firefighters' positions, or both. If State law requires a State...applies to the coverage of services in police officers' and firefighters' positions in States and interstate instrumentalities...

  18. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...financing. If the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician uses conventional financing...mortgage. (1) A law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician using an FHA-insured...

  19. 5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory...C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and firefighters in primary and secondary positions. A mandatory...

  20. 31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...refunds of employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If pay period records are unavailable...of the retirement contributions made to police officers or firefighters in calendar year 1997. Otherwise, if the participant...

  1. 5 CFR 831.903 - Conditions for coverage in primary positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.903 Conditions for coverage in primary positions...employing agency head to be a primary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions of 5...

  2. 5 CFR 831.911 - Oversight of coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.911 Oversight of coverage determinations. ...Upon deciding that a position is a law enforcement officer or firefighter position, each agency head must notify OPM...

  3. 5 CFR 550.707 - Computation of severance pay fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the hourly rate of basic pay in effect at separation. (5) For positions held by firefighters compensated under subpart M of this part, where the firefighter has a recurring cycle of variable workweeks within his or her regular tour of...

  4. 44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.5 Review process and evaluation...applications that are determined to best address the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program's established priorities during...

  5. 5 CFR 842.801 - Applicability and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842.801 Applicability...members of the Capitol Police and Supreme Court Police, firefighters, nuclear materials couriers, customs and border...

  6. 31 CFR 29.301 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...employee's total retirement benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan. (2) This subpart provides...This subpart applies only to benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan for individuals who have...

  7. 5 CFR 831.904 - Conditions for coverage in secondary positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.904 Conditions for coverage in secondary positions...employing agency head to be a secondary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions of 5...

  8. 5 CFR 842.808 - Oversight of coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842.808 Oversight...Upon deciding that a position is a law enforcement officer or firefighter position, each agency head must notify OPM...

  9. 24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...291.520), teacher (as described in § 291.525), or firefighter/emergency medical technician (as described in § 291...291.520), teacher (as described in § 291.525), or firefighter/emergency medical technician (as described in §...

  10. 5 CFR 842.801 - Applicability and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842.801 Applicability...members of the Capitol Police and Supreme Court Police, firefighters, nuclear materials couriers, customs and border...

  11. 44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.5 Review process and evaluation...applications that are determined to best address the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program's established priorities during...

  12. 31 CFR 29.334 - Deposit service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of the deposit completed prior to June 30, 1997. (b) Police and Firefighters Plan. No credit is allowed for Federal Benefit Payments under the Police and Firefighters Plan for any period of civilian service that was not subject to...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1206 - Retirement system coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...or (8) The employees in police officers' positions or firefighters' positions, or both. If State law requires a State...applies to the coverage of services in police officers' and firefighters' positions in States and interstate instrumentalities...

  14. 31 CFR 29.301 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...employee's total retirement benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan. (2) This subpart provides...This subpart applies only to benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan for individuals who have...

  15. 44 CFR 150.3 - Nomination process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Nomination process. (a) The Nominating Officials nominating Firefighters and Civil Defense Officers shall submit their nominations...depending on the category of the nominee, as follows: (1) Firefighter: FEMA, Attention: Superintendent, National Fire...

  16. 5 CFR 831.903 - Conditions for coverage in primary positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.903 Conditions for coverage in primary positions...employing agency head to be a primary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions of 5...

  17. 24 CFR 291.555 - Refinancing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...a) General. A law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician may refinance the mortgage...necessary to prevent the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician from defaulting on the...

  18. Power-and Time-Aware Buffer Cache Management for Real-Time Embedded Databases Woochul Kang

    E-print Network

    Son, Sang H.

    by a firefighter in a building fire [7]. It collects data from nearby sensors and responds to queries on the status of the fire while the firefighter tries to find a pathway to save people inside the building

  19. 5 CFR 550.707 - Computation of severance pay fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the hourly rate of basic pay in effect at separation. (5) For positions held by firefighters compensated under subpart M of this part, where the firefighter has a recurring cycle of variable workweeks within his or her regular tour of...

  20. 5 CFR 831.911 - Oversight of coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.911 Oversight of coverage determinations. ...Upon deciding that a position is a law enforcement officer or firefighter position, each agency head must notify OPM...

  1. 5 CFR 550.707 - Computation of severance pay fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the hourly rate of basic pay in effect at separation. (5) For positions held by firefighters compensated under subpart M of this part, where the firefighter has a recurring cycle of variable workweeks within his or her regular tour of...

  2. 5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory...C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and firefighters in primary and secondary positions. A mandatory...

  3. 44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

  4. 5 CFR 842.808 - Oversight of coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842.808 Oversight...Upon deciding that a position is a law enforcement officer or firefighter position, each agency head must notify OPM...

  5. 44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

  6. 24 CFR 291.555 - Refinancing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...a) General. A law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician may refinance the mortgage...necessary to prevent the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician from defaulting on the...

  7. 5 CFR 831.901 - Applicability and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.901 Applicability and purpose. (a...special retirement eligibility for law enforcement officers and firefighters employed under the Civil Service Retirement...

  8. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...financing. If the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician uses conventional financing...mortgage. (1) A law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician using an FHA-insured...

  9. 24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...291.520), teacher (as described in § 291.525), or firefighter/emergency medical technician (as described in § 291...291.520), teacher (as described in § 291.525), or firefighter/emergency medical technician (as described in §...

  10. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...financing. If the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician uses conventional financing...mortgage. (1) A law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician using an FHA-insured...

  11. BECAUSE hE'S hArDwIrED to help, robert Eddy '74, a philanthro-

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Sheriff's deputy, former firefighter, and EMT, has made it his life's mission to bring more people back from his home in Big Lake, Minn. "My mother was a nurse. My father was a firefighter. My grandfather

  12. 5 CFR 831.903 - Conditions for coverage in primary positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.903 Conditions for coverage in primary positions...employing agency head to be a primary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions of 5...

  13. 5 CFR 831.904 - Conditions for coverage in secondary positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.904 Conditions for coverage in secondary positions...employing agency head to be a secondary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions of 5...

  14. 31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...refunds of employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If pay period records are unavailable...of the retirement contributions made to police officers or firefighters in calendar year 1997. Otherwise, if the participant...

  15. 5 CFR 842.801 - Applicability and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842.801 Applicability...members of the Capitol Police and Supreme Court Police, firefighters, nuclear materials couriers, customs and border...

  16. Global Peer-to-Peer Classification in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks: A Requirements Analysis

    E-print Network

    Beigl, Michael

    -hoc firefighter support network[11]. This network is deployed in an environment with unstable communication firefighter should still be informed about the situation of the entire team. The network has access

  17. 24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...291.520), teacher (as described in § 291.525), or firefighter/emergency medical technician (as described in § 291...291.520), teacher (as described in § 291.525), or firefighter/emergency medical technician (as described in §...

  18. 24 CFR 291.555 - Refinancing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...a) General. A law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician may refinance the mortgage...necessary to prevent the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician from defaulting on the...

  19. 5 CFR 842.808 - Oversight of coverage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842.808 Oversight...Upon deciding that a position is a law enforcement officer or firefighter position, each agency head must notify OPM...

  20. 31 CFR 29.301 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...employee's total retirement benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan. (2) This subpart provides...This subpart applies only to benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan for individuals who have...

  1. 5 CFR 831.901 - Applicability and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.901 Applicability and purpose. (a...special retirement eligibility for law enforcement officers and firefighters employed under the Civil Service Retirement...

  2. 44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

  3. 44 CFR 150.3 - Nomination process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Nomination process. (a) The Nominating Officials nominating Firefighters and Civil Defense Officers shall submit their nominations...depending on the category of the nominee, as follows: (1) Firefighter: FEMA, Attention: Superintendent, National Fire...

  4. 46 CFR 15.1105 - Familiarization and basic training (BT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...prevention and fire-fighting, elementary first aid, and personal safety and social responsibilities; and (2) Maintained...prevention and fire-fighting, elementary first aid, and personal safety and social responsibilities, every 5 years....

  5. 46 CFR 154.1020 - Emergency power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical § 154.1020 Emergency power. The emergency generator must be designed to allow operation at the final angle of heel under § 154.230(a). Firefighting Firefighting System: Exterior Water...

  6. Prediction of Dynamic Forces in Fire Service Escape Scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Obstalecki; J. Chaussidon; P. Kurath; G. P. Horn

    \\u000a When firefighters become trapped on elevated floors in a burning structure, their only option for escape is often through\\u000a an exterior window utilizing an escape rope system. The rope becomes a firefighter’s lifeline until he can either rappel to\\u000a safety or be rescued by other means. Quantifying the dynamic loading experienced by the anchor, rope, and firefighter is critical\\u000a in

  7. Field evaluation of a new prototype self-contained breathing apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aitor Coca; Jung-Hyun Kim; Richard Duffy; W. Jon Williams

    2011-01-01

    Firefighters are required to use a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) for respiratory protection when engaged in a variety of firefighting duties. While the SCBA provides crucial respiratory support and protection, it is also cumbersome and heavy, thus adding to the physical work performed by the firefighter. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the low profile

  8. SIAM J. DISCRETE MATH. c 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 18141826

    E-print Network

    Cai, Leizhen

    . 1814­1826 THE SURVIVING RATE OF A GRAPH FOR THE FIREFIGHTER PROBLEM CAI LEIZHEN AND WANG WEIFAN Abstract. We consider the following firefighter problem on a graph G = (V, E). Initially, a fire breaks out at a vertex v of G. In each subsequent time unit, a firefighter protects one vertex, and then the fire spreads

  9. Lead Forestry Technician Assistant Engine Forman

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    : GS-0462-06 Minimum NWCG Qualifications: Firefighter Type 1 (FFT1) & S-290 Duties The primary purpose of this position is to perform wildland firefighting work and to lead crews performing suppression and control activities. Serves as a lead wildland firefighter on a wildland fire engine Performs and directs others

  10. 31 CFR 29.103 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters Plan under section 11041(a) of the...under the Judges Plan, the Police and Firefighters Plan, or the Teachers Plan, in...the Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters Plan. Freeze date means June...

  11. 5 CFR 550.113 - Computation of overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...next higher cent. (e)(1) For firefighters compensated under subpart M of this...overtime hours is 11/2 times the firefighter's hourly rate of basic pay under...2) of this section. (2) For firefighters compensated under subpart M of...

  12. 31 CFR 29.103 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters Plan under section 11041(a) of the...under the Judges Plan, the Police and Firefighters Plan, or the Teachers Plan, in...the Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters Plan. Freeze date means June...

  13. 5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic...nonovertime hours that are part of a firefighter's regular tour of duty (as computed...portion of overtime pay for hours in a firefighter's regular tour of duty is...

  14. DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Hartke, Stephen

    the Integrality Gap for the Firefighter Problem on Trees Stephen G. Hartke Abstract. We consider a deterministic] introduced an integer program to determine an optimal sequence of vaccinations or firefighter responses when and phrases. firefighter, containment strategy, vaccination strategy. The author has been supported

  15. 5 CFR 550.113 - Computation of overtime pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...next higher cent. (e)(1) For firefighters compensated under subpart M of this...overtime hours is 11/2 times the firefighter's hourly rate of basic pay under...2) of this section. (2) For firefighters compensated under subpart M of...

  16. 31 CFR 29.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Code (1997) (under the Police and Firefighters Plan) or section 31-1231(a...that is, age 55 under the Police and Firefighters Plan and age 62 under the Teachers...position covered by the Police and Firefighters Plan or Teachers Plan....

  17. 5 CFR 630.210 - Uncommon tours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...establish an uncommon tour of duty for each firefighter compensated under part 550, subpart...duty shall correspond directly to the firefighter's regular tour of duty, as defined...1302 of this chapter, so that each firefighter accrues and uses leave on the...

  18. 31 CFR 29.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Code (1997) (under the Police and Firefighters Plan) or section 31-1231(a...that is, age 55 under the Police and Firefighters Plan and age 62 under the Teachers...position covered by the Police and Firefighters Plan or Teachers Plan....

  19. 5 CFR 630.210 - Uncommon tours of duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...establish an uncommon tour of duty for each firefighter compensated under part 550, subpart...duty shall correspond directly to the firefighter's regular tour of duty, as defined...1302 of this chapter, so that each firefighter accrues and uses leave on the...

  20. MobiQuery: A Spatiotemporal Data Service for Sensor Networks Chenyang Lu, Guoliang Xing, Octav Chipara, Chien-Liang Fok

    E-print Network

    Roman, Gruia-Catalin

    . For example, a firefighter fighting a wild fire may request a pe- riodic update of a temperature map within one mile around his location to maintain awareness of the fire condition. As the firefighter moves. In the earlier example, a firefighter may be endangered by a quickly moving fire if the query re- sults