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1

Firefighter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The responsibilities of a firefighter extend far beyond simply responding to fire emergencies. At many departments, responding to medical calls or car accidents is the most frequent activity, and a routine shift might also entail dealing with hazardous materials, gas leaks, structural collapses, floods, ice storms, wild animals, or the myriad…

Moore, Pam

2011-01-01

2

INL@Work Firefighter  

ScienceCinema

Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

3

Firefighting Module  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

1980-01-01

4

Outfitting Wildland Firefighters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive flash-based poster shows the equipment that firefighters use in their work, along with how they use it. Simply click on a piece of equipment, and a sidebar explains its use and history in firefighting.

Krock, Lexi; Online, Nova

5

Physiological Limits of Firefighters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U. S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine conducted a study of respiratory stresses imposed on firefighters wearing a self contained breathing apparatus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the respiratory stresses and subsequent changes i...

L. G. Myhre R. D. Holden F. W. Baumgardner D. Tucker

1979-01-01

6

Remotely Operated Robotic Firefighter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ametek/Offshore Research & Engineering Division (ORED) performed a conceptual design study of potential state-of-the-art robotic firefighting systems. To demonstrate the feasibility of major critical components, an Air Force P-4 Firetruck was provided and...

C. Cox R. Beard S. Gates

1988-01-01

7

6.EE Firefighter Allocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A town's total allocation for firefighter's wages and bene?ts in a new budget is \\$600,000. If wages are calculated at \\$40,000 per firefighter and ben...

8

The Physics of Firefighting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, from The Physics Teacher, provides an explanation of the physics of how water puts out fires. It also contains a description of how firefighters determine the water pressure for their hoses--and this physics is taught in fire academies.

Egler, Robert

2007-10-30

9

Characterization of Firefighter Smoke Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of firefighter exposure was undertaken as part of a larger smoke exposure study. Teams of Chicago Fire Department\\u000a firefighters were issued equipment for monitoring exposure conditions during structural fire suppression activity (knockdown\\u000a and overhaul) and search and rescue operations. Potential inhalation exposure was characterized by outfitting firefighters\\u000a with direct-reading gas meters and personal cascade impactors. The gas meters

Thomas Z. Fabian; Jacob L. Borgerson; Pravinray D. Gandhi; C. Stuart Baxter; Clara Sue Ross; James E. Lockey; James M. Dalton

10

Diminished health status in firefighters.  

PubMed

The objective was to assess the diminished health status of firefighters in the Netherlands. Two hundred and seventy-eight firefighters were tested during a workers' health surveillance. Psychological, physical, sense-related and cardiovascular markers vital to job performance were investigated and the relative frequency of deficiencies in health markers was determined. Deficiencies were found in all health markers investigated. The most prevalent deficiencies were (1) physical status when not passing a job-specific test (25%) and (2) cardiovascular disease risk factors - BMI (57%), systolic hypertension (23%) and smoking (22%). Diminished health status of firefighters typically involved deficiencies in physical markers and cardiovascular disease risk factors. It is recommended that occupational physicians initiate interventions for individual firefighters to address diminished health in these respects. Practitioner Summary In this study, health markers required for firefighter job performance were assessed. Diminished health status typically involved deficiencies in physical markers and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study makes ergonomists and other health-care professionals aware of the most prevalent health marker deficiencies in firefighters and results highlight the relevance of performing workers' health surveillance in firefighters. PMID:22804768

Plat, Marie-Christine J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

2012-07-17

11

Firefighting Foam Proportioning System Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project objective was to determine the capabilities and limitations of around-the-pump and pressure side firefighting foam agent proportioning systems. The effort was to consider the accuracy of agent concentration which could be obtained with the two...

A. B. Stevens L. C. DeVito

1974-01-01

12

Firefighter Fatality Retrospective Study, April 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last decade, several high-profile incidents involving firefighter fatalities have brought national attention to the issue of firefighter mortality in the United States. While the attention from the national media has been fleeting, the awareness of...

2002-01-01

13

Safety climate and firefighter injury: model development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without question, firefighting is a dangerous occupation. Each year in the U.S., over 100 firefighters die in the line of duty and over 80 000 are injured. These numbers have not improved during the past 25 years and, in fact, have been trending upward for the past decade. Firefighter professional associations and advocacy groups have increasingly called for changes to

D M DeJoy; K Kunadharaju; T D Smith

2010-01-01

14

Colour vision requirements of firefighters.  

PubMed

To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended. PMID:8776247

Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

1996-04-01

15

Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

Wallace, R. J.

1984-05-01

16

Fit-testing for firefighters.  

PubMed

When fit-testing firefighters who may be required to wear an SCBA unit in the positive pressure mode for IDLH or structural firefighting applications, use these guidelines. 1. The firefighter shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the firefighter. 2. Before a firefighter may be required to use the SCBA, he/she must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. If different makes, models, styles, and sizes of facepieces are used, the firefighter must be fit-tested for each. 3. Based on current interpretations and guidance, OSHA requires firefighters to be quantitatively or qualitatively fit-tested while in the negative pressure mode. 4. Quantitative fit-testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece and breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece. 5. Qualitative fit-testing can be accomplished by converting the user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the SCBA facepiece. 6. If after passing the fit-test the firefighter subsequently determines the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, he/she shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and be retested. 7. The new standard requires initial and at least annual fit-testing using quantitative or qualitative fit-testing protocols. 8. Additional fit-testing may be required whenever physical changes to the employee occur that may affect respirator fit, such as facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious change in body weight. PMID:9891408

Brickman, C P

1999-01-01

17

Sleep Quality of Professional Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background: Firefighting is a unique job with contradictious demands that expose firefighters to many well documented causal factors of sleep debt, but no studies in Iran and only a few worldwide studies have investigated their sleep quality while sleep problems may lead to catastrophes especially in critical service workers. The aim of this study is to evaluate sleep quality and its related factors among a sample of professional Iranian firefighters. Methods: Using simple random sampling method in a cross-sectional study, 427 personnel of fire and rescue service were invited. They completed the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a data collection sheet about their demographic and occupational features during an individual face to face interview in central office and firehouses throughout Tehran. Response rate was 88.7%. Results: The mean ± SD global PSQI score was 7.97 ± 3.77. Sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality. 69.9% of participants were poor sleepers. Interestingly, we found no significant differences between sleep quality of shift workers and non shift workers. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, only having another job, smoking and years of job experience were predictors of poor sleep. Conclusions: In comparison with adult population of Tehran, sleep quality deterioration is notably more common in Tehran firefighters which require health promotion interventions to prevent its serious adverse outcomes.

Mehrdad, Ramin; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Esfahani, Amir Hossein Naseri

2013-01-01

18

Model Training Guide. Firefighter I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This firefighter training guide for a 180-hour course was developed to assist training officers in planning training with emphasis on conformance to recommended National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 1001) standards. The material in the guide is referenced to current editions of the International Fire Service Training Association manuals and…

Hagevig, William A.; Gallagher, Leigh S.

19

Air Contaminants in Structural Firefighting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents data on the airborne concentrations of a series of toxic gases, vapors and particulates obtained by samplers worn by firefighters while fighting structural fires in the City of Boston. The study, which included coverage of forty-five f...

W. A. Burgess R. D. Treitman A. Gold

1979-01-01

20

77 FR 39717 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2012-0022] Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency...the fiscal year 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program year. That notice included...found in the ``FY 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Guidance and...

2012-07-05

21

A Case of Poisoned Firefighters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed for an introductory biology course for science majors. The activity is intended to reinforce the basic concepts of cellular respiration (including the electron transport chain and generation of the proton motive force) and to link O2 transport explicitly to cellular respiration. Students are initially engaged by considering the cases of firefighters exposed to smoke that could contain carbon monoxide (CO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN).

Ms. Bethany A Cook (New Mexico State University Biology); PhD Michele I Shuster (New Mexico State University Biology)

2007-02-26

22

Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

Cox, Clarice Robinson

23

Firefighters versus Stotts: The End of Quotas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supreme Court has ruled that a federal district court had no authority to require a municipal employer, in violation of the seniority provisions of its collective bargaining agreement, to lay off more senior White firefighters before laying off Black firefighters. (MLW)

Copus, David A.; Lindsay, Ronald

1984-01-01

24

Distributed Decision Making in Wildland Firefighting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined distributed decision making in a naturalistic context. The subjects--expert, command level, wildland firefighters--were studied as they made decisions about an ongoing set of wildland fires. Interviews were conducted using the critical...

G. A. Klein J. Taynor M. L. Thordsen

1990-01-01

25

Human-Computer Interaction Techniques in Firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates the design of human computer interaction techniques for ubiquitous computing solutions in firefighting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Research Area: Human-Computer Interaction Design for Safety Critical Ubiquitous Computing.

Sebastian Denef; Schloss Birlinghoven

2009-01-01

26

Experimental Research for Advanced Firefighting Simulators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phase I experimental modeling has been completed as part of NAVTRAEQUIPCEN task 7794, Advanced Firefighting Simulators. This consisted of application of a previously proposed synthetic technique to represent Class A, B and C Navy training fires by utili...

E. Swiatosz P. Grimmer

1978-01-01

27

The NASA Firefighter'S Breathing System Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program st...

P. B. Mclaughlan M. A. Carson

1974-01-01

28

Industrial and Firefighter's Safety Helmet Test Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is presented for the evaluation of a model of industrial or firefighter's helmet for check in inspection items, impact resistance, penetration resistance, flammability resistance, and insulation resistance. Test requirements, special precautions,...

W. I. Cook

1976-01-01

29

Serum growth factors and oncoproteins in firefighters.  

PubMed

Firefighters are potentially at increased risk for cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease due to their toxic exposures on the job. Growth factors and oncogene proteins are thought to play a role in the development of various malignancies and pulmonary fibrotic diseases. Therefore, a cohort of firefighters and matched controls have been screened for the presence of nine different growth factors and oncoproteins using an immunoblotting assay. Fourteen of the firefighters were found to be positive for beta-transforming growth factor (beta-TGF) related proteins compared to no positives in the controls (P = 0.0017). These results suggest that beta-TGF may be a possible biomarker for monitoring firefighters and other exposed workers for the potential development of cancer or non-malignant respiratory disease. PMID:1533320

Ford, J; Smith, S; Luo, J C; Friedman-Jimenez, G; Brandt-Rauf, P; Markowitz, S; Garibaldi, K; Niman, H

1992-02-01

30

Learning amongst Norwegian fire-fighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach was to discover how, when and where learning took place. Findings –

Morten Sommer; Ove Njå

2011-01-01

31

Combination Structural/Crash Firefighter Head Protection Operational Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project evaluated a combination structural/crash firefighter head protection system. The system utilized standard structural firefighter helmets, modified with a heat resistant face shield and full head heat shield, similar to crash hoods. The progra...

J. H. Storm B. R. Dees M. J. Wilson

1992-01-01

32

20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212 Section 404.1212... § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social...of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

2010-04-01

33

20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212 Section 404.1212... § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social...of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

2009-04-01

34

Examining firefighter decision making process and choice in virtual reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighting is an inherently dangerous occupation, with over 100 fatalities and 85,000 injuries in the United States annually (National Fallen Firefighter Foundation, 2005). Though poor decision making may contribute to this high prevalence, surprisingly few studies exist of how emergency responders make decisions. The objective of this study was to utilize the virtual reality environment to identify relationships among firefighter

Shawn T. Bayouth

2011-01-01

35

Physiological, psychophysical, and psychological responses of firefighters to firefighting training drills.  

PubMed

This study was designed to describe the physiological, psychophysical, and psychological responses of firefighters to firefighting drills in a training structure containing live fires. Fifteen male firefighters, wearing standard turnout gear which resulted in full encapsulation, performed two firefighting tasks (advancing fire hose, chopping wood) while inside the training structure. Measurements of heart rate, tympanic membrane temperature, blood lactate, perceptions of respiration, mood, perceived exertion, and thermal sensation were obtained after 8 min of advancing fire hose, and again after 8 min of chopping. Heart rate and temperature increased significantly from baseline and from advancing hose to wood chopping, whereas blood lactate increased initially after advancing the hose and remained elevated at the end of the chopping task. At the completion of the test (both tasks), mean heart rate (182.3 b.min-1), temperature (40.1 degrees C, [104.1 degrees F]), and blood lactate (3.8 mMol) suggested that the firefighting tasks used in this study impose considerable physiological strain on firefighters. Psychophysical and psychological data mirrored the greater physiological strain following firefighting tasks performed in a hot environment while wearing full turnout gear. PMID:8908345

Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J; Kramer, J M; Misner, J E

1996-11-01

36

Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.|

Roman, Harry T.

2007-01-01

37

Exposure of firefighters to toxic air contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A personal sampling apparatus for firefighters was developed to sample the fire atmosphere for CO, CO2, O2, NO2, HCI, HCN and particulate content. Two fire companies made ninety successful sample runs during structural fires. CO presented a potential acute hazard and particulate concentrations were high. HCN was detected at low levels in half the samples. HCI was detected in only

AVRAM GOLD; W. M. A. BURGESS; EDWARD V. CLOUGHERTY

1978-01-01

38

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2010-01-01

39

75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative...Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative...Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Cooperative...

2010-10-05

40

24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians...Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical...

2009-04-01

41

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2009-01-01

42

24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians...Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical...

2010-04-01

43

The thermal ergonomics of firefighting reviewed.  

PubMed

The occupation of firefighting is one that has repeatedly attracted the research interests of ergonomics. Among the activities encountered are attention to live fires, performing search and rescue of victims, and dealing with emergencies. The scientific literature is reviewed to highlight the investigative models used to contribute to the knowledge base about the ergonomics of firefighting, in particular to establish the multi-variate demands of the job and the attributes and capabilities of operators to cope with these demands. The job requires individuals to be competent in aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity, muscle strength, and have an appropriate body composition. It is still difficult to set down thresholds for values in all the areas in concert. Physiological demands are reflected in metabolic, circulatory, and thermoregulatory responses and hydration status, whilst psychological strain can be partially reflected in heart rate and endocrine measures. Research models have comprised of studying live fires, but more commonly in simulations in training facilities or treadmills and other ergometers. Wearing protective clothing adds to the physiological burden, raising oxygen consumption and body temperature, and reducing the time to fatigue. More sophisticated models of cognitive function compatible with decision-making in a fire-fighting context need to be developed. Recovery methods following a fire-fighting event have focused on accelerating the restoration towards homeostasis. The effectiveness of different recovery strategies is considered, ranging from passive cooling and wearing of cooling jackets to immersions in cold water and combinations of methods. Rehydration is also relevant in securing the safety of firefighters prior to returning for the next event in their work shift. PMID:19664755

Barr, David; Gregson, Warren; Reilly, Thomas

2009-08-06

44

[Chemical hazards in fire-fighting environments].  

PubMed

The assessment of the fire-fighters' exposure to harmful chemicals during the fire attendance is presented. The assessment was based on measurements of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and aromatic hydrocarbons of five fire-fighting actions. Using passive dosimeters, personal air samples were collected. A portable Draeger-PAC III was used for measuring carbon monoxide. Above 130 chemicals were detected in the environment of the fire attendance. Among them aliphatic hydrocarbons C6-C16 were dominant. Benzene and its aliphatic homologues were also found in all air samples. The carbon monoxide concentration accounted for up to 720 mg/m3. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and benzene ranged from 0.0 to 49.9 mg/m3; 84.5 mg/m3; 5.3 mg/m3 and 89.4 mg/m3, respectively. PMID:11059406

Po?niak, M

2000-01-01

45

Rheology of fire-fighting foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the rheological properties of compressed-air foams and contains velocity profiles of foams flowing through straight horizontal tubes. It is shown that a master equation can be derived from the experimental data to account for a range of expansion ratios and pressures normally encountered during pumping of polyhedral-in-structure fire-fighting foams. The experimental data come from a Poiseuille-flow rheometer

B. S. Gardiner; B. Z. Dlugogorski; G. J. Jameson

1998-01-01

46

Mortality among firefighters from three northwestern United States cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore whether exposure among firefighters to fire smoke could lead to an increased risk of cancer, lung disease, and heart disease, the mortality of 4546 firefighters who were employed by the cities of Seattle and Tacoma, WA and Portland, OR for at least one year between 1944 and 1979 were compared with United States national mortalities and with mortality

P A Demers; N J Heyer; L Rosenstock

1992-01-01

47

Case-Based Reasoning Intelligent Decision Approach for Firefighting Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the efficiency of firefighting practice, two artificial intelligence techniques, case-based reasoning (CBR) and rule-based reasoning (RBR), learning from other's strong points to offset its weakness, are combined and applied to the system designing process of firefighting tactics intelligent decision system in this paper. Then, the system architecture and its working process are introduced, and some primary techniques for

Liu Jing

2009-01-01

48

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report continues a series of annual studies by the USFA of onduty firefighter fatalities in the United States.The specific objective of this study is to identify all onduty firefighter fatalities that occurred in the United States and its protectorat...

2004-01-01

49

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For 31 years, the USFA has tracked the number of firefighter fatalities and conducted an annual analysis. Through the collection of information on the causes of firefighter deaths, the USFA is able to focus on specific problems and direct efforts toward f...

2008-01-01

50

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report continues a series of annual studies by the USFA of onduty firefighter fatalities in the United States. The specific objective of this study is to identify all onduty firefighter fatalities that occurred in the United States and its protectora...

2006-01-01

51

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U. S. Fire Administration (USFA) has tracked the number of firefighter fatalities and conducted an annual analysis for almost 30 years. Through the collection of information on the causes of firefighter deaths, the USFA is able to focus on specific pr...

2009-01-01

52

Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Firefighter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based education curriculum, developed by firefighters and educators in West Virginia, is designed for use as a resource for the development of improved firefighter training programs. It consists of an introductory note to the instructor and 140 competency sheets. These sheets deal with tasks in the following areas: general…

West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

53

Exposure to TDI among a group of voluntary firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen voluntary firefighters from the city of Marcos Juarez, Province of Cordoba, Argentina, accidentally exposed to isocyanate fumes during blazes at a polyurethane manufacturing plant have been studied. Exposures took place twice: a 15?day timespan elapsed between each blaze. Firefighters were exposed to TDI for 3 h 30 min during the first blaze while the second exposure lasted 1 h

Daniel Lerda

1995-01-01

54

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess

E S Hansen

1990-01-01

55

Wildland Smoke Exposure Values and Exhaled Breath Indicators in Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoke from forest fires contains significant amounts of gaseous and particulate pollutants. Firefighters exposed to wildland fire smoke can suffer from several acute and chronic adverse health effects. Consequently, exposure data are of vital importance for the establishment of cause\\/effect relationships between exposure to smoke and firefighter health effects. The aims of this study were to (1) characterize the relationship

Ana Isabel Miranda; Vera Martins; Pedro Cascão; Jorge Humberto Amorim; Joana Valente; Carlos Borrego; António Jorge Ferreira; Carlos Robalo Cordeiro; Domingos Xavier Viegas; Roger Ottmar

2012-01-01

56

Respiratory symptoms, atopy and bronchial hyperreactivity in professional firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess respiratory health in professional firefighters. A total of 101 male professional firefighters from Basel, Switzerland, were included in the study. A control group consisting of 735 male subjects of the general population was composed of the Basel sample of the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults. All

D. Miedinger; P. N. Chhajed; D. Stolz; C. Gysin; A. B. Wanzenried; C. Schindler; C. Surber; H. C. Bucher; M. Tamm; J. D. Leuppi

2007-01-01

57

Health hazards of firefighters: acute pulmonary effects after toxic exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an environmental monitoring and medical surveillance programme to evaluate potential health hazards from firefighting, complete baseline medical examinations were performed on a cohort of 77 firefighters. During a ten day study period, 37 follow up medical examinations were performed after exposure to fire to monitor any significant differences in pre-fire and post-fire physiological indices, including pulmonary function

P W Brandt-Rauf; B Cosman; L F Fallon; T Tarantini; C Idema

1989-01-01

58

The Firefighter Recruitment and Selection Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the firefighter recruitment and selection process is the first step in permanent employment with a fire department. This lesson describes the major components of fire service testing and provides a basic overview of the selection process. Carefully follow the instructions detailed below and report your progress as indicated. Fire service entry-level testing usually involves three major components: Written exam; Physical ability/agility test; and Oral board. Each area is just important as the other and failure in any of the three will disqualify you from getting the job you\\'re looking for. Written Exam Let\\'s begin by looking at the ...

Noll, Gary

2007-10-17

59

Field Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Work Capacity of Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter’s ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters’ aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs?=??0.65 and ?0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL·min?1) and relative (mL·kg?1·min?1) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs?=??0.79 to 0.55 and ?0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters’ work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s·kg?1), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter’s aerobic work capacity.

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Desiree; Malm, Christer

2013-01-01

60

Bucklands Crossing firefighter burnover-a case study of fire ...  

Treesearch

The findings highlight the need for increased training of firefighters in fire behaviour and, in particular, ... The case study provides a number of lessons learned that have relevance worldwide. ... Resource Type: Management Plans and Reports.

61

Accelerated Weathering of Firefighter Protective Clothing Containing Melamine Fiber Blends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, the mechanical properties critical to the protective performance of firefighter turnout gear were evaluated in environmentally stressed outer shell (OS) fabrics containing melamine fiber blends. Environmental stress factors that affect the ...

E. Davis J. Chin S. Flynn S. Nazare

2012-01-01

62

DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE OF BOAT UNDER THE WATERLINE. ZINCS ARE ALSO ADDED HERE TO PRESERVE THE METAL. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York, New York County, NY

63

Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.  

SciTech Connect

Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

2011-10-01

64

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting §...

2010-07-01

65

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting §...

2009-07-01

66

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting §...

2013-07-01

67

Review of Firefighter Physical Fitness/Wellness Programs: Options for the Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Air Force is the Executive Agent for the firefighter fitness programs for all military components. This Review & Analysis examines four suggested candidate firefighter physical fitness programs and related research in support of the ongoing Air For...

B. Palmer J. W. Carroll A. T. Mirza

1998-01-01

68

The Development of Two Protective Apparel Systems for Firefighting. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In approaching the design of new protective apparel systems for firefighting, consideration was given to bulk, weight, fit, comfort, and protection such clothing should give the firefighter to help relieve physical and psychological pressures involved wit...

L. R. Rosen M. K. Valla S. M. Watkins

1978-01-01

69

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040...

2009-07-01

70

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. ...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050...

2009-07-01

71

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030...

2010-07-01

72

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. ...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050...

2010-07-01

73

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040...

2010-07-01

74

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030...

2009-07-01

75

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. ...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050...

2013-07-01

76

46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which conform to the specifications of the Navy or Coast Guard,...

2011-10-01

77

46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which conform to the specifications of the Navy or Coast Guard,...

2012-10-01

78

The Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy Scale: measure development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy (FFCSE) Scale, a new measure developed to assess firefighters’ perceived competence in managing stressful and traumatic experiences encountered on the job. Two samples of firefighters completed the FFCSE Scale at two different time points. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional structure, which was further supported with confirmatory factor analysis

Jessica E. Lambert; Charles C. Benight; Erica Harrison; Roman Cieslak

2012-01-01

79

The Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy Scale: measure development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy (FFCSE) Scale, a new measure developed to assess firefighters’ perceived competence in managing stressful and traumatic experiences encountered on the job. Two samples of firefighters completed the FFCSE Scale at two different time points. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional structure, which was further supported with confirmatory factor analysis

Jessica E. Lambert; Charles C. Benight; Erica Harrison; Roman Cieslak

2011-01-01

80

Selected physiological and psychobiological responses to physical activity in different configurations of firefighting gear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to examine selected physiological and psychobiological responses to different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) walked on a treadmill (3·5?km · h, 10% grade) for 15?min in three different clothing configurations. On separate days subjects wore: (a) ‘station blues’, (b) a hip boot configuration of firefighting gear, and (c) the current ‘NFPA 1500

D. L. SMITH; S. J. PETRUZZELLO; J. M. KRAMER; S. E. WARNER; B. G. BONE; J. E. MISNER

1995-01-01

81

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...completing any combination of service as a firefighter,law enforcement officer or...

2009-01-01

82

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...completing any combination of service as a firefighter,law enforcement officer or...

2010-01-01

83

Acute health effects among firefighters exposed to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighters are frequently being called on to fight fires that are chemical in nature. In the aftermath of a chemical fire in Plainfield, New Jersey on March 20-21, 1985, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study which surveyed 80 firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as well as 15 nonexposed firefighter subjects. By means of an 81-item symptom checklist,

J. S. Markowitz; E. M. Gutterman; S. Schwartz; B. Link; S. M. Gorman

1989-01-01

84

Effect of fire smoke on some biochemical parameters in firefighters of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Firefighters who are facing fires, are frequently exposed to hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, benzene, sulphur dioxide, etc. This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes in activity involved firefighters in comparison to normal subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two groups of male firefighters volunteered to participate in the study. The

Abdulrahman L Al-Malki; Ameen M Rezq; Mohamed H Al-Saedy

2008-01-01

85

Perceived effects and recovery in Oklahoma City firefighters.  

PubMed

This survey of 325 Oklahoma City Firefighters examined their perceptions of the effect of the bombing, their recovery and their sources of support. Other variables that were considered in this analysis included age, usefulness of the Critical Incidence Stress Management (CISM) procedures, and attitude, an aggregate variable that accounted for job satisfaction. Of particular importance in this analysis was the finding that support from "faith" was a primary predictor of positive outcome and positive attitude over the one-year period. However, the effect of the variable differed for older and younger firefighters. That is, there was a greater proportion of younger firefighters among those reporting greater support from faith. These data suggest that, at least in this geographic area, chaplains, and other spiritual leaders may play a particularly important role in the aftermath of such a disaster. PMID:10213969

Nixon, S J; Schorr, J; Boudreaux, A; Vincent, R D

1999-04-01

86

Elite firefighter/first responder mindsets and outcome coping efficacy.  

PubMed

The present study examined coping strategies used by firefighters, the relationship between appraisals and coping strategies used, and the relationship between transitional coping strategies used and outcome coping efficacy for mental preparedness. Firefighter coping strategies of problem focused coping and seeking social support were found to have positive significant relationships to outcome coping efficacy, after transitioning from one critical incident to a second. The coping strategies of blamed self wishful thinking, and avoidance appear to have a negative significant relationship to outcome coping efficacy. Additionally, the appraisals of challenge and positive reappraisal to meet the challenge appear to have a positive significant relationship to problem focused coping and seeking social support. These findings on outcome coping efficacy may be of help to firefighters for rehabilitative efforts after traumatic incidents when used in the Peer Support Review intervention model. PMID:23980491

Dowdall-Thomae, Cynthia; Gilkey, John; Larson, Wanda; Arend-Hicks, Rebecca

2012-01-01

87

Health hazards of firefighters: acute pulmonary effects after toxic exposures.  

PubMed

As part of an environmental monitoring and medical surveillance programme to evaluate potential health hazards from firefighting, complete baseline medical examinations were performed on a cohort of 77 firefighters. During a ten day study period, 37 follow up medical examinations were performed after exposure to fire to monitor any significant differences in pre-fire and post-fire physiological indices, including pulmonary function and blood counts and chemistries. For the group as a whole, no significant differences were found. For individuals not wearing respiratory protective equipment, however, statistically significant post-fire decrements in FEV1 and FVC were noted. These decrements were consistent with previously shown levels of exposure to pulmonary toxicants in this cohort. These results support the need for more extensive use of respiratory protective equipment by firefighters. PMID:2930733

Brandt-Rauf, P W; Cosman, B; Fallon, L F; Tarantini, T; Idema, C

1989-03-01

88

Challenges and successes in recruiting firefighters for hearing loss prevention research.  

PubMed

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant occupational health problem in the United States, affecting more than 1 million firefighters. Noise hazards include vehicles, sirens, and power tools. Additionally, firefighters are commonly exposed to ototoxic chemicals. Because the use of hearing protection is not universally required for firefighters, firefighters must be educated about NIHL to ensure they take personal responsibility for hearing loss prevention. This study discusses challenges associated with recruiting firefighters to participate in a randomized, controlled trial testing a web-based hearing protection training program. Successful recruitment strategies included collaboration with key stakeholders, a flexible and convenient computer-based intervention, expansion to multiple recruitment sites, and interactive outreach to potential participants. Future research should use quantitative methods to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of specific recruitment strategies to facilitate firefighter enrollment in research studies. Developing and testing effective hearing protection interventions for firefighters is a crucial first step toward preventing NIHL in this population. PMID:23701004

Hong, OiSaeng; Fiola, Lauren Ann; Feld, Jamie

2013-05-23

89

Accelerated weathering of polyaramid and polybenzimidazole firefighter protective clothing fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to simulated ultraviolet sunlight at 50°C and 50% relative humidity caused a significant deterioration in the mechanical performance of polyaramid and polyaramid\\/polybenzimidazole based outer shell fabrics used in firefighter jacket and pants. After 13 days of exposure to these conditions the tear resistance and tensile strength of both fabrics decreased by more than 40%. The polybenzimidazole containing fabric was

Rick Davis; Joannie Chin; Chiao-Chi Lin; Sylvain Petit

2010-01-01

90

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

91

Blood Pressure in Firefighters, Police Officers, and Other Emergency Responders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Increased risk begins in the prehypertensive range and increases further with higher pressures. The strenuous duties of emergency responders (firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel) can interact with their personal risk profiles, including elevated blood pressure, to precipitate acute cardiovascular events. Approximately three-quarters of

Stefanos N. Kales; Antonios J. Tsismenakis; Chunbai Zhang; Elpidoforos S. Soteriades

2009-01-01

92

Behind the Brotherhood: Rewards and Challenges for Wives of Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Support of family is paramount to reducing the impact of highly stressful work on firefighters. Yet the degree of stress encountered by the family members, particularly spouses, resulting from ongoing job demands and exposure to traumatic situations is unclear. This qualitative study examined the effects of emergency service work on spouses of…

Regehr, Cheryl; Dimitropoulos, Gina; Bright, Elaine; George, Sharon; Henderson, Joscelyn

2005-01-01

93

76 FR 71048 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment...automatic-on or integrated Personal Alert Safety System...withstand the demands of emergency services response...or smoke/fire alarm notification systems...systems and/or emergency generators that...acquisition. EMS personal protective...

2011-11-16

94

Strategies to combat heat strain during and after firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of phase change cool vests during firefighting and the efficacy of 20min cold water hand immersion following such activity was investigated. Core temperature was unaffected by cool vest wear, as was skin temperature, sweat rate and heart rate, and cannot be recommended for use. There was a trend for core temperature decline to be accelerated by hand immersion

J. M. Carter; M. P Rayson; D. M. Wilkinson; V. Richmond; S. Blacker

2007-01-01

95

Provocation, Hostility, Aggression, and Victimization: Firefighters and Incarcerated Felons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines self-reported histories of victimization among two groups of men. Violence, provocation, hostility, and aggression inventories were administered to a prosocial group of firefighters and an antisocial group of incarcerated felons. Fourteen of the 15 possible behavioral-abuse correlations were significant when both groups were considered…

Alexander, E. Carlene; And Others

1995-01-01

96

Preventing noise-induced hearing loss in firefighters.  

PubMed

NIOSH recommends the use of quieter equipment, better work practices, and hearing protection devices and implementation of effective hearing loss prevention programs to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in firefighters. [Workplace Health Saf 2013;61(9):420.]. PMID:23991707

Chalupka, Stephanie

2013-09-01

97

Line of duty deaths among U.S. firefighters: an analysis of fatality investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighting is a high hazard occupation. In the U.S. alone, over 100 firefighters die in the line-of-duty each year and over 80 000 are injured. In this presentation, we summarise results from an independent analysis of firefighter fatality investigations completed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) between 2004 and 2008 (N=143). Of the 143 investigation reports

D M DeJoy; K Kunadharaju; T D Smith

2010-01-01

98

Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.  

PubMed

Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that can produce hazardous levels of noise, this study showed that the average noise levels experienced by firefighters was below generally accepted guidelines. PMID:23339379

Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

2013-01-01

99

Firefighter burn injuries: predictable patterns influenced by turnout gear.  

PubMed

Approximately 100 firefighters suffer fatal injuries annually and tens of thousands receive nonfatal injuries. Many of these injuries require medical attention and restricted activity but may be preventable. This study was designed to elucidate etiology, circumstances, and patterns of firefighter burn injury so that further prevention strategies can be designed. In particular, modification of protective equipment, or turnout gear, is one potential strategy to prevent burn injury. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was conducted with records of firefighters treated for burn injury from 2005 to 2009. Data collected included age, gender, TBSA, burn depth, anatomic location, total hospital days per patient, etiology, and circumstances of injury. Circumstances of injury were stratified into the following categories: removal/dislodging of equipment, failure of equipment to protect, training errors, and when excessive external temperatures caused patient sweat to boil under the gear. Over the 4-year period, 20 firefighters were treated for burn injury. Mean age was 38.9 ± 8.9 years and 19 of 20 patients were male. Mean burn size was 1.1 ± 2.7% TBSA. Eighteen patients suffered second-degree burns, while two patients suffered first-degree burns. Mean length of hospitalization was 2.45 days. Scald burns were responsible for injury to 13 firefighters (65%). Flame burns caused injury to four patients (20%). Only three patients received contact burns (15%). The face was the site most commonly burned, representing 29% of injuries. The hand/wrist and ears were the next largest groups, with 23 and 16% of the injuries, respectively. Other areas burned included the neck (10%), arm (6.5%), leg (6.5%), knees (3%), shoulders (3%), and head (3%). Finally, the circumstance of injury was evaluated for each patient. Misuse and noncontiguous areas of protective equipment accounted for 14 of the 20 injuries (70%). These burns were caused when hot steam/liquid entered the gear via gaps in the sleeve or face mask. Three patients (15%) received injury due to removal/dislodging of their safety equipment, two patients (10%) suffered their injuries during training exercises when they were not wearing their safety equipment, and the final patient (5%) received burns due to sweat evaporation. Firefighter burn injuries occur to predictable anatomic sites with common injury patterns. Modification and optimization of gear to eliminate gaps that allow steam/hot liquid entry may decrease burn injury. Improving education regarding the use of protective equipment may also be beneficial. PMID:21979850

Kahn, Steven A; Patel, Jignesh H; Lentz, Christopher W; Bell, Derek E

100

Core temperature and heart rate response to repeated bouts of firefighting activities.  

PubMed

During live-fire firefighting operations and training evolutions, firefighters often consume multiple cylinders of air and continue to wear their personal protective equipment even after fire suppression activities have ceased. However, most studies have only reported core temperature changes during short-term firefighting activities and have shown a very modest increase in core temperature. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate core temperature and heart rate (HR) during repeated bouts of firefighting activity over ?3 h. The results of this study show that core temperatures increase by an average of 1.9°C - to a larger magnitude than previously reported - and continue to increase during subsequent work cycles (38.4 vs. 38.7) even after long breaks of more than 30 min. The rate of core temperature increase during work continues to increase later in the training exercise (from 0.036 to 0.048°C/min), increasing the risk for exertional heat stress particularly if long-duration firefighting activity is required at these later times. Practitioner Summary: To date, core temperature and HR changes during firefighting have been reported for short-term studies, which may significantly underestimate the physiological burden of typical firefighting activities. Firefighter core temperatures are shown to increase to a larger magnitude than previously observed and the rate of rise in core temperature increases during subsequent firefighting activities. PMID:23869685

Horn, Gavin P; Blevins, Sue; Fernhall, Bo; Smith, Denise L

2013-07-22

101

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045...

2013-07-01

102

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire...

2010-10-01

103

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire...

2009-10-01

104

Review of Three Dimensional Water Fog Techniques for Firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This report provides a review of research into, and application of, a three dimensional (3D) water fog technique for firefighting. The impact of water fog characteristics associated with properties of the nozzle (e.g., droplet size, momentum, flow rate, spray angle and pattern) and discharge techniques (e.g., discharge angle, and discharge duration related to the bursts) on performance,of the 3D

Z. Liu; G. D. Lougheed

105

Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN)

Joel Wilson; Dan Steingart; Russell Romero; Jessica Reynolds; Eric Mellers; Andrew Redfern; Lloyd Lim; William Watts; Colin Patton; Jessica Baker; Paul Wright

2005-01-01

106

CARBON MONOXIDE AND WATER VAPOR CONTAMINATION OF COMPRESSED BREATHING AIR FOR FIREFIGHTERS AND DIVERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed breathing air, used in self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) by firefighters and other categories of workers as well as by recreational and commercial divers, is prepared with the aid of high-pressure compressors operating in the range of 5000 psig. There have been reports of unexplained deaths of SCUBA divers and anecdotal accounts of decreased time to exhaustion in firefighters using

C. C. Austin; D. J. Ecobichon; G. Dussault; C. Tirado

1997-01-01

107

Multidimensional, Threshold Effects of Social Support in Firefighters: Is More Support Invariably Better?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between social support (Social Provisions Scale) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) in a sample of male firefighters in a midwestern community (N=53). The authors assessed 5 types of perceived support from 2 sources: peer firefighters and supervisors. Results indicate that reassurance of worth and social…

Varvel, Shiloh Jordan; He, Yuhong; Shannon, Jennifer K.; Tager, David; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Chaichanasakul, Adipat; Mendoza, Monique M.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

2007-01-01

108

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...entering into contracts for the performance of firefighting...would have to be used for the performance of firefighting...at the expense of unit readiness; (2) The contract...renewal of a contract) is for the performance of a function...Prescribes standards for the training and other...

2012-10-01

109

The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

2012-01-01

110

Australian firefighters' exposure to air toxics during bushfire burns of autumn 2005 and 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bushfire fighting is a hazardous occupation and control strategies are generally in place to minimize the hazards. However, little is known regarding firefighters' exposure to bushfire smoke, which is a complex mixture of toxic gases and particles. In Australia, during the prescribed burning season, firefighters are likely to be exposed on a regular basis to bushfire smoke, but whether these

Fabienne Reisen; Stephen K. Brown

2009-01-01

111

Respiratory protection for wildland firefighters - Much ado about nothing or time to revisit accepted thinking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory protection for wildland firefighters is a complex issue and the subject of heated debate and diverging opinions. Sampling has shown that wildland firefighters are exposed to a complex mixture of combustion products including carbon monoxide, irritant gases and vapours, carcinogens and ultra fine respirable particles. While some studies have been interpreted to show that exposure levels, when averaged over

C. C. Austin; N. Goyer

112

Monitoring of firefighters exposure to smoke during fire experiments in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires represent a serious threat to public security in Europe due to the large burned area. Moreover, smoke pollution due to forest fire events is an important public health issue for the communities directly affected, and particularly for the personnel involved in firefighting operations. Aiming to contribute to the scientific knowledge concerning firefighters exposure to forest fires smoke, data

Ana Isabel Miranda; Vera Martins; Pedro Cascão; Jorge Humberto Amorim; Joana Valente; Richard Tavares; Carlos Borrego; Oxana Tchepel; António Jorge Ferreira; Carlos Robalo Cordeiro; Domingos Xavier Viegas; Luís Mário Ribeiro; Luís Paulo Pita

2010-01-01

113

Slip and fall risk among firefighters in relation to balance, muscular capacities and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influencing the safety of firefighters’ work environment is almost impossible. Therefore, good individual physical capacities and adequate protective equipment are important in preventing accidents due to slips and falls. This study investigated slip and fall risk in walking experiments with firefighters wearing fire-protective equipment and determined the associations of balance, muscular capacities and age with the risk of slipping. Professional

Anne Punakallio; Mikko Hirvonen; Raoul Grönqvist

2005-01-01

114

Exposure to bushfire smoke during prescribed burns and wildfires: Firefighters’ exposure risks and options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighters are exposed to known health-damaging air pollutants present in bushfire smoke and poorly managed exposure can result in serious health issues. A better understanding of exposure levels and the major factors influencing exposures is crucial for the development of mitigation strategies to minimise exposure risks and adverse health impacts.This study monitored air toxics within the breathing zone of firefighters

Fabienne Reisen; Dane Hansen

2011-01-01

115

Assessment of the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease events for Qatar Petroleum's firefighters and non-firefighter staff in Qatar.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease is a major public health problem worldwide and firefighters may be at particular occupational risk. In a cross-sectional study in Ras Laffan Industrial City, Qatar, we assessed the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease events for 369 Qatar Petroleum staff at their periodic medical examination. The subjects of the study (all males) were divided into firefighters and non-firefighters groups. Based on the Framingham risk score calculations, 69.9% of the subjects were categorized as low risk, 27.1% as intermediate risk and 2.9% as high risk. None of the firefighters was categorized as high risk, 15.5% were intermediate and the rest were low risk. In the whole group, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most prevalent risk factor (68.8%), followed by hypertension (32.0%) and smoking (15.4%). The mean risk of developing coronary heart disease in firefighters [6.5% (SD 3.7%)] was significantly lower than in non-firefighters 19.5% (SD 6.5%)]. PMID:22571088

Mochtar, I; Hooper, R W

2012-02-01

116

Effects of simulated firefighting on the responses of salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and psychological variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simulated firefighting intervention on salivary alpha-amylase (sA-A), free cortisol (sC), anxiety (STAI), and profile of mood states (POMS) in 20 male firefighters (age 32 ± 1 years, [Vdot]O2peak: 43 ± 5 ml\\/kg per min). During the 12-min firefighting intervention (ambient temperature: 13 ± 1°C; relative humidity: 63 ± 1%), individuals spent 63 ± 28% of the time working at

F. Perroni; A. Tessitore; G. Cibelli; C. Lupo; E. DArtibale; C. Cortis; L. Cignitti; M. De Rosas; L. Capranica

2009-01-01

117

Mental health conditions, individual and job characteristics and sleep disturbances among firefighters.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the associations between mental health conditions, individual and job characteristics and sleep disturbances among firefighters. Of 303 participants, 51.2% reported sleep disturbances. Psychological distress and psychosomatic disturbances were significantly associated with sleep disturbances. Suicidal ideation, unhealthy alcohol use and time as a firefighter were also associated with sleep disturbances but at a borderline level of significance (0.05 < p < .085). These findings may be related to the psychological and physical hazards of firefighting and indicate the importance of research on associated professions. PMID:22517948

Vargas de Barros, Víviam; Martins, Leonardo Fernandes; Saitz, Richard; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

2012-04-19

118

PASS Sound Muffle Tests Using a Structural Firefighter Protective Ensemble Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Firefighters and other emergency responders often work in adverse environments. The operating environments can be very noisy. Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS) devices are safety systems that emit an audible alarm signal when an emergency responder sto...

J. R. Lawson

2009-01-01

119

Analysis of Firetruck Crashes and Associated Firefighter Injuries in the United States  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes.

Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C.

2012-01-01

120

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hours) CONUS: offshore area; and OCONUS...External emergency transfer operations 18 24...hours) CONUS: Offshore area; and OCONUS...firefighting assessment personnel will coordinate...proper type and amount of transfer equipment is...

2013-07-01

121

Analysis of firetruck crashes and associated firefighter injuries in the United States.  

PubMed

Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C

2012-01-01

122

Health Hazard Manual for Firefighters: Exposure to Chemicals and Toxic Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Firefighters, as well as victims, can be exposed to a variety of toxic substances during a fire. Some of these toxicants are particularly insidious because they are produced by thermal decomposition before smoke makes a fire evident.

Nellie J. Brown

1990-01-01

123

Line-of-duty deaths among U.S. firefighters: An analysis of fatality investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 firefighters die in the line-of-duty in the U.S. each year and over 80,000 are injured. This study examined all firefighter fatality investigations (N=189) completed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for fatalities occurring between 2004 and 2009. These investigations produced a total of 1167 recommendations for corrective actions. Thirty-five high frequency recommendations were

Kumar Kunadharaju; Todd D. Smith; David M. DeJoy

2011-01-01

124

A practical cooling strategy for reducing the physiological strain associated with firefighting activity in the heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to establish whether a practical cooling strategy reduces the physiological strain during simulated firefighting activity in the heat. On two separate occasions under high ambient temperatures (49.6 ± 1.8°C, relative humidity (RH) 13 ± 2%), nine male firefighters wearing protective clothing completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km\\/h, 7.5% gradient) separated by a 15-min recovery period, during

D. Barr; W. Gregson; L. Sutton; T. Reilly

2009-01-01

125

Exposure to Traumatic Incidents and Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology in Urban Firefighters in Two Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban firefighters are at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due in part to their exposure to duty-related trauma. This study compared duty-related trauma exposures and the prevalences of posttraumatic stress in U.S. and Canadian firefighters. Both samples reported relatively numerous and frequent posttrauma symptoms, and the rates of self-reported PTSD prevalence did not differ significantly. However, analysis of departmental

Wayne Corneil; Randal Beaton; Shirley Murphy; Clark Johnson; Ken Pike

1999-01-01

126

Wood smoke exposure induces a pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response in firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies report an association between exposure to biomass smoke and cardiopulmonary morbidity. The mechanisms for this association are unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterise the acute pulmonary and systemic inflammatory effects of exposure to forest fire smoke. Seasonal forest firefighters (n552) were recruited before and\\/or after a day of fire-fighting. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires

J. R. Swiston; W. Davidson; S. Attridge; G. T. Li; M. Brauer; S. F. van Eeden

2008-01-01

127

Air-quality management alternatives: United States Air Force fire-fighter training facilities. Doctoral thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air-pollutant emissions from fire-fighter training fires are a small portion of all annual air emissions from fixed and mobile sources at an Air Force installation. However, a single-practice fire burning 300 gallons of aviation fuel releases an estimated one ton of criteria air pollutants during a one- to five-minute period. Bases report conducting fire-fighter training 4 to 134 times per

Brewer

1988-01-01

128

Ergonomic comparison of a chem\\/bio prototype firefighter ensemble and a standard ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighter turnout gear and equipment protect the wearer against external hazards but, unfortunately, restrict mobility.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine the ease of mobility and comfort while wearing a new prototype firefighter ensemble\\u000a (PE) with additional chemical\\/biological hazard protection compared to a standard ensemble (SE) by measuring static and dynamic\\u000a range of motion (ROM), job-related tasks, and

Aitor Coca; R. Roberge; A. Shepherd; J. B. Powell; J. O. Stull; W. J. Williams

2008-01-01

129

The impact of various rehydration volumes for firefighters wearing protective clothing in warm environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined different fluid replacement quantities during intermittent work while wearing firefighting protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus in the heat (35°C, 50% relative humidity). Twelve firefighters walked at 4.5 km per h with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50 min) and rest (30 min) schedule until they reached a rectal temperature of 39.5°C during work periods and 40.0°C during rest,

G. A. Selkirk; T. M. McLellan; J. Wong

2006-01-01

130

Association Between Lung Function and Exposure to Smoke Among Firefighters at Prescribed Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the short-term effects of exposures to PM3.5, acrolein, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide on lung function in a group of firefighters performing prescribed burns. Spirometric measurements were made on 65 firefighters at the beginning, midpoint, and end of their work shift, while exposure was measured over the entire day. The interquartile range (IQR) of daily personal PM3.5 exposures was

James C. Slaughter; Jane Q. Koenig; Timothy E. Reinhardt

2004-01-01

131

Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51

Stefanos N Kales; Elpidoforos S Soteriades; Stavros G Christoudias; David C Christiani

2003-01-01

132

World Trade Center-exposed NYC firefighters face increased cancer risk:  

Cancer.gov

In the largest cancer study of firefighters ever conducted, research published in this week’s 9/11 Special Issue of The Lancet found that New York City firefighters exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site were at least 19 percent more likely to develop cancer in the seven years following the disaster as their non-exposed colleagues and up to 10 percent more likely to develop cancer than a similar sample from the general population.

133

The impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing on the partners of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing on the spouses and significant others of a volunteer\\u000a sample of Oklahoma City firefighters who participated in the bombing rescue effort. Twenty-seven partners of Oklahoma City\\u000a firefighters participated in this study, conducted 42 to 44 months after the bombing. These partners were assessed using a\\u000a structured diagnostic interview

Betty Pfefferbaum; Carol S. North; Kenneth Bunch; Teddy G. Wilson; Phebe Tucker; John K. Schorr

2002-01-01

134

Exploring Occupational and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity in Firefighters: A Theoretical Framework and Study Design  

PubMed Central

Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US). However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters.

Schnall, Peter; Dobson, Marnie; Israel, Leslie; Landsbergis, Paul; Galassetti, Pietro; Pontello, Andria; Kojaku, Stacey; Baker, Dean

2011-01-01

135

Life-saving uncooled IR camera for use in firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent description by a firefighter on the experience of entering a building that is on fire was to liken it to being blindfolded, then being lead to a maze and told there is a victim at the center which you have to recover. In simple terms, firefighters are totally blind and what they need are 'eyes' that can see in the dark and through dense smoke. The development of lightweight thermal cameras using uncooled IR staring arrays and a helmet mounted display has now given the firefighter the 'eyes' in such situations which means less time to achieve a rescue and enhanced personal safety for the firefighter. This paper gives details on the development of the uncooled array camera and how it's been configured to withstand the extreme temperature conditions encountered during a firefighting environment. Also, how the camera and display system have been designed to provide the firefighter with a helmet mounted configuration to enable total 'hands free' operation. This is followed by a description of the special tests required to prove that the complete system can survive in a fire environment and finally a short video which demonstrates how the system performs in real life situations.

Bennett, Mel V.; Matthews, Iain

1996-06-01

136

Exploring occupational and behavioral risk factors for obesity in firefighters: a theoretical framework and study design.  

PubMed

Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US). However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters. PMID:22953214

Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter; Dobson, Marnie; Israel, Leslie; Landsbergis, Paul; Galassetti, Pietro; Pontello, Andria; Kojaku, Stacey; Baker, Dean

2011-12-05

137

Exposure of wildland firefighters to carbon monoxide, fine particles, and levoglucosan.  

PubMed

Wildland firefighters are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. Eighteen wildland firefighters were monitored for their personal exposure to particulate matter with median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns (PM2.5), levoglucosan (LG), and carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate the effect on exposure of various factors and to examine whether the firefighters were able to qualitatively estimate their own exposures. Exposure to PM2.5 and CO was higher when firefighters performed 'holding' tasks compared with 'lighting' duties, whereas exposures to CO and LG were higher when burns were in compartments with predominantly pine vegetation (P < 0.05). Exposures to PM2.5 (64-2068 µg m(-3)) and CO (0.02-8.2 p.p.m.) fell within the ranges observed in previous studies. Some recommended shorter term exposure limits for CO were exceeded in a few instances. The very low LG:PM2.5 ratios in some samples suggest that the exposures of wildland firefighters to pollutants at prescribed burns may be substantially impacted by non-woodsmoke sources. The association of the qualitative exposure estimation of the firefighters with actual PM2.5 and CO measurements (P < 0.01) indicates that qualitative estimation may be used to assess exposure in epidemiology studies. PMID:23813888

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Simpson, Christopher D; Onstad, Gretchen; Naeher, Luke P

2013-06-27

138

Effects of Liquid Cooling Garments on Recovery and Performance Time in Individuals Performing Strenuous Work Wearing a Firefighter Ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages

Jung-Hyun Kim; Aitor Coca; W. Jon Williams; Raymond J. Roberge

2011-01-01

139

Biomonitoring of chemical exposure among New York City firefighters responding to the World Trade Center fire and collapse.  

PubMed

The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 exposed New York City firefighters to smoke and dust of unprecedented magnitude and duration. The chemicals and the concentrations produced from any fire are difficult to predict, but estimates of internal dose exposures can be assessed by the biological monitoring of blood and urine. We analyzed blood and urine specimens obtained from 321 firefighters responding to the WTC fires and collapse for 110 potentially fire-related chemicals. Controls consisted of 47 firefighters not present at the WTC. Sampling occurred 3 weeks after 11 September, while fires were still burning. When reference or background ranges were available, most chemical concentrations were found to be generally low and not outside these ranges. Compared with controls, the exposed firefighters showed significant differences in adjusted geometric means for six of the chemicals and significantly greater detection rates for an additional three. Arrival time was a significant predictor variable for four chemicals. Special Operations Command firefighters (n = 95), compared with other responding WTC firefighters (n = 226), had differences in concentrations or detection rate for 14 of the chemicals. Values for the Special Operations Command firefighters were also significantly different from the control group values for these same chemicals and for two additional chemicals. Generally, the chemical concentrations in the other firefighter group were not different from those of controls. Biomonitoring was used to characterize firefighter exposure at the WTC disaster. Although some of the chemicals analyzed showed statistically significant differences, these differences were generally small. PMID:14644665

Edelman, Philip; Osterloh, John; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Sam P; Grainger, James; Jones, Robert; Blount, Ben; Calafat, Antonia; Turner, Wayman; Feldman, Debra; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Lushniak, Boris D; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David

2003-12-01

140

Development of a Speech Amplifier System for Use With the Navy A4 Oxygen Breathing Apparatus and a Proposed Firefighting Instructor's Breathing Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Navy damage control personnel (especially firefighters) are often required to work in areas of possible or actual oxygen deficiency and areas where the concentration of smoke or other toxic gases is high. In these situations, the investigator or firefight...

T. A. Giordano

1976-01-01

141

Comparison of sensory-Neural Hearing between Firefighters and Office Workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Rescuer systems personnel such as firefighters have importance in health assessment. Because of stressful situation, chemicals, metals, gases and noises, they need many physical and paraclinic examination such as audiometry in periodic examinations. Comparison of sensory – neural hearing between firefighters and office workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study had been done on firefighters and office workers with use of the clinical – health issues. Data had been analyzed in SPSS 11.5 by T-test and Chi-2 with significance level of P<0.05. Results: Mean of hearing threshold in firefighters’ right ear in 4000, 6000, 8000 Hz was 16.05±8.66 dB and in office workers was 15.20±6.47 dB with t=0.786 and P=0.433 had no significant difference, this mean in firefighters’ left ear was 16.17±8.12 dB and in office workers was 15.52±6.67 dB with t=0.617 and P=0.538 had no significant difference too. Mean of hearing threshold in firefighters’ right ear in age 40 or less than it in 4000 Hz was 20.51±10.11 dB and in office workers was 17.50±5.28 dB with t=2.153 and P=0.033 had significant difference. Conclusion: Mean of hearing threshold in firefighters in all frequencies was normal, except 4000 frequency. It showed the early effect of occupational exposure on hearing.

Assadi, Seyedeh Negar; Esmaily, Habibollah; Mostaan, Leila

2013-01-01

142

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section...NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention...Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel....

2011-10-01

143

Determination of Firefighter Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzene During Fire Fighting Using Measurement of Biological Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accomplishing their duties, firefighters are potentially exposed to a vast array of toxic combustion and pyrolysis products such as benzene, carbon monoxide, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAH and benzene was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t -muconic acid, respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period

Chantal Caux; Cindy OBrien; Claude Viau

2002-01-01

144

Acute health effects among firefighters exposed to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire  

SciTech Connect

Firefighters are frequently being called on to fight fires that are chemical in nature. In the aftermath of a chemical fire in Plainfield, New Jersey on March 20-21, 1985, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study which surveyed 80 firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as well as 15 nonexposed firefighter subjects. By means of an 81-item symptom checklist, exposed firefighters reported more frequent and severe symptoms at 5-6 weeks post incident. This was true for a total symptomatology score as well as 19 individual items. Some of the items with an elevated risk were consistent with exposure to hydrogen chloride, the main pyrolysis product of polyvinyl chloride. Other items with an elevated risk appeared to be related to smoke inhalation while others seemed psychosocial in nature. Analyses conducted within the exposed firefighter group showed that fighting the fire the first day, being a truckman, and residence within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the firehouse were significant risk factors for high total symptom scores. These risk factors may have been associated with level or duration of exposure to the toxic substances produced during the fire.

Markowitz, J.S.; Gutterman, E.M. (New York State Psychiatric Institute (USA)); Schwartz, S.; Link, B.; Gorman, S.M. (Columbia Univ., New York (USA))

1989-05-01

145

Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN) called SmokeNet for personnel tracking. The project aims to address urban/industrial firefighting procedures in need of improvement. Two "user-needs" studies with the Chicago and Berkeley Fire Departments are briefly presented. The FIRE project"s initial HMD prototype designs are then discussed with regard to feedback from the user-needs studies. These prototypes are evaluated in their potential costs and benefits to firefighters and found to need improvement. Next, some currently available commercial HMDs are reviewed and compared in their cost, performance, and potential for use by firefighters. Feedback from the Berkeley Fire Department user-needs study, in which the initial prototypes were demonstrated, is compiled into a concept selection matrix for the next prototypes. This matrix is used to evaluate a variety of HMDs, including some of the commercial units presented, and to select the best design options. Finally, the current prototypes of the two best design options are presented and discussed.

Wilson, Joel; Steingart, Dan; Romero, Russell; Reynolds, Jessica; Mellers, Eric; Redfern, Andrew; Lim, Lloyd; Watts, William; Patton, Colin; Baker, Jessica; Wright, Paul

2005-05-01

146

Blowout contingency plans can cut firefighting and capping risks  

SciTech Connect

Prepared in advance of drilling, blowout contingency plans and immediate response plans can reduce firefighting, well capping, and possible relief well costs during a blowout. Regional and site-specific blowout contingency plans are especially beneficial for operators working world-wide, where logistics difficulties can easily bog down operations. This article is the first of an 8-part series on well control. Future articles will cover pressurized tree removal, well capping operations, techniques for killing wells after capping, snubbing operations, handling H{sub 2}S, shallow gas hazards, and project management. Because it is impossible to eliminate the potential for a blowout, the only logical and responsible position is to make plans to react before an accident occurs. Such a blowout contingency plan for operations should include information about the following: Immediate reaction plan (evacuations, internal and public notifications, and data collection); Blowout contingency plan (general logistic plans or site-specific plans with relief well details); Engineering modeling; Mobilization of resources to control the blowout (first wave of equipment and personnel); and Means for taking and verifying appropriate responses. The paper discusses immediate response plans, blowout contingency plans, regional and site specific plans, and recommends the absolute minimum requirements for a plan that should be created.

Abel, L.W. [Wild Well Control Inc., Spring, TX (United States)

1995-05-01

147

The firefighter coping self-efficacy scale: measure development and validation.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy (FFCSE) Scale, a new measure developed to assess firefighters' perceived competence in managing stressful and traumatic experiences encountered on the job. Two samples of firefighters completed the FFCSE Scale at two different time points. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional structure, which was further supported with confirmatory factor analysis using a second sample. Internal consistency of the measure was excellent. Analysis of cross-sectional data indicated FFCSE was positively associated with measures of psychological well-being and social support, and negatively associated with work-related stress and psychological distress. FFCSE also uniquely contributed to the variance in psychological distress, over and above variables previously shown to be associated with distress among this population. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:21476153

Lambert, Jessica E; Benight, Charles C; Harrison, Erica; Cieslak, Roman

2011-05-24

148

Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

2013-04-01

149

Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.  

PubMed Central

A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

1979-01-01

150

Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556); training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3) and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8) carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ? 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9), current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4), hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1), and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6). Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths.

Kales, Stefanos N; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Christoudias, Stavros G; Christiani, David C

2003-01-01

151

A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Dios, Jose Ramiro Martinez-de; Baturone, Anibal Ollero

2012-01-01

152

STS-31 crew training: firefighting, food tasting, EVA prep and post  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

1990-03-01

153

Mediating Effects of Social Support on Firefighters' Sense of Community and Perceptions of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between psychological sense of community, social-support networks, and care-giver stress and satisfaction among firefighters. No significant gender differences were obtained, but zero-order correlates demonstrated significant relationships among all four variables. In examining the mediating effects of…

Cowman, Shaun E.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Liao-Troth, Matthew

2004-01-01

154

Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Firefighting Tactics and Equipment Evaluation Tests: Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the crash of an EA-6B aircraft on the flight deck of the USS NIMITZ on May 26, 1981, an extensive research program was undertaken to address possible deficiencies in shipboard firefighting procedures and systems and to identify potential areas f...

H. W. Carhart J. T. Leonard R. L. Darwin R. E. Burns T. J. Hughes

1986-01-01

155

Developing Leaders for Decision Making Under Stress: Wildland Firefighters in the South Canyon Fire and Its  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the sources of ineffective leadership decisions, we focus on ten decisions made by a leader of a wildland firefighter crew during the fatal South Canyon fire of July 5-6, 1996. The decisions of team leaders in fire zones are unusually clear-cut and consequential for the goals of the enterprise, but they are not unlike decisions faced by managers

Aftermath MICHAEL USEEM; JAMES COOK; LARRY SUTTON

156

3D localization by a biomimetic sonar system in a fire-fighting application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigate the effects of medium disturbances on the usability of a biomimetic sonar system in a target localization application. In particular, we concentrate on a fire-fighting application giving rise to specific types of medium disturbances. We determine experimentally the effects of these medium disturbances: undisturbed air (reference), the presence of small water droplets, large convective air-currents

Jan Steckel; Wouter Vanduren; Herbert Peremans

2011-01-01

157

Purification of firefighting water containing a fluorinated surfactant by reverse osmosis coupled to electrocoagulation–filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extinguishments of large scale solvent fires produce large amounts of water that may contain various fluorinated surfactants depending on the type of firefighting foam used. Due to their chemical nature, fluorinated parts of fluorinated compounds are highly resistant to biochemical and advanced oxidation processes. Therefore the current treatment for the degradation of fluorinated surfactant from water used in fire extinguishment

Clément Baudequin; Estelle Couallier; Mohammed Rakib; Isabelle Deguerry; Romain Severac; Martial Pabon

2011-01-01

158

Task-Relevant Sound and User Experience in Computer-Mediated Firefighter Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently intense to make the training viable and effective.…

Houtkamp, Joske M.; Toet, Alexander; Bos, Frank A.

2012-01-01

159

Race "Outsider Within" the Firehouse: African American and White Women Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed and interviewed black and white women firefighters regarding subordination through imposed exclusion, tokenism, and omnirelevance of race/ethnicity in their perceptions of work experience. Both groups experienced insufficient instruction, hostility, silence, hypersupervision, insufficient support, stereotyping, and intertwining of race…

Yoder, Janice D.; Berendsen, Lynne L.

2001-01-01

160

Serum heavy metals and hemoglobin related compounds in Saudi Arabia firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including heavy metals, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane and some particulates. Many of these materials have been implicated in the triggering of several diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of fire smoke exposure on serum heavy metals and possible affection on iron functions compounds

Abdulrahman L Al-Malki

2009-01-01

161

A Screening-Level Assessment of the Health Risks of Chronic Smoke Exposure for Wildland Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide,

Thomas F. Booze; Timothy E. Reinhardt; Sharon J. Quiring; Roger D. Ottmar

2004-01-01

162

Australian firefighters' exposure to air toxics during bushfire burns of autumn 2005 and 2006.  

PubMed

Bushfire fighting is a hazardous occupation and control strategies are generally in place to minimize the hazards. However, little is known regarding firefighters' exposure to bushfire smoke, which is a complex mixture of toxic gases and particles. In Australia, during the prescribed burning season, firefighters are likely to be exposed on a regular basis to bushfire smoke, but whether these exposures affect health has yet to be determined. There are a number of factors that govern whether exposure to smoke will result in short-term and/or long-term health problems, including the concentrations of air pollutants within the breathing zone of the firefighter, the exposure duration, and health susceptibility of the individual, especially for pre-existing lung or heart disease. This paper presents measurements of firefighters' personal exposure to bushfire smoke, the first step within a risk management framework. It provides crucial information on the magnitude, extent and frequency of personal exposure to bushfire smoke for a range of typical scenarios. It is found that the primary air toxics of concern are carbon monoxide (CO), respirable particles and formaldehyde. Also, work activity is a major factor influencing exposure with exposure standards (both average and short-term limits) likely to be exceeded for activities such as suppression of spot fires, holding the fireline, and patrolling at the edge of a burn area in the urban-rural interface. PMID:18829114

Reisen, Fabienne; Brown, Stephen K

2008-10-01

163

Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

2012-01-01

164

The impact of obesity on back and core muscular endurance in firefighters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between obesity and measures of back and core muscular endurance in firefighters. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in career firefighters without low back pain. Obesity measures included body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Muscular endurance was assessed with the Modified Biering Sorensen (back) and Plank (core) tests. Relationships were explored using t-tests and regression analyses. Results. Of the 83 participants enrolled, 24 (29%) were obese (BMI ? 30). Back and core muscular endurance was 27% lower for obese participants. Significant negative correlations were observed for BMI and body fat percentage with back and core endurance (r = -0.42 to -0.52). Stepwise regression models including one obesity measure (BMI, body fat percentage, and fat mass/fat-free mass), along with age and self-reported physical exercise, accounted for 17-19% of the variance in back muscular endurance and 29-37% of the variance in core muscular endurance. Conclusions. Obesity is associated with reduced back and core muscular endurance in firefighters, which may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Obesity should be considered along with back and core muscular endurance when designing exercise programs for back pain prevention in firefighters. PMID:23213491

Mayer, John M; Nuzzo, James L; Chen, Ren; Quillen, William S; Verna, Joe L; Miro, Rebecca; Dagenais, Simon

2012-11-19

165

The Impact of Obesity on Back and Core Muscular Endurance in Firefighters  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between obesity and measures of back and core muscular endurance in firefighters. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in career firefighters without low back pain. Obesity measures included body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Muscular endurance was assessed with the Modified Biering Sorensen (back) and Plank (core) tests. Relationships were explored using t-tests and regression analyses. Results. Of the 83 participants enrolled, 24 (29%) were obese (BMI ? 30). Back and core muscular endurance was 27% lower for obese participants. Significant negative correlations were observed for BMI and body fat percentage with back and core endurance (r = ?0.42 to ?0.52). Stepwise regression models including one obesity measure (BMI, body fat percentage, and fat mass/fat-free mass), along with age and self-reported physical exercise, accounted for 17–19% of the variance in back muscular endurance and 29–37% of the variance in core muscular endurance. Conclusions. Obesity is associated with reduced back and core muscular endurance in firefighters, which may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Obesity should be considered along with back and core muscular endurance when designing exercise programs for back pain prevention in firefighters.

Mayer, John M.; Nuzzo, James L.; Chen, Ren; Quillen, William S.; Verna, Joe L.; Miro, Rebecca; Dagenais, Simon

2012-01-01

166

Pack hike test finishing time for Australian firefighters: pass rates and correlates of performance.  

PubMed

The pack hike test (PHT, 4.83 km hike wearing a 20.4-kg load) was devised to determine the job readiness of USA wildland firefighters. This study measured PHT performance in a sample of Australian firefighters who currently perform the PHT (career land management firefighters, LMFF) and those who do not (suburban/regional volunteer firefighters, VFF). The study also investigated the relationships between firefighters' PHT performance and their performance across a range of fitness tests for both groups. Twenty LMFF and eighteen age-, body mass-, and height-matched VFF attempted the PHT, and a series of muscular endurance, power, strength and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. Bivariate correlations between the participants' PHT finishing time and their performance in a suite of different fitness tests were determined using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient. The mean PHT finishing time for LMFF (42.2 ± 2.8 min) was 9 ± 14% faster (p = 0.001) than for VFF (46.1 ± 3.6 min). The pass rate (the percentage of participants who completed the PHT in under 45 min) for LMFF (90%) was greater than that of VFF (39%, p = 0.001). For LMFF, VO(2peak) in L min(-1)(r = -0.66, p = 0.001) and the duration they could sustain a grip 'force' of 25 kg (r = -0.69, p = 0.001) were strongly correlated with PHT finishing time. For VFF, VO(2peak) in mL kg(-1) min(-1)(r = -0.75, p = 0.002) and the duration they could hold a 1.2-m bar attached to 45.5 kg in a 'hose spray position' (r = -0.69, p = 0.004) were strongly correlated with PHT finishing time. This study shows that PHT fitness-screening could severely limit the number of VFF eligible for duty, compromising workforce numbers and highlights the need for specific and valid firefighter fitness standards. The results also demonstrate the strong relationships between PHT performance and firefighters' cardiorespiratory fitness and local muscular endurance. Those preparing for the PHT should focus their training on these fitness components in the weeks and months prior to undertaking the PHT. PMID:20888552

Phillips, M; Petersen, A; Abbiss, C R; Netto, K; Payne, W; Nichols, D; Aisbett, B

2011-03-01

167

Influence of genetic susceptibility on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine of firefighters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Oxidative DNA damage has been implicated in carcinogenesis. The DNA damage can be assessed from the urinary excretion of the DNA-repair product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). The factors were investigated that influenced the excretion of urinary 8-OH-dG in 78 firefighters.?METHODS—53 Out of 78 firefighters were exposed to fire within 5 days of the study and 25 were not. 8-OH-dG was measured by ELISA and the distribution of the genotypes of CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 was measured by polymerase chain reaction.?RESULTS—The homozygous wild type frequencies of CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 ile-val, CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were 31.5%, 56.2%, 60.3%, 50.7%, and 53.4%, respectively. The geometric mean of urinary 8-OH-dG was 14.1 ng/mg creatinine in more active firefighters and 12.3 ng/mg creatinine in non-exposed and less active subjects. Significantly increased concentrations of urinary 8-OH-dG were found to be associated with cigarette smoking, and 14% of the variation of 8-OH-dG was explained by cigarettes smoked per day. The CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 ile-val, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms were not found to be significantly associated with the urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. However, the subjects carrying the CYP2E1 mutant type excreted higher concentrations of 8-OH-dG and there was a marginally significant interaction of GSTT1 with firefighting activity. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that smoking was the strongest predictor of excretion of 8-OH-dG. Age, body mass index, and firefighting activity were not significant predictive factors for urinary 8-OH-dG.?CONCLUSION—Smoking and CYP2E1 gene polymorphism may be important factors in carcinogenesis and the GSTT1 positive genotype may be a genetic susceptibility factor in firefighters who are exposed regularly to various chemical carcinogens.???Keywords: firefighters; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; susceptibility

Hong, Y.; Park, H.; Ha, E.

2000-01-01

168

The impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing on the partners of firefighters.  

PubMed

This study explored the impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing on the spouses and significant others of a volunteer sample of Oklahoma City firefighters who participated in the bombing rescue effort. Twenty-seven partners of Oklahoma City firefighters participated in this study, conducted 42 to 44 months after the bombing. These partners were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview and a companion interview to examine exposure, rates of psychiatric disorders and symptoms, functioning, health, and relationships. Coping and perception of the firefighter partner's response were also examined. Some of the women were exposed directly; most knew someone who had been involved in the disaster, and all reported exposure through the media. The rate of psychiatric disorders in the women following the disaster was 22%, essentially unchanged from before the incident. One developed bomb-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most were satisfied with their work performance; 15% reported that their health had worsened since the bombing, and more than one third reported permanent changes in relationships as a result of the bombing. Most coped by turning to friends or relatives, with less than 10% seeking professional help. Many described symptoms in their firefighter mate; all reported that their mate had been affected by the experience, and one half said their mate had fully recovered. The mates of these firefighters fared relatively well in terms of psychiatric disorders, symptoms, and ability to function. The prevalence of bomb-related posttraumatic stress disorder was considerably lower in this sample than in samples of individuals more directly exposed to the bombing, although some reported changes in relationships and health. The results suggest the need for further study of the impact of interpersonal exposure in those who provide support for rescue-and-recovery workers in major terrorist incidents. PMID:12200505

Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Bunch, Kenneth; Wilson, Teddy G; Tucker, Phebe; Schorr, John K

2002-09-01

169

Association between lung function and exposure to smoke among firefighters at prescribed burns.  

PubMed

We investigated the short-term effects of exposures to PM3.5, acrolein, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide on lung function in a group of firefighters performing prescribed burns. Spirometric measurements were made on 65 firefighters at the beginning, midpoint, and end of their work shift, while exposure was measured over the entire day. The interquartile range (IQR) of daily personal PM3.5 exposures was 235 micrograms/m3 to 1317 micrograms/m3, with an average daily exposure of 882 micrograms/m3. Concentrations of acrolein (IQR: [0.002, 0.018] ppm), formaldehyde (IQR: [0.008, 0.085] ppm), and carbon monoxide (IQR: [2.10, 10.48] ppm) were similarly elevated. In this group of firefighters, FEV1 changed by -0.125 L from preshift to postshift (p < .001). We examined the association between this cross-shift lung function decrement and smoke exposure. A 1000 micrograms/m3 increase in PM3.5 was associated with a -0.030 L change in the cross-shift FEV1 (95% CI [-0.087, 0.026]). Acrolein, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide exposure were also not significantly associated with changes in FEV1, FVC, or FEF25-75. We concluded that while firefighters' lung function significantly decreased from preshift to postshift, firefighters exposed to greater concentrations of respiratory irritants did not experience greater lung function decrements. We could not establish a significant link to any of the individual toxic components of smoke we measured. PMID:15202156

Slaughter, James C; Koenig, Jane Q; Reinhardt, Timothy E

2004-01-01

170

Inflammatory Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure among Wildland Firefighters Working at Prescribed Burns at the Savannah River Site, SC  

EPA Science Inventory

Objectives: Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsm...

171

Effects of firefighters' self-contained breathing apparatus' weight and its harness design on the physiological and subjective responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effects of firefighters' self-contained breathing apparatus' (SCBA) weight and its harness design on the physiological and subjective responses, eight male students performed treadmill exercise under four conditions: the 8 kg firefighter protective clothing (PC) (Control), the PC + an 11 kg SCBA with an old harness (Test A), the PC + a 6.4 kg SCBA with an old harness (Test

Ilham Bakri; Joo-Young Lee; Kouhei Nakao; Hitoshi Wakabayashi; Yutaka Tochihara

2012-01-01

172

A comparative study of drainage characteristics in AFFF and FFFP compressed-air fire-fighting foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drainage measurements are commonly used for assessing the quality, water-retention ability and stability of aqueous foams used in fire-fighting applications. A new experimental technique is proposed in this paper, for measuring the drainage rate of liquid from compressed-air fire-fighting foams. The procedure outlined here provides advancement in precision over that prescribed by the standard for low expansion foams (NFPA 11,

S. A. Magrabi; B. Z. Dlugogorski; G. J. Jameson

2002-01-01

173

Depressive Symptoms among Firefighters and Related Factors after the Response to Hurricane Katrina  

PubMed Central

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted an evaluation regarding physical and psychological health symptoms among New Orleans firefighters 13 weeks after Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S. Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005. This report examines associations between depressive symptoms and concurrent comorbidity. Depressive symptoms were twice as likely among those with either lower respiratory symptoms or skin rash. Firefighters housed with their families were less likely to report depressive symptoms compared to those not living with their families. Perceived low supervisor support was associated with depressive symptoms, whereas participating in group counseling was not. The results underscore the need for the incorporation of physical and psychological health follow-up of emergency responders after natural disasters to better understand, monitor, and treat their health conditions.

Driscoll, Richard; Bernard, Bruce; West, Christine

2007-01-01

174

The Use of CFD Calculations to Evaluate Fire-Fighting Tactics in a Possible Backdraft Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an attempt to integrate theoretical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations with practical fire-fighting\\u000a tactics commonly used when arriving at the scene of an underventilated fire. The paper shows that CFD has a great potential\\u000a in improving understanding and creating better effectiveness in the estimation of fire-fighting tactics. If burning has occurred\\u000a in a lack of oxygen for

Georges Guigay; Daniel Gojkovic; Lars-Göran Bengtsson; Björn Karlsson; Jónas Elíasson

2009-01-01

175

Development of Infrared Scene Projectors for Testing FireFighter Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed two types of infrared scene projectors for hardware-in-the-loop testing of thermal imaging cameras such as those used by fire-fighters. In one, direct projection, images are projected directly into the camera. In the other, indirect projection, images are projected onto a diffuse screen, which is then viewed by the camera. Both projectors use a digital micromirror array as

Jorge E. Neira; Joseph P. Rice; Francine K. Amon

176

Women Firefighters' Experiences in the Western Australian Volunteer Bush Fire Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events, such as Black Saturday, have shown how invaluable Australia’s volunteer firefighters are to communities. Volunteer numbers appear to be declining nation-wide and a majority of volunteer fire services report under-representation of women in operational roles. To ascertain an understanding of experiences and issues faced by women in volunteer fire services, the aim of the current study was to

Cindy Branch-Smith; Julie Ann Pooley

2010-01-01

177

UNDULATION TRAINING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HIERARCHICAL FITNESS AND IMPROVED FIREFIGHTER JOB PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peterson, MD, Dodd, DJ, Alvar, BA, Rhea, MR, and Favre, M. Undulation training for development of hierarchical fitness and improvedfirefighter job performance. J StrengthCond Res 22(5): 1683-1695, 2008—Firefighters routinely encounter physical demands that contribute to countless musculoskeletal injuries. Seemingly, a progressive prescription for fitness would offer superior protection against intrinsic job risks. The purpose of this study was to investigate

MARK D. PETERSON; DANIEL J. DODD; BRENT A. ALVAR; MATTHEW R. RHEA; MIKE FAVRE

178

Firefighting foam stability: the effect of the drag reducer poly(ethylene) oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence in fluids of very small amounts of high molecular weight polymers produces high levels of drag reduction in the fluid flow. This phenomenon, often termed the Toms Effect, can be used in firefighting, mainly due to the reduction in the energy necessary to pump water. The use of one of the most efficient drag reducing agents—poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)—dissolved

R. C. R Figueredo; E Sabadini

2003-01-01

179

Comparison of two cool vests on heat-strain reduction while wearing a firefighting ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a six-pack versus a four-pack cool vest in reducing heat strain in men dressed in firefighting ensemble, while resting and exercising in a warm\\/humid environment [34.4°C (day bulb), 28.9°C (wet bulb)]. Male volunteers (n = 12) were monitored for rectal temperature (T\\u000are), mean skin temperature (T\\u000ask), heart rate, and energy expenditure during

B. L. Bennett; R. D. Hagan; K. A. Huey; C. Minson; D. Cain

1995-01-01

180

Cancer incidence among firefighters in Seattle and Tacoma, Washington (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine if exposure to carcinogens in fire smoke increases the risk of cancer, we examined the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 2,447 male firefighters in Seattle and Tacoma, (Washington, USA). The study population was followed for 16 years (1974–89) and the incidence of cancer, ascertained using a population-based tumor registry, was compared with local rates

Paul A. Demers; Harvey Checkoway; Thomas L. Vaughan; Noel S. Weiss; Nicholas J. Heyer; Linda Rosenstock

1994-01-01

181

Physiological and subjective responses to cooling devices on firefighting protective clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of ice-packs (ICE) and phase change material (PCM) cooling devices\\u000a in reducing physiological load based on subjects’ physiological and subjective responses while the subjects exercised on a\\u000a bicycle ergometer while wearing firefighting protective clothing in a relatively high temperature environment (30°C, 50%RH).\\u000a Subjects were eight graduate students, aged 25.9 years

Chinmei Chou; Yutaka Tochihara; Taegyou Kim

2008-01-01

182

Can firefighter instructors perform a simulated rescue after a live fire training exercise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were undertaken to determine whether firefighter instructors are capable of performing a simulated rescue task\\u000a after undertaking a live fire training exercise (LFTE) lasting approximately 40 min. In the first study, ten instructors performed\\u000a two simulated rescue tasks in air at 19°C, involving dragging an 81-kg dummy for 15 m along a corridor and down two flights\\u000a of stairs. The

Clare M. Eglin; Michael J. Tipton

2005-01-01

183

Comorbid Trends in World Trade Center Cough Syndrome and Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background: We describe the relationship between World Trade Center (WTC) cough syndrome symptoms, pulmonary function, and symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in WTC-exposed firefighters in the first year post-September 11, 2001 (baseline), and 3 to 4 years later (follow-up). Methods: Five thousand three hundred sixty-three firefighters completed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and questionnaires at both times. Relationships among WTC cough syndrome, probable PTSD, and PFTs were analyzed using simple and multivariable models. We also examined the effects of cofactors, including WTC exposure. Results: WTC cough syndrome was found in 1,561 firefighters (29.1%) at baseline and 1,186 (22.1%) at follow-up, including 559 with delayed onset (present only at follow-up). Probable PTSD was found in 458 firefighters (8.5%) at baseline and 548 (10.2%) at follow-up, including 343 with delayed onset. Baseline PTSD symptom counts and probable PTSD were associated with WTC cough syndrome at baseline, at follow-up, and in those with delayed-onset WTC cough syndrome. Similarly, WTC cough syndrome symptom counts and WTC cough syndrome at baseline were associated with probable PTSD at baseline, at follow-up, and in those with delayed-onset probable PTSD. WTC arrival time and work duration were cofactors of both outcomes. A small but consistent association existed between pulmonary function and WTC cough syndrome, but none with PTSD. Conclusions: The study showed a moderate association between WTC cough syndrome and probable PTSD. The presence of one contributed to the likelihood of the other, even after adjustment for shared cofactors such as WTC exposure.

Niles, Justin K.; Gustave, Jackson; Cohen, Hillel W.; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Kelly, Kerry J.; Glass, Lara; Prezant, David J.

2011-01-01

184

Long term health complaints following the Amsterdam Air Disaster in police officers and fire-fighters  

PubMed Central

Background On 4 October 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Fire?fighters and police officers assisted with the rescue work. Objectives To examine the long term health complaints in rescue workers exposed to a disaster. Methods A historical cohort study was performed among police officers (n?=?834) and fire?fighters (n?=?334) who performed at least one disaster related task and reference groups of their non?exposed colleagues (n?=?634 and n?=?194, respectively). The main outcome measures included digestive, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous system, airway, skin, post?traumatic stress, fatigue, and general mental health complaints; haematological and biochemical laboratory values; and urinalysis outcomes. Results Police officers and fire?fighters who were professionally exposed to a disaster reported more physical and mental health complaints, compared to the reference groups. No clinically relevant statistically significant differences in laboratory outcomes were found. Conclusions This study is the first to examine long term health complaints in a large sample of rescue workers exposed to a disaster in comparison to reference groups of non?exposed colleagues. Findings show that even in the long term, and in the absence of laboratory abnormalities, rescue workers report more health complaints.

Huizink, A C; Slottje, P; Witteveen, A B; Bijlsma, J A; Twisk, J W R; Smidt, N; Bramsen, I; van Mechelen, W; van der Ploeg, H M; Bouter, L M; Smid, T

2006-01-01

185

Exercise-induced hypertension among healthy firefighters-a comparison between two different definitions.  

PubMed

Different studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the association of hypertensive response to exercise and cardiovascular morbidity. We compared two different definitions of exaggerated hypertensive response to exercise and their association with cardio-respiratory fitness in a population of healthy firefighters. We examined blood pressure response to exercise in 720 normotensive male career firefighters. Fitness was measured as peak metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) achieved during maximal exercise treadmill tests. Abnormal hypertensive response was defined either as systolic blood pressure ? 200 mm Hg; or alternatively, as responses falling in the upper tertile of blood pressure change from rest to exertion, divided by the maximal workload achieved. Using the simple definition of a 200 mm Hg cutoff at peak exercise less fit individuals (METs ? 12) were protected from an exaggerated hypertensive response (OR 0.45, 95%CI 0.30-0.67). However, using the definition of exercise-induced hypertension that corrects for maximal workload, less fit firefighters had almost twice the risk (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3-2.47). Blood pressure change corrected for maximal workload is better correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Systolic blood pressure elevation during peak exercise likely represents an adaptive response, whereas elevation out of proportion to the maximal workload may indicate insufficient vasodilation and a maladaptive response. Prospective studies are needed to best define exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. PMID:23246464

Leiba, Adi; Baur, Dorothee M; Kales, Stefanos N

2012-12-14

186

Injury among a population based sample of career firefighters in the central USA.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Rates of occupational injuries among firefighters are high because of the physically demanding and variable tasks required by their job. While descriptive data about injuries exist, few studies have explored individual risk factors and their relationship to occupational injury. METHODS: The current study presents data from a population-based sample of 462 career firefighters from 11 randomly-selected fire departments in the Missouri Valley region of the USA (Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska) who participated in a study evaluating risks for negative cardiovascular outcomes and injury. Relationships were examined between injury and demographic characteristics, body composition, fitness, and health behaviours. RESULTS: Participants were most likely to be injured during physical exercise and those who reported regular on-duty exercise had a fourfold increase in risk for exercise-related injury compared with those who did not exercise on duty (OR=4.06, 95% CI 1.73 to 12.24). However, those who exercised were half as likely to sustain non-exercise injuries (OR=0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the benefit of physical training for firefighters despite the risk of injury during exercise. PMID:23504995

Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S Carlos; Haddock, Christopher Keith; Jitnarin, Nattinee

2013-03-16

187

The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) firefighter study: testing mediating mechanisms.  

PubMed

This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team intervention with their work shift or a control condition. Intervention sessions taught benefits of a healthy diet and regular exercise, and sought to improve social norms and social support from coworkers for healthy behavior. At posttest, team intervention participants had increased their fruit and vegetable consumption as compared to control participants. An increase in knowledge of fruit and vegetable benefits and improved dietary coworker norms partially mediated these effects. Exercise habits and VO2 max were related to targeted mediators but were not significantly changed by the team intervention. Partial support was found for both the action and conceptual theories underlying the intervention. Our findings illustrate how an effective program's process can be deconstructed to understand the underpinnings of behavior change and refine interventions. Further, fire stations may improve the health of firefighters by emphasizing the benefits of healthy diet and exercise behaviors while also encouraging behavior change by coworkers as a whole. PMID:21728433

Ranby, Krista W; MacKinnon, David P; Fairchild, Amanda J; Elliot, Diane L; Kuehl, Kerry S; Goldberg, Linn

2011-10-01

188

Smokeless tobacco and dual use among firefighters in the central United States.  

PubMed

Little is known about smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in the fire service, whose personnel need to maintain high levels of health and fitness given the rigorous physical and mental job requirements. We examined the relationships among variables associated with SLT use and dual tobacco use (SLT and smoking) among 353 male career firefighters. Around 13% of male career firefighters reported being current exclusive SLT users, and 2.6% used both cigarettes and SLT. Age-adjusted models revealed that race, binge drinking, and dietary fat consumption were positively associated with exclusive SLT use when compared to nontobacco users. SLT users were much more likely to binge drink (OR = 3.98, P < .01) and consume high fat foods (OR = 1.94, P < .05). Only high dietary fat consumption was a strong correlate (OR = 8.41, P < .05) of dual use when compared to nontobacco users. SLT and dual tobacco use are associated with significant health risks. Detailed information on the predictors of SLT use among firefighters will aid in developing more effective tobacco prevention and cessation intervention in fire service. PMID:23533451

Jitnarin, Nattinee; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C; Jahnke, Sara

2013-03-06

189

The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) Firefighter Study: Testing Mediating Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models’ Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team intervention with their work shift or a control condition. Intervention sessions taught benefits of a healthy diet and regular exercise and sought to improve social norms and social support from coworkers for healthy behavior. At post-test team intervention participants had increased their fruit and vegetable consumption as compared to control participants. An increase in knowledge of fruit and vegetable benefits and improved dietary coworker norms partially mediated these effects. Exercise habits and VO2 max were related to targeted mediators but were not significantly changed by the team intervention. Partial support was found for both the action and conceptual theories underlying the intervention. Our findings illustrate how an effective program’s process can be deconstructed to understand the underpinnings of behavior change and refine interventions. Further, fire stations may improve the health of firefighters by emphasizing the benefits of healthy diet and exercise behaviors while also encouraging behavior change by coworkers as a whole.

Ranby, Krista W.; MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Elliot, Diane L.; Kuehl, Kerry S.; Goldberg, Linn

2012-01-01

190

Prospective study of hepatic, renal, and haematological surveillance in hazardous materials firefighters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To evaluate possible health effects related to work with hazardous materials as measured by end organ effect markers in a large cohort over about 2 years, and in a subcohort over 5 years.?METHODS—Hepatic, renal, and haematological variables were analysed from 1996-98 in hazardous materials firefighters including 288 hazardous materials technicians (81%) and 68 support workers (19%). The same end organ effect markers in a subcohort of the technicians were also analysed (n=35) from 1993-98. Support workers were considered as controls because they are also firefighters, but had a low potential exposure to hazardous materials.?RESULTS—During the study period, no serious injuries or exposures were reported. For the end organ effect markers studied, no significant differences were found between technicians and support workers at either year 1 or year 3. After adjustment for a change in laboratory, no significant longitudinal changes were found within groups for any of the markers except for creatinine which decreased for both technicians (p<0.001) and controls (p<0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—Health effects related to work are infrequent among hazardous materials technicians. Haematological, hepatic, and renal testing is not required on an annual basis and has limited use in detecting health effects in hazardous materials technicians.???Keywords: hazardous materials; firefighters; medical surveillance

Kales, S; Polyhronopoulos, G; Aldrich, J; Mendoza, P; Suh, J; Christiani, D

2001-01-01

191

Characterization of the metabolic demands of simulated shipboard Royal Navy fire-fighting tasks.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to quantify the metabolic demand of simulated shipboard fire-fighting procedures currently practised by men and women in the Royal Navy (RN) and to identify a minimum level of cardiovascular fitness commensurate with satisfactory performance. Thirty-four males (M) and 15 females (F) volunteered as subjects for this study (n=49). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and heart rate (fcmax) of each subject was assessed during a standardized treadmill test. During the main trials, volunteers were randomly assigned to complete several 4-min simulated shipboard fire-fighting tasks (boundary cooling (BC), drum carry (DC), extinguisher carry (EC), hose run (HR), ladder climb (LC)), at a work rate that was endorsed as a minimum acceptable standard. Heart rate (fc) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded at 10-s intervals during rest, exercise and recovery. Participants completed all tasks within an allocated time with the exception of the DC task, where 11 subjects (all females) failed to maintain the endorsed work rate. The DC task elicited the highest (p<0.01) group mean peak metabolic demand (PMD) in males (43 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) and females (42 ml min(-1) kg (-1)) who were able to maintain the endorsed work rate. The BC task elicited the lowest PMD (23 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), whilst the remaining three tasks elicited a remarkably similar PMD of 38-39 ml min(-1) kg(-1). The human endurance limit while wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) dictates that RN personnel are only able to fire-fight for 20-30 min, while wearing a full fire-fighting ensemble (FFE) and performing a combination of the BC, HR and LC tasks, which have a group mean metabolic demand of 32.8 ml min(-1) kg(-1). Given that in healthy subjects fire-fighting can be sustained at a maximum work intensity of 80% VO2max when wearing SCBA for this duration, it is recommended that all RN personnel achieve a VO2max of 41 ml min(-1) kg(-1) as an absolute minimum standard. Subjects with a higher VO2max than the above quoted minimum are able to complete the combination of tasks listed with greater metabolic efficiency and less fatigue. PMID:11450875

Bilzon, J L; Scarpello, E G; Smith, C V; Ravenhill, N A; Rayson, M P

2001-06-20

192

Application of End-Exhaled Breath Monitoring to Assess Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed Burns.  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in February–March 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

Dunn, K.H.; Devaux, I; Stock, A.; Naeher, L.P.

2009-04-01

193

The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand\\/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between\\u000a two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)°C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed\\u000a two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each\\u000a bout was separated by a 15-min recovery

David Barr; Thomas Reilly; Warren Gregson

2011-01-01

194

Association of cardio-ankle vascular index with physical fitness and cognitive symptoms in aging Finnish firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Monitoring cardiovascular risk factors is important in health promotion among firefighters. The assessment of arterial stiffness\\u000a (AS) may help to detect early signs of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between aerobic\\u000a fitness, cognitive symptoms and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as a measure for AS among Finnish firefighters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The data are one part of a large

H. Lindholm; A. Punakallio; S. Lusa; M. Sainio; E. Ponocny; R. Winker

195

Response of soil microbial communities to fire and fire-fighting chemicals.  

PubMed

Worldwide, fire-fighting chemicals are rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective and efficient tool in wildfires control and in prescribed burns for habitat management. However, despite its widespread use as water additives to control and/or slow the spread of fire, information concerning the impact of these compounds on soil ecosystems is scarce. In the present work we examine, under field conditions, the response of the microbial communities to three different fire-chemicals at normal doses of application. The study was performed with a Humic Cambisol over granite under heath, located in the temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain) with the following treatments: unburned soil (US) and burned soil added with water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). The microbial mass (microbial C), activity (?-glucosidase, urease) and community structure [phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA) pattern] were measured on soil samples collected at different sampling times during a 5year period after a prescribed fire. The results showed a negative short-term effect of the fire on the microbial properties. The microbial biomass and activity levels tended to recover with time; however, changes in the microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) were still detected 5years after the prescribed fire. Compared to the burned soil added with water, the ammonium polyphosphate and the Firesorb treatments were the fire-fighting chemicals that showed a higher influence on the microbial communities over the whole study period. Our data indicated the usefulness of the PLFAs analysis to detect the long-term impact of both fire and fire-fighting chemicals on the soil microbial communities and hence on the soil quality of forest ecosystems. PMID:20888616

Barreiro, A; Martín, A; Carballas, T; Díaz-Raviña, M

2010-11-15

196

Physiological responses and air consumption during simulated firefighting tasks in a subway system.  

PubMed

Professional firefighters (33 men, 3 women), ranging in age from 30 to 53 years, participated in a simulation of a subway system search and rescue while breathing from their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). We tested the hypothesis that during this task, established by expert firefighters to be of moderate intensity, the rate of air consumption would exceed the capacity of a nominal 30-min cylinder. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, and air consumption were measured with a portable breath-by-breath gas exchange analysis system, which was fully integrated with the expired port of the SCBA. The task involved descending a flight of stairs, walking, performing a search and rescue, retreat walking, then ascending a single flight of stairs to a safe exit. This scenario required between 9:56 and 13:24 min:s (mean, 12:10 ± 1:10 min:s) to complete, with an average oxygen uptake of 24.3 ± 4.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (47 ± 10 % peak oxygen uptake) and heart rate of 76% ± 7% of maximum. The highest energy requirement was during the final single-flight stair climb (30.4 ± 5.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). The average respiratory exchange ratio (carbon dioxide output/oxygen uptake) throughout the scenario was 0.95 ± 0.08, indicating a high carbon dioxide output for a relatively moderate average energy requirement. Air consumption from the nominal "30-min" cylinder averaged 51% (range, 26%-68%); however, extrapolation of these rates of consumption suggested that the low-air alarm, signalling that only 25% of the air remains, would have occurred as early as 11 min for an individual with the highest rate of air consumption, and at 16 min for the group average. These data suggest that even the moderate physical demands of walking combined with search and rescue while wearing full protective gear and breathing through the SCBA impose considerable physiological strain on professional firefighters. As well, the rate of air consumption in these tasks classed as moderate, compared with high-rise firefighting, would have depleted the air supply well before the nominal time used to describe the cylinders. PMID:20962923

Williams-Bell, F Michael; Boisseau, Geoff; McGill, John; Kostiuk, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L

2010-10-01

197

Changes in permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier in firefighters.  

PubMed

The effect on alveolar-capillary barrier permeability of chronic exposure to a smoke produced by the partial combusion of diesel oil, paraffin, and wood was examined. An index of permeability was determined from the rate of transfer from the lung into the blood of the hydrophilic, labelled chelate 99mTc diethylene triamine penta-acetate (MW 492 dalton). The results of this test were expressed as the half time clearance of the tracer from the lung into the blood (T1/2 LB). The study was carried out at the Royal Naval Firefighting School, HMS Excellent. Permeability index was measured on seven non-smoking naval firefighting instructors who had worked at the school for periods of longer than two and a half months. Tests of airway function and carbon monoxide transfer factor were performed on four of these seven instructors. The results of the permeability index showed a T1/2 LB of 26 min +/- 5 (SEM) which differed significantly from that of normal non-smokers. By contrast all other lung function tests had values within the predicted normal range. PMID:3899161

Minty, B D; Royston, D; Jones, J G; Smith, D J; Searing, C S; Beeley, M

1985-09-01

198

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

199

Associations of cortisol with posttraumatic stress symptoms and negative life events: A study of police officers and firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the inconsistent associations of cortisol with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), analysis of basal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in subjects frequently exposed to trauma and critical incidents with a range of PTSD symptomatology, may be valuable. In an epidemiological sample of 1880 police officers and firefighters, associations of salivary cortisol with PTSD, negative life events (NLE) and exposure

Anke B. Witteveen; Anja C. Huizink; Pauline Slottje; Inge Bramsen; Tjabe Smid; Henk M. van der Ploeg

2010-01-01

200

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Massachusetts: Off-Duty Municipal Firefighter/EMT Drowns in Massachusetts River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 30 year old male off-duty municipal firefighter/EMT performing independent scuba diving work for an area electricity production company accidentally drowned when his body became entrapped in a submerged river water gate. The water gate was one of two po...

1992-01-01

201

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

202

Firefighters. Grade Two. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the occupational cluster of public service, this unit entitled "Firefighters" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC) element (life-role…

Fox, Joan; And Others

203

Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

Mogen, David S.

204

Characterization of dioxin exposure in firefighters, residents, and chemical workers in the Irkutsk Region of Russian Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to characterize body burdens of polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in three groups of Siberians living in the Irkutsk Region of Russia. These groups included firefighters exposed to a mixture of toxic substances extinguishing a large fire at the Shelekhovo Cable Factory in 1992, chemical workers from the Khimprom

A Schecter; M Pavuk; D. A Amirova; E. I Grosheva; O Päpke; J. J Ryan; J Adibi; A. L Piskac

2002-01-01

205

Comparison of cardiocirculatory and thermal strain of male firefighters during fire suppression to exercise stress test and aerobic exercise testing.  

PubMed

Firefighters face a highly increased risk of sudden cardiac death during fire suppression. Medical examinations and physical performance tests are used to screen endangered firefighters. The aim of this study was to determine cardiocirculatory and thermal strain during fire suppression in firefighters and compare it with the strain during medical and performance evaluations. Forty-nine young professional male firefighters were studied during a 30-minute fire operation (FO) in a large fire simulation plant. Measurements were obtained immediately before, during, and after the FO. During the FO, maximum heart rates of 177 +/- 23 beats/min were recorded on average, with 7 subjects exceeding the age-predicted maximum. Body core temperature increased by 0.9 +/- 0.5 degrees C (p <0.001), body weight decreased by 0.6 +/- 0.2 kg (p <0.001), and blood parameters changed accordingly. Sixteen percent of subjects developed asymptomatic postural hypotension. In an exercise stress test as part of the mandatory medical examination, subjects were limited to heart rates of 176 +/- 3.3 beats/min. They reached 155 +/- 13 beats/min during the annual aerobic exercise in turnout gear. During the FO, maximum heart rate was higher than during the stress test in 66% and higher than during the aerobic exercise in 84% of subjects. In conclusion, fire suppression caused an extreme cardiocirculatory strain, with high heart rates that were not sufficiently tested in medical examinations. To increase the yield of screening for firefighters at risk of death during fire suppression, the exercise should equal requirements in a real emergency; in other words, be limited by exhaustion or age-predicted maximum heart rate. PMID:19026313

Angerer, Peter; Kadlez-Gebhardt, Silke; Delius, Michael; Raluca, Petru; Nowak, Dennis

2008-10-01

206

The Effects of Disaster Exposure and Post-Disaster Critical Incidents on Intrusions, Avoidance Reactions and Health Problems Among Firefighters: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighters are at risk to be confronted with critical incidents and disasters. This study focused on the predictive value of these variables and their interaction effect for intrusions, avoidance reactions, and health problems among firefighters 18 months post-disaster (N = 639). Furthermore, the course of intrusions, avoidance reactions, and health problems in the period 2–3 weeks to 18 months post-disaster was assessed.

Peter G. van der Velden; Berdi Christiaanse; Rolf J. Kleber; Frans G. H. Marcelissen; Sasja A. M. Dorresteijn; Annelieke N. Drogendijk; Albert Jan-Roskam; Linda Grievink; Berthold P. R. Gersons; Miranda Olff; Mariel L. Meewisse

2006-01-01

207

A comparison of cooling techniques in firefighters after a live burn evolution  

PubMed Central

Objective We compared two active cooling devices to passive cooling in a moderate (?22°C) temperature environment on heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tc) recovery when applied to firefighters following 20 min. of fire suppression. Methods Firefighters (23 male, 2 female) performed 20 minutes of fire suppression at a live fire evolution. Immediately following the evolution, the subjects removed their thermal protective clothing and were randomized to receive forearm immersion (FI), ice water perfused cooling vest (CV) or passive (P) cooling in an air-conditioned medical trailer for 30 minutes. Heart rate and deep gastric temperature were monitored every five minutes during recovery. Results A single 20-minute bout of fire suppression resulted in near maximal HR (175±13 - P, 172±20 - FI, 177±12 beats•min?1 - CV) when compared to baseline (p < 0.001), a rapid and substantial rise in Tc (38.2±0.7 - P, 38.3±0.4 - FI, 38.3±0.3° - CV) compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and mass lost from sweating of nearly one kilogram. Cooling rates (°C/min) differed (p = 0.036) by device with FI (0.05±0.04) providing higher rates than P (0.03±0.02) or CV (0.03±0.04) although differences over 30 minutes were small and recovery of body temperature was incomplete in all groups. Conclusions During 30 min. of recovery following a 20-minute bout of fire suppression in a training academy setting, there is a slightly higher cooling rate for FI and no apparent benefit to CV when compared to P cooling in a moderate temperature environment.

Colburn, Deanna; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Morley, Julia L; Goss, Fredric L; Chen, Yi-Fan; Moore, Charity G; Hostler, David

2010-01-01

208

Induced sputum assessment in New York City firefighters exposed to World Trade Center dust.  

PubMed

New York City Firefighters (FDNY-FFs) were exposed to particulate matter and combustion/pyrolysis products during and after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse. Ten months after the collapse, induced sputum (IS) samples were obtained from 39 highly exposed FDNY-FFs (caught in the dust cloud during the collapse on 11 September 2001) and compared to controls to determine whether a unique pattern of inflammation and particulate matter deposition, compatible with WTC dust, was present. Control subjects were 12 Tel-Aviv, Israel, firefighters (TA-FFs) and 8 Israeli healthcare workers who were not exposed to WTC dust. All controls volunteered for this study, had never smoked, and did not have respiratory illness. IS was processed by conventional methods. Retrieved cells were differentially counted, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), particle size distribution (PSD), and mineral composition were measured. Differential cell counts of FDNY-FF IS differed from those of health care worker controls (p < 0.05) but not from those of TA-FFs. Percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils increased with greater intensity of WTC exposure (< 10 workdays or greater than or equal to 10 workdays; neutrophils p = 0.046; eosinophils p = 0.038). MMP-9 levels positively correlated to neutrophil counts (p = 0.002; r = 0.449). Particles were larger and more irregularly shaped in FDNY-FFs (1-50 microm; zinc, mercury, gold, tin, silver) than in TA-FFs (1-10 microm; silica, clays). PSD was similar to that of WTC dust samples. In conclusion, IS from highly exposed FDNY-FFs demonstrated inflammation, PSD, and particle composition that was different from nonexposed controls and consistent with WTC dust exposure. PMID:15531443

Fireman, Elizabeth M; Lerman, Yehuda; Ganor, Eliezer; Greif, Joel; Fireman-Shoresh, Sharon; Lioy, Paul J; Banauch, Gisela I; Weiden, Michael; Kelly, Kerry J; Prezant, David J

2004-11-01

209

Induced Sputum Assessment in New York City Firefighters Exposed to World Trade Center Dust  

PubMed Central

New York City Firefighters (FDNY-FFs) were exposed to particulate matter and combustion/pyrolysis products during and after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse. Ten months after the collapse, induced sputum (IS) samples were obtained from 39 highly exposed FDNY-FFs (caught in the dust cloud during the collapse on 11 September 2001) and compared to controls to determine whether a unique pattern of inflammation and particulate matter deposition, compatible with WTC dust, was present. Control subjects were 12 Tel-Aviv, Israel, firefighters (TA-FFs) and 8 Israeli healthcare workers who were not exposed to WTC dust. All controls volunteered for this study, had never smoked, and did not have respiratory illness. IS was processed by conventional methods. Retrieved cells were differentially counted, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), particle size distribution (PSD), and mineral composition were measured. Differential cell counts of FDNY-FF IS differed from those of health care worker controls (p < 0.05) but not from those of TA-FFs. Percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils increased with greater intensity of WTC exposure (< 10 workdays or ? 10 workdays; neutrophils p = 0.046; eosinophils p = 0.038). MMP-9 levels positively correlated to neutrophil counts (p = 0.002; r = 0.449). Particles were larger and more irregularly shaped in FDNY-FFs (1–50 ?m; zinc, mercury, gold, tin, silver) than in TA-FFs (1–10 ?m; silica, clays). PSD was similar to that of WTC dust samples. In conclusion, IS from highly exposed FDNY-FFs demonstrated inflammation, PSD, and particle composition that was different from nonexposed controls and consistent with WTC dust exposure.

Fireman, Elizabeth M.; Lerman, Yehuda; Ganor, Eliezer; Greif, Joel; Fireman-Shoresh, Sharon; Lioy, Paul J.; Banauch, Gisela I.; Weiden, Michael; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

2004-01-01

210

The relationship between quality of life and posttraumatic stress disorder or major depression for firefighters in Kaohsiung, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The work of firefighters involves the risk of exposure to the harmful effects of toxic substances as well as the possibility\\u000a of enormous emotional shock from disasters, which may result in psychiatric impairments and a lower quality of life. Therefore,\\u000a we examined quality of life, prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression, and the related risk\\u000a factors for

Yong-Shing Chen; Ming-Chao Chen; Frank Huang-Chih Chou; Feng-Ching Sun; Pei-Chun Chen; Kuan-Yi Tsai; Shin-Shin Chao

2007-01-01

211

CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE AS CAPACIDADES FÍSICAS BÁSICAS E O ÍNDICE DE CAPACIDADE DE TRABALHO EM BOMBEIROS DO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO Correlation between basic physical capacities and the work capacity index in firefighters of the state of rio de janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the basic physical characteristics of a military firefighter of Corpo de Bombeiro Militar do Rio de Janeiro (CBMRJ) and to correlate the physical fitness level with the work capacity index (WCI). Participants of this study were 14 military firefighters (33 ± 4 years; 179 ± 0.07 cm; 83.4 ± 11.6 kg) students

EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA; Cristiano Marcelino; Roberto Simão; Raphael Guimarães; Belmiro Freitas de Salles; Juliano Spineti

2009-01-01

212

Persistent physiological reactivity in a pilot study of partners of firefighters after a terrorist attack.  

PubMed

Twenty-four female partners of firefighters participating in recovery efforts associated with the 1995 terrorist bombing in Oklahoma City were assessed 43 to 44 months later. Disaster experiences, psychiatric diagnoses, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and autonomic reactivity in response to an interview about the bombing were examined. Most of the participants with postbombing disorders suffered from pre-existing conditions. The majority found the bombing a "terrible" or "shocking" experience. One participant met all DSM-III-R symptom group criteria for bombing-related posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40% met both B (intrusive re-experiencing) and D (hyperarousal) criteria. More than one half of the sample exhibited autonomic reactivity on at least one measurement. Those who met symptom group criterion D evidenced greater autonomic reactivity than those who did not, suggesting a link between self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms of arousal and biological manifestations. Thus, it may be important to assess partners of disaster recovery workers for mental health and physiological consequences related to their indirect exposure as these may persist years after the event, even in the absence of a diagnosable mental disorder. PMID:16477192

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; North, Carol S; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Kent, Adrian T; Schorr, John K; Wilson, Teddy G; Bunch, Kenneth

2006-02-01

213

A screening-level assessment of the health risks of chronic smoke exposure for wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, benzene, and respirable particulate matter. Data defining daily exposures to smoke at prescribed burns and wildfires, potential days of exposure in a year, and career lengths were used to estimate average and reasonable maximum career inhalation exposures to these substances. Of the 15 substances in smoke that were evaluated, only benzene and formaldehyde posed a cancer risk greater than 1 per million, while only acrolein and respirable particulate matter exposures resulted in hazard indices greater than 1.0. The estimated upper-bound cancer risks ranged from 1.4 to 220 excess cancers per million, and noncancer hazard indices ranged from 9 to 360, depending on the exposure group. These values only indicate the likelihood of adverse health effects, not whether they will or will not occur. The risk assessment process narrows the field of substances that deserve further assessment, and the hazards identified by risk assessment generally agree with those identified as a concern in occupational exposure assessments. PMID:15238338

Booze, Thomas F; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Quiring, Sharon J; Ottmar, Roger D

2004-05-01

214

Quality of life in relation to upper and lower respiratory conditions among retired 9\\/11-exposed firefighters with pulmonary disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and World Trade Center (WTC) cough syndrome conditions in male firefighters\\u000a who retired due to a 9\\/11-related pulmonary disability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 3\\/1\\/2008 to 1\\/31\\/2009, we contacted 275 disability-retired firefighters and compared their HRQoL and current aerodigestive\\u000a conditions to those from WTC-exposed non-disabled retired and active firefighters. Relationships between HRQoL and explanatory\\u000a variable(s) were examined

Amy Berninger; Mayris P. Webber; Jessica Weakley; Jackson Gustave; Rachel Zeig-Owens; Roy Lee; Fairouz Al-Othman; Hillel W. Cohen; Kerry Kelly; David J. Prezant

2010-01-01

215

Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters  

SciTech Connect

The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

Denise Baclawski

2010-03-08

216

Personal PM(2.5) exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in Southeastern United States.  

PubMed

This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM(2.5) and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM(2.5) samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters' qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: "none" or "very little," "low," "moderate," "high," and "very high." An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM(2.5) ranged from 5.9-2673 ?g/m(3) on burn days. Geometric mean PM(2.5) exposure was 280 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 140, 557 ?g/m(3), n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 10, 26 ?g/m(3), n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM(2.5) differed across levels of the firefighters' categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 71, 203 ?g/m(3)) and high to very high = 664 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 373, 1185 ?g/m(3)); p < 0.0001 on burn days). Time-weighted average PM(2.5) and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM(2.5) pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH®-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m(3) for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM(2.5). Correlation analysis shows that either PM(2.5) or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns. PMID:21762011

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel B; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke P

2011-08-01

217

Cardiovascular biomarkers predict susceptibility to lung injury in World Trade Center dust-exposed firefighters.  

PubMed

Pulmonary vascular loss is an early feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biomarkers of inflammation and of metabolic syndrome predict loss of lung function in World Trade Center (WTC) lung injury (LI). We investigated if other cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers also predicted WTC-LI. This nested case-cohort study used 801 never-smoker, WTC-exposed firefighters with normal pre-9/11 lung function presenting for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) before March 2008. A representative subcohort of 124 out of 801 subjects with serum drawn within 6 months of 9/11 defined CVD biomarker distribution. Post-9/11 forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at defined cases were as follows: susceptible WTC-LI cases with FEV1 ?77% predicted (66 out of 801) and resistant WTC-LI cases with FEV1 ?107% predicted (68 out of 801). All models were adjusted for WTC exposure intensity, body mass index at SPE, age on 9/11 and pre-9/11 FEV1. Susceptible WTC-LI cases had higher levels of apolipoprotein-AII, C-reactive protein and macrophage inflammatory protein-4 with significant relative risks (RRs) of 3.85, 3.93 and 0.26, respectively, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.858. Resistant WTC-LI cases had significantly higher soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule and lower myeloperoxidase, with RRs of 2.24 and 2.89, respectively (AUC 0.830). Biomarkers of CVD in serum 6 months post-9/11 predicted either susceptibility or resistance to WTC-LI. These biomarkers may define pathways either producing or protecting subjects from pulmonary vascular disease and associated loss of lung function after an irritant exposure. PMID:22903969

Weiden, Michael D; Naveed, Bushra; Kwon, Sophia; Cho, Soo Jung; Comfort, Ashley L; Prezant, David J; Rom, William N; Nolan, Anna

2012-08-16

218

A Computerized, Self-Administered Questionnaire to Evaluate Posttraumatic Stress Among Firefighters After the World Trade Center Collapse  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine the frequency of psychological symptoms and elevated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk among New York City firefighters after the World Trade Center (WTC) attack and whether these measures were associated with Counseling Services Unit (CSU) use or mental health–related medical leave over the first 2.5 years after the attack. Methods. Shortly after the WTC attack, a computerized, binary-response screening questionnaire was administered. Exposure assessment included WTC arrival time and “loss of a co-worker while working at the collapse.” We determined elevated PTSD risk using thresholds derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and a sensitivity-specificity analysis. Results. Of 8487 participants, 76% reported at least 1 symptom, 1016 (12%) met criteria for elevated PTSD risk, and 2389 (28%) self-referred to the CSU, a 5-fold increase from before the attack. Higher scores were associated with CSU use, functional job impairment, and mental health–related medical leave. Exposure–response gradients were significant for all outcomes. Conclusions. This screening tool effectively identified elevated PTSD risk, higher CSU use, and functional impairment among firefighters and therefore may be useful in allocating scarce postdisaster mental health resources.

Corrigan, Malachy; McWilliams, Rita; Kelly, Kerry J.; Niles, Justin; Cammarata, Claire; Jones, Kristina; Wartenberg, Daniel; Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Glass, Lara; Schorr, John K.; Feirstein, Ira

2009-01-01

219

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Michigan: Female Firefighter Dies When Struck by an Out-of-Control Pickup Truck on an Icy Interstate Highway.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On January 7, 2006, a 34-year-old female firefighter was critically injured after being struck by a pickup truck that had lost control on an icy interstate highway. The fire department responded after being coded as a first call response by 911 dispatch t...

2007-01-01

220

An Educational Intervention for Police and Firefighters for Elders at Risk: Limits of Education Alone as a Strategy for Behavior Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a research project aimed at the health care needs of the vulnerable community-dwelling elderly, an educational intervention was delivered to police and firefighters in worksite settings. A single educational intervention proved insufficient to produce lasting attitudinal and behavioral change as measured by follow-up surveys 3 and 6…

Nusbaum, N. J.; Mistretta, M.; Wegner, J.

2007-01-01

221

Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States.  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM{sub 2.5} and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: 'none' or 'very little,' 'low,' 'moderate,' 'high,' and 'very high.' An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM{sub 2.5} ranged from 5.9-2673 {mu}g/m{sup 3} on burn days. Geometric mean PM{sub 2.5} exposure was 280 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 140, 557 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 10, 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM{sub 2.5} differed across levels of the firefighters categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 71, 203 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and high to very high = 664 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 373, 1185 {mu}g/m{sup 3}); p < 0.0001 on burn days. Time-weighted average PM{sub 2.5} and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM{sub 2.5} pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH{reg_sign}-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m{sup 3} for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}. Correlation analysis shows that either PM{sub 2.5} or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns.

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel, B.; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke, P.

2011-07-15

222

High work output combined with high ambient temperatures caused heat exhaustion in a wildland firefighter despite high fluid intake.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case study is to examine the physiological/behavioral factors leading up to heat exhaustion in a male wildland firefighter during wildland fire suppression. The participant (24 years old, 173 cm, 70 kg, and 3 years firefighting experience) experienced heat exhaustion following 7 hours of high ambient temperatures and arduous work on the fire line during the month of August. At the time of the heat-related incident (HRI), core temperature was 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) and skin temperature was 34.4 °C (93.9 °F). His work output averaged 1067 counts·min(-1) (arbitrary units for measuring activity) for the 7 hours prior to the HRI, a very high rate of work over an extended time period during wildfire suppression. In the 2.5 hours leading up to the heat incident, he was exposed to a mean ambient temperature of 44.6 °C (112.3 °F), with a maximum temperature of 59.7 °C (139.5 °F). He consumed an average of 840 mL·h(-1) in the 7 hours leading up to the incident and took an average of 24 ± 11 drinks·h(-1) (total of 170 drinks). The combined effects of a high work rate and high ambient temperatures resulted in an elevated core temperature and a higher volume and frequency of drinking than typically seen in this population, ultimately ending in heat exhaustion and removal from the fire line. The data demonstrate that heat-related incidents can occur even with aggressive fluid intake during wildland fire suppression. PMID:21664560

Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

2011-06-01

223

Do fire-fighters develop specific ventilatory responses in order to cope with exercise whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we compared the ventilatory performance whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during\\u000a exercise, of a group of male fire-fighters (FF, n?=?8), with a matched group of male civilians (CV, n?=?7). The mean (SEM) physiological characteristics of the subjects (FF vs CV) were: age 31 (2)?years vs 32 (4)?years; height\\u000a 179 (2)?cm vs 183 (3)?cm, P??1?vs 4.39

K. J. Donovan; A. K. McConnell

1999-01-01

224

"Awake, smoky, and hot": providing an evidence-base for managing the risks associated with occupational stressors encountered by wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

To curtail the spread of wildfire, firefighters are often required to work long hours in hot, smoky conditions with little rest between consecutive shifts. In isolation, heat, smoke, and sleep disruption can have a detrimental impact on cognitive and physical abilities. Far less is known, however, about the combined impact that heat, smoke, and sleep disruption can have on firefighters' performance during wildfire suppression or on human performance in general. The available literature, though scant, suggests that audio and visual tracking may be degraded after sustained heat exposure following one night of sleep deprivation. Exposure to heat and carbon monoxide, in contrast, appears to have only limited impact on cognitive performance, even after physical exercise. Heat and carbon monoxide exposure does, however, increase physiological exertion to a given work or exercise bout. To the authors' knowledge, there are no published studies that have explored the impacts of heat exposure following sleep disruption on physical work performance, sleep disruption and smoke exposure on physical or cognitive work, or the combined impacts of sleep disruption, smoke and heat exposure on cognitive or physical work. While more integrative research is needed, the current review provides a summary of the available evidence and an indication of the degree of confidence agencies can have in the research. This will allow both the scientific community and agencies to make informed recommendations regarding the management of wildland firefighters' health and safety on the fireground. PMID:22264875

Aisbett, B; Wolkow, A; Sprajcer, M; Ferguson, S A

2012-01-20

225

Associations of cortisol with posttraumatic stress symptoms and negative life events: a study of police officers and firefighters.  

PubMed

Given the inconsistent associations of cortisol with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), analysis of basal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in subjects frequently exposed to trauma and critical incidents with a range of PTSD symptomatology, may be valuable. In an epidemiological sample of 1880 police officers and firefighters, associations of salivary cortisol with PTSD, negative life events (NLE) and exposure to a major air disaster more than 8 years earlier, was explored. Probable PTSD was unrelated to cortisol level while past (>8 years earlier) and more recently experienced NLE were associated with lower cortisol levels even after adjustment for confounders. Disaster exposure interacted significantly with PTSD symptoms on cortisol level. In the disaster-exposed subgroup, PTSD symptomclusters of intrusion and hyperarousal (in particular sleep disturbances), were associated with lower and higher cortisol levels, respectively. A final model using backward elimination strategy, retained time of saliva sampling, smoking, gender, and NLE>8 years earlier in the total sample, and additionally symptomclusters of intrusion and hyperarousal in the disaster-exposed subgroup. The final model explained 10% of the variance in cortisol. The findings are discussed in relation to literature on posttraumatic stress and basal functioning of the HPA-axis. PMID:20083359

Witteveen, Anke B; Huizink, Anja C; Slottje, Pauline; Bramsen, Inge; Smid, Tjabe; van der Ploeg, Henk M

2010-01-18

226

Social support moderates the impact of demands on burnout and organizational connectedness: a two-wave study of volunteer firefighters.  

PubMed

This two-wave study of volunteers examined the effect of family and friend support on the relationship between volunteer demands (emotional demands and work-home conflict) on the one hand, and burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) and organizational connectedness on the other hand. It was hypothesized that family and friend support would moderate the relationship between (a) demands at Time 1 (T1) and burnout at Time 2 (T2); and (b) demands at T1 and organizational connectedness at T2. Hypotheses were tested among 126 Australian volunteer firefighters, who were followed up over 1 year. Results showed that support moderated the relationship between work-home conflict and exhaustion, but not between emotional demands and exhaustion. In addition, family and friend support moderated the relationship between both volunteer demands at T1 and cynicism and organizational connectedness at T2. These results suggest that support from family and friends is a critical resource in coping with the demands related to volunteer work and may protect volunteers from burnout, while helping them to stay connected to volunteering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23276192

Huynh, Jasmine Y; Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Winefield, Anthony H

2012-12-31

227

Use of participant focus groups to identify barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence in randomized controlled trials involving firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background Firefighters are at increased risk for back injuries, which may be mitigated through exercise therapy to increase trunk muscle endurance. However, long-term adherence to exercise therapy is generally poor, limiting its potential benefits. Focus groups can be used to identify key barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence among study participants. Objective To explore barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods Participants enrolled in a previous RCT requiring twice-weekly worksite exercise therapy for 24 weeks were asked to take part in moderated focus group discussions centered on eight open-ended questions related to exercise adherence. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using a social ecological framework to identify key intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional barriers and potential facilitators to exercise adherence. Results A total of 27 participants were included in the four focus group discussions, representing 50% of those assigned to a worksite exercise therapy group in the previous RCT, in which only 67% of scheduled exercise therapy sessions were completed. Lack of self-motivation was cited as the key intrapersonal barrier to adherence, while lack of peer support was the key interpersonal barrier reported, and lack of time to exercise during work shifts was the key institutional barrier identified. Conclusion Focus group discussions identified both key barriers and potential facilitators to increase worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters. Future studies should consider educating and reminding participants about the benefits of exercise, providing individual and group incentives based on exercise adherence and performance, providing outside monitoring of exercise adherence, varying the exercise routine, encouraging group exercise and competition, and scheduling exercise during each work shift.

Mayer, John M; Nuzzo, James L; Dagenais, Simon

2013-01-01

228

Effects of forest fire and fire-fighting operations on water chemistry in Tyresta National Park, Stockholm, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a large forest fire in Tyresta National Park, Sweden, monitoring programs were started to study the consequences on the biology and chemistry in the burned area. To study the effects on the water chemistry, four brooks in the same water system were chosen for further studies. Samples were also taken in a limed lake downstream the brooks. The sites were sampled 10 times each year, starting the month after the fire, and a range of chemical analyses where performed. Pre-fire data exists for 2 of the brooks and the lake due to former studies in the area. In the brooks drastic changes of the water chemistry were seen immediately after the fire. pH in the brooks deereased with up to 2 pH-units from over 6 to about 4,5 and labile inorganic aluminium increased to over 400 ?g/l in the most affected brooks. Other determined metals and nutrients in the brooks also increased. In the lake no changes in pH or aluminium were measured, but significant (p<0,01) increases of chloride, sulphate, magnesium, potassium, sodium, manganese, zinc and cadmium where observed. The water chemical effects may be explained by release of e.g. hydrogen- and aluminium ions through burning of organic matter in the acidified soil, but also by the large amounts of brackish water used during the fire-fighting operations. The extent of the effects from the fire are yet to be seen, as the concentrations of many water chemical variables still are increased three years after the fire.

Eriksson, H.; Edberg, F.; Borg, H.

2003-05-01

229

Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: A pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and levoglucosan.  

SciTech Connect

Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest ServiceFSavannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribedburn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 701±95 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n¼9). PM2.5 and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM2.5 exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample size, this pilot study demonstrates that urinary MP concentrations may be effective biomarkers of occupational exposure to wood smoke among wildland firefighters.

Neitzel, R.; Naeher, L., P.; Paulsen, M.; Dunn, R.; Stock, A.; Simpson, C., D.

2009-04-01

230

Comparison of rehydration regimens for rehabilitation of firefighters performing heavy exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Fire suppression activities results in cardiovascular stress, hyperthermia, and hypohydration. Fireground rehabilitation (rehab) is recommended to blunt the deleterious effects of these conditions. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that three rehydration fluids provided after exercise in thermal protective clothing (TPC) would produce different heart rate or core temperature responses during a second bout of exercise in TPC. Methods: On three occasions, 18 euhydrated firefighters (16 males, 2 females) wearing TPC completed a standardized, 50-minute bout of upper and lower body exercise in a hot room that mimicked the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) rehabilitation guidelines of “two cylinders before rehab” (20 min work, 10 min recovery, 20 min work). After an initial bout of exercise, subjects were randomly assigned water, sport drink, or an intravenous (IV) infusion of normal saline equal to the amount of body mass lost during exercise. After rehydration, the subject performed a second bout of exercise. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, and exercise duration were compared with a two-way ANOVA. Results: Subjects were firefighters aged 28.2±11.3 years with a VO2peak of 37.4±3.4 ml/kg/min. 527±302 mL of fluid were provided during the rehabilitation period. No subject could complete either the pre- or post-rehydration 50-minute bout of exercise. Mean (SD) time to exhaustion (min) was longer (p<0.001) in bout 1 (25.9±12.9 min. water, 28.0±14.1 min. sport drink, 27.4±13.8 min. IV) compared to bout 2 (15.6±9.6 min. water, 14.7±8.6 min. sport drink, 15.7±8.0 min. IV) for all groups but did not differ by intervention. All subjects approached age predicted maximum heart rate at the end of bout 1 (180±11 bpm) and bout 2 (176±13 bpm). Core temperature rose 1.1±0.7°C during bout 1 and 0.5±0.4°C during bout 2. Core temperature, heart rate, and exercise time during bout 2 did not differ between rehydration fluids. Conclusions: Performance during a second bout of exercise in TPC did not differ when firefighters were rehydrated with water, sport drink, or IV normal saline when full rehydration is provided. Of concern was the inability of all subjects to complete two consecutive periods of heavy exercise in TPC suggesting the NFPA “two cylinders before rehab” guideline may not be appropriate in continuous heavy work scenarios.

Hostler, David; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Reis, Steven E; Kong, Pui Wah; Morley, Julia; Gallagher, Michael; Suyama, Joe

2010-01-01

231

Does the Knowledge-to-Action (KTA) Framework Facilitate Physical Demands Analysis Development for Firefighter Injury Management and Return-to-Work Planning?  

PubMed

Purpose Employers are tasked with developing injury management and return-to-work (RTW) programs in response to occupational health and safety policies. Physical demands analyses (PDAs) are the cornerstone of injury management and RTW development. Synthesizing and contextualizing policy knowledge for use in occupational program development, including PDAs, is challenging due to multiple stakeholder involvement. Few studies have used a knowledge translation theoretical framework to facilitate policy-based interventions in occupational contexts. The primary aim of this case study was to identify how constructs of the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework were reflected in employer stakeholder-researcher collaborations during development of a firefighter PDA. Methods Four stakeholder meetings were conducted with employee participants who had experience using PDAs in their occupational role. Directed content analysis informed analyses of meeting minutes, stakeholder views and personal reflections recorded throughout the case. Results Existing knowledge sources including local data, stakeholder experiences, policies and priorities were synthesized and tailored to develop a PDA in response to the barriers and facilitators identified by the firefighters. The flexibility of the KTA framework and synthesis of multiple knowledge sources were identified strengths. The KTA Action cycle was useful in directing the overall process but insufficient for directing the specific aspects of PDA development. Integration of specific PDA guidelines into the process provided explicit direction on best practices in tailoring the PDA and knowledge synthesis. Although the themes of the KTA framework were confirmed in our analysis, order modification of the KTA components was required. Despite a complex context with divergent perspectives successful implementation of a draft PDA was achieved. Conclusions The KTA framework facilitated knowledge synthesis and PDA development but specific standards and modifications to the KTA framework were needed to enhance process structure. Flexibility for modification and integration of PDA practice guidelines were identified as assets of the KTA framework during its application. PMID:23584800

Sinden, Kathryn; Macdermid, Joy C

2013-04-13

232

Modelling fire-fighter responses to exercise and asymmetric infrared radiation using a dynamic multi-mode model of human physiology and results from the Sweating Agile thermal Manikin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, predicted dynamic physiological responses are compared with wear trials results for firefighter suits: impermeable (A), semi-permeable (B) and permeable (C), and underwear. Wear trials consisted of three rest phases and two moderate work phases, with a frontal infrared (IR) radiation exposure of 500 W\\/m 2 for the last 15 min of each work phase. Simulations were performed by detailed

M. G. M. Richards; D. Fiala

2004-01-01

233

Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC.

Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

2010-01-01

234

Costs of Firefighting Mopup Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Costs of mopping up wildfires have been difficult to estimate because data are not recorded in a way conductive to separate total fire cost into components such as personnel and equipment or mobilization and demobilization of crews. To estimate costs, 25 ...

A. Gonzalez-Caban

1984-01-01

235

Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N?=?70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1?77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N?=?123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect.

Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

2013-01-01

236

Real-time and time-integrated PM2.5 and CO from prescribed burns in chipped and non-chipped plots: firefighter and community exposure and health implications.  

PubMed

In this study, smoke data were collected from two plots located on the Francis Marion National Forest in South Carolina during prescribed burns on 12 February 2003. One of the plots had been subjected to mechanical chipping, the other was not. This study is part of a larger investigation of fire behavior related to mechanical chipping, parts of which are presented elsewhere. The primary objective of the study reported herein was to measure PM(2.5) and CO exposures from prescribed burn smoke from a mechanically chipped vs. non-chipped site. Ground-level time-integrated PM(2.5) samplers (n=9/plot) were placed at a height of 1.5 m around the sampling plots on the downwind side separated by approximately 20 m. Elevated time-integrated PM(2.5) samplers (n=4/plot) were hung atop approximately 30 ft poles at positions within the interior of each of the plots. Real-time PM(2.5) and CO data were collected at downwind locations on the perimeter of each plot. Time-integrated perimeter 12-h PM(2.5) concentrations in the non-chipped plot (AVG 519.9 microg/m(3), SD 238.8 microg/m(3)) were significantly higher (1-tail P-value 0.01) than those at the chipped plot (AVG 198.1 microg/m(3), SD 71.6 microg/m(3)). Similarly, interior time-integrated 8-h PM(2.5) concentrations in the non-chipped plot (AVG 773.4 microg/m(3), SD 321.8 microg/m(3)) were moderately higher (1-tail P-value 0.06) than those at the chipped plot (AVG 460.3 microg/m(3), SD 147.3 microg/m(3)). Real-time PM(2.5) and CO data measured at a position in the chipped plot were uniformly lower than those observed at the same position in the non-chipped plot over the same time period. These results demonstrate that smoke exposures resulting from burned chipped plots are considerably lower than from burned non-chipped plots. These findings have potentially important implications for both firefighters working prescribed burnings at chipped vs. non-chipped sites, as well as nearby communities who may be impacted from smoke traveling downwind from these sights. PMID:16736059

Naeher, Luke P; Achtemeier, Gary L; Glitzenstein, Jeff S; Streng, Donna R; Macintosh, David

2006-05-31

237

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification...is inspected to ensure it is in suitable condition. Tests...tests and inspections required in Tables 169.247...

2012-10-01

238

46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests... (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that...required by the regulations in this subchapter is...

2012-10-01

239

46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...performed at least once every 12 months the tests and inspections of all hand portable fire extinguishers, semiportable fire extinguishing systems, and fixed fire extinguishing systems on board as described in § 169.247 of this subchapter....

2011-10-01

240

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection...inspected to ensure it is in suitable condition...certain the system is in operating condition...the most remote and highest outlets....

2011-10-01

241

Emergency Response: Elearning for Paramedics and Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on an innovative research project with academics, software developers, and organizational pilot sites to design and develop elearning software for an emergency response simulation with supporting collaborative tools. In particular, this article focuses on the research that the author has conducted to provide the theoretical…

Taber, Nancy

2008-01-01

242

Occupational mortality among firefighters: assessing the association.  

PubMed

Because of their occupational exposure to a variety of toxic agents, fire fighters may be at risk for a number of exposure-related diseases. We reviewed the current literature on disease risk among fire fighters to compare findings and to infer magnitude of risk. A standard mortality ratio (SMR) of 200 is equal to an attributable risk of 100% of expected, sufficient to justify presumption in most workers' compensation systems that accept this. We therefore concentrated on risks that approach or exceed an SMR of 200 or an equivalent risk estimate, bearing in mind that confidence intervals around these estimates are wide. Based on the criteria for presumption of occupational risk, we suggest the following conclusions with respect to general presumption of risk: (1) Lung cancer: There is evidence for an association but not of sufficient magnitude for a general presumption of risk. (2) Cardiovascular. There is no evidence for an increased risk of death overall from heart disease. Sudden death, myocardial infarction, or fatal arrhythmia occurring on or soon after near-maximal stress on the job are likely to be heart related, but such "heart attacks" occurring away from work cannot be presumed to be work related. (3) Aortic aneurysm: The evidence is incomplete for an association, but if an association does exist, it would probably be of a magnitude compatible with a general presumption of risk. (4) Cancers of the genitourinary tract, including kidney, ureter, and bladder: The evidence is strong for both an association and for a general presumption of risk. (5) Cancer of brain: Incomplete evidence strongly suggests a possible association at a magnitude consistent with a general presumption of risk. (6) Cancer of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue: By group, there is some evidence for both an association and a general presumption or risk. However, the aggregation is medically meaningless. We therefore recommend a case-by-case approach. (7) Cancer of the colon and rectum: There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is an association but not that there is a general presumption of risk. (8) Acute lung disease: Unusual exposures, such as exposure to the fumes of burning plastics, can cause severe lung toxicity and even permanent disability. This does not appear to result in an increased lifetime risk of dying from chronic lung disease. PMID:8749740

Guidotti, T L

1995-12-01

243

Designing to Support Command and Control in Urban Firefighting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent fire disasters (e.g. 2000 Fireworks Factory, Enschede, NL; 2001 World Trade Center Attacks, NYC; 2007 Airline crashed into fuel warehouse, Sao Paolo, BR) have highlighted the need for support to incident commanders in emergency response situations....

L. Fern M. Voshell R. Stephens S. Trent

2008-01-01

244

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...explosive) materials other than those of Division 1.4 (explosive). No welding, burning, cutting, or riveting operations involving the use of fire, flame, spark, or arc-producing equipment may be conducted on board except in an...

2012-10-01

245

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...explosive) materials other than those of Division 1.4 (explosive). No welding, burning, cutting, or riveting operations involving the use of fire, flame, spark, or arc-producing equipment may be conducted on board except in an...

2011-10-01

246

The Environmental Impacts of Fire-Fighting Foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extinguishing foams are commonly used for extinguishing the fire of flammable liquids, whereby their insulating, choking and quenching effects are exploited. The purpose of the paper is to consider and compare the foams currently used in fire departments, regarding mainly their high extinguishing effect (capability of faster aborted burning on the large surface at low foam consumption), but also their impact on the environment in each stage of their life cycle.

Tureková, Ivana; Balog, Karol

2010-01-01

247

Light Emitting Polymers on Flexible Substrates for Naval Firefighting Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Display technologies in the current market range from the simple and cheap incandescent bulb behind a graphic overlay to the upwardly expensive flat panel high definition plasma display. To provide a foundation of understanding for Light Emitting Polymers...

J. D. Brisar

2005-01-01

248

75 FR 23785 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...have an effective wellness/fitness program. Accordingly, applicants...injury prevention programs. DHS will give the...rehabilitation, and employee assistance. DHS...by supporting new wellness and fitness programs. Therefore,...

2010-05-04

249

Optical Measurements of Toxic Gases Produced during Firefighting Using Halons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several optical techniques Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) emission and absorption spectroscopy, mid- and near-infrared tunable diode laser (MIR-TDL, NIR-TDL) absorption spectroscopy have been used to measure toxic gases produced during inhibition of f...

K. L. McNesby R. G. Daniel A. W. Miziolek S. H. Modiano

1997-01-01

250

78 FR 65678 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...sprinklers, alarm systems, generators, vehicle exhaust systems...cir] Public water [cir] Power systems [cir] Major business...concrete pad for a station generator; communications tower installations...systems and/or emergency generators from departments that...

2013-11-01

251

46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...performed at least once in every 12 months the tests and inspections of all hand portable fire extinguishers, semiportable fire extinguishing systems, and fixed fire extinguishing systems on board as described in Tables 189.25-20(a)(1)...

2011-10-01

252

46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...at least once in every twelve months the tests and inspections of all hand portable fire extinguishers, semiportable fire extinguishing systems, and fixed fire extinguishing systems on board, as described in tables 71.25-20(a) (1)...

2011-10-01

253

CMI (Central Mining Institute) Inert Gas Mine Firefighting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of inert gas systems to extinguish mine fires has been the subject of research for some time in the United States. In some European countries, it is an established practice. Tests were conducted with the Central Mining Institute (CMI) Inert Gas Sy...

M. Paczkowski G. A. Tracey A. Wojtyczka

1982-01-01

254

Suggestions for the development of a fire-fighting manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the first considerations in the development of a hospital for the insane is the protection of the inmates and the buildings against fire. Much has been written in this regard but no one, in the experience of the writer, has assembled a satisfactory and comprehensive manual on the subject. In a study of the matter, and in personal

Earle V. Gray

1928-01-01

255

The communicative construction of safety in wildland firefighting ...  

Treesearch

Proceedings of the 3rd Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire Conference; April ... failure learning behaviors, work safety tension, psychological safety, crew staffing ... Based on both studies, recommendations are presented for enhancing the ...

256

46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vessel, or transfer a product with a flashpoint of less than 300 °F to or from a portable tank unlessâ (a) Water pressure is maintained on the firemain; (b) Firehoses, fitted with a Coast Guard approved combination nozzle, are...

2012-10-01

257

Inhalational and percutaneous methanol toxicity in two firefighters.  

PubMed

We present two cases of adult inhalational and percutaneous methanol toxicity resulting from transient exposure to vaporized methanol. Both patients complained only of a mild headache at the time of the emergency department evaluation and had normal physical examinations, normal anion gaps, and peak methanol levels of 23 and 16 mg/dL, respectively. Emergency physicians should recognize the potential for toxic transcutaneous absorption of methanol. Because of the varying relationship between clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, and anion gap values to potentially toxic methanol exposures, acquisition of empiric serum methanol levels appears warranted in appropriate situations. PMID:8239116

Aufderheide, T P; White, S M; Brady, W J; Stueven, H A

1993-12-01

258

Carotid artery dissection following minimal postural trauma in a firefighter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotid artery dissections (CAD) are uncommon, but not rare, and are increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity. A case of CAD following minimal sustained postural trauma is described. The causes and outcomes of CAD are discussed, with particular reference to risks that might be found in the workplace.

Stewart Lloyd

259

Personality and psychophysiological profiles of police officer and firefighter recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some have suggested that people who join emergency-services professions have a unique set of personality and response characteristics that allow them to manage the intense stressors of their particular jobs. The nature of personality and response profiles of individuals from different emergency-services professions could have both clinical and policy implications. The present study examined self-reported personality traits of police and

Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault; Anna M. Ruef; Scott P. Orr

2010-01-01

260

Implicit coordination in firefighting practice: design implications for teaching fire emergency responders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire emergency response requires rapidly processing and communicating information to coordinate teams that protect lives and property. Students studying to become fire emergency responders must learn to communicate, process, and integrate information during dangerous, stressful, and time-sensitive work. We are performing an ethnographic investigation that includes interviews with experienced fire emergency responders and observations of team burn training exercises with

Zachary O. Toups; Andruid Kerne

2007-01-01

261

Covering the Homeland: National Guard Unmanned Aircraft Systems Support for Wildland Firefighting and Natural Disaster Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past decade the United States Government has had to cope with increasingly severe large-scale natural disasters. The 2004 hurricane season alone caused 167 deaths and an estimated $46 billion in damages. The following year Hurricane Katrina took ...

R. G. Moose

2008-01-01

262

Learning for the Frontline: How Fire-Fighters Integrate Learnt Behaviours with Difficult Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emergency service teams hold an important role however the stress associated with their position can strain workplace relationships. Although it is not always possible to change the incidents to which teams respond, it is possible to shape the way personnel communicate with each other about these incidents. Yet little is known on how learnt…

Dadich, Ann

2012-01-01

263

76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ingredient used to prepare the product, and 4. Specific mixing requirements...information assures that the product does not contain ingredients...Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) ``List of...by the Agency assesses the products and levels of ingredients...

2011-09-21

264

76 FR 58461 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ingredient used to prepare the product, and 4. Specific mixing requirements...information assures that the product does not contain ingredients...Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) ``List of...by the Agency assesses the products and levels of ingredients...

2011-09-21

265

76 FR 58460 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Long-Term Retardant for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ingredient used to prepare the product; and 4. Specific mixing requirements...information assures that the product does not contain ingredients...Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) ``List of...by the Agency assesses the products and levels of ingredients...

2011-09-21

266

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polyester, or other material with flame-spread qualities and mildew resistance equal or superior to polyester. The bursting pressure...underground coal mines prior to December 30, 1970, shall be mildew-proof and have a bursting pressure at least 4 times the...

2010-07-01

267

Firefights, raids, and assassinations: tactical forms of cartel violence and their underpinnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines some specific types of narco-generated combat, assault, and brutality that over the last decade have acquired an increasingly organized and paramilitary character. The planning; training; intelligence and counterintelligence preparation; mobility; communications; type of weaponry; levels of intensity; and sheer audacity substantially exceed the threats with which traditional law enforcement had been trained and equipped to deal. It

Graham H. Turbiville Jr

2010-01-01

268

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...traffic control tower, and (4) Fire stations, as specified in the...2) Be painted or marked in colors to enhance contrast with the...systems on the airport, including fire alarms. (v) Use of the fire hoses, nozzles, turrets,...

2013-01-01

269

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...portable welding units, and augers, shall be equipped with at least one portable fire extinguisher. (2) Power shovels, draglines, and other large equipment shall be equipped with at least one portable fire extinguisher; however, additional fire...

2009-07-01

270

Trace Additives to Inhibit the Caking of Purple K for 3-D Firefighting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of crystal-habit modifying additives was evaluated to inhibit the caking of Purple K dry chemical fire suppression agent. Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), which is the active ingredient (>99%) of Purple K, was used as the baseline compound. Micron-s...

S. Hunter L. Li D. Dierdorf E. Proudfoot

2004-01-01

271

Accelerated Spirometric Decline in New York City Firefighters With ?1-Antitrypsin Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse caused massive air pollution, producing variable amounts of lung function reduction in the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) rescue workforce. ?1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a risk factor for obstructive airway disease. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study of the first 4 years post-September 11, 2001, investigated the influence of AAT deficiency on adjusted longitudinal spirometric change (FEV1) in 90 FDNY rescue workers with WTC exposure. Workers with protease inhibitor (Pi) Z heterozygosity were considered moderately AAT deficient. PiS homozygosity or PiS heterozygosity without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity was considered mild deficiency, and PiM homozygosity was considered normal. Alternately, workers had low AAT levels if serum AAT was ? 20 ?mol/L. Results: In addition to normal aging-related decline (37 mL/y), significant FEV1 decline accelerations developed with increasing AAT deficiency severity (110 mL/y for moderate and 32 mL/y for mild) or with low AAT serum levels (49 mL/y). Spirometric rates pre-September 11, 2001, did not show accelerations with AAT deficiency. Among workers with low AAT levels, cough persisted in a significant number of participants at 4 years post-September 11, 2001. Conclusions: FDNY rescue workers with AAT deficiency had significant spirometric decline accelerations and persistent airway symptoms during the first 4 years after WTC exposure, representing a novel gene-by-environment interaction. Clinically meaningful decline acceleration occurred even with the mild serum AAT level reductions associated with PiS heterozygosity (without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity).

Brantly, Mark; Izbicki, Gabriel; Hall, Charles; Shanske, Alan; Chavko, Robert; Santhyadka, Ganesha; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Weiden, Michael D.; Prezant, David J.

2010-01-01

272

Persistent hyperreactivity and reactive airway dysfunction in firefighters at the World Trade Center.  

PubMed

New York City Fire Department rescue workers experienced massive exposure to airborne particulates at the World Trade Center site. Aims of this longitudinal study were to (1) determine if bronchial hyperreactivity was present, persistent, and independently associated with exposure intensity, (2) identify objective measures shortly after the collapse that would predict persistent hyperreactivity and a diagnosis of reactive airways dysfunction 6 months post-collapse. A representative sample of 179 rescue workers stratified by exposure intensity (high, moderate, and control) without current smoking or prior respiratory disease was enrolled. Highly exposed workers arrived within 2 hours of collapse, moderately exposed workers arrived later on Days 1-2; control subjects were not exposed. Hyperreactivity at 1, 3, and 6 months post-collapse was associated with exposure intensity, independent of ex-smoking and airflow obstruction. Six months post-collapse, highly exposed workers were 6.8 times more likely than moderately exposed workers and control subjects to be hyperreactive (95% confidence interval, 1.8-25.2; p = 0.004), and hyperreactivity persisted in 55% of those hyperreactive at 1 and/or 3 months. In highly exposed subjects, hyperreactivity 1 or 3 months post-collapse was the sole predictor for reactive airways dysfunction (p = 0.021). In conclusion, development and persistence of hyperreactivity and reactive airways dysfunction were strongly and independently associated with exposure intensity. Hyperreactivity shortly post-collapse predicted reactive airways dysfunction at 6 months in highly exposed workers; this has important implications for disaster management. PMID:12615613

Banauch, Gisela I; Alleyne, Dawn; Sanchez, Raoul; Olender, Kattia; Cohen, Hillel W; Weiden, Michael; Kelly, Kerry J; Prezant, David J

2003-02-25

273

ILR Impact Brief – Supervisor Support, Employee Control Help NYC Firefighters Cope with 9\\/11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although individuals often work in groups and groups function within a larger environment, researchers have rarely examined the effect of context on employees’ emotions, attitudes, or behaviors. This study uses the World Trade Center attack to generate and test a context theory concerning the impact on first responders of their involvement in a catastrophic event. The model details the way

Samuel B Bacharach; Peter A. Bamberger

2007-01-01

274

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers commensurate with the potential...with at least one portable fire extinguisher. (2) Power shovels, draglines...with at least one portable fire extinguisher; however, additional...

2013-07-01

275

30 CFR 77.1110 - Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1110 Examination...usable and operative condition. Fire extinguishers shall be examined at least once...permanent tag attached to the extinguisher. (Pub. L. No....

2013-07-01

276

30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1100-3...usable and operative condition. Chemical extinguishers shall be examined every 6 months...permanent tag attached to the extinguisher. [35 FR 17890, Nov....

2013-07-01

277

The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity.

Calfee, R. D.; Little, E. E.

2003-01-01

278

46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the following: (1) The exterior water spray system must past a water spray test. (2) The dry chemical system must meet the manufacturer's specifications forâ (i) The amount of dry chemical powder; and (ii) The pressure...

2011-10-01

279

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with outlet valves on each floor, and with sufficient fire hose to project a water stream to any point in the plant. However, where freezing conditions exist or water is not available, a 125-pound multipurpose dry powder extinguisher...

2010-07-01

280

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75...shall be provided at each permanent underground oil storage station. One portable...be stored at a central warehouse or building supply company and such supply...

2013-07-01

281

System of firefighting and blow-out protection for a drilling operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of fire fighting and blowout protection for a drilling operation employs valves and flow conduits interconnecting a low pressure and a high pressure source of inert gas to the interior of a blowout preventer assembly. A pneumatically actuated valve connected to the blowout preventer outflow conduit is moved to the closed position upon a predetermined pressure. Gaseous hydrocarbons

1974-01-01

282

Social Networks Perspective of Firefighters' Adaptive Behaviour and Coordination among Them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparing for emergencies and their management is considered to be dynamic and challenging in controlling crises, preventing losses, and in the allocation of resources. In this study, we argue that improving plans and operations of personnel involved in managing fire-related emergencies is an important area of investigation. Here, we investigate the effects of social network relations (i.e., tie strength) among

Alireza Abbasi; Liaquat Hossain; Jafar Hamra; Christine Owen

2010-01-01

283

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or the nearshore or offshore area, you must submit...the outer limit of the offshore area, the 12 or 50-mile...within the nearshore and offshore areas of CONUS or within...External emergency transfer operations External...support equipment & personnel on scene....

2013-07-01

284

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be at least 4 times the water pressure at the valve to the hose inlet with the valve closed; the maximum water pressure in the hose nozzle shall not exceed...pressure at least 4 times the water pressure at the valve to the hose...

2013-07-01

285

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of delivering 50 gallons of water a minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds per square inch...tanks are used as a source of water supply, the tanks shall...for mildew resistance. The water pressure at the hose nozzle shall...

2013-07-01

286

Firefights and Fuel Management: A Nested Rotation Model for Wildfire Risk Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists and policymakers are increasingly aware that wildfire management efforts should be broadened beyond the century-long emphasis on suppression to include more effective efforts at fuel management. Because wildfire risks change over time as vegetation matures, fuel management can be viewed as a timing problem, much like timber harvest itself. We develop a nested rotation model to examine the fuel

Jonathan Yoder; Marian Lankoande

2005-01-01

287

FIREFIGHTS AND FUEL MANAGEMENT: A NESTED ROTATION MODEL FOR WILDFIRE RISK MITIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists and policymakers are increasingly aware that wildfire management efforts should be broadened beyond the century-long emphasis on suppression to include more effective efforts at fuel management. Because wildfire risks change over time as vegetation matures, fuel management can be viewed as a timing problem, much like timber harvest itself. We develop a nested rotation model to examine the fuel

Marian Lankoande; Jonathan Yoder

2005-01-01

288

78 FR 41072 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provides funding for the hiring of new firefighters and the recruitment and retention of volunteer firefighters. DATES: Comments...4b, Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Recruitment and Retention of Volunteer Firefighters Application...

2013-07-09

289

34 CFR 674.64 - Discharge of student loan indebtedness for survivors of victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...whoâ (i) Served as a police officer, firefighter, other...Forces, or was employed as a police officer, firefighter, or...Forces or was employed as a police officer, firefighter or...joint FFEL or Federal Direct Consolidation loan applications....

2013-07-01

290

5 CFR 550.1304 - Overtime hourly rates of pay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1304 Overtime hourly rates of pay. (a) For a firefighter who...provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), the overtime hourly rate of pay equals 11/2 times the firefighter...

2013-01-01

291

77 FR 55855 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, Assistance to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program-Grant Application Supplemental...of applicants for the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program. DATES: Comments must...comprise of applications for Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program (AFG) and Fire...

2012-09-11

292

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equipment on nautical school ships using oil as...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL...character: (a) In each boiler room...spaces of a nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part...

2012-10-01

293

The effect of energy drinks on cortisol levels, cognition and mood during a fire-fighting exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Acute stress has been associated with changes in cognitive performance and mood, and these have been in part associated with\\u000a stress-related increased release of cortisol. Both glucose and caffeine consumed in isolation have been shown to moderate\\u000a cortisol response and affect cognitive performance and affect mood; however, there has been very little research into their\\u000a behavioural and physiological effects when

Sandra I. Sünram-Lea; Jane Owen-Lynch; Sarita J. Robinson; Emma Jones; Henglong Hu

294

Proposed protocol for a multi-centre study to compare clinical and trade tests of colour vision in firefighters.  

PubMed

Fire-brigade recruits in the UK have their colour vision screened using the Ishihara test. This is unsatisfactory because it rejects subjects with minor deficiencies in colour vision and does not test for blue defects. The Home Office is currently reviewing its recommendations on visual standards. This paper summarizes defects in colour vision, discusses alternative clinical and trade tests for the fire-brigade, and proposes a multi-centre study to collect data on the performance of fire-brigade recruits in clinical and trade tests. PMID:7841418

Rees, H

1994-12-01

295

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...two stairways, only two stairways need to have a fire hydrant and hose. The fire hydrants must be part of the fire main system; and (b) Portable fire extinguishers in the quantity and location as required in Table 149.409 of this...

2013-07-01

296

Brave Firefighters, Endangered National Icons and Bumbling Land Managers: Network TV Myths about the 1988 Yellowstone Wildfires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research shows that reporters often seek out the most available news sources rather than those who have the most expertise, that journalists tend to focus on specific events rather than the context in which they occur, and that news stories are presented as stylized social constructs rather than as factual accounts of what happened. A study…

Smith, Conrad

297

Effects of forearm vs. leg submersion in work tolerance time in a hot environment while wearing firefighter protective clothing.  

PubMed

This study compared physiological responses and total work tolerance time following forearm submersion (FS) or leg submersion (LS) in cool water, after performing work in a hot environment while wearing fire fighting protective clothing (FPC). Participants walked at 3.5 mph on a treadmill in a hot environment (WBGT 32.8 ± 0.9°C) until a rectal temperature (T(rec)) of 38.5°C was reached. Participants were then subjected to one of two peripheral cooling interventions, in a counterbalanced order. Forearms or lower legs were submerged in water (16.9 ± 0.8°C) for a total of 20 min, followed by a work tolerance trial. Results indicated no significant difference (p = 0.052) between work tolerance time (LS = 21.36 ± 5.35 min vs. FS = 16.27 ± 5.56 min). Similarly, there was no significant difference for T(rec) (p = 0.65), heart rate (HR) (p = 0.79), mean skin temperature (T(sk)) (p = 0.68), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (p = 0.54). However, LS ratings of thermal comfort (RTC) at Minute 14 (p = 0.03) were significantly lower for LS (10 ± 1) vs. FS (12 ± 1). Results indicate little difference between FS and LS for physiological measures. Despite a lack of statistical significance a 5-min (24%) increase was found during the work tolerance time following LS. PMID:21756136

Katica, Charles P; Pritchett, Robert C; Pritchett, Kelly L; Del Pozzi, Andrew T; Balilionis, Gytis; Burnham, Tim

2011-08-01

298

Impact of Rapid Temperature Change on Firefighter Tracking in GPS-denied Environments Using Inexpensive MEMS IMUs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of rapid temperature change on position errors when using a low cost MEMS IMU (Memsense nIMU) integrated with a compass for foot-based pedestrian navigation in a GPS-denied environment. A conventional six degree-of-freedom navigation solution is computed by integration of the inertial navigation equations. Position errors are effectively minimized by the use of zero-velocity updates (ZUPT)

Todd Faulkner

299

Investigation of Air Emission Reduction Methods for Aircraft Rescue and Firefighter Training Fires: Small-Scale Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small-scale experiments were conducted to examine pollutant reduction techniques for JP-5 spray fires. These tests were part of a program to relocate the fire training facility at Naval Air Training Center (NATTC) Millington to NATTC Pensacola. The use of...

M. J. Peatross R. J. Ouellette D. P. Verdonik F. W. Williams

1997-01-01

300

A systematic review of job-specific workers’ health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such\\u000a occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to\\u000a describe (1) the existing job-specific workers’ health surveillance (WHS) activities and (2) the effectiveness of job-specific\\u000a WHS interventions with respect to work functioning, for

M. J. PlatM; M. H. W. Frings-Dresen; J. K. Sluiter

301

Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs.

Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

1989-07-01

302

Controlling the Hazards from LNG Spills on the Ground, LNG Firefighting Methods and Their Effects Application to Gas de France Terminals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gaz de France has developed a mathematical model to calculate vapor dispersion from accidental LNG spills on land. This model has been applied to make clear the influence of certain parameters in reducing the extension of the plumes. Based on the results ...

F. Bellus H. Cochard J. Mauger R. Vincent

1978-01-01

303

Health-related quality of life of firefighters and police officers 8.5 years after the air disaster in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam. In the troublesome aftermath rumours emerged on potential\\u000a toxic exposures and health consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term impact of this disaster on the health-related\\u000a quality of life (HRQoL) of professional assistance workers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Historic cohort study, using questionnaires to assess occupational disaster exposure, HRQoL

Pau line Slottje; Jos W. R. Twisk; Nynke Smidt; Anja C. Huizink; Anke B. Witteveen; Willem van Mechelen; Tjabe Smid

2007-01-01

304

Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.  

SciTech Connect

Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

1990-06-01

305

The Comparative Effectiveness of Levels of Training and Years of Work Experience in Firefighters as Determining Factors in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been known by other names and not well studied prior to returning Vietnam veterans who suffered psychological dysfunction. However, the term PTSD became part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders in 1981. Since that time PTSD has been researched extensively in veterans. However,…

Turner, Melva W.

2011-01-01

306

44 CFR 152.1 - Purpose and eligible uses of grant funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fire inspectors; (5) To establish wellness and fitness programs for firefighting...mass destruction; (9) To acquire personal protective equipment required for firefighting...and Health Administration, and other personal protective equipment for...

2010-10-01

307

44 CFR 152.1 - Purpose and eligible uses of grant funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fire inspectors; (5) To establish wellness and fitness programs for firefighting...mass destruction; (9) To acquire personal protective equipment required for firefighting...and Health Administration, and other personal protective equipment for...

2009-10-01

308

Incident Response Pocket Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most essential element of successful wildland firefighting is competent and confident leadership. Leadership means providing purpose, direction and motivation for wildland firefighters working to accomplish difficult tasks under dangerous, stressful c...

2002-01-01

309

44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

2011-10-01

310

76 FR 1401 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest Service Title: Federal Excess Personal Property and Firefighter Property Cooperative Agreements. OMB Control Number: 0596-NEW...Collection: Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative Agreements...

2011-01-10

311

77 FR 71010 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Assistance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program-Grant Application Supplemental Information...INFORMATON: Collection of Information Title: Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program-Grant Application Supplemental...

2012-11-28

312

78 FR 58549 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Hiring of Firefighters Application (Questions and Narrative); FEMA Form 080-4b...Emergency Response Recruitment and Retention of Volunteer Firefighters Application (Questions and Narrative). Abstract:...

2013-09-24

313

Evaluation of NDI Compressed Air Foam System (CAFS) Applied as a Retrofit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Army Engineer Firefighting Detachments require increased firefighting capability to compensate for deficiencies in structural, brush, or wildland and large petroleum storage site fires. Additionally, Army fire departments responsible for protection and pr...

S. Duncan

1994-01-01

314

46 CFR 11.920 - Subjects for MODU endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... X Fire prevention and firefighting appliances: Organization of fire drills X X X X X X X Classes and chemistry of fire X X X X X X X Firefighting systems X X X X X X X Firefighting equipment and...

2011-10-01

315

46 CFR 11.920 - Subjects for MODU endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... X Fire prevention and firefighting appliances: Organization of fire drills X X X X X X X Classes and chemistry of fire X X X X X X X Firefighting systems X X X X X X X Firefighting equipment and...

2012-10-01

316

Recruits’ predictions of positive reactions in diasaster and emergency work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruits entering a firefighting training program gave predictions about the likelihood of positive or negative reactions after a stressful emergency call-out. Their results were compared with a group of experienced firefighters. Recruits more frequently checked positive than negative reactions, a pattern resembling that of the experienced firefighters. The recruits, however, were generally more optimistic than the experienced group, and this

Carmen C. Moran

1999-01-01

317

Extreme sacrifice: sudden cardiac death in the US Fire Service  

PubMed Central

Firefighting is a hazardous profession which has claimed on average the lives of 105 US firefighters per year for the past decade. The leading cause of line-of-duty mortality is sudden cardiac death, which accounts for approximately 45% of all firefighter duty-related fatalities. Strenuous physical activity, emotional stress, and environmental pollutants all strain the cardiovascular system, and each can increase the risk of sudden cardiac events in susceptible individuals. Sudden cardiac death is more likely to occur during or shortly after emergency duties such as fire suppression, despite the fact that these duties comprise a relatively small proportion of firefighters' annual duties. Additionally, cardiac events are more likely to occur in firefighters who possess an excess of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease along with underlying atherosclerosis and/or structural heart disease. In this review, we propose a theoretical model for the interaction between underlying cardiovascular disease in firefighters and the multifactorial physiological strain of firefighting.

2013-01-01

318

Body Mass Index is a Predictor of Fire Fighter Injury and Worker Compensation Claims  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relationship between lifestyle variables including body mass index (BMI) and filing a worker’s compensation claim due to firefighter injury. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation of firefighter injury related worker compensation claims occurring 5 years after the original PHLAME study intervention. Results Logistic regression analysis for variables predicting filing a worker’s compensation claim due to an injury were performed. with a total of 433 participants. The odds of filing a compensation claim were almost three times higher for firefighters with a BMI >30 compared to firefighters with normal BMI (odds ratio=2.89, p<.05). Conclusions This study addresses a high priority area of reducing firefighter injuries and worker’s compensation claims. Maintaining a healthy body weight is important to reduce injury and worker’s compensation claims among firefighters.

Kuehl, Kerry S.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Elliot, Diane L.; Moe, Esther L.; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Goldberg, Linn; Kuehl, Hannah E.

2012-01-01

319

46 CFR 8.515 - Eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vessel's approved systems or structure, such as fixed firefighting systems, pollution prevention arrangements, overcurrent protection devices, or watertight boundary arrangements. (v) Operating without the required navigation...

2011-10-01

320

46 CFR 8.515 - Eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vessel's approved systems or structure, such as fixed firefighting systems, pollution prevention arrangements, overcurrent protection devices, or watertight boundary arrangements. (v) Operating without the required navigation...

2012-10-01

321

46 CFR 34.17-15 - Piping-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ferrous materials shall be protected inside and outside against corrosion unless specifically approved otherwise by the Commandant. ...not be used for any other purpose than firefighting, drills and...

2011-10-01

322

Hungry Horse Dam wildlife habitat enhancement project: Long-term habitat management plan, elk and mule deer winter range enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear winter ranges, Hungry Horse, Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the...

D. Casey P. Malta

1990-01-01

323

Prospective 10-year evaluation of hypobetalipoproteinemia in a cohort of 772 firefighters and cross-sectional evaluation of hypocholesterolemia in 1,479 men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our specific aim in a 10-year prospective study of 772 Cincinnati firemen (predominantly aged 26 to 46 years) was to determine the prevalence, attributes, and etiology of persistent hypobetalipoproteinemia, defined by entry low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) less than 75 mg\\/dL. A second specific aim was to cross-sectionally assess hypocholesterolemia (defined by total serum cholesterol [TC] < 130 mg\\/dL) in 1,314

Charles J. Glueck; William Kelley; Arun Gupta; Robert N. Fontaine; Ping Wang; Peter S. Gartside

1997-01-01

324

The health of women in the US fire service  

PubMed Central

Background Despite statements from national fire service organizations, including the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) and the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC), promoting a diverse work force related to gender within the fire service, rates of women firefighters remain very low. Thus, research into why this extensive gender disparity continues is a high priority. Recent years have seen a number of large scale studies on firefighter health and health risk behaviors however, none have focused on the health of women firefighters and nearly all have eliminated women from the sample due to small sample size. Data from the present report is drawn from all females in a large, randomly selected cohort of firefighters in an epidemiological study designed to assess health outcomes and health risk behaviors identified as most important to the fire service. Methods Data reported for the present study were collected as baseline data for the Firefighter Injury and Risk Evaluation (FIRE) Study, a longitudinal cohort study examining risk factors for injury in both career and volunteer firefighters in the IAFC Missouri Valley Region. Of the departments assessed, only 8 career and 6 volunteer departments had any women firefighters. All the women solicited for participation chose to enroll in the study. The number of women ranged from 1 to 7 in career departments and 1 to 6 in volunteer departments. Results Where possible, comparisons are made between female firefighters and published data on male firefighters as well as comparisons between female firefighters and military members. Compared to male firefighters, females had more favorable body composition among both career and volunteer firefighters. Tobacco use rates were generally higher among females than males and rates among female firefighters were similar to the rates of female military members. While rates of alcohol use were higher than the general population, only one of the participants evidenced responses in the range of concern on the CAGE screening. Conclusions In general, the findings offer an interesting glimpse of the health of women in the fire service as a generally healthy occupational workforce with some unique health risk behavior challenges. They also highlight some of the similarities and differences between male and female firefighters and bolster the argument for studying female firefighters as a unique occupational sub-population.

2012-01-01

325

ANALYSIS OF A FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS FIRE LEADING TO A BACKDRAFT EXPLOSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tragic backdraft explosion during a flammable liquids fire in the basement of a New York City hardware store caused three firefighter fatalities and numerous injuries on June 17, 2001. The backdraft explosion occurred soon after the firefighters forced open a locked door and boarded window. This paper presents a FDS code simulation of the fire leading up to the

Robert Zalosh; San-Ping Ho

326

The Effect of Computer-Based Simulation Training on Fire Ground Incident Commander Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the establishment of the first volunteer fire brigades in the United States, firefighters have lost their lives in fire fighting operations at emergency incidents and live-fire training activities. While there are various reasons for these firefighter deaths and injuries, the United States Fire Administration (2002) reported that many of…

Hall, Kurt A.

2010-01-01

327

31 CFR 29.502 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Firefighters Plan, or Teachers Plan, who is or may...Change of position for the worse means an individual would be left in a worse financial position after...changed position for the worseâ if he or she made...Firefighters Plan, and the Teachers Plan, the unrefunded...

2010-07-01

328

31 CFR 29.502 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Firefighters Plan, or Teachers Plan, who is or may...Change of position for the worse means an individual would be left in a worse financial position after...changed position for the worseâ if he or she made...Firefighters Plan, and the Teachers Plan, the unrefunded...

2009-07-01

329

31 CFR 29.502 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...penalties, and/or administrative costs owed on a debt. Administrative...documentation of the estimated cost. Beneficiary means an...the terms of the Judges Plan, Police Officers and Firefighters Plan...Under the Judges Plan, the Police Officers and Firefighters...

2013-07-01

330

Smell\\/taste: odors in reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deep Immersion Virtual Environment Laboratory at SwRI has been promoting to clients the use of virtual environments for training hazardous duties. The research during this effort created a testbed system for producing odor and radiant heat cues for firefighter training virtual environments. From this research came a conceptual strawman of a firefighter training system called the Advanced Virtual Environment

J. P. Cater

1994-01-01

331

“I Could Probably Run a Marathon Right Now”: Embodiment, Space, and Young Women's Leisure Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research uses Camp Blaze, a firefighting camp for young women, to explore ways that the body and processes of embodiment are integral to learning about firefighting. We also address the role that the leisure space of the camp plays in simultaneously constraining and enabling young women's use and understanding of their bodies. Analysis of observational, interview, and photo data

Careen Mackay Yarnal; Susan Hutchinson; Hsueh-Wen Chow

2006-01-01

332

Wildfire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes the 3 elements that are needed for a fire triangle, and how the job of firefighters is to eliminate at least one of the elements. Learn how wildfires spread, what firefighters need to know in order to fight fires and why rehabilitation is important after a fire.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-10-07

333

The Ever-Changing Face of Sex Stereotyping and Sex Discrimination in the Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A firefighter for the City of Salem, Ohio, sued the fire department and the city for discrimination. The case was based on discrimination related to Smith's (the firefighter's) status as a transsexual. The U.S. Court of Appeals (Sixth Circuit) ruled that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 includes sex discrimination based on sex stereotyping. The Smith case calls attention to

Kenneth M. York; Catherine L. Tyler; J. Michael Tyler; Paul E. Gugel

2008-01-01

334

Maladaptive Self-Appraisals before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the proposal that negative appraisals represent a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Trainee firefighters (N = 68) were assessed during training (before trauma exposure) for PTSD, history of traumatic events, and tendency to engage in negative appraisals. Firefighters were reassessed 4…

Bryant, Richard A.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

2007-01-01

335

Franklin Pierce College's Fire Department: 17 Student Volunteers and a Vintage Engine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventeen student volunteers form the Franklin Pierce College Fire Department. When the firefighters are on duty, they must carry electronic pagers at all times. They also participate in dormitory inspections and attend weekend sessions at a local firefighters' training school. (MLW)

Meyer, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

336

An Assessment of a Mixed Reality Environment: Toward an Ethnomethodological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training firefighters is a difficult process in which emotions and nonverbal behaviors play an important role. The authors have developed a mixed reality environment for training a small group of firefighters, which takes into account these aspects. The assessment of the environment was made up of three phases: assessing the virtual agents to…

Dugdale, Julie; Pallamin, Nico; Pavard, Bernard

2006-01-01

337

Particle size-dependent radical generation from wildland fire smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighting, along with construction, mining and agriculture, ranks among the most dangerous occupations. In addition, the work environment of firefighters is unlike that of any other occupation, not only because of the obvious physical hazards but also due to the respiratory and systemic health hazards of smoke inhalation resulting from combustion. A significant amount of research has been devoted to

Stephen S. Leonard; Vince Castranova; Bean T. Chen; Diane Schwegler-Berry; Mark Hoover; Chris Piacitelli; Denise M. Gaughan

2007-01-01

338

Significance of Fire Service Culture as an Impediment to Effective Leadership in the Homeland Security Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tragic loss of 343 firefighters on 9/11 monumentally illustrates that firefighters now stand on the front line in the war against terrorism. The ramifications of 9/11 forced fire service leaders to incorporate newly recognized strategies of terrorism ...

A. T. Cox

2012-01-01

339

Improving the quality of non-emergency leadership: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core business of fire-fighting organizations is typically seen as emergency response. For a range of reasons, however, fire-fighting organizations face increasing pressures to develop new capabilities. In the midst of multiple changes, individual organizations need to develop strategic plans that allow them not only to change the organization, but also to develop the capabilities of its personnel. This paper

Merilyn Childs

2002-01-01

340

Integral Leadership and Signal Detection for High Reliability Organizing and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last ten years, the fire management community has made significant advances in firefighter safety and leadership development. Yet, there is no discernible downward trend in entrapment fatalities. While the complexity of the job and exposure of an increasing number of firefighters to increasingly severe situations has surely increased over that time frame, the best we can say is

J. M. Saveland

2005-01-01

341

Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to eval- uate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH

M. S. Robinson; T. R. Anthony; S. R. Littau; P. Herckes; X. Nelson; G. S. Poplin; J. L. Burgess

2008-01-01

342

Working inside the firehouse: developing a participant-driven intervention to enhance health-promoting behaviors.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of on-duty death among U.S. firefighters among whom volunteers comprise 71% of the fire service. We sought to understand CVD risk among volunteer firefighters and to develop a CVD intervention based on their input. To accomplish these aims, we conducted a series of focus groups with volunteer firefighters and firefighters who serve with volunteers in Maryland. We conducted two additional focus groups with fire service leaders. Ninety-eight people participated in 15 focus groups. Participants discussed health and wellness, stress and the demanding nature of the volunteer fire service, and the challenges associated with healthy eating. They talked about food in the firehouse and the lack of quick, healthy, satisfying, and affordable food. Several suggestions for interventions to improve the food environment and firefighters' ability to choose and prepare healthy meals and snacks emerged. An intervention reflecting the participants' recommendations resulted. The way volunteer firefighters understand health and wellness and the specific factors that influence their food intake are valuable insights for addressing CVD risks in this population. To our knowledge, this is the first study that systematically brings firefighters into the process of developing an intervention to reduce CVD risk among this high-risk population. PMID:23091304

Frattaroli, Shannon; Pollack, Keshia M; Bailey, Maryanne; Schafer, Heather; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Holtgrave, David R

2012-10-22

343

Testing of Portable Radios in a Fire Fighting Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Handheld portable radios are one of the critical electronic devices that firefighters and other first responders use during emergency response. These radios must operate in severe environmental conditions while maintaining acceptable radio communication. ...

M. J. Selepak M. K. Donnelly W. D. Davis

2006-01-01

344

46 CFR 169.569 - Fire axes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...the number of fire axes set forth in Table 169.569(a). The Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection...

2012-10-01

345

46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...vessel is determined by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, in accordance with Table...

2012-10-01

346

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...divided by the appropriate factor in Table 169.565(a). Table...the system must be located in a conspicuous place at or...

2012-10-01

347

46 CFR 169.515 - Number required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting... (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...number of persons accommodated in the largest lifeboat or...

2012-10-01

348

46 CFR 169.521 - Stowage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...launched within 10 minutes or, in the case of vessels having...It is capable of being put in the water safely and...

2012-10-01

349

46 CFR 169.553 - Pyrotechnic distress signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...Except as otherwise provided in this section, each vessel...be carried near the helm or in a location considered...

2012-10-01

350

46 CFR 169.556 - Work vests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...Work vests are not accepted in lieu of any of the required...personal flotation devices, and in locations where they will...

2012-10-01

351

46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting...smothering system is fitted in the boiler...smothering system is fitted in the machinery space of a nautical school ship propelled...

2012-10-01

352

46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting...classification shall be carried in lieu of spare charges for...particularly the acid, used in charging...

2012-10-01

353

46 CFR 169.509 - Approval for repairs and alterations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, may be made...advance notice to the Officer in Charge, Marine...

2012-10-01

354

46 CFR 169.570 - Lockout valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...space over 6,000 cubic feet in volume and installed or altered...manually operated valve located in the discharge manifold...

2012-10-01

355

46 CFR 169.525 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...lifesaving apparatus must kept in good condition. (b... (c) No person may stow in any lifeboat,...

2012-10-01

356

5 CFR 842.811 - Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February 10...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before February...Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers Regulations Pertaining to...Deposits for second-level supervisory air traffic controller service performed before...

2013-01-01

357

Emerging Health and Safety Issues in the Volunteer Fire Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Firefighters, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and other emergency responders face many dangers daily from exposure to smoke, deadly temperatures, and stress to issues surrounding personal protective equipment (PPE), vehicle safety, and personal heal...

2008-01-01

358

Aerospace Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace safety. Topics include hazard communications, lockout/tagout, confined space entry, fall protection, PPE, firefighting and bloodborne pathogens.

2010-10-18

359

M113: Armored Rescuer  

NASA Video Gallery

The space shuttle required a unique rescue vehicle, one strong enough to bull its way into a launch pad and carry a flight crew and firefighters to safety. The answer is a group of M113 armored personnel carriers.

KSC Web Team

2012-02-01

360

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting...safety lamps. Each nautical-school ship must be equipped with the following devices: (a) Two pressure-demand, open...

2010-10-01

361

46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting...safety lamps. Each nautical-school ship must be equipped with the following devices: (a) Two pressure-demand, open...

2009-10-01

362

Material Safety Data Sheet, MSDS D0211, Revision 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partly Contents: Chemical Product Identification, Composition and Information on ingredients, First Aid Measures, Fire-Fighting Measures, Accidental Release Measures, Handling and Storage, Exposure Controls, Personal Protection, Physical and Chemical Prop...

1998-01-01

363

46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be...a valve to start and stop the flow of chemical; (e) Have a capacity of at...

2012-10-01

364

46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be...a valve to start and stop the flow of chemical; (e) Have a capacity of at...

2011-10-01

365

30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt...

2013-07-01

366

36 CFR 261.52 - Fire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of all flammable material. (e) Going into or being upon an area. (f) Possessing, discharging or using any kind of firework or other pyrotechnic device. (g) Entering an area without any firefighting tool prescribed by the order. (h)...

2013-07-01

367

Working Together To Bridge the Communications Gap to Save Lives. A Guide for Public Officials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an era where technology can bring news, current events, and entertainment to the farthest reaches of the world, many law enforcement officers, firefighters, and emergency medical service personnel working in the same jurisdiction cannot communicate wit...

2003-01-01

368

46 CFR 169.556 - Work vests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...Work vests are not accepted in lieu of any of the required...personal flotation devices, and in locations where they will...

2011-10-01

369

46 CFR 169.509 - Approval for repairs and alterations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, may be made...advance notice to the Officer in Charge, Marine...

2011-10-01

370

46 CFR 169.515 - Number required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting... (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...number of persons accommodated in the largest lifeboat or...

2011-10-01

371

Postattack Mitigation Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to evaluate ways of reducing the severity of the firefighters' postattack environment and to define fire mitigation measures that will increase fire protection's contributions to aircraft sortie generation. This document...

H. Pike J. H. Storm

1988-01-01

372

5 CFR 841.403 - Categories of employees for computation of normal cost percentages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.403 Categories of employees for computation of normal cost percentages. Normal cost percentages will be determined...members of the Supreme Court Police, firefighters, nuclear...

2013-01-01

373

31 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Examples  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...survivor of a deceased retired police officer receives a cost of living adjustment that...the adjustment. Example 14FâPolice COLAâSurvivor of RetireeBenefit...deceased firefighter receives a cost of living adjustment...

2013-07-01

374

75 FR 69155 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Use: Passenger loading bridges. Sliding and revolving...Install two boarding bridge baggage lift devices...additional passenger loading bridge. Rehabilitate a portion...rescue and firefighting building doors and rehabilitate...baggage claim areas-- design and construction....

2010-11-10

375

76 FR 28121 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Expand terminal building, phase 1 design. Acquire equipment...aircraft loading bridge. PFC development...Terminal ramp (design). Rehabilitate...firefighting building, including...Commercial terminal building improvements. Design and...

2011-05-13

376

76 FR 70809 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sand storage building. Central disposal...Demolition of building no. 7 for general...Retrofit three jet bridges for regional...Perimeter road bridge over Howell Avenue, design. Inline baggage...firefighting building. 2008 Part...

2011-11-15

377

The Early Years: Helper Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Special clothing is worn by "community helpers" such as police officers, nurses, firefighters, cafeteria workers, dentists, and waste management workers as they do their jobs. The special clothing allows workers to be safe. Therefore, exploring how hats h

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-02-01

378

46 CFR 12.15-9 - Examination requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... X X 8. Safety precautions to be observed in the operation of various refrigerating systems, including storage of refrigerants, and the use of gas masks and firefighting equipment X X X X X X X 9. Combustion of fuels, proper...

2012-10-01

379

46 CFR 12.15-9 - Examination requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... X X 8. Safety precautions to be observed in the operation of various refrigerating systems, including storage of refrigerants, and the use of gas masks and firefighting equipment X X X X X X X 9. Combustion of fuels, proper...

2011-10-01

380

"F-The French Connection."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information for teachers on the chemistry of flourine. Points out that it links aerosols with refrigerants, anaesthetics with fire-fighting agents, batteries with blood substitutes, and atomic energy with the steel, petroleum, and aluminum industries. (JN)

Sleigh, John; Plevey, Ray

1986-01-01

381

Initial Fire Suppression Reactions of Halons Phase 2 - Verification of Experimental Approach and Initial Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this effort is to evaluate an experimental approach and initiate work to determine the initial chemical reactions occurring when halon firefighting agents extinguish flames. Initial studies using these procedures were also performed. Thre...

E. A. Walters J. S. Nimitz R. E. Tapscott G. D. Brabson J. H. May

1990-01-01

382

48 CFR 22.300 - Scope of subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...S.C. 3701 et seq. ) (the Act) to contracts that may require or involve laborers or mechanics. In this subpart, the term laborers or mechanics includes apprentices, trainees, helpers, watchmen, guards, firefighters,...

2011-10-01

383

48 CFR 22.300 - Scope of subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...S.C. 3701 et seq. ) (the Act) to contracts that may require or involve laborers or mechanics. In this subpart, the term laborers or mechanics includes apprentices, trainees, helpers, watchmen, guards, firefighters,...

2012-10-01

384

Proceedings of the regional cogongrass conference: a cogongrass ...  

Treesearch

... that it excludes even other invasive plants, and certainly most wildlife, insects, ... whether native shrubs or human structures, to threaten the lives of firefighters. ... We live from the land still in both sustenance and spirit, since we have been ...

385

Study of Metal Truss Plate Connectors when Exposed to Fire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The popularity of lightweight, metal plate connected wood truss construction is increasing due to cost effectiveness, versatility, and ease of construction. This type of construction brings many concerns to the firefighting community, since structural col...

K. A. Harman J. R. Lawson

2007-01-01

386

30 CFR 48.28 - Annual refresher training of miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...evacuation plans in effect at the mine; and instruction in the firewarning signals and firefighting procedures...illumination and night work. The course shall include, where...measurements, where applicable, and noise and other health...

2013-07-01

387

Training and Extended Operations in Females.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this extension project was to complete three studies with male and female subjects during short term and seasonal exposure to an arduous work environment and to determine the effects of an uncontrolled situation (active wildland firefighter...

B. C. Ruby

1999-01-01

388

Determining the Relative Impact of PSAs and Brochures Upon General Public Drivers Interfacing with Emergency Service Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Firefighters, law enforcement personnel, tow operators and emergency medical service personnel are at risk when working on highways to manage emergency incidents. Annually there are scores of responders injured or killed while helping others. One effectiv...

D. Basch S. Austin W. Troup W. F. Jenaway

2012-01-01

389

44 CFR 150.3 - Nomination process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...nominating Firefighters and Civil Defense Officers shall submit...MD 21727 (2) Civil defense officer (or member of a recognized civil defense or emergency preparedness...Service Awards to: Assistant Attorney General for...

2012-10-01

390

33 CFR 155.4010 - Purpose of this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plan. Salvage and marine firefighting actions can save lives, property, and prevent the escalation of potential oil spills to worst case discharge scenarios. (b) A planholder must ensure by contract or other approved means that...

2009-07-01

391

Home Fire Sprinklers Save Lives  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

392

Fire Safety for People with Hearing Impairments  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

393

After a Fire  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

394

United States Fire Administration  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

395

Smoking and Home Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

396

Fire Estimates  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

397

Fire Extinguishers  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

398

High-Rise Residents  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

399

Bedroom Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

400

Electrical Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

401

Exposing an Invisible Killer: The Dangers of Carbon Monoxide  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

402

Fire Safety for People with Visual Impairments  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

403

Teaching Children Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

404

Fire Safety for Older Adults and Their Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

405

Candle Fire Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

406

Fire Safety for People with Disabilities and Their Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

407

Learn about Fire: The Nature of Fire  

MedlinePLUS

... Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth Firesetting Candles Cooking Electrical Heating Holiday ... Firefighter Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation ...

408

Public Health Assessment for Savanna Army Depot Activity, Savanna, Carroll County, Illinois, Region 5. CERCLIS No. IL3210020803.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Savanna Army Depot Activity (SVADA) is a military installation in northwestern Illinois, approximately 150 miles west of Chicago. Past operations at SVADA, including munitions manufacture, renovations, testing, and disposal, fire-fighting training, landfi...

1999-01-01

409

5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...g., firefighters whose schedules generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the hourly rate of basic pay is computed by dividing the applicable annual rate of basic pay by 2756 hours....

2013-01-01

410

46 CFR 71.40-1 - General or partial survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...circumstances, shall be made every time an accident occurs or a defect is discovered which affects the safety of the vessel or the efficacy or completeness of its lifesaving appliances, fire-fighting or other equipment, or whenever any important...

2011-10-01

411

46 CFR 189.30-1 - General or partial survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...circumstances, shall be made every time an accident occurs or a defect is discovered which affects the safety of the vessel or the efficacy or completeness of its lifesaving appliances, firefighting or other equipment, or whenever any important repairs or...

2011-10-01

412

46 CFR 71.40-1 - General or partial survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...circumstances, shall be made every time an accident occurs or a defect is discovered which affects the safety of the vessel or the efficacy or completeness of its lifesaving appliances, fire-fighting or other equipment, or whenever any important...

2012-10-01

413

46 CFR 189.30-1 - General or partial survey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...circumstances, shall be made every time an accident occurs or a defect is discovered which affects the safety of the vessel or the efficacy or completeness of its lifesaving appliances, firefighting or other equipment, or whenever any important repairs or...

2012-10-01

414

46 CFR 167.45-20 - Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. 167.45-20...SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-20 Examination and testing of pumps and fire-extinguishing equipment. The...

2011-10-01

415

29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Portable firefighting equipment â(1) Fire extinguishers and small hose lines. (i) A fire extinguisher, rated not less than 2A, shall be...of the protected area to the nearest fire extinguisher shall not exceed 100 feet....

2013-07-01

416

30 CFR 56.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire extinguishers shall be recharged or replaced with a...

2013-07-01

417

30 CFR 57.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire extinguishers shall be recharged or replaced with a...

2013-07-01

418

33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Locations and number of fire extinguishers required. 145.10 Section...CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.10 Locations and number of fire extinguishers required. (a)...

2013-07-01

419

33 CFR 127.603 - Portable fire extinguishers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Portable fire extinguishers. 127.603 Section 127...Firefighting § 127.603 Portable fire extinguishers. Each marine transfer area...must haveâ (a) Portable fire extinguishers that meet 9-6.1 of...

2013-07-01

420

33 CFR 145.10 - Locations and number of fire extinguishers required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Locations and number of fire extinguishers required. 145.10...CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT...Locations and number of fire extinguishers required. (a...B-II (CO2 or dry chemical) 2 required....

2009-07-01

421

NIOSH Fact Sheet. Exploding Flashlights: Are They a Serious Threat to Worker Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet detailed the possible explosion hazard associated with flashlights. Firefighters had flashlights explode in two incidents. Batteries commonly used in flashlights produce hydrogen gas. The buildup of pressure within batteries or battery com...

1997-01-01

422

49 CFR 830.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...governmental function such as firefighting, search and rescue, law enforcement...or replacement of the affected component. Engine failure or damage limited to an engine if only one engine fails or is damaged, bent fairings or...

2012-10-01

423

49 CFR 830.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...governmental function such as firefighting, search and rescue, law enforcement...or replacement of the affected component. Engine failure or damage limited to an engine if only one engine fails or is damaged, bent fairings or...

2011-10-01

424

76 FR 66682 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...projects. Contractor aircraft and pilots are used to place water and chemical retardants on fires, provide aerial delivery of firefighters to fires, perform reconnaissance, resource surveys, search for lost personnel, and fire detection. Contracts for...

2011-10-27

425

44 CFR 152.8 - Application submission and deadline.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.8 Application submission and deadline. In each year that this program is authorized and...

2011-10-01

426

National Fire Service Research Agenda Symposium, June 1-3, 2005, Emmitsburg, MD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 1, 2 and 3, 2005, The National Fire Service Research Agenda Symposium was conducted at the National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland. The Symposium was conduct by the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation (NFFF) and funded by a ...

2008-01-01

427

Fire and Rescue Technology. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides occupational information about fire and rescue operations personnel, such as fire science, fire protection engineering, emergency medical technicians, and firefighters. Provides information about organizations in these fields. (JOW)

Valesey, Brigitte G.

1997-01-01

428

41 CFR 102-36.340 - What must we do when disposing of excess aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aircraft, such as engines, electronics. (3) Whether or not...Aircraft was previously used for non-flight purposes (i.e., ground training or...re-assembly procedures for ground training, or repeated burning for fire-fighting...

2013-01-01

429

76 FR 77887 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Aviation Administration Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals...rescue and firefighting equipment Airport layout plan update and narrative boundary survey...Manager, Financial Analysis and Passenger Facility Charge Branch. [FR Doc....

2011-12-14

430

46 CFR 169.539 - Type required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment...a Type V approved specifically for sailing school vessel use under subpart 160.064 or...

2012-10-01

431

46 CFR 169.539 - Type required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment...a Type V approved specifically for sailing school vessel use under subpart 160.064 or...

2011-10-01

432

46 CFR 154.1165 - Controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1165 Controls. (a) Each dry chemical hand hose line must be one that can be...hose storage cabinet. (b) Each dry chemical monitor must be one that can be...

2011-10-01

433

Self-Assessment in Personnel Selection and Placement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A self-assessment questionnaire was administered to 474 firefighter applicants in conjunction with a written test of cognitive abilities. The applicants were asked to make self-assessments of important cognitive and noncognitive abilities required to perf...

P. van Rijn

1981-01-01

434

Voluntary Race-Conscious Affirmative Action Plans: The Significance of Two Recent Supreme Court Decisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the United States Supreme Court's decisions in Wygant v. the Jackson Board of Education and in International Association of Firefighters v. City of Cleveland. Explores the decisions' more general applications to voluntary affirmative action plans. (PS)

Fischer, Louis

1987-01-01

435

46 CFR 34.20-15 - Piping-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ferrous materials shall be protected inside and outside against corrosion unless specifically approved otherwise by the Commandant...used for any other purpose than firefighting, drills, and testing. (g) Tankships of 100,000 or more DWT...

2011-10-01

436

46 CFR 34.20-15 - Piping-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ferrous materials shall be protected inside and outside against corrosion unless specifically approved otherwise by the Commandant...used for any other purpose than firefighting, drills, and testing. (g) Tankships of 100,000 or more DWT...

2012-10-01

437

33 CFR 154.1035 - Specific requirements for facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause significant and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharged into tidal waters, 5 miles from the facility...non-tidal and tidal waters; and (C) Based...firefighting, and beach cleaning equipment; boats and...primary and secondary radio frequencies must be specified....

2009-07-01

438

33 CFR 154.1035 - Specific requirements for facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause significant and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...discharged into tidal waters, 5 miles from the facility...non-tidal and tidal waters; and (C) Based...firefighting, and beach cleaning equipment; boats and...primary and secondary radio frequencies must be specified....

2010-07-01

439

New York City, 2001: Reaction and Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soon after reports that firefighters and police officers were entering the build- ings, Tower Two, then Tower One, collapsed. We heard reports that the Pentagon had been attacked, and then a number of other \\

David Vlahov; Sandro Galea; David Frankel

2002-01-01

440

7 CFR 2.49 - Administrator, Rural Housing Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with respect to the reduction of exposure to significant risk to human health...S.C. 4901 et seq. ); (vi) Toxic Substances Control Act, as amended... ). (11) Administer the Rural Firefighters and Emergency Personnel Grant...

2009-01-01

441

7 CFR 2.49 - Administrator, Rural Housing Service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with respect to the reduction of exposure to significant risk to human health...S.C. 4901 et seq. ); (vi) Toxic Substances Control Act, as amended... ). (11) Administer the Rural Firefighters and Emergency Personnel Grant...

2010-01-01

442

Non-Volatile Precursors to Alternative Halon Fire Extinguishing Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NVP agents have greatly reduced ODP, GWP and toxic vapor properties, and pose greatly reduced atmospheric emissions due to fire extinguishing operations or from accidental releases. Agent requirements for firefighting operations would be greatly reduced, ...

W. W. Bannister

1997-01-01

443

7 CFR 2.17 - Under Secretary for Rural Development.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with respect to the reduction of exposure to significant risk to human health...S.C. 4901 et seq. ); (vi) Toxic Substances Control Act, as amended...involved. (vi) Administer the Rural Firefighters and Emergency Personnel Grant...

2010-01-01

444

44 CFR 204.42 - Eligible costs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...include, but are not limited to, drought indices, short-term weather forecasts, the current number of fires burning in the State...firefighting activities such as fences, buildings, bridges, roads, etc. All temporary repair work must be completed within...

2011-10-01

445

46 CFR 34.30-1 - Application-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems, Details § 34.30-1 ApplicationâTB/ALL. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with NFPA 13-1996. [CGD 95-028, 62 FR...

2012-10-01

446

46 CFR 34.30-1 - Application-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems, Details § 34.30-1 ApplicationâTB/ALL. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with NFPA 13-1996. [CGD 95-028, 62 FR...

2011-10-01

447

Instructional Strategies for Reducing Stress and Improving Self-Efficacy and Job Performance of Female Naval Recruits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research project was to increase the academic success of female recruits in a technical aspect of recruit training. Two instructional interventions were developed and tested in the context of firefighting training. The Advanced Organiz...

I. S. Idar

1999-01-01

448

46 CFR 154.7 - Definitions, acronyms, and terms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and attached stiffeners. Control space means those spaces...located or in which the fire control equipment, other than firefighting control equipment under § 154.1140...room. (g) A zone on the weather deck or a...

2012-10-01

449

78 FR 57205 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...firefighting twin agent extinguishing skid unit and equipment. Acquire snow removal equipment--runway plow truck, chemical spreader, front end loader, plow truck, and skidsteer tractor with front loader. Extend taxiway Y--design and...

2013-09-17

450

77 FR 1051 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Qualified Product List for Wild Land Fire Chemicals. OMB Control...used in direct wildland fire suppression operations...safety of the wildland fire chemicals utilized on FS...List for Class A foams for Wild land Firefighting''...

2012-01-09

451

The influence of indirect collective trauma on first responders' alcohol use.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested increased risk for negative outcomes such as increased alcohol use among first responders who are involved with the response to a community disaster; however it is not clear how indirect exposure to a critical incident impacts first responders. This work examined the impact of secondary or indirect trauma on changes in alcohol use among urban firefighters who were not directly involved in the response to a large scale community-level disaster. Firefighters enrolled in larger trial of health outcomes whose interview period coincided with the crash of a commercial airplane were the basis for the current report. Aggregate level data on changes in alcohol consumption for these firefighters were examined pre- and post-incident. There was a significant increase in alcohol use following the critical incident. This increase did not occur immediately; it was observed within several days and peaked about 8 days post-incident. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the increased alcohol consumption persisted for several months, finally returning to pre-incident levels by 8 months post-incident. Indirect trauma effects, likely operationalized in part through the "brotherhood" of the firefighters, clearly placed firefighters at risk for negative outcomes following a disaster. Intervention/prevention efforts aimed at distress reduction among first responders should not solely focus on responders with direct involvement in a disaster. PMID:23156959

Homish, Gregory G; Frazer, Bonita S; Carey, Mary G

2012-01-01

452

Illinois Fire Service Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past 150 years, almost 800 Illinois firefighters have died in the line of duty. This remarkable and thorough online database provides historical background information and digitized images related to this subject. The funding for this project was provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). Visitors can use the customized search engine to search the records by last name, first name, agency, gender, rank, age range, and year of death. While the information for each firefighter varies, many of the records contain details about the cause of death, the location, and other relevant details. On the right-hand side, users can look at the "Today's Line of Duty Deaths" and check out photographs of the Illinois Firefighter Memorial and provide feedback on their experience using the site.

453

Use of an Eye-Safe, Portable LIDAR for Remote Wildland Fire and Smoke Detection  

SciTech Connect

During periods of drought when surface water supplies are severely limited, wildland forest fires tend to become more frequent and often can grow into major fires that threaten valuable timber, real estate, and even human lives. Fire-fighting crews are critically dependent upon accurate and timely weather data to help ensure that individuals are not inadvertently exposed to dangerous conditions and to enhance normal fire-fighting activities. To that end, the use of an eye-safe, portable lidar for remote wildland fire and smoke detection is described.

MATTHEW, PARKER

2004-11-29

454

Monitoring rescue workers' health problems following a 'man-made'disaster in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: On 13 May 2000, a firework factory exploded, destroying and damaging 2000 houses in a residential area in the Netherlands, leaving many homeless. Moreover, 18 citizens and 4 fire-fighters were killed. Almost 1000 people were wounded. Among them were rescue workers, who are often called the ‘hidden’ or ‘forgotten’ victims: research on health problems is usually aimed at the

R. M. A. van Nispen; A. J. E. Dirkzwager; C. J. IJzermans

2003-01-01

455

Theoretical analysis and experimental study on critical conditions of backdraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backdraft is one of the most special behaviors of enclosure fires which has strong characteristics of concealment and suddenness. Once backdraft occurs in an enclosure, the fire will quickly engulf the entire enclosure and create a huge extrusive fireball out of the openings. In such circumstance, it is very difficult for people inside to evacuate and firefighters to enter to

Aiping Chen; Liang Zhou; Bin Liu; Weihong Chen

2011-01-01

456

46 CFR 169.529 - Description of lifeboat equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting...They must be of the size given in Table 169.529(b) depending...six-tenths rule as described in § 160.035-9(b) of...

2012-10-01

457

49 CFR 110.20 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...terms defined in 49 U.S.C. 5102 are...Administration. Budget period means the...country as defined in 18 U.S.C. 1151. That...Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001(c...firefighting, civil defense, first aid,...

2012-10-01

458

49 CFR 110.20 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...terms defined in 49 U.S.C. 5102 are...Administration. Budget period means the...country as defined in 18 U.S.C. 1151. That...Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001(c...firefighting, civil defense, first aid,...

2011-10-01

459

2. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD ROGERS DRY LAKE. REVETMENTS AR7 (NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD ROGERS DRY LAKE. REVETMENTS AR-7 (NEAR DISTANCE) AND AR-2 (FAR DISTANCE) ARE VISIBLE TO THE RIGHT OF THE FIREFIGHTING TRAINING MODEL AT LEFT. (Panoramic view number 2 OF 2 for AR-8). - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

460

Middleware support for service discovery in special operations mobile ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology can play a significant role in the management and coordination activities of special operations such as emergency response, military combat missions, forest firefighting, etc. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be used quite effectively to manage resource sharing in such operations due to their flexibility and ease of establishment. The concept of service discovery has some appealing characteristics and

Yasser Gadallah; Mohamed Adel Serhani; Nader Mohamed

2010-01-01

461

Helper Hats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Special clothing is worn by "community helpers" such as police officers, nurses, firefighters, cafeteria workers, dentists, and waste management workers as they do their jobs. The special clothing allows workers to be safe. Therefore, exploring how hats help community workers do their jobs can be a way to introduce the idea of how the shape or…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-01-01

462

Fire vehicle hardening  

Microsoft Academic Search

After attack, the wartime fire fighter faces a harsh environment in which he must operate to perform his mission. Debris, unexploded bombs, and munitions pose hazards that must be overcome. Without modification to the fire-fighting vehicles, there is little assurance that the fire fighter would even be able to reach the locations necessary for performing his mission. Adding armor to

1988-01-01

463

Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anyone who watches the television news has seen images of firefighters rescuing people from burning buildings and paramedics treating bombing victims. How do these individuals make the split-second decisions that save lives? Most studies of decision making, based on artificial tasks assigned in laboratory settings, view people as biased and unskilled. Gary Klein is one of the developers of the

Gary Klein

1999-01-01

464

Eventi critici di servizio e qualità della vita nel lavoro di soccorso  

Microsoft Academic Search

CRITICAL INCIDENTS AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG RESCUE WORKERS. OBJECTIVE. Fire-fighters, paramedics and civil protection volunteers routinely confront potentially traumatic events in the course of their jobs. The frequency of exposure to critical incidents and the relationship between critical incident exposure and quality of life (Professional Quality of Life Scale, PROQOL, Stamm, 2005) SUBJECTS. A sample of 586 Italian emergency

G. Prati; L. Pietrantoni

2009-01-01

465

Factors affecting fuel break effectiveness in the control of large fires on the Los Padres National Forest, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As wildfires have increased in frequency and extent, so have the number of homes developed in the wildland-urban interface. In California, the predominant approach to mitigating fire risk is construction of fuel breaks, but there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires.We constructed a spatial database of fuel breaks on the Los Padres National Forest in southern California to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behaviour of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We evaluated whether fires stopped or crossed over fuel breaks over a 28-year period and compared the outcomes with physical characteristics of the sites, weather and firefighting activities during the fire event. Many fuel breaks never intersected fires, but others intersected several, primarily in historically fire-prone areas. Fires stopped at fuel breaks 46% of the time, almost invariably owing to fire suppression activities. Firefighter access to treatments, smaller fires and longer fuel breaks were significant direct influences, and younger vegetation and fuel break maintenance indirectly improved the outcome by facilitating firefighter access. This study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities.

Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Brennan, Teresa J.

2011-01-01

466

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2013-07-01

467

Robert J. Straba oral history interview by Michael Hirsh, September 21, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral history interview with Holocaust concentration camp liberator Robert J. Straba. Straba was a member of the 14th Armored Division, which liberated the POW camp Stalag VII A at Moosburg on April 29, 1945. The division had a small firefight to get into the camp, and when they came through the gate, Straba was immediately struck by how emaciated the

Robert J. Straba; Michael Hirsh

2008-01-01

468

Barton Solvents: Static Spark Ignites Explosion Inside Flammable Liquid Storage Tank. Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On July 17, 2007, at about 9 a.m., an explosion and fire occurred at the Barton Solvents Wichita facility in Valley Center, Kansas. Eleven residents and one firefighter received medical treatment. The incident triggered an evacuation of Valley Center (app...

2007-01-01

469

Removal and Disposal of An Environmental Carcinogen: Asbestos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article details the removal and disposal of asbestos ceiling material in a Yale University building. The removal process utilized a water and wetting agent technique used by firefighters and the debris disposal was in a sanitary landfill, following federal regulations for the handling of hazardous materials. (MA)|

Fodero, Severio D.

1977-01-01

470

29 CFR 553.104 - Private individuals who volunteer services to public agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the elderly in hospitals or nursing homes; assisting in a school library or cafeteria; or driving a school bus to carry a football team or band on a trip. Similarly, individuals may volunteer as firefighters or auxiliary police, or volunteer to...

2013-07-01

471

The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

People covered by public pensions are often the subject of 'pension envy:' that is, their benefits might seem more generous and their contributions lower than those offered by the private sector. Yet this book points out that such judgments are often inaccurate, since civil servants hold jobs with few counterparts in private industry, such as firefighters, police, judges, and teachers.

Gary Anderson

472

The design of GPS\\/GPRS navigation and monitoring system based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle Monitoring and Navigation System (VMNS) is the result of the rapid development of science and technology, which developed into a certain stage. This system, which integrated with Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Position System (GPS) and Wireless Communication Technology, has been widely used in many fields, like public security, fire-fighting, finance, transportation, tourism and etc. This paper successfully worked

Dongli Wang; Jing Li

2010-01-01

473

Indices of antioxidant status in rats subjected to wood smoke inhalation and\\/or thermal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated antioxidant status in lavage fluid, lung, liver, heart and kidney in a rat model to simulate an inhalation injury as might be encountered by firefighters and burn victims. Anesthetized rats received either a 20% total body surface area (TBSA) full thickness scald or a sham burn. After a 5 h recovery period, half of the animals

Michael A Dubick; Stacy C Carden; Bryan S Jordan; Paulette C Langlinais; David W Mozingo

2002-01-01

474

Core strength: A new model for injury prediction and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Many work in injury prone awkward positions that require adequate flexibility and strength in trunk stabilizer muscle groups. Performance on a functional movement screen (FMS) that assessed those factors was conducted and an intervention was designed. METHODS: A battery of FMS tests were performed on 433 firefighters. We analyzed the correlation between FMS performance and injuries and other selected

WF Peate; Gerry Bates; Karen Lunda; Smitha Francis; Kristen Bellamy

2007-01-01

475

Training and Extended Operation in Females: Effects on Reproductive Hormones, Bone Health, Task Specific Performance, and Comparative Energy Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to complete a series of investigations to provide a comprehensive study of the female in an arduous work environment and to determine the effects of an uncontrolled field situation (active Wildland firefighters engaged in w...

B. C. Ruby

1999-01-01

476

Method Development Study for APR Cartridge Evaluation in Fire Overhaul Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the US, firefighters do not typically wear respiratory protection during overhaul activities, although fitting multi-gas or chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear cartridges to supplied air respirator facepieces has been proposed to reduce exposures. This work developed a method to evaluate the effectiveness of respirator cartridges in smoke that represents over- haul exposures to residential fires. Chamber and penetration concentrations

T. RENEE ANTHONY; PHILIP JOGGERST; LEONARD JAMES; JEFFEREY L. BURGESS; STEPHEN S. LEONARD; ELIZABETH S. SHOGREN

2007-01-01

477

NEXT-GENERATION FIRE SUPPRESSION TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM (NGP)  

EPA Science Inventory

The NGP, now in its second year, has as its goal the development by 2004 of alternative fire-fighting technologies to halon 1301 that can be economically implemented in aircraft, ships, land combat vehicles, and critical mission support facilities. This paper describes the first ...

478

Glutinous Water. Protecting Vertical and Overhead Surfaces from Fire Spread.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of the water used in firefighting is not only wasted, it also contributes extensively to total damage. Water is an unusual chemical in that, due to hydrogen bonding, it is a liquid at room temperature and it also has a very high heat of evaporation. ...

H. W. Carhart

1994-01-01

479

‘Blame it on the Weeds’: Politics, Poverty, and Ecology in the New South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January of 2000, spectacular fires burned in the natural veld of Cape Town, South Africa. As the fire-fighting effort finished, a theory emerged: invasive alien species, trees from other countries, such as Australia and the United States, were to blame for the fires. While the invasive alien hypothesis captured the attention of media and policy makers alike, there was

Abigail H. Neely

2010-01-01

480

Fire Protection for Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

Hagevig, William A.

481

34 CFR 682.407 - Discharge of student loan indebtedness for survivors of victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (i) Served as a police officer, firefighter...parent owes a FFEL Consolidation Loan that was used...portion of a joint FFEL Consolidation Loan incurred on...partial discharge of a Consolidation Loan, the guaranty...or was employed as a police officer,...

2010-07-01

482

34 CFR 685.218 - Discharge of student loan indebtedness for survivors of victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (i) Served as a police officer, firefighter...parent owes a Direct Consolidation Loan that was used...discharge of a Direct Consolidation Loan, partially discharged...discharge of a Direct Consolidation Loan, the Secretary...or was employed as a police officer,...

2010-07-01

483

34 CFR 682.407 - Discharge of student loan indebtedness for survivors of victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (i) Served as a police officer, firefighter...parent owes a FFEL Consolidation Loan that was used...portion of a joint FFEL Consolidation Loan incurred on...partial discharge of a Consolidation Loan, the guaranty...or was employed as a police officer,...

2009-07-01

484

34 CFR 685.218 - Discharge of student loan indebtedness for survivors of victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (i) Served as a police officer, firefighter...parent owes a Direct Consolidation Loan that was used...discharge of a Direct Consolidation Loan, partially discharged...discharge of a Direct Consolidation Loan, the Secretary...or was employed as a police officer,...

2009-07-01

485

34 CFR 685.218 - Discharge of student loan indebtedness for survivors of victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (i) Served as a police officer, firefighter...parent owes a Direct Consolidation Loan that was used...discharge of a Direct Consolidation Loan, partially discharged...discharge of a Direct Consolidation Loan, the Secretary...or was employed as a police officer,...

2013-07-01

486

34 CFR 682.407 - Discharge of student loan indebtedness for survivors of victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (i) Served as a police officer, firefighter...parent owes a FFEL Consolidation Loan that was used...portion of a joint FFEL Consolidation Loan incurred on...partial discharge of a Consolidation Loan, the guaranty...or was employed as a police officer,...

2013-07-01

487

28 CFR 104.43 - Determination of presumed economic loss for decedents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...government employees such as firefighters or police officers, the Special Master may consider...measures. (d) Loss due to death/burial costs. This loss shall be calculated on a...and includes the out-of pocket burial costs that were incurred. (e) Loss of...

2013-07-01

488

75 FR 13337 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...passenger terminal buildings or enplane less...rehabilitation and bridge. Brief Description...complex conceptual design. Cargo service...Expand terminal building. Improve service...firefighting building. Runway 6...taxiway A4. Design services for...passenger boarding bridges (gates 1...

2010-03-19

489

Helper Hats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special clothing is worn by "community helpers" such as police officers, nurses, firefighters, cafeteria workers, dentists, and waste management workers as they do their jobs. The special clothing allows workers to be safe. Therefore, exploring how hats help community workers do their jobs can be a way to introduce the idea of how the shape or…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-01-01

490

Fire incidents involving regulators used in portable oxygen systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To address the causes and prevention of fire incidents involving aluminum bodied oxygen regulators used by firefighters or emergency medical technicians. Methods—The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and an independent forensic investigator examined several incidents involving injury to firefighters and emergency medical technicians to determine why regulators in these incidents flashed. Results—Data and test results from investigations revealed that aluminum was a contributing factor, and there were a number of safe handling techniques which firefighters and emergency medical technicians could use to reduce the risk of regulator fires. A provisional test method was proposed by the American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) in late 2000 to identify designs that would have a propensity for flashing. Results of the test method show good correlation with actual fire incidents. Conclusion—Development of the ASTM standard and associated testing will be helpful to oxygen regulator designers to design safer oxygen regulator systems. As well, there are a number of additional safe handling procedures that firefighters and emergency medical technicians can follow to reduce the risk of a regulator fire.

Washenitz, F; Stoltzfus, J; Newton, B; Kubinski, L

2001-01-01

491

CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SUPER-EFFECTIVE THERMAL FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of halons for fire fighting is being phased out due to their deleterious effects on stratospheric ozone. This report summarizes the first-year findings of a three-year study designed to characterize and identify supereffective thermal fire-fighting agents as possible repl...

492

78 FR 60099 - Nontank Vessel Response Plans and Other Response Plan Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...155.5035(i) and 155.5050, dispersants. Commenters stated that vessels using non- persistent oils for fuel, such as diesel, should...intermediate fuel oils as they are on crude oils. The Coast Guard clarifies our consideration of a dispersant's effectiveness as follows. We...firefighting, emergency lightering, dispersant, and aerial observation......

2013-09-30

493

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report: Fire Fighter Suffers Sudden Cardiac Death at His Fire Station in Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 17, 2004, a 47-year-old male firefighter (FF) suffered cardiac dysrhythmia and was found pulseless and apneic shortly after 1900 hours while on duty at his fire station. Despite ALS treatment at the scene, en route, and at the hospital, the FF was...

2005-01-01

494

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report: Volunteer Fire Fighter Suffers a Fatal Cardiac Event After Fire Suppression Training in Pennsylvania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On May 1, 2010, a 51-year-old volunteer Fire Fighter (FF) died after participating in fire suppression activities associated with a basic firefighting course (part of a 166 hour course). The incident occurred on the final day of training involving interio...

D. L. Smith T. Hales

2010-01-01

495

28 CFR 32.3 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...firefighters); Oct. 18, 1986 (deaths of rescue squad and...Assistance, OJP. Cause âA death, injury, or disability is caused...1746 (declarations under penalty of perjury), and expressly...the public safety officer's death, in which the death was...

2013-07-01

496

29 CFR 553.103 - âSame type of servicesâ defined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...not constitute the âsame type of servicesâ include: A city police officer who volunteers as a part-time referee in a basketball league sponsored by the city; an employee of the city parks department who serves as a volunteer city firefighter; and an...

2013-07-01

497

Grant Funding to State and Local Governments and Systematic Assessment of Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events of 9\\/11 highlighted the fact that first responders -- police officers, firefighters, emergency medical providers, public works personnel, and emergency management officials -- are truly “our first line of defense” against acts of terrorism. Nearly three million state and local first responders regularly put their lives on the line to save the lives of others and make our

A. Brunet

2005-01-01

498

Age differences in resolving anaphoric expressions during reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

One crucial component of reading comprehension is the ability to bind current information to earlier text, which is often accomplished via anaphoric expressions (e.g., pronouns referring to previous nouns). Processing time for anaphors that violate expectations (e.g., ‘The firefighter burned herself while rescuing victims from the building’) provide a window into how the semantic representation of the referent is instantiated

Matthew C. Shake; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow

2011-01-01

499

Minimizing movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for a class of movement problems. In general, these problems involve planning the coordinated motion of a large collection of objects (representing anything from a robot swarm or firefighter team to map labels or network messages) to achieve a global property of the network while minimizing the maximum or average movement. In particular,

Erik D. Demaine; Mohammad Taghi Hajiaghayi; Hamid Mahini; Amin S. Sayedi-roshkhar; Shayan Oveis Gharan; Morteza Zadimoghaddam

2009-01-01

500

Minimizing movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for a class of movement problems. In general, these problems in- volve planning the coordinated motion of a large collection of ob- jects (representing anything from a robot swarm or firefighter team to map labels or network messages) to achieve a global property of the network while minimizing the maximum or average move-

Erik D. Demaine; Mohammad Taghi Hajiaghayi; Hamid Mahini; Amin S. Sayedi-roshkhar; Shayan Oveis Gharan; Morteza Zadimoghaddam

2007-01-01