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1

Firefighting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes of operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

2001-01-01

2

Firefighting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

2001-01-01

3

Firefighting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters are like astronauts. They both face dangerous, even hostile environments such as a building full of fire and the vacuum of space. They are both get breathing air from tanks on their backs. Early in the 1970's, NASA began working to improve firefighter breathing systems, which had hardly changed since the 1940s. NASA's Johnson Space Center conducted a 4-year program that applied technology from the portable life support systems used by Apollo astronauts on the moon. The new breathing system is made up of an air bottle, a frame and harness, a face mask, and a warning device. The new system weighs less than 20 pounds, one-third less than the old gear. The new air bottle provides 30 minutes of breathing air, as much as the old system. Like a good hiker's backpack, the new system puts the weight on the firefighter's hips rather than the shoulders. The face mask provides better visibility and the warning device lets the firefighter know when air in the bottle is low. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

2004-01-01

4

Firefighters' Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

1976-01-01

5

Firefighting Trainer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighting trainees conduct fire control exercises using a prototype simulator known as the Emergency Management Computer Aided Training System (EMCAT). Developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MFS) in response to a request from the Huntsville (AL) Fire Department, EMCAT enables a trainee to assume the role of fireground commander and make quick decisions on best use of his fire fighting personnel and equipment.

1984-01-01

6

INL@Work Firefighter  

SciTech Connect

Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

Baron, Wendy

2011-01-01

7

INL@Work Firefighter  

ScienceCinema

Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

Baron, Wendy

2013-05-28

8

INL@Work Firefighter  

ScienceCinema

Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

9

Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

1984-01-01

10

Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are working jointly to develop a helicopter transportable firefighting module that can shave precious minutes in combating shipboard or harbor fires. The program was undertaken in 1975, after a series of disastrous fires on oil tankers indicated a need for a lightweight, self-contained system that could be moved quickly to the scene of a fire. A prototype module was delivered to the Coast Guard last year and service testing is under way. The compact module weighs little more than a ton but it contains everything needed to fight a fire. The key component is a high output pump, which delivers up to 2,000 gallons of sea water a minute; the pump can be brought up to maximum output in only one minute after turning on the power source, a small Allison gas turbine engine. The module also contains hose, a foam nozzle and a spray nozzle, three sets of protective clothing for firefighters, and fuel for three hours operation. Designed to be assembled without special tools, the module can be set up for operation in less than 20 minutes.

1978-01-01

11

Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

1981-01-01

12

Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

1980-01-01

13

Firefighters' cardiovascular risk behaviors.  

PubMed

Cardiac events are strongly associated with line-of-duty deaths among firefighters. The frequency with which firefighters succumb to cardiovascular events while on duty is well documented. Many firefighters have undiagnosed or undertreated hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, as well as poor dietary habits and marginal physical fitness. Extremely high heart rates while engaged in fire suppression increase the risk for cardiovascular risk within the fire service. Cultural factors such as shift work and crew cohesion create multiple levels of influence on firefighters' decisions about engaging in positive health behaviors. This review highlights the significance of primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases that is culturally congruent with the fire service. PMID:24571052

Banes, Catherine J

2014-01-01

14

Improved Gloves for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New firefighter's gloves are more flexible and comfortable than previous designs. Since some firefighters prefer gloves made of composite materials while others prefer dip-coated gloves, both types were developed. New gloves also find uses in foundries, steelmills, and other plants where they are substituted for asbestos gloves.

Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J.

1983-01-01

15

Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

1978-01-01

16

Advanced Transceivers for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents concept of improved portable radio transceiver for firefighters. Based in part on study of propagation of radio waves in such environments as high-rise buildings, ships, and tunnels. Study takes into account possible health hazard posed by personal tranceivers and needs and wishes expressed by firefighters in interviews. Conceptual radio attaches to clothing to allow hands-free use; voice-actuated with microphone worn at throat. Speaker placed near wearer's shoulder. Flexible antenna placed either horizontally across shoulders, vertically at one shoulder, or on transceiver itself.

Blood, B. D.; Gandhi, O. P.; Radke, R. E.

1986-01-01

17

Coast Guard Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

1977-01-01

18

The Physics of Firefighting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, from The Physics Teacher, provides an explanation of the physics of how water puts out fires. It also contains a description of how firefighters determine the water pressure for their hoses--and this physics is taught in fire academies.

Egler, Robert

2007-10-30

19

Hardiness in professional Spanish firefighters.  

PubMed

As a high risk, physically demanding, and stressful profession, firefighting presents an ideal context for the study of hardiness. Hardiness of professional Spanish firefighters was assessed. Participants (53 firefighters; M age = 36.1 yr., SD = 8.2) volunteered to complete the adapted Spanish version of the Personal Views Survey. Results showed that participants' mean Hardiness score was slightly high. Hardiness was influenced by years of service. Spanish firefighters present a homogenous set of personal characteristics related to managing stressful working circumstances. The effect of experience on Hardiness levels is discussed. PMID:24611261

De la Vega, Ricardo; Ruiz, Roberto; Gómez, Juan; Rivera, Oswaldo

2013-10-01

20

FIREGUIDE: Firefighter guide and tracker.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce an indoor location tracking and navigation system (FIREGUIDE) using Bluetooth and RFID technology. FIREGUIDE assists the firefighters to find the nearest exit location and presents the Incident Commander the current firefighter's location superimposed on a map of the building floor. We envision that the FIREGUIDE system will save significant number of fire fighters and victims' lives. PMID:21096429

Gandhi, Siddhesh Rajan; Ganz, Aura; Mullett, G

2010-01-01

21

Firefighter command training virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment is being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration with the Atlanta Fire Department. The VE allows the user to: navigate around the environment, viewing a house on fire from any angle; command firefighters and watch them execute those commands; and see realistic fire and smoke behavior reacting to changes in the environment. The VE

Tazama U. St. Julien; Christopher D. Shaw

2003-01-01

22

Back Injury Avoidance for Firefighters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Back injuries account for 30 percent of the injuries to firefighters. Firefighters are in the high-risk job series for back injuries--the number one type of civilian personnel injury. This aid contains three items. The first is 'Back Injury Avoidance Idea...

1985-01-01

23

Posttraumatic stress reactions in volunteer firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteer firefighters in NSW were surveyed for experiences of posttraumatic stress. Firefighters were asked to describe their experiences of stress and indices were obtained of psychological disturbance. Findings indicated that most firefighters felt that their safety had been threatened. One-quarter of firefighters indicated that they experienced significant levels of posttraumatic stress, although many respondents attributed their stress to personal events.

Richard A. Bryant; Allison G. Harvey

1996-01-01

24

Characterization of Firefighter Exposures During Fire Overhaul  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have characterized firefighter exposures during fire suppression. However, minimal information is available regarding firefighter exposures during overhaul, when firefighters look for hidden fire inside attics, ceilings, and walls, often without respiratory protection. A comprehensive air monitoring study was conducted to characterize City of Phoenix firefighter exposures during the overhaul phase of 25 structure fires. Personal samples were collected

Dawn M. Bolstad-Johnson; Jefferey L. Burgess; Clifton D. Crutchfield; Steve Storment; Richard Gerkin; Jeffrey R. Wilson

2000-01-01

25

KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with an aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Kennedy Space Center aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle supports heavy traffic at the Space Coast Regional Airport in Titusville, Florida, where aircraft capable of carrying water were staged during the recent brushfires throughout Florida. Aircraft were supporting firefighting efforts in Brevard, Volusia, and Flagler counties.

1998-01-01

26

Evaluation of Quad-Agent Small Firefighting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technological advances and firefighting research have helped improve new firefighting systems on large and small aircraft rescue and firefighting vehicles at airports. One such technology is a quad-agent firefighting system that has the capability to disc...

K. Bagot N. Subbotin

2006-01-01

27

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a)...

2013-10-01

28

46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169.839 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a)...

2013-10-01

29

46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section 131.590 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The...

2013-10-01

30

Effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on firefighters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies to determine the amount of CO gas inhaled by firefighters during their firefighting with comparison between smokers and nonsmokers are discussed. It was found that the blood CO concentration after firefighting operations was considerably higher than in normal time, and that even normal time concentrations were higher in firefighters than in fire academy trainees. Smoking was found to be a major factor in increasing CO concentration.

Igoshi, I.

31

Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an extensive field study of current firefighting practices, we have developed a system called Siren to support tacit communication between firefighters with multiple levels of redundancy in both communication and user alerts. Siren provides a foundation for gathering, integrating, and distributing contextual data, such as location and temperature. It also simplifies the devel- opment of firefighting applications using

Xiaodong Jiang; Nicholas Y. Chen; Jason I. Hong; Kevin Wang; Leila Takayama; James A. Landay

2004-01-01

32

Using Virtual Environments to Train Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using virtual environments for training and mission rehearsal gives US Navy firefighters an edge in fighting real fires. A test run on the ex-USS Shadwell measured the improvement. The results suggest that virtual environments serve effectively for training and mission rehearsal for shipboard firefighting. VE training provides a flexible environment where a firefighter can not only learn an unfamiliar part

David L. Tate; Linda E. Sibert; Tony King

1997-01-01

33

Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

Wallace, R. J.

1984-05-01

34

Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

Wallace, R. J.

1984-01-01

35

Fit-testing for firefighters.  

PubMed

When fit-testing firefighters who may be required to wear an SCBA unit in the positive pressure mode for IDLH or structural firefighting applications, use these guidelines. 1. The firefighter shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the firefighter. 2. Before a firefighter may be required to use the SCBA, he/she must be fit-tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. If different makes, models, styles, and sizes of facepieces are used, the firefighter must be fit-tested for each. 3. Based on current interpretations and guidance, OSHA requires firefighters to be quantitatively or qualitatively fit-tested while in the negative pressure mode. 4. Quantitative fit-testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece and breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece. 5. Qualitative fit-testing can be accomplished by converting the user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the SCBA facepiece. 6. If after passing the fit-test the firefighter subsequently determines the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, he/she shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and be retested. 7. The new standard requires initial and at least annual fit-testing using quantitative or qualitative fit-testing protocols. 8. Additional fit-testing may be required whenever physical changes to the employee occur that may affect respirator fit, such as facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious change in body weight. PMID:9891408

Brickman, C P

1999-01-01

36

Model Training Guide. Firefighter I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This firefighter training guide for a 180-hour course was developed to assist training officers in planning training with emphasis on conformance to recommended National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 1001) standards. The material in the guide is referenced to current editions of the International Fire Service Training Association manuals and…

Hagevig, William A.; Gallagher, Leigh S.

37

Firefighting Women and Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses were received from 37 of 103 department chiefs and 206 of 1,108 female firefighters. The 58% who reported sexual harassment indicated greater stress, sexual stereotyping, acts of violence, use of sick leave, and fear. Although most departments have a policy, over half of those harassed did not report incidents. (SK)

Rosell, Ellen; And Others

1995-01-01

38

Air contaminants encountered by firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of eight air contaminants suspected of causing acute and chronic health problems for firefighters were measured in over 200 fires in the City of Boston using a personal air sampler. Threatening concentrations of both carbon monoxide and acrolein were found in a small proportion of the fires. Less hazardous levels of hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen dioxide and

ROBERT D. TREITMAN; WILLIAM A. BURGESS; AVRAM GOLD

1980-01-01

39

77 FR 39717 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2012-0022] Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency...the fiscal year 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program year. That notice included...found in the ``FY 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Guidance and...

2012-07-05

40

High-Capacity, Portable Firefighting Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes an evaluation of firefighting module that delivers water at 5,000 gal/min (320 L/s). Is compact, self-contained, portable water pump. Besides firefighting, module used for flood control, pumping water into large vessels, and pump water from sinking ships.

Burns, Ralph A.

1988-01-01

41

Firefighters versus Stotts: The End of Quotas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supreme Court has ruled that a federal district court had no authority to require a municipal employer, in violation of the seniority provisions of its collective bargaining agreement, to lay off more senior White firefighters before laying off Black firefighters. (MLW)

Copus, David A.; Lindsay, Ronald

1984-01-01

42

Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

Cox, Clarice Robinson

43

Perceptions of work stress in Australian firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study surveyed 747 firefighters on their perceptions of work stress. The current emphasis in the fire brigades is on the management of traumatic or critical incident stress, but other work stressors may also be important. The firefighters rated their jobs as more stressful than other occupations, and psychological work stress as highest among a set of potential sources and

Carmen C. Moran; Evelyn Colless

1995-01-01

44

The risk of cancer in firefighters.  

PubMed

A substantial body of literature now exists on the carcinogenic hazards of firefighting. The authors discuss in detail the data on the carcinogens benzene, asbestos, PAHS, formaldehyde, and diesel exhaust, and they go on to examine the prevalent cancers in firefighters, including leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancer of the brain and bladder. PMID:8903750

Golden, A L; Markowitz, S B; Landrigan, P J

1995-01-01

45

Learning amongst Norwegian Fire-Fighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach…

Sommer, Morten; Nja, Ove

2011-01-01

46

Mortality among Boston firefighters, 1915--1975.  

PubMed Central

Although the nature of firefighting involves particular health hazards, previous mortality and morbidity studies of firemen have produced inconsistent evidence for an increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancer and accidents. Mortality experience since 1915 has been examined in 5655 Boston firefighters, comprising all male members of the city fire department with three or more years of service. The observed cause of death as stated on the death certificates of 2470 deceased firefighters has been compared with the numbers expected based on rates for the male population of Massachusetts and of the United States of America. Among all firefighters, deaths from all causes were 91% of expected. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was markedly reduced (less than 50) for infectious disease, diabetes, rheumatic heart disease, chronic nephritis, blood diseases and suicide. The SMR was 86 for cardiovascular deaths, 83 for neoplastic deaths, and 93 for respiratory deaths. The SMR for accidents was 135 for active firefighters. The results suggest that the survival experience of firefighters is strongly influenced by strict entry selection procedures, ethnic derivation, and sociocultural attributes of membership. While excessive morbidity has been demonstrated in firefighters, there does not appear to be a strong association between occupation and cause-specific mortality.

Musk, A W; Monson, R R; Peters, J M; Peters, R K

1978-01-01

47

Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n?=?322) and non-firefighters (n?=?107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters.

2014-01-01

48

Coronary heart disease risk in volunteer firefighters in Victoria, Australia.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major problem for firefighters, even when considering the healthy worker effect (HWE). Although volunteer firefighters outnumber paid personnel, previous research has focused on paid US firefighters. By contrast, no CHD data for Australian firefighters exist. Risk factor data were collected from 2,943 Australian volunteer firefighters and CHD risk was compared with reference "low-risk" and Australian population data. Predicted CHD risk for male and female firefighter was 19.2% and 5.1%, respectively. Female firefighters high blood pressure and fasting glucose was significantly lower than the general population, whereas all other risk factors was similar to the general population. Firefighters' CHD risk was greater than other volunteer and paid emergency services, but the prevalence for most risk factors was similar to the general population. Therefore, Australian volunteer firefighters may not benefit from the HWE. PMID:24205963

Wolkow, Alexander; Netto, Kevin; Langridge, Peter; Green, Jeff; Nichols, David; Sergeant, Michael; Aisbett, Brad

2014-01-01

49

Hazmat Firefighters: Medical and Incident Surveillance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

List of Publications: Injuries due to hazardous materials accidents; Mechanisms of and facility types involved in hazardous materials accidents; Fitness for duty evaluations in hazardous materials firefighters; Fitness for duty evaluations in hazardous ma...

S. N. Kales

1999-01-01

50

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters in full gear wait to approach a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. The firefighters are with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

2000-01-01

51

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A training officer controls elements of a fire training exercise at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters tackled flames from a burning simulated aircraft.

2000-01-01

52

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A firefighter waits for his companions before tackling the flames on a simulated aircraft. Firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

53

30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms...firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall...person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems...

2013-07-01

54

Combination Structural/Crash Firefighter Head Protection Operational Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project evaluated a combination structural/crash firefighter head protection system. The system utilized standard structural firefighter helmets, modified with a heat resistant face shield and full head heat shield, similar to crash hoods. The progra...

J. H. Storm B. R. Dees M. J. Wilson

1992-01-01

55

Novel System for the Decontamination of Firefighter Training Facility Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High foaming potential and chemical oxygen demand restricts discharge of firefighter training waste waters. Innovative BioSystems designed a novel low energy bioreactor for application to firefighter training wastes. Jet A fuel concentrations went down. C...

K. Stormo

1997-01-01

56

Baseline Measurements of Smoke Exposure Among Wildland Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive measurements of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters are summarized, showing that firefighters can be exposed to significant levels of carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants, including formaldehyde, acrolein, and respirable particulate matter. Benzene was also measured and found to be well below permissible exposure limits, with the highest concentrations occurring among firefighters working with engines and torches burning petroleum-based fuel.

Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

2004-01-01

57

20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212 Section 404.1212... § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social...of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

2009-04-01

58

Correlates of work injury frequency and duration among firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined demographic, personality, and economic incentive correlates of workplace injuries suffered by 171 firefighters over a 12-year period. Results showed that female firefighters experienced more injuries than male firefighters. Several Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales (Conversion Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviate, and Social Introversion) were positively related to injury frequency. Regression analyses revealed that age, tenure, gender, marital status,

Hui Liao; Richard D. Arvey; Richard J. Butler; Steven M. Nutting

2001-01-01

59

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A firefighter (right) holds a water hose in readiness as others enter a smoke-filled simulated aircraft. The activities are part of fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters have already extinguished flames from the aircraft.

2000-01-01

60

20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212 Section 404.1212... § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social...of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

2013-04-01

61

20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212 Section 404.1212... § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social...of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

2010-04-01

62

Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.  

PubMed

Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study. PMID:24467725

Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

2014-05-01

63

The NASA firefighter's breathing system program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

1974-01-01

64

Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

1982-01-01

65

Exposure of firefighters to toxic air contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A personal sampling apparatus for firefighters was developed to sample the fire atmosphere for CO, CO2, O2, NO2, HCI, HCN and particulate content. Two fire companies made ninety successful sample runs during structural fires. CO presented a potential acute hazard and particulate concentrations were high. HCN was detected at low levels in half the samples. HCI was detected in only

AVRAM GOLD; W. M. A. BURGESS; EDWARD V. CLOUGHERTY

1978-01-01

66

Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

Smith, W. L.

1973-01-01

67

Fire Service Training. Firefighting Procedures. (Revised).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers firefighting procedures and principles. Emphasis is placed on pre-fire planning, the techniques for applying a plan to a course of action, and the selection of proper fire fighting procedures to meet specific needs. Besides the methods of…

North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

68

Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

Roman, Harry T.

2007-01-01

69

The thermal ergonomics of firefighting reviewed.  

PubMed

The occupation of firefighting is one that has repeatedly attracted the research interests of ergonomics. Among the activities encountered are attention to live fires, performing search and rescue of victims, and dealing with emergencies. The scientific literature is reviewed to highlight the investigative models used to contribute to the knowledge base about the ergonomics of firefighting, in particular to establish the multi-variate demands of the job and the attributes and capabilities of operators to cope with these demands. The job requires individuals to be competent in aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity, muscle strength, and have an appropriate body composition. It is still difficult to set down thresholds for values in all the areas in concert. Physiological demands are reflected in metabolic, circulatory, and thermoregulatory responses and hydration status, whilst psychological strain can be partially reflected in heart rate and endocrine measures. Research models have comprised of studying live fires, but more commonly in simulations in training facilities or treadmills and other ergometers. Wearing protective clothing adds to the physiological burden, raising oxygen consumption and body temperature, and reducing the time to fatigue. More sophisticated models of cognitive function compatible with decision-making in a fire-fighting context need to be developed. Recovery methods following a fire-fighting event have focused on accelerating the restoration towards homeostasis. The effectiveness of different recovery strategies is considered, ranging from passive cooling and wearing of cooling jackets to immersions in cold water and combinations of methods. Rehydration is also relevant in securing the safety of firefighters prior to returning for the next event in their work shift. PMID:19664755

Barr, David; Gregson, Warren; Reilly, Thomas

2010-01-01

70

24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians...Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical...

2009-04-01

71

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2010-01-01

72

24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians...Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical...

2010-04-01

73

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2009-01-01

74

75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative...Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative...Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Cooperative...

2010-10-05

75

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section...FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must...

2009-07-01

76

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...

2009-07-01

77

33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.404 Can I...

2010-07-01

78

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section...FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must...

2010-07-01

79

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...

2010-07-01

80

33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.404 Can I...

2009-07-01

81

30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2010-07-01

82

24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. 291.530 ...530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the...

2013-04-01

83

76 FR 71048 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

... Regional Projects. Personal protective equipment is now an eligible expense...iii.) Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Acquisition...equipment acquisition. EMS personal protective equipment. EMS wellness and...

2011-11-16

84

Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

Weinstein, Leonard Murray

2007-01-01

85

Virtual environments for shipboard firefighting training  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual environment (VE) of portions of the ex-USS Shadwell, the Navy's full-scale fire research and test ship, has been developed to study the feasibility of using immersive VE as a tool for shipboard firefighting training and mission rehearsal. The VE system uses a head-mounted display and 3D joystick to allow users to navigate through and interact with the environment.

David L. Tate; Linda Sibert; T. King

1997-01-01

86

Rheology of fire-fighting foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the rheological properties of compressed-air foams and contains velocity profiles of foams flowing through straight horizontal tubes. It is shown that a master equation can be derived from the experimental data to account for a range of expansion ratios and pressures normally encountered during pumping of polyhedral-in-structure fire-fighting foams. The experimental data come from a Poiseuille-flow rheometer

B. S. Gardiner; B. Z. Dlugogorski; G. J. Jameson

1998-01-01

87

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U. S. Fire Administration (USFA) has tracked the number of firefighter fatalities and conducted an annual analysis for almost 30 years. Through the collection of information on the causes of firefighter deaths, the USFA is able to focus on specific pr...

2009-01-01

88

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For 35 years, the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) has tracked the number of firefighter fatalities and conducted an annual analysis. Through the collection of information on the causes of firefighter deaths, USFA is able to focus on specific problems and ...

2012-01-01

89

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For 34 years, the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) has tracked the number of firefighter fatalities and conducted an annual analysis. Through the collection of information on the causes of firefighter deaths, the USFA is able to focus on specific problems ...

2011-01-01

90

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters surround a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. Those at left wait their turn as the crew on the right turn their hoses toward the fire. The firefighters are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

2000-01-01

91

Mortality among firefighters from three northwestern United States cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore whether exposure among firefighters to fire smoke could lead to an increased risk of cancer, lung disease, and heart disease, the mortality of 4546 firefighters who were employed by the cities of Seattle and Tacoma, WA and Portland, OR for at least one year between 1944 and 1979 were compared with United States national mortalities and with mortality

P A Demers; N J Heyer; L Rosenstock

1992-01-01

92

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess

E S Hansen

1990-01-01

93

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

94

Respiratory symptoms, atopy and bronchial hyperreactivity in professional firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess respiratory health in professional firefighters. A total of 101 male professional firefighters from Basel, Switzerland, were included in the study. A control group consisting of 735 male subjects of the general population was composed of the Basel sample of the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults. All

D. Miedinger; P. N. Chhajed; D. Stolz; C. Gysin; A. B. Wanzenried; C. Schindler; C. Surber; H. C. Bucher; M. Tamm; J. D. Leuppi

2007-01-01

95

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters in full gear douse a fire on a simulated aircraft. The firefighters, who are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

96

Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Firefighter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based education curriculum, developed by firefighters and educators in West Virginia, is designed for use as a resource for the development of improved firefighter training programs. It consists of an introductory note to the instructor and 140 competency sheets. These sheets deal with tasks in the following areas: general…

West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

97

Selected physiological and psychological responses to live-fire drills in different configurations of firefighting gear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine selected physiological and psychological responses to strenuous live-fire drills in different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) performed three sets of firefighting drills in a training structure that contained live fires in two different configurations of firefighting gear. On separate days subjects wore: (a) the NFPA 1500 (1987)

D. L. SMITH; S. J. PETRUZZELLO

1998-01-01

98

Physiological responses to simulated stair climbing in professional firefighters wearing rubber and leather boots  

Microsoft Academic Search

No studies have considered whether a firefighter’s boots are a factor influencing physiological responses. The purpose of\\u000a this study was to examine physiological responses to a fire simulation activity (stair climb) in professional firefighters\\u000a wearing rubber boots (RB) and leather boots (LB). Twelve professional firefighters participated in two counterbalanced simulated\\u000a firefighter stair climb (SFSC) sessions, one wearing RB and the

Chun-Jung Huang; Ryan S. Garten; Chip Wade; Heather E. Webb; Edmund O. Acevedo

2009-01-01

99

Polymer Fabric Protects Firefighters, Military, and Civilians  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1967, NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. In 2005, the PBI fiber and polymer business was sold to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form. PBI is now used in numerous firefighting, military, motor sports, and other applications.

2008-01-01

100

Field Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Work Capacity of Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter’s ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters’ aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs?=??0.65 and ?0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL·min?1) and relative (mL·kg?1·min?1) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs?=??0.79 to 0.55 and ?0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters’ work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s·kg?1), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter’s aerobic work capacity.

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Desiree; Malm, Christer

2013-01-01

101

Firefighter safety and photovoltaic installations research project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Assistance to Fire Fighters grant, UL LLC examined fire service concerns of photovoltaic (PV) systems. These concerns included firefighter vulnerability to electrical and casualty hazards when mitigating a fire involving photovoltaic (PV) modules systems. Findings include: 1. The electric shock hazard due to application of water is dependent on voltage, water conductivity, distance and spray pattern of the suppression stream. 2. Outdoor weather exposure rated electrical enclosures are not resistant to water penetration by fire hose streams. 3. Firefighter's gloves and boots afford limited protection against electrical shock provided the insulating surface is intact and dry. 4. "Turning off" an array is not a simple matter of opening a disconnect switch. 5. Tarps offer varying degrees of effectiveness. 6. Fire equipment scene lighting and exposure fires may illuminate PV systems sufficiently to cause a lock-on hazard. 7. Severely damaged PV arrays are capable of producing hazardous conditions. 8. Damage to modules from tools may result in both electrical and fire hazards. 9. Severing of conductors in both metal and plastic conduit results in electrical and fire hazards. 10. Responding personnel must stay away from the roofline in the event of modules or sections of an array sliding off the roof. 11. Fires under an array but above the roof may breach roofing materials and decking allowing fire to propagate into the attic space. Several tactical considerations were developed utilizing the data from the experiments.

Backstrom, Robert; Dini, Dave

2012-10-01

102

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in...

2010-07-01

103

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in...

2009-07-01

104

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.417 What...

2010-07-01

105

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., turn their hoses toward the fire on the simulated aircraft.

2000-01-01

106

78 FR 65678 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pieces for Firefighter Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA): The replacement...2013 NFPA standard for Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus. (7) PPE Eligibility...Standard on Open- Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) for Emergency...

2013-11-01

107

77 FR 37687 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2012-0028] Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...guidelines that describe the application process for grants and the criteria for awarding grants in the fiscal year (FY) 2012 Assistance...

2012-06-22

108

Two Firefighter Deaths in Auto Parts Store Fire, Chesapeake, Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This incident, in which two firefighters were killed when they became trapped by a rapidly spreading fire, illustrates the failure of lightweight construction systems when key support components are involved in a fire. It also points out the importance of...

J. Stern J. G. Routley

1996-01-01

109

Long-term psychological distress among chemically exposed firefighters.  

PubMed

Long-term psychological effects of exposure to a dangerous chemical were evaluated in a sample of firefighters who fought a large polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire. When compared with nonexposed firefighter controls (n = 22), the exposed firefighters (n = 64) had significantly higher levels of demoralization and specific emotional distress 22 months after the incident. Longitudinal analyses of a subsample of exposed firefighter subjects (n = 55) surveyed 5 to 6 weeks after the fire and again 22 months later revealed that there was no reduction in symptomatology over time. Some psychological distress scores actually rose significantly between time points. Distress scores were also significantly correlated between time points. These results have a number of intervention and public health implications. PMID:2742992

Markowitz, J S

1989-01-01

110

Accuracy of body mass index in volunteer firefighters.  

PubMed

Background Obesity is prevalent among career firefighters and may contribute to heart attacks, a leading cause of on-duty fatalities. The US National Fire Protection Association estimates that 800 000 of 1.1 million firefighters are volunteers. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to assess obesity, but little is known about its accuracy in volunteer firefighters, in whom muscle mass may be higher, given firefighting's physical demands, reducing its accuracy in identifying obesity. Aims To evaluate the accuracy of BMI in identifying obese volunteer firefighters. Methods Height, weight and body composition were measured in 73 male volunteer firefighters (mean age 40±12). The proportions with BMI ? 25kg/m(2), ?30kg/ m(2) and percent fat ? 20th percentile were determined. Using the age-specific 20th percentile for percent fat (Cooper Clinic) as the criterion for being over-fat, the accuracy of BMI was assessed using sensitivity and specificity calculations. Results The means ± standard deviation of BMI and percent fat were 32±6 and 25±5, respectively. The proportions with a BMI ? 25 and ?30 were 90% and 60%, respectively. Fifty-one percent had a percent fat ? 20th percentile. The measure BMI ? 25 had a perfect sensitivity (1.0) and low specificity (0.19) and BMI ? 30 had a high sensitivity (0.89) and moderate specificity (0.69). Conclusions Although BMI ? 30 accurately predicted being over-fat, it misclassified large and lean firefighters. Although BMI should be used cautiously, it can identify over-fat firefighters at risk of cardiovascular disease, and its measurement is cost-effective and simple. PMID:24326196

Ode, J; Knous, J; Schlaff, R; Hemenway, J; Peterson, J; Lowry, J

2014-04-01

111

Physical Work Limits for Toronto Firefighters in Warm Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between time to reach critical end points (tolerance time [TT] and metabolic rate for three different environmental temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 35°C, 50% relative humidity), while wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Thirty-seven Toronto firefighters (33 male and 4 female) were divided into four work groups defined as Heavy (H, n

G. A. Selkirk; T. M. McLellan

2004-01-01

112

Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts.

Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

2011-01-01

113

PCDD, PCDF, and PCB exposure in current and former firefighters from Eastern Siberia.  

PubMed

The current study examines whether the occupation of firefighting contributes to exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compared serum dioxin concentrations and congener profiles of current firefighters (n=13) with those of men who have ceased employment as firefighters (n=17) and with men employed in occupations other than firefighter (n=10). We found that compared to former or non-firefighters, current firefighters have higher levels of dioxins primarily due to the contribution of PCBs and to a lesser extent PCDFs. PCDFs were significantly higher in former firefighters compared to non-firefighters (p<0.05). Comparisons with studies performed by other investigators suggest that local environmental conditions contribute to some of the elevation of PCBs. The congeners 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin and PCB-114 were significantly higher in current firefighters when compared to former or non-firefighters. Moreover, levels of these congeners were inversely correlated with years since employed as firefighter (Spearman r=-0.610, p=0.009 and Spearman r=-0.53, p=0.03, respectively). The classes of dioxins show an overall decline with years since employed as firefighters, this decline is most evident with PCDDs (Spearman r=-0.46, p=0.06). Together, the combination of evidence supports firefighting as a source of exposure to dioxins. PMID:21979175

Chernyak, Yury I; Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Brodsky, Efim S; Grassman, Jean A

2012-08-13

114

Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background A leading contributing factor to firefighter injury and death is lack of fitness. Therefore, the Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) was established that includes a focus on providing fitness assessments to all fire service personnel. The current fitness assessment includes a submaximal exercise test protocol and associated prediction equation to predict individual VO2peak as a measure of fitness. There is limited information on the accuracy, precision, and sources of error of this prediction equation. This study replicated previous research by validating the accuracy of the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for a group of firefighters and further examining potential sources of error for an individual firefighters’ assessment. Methods The sample consisted of 22 firefighters who completed a maximal exercise test protocol similar to the WFI submaximal protocol, but the test was terminated when firefighters reached a maximal level of exertion (i.e., measured VO2peak). We then calculated the predicted VO2peak based on the WFI prediction equation along with individual firefighters’ body mass index (BMI) and 85% of maximum heart rate. The data were analyzed using paired samples t-tests in SPSS v. 21.0. Results The difference between predicted and measured VO2peak was -0.77?±?8.35 mL•kg-1•min-1. However, there was a weak, statistically non-significant association between measured VO2peak and predicted VO2peak (R2?=?0.09, F(1,21)?=?2.05, p?=?0.17). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC?=?0.215, p?>?0.05) and Pearson (r?=?0.31, p?=?0.17) and Spearman (??=?0.28, p?=?0.21) correlation coefficients were small. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 8.5 mL•kg-1•min-1. Further, both age and baseline fitness level were associated with increased inaccuracy of the prediction equation. Conclusions We provide data on the inaccuracy and sources of error for the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for predicting fitness level in individual firefighters, despite apparently accurate predictions for a group of firefighters. These results suggest that the WFI prediction equation may need to be reevaluated as a means of precisely determining fitness for individual firefighters, which may affect employment status, duty assignment, and overall life safety of the firefighter.

2014-01-01

115

Altering the Mission Statement: The Training of Firefighters as Intelligence Gatherers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fire service is one of the premier emergency response agencies in the United States. As our nation strives to expand and enhance its homeland security efforts, firefighters have been recognized as an underutilized asset. The opportunity for firefighte...

R. J. Blatus

2008-01-01

116

77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guard [USCG-2012-0848] Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills...continuing response to the explosion, fire and sinking of the Mobile Offshore Drilling...voluntary guidance concerning lifesaving and fire-fighting equipment, training, and...

2012-11-23

117

Experimental Mod III Firefighters' Aluminized Crash-Rescue, Fire-Proximity Hood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) has developed the experimental Mod III Firefighters' Aluminized Crash-Rescue Fire-Proximity Hood, which improves upon the standard firefighters' aluminized hood (MIL-H-29144). Reports from the firefi...

H. P. Winer

1984-01-01

118

46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167...Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing...

2009-10-01

119

46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167...Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing...

2010-10-01

120

46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167...Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing...

2013-10-01

121

30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms...firefighting organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall...person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems...

2013-07-01

122

Acute effects of routine firefighting on lung function.  

PubMed

We undertook a study to determine the acute effects of routine firefighting on lung function and the relationship between these acute effects and nonspecific airway responsiveness. For 29 firefighters from a single fire station, we calculated the concentration of methacholine aerosol that caused a 100% increase in specific airway resistance (Pc100). Over an 8-week period we than measured FEV1 and FVC in each firefighter before and after each 24-hr workshift and after every fire. From 199 individual workshifts without fires, we calculated the mean +/- 2 SD across-workshift change in FEV1 and FVC for each firefighter. Eighteen of 76 measurements obtained within 2 hr after a fire (24%) showed a greater than 2 SD fall in FEV1 and/or FVC compared to two of 199 obtained after routine workshifts without fires (1%; p less than .001). On 13 of 18 occasions when spirometry decreased significantly, we obtained repeat spirometry (postshift) 3-18.5 hr after fires, and on four of these occasions FEV1 and/or FVC were still more than 2 SD below baseline. Decrements in spirometry occurred as often in firefighters with high Pc100s as in those with low Pc100s. In two firefighters in whom FEV1 and FVC fell by more than 10% after fires, we repeated measurements of methacholine sensitivity, and it was increased over the prestudy baseline. These findings suggest that routine firefighting is associated with a high incidence of acute decrements in lung function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3518426

Sheppard, D; Distefano, S; Morse, L; Becker, C

1986-01-01

123

Pilot Study of Firefighter Three-Dimensional Anthropometry to Improve Seatbelt Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second leading cause of line-of-duty deaths for US firefighters is attributed to vehicular accidents, and a number of those firefighters who died were not wearing their seatbelt. It has been proven that many firefighters are not physically able to rea...

2008-01-01

124

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...completing any combination of service as a firefighter,law enforcement officer or...

2010-01-01

125

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...completing any combination of service as a firefighter,law enforcement officer or...

2009-01-01

126

Selected physiological and psychobiological responses to physical activity in different configurations of firefighting gear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to examine selected physiological and psychobiological responses to different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) walked on a treadmill (3·5?km · h, 10% grade) for 15?min in three different clothing configurations. On separate days subjects wore: (a) ‘station blues’, (b) a hip boot configuration of firefighting gear, and (c) the current ‘NFPA 1500

D. L. SMITH; S. J. PETRUZZELLO; J. M. KRAMER; S. E. WARNER; B. G. BONE; J. E. MISNER

1995-01-01

127

“OUTSIDER WITHIN” THE FIREHOUSESubordination and Difference in the Social Interactions of African American Women Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the perspective of African American women firefighters, the authors examine the social interactions that make them excluded “outsiders within” their firehouses and different from not only dominant white men but also other subordinated groups of Black men and white women firefighters. Drawing on extensive survey data from 24 Black women career firefighters nationwide and detailed interviews with 22 of

JANICE D. YODER; PATRICIA ANIAKUDO

1997-01-01

128

The responses of African American women firefighters to gender harassment at work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study is to describe the responses of African American women firefighters to sexual and gender harassment. Surveys and interviews of 22 firefighters nationwide uncovered universal exposure to harassment. Contrary to prior studies, most of which involved white college students and white collar workers, all these firefighters used externally focused, direct response strategies. Nineteen women directly

Janice D. Yoder; Patricia Aniakudo

1995-01-01

129

Worksite Utrition Education improves Food choices of on-duty Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME:Heart attack and stroke kill over 50% of firefighters who die on duty. Yet research on firefighters’ dietary practices is virtually nonexistent. To determine the potential effects of worksite nutrition education on food choices, 38 male firefighters, between the ages of 27-50 years old, attended mandatory nutrition education taught by a Registered Dietitian. Of these, 27 completed the study.

Hope McClusky Bilyk; Cathy Kapica

1996-01-01

130

Occupational exposure to woodsmoke and oxidative stress in wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

Experimental studies indicate that exposure to woodsmoke could induce oxidative stress. However studies have not been conducted among the general population and specialized occupational groups despite the existence of elevated woodsmoke exposure situations. Therefore, we investigated whether there were across workshift changes in oxidative stress biomarkers among wildland firefighters who are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. We collected pre- and post-workshift urine samples from 19 wildland firefighters before and after prescribed burns. We measured malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in the samples, and analyzed whether there were cross-shift changes in their levels, and the relationships between the changes and the length of firefighting career, age of firefighter, and quantified workshift exposure to particulate matter. Overall no significant cross-shift change was observed for 8-oxodG or MDA in the urine samples of the firefighters. Changes in both biomarkers were also not associated with PM2.5, which was used as a marker of exposure. However, overall unadjusted geometric mean 8-oxo-dG levels in the samples (31 ?g/g creatinine) was relatively higher compared to those measured in healthy individuals in many occupational or general population studies. Additionally, cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG excretion were dependent on the length of firefighting career (p=0.01) or age of the subject (p=0.01). Significant increases in 8-oxo-dG level from pre-shift to post-shift were observed for those who had been firefighters for 2 years or less. The results indicate that oxidative stress response measured as cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG may depend on age or the length of a firefighter's career. These results suggest the need to investigate the longer term health effects of cumulative exposure of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters, because increased body burden of oxidative stress is a risk factor for many diseases and is theorized to be involved in aging. PMID:23434577

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Zhang, Jim Junfeng; Hall, Daniel B; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Vena, John E; Naeher, Luke P

2013-04-01

131

Development of a walking aerobic capacity test for structural firefighters.  

PubMed

Moore, KJ, Penry, JT, and Gunter, KB. Development of a walking aerobic capacity test for structural firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 28(8): 2346-2352, 2014-Firefighting requires high fitness to perform job tasks and minimize risk of job-related cardiac death. To reduce this risk, the International Association of Firefighters has recommended firefighters possess a V[Combining Dot Above]O2max ? 42 ml·kg··min. This recommendation is not universally applied because existing screening tests require costly equipment and do not accommodate firefighters unable to run. The purpose of this study was to develop a walking test to predict V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in firefighters using a standard treadmill. Thirty-eight male firefighters wore a vest weighing 20% of their body weight and performed a walking V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test on a standard treadmill. Walking speed was dependent on leg length and ranged from 3.6 to 4.3 mph. The test began with a 3-minute warm-up, after which the speed was increased to test speed. Every minute thereafter, the grade increased 1% until participants reached exhaustion. For cross-validation, 13 firefighters also performed a running V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test. The average test time was 16.95 ± 2.57 minutes (including warm-up) and ranged between 8 and 22 minutes. Average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was 48.4 ± 6.5 ml·kg··min. Stepwise linear regression included time as the only significant independent variable explaining 76% of the variance in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (p < 0.001). The standard error of the estimate was 3.2 ml·kg··min. The equation derived is: V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (ml·kg··min) = 11.373 + time (minute) × 2.184. On average, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values measured while walking were 4.62 ± 5.86 ml·kg··min, lower than running values. This test has good potential for predicting V[Combining Dot Above]O2max among structural firefighters, and minimal equipment needs make it feasible for fire departments to administer. PMID:24552804

Moore, Karlie J; Penry, Jason T; Gunter, Katherine B

2014-08-01

132

Firefighters' multiple exposure assessments in practice.  

PubMed

During the past decade, more research has focused on firefighters' multiple exposures via multi-route exposure. Multi-route exposure can alter the kinetics of chemicals; this has brought changes to the recommendations on biomonitoring. In addition, the possibility that the chemicals in smoke have additive and synergistic effects has not been consistently taken into account. In this study, biomonitoring and occupational hygienic measurements were used to determine smoke diving trainers' exposure to smoke in conventional and modern simulators. Biological action limit values (BALs) for 1-hydroxypyrene, linked with the ratio of pyrene to benzo[a]pyrene, were established for conventional and modern simulator types. The additive and synergistic effects for the main compounds detected in the air during the suppression of a fire were also calculated. According to the biomonitoring results, dermal exposure played a role in exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and it seemed to delay the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-naphthol. The calculated BALs for 1-hydroxypyrene were 6 nmol/L and 53 nmol/L for the conventional and modern simulators, respectively. The combined cancer and eye disorders or upper respiratory tract irritation effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the conventional simulator were from 6.5 to 7.0-fold higher than in the modern simulator. PMID:22710199

Laitinen, Juha; Mäkelä, Mauri; Mikkola, Jouni; Huttu, Ismo

2012-08-13

133

Exposure of firefighters to diesel emissions in fire stations  

SciTech Connect

Personal sampling techniques were used to evaluate firefighter exposure to particulates from diesel engine emissions. Selected fire stations in New York, Boston and Los Angeles were studied. Firefighter exposure to total particulates increased with the number of runs conducted during an 8-hr period. In New York and Boston where the response level ranged from 7 to 15 runs during an 8-hr shift, the resulting exposure levels of total airborne particulates from diesel exhaust were 170 to 480 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (TWA). Methylene chloride extracts of the diesel particulates averaged 24% of the total. The authors' findings suggest that additional research is necessary to assess fire station concentrations of vehicle diesel exhaust that may have adverse health consequences to firefighters.

Froines, J.R.; Hinds, W.C.; Duffy, R.M.; Lafuente, E.J.; Liu, W.C.

1987-03-01

134

Exposure of firefighters to diesel emissions in fire stations.  

PubMed

Personal sampling techniques were used to evaluate firefighter exposure to particulates from diesel engine emissions. Selected fire stations in New York, Boston and Los Angeles were studied. Firefighter exposure to total particulates increased with the number of runs conducted during an 8-hr period. In New York and Boston where the response level ranged from 7 to 15 runs during an 8-hr shift, the resulting exposure levels of total airborne particulates from diesel exhaust were 170 to 480 micrograms/m3 (TWA). Methylene chloride extracts of the diesel particulates averaged 24% of the total. The authors' findings suggest that additional research is necessary to assess fire station concentrations of vehicle diesel exhaust that may have adverse health consequences to firefighters. PMID:2437785

Froines, J R; Hinds, W C; Duffy, R M; Lafuente, E J; Liu, W C

1987-03-01

135

Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?  

PubMed Central

Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=??0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=??0.82) and bench press (rs?=??0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.83) and bench press (rs?=??0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=??0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=??0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity.

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

2014-01-01

136

Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?  

PubMed

Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=?-0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=?-0.82) and bench press (rs?=?-0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.83) and bench press (rs?=?-0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=?-0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=?-0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

2014-01-01

137

Psychological response of firefighters to a chemical fire.  

PubMed

Samples of firefighter subjects (n = 80) and a comparison group (n = 15) were contrasted on a number of postincident psychological distress measures in the aftermath of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire. Using a structured, self-administered questionnaire, firefighter subjects were found to be more psychologically distressed on demoralization, specific emotional distress, and perceived threat to physical health. After controlling for baseline characteristics on which subjects and the comparison group differed, these between-group effects remained significant. The three outcome scales, while correlated, measure different components of psychological distress. PMID:3611755

Markowitz, J S; Gutterman, E M; Link, B; Rivera, M

1987-01-01

138

Challenges and successes in recruiting firefighters for hearing loss prevention research.  

PubMed

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant occupational health problem in the United States, affecting more than 1 million firefighters. Noise hazards include vehicles, sirens, and power tools. Additionally, firefighters are commonly exposed to ototoxic chemicals. Because the use of hearing protection is not universally required for firefighters, firefighters must be educated about NIHL to ensure they take personal responsibility for hearing loss prevention. This study discusses challenges associated with recruiting firefighters to participate in a randomized, controlled trial testing a web-based hearing protection training program. Successful recruitment strategies included collaboration with key stakeholders, a flexible and convenient computer-based intervention, expansion to multiple recruitment sites, and interactive outreach to potential participants. Future research should use quantitative methods to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of specific recruitment strategies to facilitate firefighter enrollment in research studies. Developing and testing effective hearing protection interventions for firefighters is a crucial first step toward preventing NIHL in this population. PMID:23701004

Hong, OiSaeng; Fiola, Lauren Ann; Feld, Jamie

2013-06-01

139

Preliminary domain theory for robot-assisted wildland firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a preliminary domain theory for robot-assisted wildland firefighting domain. The domain theory is based on a focus group hosted by the Texas Engineering Extension Service with eight subject matter experts and nine technologists. Wildland fire fighting is characterized by the large area affected and the longer duration of the response, on the order of weeks or months.

Robin R. Murphy; Rachel Brown; Reginald Grant; Clint T. Arnett

2009-01-01

140

Provocation, Hostility, Aggression, and Victimization: Firefighters and Incarcerated Felons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines self-reported histories of victimization among two groups of men. Violence, provocation, hostility, and aggression inventories were administered to a prosocial group of firefighters and an antisocial group of incarcerated felons. Fourteen of the 15 possible behavioral-abuse correlations were significant when both groups were considered…

Alexander, E. Carlene; And Others

1995-01-01

141

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer vehicle from Naval Station Mayport, Fla., stands by during fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. In the background is the simulated aircraft that was set on fire for the exercise. Firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station (in the background) gather around the site of the extinguished flames.

2000-01-01

142

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., wait while the NASA/USAF water carrier truck directs its water cannon toward a burning simulated aircraft (out of view).

2000-01-01

143

Behind the Brotherhood: Rewards and Challenges for Wives of Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Support of family is paramount to reducing the impact of highly stressful work on firefighters. Yet the degree of stress encountered by the family members, particularly spouses, resulting from ongoing job demands and exposure to traumatic situations is unclear. This qualitative study examined the effects of emergency service work on spouses of…

Regehr, Cheryl; Dimitropoulos, Gina; Bright, Elaine; George, Sharon; Henderson, Joscelyn

2005-01-01

144

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

145

A Heat Transfer Model for Firefighters' Protective Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate and flexible model of heat transfer through firefighter protective clothing has many uses, including investigating the degree of protection, in terms of burn injury and heat stress, of a particular fabric assembly and analyzing cheaply and quickly the expected performance of new or candidate fabric designs or fabric combinations.

William E. Mell; J. Randall Lawson

2000-01-01

146

Factors Related to Sleep Disorders among Male Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders in male firefighters working in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Methods Self-administered questionnaires including the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form, Psychosocial Well-Being Index-Short Form, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Beck-Depression Inventory-2 as well as surveys collecting socio-demographic characteristics and work-related factors were given to 730 male firefighters. After exclusion for missing data, 657 male firefighters were included, and logistic regression analysis adjusted for the work-related factors, psychosocial factors, and general risk factors were used to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and associated factors. Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 48.7%. Shift work (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI?=?1.02-2.45), musculoskeletal symptoms (adjusted OR 2.89, 95% CI?=?2.02-4.14), and depression (adjusted OR 7.04 95% CI?=?4.03-12.30) were associated with sleep disorders. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms, shift work, and depression are associated with sleep disorders. Integrated health management is needed to promote good sleep quality among firefighters.

2014-01-01

147

Operating experiences of retardant bombers during firefighting operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented on operational practices and maneuver accelerations experienced by two Douglas DC-6B airplanes converted to retardant bombers and used in firefighting operations. The data cover two fire seasons in the mountainous regions of the northwestern United States.

Jewel, J. W., Jr.; Morris, G. J.; Avery, D. E.

1974-01-01

148

Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.  

PubMed

Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke. PMID:24566608

Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

2014-03-01

149

Seasonality and Coronary Heart Disease Deaths in United States Firefighters  

PubMed Central

United States firefighters have a high on-duty fatality rate and coronary heart disease is the leading cause. Seasonality affects the incidence of cardiovascular events in the general population, but its effects on firefighters are unknown. We statistically examined the seasonal and annual variation of all on-duty coronary heart disease deaths among US firefighters between 1994 and 2004 using the chi-square distribution and Poisson regression model of the monthly fatality counts. We also examined the effect of ambient temperature (apparent as well as wind chill temperature) on coronary heart disease fatalities during the study span using a time-stratified, case-crossover study design. When grouped by season, we observed the distribution of the 449 coronary heart disease fatalities to show a relative peak in winter (32%) and relative nadir in spring (21%). This pattern was significantly different (p=0.005) from the expected distribution under the null hypothesis where season has no effect. The pattern persisted in additional analyses, stratifying the deaths by the type of duty in which the firefighters were engaged at the time of their deaths. In the Poisson regression model of the monthly fatality counts, the overall goodness-of-fit between the actual and predicted case counts was excellent ( ?42 = 16.63; p = 0.002). Two distinct peaks were detected, one in January-February and the other in August-September. Overall, temperature was not associated with increased risk of on-duty death. After allowing for different effects of temperature in mild/hot versus cold periods, a 1°C increase was not protective in cold weather, nor did it increase the risk of death in warmer weather. The findings of this study reveal statistical evidence for excess coronary heart disease deaths among firefighters during winter; however, the temporal pattern coronary heart disease deaths was not linked to temperature variation. We also found the seasonal pattern to be independent of duty-related risks.

Mbanu, Ibeawuchi; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Peeples, Lynne; Stallings, Leonard A.; Kales, Stefanos N.

2013-01-01

150

Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.  

PubMed

Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that can produce hazardous levels of noise, this study showed that the average noise levels experienced by firefighters was below generally accepted guidelines. PMID:23339379

Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

2013-01-01

151

Physiological responses of firefighters and performance predictors during a simulated rescue of hospital patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is incomplete information about how physically demanding rescue work may be. The aim therefore of this paper was to examine the physiological responses of firefighters during a simulated rescue of hospital patients and to relate the firefighters' performance to their endurance, strength and working technique. Fourteen part-time male firefighters with a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 4.4 ± 0.3 l\\/min (mean ± SD) served

Erna D. von Heimburg; Anna Kari R. Rasmussen; Jon Ingulf Medbø

2006-01-01

152

Physiological Effects of Boot Weight and Design on Men and Women Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two leather (L1, L2) and two rubber (R1, R2) boots on firefighters’ metabolic and respiratory variables during simulated firefighting tasks. Twenty-five men and 25 women, while wearing full turnout clothing, a 10.5-kg backpack, gloves, helmet, and one of four randomly assigned pairs of firefighter boots, walked for 6 min

Nina L. Turner; Sharon Chiou; Joyce Zwiener; Darlene Weaver; James Spahr

2010-01-01

153

Development of an INS integrated autonomous positioning system for assisting effective fire-fighting activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an INS (Inertial Navigation System) integrated autonomous positioning system, which\\u000a can monitor and track the firefighter's position to assist a variety of fire-fighting activity and rescue services. By integraing\\u000a an INS to the positioning system, it is also possible to obtain information of firefighter's position and physical state of\\u000a posture (e.g. standing, collapsed or

Yongcheol Suh

2004-01-01

154

Basis for criticality category B firefighting designation for K Basins. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes.

Jensen, M.A.

1995-03-23

155

Doffing procedures for firefighters' contaminated turnout gear: Documentation for videotape  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the doffing procedures and provides a copy of the videotape script, which includes a fire brigade returning to a mock decontamination area after dealing with a simulated fire. The report also provides background information explaining why the videotape was made, how the project was accomplished, and what the procedures are intended to accomplish. Overall, the video gives step-by-step instructions for the removal of contaminated turnout gear and indicates how firefighters and radiation protection personnel can work together cooperatively. These new doffing procedures were developed with the advice and participation of actual nuclear power plant firefighting personnel at the Seabrook Station of New Hampshire Yankee utility and may be adapted to enhance any existing in-plant procedures. The video includes comments from members of the fire brigade, an equipment review, and a discussion of the doffing area arrangement.

Not Available

1992-07-01

156

Minimum protection factors for respiratory protective devices for firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations were measured in seventy-two structural fires using a personal air sampler carried by working firefighters. In a total sampling time of 1329 minutes the carbon monoxide concentration exceeded 500?ppm approximately 29 percent of the time. The maximum carbon monoxide concentration was 27,000?ppm and in 10 percent of the fires, the maximum concentration exceeded 5500?ppm. Only

W. M. A. BURGESS; REINHARD SIDOR; JOHN J. LYNCH; PAUL BUCHANAN; EDWARD CLOUGHERTY

1977-01-01

157

A Distributed Virtual Storytelling System for Firefighters Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of the proposed paper is to present a virtual reality scenario managing application which has been distributed according\\u000a to the DoD (Department of Defense) High Level Architecture (HLA) standard. The system works over several implementations of\\u000a the Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI, HLA software part), on networked PCs. The main scenario is a networked Firefighters Training\\u000a Simulation where each computer

Eric Perdigau; Patrice Torguet; Cédric Sanza; Jean-pierre Jessel

2003-01-01

158

Blowout contingency plans can cut firefighting and capping risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prepared in advance of drilling, blowout contingency plans and immediate response plans can reduce firefighting, well capping, and possible relief well costs during a blowout. Regional and site-specific blowout contingency plans are especially beneficial for operators working world-wide, where logistics difficulties can easily bog down operations. This article is the first of an 8-part series on well control. Future articles

Abel

1995-01-01

159

Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

2003-09-01

160

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2013-07-01

161

77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations AGENCY: The National...with Composite Protection for Wildland Fire- Fighting Operations; Notice of...

2012-11-16

162

Physician Weight Recommendations for Overweight and Obese Firefighters, United States, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction National guidelines state that health care professionals (HCPs) should advise patients on the importance of maintaining a healthy weight. Firefighters have high rates of obesity, and cardiovascular events are the leading cause of line-of-duty deaths in firefighters. This study assessed the association of age and body mass index (BMI) with HCP weight recommendations among male firefighters. Methods We used data on self-reported HCP weight recommendations and measured BMI from a 2011–2012 national sample of male firefighters (N = 1,002). HCP recommendations were recorded as no advice, maintain, gain, or lose weight, and BMI was categorized as normal (<25.0 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), class I obese (30.0–34.9 kg/m2), and class II or III obese (?35.0 kg/m2). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the odds of receiving weight advice by age and BMI categories. Results Most firefighters (96%) reported visiting an HCP in the past year. Most (69%) firefighters and 48% of class I to III obese firefighters reported receiving no weight advice. Higher BMI predicted HCP advice to lose weight (odds ratio class I obese vs normal weight: 12.98; 95% confidence interval: 5.38–31.34). Younger firefighters were less likely to receive weight loss advice than older firefighters, except among those who were class II or III obese. Conclusions HCPs are important sources of health information for firefighters. Overweight and obese firefighters, particularly those who are younger, do not consistently receive HCP advice to lose weight. This marks a missed opportunity to prevent further weight gain and reduce obesity-related health outcomes.

Wilkinson, Michelle Lynn; Brown, Austin Lane; Poston, Walker Seward Carlos; Haddock, Christopher Keith; Jahnke, Sara Anne

2014-01-01

163

Exposure of firefighters to particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Firefighting continues to be among the most hazardous yet least studied occupations in terms of exposures and their relationship to occupational disease. Exposures are complex, involving mixtures of particles and chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Adverse health effects associated with these agents include elevated incidences of coronary heart disease and several cancers. PAHs have been detected at fire scenes, and in the firehouse rest area and kitchen, routinely adjoining the truck bay, and where firefighters spend a major part of each shift. An academic-community partnership was developed with the Cincinnati Fire Department with the goal of understanding active firefighters' airborne and dermal PAH exposure. PAHs were measured in air and particulates, and number and mass concentrations, respectively, of submicron (0.02-1 ?m) and PM2.5 (2.5 ?m diameter and less) particles during overhaul events in two firehouses and a University of Cincinnati administrative facility as a comparison location. During overhaul firefighters evaluate partially combusted materials for re-ignition after fire extinguishment and commonly remove Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). Face and neck wipes were also collected at a domestic fire scene. Overhaul air samples had higher mean concentrations of PM2.5 and submicron particles than those collected in the firehouse, principally in the truck bay and kitchen. Among the 17 PAHs analyzed, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene were generally detectable. Naphthalene was present in 7 out of 8 overhaul activities, in 2 out of 3 firehouse (kitchen and truck bay) samples, and in none collected from the control site. In firefighter face and neck wipes a greater number of PAHs were found, several of which have carcinogenic activity, such as benzofluoranthene, an agent also found in overhaul air samples. Although the concentration for naphthalene, and all other individual PAHs, was very low, the potential simultaneous exposure to multiple chemicals even in small quantities in combination with high ultrafine particle exposure deserves further study. It is recommended that personal respiratory and skin protection be worn throughout the overhaul process. PMID:24512044

Baxter, C Stuart; Hoffman, Joseph D; Knipp, Michael J; Reponen, Tiina; Haynes, Erin N

2014-07-01

164

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school...Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school...fuel shall be fitted with the fire-fighting equipment of the following...

2009-10-01

165

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school...Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school...fuel shall be fitted with the fire-fighting equipment of the following...

2010-10-01

166

Stress and Strain among Police, Firefighters, and Government WorkersA Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matched samples of police officers, firefighters, and other municipal workers were compared with regard to self-reports of stress and various mental, physical, and behavioral problems reflecting strain resulting from stress. The police reported more stress than the other groups. Nonetheless, strain was greatest among municipal workers, while the police and firefighters did not differ markedly. It was concluded that police

MICHAEL PENDLETON; EZRA STOTLAND; PHILIP SPIERS; EDWARD KIRSCH

1989-01-01

167

Multidimensional, Threshold Effects of Social Support in Firefighters: Is More Support Invariably Better?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between social support (Social Provisions Scale) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) in a sample of male firefighters in a midwestern community (N=53). The authors assessed 5 types of perceived support from 2 sources: peer firefighters and supervisors. Results indicate that reassurance of worth and social…

Varvel, Shiloh Jordan; He, Yuhong; Shannon, Jennifer K.; Tager, David; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Chaichanasakul, Adipat; Mendoza, Monique M.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

2007-01-01

168

Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Firefighters: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obesity, despite being a significant determinant of fitness for duty, is reaching epidemic levels in the workplace. Firefighters’ fitness is important to their health and to public safety.Research Methods and Procedures: We examined the distribution of BMI and its association with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Massachusetts firefighters who underwent baseline (1996) and annual medical examinations through

Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Russ Hauser; Ichiro Kawachi; Dimitrios Liarokapis; David C. Christiani; Stefanos N. Kales

2005-01-01

169

Handy navigation in ever-changing spaces: an ethnographic study of firefighting practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ethnographic study, conducted to gain an insight of the practices around navigation of firefighters on the first line of intervention. We argue that the common approach of looking only at the technical aspects is incomplete. We show instead, that navigation of firefighters in ever-changing spaces is a collective craft or art, where technology is only one

Sebastian Denef; Leonardo Ramirez; Tobias Dyrks; Gunnar Stevens

2008-01-01

170

Ubiquitous computing for firefighters: field studies and prototypes of large displays for incident command  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrate how field studies, interviews, and low-fidelity prototypes can be used to inform the design of ubiquitous computing systems for firefighters. We describe the artifacts and processes used by firefighters to assess, plan, and communicate during emergency situations, showing how accountability affects these decisions, how their current Incident Command System supports these tasks, and some drawbacks

Xiaodong Jiang; Jason I. Hong; Leila A. Takayama; James A. Landay

2004-01-01

171

The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

2012-01-01

172

Perception and Attitudes of Firefighters on Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise exposure of firefighters results in increased risk of hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) can be prevented by the consistent use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). However, little is known about firefighters' perceptions and attitudes on NIHL and HPD use. The purposes of the study were (1) to identify common noise sources of fire fighting equipment and activities; and

Oisaeng Hong; Daniel Samo; Rebecca Hulea; Brenda Eakin

2008-01-01

173

Serum heavy metals and hemoglobin related compounds in Saudi Arabia firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including heavy metals, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane and some particulates. Many of these materials have been implicated in the triggering of several diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of fire smoke exposure on serum heavy metals and possible affection on iron functions compounds (total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation percent, ferritin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity blood hemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin,). Subjects and methods Two groups of male firefighter volunteers were included; the first included 28 firefighters from Jeddah city, while the second included 21 firefighters from Yanbu city with an overall age rang of 20–48 years. An additional group of 23 male non-firefighters volunteered from both cities as normal control subjects. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for relevant parameters. Results The results obtained showed that there were no statistically significant changes in the levels of serum heavy metals in firefighters as compared to normal control subjects. Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin were statistically increased in Jeddah firefighters, (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05 respectively) and Yanbu firefighters, (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001 respectively) as compared to normal control group while serum TIBC and UIBC were statistically decreased in Yanbu firefighters as compared to Jeddah firefighters, (p < 0.005 and p < 0.005 respectively) and normal control group, (p < 0.005 and p < 0.01 respectively). On the other hand, serum transferrin saturation percent was elevated in only Yanbu firefighters, (p < 0.05) as compared to Jeddah firefighters. Besides, there was no statistically significant change in blood hemoglobin and serum iron on comparison between all studied groups. Conclusion Such results might point to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to avoid such hazardous health effects (elevated Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin and decreased serum TIBC and UIBC) that might endanger firefighters working under dangerous conditions. Firefighters must be under regular medical follow-up through standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for early detection of any serum biochemical or blood hematological changes.

Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L

2009-01-01

174

Physiological responses to simulated stair climbing in professional firefighters wearing rubber and leather boots.  

PubMed

No studies have considered whether a firefighter's boots are a factor influencing physiological responses. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to a fire simulation activity (stair climb) in professional firefighters wearing rubber boots (RB) and leather boots (LB). Twelve professional firefighters participated in two counterbalanced simulated firefighter stair climb (SFSC) sessions, one wearing RB and the other wearing LB. Heart rate, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), expiratory ventilation (V(E)), blood lactate (BLa), salivary cortisol (SCORT), and leg strength were assessed prior to and following a SFSC. LB elicited significantly greater SCORT values and knee flexion time to peak torque. Furthermore, RB revealed significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion peak torque after SFSC. BLa was positively related to knee flexion peak torque after SFSC in the RB. Firefighters when wearing the RB may be more effective at resisting fatigue and increase more force production. PMID:19543910

Huang, Chun-Jung; Garten, Ryan S; Wade, Chip; Webb, Heather E; Acevedo, Edmund O

2009-09-01

175

Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework.  

PubMed

Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call "cardiovascular strain". The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters. PMID:24602344

Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Garcia-Rivas, Javier; Kim, Hyoungryoul; Zaldivar, Frank; Israel, Leslie; Baker, Dean

2014-01-01

176

Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call “cardiovascular strain”. The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters.

2014-01-01

177

Most cancer in firefighters is due to radio-frequency radiation exposure not inhaled carcinogens.  

PubMed

Recent reviews and reports of cancer incidence and mortality in firefighters conclude that they are at an increased risk of a number of cancers. These include leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, male breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and cancers of the brain, stomach, colon, rectum, prostate, urinary bladder, testes, and thyroid. Firefighters are exposed to a long list of recognized or probable carcinogens in combustion products and the presumed route of exposure to these carcinogens is by inhalation. Curiously, respiratory system cancers and diseases are usually not increased in firefighters as they are in workers exposed to known inhaled carcinogens. The list of cancers with increased risk in firefighters strongly overlaps the list of cancers at increased risk in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR). Firefighters have increased exposure to RFR in the course of their work, from the mobile two-way radio communications devices which they routinely use while fighting fires, and at times from firehouse and fire vehicle radio transmitters. I suggest that some of the increased cancer risk in firefighters is caused by RFR exposure, and is therefore preventable. The precautionary principle should be applied to reduce the risk of cancer in firefighters, and workman's compensation rules will necessarily need to be modified. PMID:19464814

Milham, S

2009-11-01

178

Self-reported short- and long-term respiratory effects among PVC-exposed firefighters  

SciTech Connect

Firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were studied to assess respiratory effects at 5-6 wk post-incident and again 22 mo following the fire. Exposed subjects reported significantly more frequent and severe respiratory symptoms at both time points than did firefighter controls. In longitudinal analyses, a number of symptoms persisted over time, and acute symptom scores were significantly correlated with chronic scores. At Time 2, approximately 18% of exposed firefighters, compared with none of the controls, reported that since the time of the PVC exposure, a physician had told them that they had either asthma and/or bronchitis.

Markowitz, J.S. (Columbia Univ., NY (USA))

1988-10-01

179

Self-reported short- and long-term respiratory effects among PVC-exposed firefighters.  

PubMed

Firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were studied to assess respiratory effects at 5-6 wk post-incident and again 22 mo following the fire. Exposed subjects reported significantly more frequent and severe respiratory symptoms at both time points than did firefighter controls. In longitudinal analyses, a number of symptoms persisted over time, and acute symptom scores were significantly correlated with chronic scores. At Time 2, approximately 18% of exposed firefighters, compared with none of the controls, reported that since the time of the PVC exposure, a physician had told them that they had either asthma and/or bronchitis. PMID:2916852

Markowitz, J S

1989-01-01

180

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2013-07-01

181

Application of real-time particulate sensors to help mitigate exposures of wildland firefighters.  

SciTech Connect

High Particulate exposures have been demonstrated to decrease lung function among firefighters. In this article, the authors demonstrated the feasibility of using small real-time particle sensors to inform wildland firefighters so they can make informed decisions on the use of personal respiratory protection. Using 1mg/m3 as an indicator point for use of appropriately designed respiratory protection, such sensors could help prevent 16% to 74% of particulate exposure prescribed burns when firefighters assess exposure as low or medium. Adherence to such a guideline for the use of respiratory protection would involve its deployment of 3% to 22% of individual shifts. In addition, sensors are a valuable tool for tracking exposure to particulates among wildland firefighters for occupational health monitoring.

Edwards, Rufus; Johnson, Michael: Dunn, Kevin H.; Naeher, Luke P.

2005-02-01

182

LP-Gas Tank Explosion Kills Two Volunteer Firefighters, Carthage, Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Carthage, Illinois Fire Department volunteer firefighters died, one was seriously injured, and another was injured when a horizontal liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas) tank BLEVEed (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion).

M. W. Lackman T. H. Miller

1997-01-01

183

Application of real-time particle sensors to help mitigate exposures of wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

High particulate exposures have been demonstrated to decrease lung function among firefighters. In this article, the authors demonstrated the feasibility of using small real-time particle sensors to inform wildland firefighters so they may make informed decisions on the use of personal respiratory protection. Using 1 mg/m3 as an indicator point for use of appropriately designed respiratory protection, such sensors could help prevent 16% to 74% of particulate exposure during prescribed burns when firefighters assess exposure as low or medium. Adherence to such a guideline for the use of respiratory protection would involve its deployment during 3% to 22% of individual 8-hour shifts. In addition, data-logging sensors would provide a valuable tool for tracking exposure to particulates among wildland firefighters for occupational health monitoring. PMID:16961007

Edwards, Rufus; Johnson, Michael; Dunn, Kevin H; Naeher, Luke P

2005-01-01

184

77 FR 42417 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Soteriades ES, Christoudias SG, Christiani DC, Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study. Environ. Health. 2003; 2(1):14; Carey MG, Al-Zaiti SS, Dean GE, Sessanna L, Finnell DS,...

2012-07-19

185

Fire and Ice - Safety, Comfort, and Getting the Firefighters' Job Done  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily life for firefighters consists of working with life-threatening hazards in hostile environments. A major hazard is excessive ambient heat. New hazards have arisen from protective gear that was intended to increase survival time of firefighters while finding and rescuing victims. The insulation is so good now that a firefighter's metabolic heat buildup cannot escape. This forces body core temperatures to life threatening levels in about 20 minutes of moderate activity. Using NASA space suit technology, Oceaneering Space Systems developed a liquid cooling garment prototype that will remove up to 250 watts of metabolic heat. After testing and certification as an approved accessory for firefighter use, this garment will be available for use by any individual encapsulated in protective clothing. This demonstration will present a high surface area circulated liquid cooling garment displayed on a mannequin and available for attendees to try on to experience the effects of active cooling.

Foley, Tico; Butzer, Melissa

1999-01-01

186

Methodologies for Calculating Firefighting Agent Quantities Needed to Combat Aircraft Crash Fires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current method for determining required firefighting agent quantities at an airport is based on the concept of a critical area rectangular box defined by the aircraft length and fuselage width. Aircraft size and construction materials have evolved to ...

J. L. Scheffey R. L. Darwin S. Hunt

2012-01-01

187

Analysis of Firetruck Crashes and Associated Firefighter Injuries in the United States  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes.

Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C.

2012-01-01

188

Engineering Observations on an Mb-5 Aircraft Fire-Fighting and Rescue Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A production MB-5 aircraft fire-fighting and rescue vehicle was taken from the manufacturer and instrumented to record simultaneously engine speed, road speed, and foam pump speed. The vehicle was then subjected to maximum acceleration runs and simulated ...

H. B. Peterson R. L. Gipe

1966-01-01

189

Posttraumatic Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth of Israeli Firefighters, at One Month following the Carmel Fire Disaster.  

PubMed

Wildfire disasters are potentially traumatic events which directly and indirectly affect both citizens and first responders. The study of posttraumatic growth is scarcely found in the context of firefighters and only few studies have addressed this construct. In the current study, posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic growth were investigated among Israeli firefighters (N = 65), approximately one month after the Carmel Fire Disaster. Eight firefighters (12.3%) were found to be above the cut-off score for probable PTSD, with intrusion symptoms as the most frequent finding compared to avoidance and hyper-arousal symptoms. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was evident to a small but considerable degree; noticeable changes were found regarding personal strength and appreciation of life. Results also revealed significant linear and quadratic relationships between PTSD and PTG. Results are discussed in light of past research on psychological responses among firefighters and first responders. PMID:24286064

Leykin, Dmitry; Lahad, Mooli; Bonneh, Nira

2013-01-01

190

Influence of genetic susceptibility on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESOxidative DNA damage has been implicated in carcinogenesis. The DNA damage can be assessed from the urinary excretion of the DNA-repair product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). The factors were investigated that influenced the excretion of urinary 8-OH-dG in 78 firefighters.METHODS53 Out of 78 firefighters were exposed to fire within 5 days of the study and 25 were not. 8-OH-dG was measured by

Yun-Chul Hong; Hye-Sook Park; Eun-Hee Ha

2000-01-01

191

A preliminary investigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms among firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency service personnel are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is little in-depth information on the psychological responses of firefighters to the daily incidents that they attend. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the PTSD symptoms of firefighters in relation to traumatic events experienced by them, and the availability of social support. Thirty-one UK fire

Cheryl Haslam; Krissie Mallon

2003-01-01

192

Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51

Stefanos N Kales; Elpidoforos S Soteriades; Stavros G Christoudias; David C Christiani

2003-01-01

193

Incident-Related Stressors, Locus of Control, Coping, and Psychological Distress Among Firefighters in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an investigation into the associations between incident-related stressors, locus of control, coping, and psychological distress in firefighters in Northern Ireland during the time of political violence. Among 248 male firefighters, greater psychological distress was associated with greater frequency of incident-related negative emotions, external locus of control, less task- and emotion-focused coping, and greater avoidance coping. It was

Jill Brown; Gerry Mulhern; Stephen Joseph

2002-01-01

194

Association Between Lung Function and Exposure to Smoke Among Firefighters at Prescribed Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the short-term effects of exposures to PM3.5, acrolein, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide on lung function in a group of firefighters performing prescribed burns. Spirometric measurements were made on 65 firefighters at the beginning, midpoint, and end of their work shift, while exposure was measured over the entire day. The interquartile range (IQR) of daily personal PM3.5 exposures was

James C. Slaughter; Jane Q. Koenig; Timothy E. Reinhardt

2004-01-01

195

Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

2000-05-01

196

Wood smoke exposure induces a pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response in firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies report an association between exposure to biomass smoke and cardiopulmonary morbidity. The mechanisms for this association are unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterise the acute pulmonary and systemic inflammatory effects of exposure to forest fire smoke. Seasonal forest firefighters (n552) were recruited before and\\/or after a day of fire-fighting. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires

J. R. Swiston; W. Davidson; S. Attridge; G. T. Li; M. Brauer; S. F. van Eeden

2008-01-01

197

Moving from fire-fighting to fire prevention: what service organizations need to know  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers in manufacturing environments often engage in fire-fighting rather than taking a more proactive approach to management. It is argued that, although often necessary, fire-fighting has negative consequences associated with a focus on solving organizational symptoms rather than problems or predicaments. Additionally, many believe the empowerment of front-line service workers is key to a successful service recovery procedure or program.

Cheri A. Young; David L. Corsun; Rachel S. Shinnar

2004-01-01

198

The rise and rise of clean, white-collar (fire-fighting) work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian newspapers, like those in other first-world countries, valorise fire-fighters through images more typically associated with heroic blue-collar “battlers”: sweat, ash, uniforms and firestorms, punctuated with tales of heroic deeds and personal sacrifice. Yet increasingly, much of the work of fire-fighters is associated with the grunt of “clean work” – report writing, community engagement, prevention and recovery activities, and so

Merilyn Childs; Michael Morris; Valerie Ingham

2004-01-01

199

Nonautonomous coloured Petri net-based methodology for the dispatching process of urban fire-fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the main features of our approach to the study of the dispatching process of urban fire-fighting. A new non-autonomous coloured Petri net (NCPN) method is developed and a corresponding simulation experiment is also carried out towards the practical process. Based on an extensive analysis of the urban fire-fighting process, the basic concept of discrete event dynamic systems

Xin Han; Li Jie; Shen Zuyan

2000-01-01

200

The impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing on the partners of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing on the spouses and significant others of a volunteer\\u000a sample of Oklahoma City firefighters who participated in the bombing rescue effort. Twenty-seven partners of Oklahoma City\\u000a firefighters participated in this study, conducted 42 to 44 months after the bombing. These partners were assessed using a\\u000a structured diagnostic interview

Betty Pfefferbaum; Carol S. North; Kenneth Bunch; Teddy G. Wilson; Phebe Tucker; John K. Schorr

2002-01-01

201

Heat stress while wearing long pants or shorts under firefighting protective clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was the purpose of this study to examine whether replacing long pants (P) with shorts (S) would reduce the heat stress of wearing firefighting protective clothing during exercise in a warm environment. Twenty-four Toronto Firefighters were allocated to one of four groups that performed heavy (H, 4.8?km·h, 5% grade), moderate (M, 4.5?km·h, 2.5% grade), light (L, 4.5?km·h) or very

TM McLellan; GA Selkirk

2004-01-01

202

US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

1980-01-01

203

Life-saving uncooled IR camera for use in firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent description by a firefighter on the experience of entering a building that is on fire was to liken it to being blindfolded, then being lead to a maze and told there is a victim at the center which you have to recover. In simple terms, firefighters are totally blind and what they need are 'eyes' that can see in the dark and through dense smoke. The development of lightweight thermal cameras using uncooled IR staring arrays and a helmet mounted display has now given the firefighter the 'eyes' in such situations which means less time to achieve a rescue and enhanced personal safety for the firefighter. This paper gives details on the development of the uncooled array camera and how it's been configured to withstand the extreme temperature conditions encountered during a firefighting environment. Also, how the camera and display system have been designed to provide the firefighter with a helmet mounted configuration to enable total 'hands free' operation. This is followed by a description of the special tests required to prove that the complete system can survive in a fire environment and finally a short video which demonstrates how the system performs in real life situations.

Bennett, Mel V.; Matthews, Iain

1996-06-01

204

Exposure of wildland firefighters to carbon monoxide, fine particles, and levoglucosan.  

PubMed

Wildland firefighters are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. Eighteen wildland firefighters were monitored for their personal exposure to particulate matter with median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns (PM2.5), levoglucosan (LG), and carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate the effect on exposure of various factors and to examine whether the firefighters were able to qualitatively estimate their own exposures. Exposure to PM2.5 and CO was higher when firefighters performed 'holding' tasks compared with 'lighting' duties, whereas exposures to CO and LG were higher when burns were in compartments with predominantly pine vegetation (P < 0.05). Exposures to PM2.5 (64-2068 µg m(-3)) and CO (0.02-8.2 p.p.m.) fell within the ranges observed in previous studies. Some recommended shorter term exposure limits for CO were exceeded in a few instances. The very low LG:PM2.5 ratios in some samples suggest that the exposures of wildland firefighters to pollutants at prescribed burns may be substantially impacted by non-woodsmoke sources. The association of the qualitative exposure estimation of the firefighters with actual PM2.5 and CO measurements (P < 0.01) indicates that qualitative estimation may be used to assess exposure in epidemiology studies. PMID:23813888

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Simpson, Christopher D; Onstad, Gretchen; Naeher, Luke P

2013-10-01

205

Validity and relevance of the pack hike wildland firefighter work capacity test: a review.  

PubMed

Fighting wildland fire is a physically demanding occupation. Wildland firefighters need to be physically fit to work safely and productively. To determine whether personnel are fit for duty, many firefighting agencies employ physical competency tests, such as the pack hike test (PHT). The PHT involves a 4.83-km hike over level terrain carrying a 20.4-kg pack within a 45-min period. The PHT was devised to test the job readiness of US wildland firefighters but is also currently used by some fire agencies in Australia and Canada. This review discusses the history and development of the PHT with emphasis on the process of test validation. Research-based training advice for the PHT is given, as well as discussion of the risks associated with completing the PHT. Different versions and modifications to the PHT have emerged in recent years and these are discussed with regard to their validity. Finally, this review addresses the relevance and validity of the PHT for Australian and Canadian wildland firefighters. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews the history, development and validity of the PHT, an internationally recognised and utilised wildland firefighter work capacity test. It is concluded that while the PHT has general content validity for US wildland firefighters, verification of its reliability, criterion and construct validity is still needed. PMID:20865610

Petersen, Aaron; Payne, Warren; Phillips, Matthew; Netto, Kevin; Nichols, David; Aisbett, Brad

2010-10-01

206

Selected physiological and psychological responses to live-fire drills in different configurations of firefighting gear.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine selected physiological and psychological responses to strenuous live-fire drills in different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) performed three sets of firefighting drills in a training structure that contained live fires in two different configurations of firefighting gear. On separate days subjects wore: (a) the NFPA 1500 (1987) standard configuration, and (b) a hip-boot configuration of the firefighting gear. Physiological and psychological measurements were recorded pre-activity and at the end of each trial. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a strong trend for performance time to be greater in the 1500 gear than in the hip-boot gear. There was a significant Time x Gear interaction for tympanic membrane temperature, with temperature being greater in the 1500 gear. Perceptions of effort and thermal sensations were also greater in the 1500 gear than in the hip-boot configuration of the gear. There was little difference in mean performance on cognitive function measures between the two gear configurations, but there was greater variability in performance in the 1500 gear. These data suggest that performing strenuous firefighting drills in the current NFPA 1500 standard configuration results in longer performance time, greater thermal strain, and greater perception of effort and thermal sensation. PMID:9715673

Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J

1998-08-01

207

The Experimental Mod II Firefighters' Aluminized Crash-Rescue Fire-Proximity Hood: An Interim Report of a Limited Service Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) has developed the experimental Mod II Firefighters' Aluminized Crash-Rescue Fire-Proximity Hood, which improves upon the standard firefighters' aluminized hood (MIL-H-29144). Reports from the firefig...

H. P. Winer

1982-01-01

208

Undulation training for development of hierarchical fitness and improved firefighter job performance.  

PubMed

Firefighters routinely encounter physical demands that contribute to countless musculoskeletal injuries. Seemingly, a progressive prescription for fitness would offer superior protection against intrinsic job risks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of two resistance training interventions on fitness adaptations among firefighters, and to assess the degree of transfer to job-specific tasks. Firefighter trainees were recruited for participation in this experimental study. Two distinct, periodized training models-undulation training (UT; n = 7) and standard training control (STCo; n = 7)-were used to determine the differential affects for muscular fitness and transference to firefighter performance batteries. Specific tests were administered to evaluate 1) upper- and lower-body muscular strength, 2) lower-body power output, 3) sprint speed and jumping ability, 4) anthropometry, and 5) firefighter Grinder performance (i.e., firefighter-specific job tests). The 9-week UT experimental treatment prescription was characterized by daily "nonlinear" fluctuations in training to preferentially elicit specific and distinct muscular fitness components, whereas the STCo treatment conformed to a traditional model, in which each fitness component was systematically targeted during a specified mesocycle. For both treatments, nearly all fitness and performance measures significantly increased from baseline (p < 0.05), with a trend in favor of UT. Further, the UT group experienced significantly greater improvements (p < 0.05) in Grinder performance over the STCo group. Calculation of effect sizes identified meaningful differences in the magnitude of changes in outcomes (effect size > 0.50) in favor of UT for measures of thigh circumference, vertical jump, 1RM squat, Grinder performance, and peak power output. These findings suggest a potentially greater stimulus for multidimensional muscular fitness development with UT, over a periodized STCo. This study effectively establishes that UT may offer a greater transference to performance for firefighter-specific job tasks. PMID:18714214

Peterson, Mark D; Dodd, Daniel J; Alvar, Brent A; Rhea, Matthew R; Favre, Mike

2008-09-01

209

Wood smoke exposure induces a pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response in firefighters.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies report an association between exposure to biomass smoke and cardiopulmonary morbidity. The mechanisms for this association are unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterise the acute pulmonary and systemic inflammatory effects of exposure to forest fire smoke. Seasonal forest firefighters (n = 52) were recruited before and/or after a day of fire-fighting. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires and measurement of carbon monoxide levels (used to estimate respirable particulate matter exposure). The pulmonary response was assessed by questionnaires, spirometry and sputum induction. Peripheral blood cell counts and inflammatory cytokines were measured to define the systemic response. Estimated respirable particulate matter exposure was high (peak levels >2 mg x m(-3)) during fire-fighting activities. Respiratory symptoms were reported by 65% of the firefighters. The percentage sputum granulocytes increased significantly from 6.5 to 10.9% following fire-fighting shifts, with concurrent increases in circulating white blood cells (5.55x10(9) to 7.06x10(9) cells x L(-1)) and band cells (0.11x10(9) to 0.16x10(9) cells x L(-1)). Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels significantly increased following fire-fighting. There were no changes in band cells, IL-6, and IL-8 following strenuous physical exertion without fire-fighting. There was a significant association between changes in sputum macrophages containing phagocytosed particles and circulating band cells. In conclusion, acute exposure to air pollution from forest fire smoke elicits inflammation within the lungs, as well as a systemic inflammatory response. PMID:18256060

Swiston, J R; Davidson, W; Attridge, S; Li, G T; Brauer, M; van Eeden, S F

2008-07-01

210

Deployment of remote advanced electrocardiography for improved cardiovascular risk assessment in career firefighters.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction: Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high temperature environments, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this pilot study was to deploy and explore the feasibility of the resting "advanced" 12-lead electrocardiogram (A-ECG) as a remote firefighter risk assessment tool for improved assessment of cardiac risk. Materials and Methods: Conventional 12-lead resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) were collected for 5?min by using high-fidelity PC-based ECG hardware and software while subjects (n=21) rested comfortably. Raw data from the ECG system were securely transported via a secure network to a server where they were archived and processed. Authorized personnel performed both conventional ECG and A-ECG analyses from each digital recording, generating A-ECG "scores" in a blinded fashion. A separate cohort of firefighters (n=6) was trained to administer the A-ECG and rated the system's usability and frequency of technical problems. Results: Of the 21 uniformed personnel who completed testing, only 1 had a positive A-ECG score for coronary artery disease, which was subsequently confirmed by a cardiologist. All other subjects were classified as healthy by A-ECG. Firefighters trained to administer the A-ECG responded favorably in rating the usability of the system. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that a new technology, A-ECG, can be deployed for remote firefighter risk assessment being performed by firefighters themselves and interpreted centrally. This simple, time- and cost-effective approach can help identify individuals potentially at increased risk for line-of-duty death due to underlying cardiovascular disease. PMID:24796429

Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon; Batalin, Maxim A; Smith, Denise; Cooper, Christopher B

2014-07-01

211

Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN) called SmokeNet for personnel tracking. The project aims to address urban/industrial firefighting procedures in need of improvement. Two "user-needs" studies with the Chicago and Berkeley Fire Departments are briefly presented. The FIRE project"s initial HMD prototype designs are then discussed with regard to feedback from the user-needs studies. These prototypes are evaluated in their potential costs and benefits to firefighters and found to need improvement. Next, some currently available commercial HMDs are reviewed and compared in their cost, performance, and potential for use by firefighters. Feedback from the Berkeley Fire Department user-needs study, in which the initial prototypes were demonstrated, is compiled into a concept selection matrix for the next prototypes. This matrix is used to evaluate a variety of HMDs, including some of the commercial units presented, and to select the best design options. Finally, the current prototypes of the two best design options are presented and discussed.

Wilson, Joel; Steingart, Dan; Romero, Russell; Reynolds, Jessica; Mellers, Eric; Redfern, Andrew; Lim, Lloyd; Watts, William; Patton, Colin; Baker, Jessica; Wright, Paul

2005-05-01

212

Acute health effects among firefighters exposed to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire  

SciTech Connect

Firefighters are frequently being called on to fight fires that are chemical in nature. In the aftermath of a chemical fire in Plainfield, New Jersey on March 20-21, 1985, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study which surveyed 80 firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as well as 15 nonexposed firefighter subjects. By means of an 81-item symptom checklist, exposed firefighters reported more frequent and severe symptoms at 5-6 weeks post incident. This was true for a total symptomatology score as well as 19 individual items. Some of the items with an elevated risk were consistent with exposure to hydrogen chloride, the main pyrolysis product of polyvinyl chloride. Other items with an elevated risk appeared to be related to smoke inhalation while others seemed psychosocial in nature. Analyses conducted within the exposed firefighter group showed that fighting the fire the first day, being a truckman, and residence within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the firehouse were significant risk factors for high total symptom scores. These risk factors may have been associated with level or duration of exposure to the toxic substances produced during the fire.

Markowitz, J.S.; Gutterman, E.M. (New York State Psychiatric Institute (USA)); Schwartz, S.; Link, B.; Gorman, S.M. (Columbia Univ., New York (USA))

1989-05-01

213

Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with a firefighting response - Indiana and Michigan, June 2011.  

PubMed

On June 20, 2011, the Indiana Department of Homeland Security notified the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) of an Indiana fire station that reported gastrointestinal illness among a substantial percentage of their workers, causing missed workdays and one hospitalization as a result of cryptosporidiosis. All ill firefighters had responded to a barn fire in Michigan, 15 miles from the Michigan-Indiana border on June 6; responding firefighters from Michigan also had become ill. ISDH immediately contacted the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) concerning this outbreak. The investigation was led by MDCH in partnership with ISDH and the Michigan local health department (LHD). Among 34 firefighters who responded to the fire, 33 were interviewed, and 20 (61%) reported gastrointestinal illness ?12 days after the fire. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in human stool specimens, calf fecal samples, and a swimming pond. Based on these findings, the following public health recommendations were issued: 1) discontinue swimming in the pond, 2) practice thorough hygiene to reduce fecal contamination and fecal-oral exposures, and 3) decontaminate firefighting equipment properly. No additional primary or secondary cases associated with this exposure have been reported. The findings highlight a novel work-related disease exposure for firefighters and the need for public education regarding cryptosporidiosis prevention. PMID:22398843

2012-03-01

214

Acute health effects among firefighters exposed to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire.  

PubMed

Firefighters are frequently being called on to fight fires that are chemical in nature. In the aftermath of a chemical fire in Plainfield, New Jersey on March 20-21, 1985, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study which surveyed 80 firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as well as 15 nonexposed firefighter subjects. By means of an 81-item symptom checklist, exposed firefighters reported more frequent and severe symptoms at 5-6 weeks post incident. This was true for a total symptomatology score as well as 19 individual items. Some of the items with an elevated risk were consistent with exposure to hydrogen chloride, the main pyrolysis product of polyvinyl chloride. Other items with an elevated risk appeared to be related to smoke inhalation while others seemed psychosocial in nature. Analyses conducted within the exposed firefighter group showed that fighting the fire the first day, being a truckman, and residence within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the firehouse were significant risk factors for high total symptom scores. These risk factors may have been associated with level or duration of exposure to the toxic substances produced during the fire. PMID:2705423

Markowitz, J S; Gutterman, E M; Schwartz, S; Link, B; Gorman, S M

1989-05-01

215

Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity  

PubMed Central

Firefighting is a very hazardous occupation, and strenuous fire duties require high levels of physical fitness. In the general adult population, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) declines with aging. We sought to investigate the effect of increasing age on CRF in male career firefighters as well as the modifying effects of physical activity and adiposity. We cross-sectionally examined 804 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states. CRF was determined from symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise testing in metabolic equivalents (METS) following the Bruce protocol. Physical activity self-reports were extracted from responses to a health and lifestyle questionnaire. We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (R2 = 0.6286). The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights.

Baur, Dorothee M.; Christophi, Costas A.; Cook, E. Francis; Kales, Stefanos N.

2012-01-01

216

Fatal Accident Circumstances and Epidemiology (FACE) Report: Carbon Monoxide Kills Three Volunteer Firefighters Inside Well in Pennsylvania, May 1, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The deaths of three volunteer firefighters from carbon-monoxide (630080) inside a 33 foot deep water well were investigated. A total of four volunteer firefighters responded to a request from a local resident to remove the remains of a dead animal from a ...

1990-01-01

217

Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

Reinhardt, T.E.

1991-10-01

218

Determination of Firefighter Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzene During Fire Fighting Using Measurement of Biological Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accomplishing their duties, firefighters are potentially exposed to a vast array of toxic combustion and pyrolysis products such as benzene, carbon monoxide, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAH and benzene was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t -muconic acid, respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period

Chantal Caux; Cindy OBrien; Claude Viau

2002-01-01

219

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section...NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention...Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel....

2012-10-01

220

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section...NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention...Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel....

2011-10-01

221

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section...NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention...Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel....

2013-10-01

222

Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.  

PubMed Central

A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function.

Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

1979-01-01

223

Sudden cardiac death among firefighters ?45 years of age in the United States.  

PubMed

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death in firefighters. Although on-duty SCD usually occurs in older victims almost exclusively because of coronary heart disease, no studies have examined causation across the career span. In the present retrospective case-control study, cases of SCD in young (aged ?45 years) firefighters from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health fatality investigations (n = 87) were compared with 2 age- and gender-matched control groups: occupationally active firefighters (n = 915) and noncardiac traumatic firefighter fatalities (n = 56). Of the SCD cases, 63% were obese and 67% had a coronary heart disease-related cause of death. The SCD victims had much heavier hearts (522 ± 102 g) than noncardiac fatality controls (400 ± 91 g, p <0.001). Cardiomegaly (heart weight >450 g) was found in 66% of the SCD victims and conveyed a fivefold increase (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.93 to 12.4) in SCD risk. Furthermore, hypertension, including cases with left ventricular hypertrophy, increased SCD risk by 12-fold (95% CI 6.23 to 22.3) after multivariate adjustment. A history of cardiovascular disease and smoking were also independently associated with elevated SCD risk (odds ratio 6.89, 95% CI 2.87 to 16.5; and odds ratio 3.53, 95% CI 1.87 to 6.65, respectively). In conclusion, SCD in young firefighters is primarily related to preventable lifestyle factors. Obesity entry standards, smoking bans, and improved screening and/or wellness program are potential strategies to reduce SCD in younger firefighters. PMID:24079519

Yang, Justin; Teehan, Dennis; Farioli, Andrea; Baur, Dorothee M; Smith, Denise; Kales, Stefanos N

2013-12-15

224

Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4–556); training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.8–31.3) and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.1–28.8) carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ? 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.6–15.9), current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8–17.4), hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0–11.1), and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.5–68.6). Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths.

Kales, Stefanos N; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Christoudias, Stavros G; Christiani, David C

2003-01-01

225

An occupational exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in firefighters.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are unintentional byproducts of combustion and industrial processes. Firefighters face the risk of occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs. Congener-specific analyses of 17 PCDD/Fs were performed on 20 serum samples collected from firefighters and fire scene investigators, and four soot samples that had deposited on the surfaces of the fire helmets and were collected after the firefighters had fought fires. The PCDD/F concentrations on the helmets that were contaminated by being worn at the fire scenes were 63-285 times higher than those on a clean helmet. The median serum PCDD/F concentration of the 16 firefighters (12 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1)lipid) was not different from those of the males from the general Taiwanese population (9.4 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid). However, the median PCDD/F level in the four fire scene investigators (15 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid) was higher than those in the male from the general Taiwanese population (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Furthermore, the serum samples from the firefighters and fire scene investigators, and the soot samples from the fire scenes presented similarly distinctive PCDD/F profiles that had elevated proportions for 10 PCDF congeners. Limited data indicated that the fire scene investigators were occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes. We suggested that the firefighters were not occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes due to appropriate protection. However, the fire scene investigators may have had more occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs due to poor protection, and further research must be performed to confirm this. PMID:21458022

Hsu, Jing-Fang; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsueh Wen; Liao, Chin-Kun; Liao, Pao-Chi

2011-05-01

226

A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Dios, Jose Ramiro Martinez-de; Baturone, Anibal Ollero

2012-01-01

227

Firefighting and fire prevention: Facilities instructions, standards and techniques. Volume 5-2  

SciTech Connect

The operation and maintenance personnel around a powerplant, pumping plant, or other Reclamation establishment are not presumed to be firefighters, but occasionally their duties may make it necessary for them to fight fires. The purpose of this volume is to supply them with fundamental facts which may prove valuable in such an emergency and acquaint them with the use, care, and testing of firefighting equipment. It is assumed that operation and maintenance personnel are familiar with the common safety practices in connection with fire prevention and general safety around electrical equipment. This volume is designed to help improve the work along these lines.

Watson, H.E.

1992-02-01

228

Longitudinal Pulmonary Function in Newly Hired, Non-World Trade Center-Exposed Fire Department City of New York Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background: Few longitudinal studies characterize firefighters’ pulmonary function. We sought to determine whether firefighters have excessive FEV1 decline rates compared with control subjects. Methods: We examined serial measurements of FEV1 from about 6 months prehire to about 5 years posthire in newly hired male, never smoking, non-Hispanic black and white firefighters, hired between 2003 and 2006, without prior respiratory disease or World Trade Center exposure. Similarly defined Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers served as control subjects. Results: Through June 30, 2011, 940 firefighters (82%) and 97 EMS workers (72%) who met study criteria had four or more acceptable posthire spirometries. Prehire FEV1% averaged higher for firefighters than EMS workers (99% vs 95%), reflecting more stringent job entry criteria. FEV1 (adjusted for baseline age and height) declined by an average of 45 mL/y both for firefighters and EMS workers, with Fire ? EMS decline rate differences averaging 0.2 mL/y (CI, ?9.2 to 9.6). Four percent of each group had FEV1 less than the lower limit of normal before hire, increasing to 7% for firefighters and 17.5% for EMS workers, but similar percentages of both groups had adjusted FEV1 decline rates ? 10%. Mixed effects modeling showed a significant influence of weight gain but not baseline weight: FEV1 declined by about 8 mL/kg gained for both groups. Adjusting for weight change, FEV1 decline averaged 38 mL/y for firefighters and 34 mL/y for EMS workers. Conclusions: During the first 5 years of duty, firefighters do not show greater longitudinal FEV1 decline than EMS control subjects, and fewer of them develop abnormal lung function. Weight gain is associated with a small loss of lung function, of questionable clinical relevance in this fit and active population.

Ye, Fen; Hall, Charles B.; Webber, Mayris P.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Dinkels, Michael; Cosenza, Kaitlyn; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

2013-01-01

229

Modeling fan-driven flows for firefighting tactics using simple analytical models and CFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airflow control has become a large part of the tactical toolbox that firefighters use to combat fires. Control of airflow requires managing the impact of environmental conditions (i.e., wind) and optimally using mechanically generated flows from fans to drive air and combustion products through predetermined vents. This article discusses the ability of analytical and computational models to predict flow variables

C. Weinschenk; CM Beal; OA Ezekoye

2011-01-01

230

STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

1990-01-01

231

Mediating Effects of Social Support on Firefighters' Sense of Community and Perceptions of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between psychological sense of community, social-support networks, and care-giver stress and satisfaction among firefighters. No significant gender differences were obtained, but zero-order correlates demonstrated significant relationships among all four variables. In examining the mediating effects of…

Cowman, Shaun E.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Liao-Troth, Matthew

2004-01-01

232

Human factors in firefighting: ergonomic, cardiopulmonary, and psychogenic stress-related issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many issues in firefighting that involve human factors and cardiopulmonary conditioning. Population-based mortality and disability surveillance studies suggest a relatively small but significant excess of disability but not mortality from nonmalignant cardiovascular disease for fire fighters. More targeted cohort and case-control studies do not support such an excess and instead suggest a strong healthy worker effect. Pulmonary function

Tee L. Guidotti

1992-01-01

233

Cancer Risk Among Firefighters: A Review and Meta-analysis of 32 Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to review 32 studies on firefighters and to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the cancer risk using a meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive search of computerized databases and bibliographies from identified articles was performed. Three criteria used to assess the probable, possible, or unlikely risk for 21 cancers included pattern of meta-relative risks, study type,

Grace K. LeMasters; Ash M. Genaidy; Paul Succop; James Deddens; Tarek Sobeih; Heriberto Barriera-Viruet; Kari Dunning; James Lockey

2006-01-01

234

When pranks become harassment: The case of african American women firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys and interviews with 22 African American women firefighters suggest that a key to defining gender harassment rests in the organizational climate. Eight subtle as well as overt climatic indicators of gender harassment are identified. “Initiation rites” into a work group or “pranks” become harassing when they occur in a context of exclusion rather than ultimate inclusion. Although such harassment

Janice D. Yoder; Patricia Aniakudo

1996-01-01

235

Race "Outsider Within" the Firehouse: African American and White Women Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed and interviewed black and white women firefighters regarding subordination through imposed exclusion, tokenism, and omnirelevance of race/ethnicity in their perceptions of work experience. Both groups experienced insufficient instruction, hostility, silence, hypersupervision, insufficient support, stereotyping, and intertwining of race…

Yoder, Janice D.; Berendsen, Lynne L.

2001-01-01

236

Daily stressors and social support availability as predictors of depressed mood in male firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of daily stressors and social support availability on depressed mood was assessed over a 9-month period in 68 male firefighters. At 3-monthly intervals, an abbreviated Daily Stress Index (DSI) was completed for 16 days prior to administration of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). After negative affectivity, depressed mood and daily stress levels 3 months previously had been taken

Mark P. Roy; Andrew Steptoe

1994-01-01

237

Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required.

2013-01-01

238

Australian firefighters' exposure to air toxics during bushfire burns of autumn 2005 and 2006.  

PubMed

Bushfire fighting is a hazardous occupation and control strategies are generally in place to minimize the hazards. However, little is known regarding firefighters' exposure to bushfire smoke, which is a complex mixture of toxic gases and particles. In Australia, during the prescribed burning season, firefighters are likely to be exposed on a regular basis to bushfire smoke, but whether these exposures affect health has yet to be determined. There are a number of factors that govern whether exposure to smoke will result in short-term and/or long-term health problems, including the concentrations of air pollutants within the breathing zone of the firefighter, the exposure duration, and health susceptibility of the individual, especially for pre-existing lung or heart disease. This paper presents measurements of firefighters' personal exposure to bushfire smoke, the first step within a risk management framework. It provides crucial information on the magnitude, extent and frequency of personal exposure to bushfire smoke for a range of typical scenarios. It is found that the primary air toxics of concern are carbon monoxide (CO), respirable particles and formaldehyde. Also, work activity is a major factor influencing exposure with exposure standards (both average and short-term limits) likely to be exceeded for activities such as suppression of spot fires, holding the fireline, and patrolling at the edge of a burn area in the urban-rural interface. PMID:18829114

Reisen, Fabienne; Brown, Stephen K

2009-02-01

239

Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems are running…

Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

240

Identifying Why Even Well-Trained Firefighters Make Unsafe Decisions: A Human Factors Interview Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary cause of 80% of accidents and near misses in North American wildland firefighting has been attributed to human factors. Despite this overrepresentation of human factors in safety compromising situations, systematic research into such factors is scarce. In this paper we limit our consideration of \\

M. M. Omodei; J. McLennan; C. Reynolds

2005-01-01

241

Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

2012-01-01

242

The Integrated Personnel Development System: The Training and Development of Competent Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article enquires into the nature of an emergent continuous professional development (CPD) mechanism for firefighters in the form of an Integrated Personnel Development System (IPDS), which proposes to base future training for every rank in the service on the acquisition and demonstration of competence for role. IPDS is due to be introduced…

Moran, Peter; Starling, Paul

2005-01-01

243

A heat transfer model for incorporating carbon foam fabrics in firefighter's garment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, a numerical study was performed to predict and investigate the performance of a thermal protection system for firefighter's garment consisting of carbon foam fabric in both the outer shell and the thermal liner elements. Several types of carbon foam with different thermal conductivity, porosity, and density were introduced to conduct a parametric study. Additionally, the thickness of the introduced carbon foam fabrics was varied to acquire optimum design. Simulation was conducted for a square planar 2D geometry of the clothing comprising of different fabric layers and a double precision pressure-based implicit solver, under transient state condition was used. The new anticipated thermal protection system was tested under harsh thermal environmental conditions that firefighters are exposed to. The parametric study showed that employing carbon foam fabric with one set of designed parameters, weight reduction of 33 % in the outer shell, 56 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 2 % at the inner edge of the garment was achieved when compared to the traditional firefighter garment model used by Song et al. (Int J Occup Saf Ergon 14:89-106, 2008). Also, carbon foam fabric with another set of designed parameters resulted in a weight reduction of 25 % in the outer shell, 28 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 6 % at the inner edge of the garment. As a result, carbon foam fabrics make the firefighter's garment more protective, durable, and lighter in weight.

Elgafy, Ahmed; Mishra, Sarthak

2014-04-01

244

Work-related injuries among firefighters: sites and circumstances of their occurrence.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the injury ratio, causes and duration of temporal work disability from on-duty injuries among firefighters, taking into account the site and circumstances of their occurrence. The study was performed on a representative sample of 1503 firefighters from 29 fire stations who were employed between 1994 and 1997. Subject to investigation were data on the number of days and cases of work disability due to on-duty injury, personal data (age, work duration) and data on the circumstances of injury during emergency operations, taking part in compulsory physical training, performing maintenance and repair works, on duty at the fire station, and when commuting to or from work. The analysis of work-related causes and circumstances of injuries among firefighters revealed that the majority of injuries (40%) occurred during compulsory physical training, being responsible for 41% of post-injury absence at work. The workers employed for less than one year were at highest risk of injury. Injuries during emergency operations made 25% of all injuries and accounted for 24% of post-injury absence. The analysis of data showed that the frequency of injuries was not significantly aged-dependent, however, the duration of work disability was found to increase by 20% with increasing age of workers. The results indicated the need for undertaking preventive interventions to minimize occupational hazards to those involved in firefighting. PMID:12038864

Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

2002-01-01

245

Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies; Student Manual, Part B. Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course designed to develop performance capabilities in the student of the fire service is presented in a manual. Each chapter is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the material covered in class. Specific objectives are: (1) To train "Support Assistant" B personnel to augment and assist firefighters, (2) To train personnel to…

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

246

HIGH INSPJRED AIR TEMPERATURES SUPPLIED BY BREATHING APPARATUS DURING FIREFIGHTING MAY LIMIT HEAT EXPOSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

carried out by the Royal Navy (RN), subjects reported that the air supplied by the BA during 10 minutes exposure to 160°C became uncomfortably hoe, suggesting that they may be at risk ofthermal injuries to their lungs during exposure to higher temperatures. Normally, RN firefighters are protected from high temperatures by a sea water system which produces a near vertical

James R. House

247

Task-Relevant Sound and User Experience in Computer-Mediated Firefighter Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently intense to make the training viable and effective.…

Houtkamp, Joske M.; Toet, Alexander; Bos, Frank A.

2012-01-01

248

[Hearing damage as a consequence of firefighters' professional exposure to noise].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to find out whether firefighters' professional exposure to the noise of sirens, motor water pumps and transportation by heavy vehicles causes biauricular hearing impairment. Furthermore, on the basis of the results the aim was to find out whether it is necessary to launch a hearing preservation program and additional health protection measures for this specific working population. The method of physical examination and audiometry was used. Thirty-four professional firefighters from Opatija and 30 workers of Rijeka Promet employed at the town parking lots underwent audiometry on a Sibelmed AC 50 device and then analyzed. The results of biauricular audiometry showed significant differences in hearing damage between the firefighters and Rijeka Promet employees at higher frequencies where hearing damage begins, i.e. at 4 kHz and 8 kHz (P < 0.05). The firefighters' maximal hearing loss of 30.58 +/- 24.66 dB for the right ear at 4 kHz and of 28.52 +/- 24.66 dB for the right ear at 8 kHz were higher than the hearing loss of the parking lot employees with maximal hearing loss of 17.00 +/- 13.10 dB at 4 kHz and of 16.33 +/- 13.89 dB at 8 kHz. The results of left ear audiometry were very close to those of right ear in both groups of subjects. The linear regression analysis yielded almost identical positive correlation between the time spent at the job and hearing damage, with correlation factor r = +.55 for the right and left ear at 4 kHz. The noise was measured at the Opatija Fire Station. Several measurements were performed: on the premises where firefighters are exposed to so-called communal noise, measurements at 2 m of the fire truck when sirens are sounded, noise measurements in driver's cab when sirens are sounded, and the noise made by motor water pump used in firefighting. Also, measurements were performed on the spot, i.e. at the working place of parking lot employees in the center of Rijeka where they stay most of the time, and on the street by the parking lot. It may be concluded that noise-induced hearing damage in firefighters is a major problem in this working population, their physical and mental condition being very good, which is to be expected of the groups of operatives on whom the lives of "ordinary" people often depend. Hearing damage is the only weak point of firefighters, although fairly mild to moderate at higher frequencies, so medical experts in cooperation with their chiefs should persuade them to wear hearing protection, which could be discomforting in firefighting operations. Firemen are employed mainly at a young age when their hearing is normal. A parallel may be drawn with the military. Professional soldiers who are physically perfectly fit, at periodical medical examinations are often assessed as "limited service" due to hearing damage, although their hearing was good when they started the career. Hearing in the young population is generally good, in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County the average hearing level is 10 dB at all routine frequencies on audiometry, so hearing damage is not among illnesses that might cause difficulties to young recruits. To conclude, to preserve good hearing in both young and experienced firefighters, the Hearing Preservation Program should be more strictly implemented in the Primorje-Gorski Kotar County. PMID:19580230

Lali?, Hrvoje; Ferhatovi?, Mensur; Dinko, Jurjevi?; Culinovi?, Marko

2009-05-01

249

Cardiorespiratory responses of firefighters to a computerized fire strategies and tactics drill during physical activity.  

PubMed

Firefighters are subjected to a combination of physical and mental challenges in the course of their occupational responsibilities. However, due to the ecological factors involved with firefighting, it makes it extremely difficult to examine physiological and psychological changes that occur as a result of these combined challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a computer-based Fire Strategies and Tactics Drill (FSTD) in eliciting psychological and physiological measures of stress in professional firefighters. In one session, participants exercised at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min (exercise alone condition, EAC), and in the other session the firefighter exercised for an equal amount of time and responded to the FSTD (dual challenge condition; DCC) while exercising. Cardiorespiratory (heart rate [HR], respiration rate [RR], minute ventilation [V(E)], oxygen consumption [VO(2)], ventilatory efficiency [V(E)/VO(2)], and respiratory exchange ratio [RER]) and psychometric measures (State Anxiety Inventory [SAI] and Ratings of Perceived Exertion [RPE]) were obtained throughout the experimental protocols. The NASA Task Load Index was used to assess perceived physical and mental load during each condition. The results demonstrated that the participants perceived overall workload to be higher in the DCC. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no differences between the EAC and DCC for VO(2) or RER, but the DCC did elicit significantly greater elevations in HR, RR, V(E), and V(E)/VO(2) compared to the EAC. These results suggest that the FSTD utilized in this study provides an effective method for examining the physiological and psychological responses of firefighters in a research laboratory environment. PMID:19793579

Webb, Heather E; McMinn, David R; Garten, Ryan S; Beckman, Jamie L; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

2010-05-01

250

The Effects of Injury and Accidents on Self-rated Depression in Male Municipal Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between self-rated depression and experiences of injury and accidents in municipal firefighters. Methods A panel survey of 186 municipal firefighters measured with depressive symptoms according to the Beck's depression index (BDI) was conducted. The effects of job-related injuries and accidents were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires that were taken once in a 12-month period from 2005 to 2006. Firefighters were classified into the Depression Group or Control Group based on follow-up BDI results with a cutoff level that was set to having "over mild depression." Results The depression Group was comprised of 17 (9.1%) workers, including 9 firefighters who met had sufficient BDI scores twice in the 2-year test period and newly sufficient BDI scores in the follow-up test. A significantly higher number of subjects in the Depression Group experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period as compared to the Control Group (15.4% vs. 1.5%, p=0.04). Firefighters who experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period had a 7.4 times higher risk of being in the Depression Group than those who had not. As compared to accidents, near-miss accidents revealed stronger risks related to being classified as in the Depression group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-18.18 vs. Adjusted OR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.08-16.58). Conclusion The above results suggest that we should establish an effective program to promote mental health for groups at high risk for self-rated depression, including persons who have experienced consecutive injuries and accidents as well as near-miss injuries.

Chung, Yun Kyung

2011-01-01

251

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) On board the vessel; or (2) With a qualified individual located in the United States. (d) Public marine firefighters may only be listed out to the maximum extent of the public resource's jurisdiction, unless other agreements are in...

2013-07-01

252

Inflammatory Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure among Wildland Firefighters Working at Prescribed Burns at the Savannah River Site, SC  

EPA Science Inventory

Objectives: Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsm...

253

A comparative study of drainage characteristics in AFFF and FFFP compressed-air fire-fighting foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drainage measurements are commonly used for assessing the quality, water-retention ability and stability of aqueous foams used in fire-fighting applications. A new experimental technique is proposed in this paper, for measuring the drainage rate of liquid from compressed-air fire-fighting foams. The procedure outlined here provides advancement in precision over that prescribed by the standard for low expansion foams (NFPA 11,

S. A. Magrabi; B. Z. Dlugogorski; G. J. Jameson

2002-01-01

254

A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.  

PubMed

This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

2012-01-01

255

A Wireless Sensor Network and Incident Command Interface for Urban Firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fire Information and Rescue Equipment project at UC Berkeley has developed a prototype wireless sensor network (WSN) and Incident Command (IC) interface for urban and industrial firefighting and emergency response. A fixed WSN deployment in the building acts as a backbone for communication between mobile personnel and Incident Command. The Telos Sky mote 802.15.4 platform with the TinyOS operating

Joel Wilson; Vikas Bhargava; Andrew Redfern; Paul Wright

2007-01-01

256

Comparison of two cool vests on heat-strain reduction while wearing a firefighting ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a six-pack versus a four-pack cool vest in reducing heat strain in men dressed in firefighting ensemble, while resting and exercising in a warm\\/humid environment [34.4°C (day bulb), 28.9°C (wet bulb)]. Male volunteers (n = 12) were monitored for rectal temperature (T\\u000are), mean skin temperature (T\\u000ask), heart rate, and energy expenditure during

B. L. Bennett; R. D. Hagan; K. A. Huey; C. Minson; D. Cain

1995-01-01

257

Fire-fighting robots and first-year engineering design: trinity college experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new first year engineering course, ENGR 120: Introduction to Engineering Design-Mobile Robotics, which immerses students in a highly motivating team-based engineering design experience-development of an autonomous, competitive, fire-fighting mobile robot. This course also introduces students to design as it is practiced in industry and to the philosophical dimensions of engineering design. The paper presents results of

David J. Ahlgren

2001-01-01

258

Fire-fighting mobile robotics and interdisciplinary design-comparative perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to illustrate the benefits of an autonomous fire-fighting robot design competition as an effective tool for undergraduate education. It presents experiences at the United States Air Force Academy, USAF Academy, CO; Pennsylvania State University-Abington; and Trinity College, Hartford, CT, together with the results of the contest surveys conducted in collaboration with The Technion*Israel Institute

Daniel J. Pack; Robert Avanzato; David J. Ahlgren; Igor M. Verner

2004-01-01

259

Development of a New Remote Controlled Emergency-Handling and Fire-Fighting Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of remote controlled emergency-handling and fire-fighting robot is discussed. The design of the robot is based on a small multi-function crawler hydraulic excavator. The structure and operating principle of the robot are introduced. The original crawler hydraulic excavator is modified and a new remote control system is implemented. The function of walking, turning, roadblock striding and many functions

Weichun Zhang; Cheng Dai

2009-01-01

260

A practical cooling strategy for reducing the physiological strain associated with firefighting activity in the heat.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish whether a practical cooling strategy reduces the physiological strain during simulated firefighting activity in the heat. On two separate occasions under high ambient temperatures (49.6 +/- 1.8 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) 13 +/- 2%), nine male firefighters wearing protective clothing completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km/h, 7.5% gradient) separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which firefighters were either cooled (cool) via application of an ice vest and hand and forearm water immersion ( approximately 19 degrees C) or remained seated without cooling (control). There was no significant difference between trials in any of the dependent variables during the first bout of exercise. Core body temperature (37.72 +/- 0.34 vs. 38.21 +/- 0.17 degrees C), heart rate (HR) (81 +/- 9 vs. 96 +/- 17 beats/min) and mean skin temperature (31.22 +/- 1.04 degrees C vs. 33.31 +/- 1 degrees C) were significantly lower following the recovery period in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). Core body temperature remained consistently lower (0.49 +/- 0.02 degrees C; p < 0.01) throughout the second bout of activity in cool compared to control. Mean skin temperature, HR and thermal sensation were significantly lower during bout 2 in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this practical cooling strategy is effective at reducing the physiological strain associated with demanding firefighting activity under high ambient temperatures. PMID:19401892

Barr, D; Gregson, W; Sutton, L; Reilly, T

2009-04-01

261

Expanded access to naloxone among firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical technicians in massachusetts.  

PubMed

Naloxone is a medication that reverses respiratory depression from opioid overdose if given in time. Paramedics routinely administer naloxone to opioid overdose victims in the prehospital setting, and many states are moving to increase access to the medication. Several jurisdictions have expanded naloxone administration authority to nonparamedic first responders, and others are considering that step. We report here on policy change in Massachusetts, where several communities have equipped emergency medical technicians, law enforcement officers, and firefighters with naloxone. PMID:24922133

Davis, Corey S; Ruiz, Sarah; Glynn, Patrick; Picariello, Gerald; Walley, Alexander Y

2014-08-01

262

Long term health complaints following the Amsterdam Air Disaster in police officers and fire-fighters  

PubMed Central

Background On 4 October 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Fire?fighters and police officers assisted with the rescue work. Objectives To examine the long term health complaints in rescue workers exposed to a disaster. Methods A historical cohort study was performed among police officers (n?=?834) and fire?fighters (n?=?334) who performed at least one disaster related task and reference groups of their non?exposed colleagues (n?=?634 and n?=?194, respectively). The main outcome measures included digestive, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous system, airway, skin, post?traumatic stress, fatigue, and general mental health complaints; haematological and biochemical laboratory values; and urinalysis outcomes. Results Police officers and fire?fighters who were professionally exposed to a disaster reported more physical and mental health complaints, compared to the reference groups. No clinically relevant statistically significant differences in laboratory outcomes were found. Conclusions This study is the first to examine long term health complaints in a large sample of rescue workers exposed to a disaster in comparison to reference groups of non?exposed colleagues. Findings show that even in the long term, and in the absence of laboratory abnormalities, rescue workers report more health complaints.

Huizink, A C; Slottje, P; Witteveen, A B; Bijlsma, J A; Twisk, J W R; Smidt, N; Bramsen, I; van Mechelen, W; van der Ploeg, H M; Bouter, L M; Smid, T

2006-01-01

263

The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity in Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. CVD is the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, and the prevalence of obesity is a growing concern in the Fire Service. Methods. Traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures of cardiovascular health and a measurement of CVD were described and compared between nonobese and obese career firefighters who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Results. In the group of 116 men (mean age 43 ± 8?yrs), the prevalence of obesity was 51.7%. There were no differences among traditional CVD risk factors or the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (criterion measure) between obese and nonobese men. However, significant differences in novel markers, including CRP, subendocardial viability ratio, and the ejection duration index, were detected. Conclusions. No differences in the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors between obese and nonobese men were found. Additionally, CAC was similar between groups. However, there were differences in several novel risk factors, which warrant further investigation. Improved CVD risk identification among firefighters has important implications for both individual health and public safety.

Smith, Denise L.; Fehling, Patricia C.; Frisch, Adam; Haller, Jeannie M.; Winke, Molly; Dailey, Michael W.

2012-01-01

264

Physical fitness profile of professional Italian firefighters: differences among age groups.  

PubMed

Firefighters perform many tasks which require a high level of fitness and their personal safety may be compromised by the physiological aging process. The aim of the study was to evaluate strength (bench-press), power (countermovement jump), sprint (20 m) and endurance (with and without Self Contained Breathing Apparatus - S.C.B.A.) of 161 Italian firefighters recruits in relation to age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr; 31-35 yr; 36-40 yr; 41-42 yr). Descriptive statistics and an ANOVA were calculated to provide the physical fitness profile for each parameter and to assess differences (p < 0.05) among age groups. Anthropometric values showed an age-effect for height and BMI, while performances values showed statistical differences for strength, power, sprint tests and endurance test with S.C.B.A. Wearing the S.C.B.A., 14% of all recruits failed to complete the endurance test. We propose that the firefighters should participate in an assessment of work capacity and specific fitness programs aimed to maintain an optimal fitness level for all ages. PMID:23849328

Perroni, Fabrizio; Cignitti, Lamberto; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura

2014-05-01

265

The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) Firefighter Study: Testing Mediating Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models’ Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team intervention with their work shift or a control condition. Intervention sessions taught benefits of a healthy diet and regular exercise and sought to improve social norms and social support from coworkers for healthy behavior. At post-test team intervention participants had increased their fruit and vegetable consumption as compared to control participants. An increase in knowledge of fruit and vegetable benefits and improved dietary coworker norms partially mediated these effects. Exercise habits and VO2 max were related to targeted mediators but were not significantly changed by the team intervention. Partial support was found for both the action and conceptual theories underlying the intervention. Our findings illustrate how an effective program’s process can be deconstructed to understand the underpinnings of behavior change and refine interventions. Further, fire stations may improve the health of firefighters by emphasizing the benefits of healthy diet and exercise behaviors while also encouraging behavior change by coworkers as a whole.

Ranby, Krista W.; MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Elliot, Diane L.; Kuehl, Kerry S.; Goldberg, Linn

2012-01-01

266

Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters. PMID:23395527

Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2013-06-01

267

Inflammatory effects of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site, SC.  

PubMed

Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsmoke exposure on inflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. Twelve U.S. Forest Service wildland firefighters at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, volunteered to give blood samples during four prescribed burns between February and March 2011. Twenty-four paired (pre- and post-work shift) blood samples were collected using dried blood spot method to facilitate repeated sample collection. Inflammatory biomarker concentrations in blood samples were measured using the Meso Scale Discovery multi-spot assay system. Concurrent personal PM?.? and CO monitoring of firefighters was conducted. Linear mixed models were used to test whether cross-work shift differences occurred in the following inflammatory biomarkers: IL-1?, IL-8, CRP, SAA, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. IL-8 showed a significant cross-work shift difference as indicated by a post/pre-work shift ratio of 1.70 (95% CL: 1.35, 2.13; p = 0.0012). Concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and ICAM-1 increased in >50% of samples across work shift. Firefighters who lighted fires as opposed to other work tasks had the largest cross-work shift increase in IL-8. A significant cross-work shift increase in IL-8 in blood samples was observed in healthy wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns. Further research is needed to understand the physiological responses underlying the adverse effects of woodsmoke exposure, and the dose-response relationship between woodsmoke exposure and inflammatory responses. PMID:23363434

Hejl, Anna M; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Carter, Jacqueline D; Commodore, Adwoa A; Rathbun, Stephen L; Naeher, Luke P

2013-01-01

268

High-intensity, occupation-specific training in a series of firefighters during phase II cardiac rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Six male firefighters who were referred to phase II cardiac rehabilitation after coronary revascularization participated in a specialized regimen of high-intensity, occupation-specific training (HIOST) that simulated firefighting tasks. During each session, the electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure were monitored, and the patients were observed for adverse symptoms. No patient had to discontinue HIOST because of adverse arrhythmias or symptoms. For physicians who must make decisions about return to work, the information collected over multiple HIOST sessions might be more thorough and conclusive than the information gained during a single treadmill exercise stress test (the recommended evaluation method).

Cheng, Dunlei; Berbarie, Rafic F.

2013-01-01

269

The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand\\/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between\\u000a two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)°C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed\\u000a two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each\\u000a bout was separated by a 15-min recovery

David Barr; Thomas Reilly; Warren Gregson

2011-01-01

270

Acute Symptoms in Firefighters who Participated in Collection Work after the Community Hydrogen Fluoride Spill Accident  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to analyze the relationship between clinical status and work characteristics of firefighters and other public officers who engaged on collection duties in the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill that occurred on September 27, 2012, in Gumi City, South Korea. Methods We investigated the clinical status, personal history, and work characteristics of the study subjects and performed physical examination and several clinical examinations, including chest radiography, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and blood testing in 348 firefighters, police officers, volunteer firefighters, and special warfare reserved force who worked at the hydrogen fluoride spill area. Results The subjects who worked near the accident site more frequently experienced eye symptoms (p?=?0.026), cough (p?=?0.017), and headache (p?=?0.003) than the subjects who worked farther from the accident site. The longer the working hours at the accident area, the more frequently the subjects experienced pulmonary (p?=?0.027), sputum (p?=?0.043), and vomiting symptoms (p?=?0.003). The subjects who did not wear respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced dyspnea than those who wore respiratory protective devices (p?=?0.013). In the pulmonary function test, the subjects who worked near the accident site had a higher decease in forced vital capacity than the subjects who worked farther from the site (p?=?0.019); however, no statistical association was found between serum calcium/phosphate level, echocardiography result, chest radiographic result, and probation work characteristics. Conclusions The subjects who worked near the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill, worked for an extended period, or worked without wearing respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced upper/lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms. Further follow-up examination is needed for the workers who were exposed to hydrogen fluoride during their collection duties in the chemical plant in Gumi City.

2013-01-01

271

Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

2006-03-09

272

Response of soil microbial communities to fire and fire-fighting chemicals.  

PubMed

Worldwide, fire-fighting chemicals are rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective and efficient tool in wildfires control and in prescribed burns for habitat management. However, despite its widespread use as water additives to control and/or slow the spread of fire, information concerning the impact of these compounds on soil ecosystems is scarce. In the present work we examine, under field conditions, the response of the microbial communities to three different fire-chemicals at normal doses of application. The study was performed with a Humic Cambisol over granite under heath, located in the temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain) with the following treatments: unburned soil (US) and burned soil added with water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). The microbial mass (microbial C), activity (?-glucosidase, urease) and community structure [phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA) pattern] were measured on soil samples collected at different sampling times during a 5year period after a prescribed fire. The results showed a negative short-term effect of the fire on the microbial properties. The microbial biomass and activity levels tended to recover with time; however, changes in the microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) were still detected 5years after the prescribed fire. Compared to the burned soil added with water, the ammonium polyphosphate and the Firesorb treatments were the fire-fighting chemicals that showed a higher influence on the microbial communities over the whole study period. Our data indicated the usefulness of the PLFAs analysis to detect the long-term impact of both fire and fire-fighting chemicals on the soil microbial communities and hence on the soil quality of forest ecosystems. PMID:20888616

Barreiro, A; Martín, A; Carballas, T; Díaz-Raviña, M

2010-11-15

273

Effects of shift schedules on fatigue and physiological functions among firefighters during night duty.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of shift schedules on fatigue and physiological functions among firefighters a 17-day field study at a fire station was carried out. Eleven firefighters, who were engaged in firefighting emergency services, participated in this study. At the fire station, night duty (22:00-07:00) was divided into 5 periods (P1: 22:00-00:00; P2: 23:45-01:45; P3: 01:30-03:30; P4: 03:15-05:15; P5: 05:00-07:00). The participants were assigned to one of these 5 periods and awakened to answer calls from the city's central information centre. They took naps in individual rooms during night duty, except when on night shift or when called out on an emergency. Subjective complaints of fatigue, critical flicker fusion frequencies, 3-choice reaction times, and oral temperature were measured before and after work and following breaks during their 24 working hours. Heart rate variability was also recorded to evaluate autonomic nerve activity. The results show that during P3 and P4, participants who had to wake up at midnight took shorter naps. The rates of subjective complaints regarding P3 and P4 tended to be higher than those for P1, P2, and P5. The ratios of the low frequency component of heart rate variability to the high frequency component during P4 were significantly lower than those during P5. It is assumed that such an irregular sleeping pattern causes many complaints of subjective fatigue, and adversely affects physiological functions. A night-duty shift schedule ensuring undisturbed naps should be considered. PMID:15764302

Takeyama, H; Itani, T; Tachi, N; Sakamura, O; Murata, K; Inoue, T; Takanishi, T; Suzumura, H; Niwa, S

2005-01-01

274

Firefighters muscular recovery after a heavy work bout in the heat.  

PubMed

Occasionally firefighters need to perform very heavy bouts of work, such as smoke diving or clearing an accident site, which induce significant muscle fatigue. The time span for muscular recovery from such heavy work is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate firefighters' force-, neural-, metabolic-, and structural-related recovery after task-specific heavy work in the heat. Fifteen healthy firefighters (14 males and 1 female) performed a 20-min heavy work bout that simulated smoke diving and the clearance of an accident site at 35 °C. After the work, muscular recovery was evaluated by wrist flexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), average electromyography during MVC and during 10%MVC, rate of force production, motor response and stretch reflex responses, muscle oxygen consumption and oxygenation level, and wrist flexor muscle pennation angle. Recovery was followed for 4 h. Each of the 12 measured parameters changed significantly (p < 0.05) from those at baseline during the follow-up. Muscle oxygen consumption and the wrist flexor pennation angle remained elevated throughout the follow-up (oxygen consumption baseline, 12.9 ± 1.7 mL O2·min(-1)·(100 g)(-1); 4-h value, 17.5 ± 1.6 mL O2·min(-1)·(100 g)(-1); p < 0.05 and pennation angle baseline, 15.7 ± 0.8°; 4-h value, 17.8 ± 0.8°; p < 0.05). Muscle reoxygenation rate was elevated for up to 2 h (baseline, 2.3 ± 0.4 ?mol·L(-1)·min(-1); 2-h value, 3.4 ± 0.4 ?mol·L(-1)·min(-1); p < 0.05). The other 9 parameters recovered (were no longer significantly different from baseline) after 20 to 60 min. We concluded that the recovery order in main components of muscle function from fastest to slowest was force, neural, metabolic, and structural. PMID:23537021

Oksa, Juha; Rintamäki, Hannu; Takatalo, Kaisa; Mäkinen, Tero; Lusa, Sirpa; Lindholm, Harri; Rissanen, Sirkka

2013-03-01

275

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FIREFIGHTING STUDENTS DURING SIMULATED SMOKE-DIVING IN THE HEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

While wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and fire-protective clothing, 35 healthy firefighting students aged 19–27 years performed smoke-diving (entry into a smoke-filled room) during a simulated shipboard fire. The mean (±SD) ambient temperature inside the simulator was 119±12°C, and the task lasted 17±4?min. All subjects were fit according to their maximal oxygen consumption, which was 52.4±5.2?mL\\/min\\/kg (4.08±0.45?l\\/min). During the smoke-diving

Sirpa Lusa; Veikko Louhevaara; Juhani Smolander; Mika Kivimäki; Olli Korhonen

1993-01-01

276

Acute Toxicity of Firefighting Chemical Formulations to Four Life Stages of Fathead Minnow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry

Mark P. Gaikowski; Steven J. Hamilton; Kevin J. Buhl; Susan F. McDonald; Cliff H. Summers

1996-01-01

277

Autonomous UAV-based mapping of large-scale urban firefights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with very low false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type. The combined results of the high-intensity firefight data collect and a detailed systems study demonstrate the readiness of the FightSight concept for full system development and integration.

Snarski, Stephen; Scheibner, Karl; Shaw, Scott; Roberts, Randy; LaRow, Andy; Breitfeller, Eric; Lupo, Jasper; Nielson, Darron; Judge, Bill; Forren, Jim

2006-05-01

278

Uptake of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Among Trainers in a Fire-Fighting Training Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of fire-fighting trainers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was assessed by personal air sampling. Uptake of PAH was determined by biological monitoring, measuring a metabolite of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, in urine. Eight-hour time-weighted average concentrations benzo(a)pyrene of 0.029 ug\\/m3 (instructor), 0.045 ug\\/m3 (safety officer), and 0.16 ug\\/m3 (fire assistant) were found. Both tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from

F. D. J. R. Feunekes; F. J. Jongeneelen; H. v. d. Laana; F. H. G. Schoonhof

1997-01-01

279

Exposures and Cross-shift Lung Function Declines in Wildland Firefighters.  

PubMed

Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland fire fighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency Hotshot Crew with environmental sampling and pulmonary function testing during a large wildfire. We characterized particles by examining size distribution and mass concentration, and conducting elemental and morphological analyses. We examined associations between cross-shift lung function change and various analytes, including levoglucosan, an indicator of wood smoke from burning biomass. The levoglucosan component of the wildfire aerosol showed a predominantly bimodal size distribution: a coarse particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter about 12 ?m and a fine particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 0.5 ?m. Levoglucosan was found mainly in the respirable fraction and its concentration was higher for fire line construction operations than for mop-up operations. Larger cross-shift declines in forced expiratory volume in one second were associated with exposure to higher concentrations of respirable levoglucosan (p < 0.05). Paired analyses of real-time personal air sampling measurements indicated that higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with higher particulate concentrations when examined by mean values, but not by individual data points. However, low CO concentrations did not provide reliable assurance of concomitantly low particulate concentrations. We conclude that inhalation of fine smoke particles is associated with acute lung function decline in some wildland firefighters. Based on short-term findings, it appears important to address possible long-term respiratory health issues for wildland firefighters. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: a file containing additional information on historical studies of wildland fire exposures, a file containing the daily-exposure-severity questionnaire completed by wildland firefighter participants at the end of each day, and a file containing additional details of the investigation of correlations between carbon monoxide concentrations and other measured exposure factors in the current study.]. PMID:24568319

Gaughan, Denise M; Piacitelli, Chris A; Chen, Bean T; Law, Brandon F; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Enright, Paul L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Leonard, Stephen S; Wagner, Gregory R; Kobzik, Lester; Kales, Stefanos N; Hughes, Michael D; Christiani, David C; Siegel, Paul D; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Hoover, Mark D

2014-09-01

280

Weight- perception in male career firefighters and its association with cardiovascular risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, and is also increasing among public safety professionals like firefighters who are expected to be fit and more active. The present study evaluates the associations among Body Mass Index (BMI), weight perception and cardiovascular risk factors in 768 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states in the United States. Methods A physical examination was performed and fasting blood samples were taken. Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) was determined from symptom- limited maximal treadmill exercise testing with electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and estimation of oxygen consumption (metabolic equivalents, METS) using the Bruce protocol. A health and lifestyle questionnaire was administered with standardized written instructions for completion. Self-reports of weight perception were extracted from responses to the completed multiple choice questionnaire. Baseline characteristics were described using the mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables and frequency for categorical variables. Group comparisons were calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear models and logistic regression models were used to adjust for possible confounders. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios of underestimating one’s weight category. Results A high proportion of overweight and obese male career firefighters underestimate their weight categories (68%). The risk of underestimating one’s weight category increased by 24% with each additional unit of increasing BMI after adjustment for age and CRF. When divided into six groups based on combinations of measured BMI category and weight perception, there were significant differences among the groups for most cardiovascular risk factors. After adjustment for age and BMI, these differences remained statistically significant for CRF, amount of weekly exercise, prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn), body fat percentage and cholesterol measurements. Conclusion A high proportion of overweight and obese male career firefighters underestimate their measured BMI categories. As a result, they are unlikely to fully appreciate the negative health consequences of their excess weight. The results of this study emphasize the importance of objectively measuring BMI and then informing patients of their actual weight status and the associated disease risks.

2012-01-01

281

Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Fabrics Suitable for Skin Layer of Firefighters’ Protective Clothing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensorial comfort, usually described as “fabric hand or feel”, is the sensation of how the fabric feels when it is worn next to the skin. This feeling deals with properties of the fabric such as prickling, itching, stiffness or smoothness. It can also be related to its attributes related to physiological comfort, as for instance when a fabric is wet its sensorial properties change and fabric may cling to the skin. Wet feeling and wet clinging can be a major source of sensorial discomfort in situations of profuse sweating like in firefighters’ working environment. For the objective evaluation of this aspect of comfort Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was used for the present study. Seven commercially available knitted fabrics of different fibre blends in different knitted structures suitable for skin layer of firefighters’ protective clothing were evaluated in virgin (original non-treated) state and then in wet state. The influence of fabric physical parameters, fibre content, fabric construction and moisture content on fabric surface properties were determined. For statistical evaluation of results student's-test was carried out to predict the level of significance on coefficient of friction (MIU) and geometrical surface roughness (SMD) due to presence of moisture. Pearson correlation coefficients were also calculated between MIU and SMD in virgin state and in wet state.

Nawaz, Nazia; Troynikov, Olga; Watson, Chris

282

A review of heat transfer phenomena and the impact of moisture on firefighters' clothing and protection.  

PubMed

Protective clothing with high insulation properties helps to keep the wearer safe from flames and other types of hazards. Such protection presents some drawbacks since it hinders movement and decreases comfort, in particular due to heat stress. In fact, sweating causes the accumulation of moisture which directly influences firefighters' performance, decreasing protection due to the increase in radiant heat flux. Vaporisation and condensation of hot moisture also induces skin burn. To evaluate the heat protection of protective clothing, Henrique's equation is used to predict the time leading to second-degree burn. The influence of moisture on protection is complex, i.e. at low radiant heat flux, an increase in moisture content increases protection, and also changes thermal properties. Better understanding of heat and mass transfer in protective clothing is required to develop enhanced protection and to prevent burn injuries. Practitioner Summary: This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of heat and mass transfer inside firefighters' protective clothing to enhance safety. The focus is on the influence of moisture content and the prevention of steam burn. PMID:24734933

Morel, Aude; Bedek, Gauthier; Salaün, Fabien; Dupont, Daniel

2014-07-01

283

When the smoke disappears: dealing with extinguishing chemicals in firefighting wastewater.  

PubMed

Water is not enough. Nowadays, numerous chemicals are used for fire extinction. After use, however, these may unintentionally enter sewerage systems. In order to safely treat firefighting wastewater (FFWW), knowledge of the potential effects of these chemicals on biological treatment processes is essential. This study characterized and mimicked the composition of FFWW containing two powders, three foams and one foam degrader. Nitrogen (162-370 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1)) and phosphorus (173-320 mg PO4(3-)-P L(-1)) concentrations exceeded discharge limits, whereas chemical and biological oxygen demand, suspended solids and detergent concentrations remained sufficiently low. Adequate nutrient removal could be obtained through FeCl3 addition and nitrification/denitrification with acetate as substrate. In batch tests, residual nitrifying activities of 84, 81, 89, 95 and 93% were observed in the presence of powders, foams, foam degrader, synthetic and real FFWW, respectively. All categories showed higher denitrification rates than the control. Although the powders at first seemed to inhibit anammox activity at 82%, after pH correction anammox was fully feasible, allowing nitrogen removal through oxygen-limited nitrification/denitrification (OLAND). Detailed cost calculations indicated that OLAND could save 11% of capital and 68% of operational costs compared to nitrification/denitrification, identifying OLAND as the most recommendable process for nitrogen removal from firefighting wastewaters. PMID:24759534

Courtens, E N P; Meerburg, F; Mausen, V; Vlaeminck, S E

2014-01-01

284

High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.  

PubMed

Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

Adams, Jenny; DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O; Berbarie, Rafic F

2014-07-01

285

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pre-fire plan . (1) You must prepare a vessel pre-fire plan in accordance with NFPA 1405, Guide for Land-Based Firefighters Who Respond to Marine Vessel Fires, Chapter 9 (Incorporation by reference, see § 155.140). If the...

2013-07-01

286

Firefighters. Grade Two. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the occupational cluster of public service, this unit entitled "Firefighters" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC) element (life-role…

Fox, Joan; And Others

287

High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator  

PubMed Central

Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work.

DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O.; Berbarie, Rafic F.

2014-01-01

288

Project CHOICE: #164. A Career Education Unit for Grades K-2. Firefighting. (Public Service Occupations Career Cluster).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit on firefighting is part of the Public Service Occupations Career Cluster included in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education). The units are designed to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking first and second grade classroom…

Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

289

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

290

The Management of Heat Stress for the Firefighter: A Review of Work Conducted on Behalf of the Toronto Fire Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a summary of research conducted through a grant provided by the Workplace Safety Insurance Board of Ontario. The research was divided into two phases; first, to define safe work limits for firefighters wearing their protective clothing and working in warm environments; and, the second, to examine strategies to reduce the thermal burden and extend the operational effectiveness

Tom M. McLELLAN; Glen A. SELKIRK

2006-01-01

291

Validity of Test 21 for Selection of Entry Level Firefighters in the D.C. Fire Department.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the study of the validity and job-relatedness of the written Federal test (Test 21) currently used for selection of firefighters for the D.C. Fire Department. The content of Test 21 was analyzed and compared to the abilities required...

S. S. Payne

1979-01-01

292

Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

Mogen, David S.

293

Physiological effects of boot weight and design on men and women firefighters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two leather (L1, L2) and two rubber (R1, R2) boots on firefighters' metabolic and respiratory variables during simulated firefighting tasks. Twenty-five men and 25 women, while wearing full turnout clothing, a 10.5-kg backpack, gloves, helmet, and one of four randomly assigned pairs of firefighter boots, walked for 6 min at 3 mph (4.8 km/hr) on a level treadmill while carrying a 9.5-kg hose and climbed a stair ergometer for 6 min at 45 steps per min without the hose. Minute ventilation (VE), absolute and relative oxygen consumption (VO2 and VO2 ml kg min(-1), respectively), CO(2) production (VCO2), heart rate (HR), and peak inspiratory (PIF) and expiratory (PEF) flow rates were measured, and an average of the breath-by-breath data from minute 6 was used for analysis. During treadmill exercise, a 1-kg increase in boot weight caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in VE (9%), VO2 (5 - 6%), VCO2 (8%), and HR (6%) for men, whereas a 1-kg increase caused significant increases in VO2 (3 - 4.5%) and VCO2 (4%) for women. During stair ergometry, a 1-kg increase in boot weight caused significant increases in VE(approximately 3%), relative VO2 (approximately 2%), VCO2 (3%), and PIF (approximately 4%) in men and women (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in absolute VO2 (approximately 3.5%) in men only. Mean increases in metabolic and respiratory variables per 1-kg increase in boot weight were in the 5 to 12% range observed previously for men during treadmill walking but were considerably smaller for women. Mean increases in oxygen consumption during stair ergometry were statistically significant but were smaller in the current study than previously observed and may not be practically significant. There was no significant effect of boot design in addition to boot weight for either mode of exercise. PMID:20521197

Turner, Nina L; Chiou, Sharon; Zwiener, Joyce; Weaver, Darlene; Spahr, James

2010-08-01

294

Impact of fire-fighters training on a female with smoldering multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a fire-fighting training regime on the cardiac autonomic control of a middle-aged female diagnosed with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). Cardiac autonomic control was monitored by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in the patient during the last six-week period of a one and half year training period. Compared with healthy, physically active age-matched females, the patient demonstrated similar HRV parameters. Furthermore, the patient experienced a positive evolution of the SMM during this training period. These findings indicate: 1) the beneficial effects of high intensity physical training on cardiac autonomic function in a SMM patient; 2) the potential value of HRV monitoring in cancer patients undertaking regular physical activity. PMID:20842094

Boullosa, D A; Leicht, A S; Tuimil, J L

2010-09-01

295

Teaching installation for learning and practicing the use of fire-fighting equipment  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The installation comprises a screen (1) of large size on which varying images are displayed representing a fire in a sequence under the control of a computer (9), the person (P) performing the exercise having available modified fire extinguisher devices (4) delivering a virtual jet whose point of impact on the screen (1) can be located, with corresponding information being transmitted to the computer (9). The person also has available associated devices (8) representing "influential" means liable to have an influence on the behavior of the fire, with handling thereof also causing information to be generated that is understood by the computer, and that is taken into account to cause the images displayed on the screen to vary accordingly. Equipment for fire-fighting, training and practice.

2000-10-10

296

Technology transfer from space to earth - The NASA Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Responding to the recent demand of fire services for a better equipment, NASA has prepared two improved versions of Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) by taking advantage of the spacesuit design. In the new FBS, the conventional oxygen tube is replaced by a 40% lighter air tube with twice as much pressure. The load is attached to a wide waist belt and distributed on the hips instead of the shoulder, thus making it easier to carry. The two versions of the FBS are essentially the same, the only difference being the capacities of the air tubes. Also the face mask used is smaller, lighter and provides better vision and mobility. The FBS had a notable impact, with the fire departments reporting improved efficiency. Unlike other technology transfer cases, the FBS concept is commercially successful in finding diverse fields of application.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Anuskiewicz, T.; Keune, F. A.

1976-01-01

297

A comparison of cooling techniques in firefighters after a live burn evolution  

PubMed Central

Objective We compared two active cooling devices to passive cooling in a moderate (?22°C) temperature environment on heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tc) recovery when applied to firefighters following 20 min. of fire suppression. Methods Firefighters (23 male, 2 female) performed 20 minutes of fire suppression at a live fire evolution. Immediately following the evolution, the subjects removed their thermal protective clothing and were randomized to receive forearm immersion (FI), ice water perfused cooling vest (CV) or passive (P) cooling in an air-conditioned medical trailer for 30 minutes. Heart rate and deep gastric temperature were monitored every five minutes during recovery. Results A single 20-minute bout of fire suppression resulted in near maximal HR (175±13 - P, 172±20 - FI, 177±12 beats•min?1 - CV) when compared to baseline (p < 0.001), a rapid and substantial rise in Tc (38.2±0.7 - P, 38.3±0.4 - FI, 38.3±0.3° - CV) compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and mass lost from sweating of nearly one kilogram. Cooling rates (°C/min) differed (p = 0.036) by device with FI (0.05±0.04) providing higher rates than P (0.03±0.02) or CV (0.03±0.04) although differences over 30 minutes were small and recovery of body temperature was incomplete in all groups. Conclusions During 30 min. of recovery following a 20-minute bout of fire suppression in a training academy setting, there is a slightly higher cooling rate for FI and no apparent benefit to CV when compared to P cooling in a moderate temperature environment.

Colburn, Deanna; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Morley, Julia L; Goss, Fredric L; Chen, Yi-Fan; Moore, Charity G; Hostler, David

2010-01-01

298

Personal PM2.5 Exposure Among Wildland Firefighters Working at Prescribed Forest Burns in Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003–2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM2.5 and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM2.5 samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and

Olorunfemi Adetona; Kevin Dunn; Daniel B. Hall; Gary Achtemeier; Allison Stock; Luke P. Naeher

2011-01-01

299

Short and medium-term effects of fire and fire-fighting chemicals on soil micronutrient availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals (FFC) on soil micronutrient availability was evaluated 1, 90 and 365 days after a prescribed fire. Five treatments were considered: unburnt soil (US) and burnt soil with 2 l m?2 of water (BS) or water with foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR-Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap).

S. García-Marco; S. González-Prieto

2008-01-01

300

Evidence of remediation-induced alteration of subsurface poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance distribution at a former firefighter training area.  

PubMed

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of fluorinated chemicals that are utilized in firefighting and have been reported in groundwater and soil at several firefighter training areas. In this study, soil and groundwater samples were collected from across a former firefighter training area to examine the extent to which remedial activities have altered the composition and spatial distribution of PFASs in the subsurface. Log Koc values for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), estimated from analysis of paired samples of groundwater and aquifer solids, indicated that solid/water partitioning was not entirely consistent with predictions based on laboratory studies. Differential PFAA transport was not strongly evident in the subsurface, likely due to remediation-induced conditions. When compared to the surface soil spatial distributions, the relative concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFAA precursors in groundwater strongly suggest that remedial activities altered the subsurface PFAS distribution, presumably through significant pumping of groundwater and transformation of precursors to PFAAs. Additional evidence for transformation of PFAA precursors during remediation included elevated ratios of perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) to PFOS in groundwater near oxygen sparging wells. PMID:24866261

McGuire, Meghan E; Schaefer, Charles; Richards, Trenton; Backe, Will J; Field, Jennifer A; Houtz, Erika; Sedlak, David L; Guelfo, Jennifer L; Wunsch, Assaf; Higgins, Christopher P

2014-06-17

301

The ageing Australian firefighter: an argument for age-based recruitment and fitness standards for urban fire services.  

PubMed

Currently, there is no enforcement of physical standards within Australian fire services post-recruitment, possibly leading to inappropriate fitness and body composition. This study evaluated the impacts of ageing on physical standards of Australian firefighters. Seventy-three firefighters from three different 10-year age groups [25-34 years (n = 27), 35-44 years (n = 27), 45-54 years (n = 19)] volunteered for physical testing using dual-energy X-ray analysis and existing fitness tests used for recruitment by an Australian fire service. Older (45-54 years) participants demonstrated significantly poorer physical standards compared with younger participants including cardiovascular fitness (p < 0.05), strength (p = 0.001) and simulated operational power testing tasks (p < 0.001). Age-related body composition changes were also observed independent of body mass index. Minimum recruitment standards and fitness programs need to account for age-related declines in physical capabilities to ensure that the minimum standard is maintained regardless of age. Practitioner Summary: Using dual-energy X-ray analysis and established fitness testing protocols, this study aimed to gain an appreciation of the current standards of body composition and fitness of Australian firefighters and the effects of ageing on their physical abilities post-recruitment. The study demonstrated a significant decline in physical standards due to age. PMID:24588283

Walker, Anthony; Driller, Matthew; Argus, Christos; Cooke, Julie; Rattray, Ben

2014-04-01

302

Component contribution of personal protective equipment to the alleviation of physiological strain in firefighters during work and recovery.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the components contributions of personal protective equipment on physiological strain in firefighters during exercise and recovery. Eight firefighters participated in trials in which various combinations of personal protective equipment components weighing from 1.3 to 15.1 kg were worn. The results showed that rectal temperature, changes in rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen consumption and blood lactate concentration were smaller in conditions without boots (no-boots) than in other conditions with no helmet, gloves or self-contained breathing apparatus (P < 0.05). Increases in rectal temperature per unit mass of personal protective equipment were approximately twice as small in no-boots condition as the other conditions. These results suggest that the reduction of the boots' mass might be more efficient to alleviate heat strain of firefighters wearing personal protective equipment, rather than the reduction of the mass of self-contained breathing apparatus, helmet or gloves. PMID:24773624

Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Siyeon; Jang, Young-Joon; Baek, Yoon-Jeong; Park, Joonhee

2014-07-01

303

Hearing effects from intermittent and continuous noise exposure in a study of Korean factory workers and firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background South Korea and surrounding countries in East Asia are believed to have the highest proportion in the world of high frequency hearing loss due to occupational noise exposure, yet there has been limited information published in international journals, and limited information for control of noise in local workplaces beyond strategies from western countries. We exploit medical surveillance information from two worker groups to enhance local knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and explore the possible importance of shift work to risk. Methods Four-years of hearing data were evaluated for 81 male farm machine factory workers and 371 male firefighters who had successfully completed a health examination and questionnaires for the duration of the study period. The averages of hearing thresholds at 2, 3, and 4 kHz were used as the primary end-point for comparison. Repeat measure analysis adjusted for age, exposure duration and smoking status was used to measure the difference in hearing threshold between the two groups. Results Noise levels were measured in the factory at a mean of 82 dBA, with a range of 66-97. No concurrent measurements were taken for the firefighters, but historic comparison values showed a wider range but a similar mean of 76-79 dBA. Although losses during follow-up were negligible, the factory workers had significantly (P < 0.0001) more hearing loss at the baseline of the study than the firefighters in both ears at 2, 3, and 4 kHz, adjusted for age, duration of employment and smoking status. Among those with 10 years of employment, mean losses at these frequencies among the factory workers fell into the impairment range (> 25 dB loss). Firefighters also showed increased losses associated with longer exposure duration, but these were significantly less marked. Losses at lower frequencies (< or = 1 kHz) were negligible in both groups. Conclusions Korean work environments with continuous noise exposure in the measured range should consider implementation of a hearing conservation program. Further evaluation of hearing loss in workers exposed to irregular or intermittent high noise levels, such as firefighters, is also warranted.

2012-01-01

304

The European, Japanese and US protective helmet, gloves and boots for firefighters: thermoregulatory and psychological evaluations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and subjective responses of the European, Japanese (JPN) and US firefighters' helmet, gloves and boots for international standardisation. Three experimental conditions were evaluated (clothing mass: 9.4, 8.2 and 10.1 kg for the three conditions, respectively) at the air temperature of 32°C and 60% relative humidity. The results showed that there was no significant difference among the three conditions in oxygen consumption, heart rate, total sweat rate, rectal temperature and mean skin temperature, whereas peripheral temperatures and subjective perceptions were lower in the JPN condition than in the other conditions (P < 0.05). These results indicate that a 0.5-kg reduction in helmet mass and a 1.1-kg reduction in boot mass during exercise resulted in a significant decrease in head and leg temperatures and subjective perceptions, while a 1.9-kg reduction in total clothing mass had insignificant influences on the metabolic burden and overall body temperature. PMID:24798188

Lee, Joo-Young; Yamamoto, Yota; Oe, Riichi; Son, Su-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

2014-08-01

305

Physical demands of firefighter search and rescue in ambient environmental conditions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the physiological responses and limitations to a simulated search and rescue scenario in a high-rise building under ambient conditions. Sixteen firefighters performed the scenario under four conditions: standard duration breathing apparatus (SDBA) and 45 mm hose; extended duration breathing apparatus (EDBA) and 45 mm hose; SDBA and 70 mm hose; EDBA and 70 mm hose. Core temperature, skin temperature and heart rate were monitored. In four of 32 trials the casualty was rescued; the remainder of the trials were terminated for safety, high core temperature or shortage of air. Final core temperature and heart rate were higher in the EDBA (39.1 degrees C; 72% heart rate reserve (HRR)) than SDBA conditions (38.6 degrees C; 67%HRR). No differences were observed between hose sizes. The scenario proved too onerous to complete successfully in the majority of cases. Replacing SDBA with EDBA eliminates air supply as a limiting factor, but brings with it challenges of managing thermal strain. PMID:18568961

Richmond, V L; Rayson, M P; Wilkinson, D M; Carter, J M; Blacker, S D

2008-07-01

306

Passive acoustic monitoring of human physiology during activity indicates health and performance of soldiers and firefighters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Army Research Laboratory has developed a unique gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor that has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin. This facilitates the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repels ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. The sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth produce excellent signatures for detection and spectral analysis of diverse physiological events. Acoustic signal processing detects heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. Comfortable acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Noise-canceling sensor arrays help remove out-of-phase motion noise and enhance covariant physiology by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and two additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist acoustic sensors will indicate systolic blood pressure. Larger torso-sized arrays can be used to acoustically inspect the lungs and heart, or built into beds for sleep monitoring. Acoustics is an excellent input for sensor fusion.

Scanlon, Michael V.

2003-04-01

307

Fire-fighting resources and fire preparedness for underground coal mines. Information circular/1994  

SciTech Connect

This U.S. Bureau of Mines report describes various fire fighting resources available to the mining industry and examines the fire preparedness of four western coal mines. The fire fighting resources covered include fire extinguishers, water hoses and nozzles, and fire fighting foam. Information regarding fire fighting equipment indicates that an inadequate maintenance program may cause component failure of fire extinguishers; damage to water hoses is usually a result of improper care; and foam may be a convenient means of conveying water to the fire. One area of particular interest was fire hose water nozzles. Several brands of fire hose nozzles randomly selected, both expensive and inexpensive, were tested at various water pressures. Little difference was found in the maximum throw distance in the fog stream mode. However, dramatic differences were seen among these nozzles when tested for throw distance in the straight stream mode. Performance data relative to water nozzles and specific practices to improve the state of preparedness in many of these areas are discussed. An examination of the mine emergency preparedness of four western coal mines showed state-of-the-art monitoring systems were common at the mine sites. All four mines used carbon monoxide (CO) sensors, and one mine incorporated smoke sensors. Fire safety at all the mine sites was stressed, including early detection and rapid response of the miners to evacuate the mine. However, the mines placed little emphasis on performance of water nozzles, or personal protective clothing for the underground firefighters.

Conti, R.S.

1994-01-01

308

A new hand-cooling device to enhance firefighter heat strain recovery.  

PubMed

This study tested a new portable cooling device for fire fighting recovery. Participants (N = 8) walked and did arm curls (time-weighted VO(2): 1.6 L x min(-1) on a treadmill for 40 min in a heated chamber (wet bulb globe temperature: 33.7 degrees C; relative humidity: 40-45%) while wearing firefighter turn-out gear and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Immediately on finishing exercise, participants recovered for 40 min with either a hand-cooling device or seated passive recovery at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C, 35% RH in a repeated-measures counterbalanced design. The cooling device had little impact on recovery during the first 30 min; however, compared with passive cooling, the cooling device resulted in significantly lower rectal temperature (T(re)) during the last 10 min. Relative to starting T(re) of the recovery period, Delta T(re) at 35 min had fallen 0.51 +/- 0.19 degrees C (passive) and 0.76 +/- 0.30 degrees C (active) (p = 0.03); and at 40 min Delta T(re) had fallen 0.63 +/- 0.17 degrees C (passive) and 0.88 +/- 0.31 degrees C (active) (p = 0.03). Cooling capacity of the device calculated from Delta T(re) over the whole recovery period averaged about 144% of passive. Reductions in heat storage enhance worker safety and performance in hot environments. PMID:19242856

Zhang, Yang; Bishop, Phillip A; Casaru, Catalina; Davis, J K

2009-05-01

309

Test of firefighter's turnout gear in hot and humid air exposure.  

PubMed

Five students of a rescue training school cycled at 50 W for 20 min at 20 degrees C before walking at 5 km/hr up to 30 min in a climatic chamber at 55 degrees C and 30% relative humidity. 4 different types of clothing ensembles differing in terms of thickness and thermal insulation value were tested on separate days. All subjects completed 28-30 min in light clothing, but quit after 20-27 min in 3 firefighter ensembles due to a rectal temperature of 39.0 degrees C or subjective fatigue. No difference in the evolution of mean skin or rectal temperature was seen for the 3 turnout ensembles. Sweat production amounted to about 1000 g in the turnout gears of which less than 20% evaporated. It was concluded that the small differences between the turnout gears in terms of design, thickness and insulation value had no effect on the resulting heat physiological strain for the given experimental conditions. PMID:16984788

Holmér, Ingvar; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi

2006-01-01

310

Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

1996-01-01

311

A screening-level assessment of the health risks of chronic smoke exposure for wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, benzene, and respirable particulate matter. Data defining daily exposures to smoke at prescribed burns and wildfires, potential days of exposure in a year, and career lengths were used to estimate average and reasonable maximum career inhalation exposures to these substances. Of the 15 substances in smoke that were evaluated, only benzene and formaldehyde posed a cancer risk greater than 1 per million, while only acrolein and respirable particulate matter exposures resulted in hazard indices greater than 1.0. The estimated upper-bound cancer risks ranged from 1.4 to 220 excess cancers per million, and noncancer hazard indices ranged from 9 to 360, depending on the exposure group. These values only indicate the likelihood of adverse health effects, not whether they will or will not occur. The risk assessment process narrows the field of substances that deserve further assessment, and the hazards identified by risk assessment generally agree with those identified as a concern in occupational exposure assessments. PMID:15238338

Booze, Thomas F; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Quiring, Sharon J; Ottmar, Roger D

2004-05-01

312

Quality of life in relation to upper and lower respiratory conditions among retired 9\\/11-exposed firefighters with pulmonary disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and World Trade Center (WTC) cough syndrome conditions in male firefighters\\u000a who retired due to a 9\\/11-related pulmonary disability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 3\\/1\\/2008 to 1\\/31\\/2009, we contacted 275 disability-retired firefighters and compared their HRQoL and current aerodigestive\\u000a conditions to those from WTC-exposed non-disabled retired and active firefighters. Relationships between HRQoL and explanatory\\u000a variable(s) were examined

Amy Berninger; Mayris P. Webber; Jessica Weakley; Jackson Gustave; Rachel Zeig-Owens; Roy Lee; Fairouz Al-Othman; Hillel W. Cohen; Kerry Kelly; David J. Prezant

2010-01-01

313

Optimal body balance disturbance tolerance skills as a methodological basis for selection of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the methodology of optimal choice of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks. 27 firefighters were analyzed: aged from 22-50 years of age, and with 2-27 years of work experience. Body balance disturbance tolerance skills (BBDTS) measured by the 'Rotational Test' (RT) and time of transition (back and forth) on a 4 meter beam located 3 meters above the ground, was the criterion for simulation of a rescue task (SRT). RT and SRT were carried out first in a sports tracksuit and then in protective clothing. A total of 4 results of the RT and SRT is the substantive base of the 4 rankings. The correlation of the RT and SRT results with 3 criteria for estimating BBDTS and 2 categories ranged from 0.478 (p<0.01) - 0.884 (p<0.01) and the results of SRT 0.911 (p<0.01). The basic ranking very highly correlated indicators of SRT (0.860 and 0.844), while the 6 indicators of RT only 2 (0.396 and 0.381; p<0.05). There was no correlation between the results of the RT and SRT, but there was an important partial correlation of these variables, but only then was the effect stabilized. The Rotational Test is a simple and easy to use tool for measuring body balance disturbance tolerance skills. However, the BBDTS typology is an accurate criteria for forecasting on this basis, including the results of accurate motor simulations, and the periodic ability of firefighters to solve the most difficult rescue tasks. PMID:24738515

Jagie??o, W?adys?aw; Wójcicki, Zbigniew; Barczy?ski, Bart?omiej J; Litwiniuk, Artur; Kalina, Roman Maciej

2014-03-31

314

The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)°C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each bout was separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which one of four conditions were administered: ice vest (VEST), hand/forearm immersion (W), ice vest combined with hand/forearm immersion (VEST + W) and control (CON). Core temperature was significantly lower at the end of the recovery period in the VEST + W (37.97 ± 0.23°C) and W (37.96 ± 0.19°C) compared with the VEST (38.21 ± 0.12°C) and CON (38.29 ± 0.25°C) conditions and remained consistently lower throughout the second bout of exercise. Heart rate responses during the recovery period and bout 2 were similar between the VEST + W and W conditions which were significantly lower compared with the VEST and CON which did not differ from each other. Mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the start of bout 2 in the cooling conditions compared with CON; these differences reduced as exercise progressed. These findings demonstrate that hand/forearm immersion (~19°C) is more effective than ice vests in reducing the physiological strain when firefighters re-enter structural fires after short rest periods. Combining ice vests with hand/forearm immersion provides no additional benefit. PMID:21079990

Barr, David; Reilly, Thomas; Gregson, Warren

2011-06-01

315

Personal PM(2.5) exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in Southeastern United States.  

PubMed

This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM(2.5) and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM(2.5) samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters' qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: "none" or "very little," "low," "moderate," "high," and "very high." An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM(2.5) ranged from 5.9-2673 ?g/m(3) on burn days. Geometric mean PM(2.5) exposure was 280 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 140, 557 ?g/m(3), n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 10, 26 ?g/m(3), n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM(2.5) differed across levels of the firefighters' categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 71, 203 ?g/m(3)) and high to very high = 664 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 373, 1185 ?g/m(3)); p < 0.0001 on burn days). Time-weighted average PM(2.5) and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM(2.5) pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH®-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m(3) for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM(2.5). Correlation analysis shows that either PM(2.5) or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns. PMID:21762011

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel B; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke P

2011-08-01

316

An Educational Intervention for Police and Firefighters for Elders at Risk: Limits of Education Alone as a Strategy for Behavior Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a research project aimed at the health care needs of the vulnerable community-dwelling elderly, an educational intervention was delivered to police and firefighters in worksite settings. A single educational intervention proved insufficient to produce lasting attitudinal and behavioral change as measured by follow-up surveys 3 and 6…

Nusbaum, N. J.; Mistretta, M.; Wegner, J.

2007-01-01

317

Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: A pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particular matter, and levoglucosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest Service — Savannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters

R. Neitzel; L P Naeher; M Paulsen; K Dunn; A Stock; C D Simpson

2009-01-01

318

Short-term test-retest reliability of the Job Content Questionnaire and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire items and scales among professional firefighters.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about the short-term test-retest reliability of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERIQ). Seventeen JCQ and six ERIQ items were qualitatively reviewed by 19 firefighters in focus groups. The items were then administered twice to 81 firefighters with a time interval of 1-8 weeks. The short-term reliability of the JCQ and ERIQ items and scales with the four-point Likert item responses was at least fair or moderate with several complementary statistical methods. It improved substantially when the four-point responses were simplified into the two ('agree' or 'disagree') responses. The JCQ psychological demands and the ERIQ effort scales were among the least reliable scales and their items were most frequently indicated by the firefighters to be clarified. The responses of professional firefighters to the JCQ and ERIQ items and scales were stable during an 8-week period, particularly when dichotomous item responses were used. PMID:24712524

Choi, BongKyoo; Ko, Sangbaek; Dobson, Marnie; Schnall, Peter L; Garcia-Rivas, Javier; Israel, Leslie; Baker, Dean

2014-06-01

319

Usefulness of coronary and carotid imaging rather than traditional atherosclerotic risk factors to identify firefighters at increased risk for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 45% of deaths in on-duty firefighters, in contrast to 15% of all deaths occurring on conventional jobs. Therefore, with the goal of developing a tailored prevention program, we assessed CVD risk in a cohort of 50 firefighters using imaging and traditional risk factors. Participants were aged ?40 years without a history of CVD or diabetes. CVD risk was assessed by way of history, physical examination, blood tests, risk scores, coronary artery calcium (CAC), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Median age was 46 years; 90% of subjects were men, 92% were white, and 30% were former smokers. Only 4% of subjects were hypertensive but 48% were prehypertensive. Only 14% of subjects had a normal body mass index; 38% were overweight, 48% were obese, and 46% had a high waist circumference. Based on fasting glucose ?100 mg/dl or hemoglobin A1c ?5.6%, 50% of subjects had prediabetes and 2% had diabetes. Median total cholesterol was 196 mg/dl; median high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was 1.0 mg/L. CAC was detected in 22% of subjects and carotid plaque was detected in 36%. Using standard reference databases, 54% of subjects had cIMT greater than the seventy-fifth percentile; 66% had carotid plaque and/or cIMT greater than the seventy-fifth percentile. Atherogenic lipoprotein markers and risk scores did not differ between firefighters who had subclinical atherosclerosis and those who did not. Traditional CVD risk assessment does not adequately identify at-risk firefighters. In contrast, CAC and cIMT were useful for identifying increased risk and implementing primary prevention. In conclusion, early detection and integration of imaging with traditional risk assessment will be important in preventing premature death and disability among firefighters. PMID:24630792

Ratchford, Elizabeth V; Carson, Kathryn A; Jones, Steven R; Ashen, M Dominique

2014-05-01

320

Physiological responses to wearing a prototype firefighter ensemble compared with a standard ensemble.  

PubMed

This study investigated the physiological responses to wearing a standard firefighter ensemble (SE) and a prototype ensemble (PE) modified from the SE that contained additional features, such as magnetic ring enclosures at the glove-sleeve interface, integrated boot-pant interface, integrated hood-SCBA facepiece interface, and a novel hose arrangement that rerouted self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) exhaust gases back into the upper portion of the jacket. Although the features of the PE increased the level of encapsulation of the wearer that could lead to increased physiological stress compared with the SE, it was hypothesized that the rerouted exhaust gases provided by the PE hose assembly would (1) provide convective cooling to the upper torso, (2) reduce the thermal stress experienced by the wearer, and (3) reduce the overall physiological stress imposed by the PE such that it would be either less or not significantly different from the SE. Ten subjects (seven male, three female) performed treadmill exercise in an environmental chamber (22°C, 50% RH) at 50% [image omitted]O(2max) while wearing either the SE with an SCBA or the PE with an SCBA either with or without the hose attached (designated PEWH and PENH, respectively). Heart rate (HR), rectal and intestinal temperatures (T(re), T(in)), sweat loss, and endurance time were measured. All subjects completed at least 20 min of treadmill exercise during the testing. At the end of exercise, there was no difference in T(re) (p = 0.45) or T(in) (p = 0.42), HR, or total sweat loss between the SE and either PEWH or PENH (p = 0.59). However, T(sk) was greater in PEWH and PENH compared with SE (p < 0.05). Total endurance time in SE was greater than in either PEWH or PENH (p < 0.05). Thus, it was concluded that the rerouting of exhaust gases to the jacket did not provide significant convective cooling or reduce thermal stress compared with the SE under the mild conditions selected, and the data did not support the hypotheses of the present study. PMID:21154108

Williams, W Jon; Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond; Shepherd, Angie; Powell, Jeffrey; Shaffer, Ronald E

2011-01-01

321

The management of heat stress for the firefighter: a review of work conducted on behalf of the Toronto Fire Service.  

PubMed

This report provides a summary of research conducted through a grant provided by the Workplace Safety Insurance Board of Ontario. The research was divided into two phases; first, to define safe work limits for firefighters wearing their protective clothing and working in warm environments; and, the second, to examine strategies to reduce the thermal burden and extend the operational effectiveness of the firefighter. For the first phase, subjects wore their protective ensemble and carried their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and performed very light, light, moderate or heavy work at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C. Thermal and evaporative resistance coefficients were obtained from thermal manikin testing that allowed the human physiological responses to be compared with modeled data. Predicted continuous work times were then generated using a heat strain model that established limits for increases in body temperature to 38.0 degrees C, 38.5 degrees C and 39.0 degrees C. Three experiments were conducted for the second phase of the project. The first study revealed that replacing the duty uniform pants that are worn under the bunker pants with shorts reduced the thermal strain for activities that lasted longer than 60 min. The second study examined the importance of fluid replacement. The data revealed that fluid replacement equivalent to at least 65% of the sweat lost increased exposure time by 15% compared with no fluid replacement. The last experiment compared active and passive cooling. Both the use of a mister or forearm and hand submersion in cool water significantly increased exposure time compared with passive cooling that involved only removing most of the protective clothing. Forearm and hand submersion proved to be most effective and produced dramatic increases in exposure time that approximated 65% compared with the passive cooling procedure. When the condition of no fluid replacement and passive cooling was compared with fluid replacement and forearm and hand submersion, exposure times were effectively doubled with the latter condition. The heat stress wheel that was generated can be used by Commanders to determine safe work limits for their firefighters during activities that involve wearing their protective clothing and carrying their SCBA. PMID:16922185

McLellan, Tom M; Selkirk, Glen A

2006-07-01

322

Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States.  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM{sub 2.5} and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: 'none' or 'very little,' 'low,' 'moderate,' 'high,' and 'very high.' An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM{sub 2.5} ranged from 5.9-2673 {mu}g/m{sup 3} on burn days. Geometric mean PM{sub 2.5} exposure was 280 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 140, 557 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 10, 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM{sub 2.5} differed across levels of the firefighters categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 71, 203 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and high to very high = 664 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 373, 1185 {mu}g/m{sup 3}); p < 0.0001 on burn days. Time-weighted average PM{sub 2.5} and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM{sub 2.5} pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH{reg_sign}-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m{sup 3} for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}. Correlation analysis shows that either PM{sub 2.5} or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns.

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel, B.; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke, P.

2011-07-15

323

High work output combined with high ambient temperatures caused heat exhaustion in a wildland firefighter despite high fluid intake.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case study is to examine the physiological/behavioral factors leading up to heat exhaustion in a male wildland firefighter during wildland fire suppression. The participant (24 years old, 173 cm, 70 kg, and 3 years firefighting experience) experienced heat exhaustion following 7 hours of high ambient temperatures and arduous work on the fire line during the month of August. At the time of the heat-related incident (HRI), core temperature was 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) and skin temperature was 34.4 °C (93.9 °F). His work output averaged 1067 counts·min(-1) (arbitrary units for measuring activity) for the 7 hours prior to the HRI, a very high rate of work over an extended time period during wildfire suppression. In the 2.5 hours leading up to the heat incident, he was exposed to a mean ambient temperature of 44.6 °C (112.3 °F), with a maximum temperature of 59.7 °C (139.5 °F). He consumed an average of 840 mL·h(-1) in the 7 hours leading up to the incident and took an average of 24 ± 11 drinks·h(-1) (total of 170 drinks). The combined effects of a high work rate and high ambient temperatures resulted in an elevated core temperature and a higher volume and frequency of drinking than typically seen in this population, ultimately ending in heat exhaustion and removal from the fire line. The data demonstrate that heat-related incidents can occur even with aggressive fluid intake during wildland fire suppression. PMID:21664560

Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

2011-06-01

324

[Determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates in fire-fighting foam and other materials by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A novel method based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS) in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents. The PFOS residue was extracted with water at first by ultrasonic, then separated by high-speed centrifugation. The supernatant was purified by pre-conditioned solid phase extraction (SPE) micro-column, and the extract was filtrated through a membrane with 0.2 microm diameter. The filtrated liquid was analyzed by HPLC using acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (80 : 20, v/v) as mobile phase. The PFOS was detected by using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) on a tandem mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis of the PFOS can be performed by using the relative abundance of two daughter ions of PFOS, and the quantitative analysis was performed by external standard method. The linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.002 - 0.1 mg/L with a linear correlation coefficient (r2 ) of 0.998. The spiked recoveries for PFOS in the fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents were 93.4% - 103%, 93.2% - 102% and 91.8% - 102% with the relative standard deviation of 0.48% - 3.52%, 0.78% - 1.79% and 0.47% - 3.47%, respectively. And the detection limit for PFOS was 2 mg/kg (S/N > or = 10), which can meet the requirement for the PFOS restriction in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents in the EU directives. With high accuracy and sensitivity, the method is simple and rapid, and can be used for PFOS inspection in fire-fighting foam, detergents and fabric finishing agents. PMID:20556959

Chen, Huiming; Cheng, Yan; Chen, Wei; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Xi; Wang, Zheng

2010-02-01

325

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Aspirin and Exertional Heat Stress Activation of Platelets in Firefighters during Exertion in Thermal Protective Clothing.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose. Platelet aggregation is enhanced in firefighters following short bouts of work in thermal protective clothing (TPC). We sought to determine if aspirin therapy before and/or following exertion in TPC prevents platelet activation. Methods. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 102 firefighters were randomized to receive daily therapy (81 mg aspirin or placebo) for 14 days before and a single dose (325 mg aspirin or placebo) following exercise in TPC resulting in four potential assignments: aspirin before and after exercise (AA), placebo before and after exercise (PP), aspirin before and placebo after exercise (AP), and placebo before and aspirin after exercise (PA). Platelet closure time (PCT) was measured with a platelet function analyzer before the 2-week treatment, after the 2 week treatment period, immediately after exercise, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes later. Results. Baseline PCT did not differ between groups. PCT changed over time in all four groups (p < 0.001) rising to a median of >300 seconds [IQR 99, 300] in AA and >300 [92, 300] in AP prior to exercise. Following exercise, median PCT decreased to in all groups. Median PCT returned to >300 seconds 30 minutes later in AA and AP and rose to 300 seconds in PA 60 minutes after exercise. Conclusions. Daily aspirin therapy blunts platelet activation during exertional heat stress and single-dose aspirin therapy following exertional heat stress reduces platelet activation within 60 minutes. Key words: firefighter; uncompensable heat stress; thermoregulation; emergency incident rehabilitation. PMID:24548114

Hostler, David; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Francis X; Moore, Charity G; Pryor, Riana R; Khorana, Priya; McEntire, Serina J; Comer, Diane; Reis, Steven E

2014-01-01

326

Associations of cortisol with posttraumatic stress symptoms and negative life events: a study of police officers and firefighters.  

PubMed

Given the inconsistent associations of cortisol with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), analysis of basal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in subjects frequently exposed to trauma and critical incidents with a range of PTSD symptomatology, may be valuable. In an epidemiological sample of 1880 police officers and firefighters, associations of salivary cortisol with PTSD, negative life events (NLE) and exposure to a major air disaster more than 8 years earlier, was explored. Probable PTSD was unrelated to cortisol level while past (>8 years earlier) and more recently experienced NLE were associated with lower cortisol levels even after adjustment for confounders. Disaster exposure interacted significantly with PTSD symptoms on cortisol level. In the disaster-exposed subgroup, PTSD symptomclusters of intrusion and hyperarousal (in particular sleep disturbances), were associated with lower and higher cortisol levels, respectively. A final model using backward elimination strategy, retained time of saliva sampling, smoking, gender, and NLE>8 years earlier in the total sample, and additionally symptomclusters of intrusion and hyperarousal in the disaster-exposed subgroup. The final model explained 10% of the variance in cortisol. The findings are discussed in relation to literature on posttraumatic stress and basal functioning of the HPA-axis. PMID:20083359

Witteveen, Anke B; Huizink, Anja C; Slottje, Pauline; Bramsen, Inge; Smid, Tjabe; van der Ploeg, Henk M

2010-08-01

327

Social support moderates the impact of demands on burnout and organizational connectedness: a two-wave study of volunteer firefighters.  

PubMed

This two-wave study of volunteers examined the effect of family and friend support on the relationship between volunteer demands (emotional demands and work-home conflict) on the one hand, and burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) and organizational connectedness on the other hand. It was hypothesized that family and friend support would moderate the relationship between (a) demands at Time 1 (T1) and burnout at Time 2 (T2); and (b) demands at T1 and organizational connectedness at T2. Hypotheses were tested among 126 Australian volunteer firefighters, who were followed up over 1 year. Results showed that support moderated the relationship between work-home conflict and exhaustion, but not between emotional demands and exhaustion. In addition, family and friend support moderated the relationship between both volunteer demands at T1 and cynicism and organizational connectedness at T2. These results suggest that support from family and friends is a critical resource in coping with the demands related to volunteer work and may protect volunteers from burnout, while helping them to stay connected to volunteering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23276192

Huynh, Jasmine Y; Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Winefield, Anthony H

2013-01-01

328

Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers Predict Susceptibility or Resistance to Lung Injury in World Trade Center Dust Exposed Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary vascular loss is an early feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biomarkers of inflammation and of metabolic syndrome, predicts loss of lung function in World Trade Center Lung Injury (WTC-LI). We investigated if other cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers also predicted WTC-LI. This nested case-cohort study used 801 never smoker, WTC exposed firefighters with normal pre-9/11 lung function presenting for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) before March, 2008. A representative sub-cohort of 124/801 with serum drawn within six months of 9/11 defined CVD biomarker distribution. Post-9/11/01 FEV1 at subspecialty exam defined cases: susceptible WTC-LI cases with FEV1?77% predicted (66/801) and resistant WTC-LI cases with FEV1?107% (68/801). All models were adjusted for WTC exposure intensity, BMI at SPE, age at 9/11, and pre-9/11 FEV1. Susceptible WTC-LI cases had higher levels of Apo-AII, CRP, and MIP-4 with significant RRs of 3.85, 3.93, and 0.26 respectively with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.858. Resistant WTC-LI cases had significantly higher sVCAM and lower MPO with RRs of 2.24, and 2.89 respectively; AUC 0.830. Biomarkers of CVD in serum six-month post-9/11 predicted either susceptibility or resistance to WTC-LI. These biomarkers may define pathways producing or protecting subjects from pulmonary vascular disease and associated loss of lung function after an irritant exposure.

Weiden, Michael D.; Naveed, Bushra; Kwon, Sophia; Cho, Soo Jung; Comfort, Ashley L.; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

2013-01-01

329

Body regional influences of L-menthol application on the alleviation of heat strain while wearing firefighter's protective clothing.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of menthol application according to the amount of surface area on physiological and psychological heat strains, along with body regional influences. Male students underwent two stages of experiments: [Experiment 1] Cutaneous thermal threshold test at rest on eight body regions with/without a 0.8% menthol application at T (a) 28°C and 50% RH; [Experiment 2] Six exercise tests with/without a 0.8% menthol spray at T (a) 28°C and 40% RH, while wearing firefighter's protective clothing (No menthol, PC(NO); Face and neck menthol, PC(FN); Upper body menthol, PC(UP); Whole body menthol application, PC(WB)) or wearing normal clothing (No menthol, NC(NO); Upper body menthol, NC(UP)). Experiment 1 showed that menthol caused no significant influence on cutaneous warm thresholds, while menthol applications evoked earlier detection of cool sensations, especially on the chest (P = 0.043). Experiment 2 revealed that NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) caused lower mean skin temperature, especially with higher peripheral vasoconstrictions on the extremities at rest. During exercise, NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) induced greater and earlier increases in rectal temperatures (T (re)) and a delayed sweat response, but lessened psychological burdens (P < 0.05). Both physiological and psychological effects of PC(FN) were insignificant. For a composite analysis, individual Menthol Sensitivity Index at cooling in Experiment 1 had significant relationships with the threshold for T (re) increase and changes in heart rate in NC(UP) of Experiment 2 (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that menthol's topical influence is body region-dependent, as well as depending on the exposed body surface area. PMID:21964942

Lee, Joo-Young; Nakao, Kouhei; Bakri, Ilham; Tochihara, Yutaka

2012-06-01

330

Short- and medium-term effects of fire and fire-fighting chemicals on soil micronutrient availability.  

PubMed

The impact of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals (FFC) on soil micronutrient availability was evaluated 1, 90 and 365 days after a prescribed fire. Five treatments were considered: unburnt soil (US) and burnt soil with 2 l m(-2) of water (BS) or water with foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR-Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). Pre-fire contents of available micronutrient were homogeneous among plots and high (Fe, Zn) or insufficient (Co, Cu, Mn) for plant nutrition. At t=1 day, Fe availability decreased greatly in burnt treatments, with significant differences in BS+Fi (-50%) and BS+Ap (-75%), contrasting with Fe richness of the ammonium polyphosphate. The fire induced a significant increase (9-16x) of available Mn in burnt treatments that lasted for at least three months; the FFC effect on soil available Mn was imperceptible, despite the noticeable amounts of Mn they supplied (especially Firesorb and ammonium polyphosphate). In burnt soils, the Fe/Mn ratio also decreased strongly (92-99%) and significantly till t=90 days. A high increase was also found, at t=1 day, for the available Zn in all burnt treatments and, although the ammonium polyphosphate provided more Zn than the Firesorb, the increment was only significant in BS+Fi plots (+100%). Neither fire nor FFC effects on soil Cu availability were found. The slight increase of Co availability in BS, BS+Fo and BS+Ap at t=1 day was followed by a transient decrease in all burnt treatments at t=90 days. Except the Mn and the Fe/Mn ratio in BS+Ap, which remained significantly higher and lower, respectively, the indices of available micronutrients at t=365 days in all burnt soils were similar to the pre-fire levels. PMID:18805571

García-Marco, S; González-Prieto, S

2008-12-15

331

Health hazard evaluation of police officers and firefighters after Hurricane Katrina--New Orleans, Louisiana, October 17-28 and November 30-December 5, 2005.  

PubMed

In the weeks after Hurricane Katrina struck the U.S. Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, reports of increased injuries and symptoms of physical illness and psychological strain among New Orleans police officers and firefighters prompted CDC to conduct a health hazard evaluation of these two groups. Questionnaires were distributed to members of the New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) and New Orleans Fire Department (NOFD) 7-13 weeks after the hurricane. This report summarizes the results of that evaluation, which determined that upper respiratory and skin rash symptoms were the most common physical symptoms reported by police officers and firefighters and lacerations and sprains were the most common injuries. In addition, approximately one third of the respondents reported either depressive symptoms or symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or both. These results underscore the need to incorporate the safety and health of emergency responders into existing disaster preparedness plans and to provide periodic responder training and education in tasks unique to disaster situations. Clinical follow-up of the physical and psychological health of emergency responders should be conducted to better understand, monitor, and treat their health conditions. PMID:16645571

2006-04-28

332

Use of the bootstrap method to develop a physical fitness test for public safety officers who serve as both police officers and firefighters.  

PubMed

Physical fitness testing is a common tool for motivating employees with strenuous occupations to reach and maintain a minimum level of fitness. Nevertheless, the use of such tests can be hampered by several factors, including required compliance with US antidiscrimination laws. The Highland Park (Texas) Department of Public Safety implemented testing in 1991, but no single test adequately evaluated its sworn employees, who are cross-trained and serve as police officers and firefighters. In 2010, the department's fitness experts worked with exercise physiologists from Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital to develop and evaluate a single test that would be equitable regardless of race/ethnicity, disability, sex, or age >50 years. The new test comprised a series of exercises to assess overall fitness, followed by two sequences of job-specific tasks related to firefighting and police work, respectively. The study group of 50 public safety officers took the test; raw data (e.g., the number of repetitions performed or the time required to complete a task) were collected during three quarterly testing sessions. The statistical bootstrap method was then used to determine the levels of performance that would correlate with 0, 1, 2, or 3 points for each task. A sensitivity analysis was done to determine the overall minimum passing score of 17 points. The new physical fitness test and scoring system have been incorporated into the department's policies and procedures as part of the town's overall employee fitness program. PMID:24982558

Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Lee, John; Shock, Tiffany; Kennedy, Kathleen; Pate, Scotty

2014-07-01

333

Use of the bootstrap method to develop a physical fitness test for public safety officers who serve as both police officers and firefighters  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness testing is a common tool for motivating employees with strenuous occupations to reach and maintain a minimum level of fitness. Nevertheless, the use of such tests can be hampered by several factors, including required compliance with US antidiscrimination laws. The Highland Park (Texas) Department of Public Safety implemented testing in 1991, but no single test adequately evaluated its sworn employees, who are cross-trained and serve as police officers and firefighters. In 2010, the department's fitness experts worked with exercise physiologists from Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital to develop and evaluate a single test that would be equitable regardless of race/ethnicity, disability, sex, or age >50 years. The new test comprised a series of exercises to assess overall fitness, followed by two sequences of job-specific tasks related to firefighting and police work, respectively. The study group of 50 public safety officers took the test; raw data (e.g., the number of repetitions performed or the time required to complete a task) were collected during three quarterly testing sessions. The statistical bootstrap method was then used to determine the levels of performance that would correlate with 0, 1, 2, or 3 points for each task. A sensitivity analysis was done to determine the overall minimum passing score of 17 points. The new physical fitness test and scoring system have been incorporated into the department's policies and procedures as part of the town's overall employee fitness program.

Cheng, Dunlei; Lee, John; Shock, Tiffany; Kennedy, Kathleen; Pate, Scotty

2014-01-01

334

Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: A pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and levoglucosan.  

SciTech Connect

Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest ServiceFSavannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribedburn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 701±95 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n¼9). PM2.5 and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM2.5 exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample size, this pilot study demonstrates that urinary MP concentrations may be effective biomarkers of occupational exposure to wood smoke among wildland firefighters.

Neitzel, R.; Naeher, L., P.; Paulsen, M.; Dunn, R.; Stock, A.; Simpson, C., D.

2009-04-01

335

Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: a pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particular matter, and levoglucosan.  

PubMed

Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest Service-Savannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM(2.5)) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribed burn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 701+/-95 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n=9). PM(2.5) and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM(2.5) exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample size, this pilot study demonstrates that urinary MP concentrations may be effective biomarkers of occupational exposure to wood smoke among wildland firefighters. PMID:18446186

Neitzel, R; Naeher, L P; Paulsen, M; Dunn, K; Stock, A; Simpson, C D

2009-05-01

336

Comparison of rehydration regimens for rehabilitation of firefighters performing heavy exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Fire suppression activities results in cardiovascular stress, hyperthermia, and hypohydration. Fireground rehabilitation (rehab) is recommended to blunt the deleterious effects of these conditions. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that three rehydration fluids provided after exercise in thermal protective clothing (TPC) would produce different heart rate or core temperature responses during a second bout of exercise in TPC. Methods: On three occasions, 18 euhydrated firefighters (16 males, 2 females) wearing TPC completed a standardized, 50-minute bout of upper and lower body exercise in a hot room that mimicked the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) rehabilitation guidelines of “two cylinders before rehab” (20 min work, 10 min recovery, 20 min work). After an initial bout of exercise, subjects were randomly assigned water, sport drink, or an intravenous (IV) infusion of normal saline equal to the amount of body mass lost during exercise. After rehydration, the subject performed a second bout of exercise. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, and exercise duration were compared with a two-way ANOVA. Results: Subjects were firefighters aged 28.2±11.3 years with a VO2peak of 37.4±3.4 ml/kg/min. 527±302 mL of fluid were provided during the rehabilitation period. No subject could complete either the pre- or post-rehydration 50-minute bout of exercise. Mean (SD) time to exhaustion (min) was longer (p<0.001) in bout 1 (25.9±12.9 min. water, 28.0±14.1 min. sport drink, 27.4±13.8 min. IV) compared to bout 2 (15.6±9.6 min. water, 14.7±8.6 min. sport drink, 15.7±8.0 min. IV) for all groups but did not differ by intervention. All subjects approached age predicted maximum heart rate at the end of bout 1 (180±11 bpm) and bout 2 (176±13 bpm). Core temperature rose 1.1±0.7°C during bout 1 and 0.5±0.4°C during bout 2. Core temperature, heart rate, and exercise time during bout 2 did not differ between rehydration fluids. Conclusions: Performance during a second bout of exercise in TPC did not differ when firefighters were rehydrated with water, sport drink, or IV normal saline when full rehydration is provided. Of concern was the inability of all subjects to complete two consecutive periods of heavy exercise in TPC suggesting the NFPA “two cylinders before rehab” guideline may not be appropriate in continuous heavy work scenarios.

Hostler, David; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Reis, Steven E; Kong, Pui Wah; Morley, Julia; Gallagher, Michael; Suyama, Joe

2010-01-01

337

Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

1976-01-01

338

Fire-fighters' perspectives of the accuracy of the Physical Aptitude Test (P.A.T) as a pre-employment assessment.  

PubMed

Pre-employment assessments must accurately simulate job tasks and demands and select appropriate personnel to be considered effective. This study focussed on the perception of NSW fire-fighters in relation to the validity of the NSW Fire Brigade's pre-employment assessment, the Physical Aptitude Test. A qualitative method was used to gain a precise understanding of fire fighters' opinions of the accuracy of the Physical Aptitude Test. Information letters and consent forms were sent to an urban fire station with interested participants replying via the university. Six participants, who met the inclusion criteria were randomly selected for the study and in-depth, ethnographic, semi-structured interviews were conducted. The fire fighters believed in order for the Physical Aptitude Test to accurately simulate job demands and select the most capable fire fighters', it needed to be more physically demanding. However, participants believed that the "work-simulating" nature of the Physical Aptitude Test provided an accurate indication of the job tasks. PMID:16373977

Harley, Anna; James, Carole

2006-01-01

339

Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC.

Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

2010-01-01

340

High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

2014-06-01

341

Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N?=?70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1?77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N?=?123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect.

Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

2013-01-01

342

Firefighting training for nuclear facility personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the Browns Ferry incident of 1975, an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to fire protection at nuclear power plants in the United States. Regulatory Guide 1.120, NUREG-0050, and NRC Branch Technical Position 9.5-1 were developed to specifically address the nature of such programs, including fire suppression training for plant fire brigades. In early 1978,

Ken L. Walker; E. F. Bates

1980-01-01

343

Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters  

SciTech Connect

A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

Canfield, Jesse

2012-09-04

344

Physical workload during firefighting in Chilean volunteers.  

PubMed

The study was performed in a sample of 39 firemen. The state of health for each fire fighter was evaluated by means of a clinical examination and also through some specific exams. Aerobic capacity was estimated as an indicator of physical fitness. In each load, cardiac frequency and oxygen consumption were measured under a steady state condition. Additionally, body composition was calculated using a Tanita professional scale. Physical effort at work was determined by measuring cardiac frequency using a telemetric unit. Evaluations were carried out during night shifts, registering information under the following conditions: night shifts without emergency, fire simulation, training exercises and real fire fighting. In general terms, it is possible to state that fire fighters are healthy according to the result of the clinical examination. However, it is very important to highlight that 70% of the firemen consume alcohol and 80% were smokers. The average aerobic capacity of the sample was 2.6 l/min or 34.5 ml/kg/min. In terms of overweight and obesity, the body mass index was 25.7, whereas the percentage fat mass reached an average of 22.9 %. The cardiovascular load in the night shifts without emergencies did not surpass 40%, which in Chile is considered the highest limit for sustained work. However, during training, simulations and real fires, the firemen had higher cardiac frequencies, reaching peak levels close to 100% cardiovascular load. PMID:22316762

Herrera, Javier A Freire; Cohen, Felipe E Meyer; Simón, Elías S Apud

2012-01-01

345

Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters  

ScienceCinema

A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

Canfield, Jesse

2014-06-02

346

In-Mine Study of High-Expansion Firefighting Foam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mine fire is one of the most challenging safety issues facing a mine operator and can occur at any location underground. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Twentymile Coal Mine, CO, conducted in-mine experiments to...

C. P. Lazzara L. L. Chasko M. R. Krump R. L. Derick R. S. Conti

2011-01-01

347

The Environmental Impacts of Fire-Fighting Foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extinguishing foams are commonly used for extinguishing the fire of flammable liquids, whereby their insulating, choking and quenching effects are exploited. The purpose of the paper is to consider and compare the foams currently used in fire departments, regarding mainly their high extinguishing effect (capability of faster aborted burning on the large surface at low foam consumption), but also their impact on the environment in each stage of their life cycle.

Tureková, Ivana; Balog, Karol

2010-01-01

348

FIRE-FIGHTING ROBOT INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIONS: EDUCATION THROUGH INTERDISCIPLINARY DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the Trinity College Fire- Fighting Home Robot Contest (TCFFHRC), evaluates the curricular impact of the contest at university and high- school levels, and provides examples of student projects inspired by the contest. We evaluate the contest by analyzing participant survey data from the 2000, and 2001 contests, and we present our conclusions about the educational benefits of

David J. Ahlgren; Igor M. Verner

349

46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...practicable, be conducted as if there were an actual emergency. (e) The dates when fire drills are held, and details of training in fire fighting and of fire drills, must be entered in the vessel's official logbook. Each logbook entry...

2013-10-01

350

Design Specifications for Respiratory Breathing Devices for Firefighters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The desired protective factor for self-contained breathing apparatus used in the fire service is proposed at 100 based on a series of tests with a personal air sampler which revealed maximum air concentrations of carbon monoxide of approximately 20,000 PP...

W. A. Burgess R. Sidor N. Peterson P. Buchanan E. Clougherty

1975-01-01

351

New fire-fighting water bucket is lifted by helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter lifts a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket that will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, the 324-gallon container will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

352

New fire-fighting water bucket is filled for demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

- A NASA helicopter hovers over the water while a high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket fills. The 324-gallon container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

353

Field Evaluation of Experimental Crash-Crew Firefighter's Facepiece.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) under the sponsorship of the Civil and Environmental Engineering Development Office (CEEDO), Detachment 1 ADTC, Tyndall Air Force Base, conducted a field evaluation of an Abcite-overcoated experiment...

N. F. Audet

1978-01-01

354

Occupationally Acquired Hearing Loss Among Civilian and Active Duty Firefighters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fire fighters are routinely exposed to hazardous noise in excess of Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) recommendations. A study by Reischl (1979) demonstrated that fire fighters are routinely exposed to impulse noises in excess of 115 dB...

A. D. Hilton

2002-01-01

355

75 FR 23785 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...competitive rating. (iv) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Acquisition...EMS equipment, EMS personal protective equipment, wellness and fitness...mission.'' (iii) EMS Personal Protective Equipment. DHS gives the same...

2010-05-04

356

76 FR 27169 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Purchase aircraft rescue and firefighting truck, 1,500 gallons. Construct...Construct aircraft rescue and firefighting building. Rehabilitate runway...Acquire aircraft rescue and firefighting vehicle. Rehabilitate...

2011-05-10

357

The technology application process as applied to a firefighter's breathing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FBS Program indicated that applications of advanced technology can result in an improved FBS that will satisfy the requirements defined by municipal fire departments. To accomplish this technology transfer, a substantial commitment of resources over an extended period of time has been required. This program has indicated that the ability of NASA in terms of program management such as requirement definition, system analysis, and industry coordination may play as important a role as specific sources of hardware technology. As a result of the FBS program, a sequence of milestones was passed that may have applications as generalized milestones and objectives for any technical application program.

Mclaughlan, P. B.

1974-01-01

358

Smoke Exposure Among Firefighters at Prescribed Burns in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummarySeveral suggestions are presented for managing smoke exposure at prescribedburns. First, a risk assessment is underway and, when completed, could be used toassess the long-term health risks among prescribed burners. Second, a smoke exposuremanagement program could be implemented to reduce overexposures to smokeat prescribed fires. This program would include the following elements:. Improve smoke exposure hazard awareness training.. Monitor CO

Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar; Andrew J. S. Hanneman

359

A Tale of Two Factories: Successful Resistance to Sweatshops and the Limits of Firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

College-based U.S. anti-sweatshop activists led two solidarity campaigns challenging the proposition that global capitalism and capital mobil- ity necessarily subvert local victories of workers and their unions. Critical to working-class advances are worker self defense, alliance with reformers, and positive governmental policy, but, in two cases, Kukdong\\/Mexmode in Mexico and BJ&B in the Dominican Republic, the third pillar of decency

Robert J. S. Ross

2006-01-01

360

Learning for the Frontline: How Fire-Fighters Integrate Learnt Behaviours with Difficult Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emergency service teams hold an important role however the stress associated with their position can strain workplace relationships. Although it is not always possible to change the incidents to which teams respond, it is possible to shape the way personnel communicate with each other about these incidents. Yet little is known on how learnt…

Dadich, Ann

2012-01-01

361

Emergency Duties and Deaths from Heart Disease among Firefighters in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Deaths from coronary heart disease were associated with suppressing a fire (32.1% of all such deaths), responding to an alarm (13.4%), returning from an alarm (17.4%), engaging in physical training (12.5%), responding to nonfire emergencies (9.4%), and performing nonemergency duties (15.4%). As compared with the odds of death from coronary heart disease during nonemergency duties, the odds were 12.1

Stefanos N. Kales; Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Costas A. Christophi; David C. Christiani

2007-01-01

362

Development of a Firefighting Agent Application Test Protocol for Aircraft Fuselage Composites, Phase I - Carbon Fiber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was initiated to develop a live fire test protocol that could determine if the amounts of fire extinguishing agent currently carried on Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting vehicles are sufficient to extinguish fires involving aircraft built wit...

J. C. Hode

2012-01-01

363

Lightweight Aluminized Fabric and Insulation-Liner Materials for Proximity Firefighters' Garments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Unit (NCTRU) has developed a new lightweight aluminized 10.5-ounce fabric made with cor-spun Novatex-Nomex yarns and a removable quilted insulation liner containing needlepunched Nomex felt as a replacement material ...

Z. Kupferman N. F. Audet

1975-01-01

364

Reinvesting the IT Dollar: From IT Firefighting to Quality Strategic Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how organizations can become effective, efficient managers of the large maintenance part of their information technology budgets by using service management processes. Discusses the example of the University of Sydney Library's use of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) set of service management practices. (EV)

Stern, Andrea

2001-01-01

365

Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies; Student Manual, Part A. Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A manual intended to help fire departments and Civil Defense organizations train people to support regular fire forces during a national emergency is presented. It contains 11 chapters: Introduction, Modern Weapons and Radioactive Fallout, Role of Fire Service in Civil Defense, Local Fire Department Organization, Role of Support Assistants in…

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

366

Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies; Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies. Instructor Guide--Part B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide has been developed for use in presenting part "B" of the course of instruction for Support Assistance for Fire Emergencies. It is arranged by class sessions of three hours each. Some of the sessions are divided into two or more sections covering specific subject areas. The intention is to include instruction which will extend the…

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

367

Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies: Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies. Instructor Guide--Part A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor guide contains four lessons to be used in a course for Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies. The course is arranged by class sessions of three hours each, with each session divided into two or more sections. Each lesson plan has the same format: Course Title and Number; Objectives; Instructional Aids; Selected References;…

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

368

Analysis and design of human-robot swarm interaction in firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a variety of emergency settings robot assistance has been identified as highly valuable, providing remote, and thus safe, access and operation. There are many different forms of human-robot interactions, allowing a team of humans and robots to take advantage of skills of each team member. A relatively new area of research considers interactions between human and a team of

Amir M. Naghsh; Jeremi Gancet; Andry Tanoto; Chris Roast

2008-01-01

369

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...systems 4 12 18 1 Heavy lift services are not required...planholder must still contract for heavy lift services, provide a description of the heavy lift response and an estimated...coordinate response activity with oil spill removal...

2013-07-01

370

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection...for one or more mines may be stored at a central warehouse or building supply company and such supply...

2011-07-01

371

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection...for one or more mines may be stored at a central warehouse or building supply company and such supply...

2012-07-01

372

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection...for one or more mines may be stored at a central warehouse or building supply company and such supply...

2010-07-01

373

Trace Additives to Inhibit the Caking of Purple K for 3-D Firefighting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of crystal-habit modifying additives was evaluated to inhibit the caking of Purple K dry chemical fire suppression agent. Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), which is the active ingredient (>99%) of Purple K, was used as the baseline compound. Micron-s...

S. Hunter L. Li D. Dierdorf E. Proudfoot

2004-01-01

374

Autonomous UAV-based mapping of large-scale urban firefights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational

Stephen Snarski; Karl Scheibner; Scott Shaw; Randy Roberts; Andy LaRow; Eric Breitfeller; Jasper Lupo; Darron Nielson; Bill Judge; Jim Forren

2006-01-01

375

DETERMINATION OF PERFLUOROCARBOXYLATES IN GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY FIRE-FIGHTING ACTIVITY. (R821195)  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated surfactants are used in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) formulations, which are used to extinguish hydrocarbon-fuel fires. Virtually nothing is known about the occurrence of perfluorinated surfactants in the environment, in particular, at fire-train...

376

Multiagent Systems for Virtual Environment for Training. Application to Fire-Fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns virtual environments for training in operational conditions. The principal developed idea is that these environments are heterogeneous and open multiagent systems. The MASCARET model is proposed to organize the interactions between agents and to give them reactive, cognitive and social abilities to simulate the physical and social environment. The physical environment represents, in a realistic way, the

R. Querrec; C. Buche; E. Maffre; P. Chevaillier

2004-01-01

377

The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity.

Calfee, R. D.; Little, E. E.

2003-01-01

378

Cool Vests Worn Under Firefighting Ensemble Reduces Heat Strain During Exercise and Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cool vest (CV) to reduce heat strain during exercise, facilitate recovery, and minimize heat strain during subsequent return to exercise and heat exposure. Male volunteers (n=12) were monito...

L. R. Ramirez R. D. Hagan M. P. Shannon B. L. Bennett J. A. Hodgdon

1994-01-01

379

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to 50 miles outside the COTP city. (3) If your vessel...50-mile point from the COTP city, or a point identified in your...within 50 miles of an OCONUS COTP city. Table 155.4040(c ...needs to be completed. (v) Hull and bottom survey Survey...

2013-07-01

380

Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study ...

A. LaRow K. F. Scheibner R. S. Roberts S. Shaw S. Snarski

2006-01-01

381

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equipment required under this subpart...50 gallons of water a minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds...b) Portable water cars: A portable...50 gallons of water per minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds...portable chemical car shall...

2013-07-01

382

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...One portable water car or one portable chemical car, and either (a...portable high-pressure rock-dusting...least 500 gallons of water and at least three...a portable water car of at least 500-gallons...waterlines prescribed under this...

2013-07-01

383

76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the product, 2. Identification of the source of supply for each ingredient, 3. Copies of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the product and for each ingredient used to prepare the product, and 4. Specific mixing requirements and...

2011-09-21

384

76 FR 58461 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the product, 2. Identification of the source of supply for each ingredient, 3. Copies of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the product and for each ingredient used to prepare the product, and 4. Specific mixing requirements and...

2011-09-21

385

76 FR 58460 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Long-Term Retardant for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the product; 2. Identification of the source of supply for each ingredient; 3. Copies of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the product and for each ingredient used to prepare the product; and 4. Specific mixing requirements and...

2011-09-21

386

New fire-fighting water bucket releases its water for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter releases 324 gallons of water onto a building in a simulated fire control demonstration. The high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

387

New fire-fighting water bucket is lifted from water for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter lifts a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket filled with water. The container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center.. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

388

Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

Abeles, F. J.

1980-01-01

389

New fire-fighting water bucket is readied for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers attach a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket to a NASA helicopter. Holding 324 gallons of water, it will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

390

New fire-fighting water bucket releases its load for a demonstration.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter releases the contents of the high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket it holds. The 324-gallon container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

391

Factor analytic structure of the Impact of Events Scale – Revised when used with a firefighting sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The Impact of Events Scale (IES)\\/Impact of Events Scale – Revised (IES-R) is arguably one of the most well known tools used to assess post-traumatic symptomatology. The background literature reveals a significant gap with respect to the structural properties of the IES\\/IES-R when used with emergency service populations. In response to these identified gaps, this paper aims to

Shannon L. Wagner

2011-01-01

392

Assessment Laboratory Model. Firefighter Selection Examination Developed for City of Palo Alto, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assessment laboratory function is supplementary and subsequent to the usual mass testing procedures. It is designed to elicit information not furnished by older, more traditional methods, e.g., assessment of personal attributes, communication skills, ...

J. D. Harris D. S. Macrae

1975-01-01

393

Accelerated Spirometric Decline in New York City Firefighters With ?1-Antitrypsin Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse caused massive air pollution, producing variable amounts of lung function reduction in the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) rescue workforce. ?1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a risk factor for obstructive airway disease. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study of the first 4 years post-September 11, 2001, investigated the influence of AAT deficiency on adjusted longitudinal spirometric change (FEV1) in 90 FDNY rescue workers with WTC exposure. Workers with protease inhibitor (Pi) Z heterozygosity were considered moderately AAT deficient. PiS homozygosity or PiS heterozygosity without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity was considered mild deficiency, and PiM homozygosity was considered normal. Alternately, workers had low AAT levels if serum AAT was ? 20 ?mol/L. Results: In addition to normal aging-related decline (37 mL/y), significant FEV1 decline accelerations developed with increasing AAT deficiency severity (110 mL/y for moderate and 32 mL/y for mild) or with low AAT serum levels (49 mL/y). Spirometric rates pre-September 11, 2001, did not show accelerations with AAT deficiency. Among workers with low AAT levels, cough persisted in a significant number of participants at 4 years post-September 11, 2001. Conclusions: FDNY rescue workers with AAT deficiency had significant spirometric decline accelerations and persistent airway symptoms during the first 4 years after WTC exposure, representing a novel gene-by-environment interaction. Clinically meaningful decline acceleration occurred even with the mild serum AAT level reductions associated with PiS heterozygosity (without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity).

Brantly, Mark; Izbicki, Gabriel; Hall, Charles; Shanske, Alan; Chavko, Robert; Santhyadka, Ganesha; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Weiden, Michael D.; Prezant, David J.

2010-01-01

394

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to be performed by members of the armed forces who are not readily available to...period of time that United States armed forces are engaged in Operation Enduring Freedom or during the period 180 days thereafter; (2) Is for...

2013-10-01

395

A Textile Antenna for Off-Body Communication Integrated Into Protective Clothing for Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of intelligent textile systems to increase the wearer's level of protection has exposed the necessity of wearable communication tools and has led to research in textile antennas. However, most textile fabrics are quite thin (0.5 mm), making it challenging for antenna designers to provide an antenna which operates adequately and resiliently in the 2.4-2.4835-GHz industrial-scientific-medical bandwidth. Flexible pad

Carla Hertleer; Hendrik Rogier; Luigi Vallozzi; Lieva Van Langenhove

2009-01-01

396

Many Faces, One Purpose: A Manager's Handbook on Women in Firefighting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Companion document to Many Women Strong (FA-195), this book was developed to help the fire service leader manage the changing workforce as it becomes progressively more inclusive of larger numbers of women in all ranks.

1999-01-01

397

Effects of UVB Radiation on the Toxicity of Fire-Fighting Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fire retardant chemicals are widely used in the United States and Canada to suppress and control wildland fires. These chemicals may be applied in environmentally sensitive areas potentially inhibited by endangered, threatened, or sensitive aquatic organi...

E. E. Little R. D. Calfee

2000-01-01

398

The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals.  

PubMed

The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity. PMID:12836977

Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E

2003-07-01

399

78 FR 41072 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provides funding for the hiring of new firefighters and the recruitment and retention of volunteer firefighters. DATES: Comments must be submitted...Fire and Emergency Response Hiring of Firefighters Application (Questions and...

2013-07-09

400

44 CFR 208.40 - Reimbursement of fringe benefit costs during Activation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DHS an additional 3 percent of the firefighter's converted compensation for the...on the number of hours worked by a firefighter. The City should bill DHS an additional 12 percent of the firefighter's total compensation during...

2013-10-01

401

24 CFR 291.540 - Owner-occupancy term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician submits...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician that...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician is...

2013-04-01

402

24 CFR 291.510 - Overview of the GNND Sales Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician to...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician finances...enforcement officers, teachers, and firefighters/emergency medical technicians...

2013-04-01

403

77 FR 55855 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, Assistance to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program-Grant Application Supplemental...of applicants for the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program. DATES: Comments must...comprise of applications for Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program (AFG) and Fire...

2012-09-11

404

High-Reach Extendable Turrets with Skin-Penetrating Nozzle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New equipment for aircraft rescue firefighting vehicles can help improve firefighting after an aircraft crash. New equipment such as a high-reach extendable turret (HRET) with skin-penetrating nozzle mounted on an airport firefighting vehicle could exting...

K. Bagot N. Subbotin

2005-01-01

405

Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs.

Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

1989-07-01

406

A systematic review of job-specific workers’ health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such\\u000a occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to\\u000a describe (1) the existing job-specific workers’ health surveillance (WHS) activities and (2) the effectiveness of job-specific\\u000a WHS interventions with respect to work functioning, for

M. J. PlatM; M. H. W. Frings-Dresen; J. K. Sluiter

407

Effects of forearm vs. leg submersion in work tolerance time in a hot environment while wearing firefighter protective clothing.  

PubMed

This study compared physiological responses and total work tolerance time following forearm submersion (FS) or leg submersion (LS) in cool water, after performing work in a hot environment while wearing fire fighting protective clothing (FPC). Participants walked at 3.5 mph on a treadmill in a hot environment (WBGT 32.8 ± 0.9°C) until a rectal temperature (T(rec)) of 38.5°C was reached. Participants were then subjected to one of two peripheral cooling interventions, in a counterbalanced order. Forearms or lower legs were submerged in water (16.9 ± 0.8°C) for a total of 20 min, followed by a work tolerance trial. Results indicated no significant difference (p = 0.052) between work tolerance time (LS = 21.36 ± 5.35 min vs. FS = 16.27 ± 5.56 min). Similarly, there was no significant difference for T(rec) (p = 0.65), heart rate (HR) (p = 0.79), mean skin temperature (T(sk)) (p = 0.68), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (p = 0.54). However, LS ratings of thermal comfort (RTC) at Minute 14 (p = 0.03) were significantly lower for LS (10 ± 1) vs. FS (12 ± 1). Results indicate little difference between FS and LS for physiological measures. Despite a lack of statistical significance a 5-min (24%) increase was found during the work tolerance time following LS. PMID:21756136

Katica, Charles P; Pritchett, Robert C; Pritchett, Kelly L; Del Pozzi, Andrew T; Balilionis, Gytis; Burnham, Tim

2011-08-01

408

Effectiveness of rest pauses and cooling in alleviation of heat stress during simulated fire-fighting activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has examined whether cooling a fire fighter with a high velocity fan, during 10 minute rest pauses between, and following, 10 minute work periods, decreases heat stress during repetitive fire fighting activity. Twelve professional fire fighters (mean age 31.8 + 6.7 years) completed two 40 minute work\\/recovery trials in an environmental chamber at 40 oC and 70 %

J. B. CARTER; E. W. Banister; J. B. Morrison

1999-01-01

409

Improved Clothing for Firefighters: The application of space technology should reduce the incidence of injuries, heat exhaustion, and fatigue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Using the advanced materials and design concepts of aerospace technology, protective gear was fabricated and tested for the head, face, torso, hand, and foot. In the...

1982-01-01

410

The Destruction of High-Expansion Fire-Fighting Foam by the Components of Fuel Pyrolysis and Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combustion and pyrolysis products in the air supply of high-expansion foam generators generally inhibit foam production. While this phenomenon is well documented, the mechanism is not known. The purpose of this research was to identify both the foam-break...

N. J. Alvares A. E. Lipska R. S. Alger

1971-01-01

411

Controlling the Hazards from LNG Spills on the Ground, LNG Firefighting Methods and Their Effects Application to Gas de France Terminals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gaz de France has developed a mathematical model to calculate vapor dispersion from accidental LNG spills on land. This model has been applied to make clear the influence of certain parameters in reducing the extension of the plumes. Based on the results ...

F. Bellus H. Cochard J. Mauger R. Vincent

1978-01-01

412

Thermal protective uniforms and hoods: impact of design modifications and water content on burn prevention in New York City firefighters: laboratory and field results  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To determine (1) the effectiveness of hoods in reducing head burns, (2) the impact of clothes worn under the protective outer uniform (modern = long sleeve shirt and long pants; modified modern = short sleeve T-shirt and short pants) on burns, and (3) whether water content (dry, damp or saturated) affects the level of thermal protection. Setting—Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY). Methods—Laboratory tests (fully dressed manikin) evaluated the different uniform and water conditions when exposed to an average 24 cal/cm2 heat flux, approximately 2250°F air temperature. FDNY field results compared (1) head burns during winters wearing the hood to winters without hood and (2) upper and lower extremity burns during summers wearing traditional, modern, and modified modern uniforms. Results—Laboratory tests showed that thermal protection was: (1) dramatically improved by the hood with protection increasing as water content increased and (2) not significantly different between modern and modified modern uniforms, regardless of water content. FDNY field results confirmed these tests showing (1) significant decreases in neck burns (by 54%), ear burns (by 60%), and head burn totals (by 46%) wearing the hood and (2) no significant differences in upper or lower extremity burns wearing modern compared with modified modern uniforms. Conclusions—Based on combined laboratory and field results, we strongly recommend the use of modern thermal protective hoods and the modified modern uniform.

Prezant, D; Malley, K; Barker, R; Guerth, C; Kelly, K

2001-01-01

413

"Going the Extra Mile", "Fire-Fighting", or "Laissez-Faire?" Re-Evaluating Personal Tutoring Relationships within Mass Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In highlighting a gulf between inclusive policy intentions inherent in the advent of mass higher education in the UK and the lived experiences of students and staff, this paper aims to stimulate critical debate about the impact of this changed environment upon traditional personal tutoring relationships. In drawing upon qualitative research with a…

Stephen, Dawn E.; O'Connell, Paul; Hall, Mike

2008-01-01

414

Controlling the hazards from LNG spills on the ground; LNG firefighting methods and their effects; application to Gaz de France terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaz de France has developed a mathematical model to calculate vapor dispersion from accidental LNG spills on land. This model was applied to make clear the influence of certain parameters in reducing the extension of the plumes. Based on the results of calculations -provided that basic safety features were included in the design and building of the LNG facilities -

F. Bellus; H. Cochard; R. Vincent; J. Mauger

1978-01-01

415

Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.  

SciTech Connect

Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

1990-06-01

416

Monitoring perfluorinated surfactants in biota and surface water samples following an accidental release of fire-fighting foam into Etobicoke Creek.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated surfactants have emerged as priority environmental contaminants due to recent reports of their detection in environmental and biological matrices as well as concerns regarding their persistence and toxicity. In June 2000, 22000 L of fire retardant foam containing perfluorinated surfactants was accidentally released at L. B. Pearson International Airport, Toronto, ON, and subsequently entered into Etobicoke Creek, a tributary to Lake Ontario. A suite of analytical tools that include liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and 19F NMR were employed to characterize fish (common shiner, Notropus cornutus) and surface water samples collected following the discharge of the perfluorinated material. Total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (4, 6, and 8 carbons) concentrations in fish liver samples ranged from 2.00 to 72.9 microg/g, and total perfluorocarboxylate (5-14 carbons) concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.02 microg/g. In addition to fish samples, total perfluoroalkanesulfonate (6 and 8 carbons) concentrations were detected in creek water samples by LC/MS/MS over a 153 day sampling period with concentrations ranging from <0.017 to 2260 microg/L; perfluorooctanoate concentrations (<0.009-11.3 microg/L) were lower than those observed for the perfluoroalkane-sulfonates. By 19F NMR, the total perfluorinated surfactant concentrations in surface water samples ranged from < 10 to 17000 microg/L. A bioaccumulation factor range of 6300-125000 was calculated for perfluorooctanesulfonate, based on concentrations in fish liver and surface water. The residence time of perfluorooctanesulfonate in Etobicoke Creek as well as the high bioaccumulation in fish liver suggests that perfluorinated surfactants will persist and bioaccumulate following release into the aquatic environment. PMID:11883418

Moody, Cheryl A; Martin, Jonathan W; Kwan, Wai Chi; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

2002-02-15

417

77 FR 71010 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Assistance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program-Grant Application Supplemental Information...INFORMATON: Collection of Information Title: Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program-Grant Application Supplemental...

2012-11-28

418

44 CFR 150.3 - Nomination process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nomination process. (a) The Nominating Officials nominating Firefighters and Civil Defense Officers shall submit their nominations...depending on the category of the nominee, as follows: (1) Firefighter: FEMA, Attention: Superintendent, National Fire...

2013-10-01

419

76 FR 1401 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest Service Title: Federal Excess Personal Property and Firefighter Property Cooperative Agreements. OMB Control Number: 0596-NEW...Collection: Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative Agreements...

2011-01-10

420

44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

2013-10-01

421

44 CFR 152.5 - Review process and evaluation criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.5 Review process and evaluation...applications that are determined to best address the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program's established priorities during...

2013-10-01

422

78 FR 58549 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Hiring of Firefighters Application (Questions and Narrative); FEMA Form 080-4b...Emergency Response Recruitment and Retention of Volunteer Firefighters Application (Questions and Narrative). Abstract:...

2013-09-24

423

31 CFR 29.334 - Deposit service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the deposit completed prior to June 30, 1997. (b) Police and Firefighters Plan. No credit is allowed for Federal Benefit Payments under the Police and Firefighters Plan for any period of civilian service that was not subject to...

2013-07-01

424

31 CFR 29.352 - Refunded contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...refunds of employee contributions made by police officers and firefighters through pay period 13. If pay period records are unavailable...of the retirement contributions made to police officers or firefighters in calendar year 1997. Otherwise, if the participant...

2013-07-01

425

44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

2013-10-01

426

20 CFR 404.1206 - Retirement system coverage groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or (8) The employees in police officers' positions or firefighters' positions, or both. If State law requires a State...applies to the coverage of services in police officers' and firefighters' positions in States and interstate instrumentalities...

2013-04-01

427

24 CFR 291.555 - Refinancing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) General. A law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician may refinance the mortgage...necessary to prevent the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician from defaulting on the...

2013-04-01

428

24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...financing. If the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician uses conventional financing...mortgage. (1) A law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician using an FHA-insured...

2013-04-01

429

33 CFR 149.408 - What are the maintenance requirements for fire extinguishers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the maintenance requirements for fire extinguishers? 149.408 Section 149...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...What are the maintenance requirements for fire extinguishers? All fire...

2013-07-01

430

46 CFR 169.559 - Fire pumps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps. 169.559 Section 169.559 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.559 Fire pumps. (a) Each sailing school...

2013-10-01

431

46 CFR 169.564 - Fixed extinguishing system, general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Fixed extinguishing system, general. 169.564 Section 169.564 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.564 Fixed extinguishing system, general....

2013-10-01

432

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a)...

2013-10-01

433

46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Portable extinguishers. 169.567 Section 169.567 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.567 Portable extinguishers. (a) The...

2013-10-01

434

46 CFR 169.569 - Fire axes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire axes. 169.569 Section 169.569 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.569 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel must...

2013-10-01

435

30 CFR 56.4200 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General requirements. (a) For fighting fires that could endanger persons, each...Onsite firefighting equipment for fighting fires in their early stages; and ...Onsite firefighting equipment for fighting fires beyond their early stages,...

2013-07-01

436

30 CFR 57.4200 - General requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General requirements. (a) For fighting fires that could endanger persons, each...Onsite firefighting equipment for fighting fires in their early stages; and ...Onsite firefighting equipment for fighting fires beyond their early stages,...

2013-07-01

437

33 CFR 149.410 - Where must portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Where must portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located? 149.410...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...Where must portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located? All...

2013-07-01

438

33 CFR 149.406 - What are the approval requirements for a fire extinguisher?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the approval requirements for a fire extinguisher? 149.406 Section 149...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...What are the approval requirements for a fire extinguisher? All portable and...

2013-07-01

439

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

2013-07-01

440

33 CFR 149.415 - What are the requirements for a fire main system on a manned deepwater port?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What are the requirements for a fire main system on a manned deepwater port...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...415 What are the requirements for a fire main system on a manned deepwater...

2013-07-01

441

44 CFR 151.12 - Determination of amount authorized for payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF FIREFIGHTING... (1) The extent to which the fire service incurred additional firefighting...costs, in connection with the fire which is the subject of the...

2013-10-01

442

Aspen Fire, Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images from NASAs Terra and Aqua satellites have become a regular part of the National Interagency Fire Centers firefighting toolkit. The images help the center track fires on a daily basis and are used in allocating precious firefighting resources.

Snodgrass, Stuart; Kekesi, Alex; Salomonson, Vincent

2003-07-03

443

76 FR 6112 - Federal Benefit Payments Under Certain District of Columbia Retirement Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1997, under the retirement plans for District of Columbia teachers, police officers, and firefighters. Benefits for service...benefits under the retirement plans for District of Columbia teachers, police officers, and firefighters. See 75 FR...

2011-02-03

444

76 FR 6488 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD-Owned Real Estate-Good...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The respondents are purchasers of HUD-owned properties, teachers, law enforcement officers, and firefighters/emergency responders...The respondents are purchasers of HUD-owned properties, teachers, law enforcement officers, and firefighters/emergency...

2011-02-04

445

31 CFR 29.402 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...terms of the Judges Plan, Police and Firefighters Plan, or Teachers Plan, who is or...another under the Judges Plan, Police and Firefighters Plan, or Teachers Plan. Department...receive a benefit under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan...

2013-07-01

446

31 CFR 29.302 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Code (1997) (under the Police and Firefighters Plan) or section 31-1231(a...that is, age 55 under the Police and Firefighters Plan and age 62 under the Teachers...position covered by the Police and Firefighters Plan or Teachers Plan....

2013-07-01

447

Human and Object Detection in Smoke-filled Space using Millimeter-wave radar based Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, crisis management's response to terrorist attacks and natural disasters, as well as accelerating rescue operations have become an important issue. In rescue operations of fire disaster, one of the biggest problems is that the firefighter?s view is obstructed by dense smoke. We considered the most important task for firefighters is to understand the inside situation of the

Masaki Sakai; Yoshimitsu Aoki

2006-01-01

448

Health hazards of fire fighters: exposure assessment.  

PubMed

There is growing concern over the detrimental health effects to firefighters produced by exposure to combustion byproducts of burning materials. To assess the types and levels of exposure encountered by firefighters during their routine occupational duties, members of the Buffalo Fire Department were monitored during firefighting activities with personal, portable, ambient environmental sampling devices. The results indicate that firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, benzene, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane, and particulates. Furthermore, in many cases of the worst exposure to these materials respiratory protective equipment was not used owing to the visual impression of low smoke intensity, and thus these levels represent actual direct exposure of the firefighters. Many of these materials have been implicated in the production of cardiovascular, respiratory, or neoplastic diseases, which may provide an explanation for the alleged increased risk for these illnesses among firefighters. PMID:3179235

Brandt-Rauf, P W; Fallon, L F; Tarantini, T; Idema, C; Andrews, L

1988-09-01

449

Health hazards of fire fighters: exposure assessment.  

PubMed Central

There is growing concern over the detrimental health effects to firefighters produced by exposure to combustion byproducts of burning materials. To assess the types and levels of exposure encountered by firefighters during their routine occupational duties, members of the Buffalo Fire Department were monitored during firefighting activities with personal, portable, ambient environmental sampling devices. The results indicate that firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, benzene, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane, and particulates. Furthermore, in many cases of the worst exposure to these materials respiratory protective equipment was not used owing to the visual impression of low smoke intensity, and thus these levels represent actual direct exposure of the firefighters. Many of these materials have been implicated in the production of cardiovascular, respiratory, or neoplastic diseases, which may provide an explanation for the alleged increased risk for these illnesses among firefighters.

Brandt-Rauf, P W; Fallon, L F; Tarantini, T; Idema, C; Andrews, L

1988-01-01

450

Analysis of Fireground Standard Operating Guidelines\\/Procedures Compliance for Austin Fire Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is general belief that the rate of firefighter injury can be lowered by creating fire service cultures where firefighters\\u000a more closely follow their training and standard operating guidelines (SOGs). That is, there is a desire to minimize cases\\u000a where firefighters operate outside of the SOGs. Interestingly, there is scant data on the rate of adherence to SOGs in the

Craig Weinschenk; Robert Nicks; Ofodike A. Ezekoye

2008-01-01

451

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report: Volunteer Fire Fighter Dies of a Heart Attack after Conducting Firefighting Activities at a Single Family Log Cabin Dwelling, Virginia, December 7, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On December 7, 1997, a 52-year old male volunteer fire fighter succumbed to a heart attack 19 hours after fighting a fire in a 200 year-old renovated two-story log cabin. The fire fighting effort was made emotionally difficult by the fact that the 27-year...

1998-01-01

452

Prospective 10-year evaluation of hypobetalipoproteinemia in a cohort of 772 firefighters and cross-sectional evaluation of hypocholesterolemia in 1,479 men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our specific aim in a 10-year prospective study of 772 Cincinnati firemen (predominantly aged 26 to 46 years) was to determine the prevalence, attributes, and etiology of persistent hypobetalipoproteinemia, defined by entry low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) less than 75 mg\\/dL. A second specific aim was to cross-sectionally assess hypocholesterolemia (defined by total serum cholesterol [TC] < 130 mg\\/dL) in 1,314

Charles J. Glueck; William Kelley; Arun Gupta; Robert N. Fontaine; Ping Wang; Peter S. Gartside

1997-01-01

453

Basis for category B designation for K basins  

SciTech Connect

This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes.

Jensen, M.A.

1994-09-01

454

A GIS-based decision support system for determining the shortest and safest route to forest fires: a case study in Mediterranean Region of Turkey.  

PubMed

The ability of firefighting vehicles and staff to reach a fire area as quickly as possible is critical in fighting against forest fires. In this study, a Geographical Information System-based decision support system was developed to assist fire managers in determining the fastest and the safest or more reliable access routes from firefighting headquarters to fire areas. The decision support system was tested in the Kahramanmaras Forestry Regional Directoratein the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study area consisted of forested lands which had been classified according to fire sensitivity. The fire response routing simulations considered firefighting teams located in 20 firefighting headquarter locations. The road network, the locations of the firefighting headquarters, and possible fire locations were mapped for simulation analysis. In alternative application simulations, inaccessible roads which might be closed due to fire or other reasons were indicated in the network analysis so that the optimum route was not only the fastest but also the safest and most reliable path. The selection of which firefighting headquarters to use was evaluated by considering critical response time to potential fire areas based on fire sensitivity levels. Results indicated that new firefighting headquarters should be established in the region in order to provide sufficient firefighting response to all forested lands. In addition, building new fire access roads and increasing the design speed on current roads could also increase firefighting response capabilities within the study area. PMID:21509512

Akay, Abdullah E; Wing, Michael G; Sivrikaya, Fatih; Sakar, Dursun

2012-03-01

455

Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

1999-01-01

456

46 CFR 169.521 - Stowage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.521...062 of this chapter. Equipment for Primary Lifesaving...

2009-10-01

457

46 CFR 169.525 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Equipment for Primary Lifesaving Apparatus § 169.525 General. (a) Equipment for primary lifesaving apparatus must...

2009-10-01

458

46 CFR 169.519 - Availability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.519 Availability. (a) Each lifeboat,...

2013-10-01

459

46 CFR 169.525 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Equipment for Primary Lifesaving Apparatus § 169.525 General. (a) Equipment for primary lifesaving apparatus must...

2010-10-01

460

46 CFR 169.519 - Availability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.519 Availability. (a) Each lifeboat,...

2010-10-01

461

46 CFR 169.521 - Stowage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.521...062 of this chapter. Equipment for Primary Lifesaving...

2010-10-01

462

The health of women in the US fire service  

PubMed Central

Background Despite statements from national fire service organizations, including the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) and the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC), promoting a diverse work force related to gender within the fire service, rates of women firefighters remain very low. Thus, research into why this extensive gender disparity continues is a high priority. Recent years have seen a number of large scale studies on firefighter health and health risk behaviors however, none have focused on the health of women firefighters and nearly all have eliminated women from the sample due to small sample size. Data from the present report is drawn from all females in a large, randomly selected cohort of firefighters in an epidemiological study designed to assess health outcomes and health risk behaviors identified as most important to the fire service. Methods Data reported for the present study were collected as baseline data for the Firefighter Injury and Risk Evaluation (FIRE) Study, a longitudinal cohort study examining risk factors for injury in both career and volunteer firefighters in the IAFC Missouri Valley Region. Of the departments assessed, only 8 career and 6 volunteer departments had any women firefighters. All the women solicited for participation chose to enroll in the study. The number of women ranged from 1 to 7 in career departments and 1 to 6 in volunteer departments. Results Where possible, comparisons are made between female firefighters and published data on male firefighters as well as comparisons between female firefighters and military members. Compared to male firefighters, females had more favorable body composition among both career and volunteer firefighters. Tobacco use rates were generally higher among females than males and rates among female firefighters were similar to the rates of female military members. While rates of alcohol use were higher than the general population, only one of the participants evidenced responses in the range of concern on the CAGE screening. Conclusions In general, the findings offer an interesting glimpse of the health of women in the fire service as a generally healthy occupational workforce with some unique health risk behavior challenges. They also highlight some of the similarities and differences between male and female firefighters and bolster the argument for studying female firefighters as a unique occupational sub-population.

2012-01-01

463

24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...291.520), teacher (as described in § 291.525), or firefighter/emergency medical technician (as described in § 291...291.520), teacher (as described in § 291.525), or firefighter/emergency medical technician (as described in §...

2013-04-01

464

Franklin Pierce College's Fire Department: 17 Student Volunteers and a Vintage Engine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventeen student volunteers form the Franklin Pierce College Fire Department. When the firefighters are on duty, they must carry electronic pagers at all times. They also participate in dormitory inspections and attend weekend sessions at a local firefighters' training school. (MLW)

Meyer, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

465

Disaster relief work: An assessment of training effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the applicability of the training and operational practices of a group of firefighters to disaster search and rescue duties. Using schema theory it is hypothesized that training effectiveness could be evaluated by assessing the incidence with which event characteristics are perceived as stressors. A comparison of the propensity of a group of firefighters and a group of

Douglas Paton

1994-01-01

466

Teaching Guide for Fire Cadet Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of five performance-based secondary level guides for vocational education. Part 1 provides tools, resources, and a process to be used at the local level to develop a firefighter cadet training curriculum. It includes a comprehensive overview of the career field; a performance-based listing of firefighting job tasks; a description of…

Kempton, Robert F.

467

33 CFR 149.412 - How many fire axes are needed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How many fire axes are needed? 149.412 Section...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.412 How many fire axes are needed? Each manned...

2013-07-01

468

Fighting Fires in Educational Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on wildland fire fighting supports educational administrators' use of the fire-fighting metaphor to describe the nature of their work. Fire-fighting nuances illuminate subtle conditions in educational organizations that increase their vulnerability to failure. These parallels suggest five management conditions that determine…

Weick, Karl E.

1996-01-01

469

Improving the quality of non-emergency leadership: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core business of fire-fighting organizations is typically seen as emergency response. For a range of reasons, however, fire-fighting organizations face increasing pressures to develop new capabilities. In the midst of multiple changes, individual organizations need to develop strategic plans that allow them not only to change the organization, but also to develop the capabilities of its personnel. This paper

Merilyn Childs

2002-01-01

470

Maladaptive Self-Appraisals before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the proposal that negative appraisals represent a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Trainee firefighters (N = 68) were assessed during training (before trauma exposure) for PTSD, history of traumatic events, and tendency to engage in negative appraisals. Firefighters were reassessed 4…

Bryant, Richard A.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

2007-01-01

471

The Effect of Computer-Based Simulation Training on Fire Ground Incident Commander Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the establishment of the first volunteer fire brigades in the United States, firefighters have lost their lives in fire fighting operations at emergency incidents and live-fire training activities. While there are various reasons for these firefighter deaths and injuries, the United States Fire Administration (2002) reported that many of…

Hall, Kurt A.

2010-01-01

472

Particle size-dependent radical generation from wildland fire smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighting, along with construction, mining and agriculture, ranks among the most dangerous occupations. In addition, the work environment of firefighters is unlike that of any other occupation, not only because of the obvious physical hazards but also due to the respiratory and systemic health hazards of smoke inhalation resulting from combustion. A significant amount of research has been devoted to

Stephen S. Leonard; Vince Castranova; Bean T. Chen; Diane Schwegler-Berry; Mark Hoover; Chris Piacitelli; Denise M. Gaughan

2007-01-01

473

Changes in Risk Taking Propensity Resulting from a Ropes Course Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male firefighters participated in a standard or modified ropes course to determine if risk-taking propensity might change as a result of adventure training. The expectation that a modified course simulating real firefighting would better transfer such training to the workplace was not substantiated. Both samples increased their risk-taking…

MacRae, Sherry; And Others

1993-01-01

474

Sadler Fire Entrapment Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On August 9, 1999, six firefighters from the Golden Gate 3 crew were entrapped by wildland fire as they conducted a backfiring operation on the Sadler Complex in Elko, Nevada. Three firefighters were hospitalized and treated for smoke inhalation and two o...

1999-01-01

475

Significance of Fire Service Culture as an Impediment to Effective Leadership in the Homeland Security Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tragic loss of 343 firefighters on 9/11 monumentally illustrates that firefighters now stand on the front line in the war against terrorism. The ramifications of 9/11 forced fire service leaders to incorporate newly recognized strategies of terrorism ...

A. T. Cox

2012-01-01

476

Instruction: Cable and Slow-Scan. Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rockford Cable Project is an experimental program using two-way cable television to train firefighters in prefire planning. The instructional design calls for firefighters across the city to view videotapes simultaneously and respond to computerized questions via a specially-designed pushbutton terminal. The project provides for centralized…

Pachuta, Jack

477

Fire service and first responder thermal imaging camera (TIC) advances and standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire Service and First Responder Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) applications are growing, saving lives and preventing injury and property damage. Firefighters face a wide range of serious hazards. TICs help mitigate the risks by protecting Firefighters and preventing injury, while reducing time spent fighting the fire and resources needed to do so. Most fire safety equipment is covered by performance

Lawrence S. Konsin; Stuart Nixdorff

2007-01-01

478

Coping, Functioning, and Adjustment of Rescue Workers After the Oklahoma City Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have not previously considered postdisaster adjustment in the context of psychiatric disorders. After the Oklahoma City bombing, a volunteer sample of 181 firefighters who served as rescue and recovery workers was assessed with a structured diagnostic interview. The firefighters had relatively low rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and described little functional impairment, positive social adjustment, and high job

Carol S. North; Laura Tivis; J. Curtis McMillen; Betty Pfefferbaum; Jann Cox; Edward L. Spitznagel; Kenneth Bunch; John Schorr; Elizabeth M. Smith

2002-01-01

479

An examination of the benefits of health promotion programs for the national fire service  

PubMed Central

Background Firefighters suffer from high prevalence of obesity, substandard fitness, and cardiovascular-related deaths. There have been a limited number of firefighter health promotion programs that have been developed and empirically-tested for this important occupational group. We evaluated the health of firefighters from departments with well-developed health promotion programs and compared them with those from departments not having such programs using a large national sample of career fire departments that varied in size and mission. We measured a broad array of important individual firefighter health outcomes (e.g., body composition, physical activity, and general and behavioral health) consistent with national fire service goals and addressed significant statistical limitations unaccounted for in previous studies. Methods Using the approach of purposive sampling of heterogeneous instances, we selected and conducted a national evaluation of 10 departments already implementing wellness and fitness programs (Wellness Approach; WA) with 10 departments that did not (Standard). Participants were 1,002 male firefighters (WA n = 522; Standard n = 480) who underwent assessments including body composition, fitness, and general/behavioral health (e.g., injury, depressive symptoms). Results Firefighters in WA departments were healthier than their Standard department counterparts. For example, they were less likely to be obese (adjusted [A]OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41-0.82), more likely to meet endurance capacity standards for firefighting (AOR = 5.19; 95% CI = 2.49-10.83) and have higher estimated VO2max (40.7 ± 0.6 vs. 37.5 ± 1.3 for firefighters in Standard departments; p = 0.001). In addition, WA firefighter were substantially less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.17-0.54) or ever have been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.14-0.52) and they expressed higher job satisfaction across several domains. However, WA firefighters were somewhat more likely to have reported an injury to Workers’ Compensation (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.05-2.90). It was notable that both groups evidenced high prevalence of smokeless tobacco use and binge drinking. Conclusions Firefighters in departments selected based on having strong wellness programs (WA) were healthier along a number of dimensions important to firefighter wellness and operational readiness. However, several health areas require greater attention including problematic alcohol consumption and smokeless tobacco use, suggesting that more emphasis on these behavioral health issues is needed in the fire service.

2013-01-01

480

Training and Extended Operations in Females.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this extension project was to complete three studies with male and female subjects during short term and seasonal exposure to an arduous work environment and to determine the effects of an uncontrolled situation (active wildland firefighter...

B. C. Ruby

1999-01-01

481

Self-Assessment in Personnel Selection and Placement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A self-assessment questionnaire was administered to 474 firefighter applicants in conjunction with a written test of cognitive abilities. The applicants were asked to make self-assessments of important cognitive and noncognitive abilities required to perf...

P. van Rijn

1981-01-01

482

National Fire Service Research Agenda Symposium, June 1-3, 2005, Emmitsburg, MD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 1, 2 and 3, 2005, The National Fire Service Research Agenda Symposium was conducted at the National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland. The Symposium was conduct by the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation (NFFF) and funded by a ...

2008-01-01

483

44 CFR 152.4 - Roles and responsibilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.4 Roles and responsibilities. (a) Applicants must: (1) Complete the application...

2013-10-01

484

Voluntary Race-Conscious Affirmative Action Plans: The Significance of Two Recent Supreme Court Decisions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the United States Supreme Court's decisions in Wygant v. the Jackson Board of Education and in International Association of Firefighters v. City of Cleveland. Explores the decisions' more general applications to voluntary affirmative action plans. (PS)

Fischer, Louis

1987-01-01

485

24 CFR 291.565 - Continuing obligations after purchase.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...obligations after purchase. To remain in compliance with the GNND Sales Program, the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician must, for the entire duration of the owner-occupancy term: (a) Continue to...

2013-04-01

486

Keeping Your Students Safe from Fire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses successful cooperative relationship between school staff and firefighters to bring fire safety education to elementary school students with visits, presentations, contests, and a day-long Fire Expo held each year. (ET)

Hartig, Richard W.

1995-01-01

487

Fire and Rescue Technology. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides occupational information about fire and rescue operations personnel, such as fire science, fire protection engineering, emergency medical technicians, and firefighters. Provides information about organizations in these fields. (JOW)

Valesey, Brigitte G.

1997-01-01

488

31 CFR 29.401 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) This subpart explainsâ (1) The procedures that participants and beneficiaries in the Judges Plan, Police and Firefighters Plan, and the Teachers Plan must follow in applying for Federal Benefit Payments; (2) The procedures for...

2013-07-01

489