These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Firefighter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The responsibilities of a firefighter extend far beyond simply responding to fire emergencies. At many departments, responding to medical calls or car accidents is the most frequent activity, and a routine shift might also entail dealing with hazardous materials, gas leaks, structural collapses, floods, ice storms, wild animals, or the myriad…

Moore, Pam

2011-01-01

2

Firefighters' Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

1976-01-01

3

INL@Work Firefighter  

ScienceCinema

Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

Baron, Wendy

2013-05-28

4

Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

1984-01-01

5

Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are working jointly to develop a helicopter transportable firefighting module that can shave precious minutes in combating shipboard or harbor fires. The program was undertaken in 1975, after a series of disastrous fires on oil tankers indicated a need for a lightweight, self-contained system that could be moved quickly to the scene of a fire. A prototype module was delivered to the Coast Guard last year and service testing is under way. The compact module weighs little more than a ton but it contains everything needed to fight a fire. The key component is a high output pump, which delivers up to 2,000 gallons of sea water a minute; the pump can be brought up to maximum output in only one minute after turning on the power source, a small Allison gas turbine engine. The module also contains hose, a foam nozzle and a spray nozzle, three sets of protective clothing for firefighters, and fuel for three hours operation. Designed to be assembled without special tools, the module can be set up for operation in less than 20 minutes.

1978-01-01

6

Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

1980-01-01

7

Outfitting Wildland Firefighters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive flash-based poster shows the equipment that firefighters use in their work, along with how they use it. Simply click on a piece of equipment, and a sidebar explains its use and history in firefighting.

Lexi Krock

8

Biomonitoring in California Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 ?g/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 ?g/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals.

Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

2015-01-01

9

Improved Clothing for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of space technology should reduce incidence of injuries, heat exhaustion, and fatigue in firefighters. Using advanced materials and design concepts of aerospace technology, protective gear was fabricated and tested for the heat, face, torso, hand and foot. In tests, it was found that new gear protects better than conventional firefighter gear, weighs 40 percent less, and reduces wearer's energy expenditure by 25 percent.

Abeles, F. J.

1982-01-01

10

Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

1978-01-01

11

The Physics of Firefighting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, from The Physics Teacher, provides an explanation of the physics of how water puts out fires. It also contains a description of how firefighters determine the water pressure for their hoses--and this physics is taught in fire academies.

Egler, Robert

2007-10-30

12

Coast Guard Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

1977-01-01

13

FIREGUIDE: Firefighter guide and tracker.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce an indoor location tracking and navigation system (FIREGUIDE) using Bluetooth and RFID technology. FIREGUIDE assists the firefighters to find the nearest exit location and presents the Incident Commander the current firefighter's location superimposed on a map of the building floor. We envision that the FIREGUIDE system will save significant number of fire fighters and victims' lives. PMID:21096429

Gandhi, Siddhesh Rajan; Ganz, Aura; Mullett, G

2010-01-01

14

Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

2008-01-01

15

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a) At each...

2010-10-01

16

Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

Wallace, R. J.

1984-01-01

17

Sleep Quality of Professional Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background: Firefighting is a unique job with contradictious demands that expose firefighters to many well documented causal factors of sleep debt, but no studies in Iran and only a few worldwide studies have investigated their sleep quality while sleep problems may lead to catastrophes especially in critical service workers. The aim of this study is to evaluate sleep quality and its related factors among a sample of professional Iranian firefighters. Methods: Using simple random sampling method in a cross-sectional study, 427 personnel of fire and rescue service were invited. They completed the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a data collection sheet about their demographic and occupational features during an individual face to face interview in central office and firehouses throughout Tehran. Response rate was 88.7%. Results: The mean ± SD global PSQI score was 7.97 ± 3.77. Sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality. 69.9% of participants were poor sleepers. Interestingly, we found no significant differences between sleep quality of shift workers and non shift workers. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, only having another job, smoking and years of job experience were predictors of poor sleep. Conclusions: In comparison with adult population of Tehran, sleep quality deterioration is notably more common in Tehran firefighters which require health promotion interventions to prevent its serious adverse outcomes. PMID:24130955

Mehrdad, Ramin; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Esfahani, Amir Hossein Naseri

2013-01-01

18

Model Training Guide. Firefighter I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This firefighter training guide for a 180-hour course was developed to assist training officers in planning training with emphasis on conformance to recommended National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 1001) standards. The material in the guide is referenced to current editions of the International Fire Service Training Association manuals and…

Hagevig, William A.; Gallagher, Leigh S.

19

Data Mining and Ergonomic Evaluation of Firefighter’s Motion Based on Decision Tree Classification Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is effective means to promote firefighter’s clothing design through research of firefighters’ motion. In this paper, substantive\\u000a data and picture information are obtained by investigation methods. Based on the survey, the motion is systematically classified\\u000a according to both intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. The decision tree classification model for firefighters’ motion\\u000a is obtained by pattern recognition technique. The key

Lifang Yang; Tianjiao Zhao

20

Learning amongst Norwegian Fire-Fighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach…

Sommer, Morten; Nja, Ove

2011-01-01

21

Firefighter fitness: improving performance and preventing injuries and fatalities.  

PubMed

Firefighting is dangerous work. Each year, approximately 80,000 firefighters are injured and about 100 firefighters lose their lives in the line of duty. Firefighters face multiple dangers in the course of their work; they encounter toxic fumes, dangerous products of combustion, high radiant heat loads, and a chaotic work environment. Despite the myriad dangers, the leading cause of line-of-duty death among firefighters is sudden cardiac event, accounting for approximately 45% of duty deaths. Firefighting requires high levels of aerobic fitness, anaerobic capacity, and muscular strength and endurance; however, data suggest that many firefighters do not possess high aerobic or anaerobic capacity. Furthermore, many firefighters are overweight and have one or more modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The safety of the public and the health and safety of firefighters would be enhanced if firefighters followed well-designed fitness programs to improve overall health and fitness. PMID:21623308

Smith, Denise L

2011-01-01

22

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A training officer controls elements of a fire training exercise at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters tackled flames from a burning simulated aircraft.

2000-01-01

23

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A firefighter waits for his companions before tackling the flames on a simulated aircraft. Firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

24

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters in full gear wait to approach a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. The firefighters are with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

2000-01-01

25

30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting...

2011-07-01

26

30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting...

2014-07-01

27

30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting...

2012-07-01

28

30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting...

2010-07-01

29

30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting...

2013-07-01

30

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A firefighter (right) holds a water hose in readiness as others enter a smoke-filled simulated aircraft. The activities are part of fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters have already extinguished flames from the aircraft.

2000-01-01

31

Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

Roman, Harry T.

2007-01-01

32

Characterization of firefighter exposures during fire overhaul.  

PubMed

Previous studies have characterized firefighter exposures during fire suppression. However, minimal information is available regarding firefighter exposures during overhaul, when firefighters look for hidden fire inside attics, ceilings, and walls, often without respiratory protection. A comprehensive air monitoring study was conducted to characterize City of Phoenix firefighter exposures during the overhaul phase of 25 structure fires. Personal samples were collected for aldehydes; benzene; toluene; ethyl benzene; xylene; hydrochloric acid; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA); respirable dust; and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Gas analyzers were employed to continuously monitor carbon monoxide (CO), HCN, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Area samples were collected for asbestos, metals (Cd, Cr, Pb), and total dust. During overhaul the following exceeded published ceiling values: acrolein (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH] 0.1 ppm) at 1 fire; CO (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH] 200 ppm) at 5 fires; formaldehyde (NIOSH 0.1 ppm) at 22 fires; and glutaraldehyde (ACGIH 0.05 ppm) at 5 fires. In addition, the following exceeded published short-term exposure limit values: benzene (NIOSH 1 ppm) at two fires, NO2 (NIOSH 1 ppm) at two fires, and SO2 (ACGIH 5 ppm) at five fires. On an additive effects basis, PNA concentrations exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limits (0.1 mg/M3) for coal tar pitch volatiles at two fires. Maximum concentrations of other sampled substances were below their respective permissible exposure limits. Initial 10-min average CO concentrations did not predict concentrations of other products of combustion. The results indicate that firefighters should use respiratory protection during overhaul. In addition, these findings suggest that CO should not be used as an indicator gas for other contaminants found in this atmosphere. PMID:11071414

Bolstad-Johnson, D M; Burgess, J L; Crutchfield, C D; Storment, S; Gerkin, R; Wilson, J R

2000-01-01

33

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials... § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials...of service as a firefighter,law enforcement officer or nuclear...

2010-01-01

34

Wildland smoke exposure values and exhaled breath indicators in firefighters.  

PubMed

Smoke from forest fires contains significant amounts of gaseous and particulate pollutants. Firefighters exposed to wildland fire smoke can suffer from several acute and chronic adverse health effects. Consequently, exposure data are of vital importance for the establishment of cause/effect relationships between exposure to smoke and firefighter health effects. The aims of this study were to (1) characterize the relationship between wildland smoke exposure and medical parameters and (2) identify health effects pertinent to wildland forest fire smoke exposure. In this study, firefighter exposure levels of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO?), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured in wildfires during three fire seasons in Portugal. Personal monitoring devices were used to measure exposure. Firefighters were also tested for exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and CO before and after their firefighting activities. Data indicated that exposure levels during firefighting activities were beyond limits recommended by the Occupational Exposure Standard (OES) values. Medical tests conducted on the firefighters also indicated a considerable effect on measured medical parameters, with a significant increase in CO and decrease in NO in exhaled air of majority of the firefighters. PMID:22788370

Miranda, Ana Isabel; Martins, Vera; Cascão, Pedro; Amorim, Jorge Humberto; Valente, Joana; Borrego, Carlos; Ferreira, António Jorge; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo; Viegas, Domingos Xavier; Ottmar, Roger

2012-01-01

35

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters in full gear douse a fire on a simulated aircraft. The firefighters, who are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

36

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters surround a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. Those at left wait their turn as the crew on the right turn their hoses toward the fire. The firefighters are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

2000-01-01

37

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

38

KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with a railroad tanker car  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Kennedy Space Center railroad tanker car loaded with 20,000 gallons of water and retrofitted with a special attachment for directly filling fire trucks was transported to the scene of a fire in north Brevard County to assist with firefighting efforts.

1998-01-01

39

Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess eight firefighters' exposure to Sthamex 3% AFFF (aqueous film forming foam) in the simulation of aircraft accidents at Oulu airport in Finland. Study was conducted in 2010 before limitation for the use of PFOA and PFOS in AFFFs. Due to prospective limitation also eight commercially available AFFFs were evaluated from occupational and environmental point of view to find substitutive AFFFs for future. The firefighters' exposure to twelve perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) was analyzed in order to observe the signs of accumulation during three consecutive training sessions. The firefighters' short-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) was analyzed by urinalysis of 2-butoxyacetic acid (2-BAA). For the background information also the concentration of PFAS in used AFFF-liquid was analyzed. Fire fighters' serum PFHxS and PFNA concentrations seemed to increase during the three training sessions although they were not the main PFAS in used AFFF. The statistical significance for the elevations was not able to test due to limited size of test group. In two training sessions, the average urinary excretions of 2-BAA exceeded the reference limit of the occupationally unexposed population. In the evaluations of the firefighting foams, non-fluorine based products were favored and the alcohol resistance properties of foams were recommended for consideration due to the increasing use of biofuels. PMID:25447453

Laitinen, Juha Ari; Koponen, Jani; Koikkalainen, Janne; Kiviranta, Hannu

2014-12-01

40

The Firefighter Recruitment and Selection Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the firefighter recruitment and selection process is the first step in permanent employment with a fire department. This lesson describes the major components of fire service testing and provides a basic overview of the selection process. Carefully follow the instructions detailed below and report your progress as indicated. Fire service entry-level testing usually involves three major components: Written exam; Physical ability/agility test; and Oral board. Each area is just important as the other and failure in any of the three will disqualify you from getting the job you\\'re looking for. Written Exam Let\\'s begin by looking at the ...

Gary Noll

2007-10-17

41

The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

Burns, Ralph A.

1986-01-01

42

Polymer Fabric Protects Firefighters, Military, and Civilians  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1967, NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. In 2005, the PBI fiber and polymer business was sold to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form. PBI is now used in numerous firefighting, military, motor sports, and other applications.

2008-01-01

43

Field Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Work Capacity of Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter’s ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters’ aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs?=??0.65 and ?0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL·min?1) and relative (mL·kg?1·min?1) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs?=??0.79 to 0.55 and ?0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters’ work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s·kg?1), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter’s aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

2013-01-01

44

DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE OF BOAT UNDER THE WATERLINE. ZINCS ARE ALSO ADDED HERE TO PRESERVE THE METAL. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York, New York County, NY

45

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., turn their hoses toward the fire on the simulated aircraft.

2000-01-01

46

Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.  

SciTech Connect

Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

2011-10-01

47

Fitness self-perception and Vo2max in firefighters.  

PubMed

Firefighters work at maximal levels of exertion. Fitness for such duty requires adequate aerobic capacity (maximum oxygen consumption [Vo2max]). Aerobic fitness can both improve a worker's ability to perform and offer resistance to cardiopulmonary conditions. Inactive firefighters have a 90% greater risk of myocardial infarction than those who are aerobically fit. Participants (101 firefighters) completed a questionnaire that asked them to rank their fitness level from 0 to 7; e.g., Level 0 was low fitness: "I avoid walking or exertion, e.g., always use elevator, drive whenever possible." The level of activity rating increased to Level 7: "I run over 10 miles per week or spend 3 hours per week in comparable physical activity." Each participant then completed two measures of Vo2max: a 5-minute step test and a submaximal treadmill test. There was no association between the firefighters' self-perception of their level of fitness and their aerobic capacity as measured by either step test or submaximal treadmill. Because of the critical job demands of firefighting and the negative consequences of inadequate fitness and aerobic capacity, periodic aerobic capacity testing with individualized exercise prescriptions and work--community support may be advisable for all active-duty firefighters. PMID:12085481

Peate, W F; Lundergan, Linda; Johnson, Jerry J

2002-06-01

48

Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background A leading contributing factor to firefighter injury and death is lack of fitness. Therefore, the Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) was established that includes a focus on providing fitness assessments to all fire service personnel. The current fitness assessment includes a submaximal exercise test protocol and associated prediction equation to predict individual VO2peak as a measure of fitness. There is limited information on the accuracy, precision, and sources of error of this prediction equation. This study replicated previous research by validating the accuracy of the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for a group of firefighters and further examining potential sources of error for an individual firefighters’ assessment. Methods The sample consisted of 22 firefighters who completed a maximal exercise test protocol similar to the WFI submaximal protocol, but the test was terminated when firefighters reached a maximal level of exertion (i.e., measured VO2peak). We then calculated the predicted VO2peak based on the WFI prediction equation along with individual firefighters’ body mass index (BMI) and 85% of maximum heart rate. The data were analyzed using paired samples t-tests in SPSS v. 21.0. Results The difference between predicted and measured VO2peak was -0.77?±?8.35 mL•kg-1•min-1. However, there was a weak, statistically non-significant association between measured VO2peak and predicted VO2peak (R2?=?0.09, F(1,21)?=?2.05, p?=?0.17). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC?=?0.215, p?>?0.05) and Pearson (r?=?0.31, p?=?0.17) and Spearman (??=?0.28, p?=?0.21) correlation coefficients were small. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 8.5 mL•kg-1•min-1. Further, both age and baseline fitness level were associated with increased inaccuracy of the prediction equation. Conclusions We provide data on the inaccuracy and sources of error for the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for predicting fitness level in individual firefighters, despite apparently accurate predictions for a group of firefighters. These results suggest that the WFI prediction equation may need to be reevaluated as a means of precisely determining fitness for individual firefighters, which may affect employment status, duty assignment, and overall life safety of the firefighter. PMID:24860611

2014-01-01

49

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

... 2014-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting...marking, and lighting. (ii) Aircraft familiarization. (iii) Rescue and firefighting personnel safety. (iv) Emergency communications...part. (vii) Emergency aircraft evacuation assistance....

2014-01-01

50

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting...marking, and lighting. (ii) Aircraft familiarization. (iii) Rescue and firefighting personnel safety. (iv) Emergency communications...part. (vii) Emergency aircraft evacuation assistance....

2013-01-01

51

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting...marking, and lighting. (ii) Aircraft familiarization. (iii) Rescue and firefighting personnel safety. (iv) Emergency communications...part. (vii) Emergency aircraft evacuation assistance....

2012-01-01

52

77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guard [USCG-2012-0848] Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills...continuing response to the explosion, fire and sinking of the Mobile Offshore Drilling...voluntary guidance concerning lifesaving and fire-fighting equipment, training, and...

2012-11-23

53

46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL. 31.10-18 Section 31.10-18... Firefighting equipment: General—TB/ALL. (a) It shall be the duty of...12 months, the tests and inspections of all hand portable fire...

2010-10-01

54

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph...at least the rescue and firefighting capability specified for the Index required by... (d) Procedures for reduction in capability. Any reduction in the rescue...

2010-01-01

55

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting capability. Except as provided in paragraph...at least the rescue and firefighting capability specified for the Index required by... (d) Procedures for reduction in capability. Any reduction in the rescue...

2011-01-01

56

Physiological strain and countermeasures with firefighting.  

PubMed

Protective clothing is integral to the task of firefighting, but at the same time can increase physiological strain and impair work capacity. Encapsulation of the head and the high thermal resistance and/or low water vapor permeability of the clothing ensemble impede evaporative heat dissipation, thus elevating the rate of heat storage and creating a state of uncompensable heat stress (UHS). In addition, the additional weight from carrying a supplemental air supply and the greater respiratory work of breathing through a regulator can create a negative spiral of thermal hyperpnea from greater respiratory demands and metabolic heat production. The elevated respiratory demands also increase cardiac strain and potentially the risk for myocardial events. Tolerance time during UHS is determined by three factors: the core temperature at the beginning of the heat stress exposure, the core temperature that can be tolerated before exhaustion or collapse ensues, and the rate of increase in core temperature from the beginning to end of the heat stress exposure. Protective clothing is often employed in highly dynamic environments, making portability, longevity and integration with the task requirements and clothing critical design characteristics for countermeasures. To date, most countermeasures have been relatively indirect in nature, primarily with alterations in work scheduling along with physiological manipulations such as cooling manipulations during recovery periods. Advances are required in materials science to develop lighter and less restrictive protective equipment, concurrent with cooling strategies that target specific regions or which can be effectively implemented during exercise. PMID:21029197

Cheung, S S; Petersen, S R; McLellan, T M

2010-10-01

57

Cancer incidence and general mortality in a cohort of Florida firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighters are exposed to a complex mixture of chemical and physical hazards in the course of their work; some of these hazards have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens. Prior studies have indicated possible increased occupational risks of cardiovascular disease as well as brain, lymphopoietic, bladder, kidney, and possibly lung cancers among firefighters. Because most of the previous firefighter

Fangchao Ma

2003-01-01

58

Lesbian firefighters: shifting the boundaries between masculinity and femininity.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores the interaction between gender and sexuality, comparing the experiences of lesbian and heterosexual women firefighters in the UK. It finds that female firefighters are constructed in terms of their sexuality. Lesbians may find it easier than heterosexual women to be accepted into the "watch culture," in which "masculinity" is highly prized and fitting in with colleagues is seen as essential for performing the job safely. Lesbians who come out at work may also avoid unwanted sexual attention, which is often problematic for heterosexual women who are stereotyped as being sexually available to male firefighters. While the acceptance of lesbian sexuality is based largely on the adoption of characteristics defined as "masculine," lesbians also provide a challenge to accepted models of "femininity." PMID:19042297

Wright, Tessa

2008-01-01

59

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters.  

PubMed Central

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess mortality from cancer was seen for persons aged 30 to 74 (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 173, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 104-270). A significant increase in lung cancer was seen in the group aged 60 to 74 (SMR 317, 95% CI 117-691), whereas non-pulmonary cancer was significantly increased in the group aged 30 to 49 (SMR 575, 95% CI 187-1341). It is concluded that inhalation of carcinogenic and toxic compounds during firefighting may constitute an occupational cancer risk. An extended use of respiratory protective equipment is advocated. PMID:2271386

Hansen, E S

1990-01-01

60

Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?  

PubMed Central

Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=??0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=??0.82) and bench press (rs?=??0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.83) and bench press (rs?=??0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=??0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=??0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

2014-01-01

61

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

62

Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting  

E-print Network

38 Chapter 3 Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting 3 are occurring. This is particularly relevant in disease spread processes, where vaccinations and quarantines. The response allowed is only a limited number of vaccinations of non-infected vertices. Specifically, let G

Hartke, Stephen

63

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer vehicle from Naval Station Mayport, Fla., stands by during fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. In the background is the simulated aircraft that was set on fire for the exercise. Firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station (in the background) gather around the site of the extinguished flames.

2000-01-01

64

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., wait while the NASA/USAF water carrier truck directs its water cannon toward a burning simulated aircraft (out of view).

2000-01-01

65

Operating experiences of retardant bombers during firefighting operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented on operational practices and maneuver accelerations experienced by two Douglas DC-6B airplanes converted to retardant bombers and used in firefighting operations. The data cover two fire seasons in the mountainous regions of the northwestern United States.

Jewel, J. W., Jr.; Morris, G. J.; Avery, D. E.

1974-01-01

66

Pilot task-based assessment of noise levels among firefighters  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational noise exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based noise exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential noise exposure sources, and to use collected task-based noise levels to create noise exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of noise-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for noise of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. METHODS Task-based noise exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These levels were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr noise exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. RESULTS Task-based noise levels were found to range from 82–109 dBA, with the highest levels resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate potential for overexposure to noise from a variety of firefighting tasks and equipment, and suggest a need for further exposure characterization and additional hearing loss prevention efforts. RELEVANCE TO INDUSTRY Firefighters may be at risk of noise-induced hearing loss, which can affect their fitness for duty and ability to respond effectively to emergencies. The results of this study suggest that additional efforts at hearing loss prevention among firefighters are warranted. PMID:24443622

Neitzel, RL; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R

2012-01-01

67

Line of duty firefighter fatalities: an evolving trend over time.  

PubMed

Between 1990 and 2012, 2775 firefighters were killed in the line of duty. Myocardial infarction (MI) was responsible for approximately 40% of these mortalities, followed by mechanical trauma, asphyxiation, and burns. Protective gear, safety awareness, medical care, and the age of the workforce have evolved since 1990, possibly affecting the nature of mortality during this 22-year time period. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the causes of firefighter mortality have changed over time to allow a targeted focus in prevention efforts. The U.S. Fire Administration fatality database was queried for all-cause on-duty mortality between 1990 to 2000 and 2002 to 2012. The year 2001 was excluded due to inability to eliminate the 347 deaths that occurred on September 11. Data collected included age range at the time of fatality (exact age not included in report), type of duty (on-scene fire, responding, training, and returning), incident type (structure fire, motor vehicle crash, etc), and nature of fatality (MI, trauma, asphyxiation, cerebrovascular accident [CVA], and burns). Data were compared between the two time periods with a ? test. Between 1990 and 2000, 1140 firefighters sustained a fatal injury while on duty, and 1174 were killed during 2002 to 2012. MI has increased from 43% to 46.5% of deaths (P = .012) between the 2 decades. CVA has increased from 1.6% to 3.7% of deaths (P = .002). Asphyxiation has decreased from 12.1% to 7.9% (P = .003) and burns have decreased from 7.7% to 3.9% (P = .0004). Electrocution is down from 1.8% to 0.5% (P = .004). Death from trauma was unchanged (27.8 to 29.6%, P = .12). The percentage of fatalities of firefighters over age 40 years has increased from 52% to 65% (P = .0001). Fatality by sex was constant at 3% female. Fatalities during training have increased from 7.3% to 11.2% of deaths (P = .00001). The nature of firefighter mortality has evolved over time. In the current decade, line-of-duty mortality is more likely to occur during training. Mortality from burns, asphyxiation, and electrocution has decreased; but death from MI and CVA has increased, particularly in older firefighters. Outreach and education should be targeted toward vehicle safety, welfare during training, and cardiovascular disease prevention in the firefighter population. PMID:25055007

Kahn, Steven A; Woods, Jason; Rae, Lisa

2015-01-01

68

Seasonality and Coronary Heart Disease Deaths in United States Firefighters  

PubMed Central

United States firefighters have a high on-duty fatality rate and coronary heart disease is the leading cause. Seasonality affects the incidence of cardiovascular events in the general population, but its effects on firefighters are unknown. We statistically examined the seasonal and annual variation of all on-duty coronary heart disease deaths among US firefighters between 1994 and 2004 using the chi-square distribution and Poisson regression model of the monthly fatality counts. We also examined the effect of ambient temperature (apparent as well as wind chill temperature) on coronary heart disease fatalities during the study span using a time-stratified, case-crossover study design. When grouped by season, we observed the distribution of the 449 coronary heart disease fatalities to show a relative peak in winter (32%) and relative nadir in spring (21%). This pattern was significantly different (p=0.005) from the expected distribution under the null hypothesis where season has no effect. The pattern persisted in additional analyses, stratifying the deaths by the type of duty in which the firefighters were engaged at the time of their deaths. In the Poisson regression model of the monthly fatality counts, the overall goodness-of-fit between the actual and predicted case counts was excellent ( ?42 = 16.63; p = 0.002). Two distinct peaks were detected, one in January-February and the other in August-September. Overall, temperature was not associated with increased risk of on-duty death. After allowing for different effects of temperature in mild/hot versus cold periods, a 1°C increase was not protective in cold weather, nor did it increase the risk of death in warmer weather. The findings of this study reveal statistical evidence for excess coronary heart disease deaths among firefighters during winter; however, the temporal pattern coronary heart disease deaths was not linked to temperature variation. We also found the seasonal pattern to be independent of duty-related risks. PMID:17701682

Mbanu, Ibeawuchi; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Peeples, Lynne; Stallings, Leonard A.; Kales, Stefanos N.

2013-01-01

69

Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.  

PubMed

Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that can produce hazardous levels of noise, this study showed that the average noise levels experienced by firefighters was below generally accepted guidelines. PMID:23339379

Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

2013-01-01

70

Comparison of firefighters and non-firefighters and the test methods used regarding the effects of personal protective equipment on individual mobility.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the current pilot test method and ascertain reliable measurements for a standard test method of mobility with personal protective equipment (PPE), such as physical performance and balance ability tests; 2) to compare two participant groups (firefighters versus non-firefighters) and to investigate whether non-firefighters are appropriate as a standard participant group in the field of PPE or not. Totally, 18 participants (nine professional firefighters and nine untrained males) performed the current pilot test method consisting of a balance test, completed prior to and after a performance test. Significant differences were found between PPE conditions and CON (the control clothing ensemble: T-shirt, shorts, and running shoes) for the functional balance test, physical performance test, heart rate, and subjective evaluations in firefighters group. Therefore, the present pilot test method is valid as a standard test method for assessing mobility while wearing PPE. Moreover, the present result shows that firefighters are more reliable than non-firefighters in testing of PPE with current test methods. PMID:24462474

Son, Su-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Muraki, Satoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

2014-07-01

71

Cardiac Strain Associated with High-rise Firefighting.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Although numerous studies have reported the physiological strain associated with firefighting, cardiac responses during a large-scale fire operation have not been reported and cardiac responses have not been compared based on crew assignment. The aims of this study were (1) to characterize cardiac strain during simulated high-rise firefighting and (2) to compare the cardiac strain associated with different work assignments (fire suppression vs. search and rescue) and different modes of vertical ascent (stairs vs. elevator). Firefighters (N = 42) completed one assignment (fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support) during one of two trials that differed by ascent mode. Assignments were divided into three phases: Ascent (ascend lobby to 8(th) floor), Staging (remain in holding area on 8(th) floor), and Work (perform primary responsibilities). When comparing assignments within the same ascent mode, mean heart rate (HRmean) was higher (p = 0.031) for fire suppression than search and rescue during Work in the stair trial (170±14 vs. 155±11 beats/min). Search and rescue crews experienced greater cumulative cardiac strain (HRmean × duration) during Work than fire suppression crews (stairs: 1978±366 vs. 1502±190 beats; elevator: 1755±514 vs. 856±232 beats; p<0.05). When comparing ascent mode, HRmean and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were higher (35-57 beats/min; p?0.001) for both fire suppression and search and rescue during Ascent and Staging phases in the stairs vs. the elevator trial. During Work, HRmean was higher (p = 0.046) for search and rescue in the stairs vs. the elevator trial (155±11 vs. 138±19 beats/min). HRmean and HRpeak were 47 and 34 beats/min higher (p<0.01), respectively, when materials were transported to the staging area using the stairs compared with the elevator. Study findings suggest that high-rise firefighting results in considerable cardiac strain and that search and rescue and material support crews experienced more cardiac strain than fire suppression crews primarily to differences in assignment duration. Furthermore, using stairs to transport firefighters and equipment to upper floors results in significantly greater cardiac strain than using the elevator. PMID:25369509

Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

2014-11-01

72

Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN)

Joel Wilson; Dan Steingart; Russell Romero; Jessica Reynolds; Eric Mellers; Andrew Redfern; Lloyd Lim; William Watts; Colin Patton; Jessica Baker; Paul Wright

2005-01-01

73

Physiological, Perceptual and Psychological Responses of Career versus Volunteer Firefighters to Live-fire Training Drills.  

PubMed

A primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of short-term live-fire firefighting activities on key physiological, perceptual and psychological variables and whether occupational status influenced these responses. It was also of interest to examine whether individual difference factors differentiated the occupational status groups and if so, whether such individual difference factors influenced perceptual and psychological responses to firefighting activities. Male firefighters (n?=?52 career, n?=?53 volunteer firefighters) participated in 18?min of simulated firefighting activity in a training structure that contained live fires. Measures of heart rate (HR) and Tcore were obtained before and after firefighting activities along with perceptions of thermal sensations, exertion, respiratory distress and affect. Firefighting activities resulted in significant elevations in HR and Tcore , whereas thermal sensations, respiratory distress, exertion and affect all showed significant and sizable changes reflecting greater distress and dysphoria. Occupational status and individual difference factors accounted for some of this negative change. The findings replicate and extend previous work by demonstrating the influence of occupational status and individual difference factors in the psychological responses to firefighting activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25393336

Petruzzello, Steven J; Poh, Paula Y S; Greenlee, Tina A; Goldstein, Eric; Horn, Gavin P; Smith, Denise L

2014-11-13

74

Hearing among male firefighters: A comparison with hearing data from screened and unscreened male population  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether hearing loss is associated with firefighting. We conducted cross-sectional study comparing hearing threshold levels (HTLs) of 912 male firefighters with two hearing databases obtained from an otologically normal male Korean population (KONP) and a non-industrial noise-exposed male Korean population (KNINEP), considering age and the main roles of firefighters. Firefighters' age-adjusted HTLs were significantly worse than those of KONP (prevalence ratio (PR)=5.29, P<0.001)but not different from those of KNINEP (PR=0.99, P=0.550). Rescuers (PR=1.005, P<0.001) had worse hearing than the KNINEP after age adjustment. Comparison of firefighters' HTLs (50th and 90th percentiles) with those of KONP and KNINEP by age and frequency showed that firefighters' HTLs had significant increases (poorer hearing) across most age groups and frequencies compared with KONP. Compared with KNINEP, firefighters' HTLs were worse in the younger age groups (<45 years) but not different in the older age groups (>45 years). In conclusion, the hearing thresholds of younger firefighters and rescuers were worse than expected by normal aging alone. Future research should include longitudinal studies to consider variable risk factors, such as military service, smoking, and so on. PMID:25352160

Kang, T S; Hong, O S; Kim, K S; Yoon, C S

2015-01-01

75

Functional, postural and perceived balance for predicting the work ability of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The importance of balance abilities for firefighting and rescue work has already been recognized, but there are no valid balance tests available in the test batteries for the physical work capacity of firefighters. Moreover, few studies have examined the associations between balance and work ability in general. Valid work-related balance tests are needed for the purpose of screening in

Anne Punakallio; Sirpa Lusa; Ritva Luukkonen

2004-01-01

76

The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

2012-01-01

77

Sleep Problems, Depression, Substance Use, Social Bonding, and Quality of Life in Professional Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Little attention has been given to factors contributing to firefighters' psychosomatic well-being. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine such contributing factors in a sample of professional firefighters. Methods Measures assessing sleep, depression, substance use, social bonding, and quality of life were examined in 112 firefighters. Results Overall, many firefighters reported sleep deprivation (59%), binge drinking behavior (58%), poor mental well-being (21%), current nicotine use (20%), hazardous drinking behavior (14%), depression (11%), poor physical well-being (8%), caffeine overuse (5%), or poor social bonding (4%). Conclusions Small-to-medium correlations were identified between sleep deprivation, depression, physical/mental well-being, and drinking behaviors. High-risk behaviors that impact psychosomatic well-being are prevalent in professional firefighters, which require environmental and individual-based health promotion interventions. The inter-correlation relationships between such behaviors, therefore, need to be explored in further details. PMID:21785370

Carey, Mary G; Al-Zaiti, Salah S; Dean, Grace E; Sessanna, Loralee; Finnell, Deborah S

2011-01-01

78

Psychophysiological responses in experienced firefighters undertaking repeated self-contained breathing apparatus tasks.  

PubMed

In order to safely and effectively extinguish fires and rescue life, firefighters are required to routinely wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), yet little is known about the specific physiological and psychological demands associated with repeated exposure to tasks that require SCBA. A total of 12 experienced firefighters took part in a series of commonly encountered SCBA activities: free search, guideline search and live firefighting tasks under room temperature (?20°C) and extreme heat (?180°C) conditions to assess changes in heart rate, blood pressure, mood, perceived workload and air usage. Findings demonstrate that live firefighting is associated with greater perceived exhaustion than free search or guideline exercises; however, all tasks lead to high cardiovascular demand regardless of the presence of heat. No significant impact of task upon mood and no significant differences between the perceived demands of guideline, free search and live firefighting exercises were found. PMID:25363022

Young, Paul M; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A

2014-12-01

79

Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call “cardiovascular strain”. The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters. PMID:24602344

2014-01-01

80

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...salvage operations plan 18 24 (B) Subsurface product removal 72 84 (C) Heavy...firefighting system. (h) Ensuring the proper subsurface product removal. You must have subsurface product removal capability if your...

2010-07-01

81

Posttraumatic Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth of Israeli Firefighters, at One Month following the Carmel Fire Disaster  

PubMed Central

Wildfire disasters are potentially traumatic events which directly and indirectly affect both citizens and first responders. The study of posttraumatic growth is scarcely found in the context of firefighters and only few studies have addressed this construct. In the current study, posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic growth were investigated among Israeli firefighters (N = 65), approximately one month after the Carmel Fire Disaster. Eight firefighters (12.3%) were found to be above the cut-off score for probable PTSD, with intrusion symptoms as the most frequent finding compared to avoidance and hyper-arousal symptoms. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was evident to a small but considerable degree; noticeable changes were found regarding personal strength and appreciation of life. Results also revealed significant linear and quadratic relationships between PTSD and PTG. Results are discussed in light of past research on psychological responses among firefighters and first responders. PMID:24286064

Leykin, Dmitry; Lahad, Mooli; Bonneh, Nira

2013-01-01

82

Posttraumatic Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth of Israeli Firefighters, at One Month following the Carmel Fire Disaster.  

PubMed

Wildfire disasters are potentially traumatic events which directly and indirectly affect both citizens and first responders. The study of posttraumatic growth is scarcely found in the context of firefighters and only few studies have addressed this construct. In the current study, posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic growth were investigated among Israeli firefighters (N = 65), approximately one month after the Carmel Fire Disaster. Eight firefighters (12.3%) were found to be above the cut-off score for probable PTSD, with intrusion symptoms as the most frequent finding compared to avoidance and hyper-arousal symptoms. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was evident to a small but considerable degree; noticeable changes were found regarding personal strength and appreciation of life. Results also revealed significant linear and quadratic relationships between PTSD and PTG. Results are discussed in light of past research on psychological responses among firefighters and first responders. PMID:24286064

Leykin, Dmitry; Lahad, Mooli; Bonneh, Nira

2013-01-01

83

Fire and Ice - Safety, Comfort, and Getting the Firefighters' Job Done  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily life for firefighters consists of working with life-threatening hazards in hostile environments. A major hazard is excessive ambient heat. New hazards have arisen from protective gear that was intended to increase survival time of firefighters while finding and rescuing victims. The insulation is so good now that a firefighter's metabolic heat buildup cannot escape. This forces body core temperatures to life threatening levels in about 20 minutes of moderate activity. Using NASA space suit technology, Oceaneering Space Systems developed a liquid cooling garment prototype that will remove up to 250 watts of metabolic heat. After testing and certification as an approved accessory for firefighter use, this garment will be available for use by any individual encapsulated in protective clothing. This demonstration will present a high surface area circulated liquid cooling garment displayed on a mannequin and available for attendees to try on to experience the effects of active cooling.

Foley, Tico; Butzer, Melissa

1999-01-01

84

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

services listed in Table 155.4030(b)—Salvage and Marine Firefighting Services and Response Timeframes. Additionally, you must list those resource providers that you have contracted to provide these services. You may list multiple resource...

2014-07-01

85

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

services listed in Table 155.4030(b)—Salvage and Marine Firefighting Services and Response Timeframes. Additionally, you must list those resource providers that you have contracted to provide these services. You may list multiple resource...

2012-07-01

86

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2011-07-01

87

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2013-07-01

88

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2012-07-01

89

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2014-07-01

90

Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

Beck, E. J.

1974-01-01

91

Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.  

PubMed

Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

2014-11-01

92

US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

1980-01-01

93

Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51

Stefanos N Kales; Elpidoforos S Soteriades; Stavros G Christoudias; David C Christiani

2003-01-01

94

World Trade Center-exposed NYC firefighters face increased cancer risk:  

Cancer.gov

In the largest cancer study of firefighters ever conducted, research published in this week’s 9/11 Special Issue of The Lancet found that New York City firefighters exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site were at least 19 percent more likely to develop cancer in the seven years following the disaster as their non-exposed colleagues and up to 10 percent more likely to develop cancer than a similar sample from the general population.

95

Illinois Firefighter Line of Duty Deaths Digital Image Collection Database: A Knowledge Management Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

“IFLODD: The Illinois Firefighter Line of Duty Deaths Digital Image Collection Database” is a knowledge management initiative\\u000a at the Illinois Fire Service Institute (IFSI) Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It collects and provides\\u000a Internet access to a multi-dimensional dataset of photographs and fire department records that document Illinois firefighters\\u000a who died in the line of duty. This paper discusses

Lian Ruan; Adam Groves

96

Biomonitoring of chemical exposure among New York City firefighters responding to the World Trade Center fire and collapse.  

PubMed Central

The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 exposed New York City firefighters to smoke and dust of unprecedented magnitude and duration. The chemicals and the concentrations produced from any fire are difficult to predict, but estimates of internal dose exposures can be assessed by the biological monitoring of blood and urine. We analyzed blood and urine specimens obtained from 321 firefighters responding to the WTC fires and collapse for 110 potentially fire-related chemicals. Controls consisted of 47 firefighters not present at the WTC. Sampling occurred 3 weeks after 11 September, while fires were still burning. When reference or background ranges were available, most chemical concentrations were found to be generally low and not outside these ranges. Compared with controls, the exposed firefighters showed significant differences in adjusted geometric means for six of the chemicals and significantly greater detection rates for an additional three. Arrival time was a significant predictor variable for four chemicals. Special Operations Command firefighters (n = 95), compared with other responding WTC firefighters (n = 226), had differences in concentrations or detection rate for 14 of the chemicals. Values for the Special Operations Command firefighters were also significantly different from the control group values for these same chemicals and for two additional chemicals. Generally, the chemical concentrations in the other firefighter group were not different from those of controls. Biomonitoring was used to characterize firefighter exposure at the WTC disaster. Although some of the chemicals analyzed showed statistically significant differences, these differences were generally small. PMID:14644665

Edelman, Philip; Osterloh, John; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Sam P; Grainger, James; Jones, Robert; Blount, Ben; Calafat, Antonia; Turner, Wayman; Feldman, Debra; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Lushniak, Boris D; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David

2003-01-01

97

Comparison of sensory–Neural Hearing between Firefighters and Office Workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Rescuer systems personnel such as firefighters have importance in health assessment. Because of stressful situation, chemicals, metals, gases and noises, they need many physical and paraclinic examination such as audiometry in periodic examinations. Comparison of sensory – neural hearing between firefighters and office workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study had been done on firefighters and office workers with use of the clinical – health issues. Data had been analyzed in SPSS 11.5 by T-test and Chi-2 with significance level of P<0.05. Results: Mean of hearing threshold in firefighters’ right ear in 4000, 6000, 8000 Hz was 16.05±8.66 dB and in office workers was 15.20±6.47 dB with t=0.786 and P=0.433 had no significant difference, this mean in firefighters’ left ear was 16.17±8.12 dB and in office workers was 15.52±6.67 dB with t=0.617 and P=0.538 had no significant difference too. Mean of hearing threshold in firefighters’ right ear in age 40 or less than it in 4000 Hz was 20.51±10.11 dB and in office workers was 17.50±5.28 dB with t=2.153 and P=0.033 had significant difference. Conclusion: Mean of hearing threshold in firefighters in all frequencies was normal, except 4000 frequency. It showed the early effect of occupational exposure on hearing. PMID:23411914

Assadi, Seyedeh Negar; Esmaily, Habibollah; Mostaan, Leila

2013-01-01

98

Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity  

PubMed Central

Firefighting is a very hazardous occupation, and strenuous fire duties require high levels of physical fitness. In the general adult population, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) declines with aging. We sought to investigate the effect of increasing age on CRF in male career firefighters as well as the modifying effects of physical activity and adiposity. We cross-sectionally examined 804 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states. CRF was determined from symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise testing in metabolic equivalents (METS) following the Bruce protocol. Physical activity self-reports were extracted from responses to a health and lifestyle questionnaire. We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (R2 = 0.6286). The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights. PMID:22666557

Baur, Dorothee M.; Christophi, Costas A.; Cook, E. Francis; Kales, Stefanos N.

2012-01-01

99

Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN) called SmokeNet for personnel tracking. The project aims to address urban/industrial firefighting procedures in need of improvement. Two "user-needs" studies with the Chicago and Berkeley Fire Departments are briefly presented. The FIRE project"s initial HMD prototype designs are then discussed with regard to feedback from the user-needs studies. These prototypes are evaluated in their potential costs and benefits to firefighters and found to need improvement. Next, some currently available commercial HMDs are reviewed and compared in their cost, performance, and potential for use by firefighters. Feedback from the Berkeley Fire Department user-needs study, in which the initial prototypes were demonstrated, is compiled into a concept selection matrix for the next prototypes. This matrix is used to evaluate a variety of HMDs, including some of the commercial units presented, and to select the best design options. Finally, the current prototypes of the two best design options are presented and discussed.

Wilson, Joel; Steingart, Dan; Romero, Russell; Reynolds, Jessica; Mellers, Eric; Redfern, Andrew; Lim, Lloyd; Watts, William; Patton, Colin; Baker, Jessica; Wright, Paul

2005-05-01

100

Determination of Firefighter Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzene During Fire Fighting Using Measurement of Biological Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accomplishing their duties, firefighters are potentially exposed to a vast array of toxic combustion and pyrolysis products such as benzene, carbon monoxide, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAH and benzene was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t -muconic acid, respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period

Chantal Caux; Cindy OBrien; Claude Viau

2002-01-01

101

Exposure to bushfire smoke during prescribed burns and wildfires: firefighters' exposure risks and options.  

PubMed

Firefighters are exposed to known health-damaging air pollutants present in bushfire smoke and poorly managed exposure can result in serious health issues. A better understanding of exposure levels and the major factors influencing exposures is crucial for the development of mitigation strategies to minimise exposure risks and adverse health impacts. This study monitored air toxics within the breathing zone of firefighters at prescribed burns and at wildfires in Australia. The results showed that exposure levels were highly variable, with higher exposures (sometimes exceeding occupational exposure standards) associated with particular work tasks (such as patrol and suppression) and with certain burn conditions. The majority of firefighter's exposures were at low and moderate levels (~60%), however considerable attention should be given to the high (~30%) and very high (6%) exposure risk situations for which acute and chronic health risks are very likely and for which control strategies should be developed and implemented to minimise health risks. PMID:20956017

Reisen, Fabienne; Hansen, Dane; Meyer, C P Mick

2011-02-01

102

Personal carbon monoxide exposures among firefighters at prescribed forest burns in the Southeastern United States.  

PubMed

Exposure to combustion products from wildland fires causes respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The authors evaluated carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of a group of wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in the southeastern United States of America. A total of 149 person-days of samples were collected using data logging CO monitors. A questionnaire was administered to collect data on job tasks and self-reported smoke exposure. Overall, the highest exposures were seen amongst firefighters assigned to holding and mop-up tasks (geometric mean [GM]: 2.6 ppm), whereas the lowest were associated with lighting and jobs such as burn boss (GM: 1.6 and 0.3 ppm, respectively). The self-reported smoke exposure showed a significant linear trend with increasing CO exposure. The numbers of acres burned or burn duration, however, were not good predictors of exposure. PMID:23298425

Dunn, K H; Shulman, S; Stock, A L; Naeher, L P

2013-01-01

103

Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

2013-04-01

104

The firefighter coping self-efficacy scale: measure development and validation.  

PubMed

The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy (FFCSE) Scale, a new measure developed to assess firefighters' perceived competence in managing stressful and traumatic experiences encountered on the job. Two samples of firefighters completed the FFCSE Scale at two different time points. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional structure, which was further supported with confirmatory factor analysis using a second sample. Internal consistency of the measure was excellent. Analysis of cross-sectional data indicated FFCSE was positively associated with measures of psychological well-being and social support, and negatively associated with work-related stress and psychological distress. FFCSE also uniquely contributed to the variance in psychological distress, over and above variables previously shown to be associated with distress among this population. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:21476153

Lambert, Jessica E; Benight, Charles C; Harrison, Erica; Cieslak, Roman

2012-01-01

105

Systemic Exposure to PAHs and Benzene in Firefighters Suppressing Controlled Structure Fires  

PubMed Central

Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre-exposure levels for round 1. We found statistically significant positive correlations between external exposures (i.e. personal air concentrations of PAHs) and biomarkers (i.e. change in urinary PAH metabolite levels in round 1 and change in breath concentrations of benzene in round 2). The results suggest that firefighters wearing full protective ensembles absorbed combustion products into their bodies. The PAHs most likely entered firefighters’ bodies through their skin, with the neck being the primary site of exposure and absorption due to the lower level of dermal protection afforded by hoods. Aromatic hydrocarbons could have been absorbed dermally during firefighting or inhaled during the doffing of gear that was off-gassing contaminants. PMID:24906357

Fent, Kenneth W.; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D.; Stiegel, Matthew A.; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P.; Dalton, James

2014-01-01

106

Mediating Effects of Social Support on Firefighters' Sense of Community and Perceptions of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between psychological sense of community, social-support networks, and care-giver stress and satisfaction among firefighters. No significant gender differences were obtained, but zero-order correlates demonstrated significant relationships among all four variables. In examining the mediating effects of…

Cowman, Shaun E.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Liao-Troth, Matthew

2004-01-01

107

Basics of the designing, testing, and checking of the combined-radiation protection garments for firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and medical data underlying design of protective garments effectively shielding the wearer from ionizing radiation\\u000a are analyzed. A nondestructive radiation testing procedure used to check the radiation-blocking properties of lead-containing\\u000a composite textile materials intended for manufacturing work clothing of firefighters at nuclear power plants is described.

B. A. Benetskii; M. N. Lifanov

2009-01-01

108

STS-31 crew training: firefighting, food tasting, EVA prep and post  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

1990-03-01

109

STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

1990-01-01

110

Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required. PMID:24472292

2013-01-01

111

Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems are running…

Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

112

Aviation rescue and firefighting in Australia — is it protecting the customer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aviation is an extremely safe transport mode, yet the accident rate for commercial jet aircraft operations has not changed since the early 1970s. In spite of this, changes within the Australian aviation safety system are allowing safety margins to be reduced in areas such as aviation rescue and firefighting (ARFF). In the name of economic rationalisation, the provision of secondary

Graham R. Braithwaite

2001-01-01

113

Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

2012-01-01

114

Impact of a supervised worksite exercise program on back and core muscular endurance in firefighters.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . Low back pain is a leading cause of disability in firefighters and is related to poor muscular endurance. This study examined the impact of supervised worksite exercise on back and core muscular endurance in firefighters. Design . A cluster randomized controlled trial was used for this study. Setting . The study occurred in fire stations of a municipal fire department (Tampa, Florida). Subjects . Subjects were 96 full-duty career firefighters who were randomly assigned by fire station to exercise (n = 54) or control (n = 42) groups. Intervention . Exercise group participants completed a supervised exercise targeting the back and core muscles while on duty, two times per week for 24 weeks, in addition to their usual fitness regimen. Control group participants continued their usual fitness regimen. Measures . Back and core muscular endurance was assessed with the Biering-Sorensen test and plank test, respectively. Analysis . Changes in back and core muscular endurance from baseline to 24 weeks were compared between groups using analysis of covariance and linear mixed effects models. Results . After 24 weeks, the exercise group had 12% greater (p = .021) back muscular endurance and 21% greater (p = .0006) core muscular endurance than did the control group. The exercise intervention did not disrupt operations or job performance. Conclusion . A supervised worksite exercise program was safe and effective in improving back and core muscular endurance in firefighters, which could protect against future low back pain. PMID:24524384

Mayer, John M; Quillen, William S; Verna, Joe L; Chen, Ren; Lunseth, Paul; Dagenais, Simon

2015-01-01

115

The Integrated Personnel Development System: The Training and Development of Competent Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article enquires into the nature of an emergent continuous professional development (CPD) mechanism for firefighters in the form of an Integrated Personnel Development System (IPDS), which proposes to base future training for every rank in the service on the acquisition and demonstration of competence for role. IPDS is due to be introduced…

Moran, Peter; Starling, Paul

2005-01-01

116

Physiological monitoring in firefighter ensembles: wearable plethysmographic sensor vest versus standard equipment.  

PubMed

We evaluated the accuracy of a wearable sensor vest for real-time monitoring of physiological responses to treadmill exercise. Ten subjects in standard firefighter ensembles, treadmill exercising at 50% VO(2) max, had heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperature (T(sk)), oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E)) recorded concurrently by a wearable plethysmographic sensor vest and standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment for comparison. A high degree of correlation was noted for most of the measured variables [HR (r = 0.99), RR (r = 0.98), T(sk) (r = 0.98), V(E) (r = 0.88), and SaO(2) (r = 0.79)]. V(T) (r = 0.60) had a moderate correlation, although a paired differences analysis showed a mean paired difference of -0.03 L. This mean paired difference represents a 1.92% variation for V(T). Data from the wearable sensor vest is comparable to data captured from standard laboratory physiological monitoring equipment on subjects wearing standard firefighter ensembles while exercising at a moderate work rate. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the wearable sensor technology for these physiological parameters under these conditions and suggests that it could be useful for actual field studies of firefighters in traditional firefighting gear. PMID:20017053

Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond J; Williams, W Jon; Landsittel, Douglas P; Powell, Jeffrey B; Palmiero, Andrew

2010-02-01

117

Police suicide: a national comparison with fire-fighter and military personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objectives of this paper are to examine national police suicide rates, to compare police suicides with fire-fighters and military personnel, and to examine suicide in women and minority officers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) (1984-1998) was used as a data source. Descriptive statistics and proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were calculated. Findings – Overall, the

John M. Violanti

2010-01-01

118

The impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing on the partners of firefighters.  

PubMed

This study explored the impact of the 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing on the spouses and significant others of a volunteer sample of Oklahoma City firefighters who participated in the bombing rescue effort. Twenty-seven partners of Oklahoma City firefighters participated in this study, conducted 42 to 44 months after the bombing. These partners were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview and a companion interview to examine exposure, rates of psychiatric disorders and symptoms, functioning, health, and relationships. Coping and perception of the firefighter partner's response were also examined. Some of the women were exposed directly; most knew someone who had been involved in the disaster, and all reported exposure through the media. The rate of psychiatric disorders in the women following the disaster was 22%, essentially unchanged from before the incident. One developed bomb-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most were satisfied with their work performance; 15% reported that their health had worsened since the bombing, and more than one third reported permanent changes in relationships as a result of the bombing. Most coped by turning to friends or relatives, with less than 10% seeking professional help. Many described symptoms in their firefighter mate; all reported that their mate had been affected by the experience, and one half said their mate had fully recovered. The mates of these firefighters fared relatively well in terms of psychiatric disorders, symptoms, and ability to function. The prevalence of bomb-related posttraumatic stress disorder was considerably lower in this sample than in samples of individuals more directly exposed to the bombing, although some reported changes in relationships and health. The results suggest the need for further study of the impact of interpersonal exposure in those who provide support for rescue-and-recovery workers in major terrorist incidents. PMID:12200505

Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Bunch, Kenneth; Wilson, Teddy G; Tucker, Phebe; Schorr, John K

2002-09-01

119

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the... Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the...a) You must provide the information listed in §§ 155.1035...Marine firefighting pre-fire plan . (1) You must...

2010-07-01

120

Hypomethylation of dual specificity phosphatase 22 promoter correlates with duration of service in firefighters and is inducible by low-dose benzo[a]pyrene  

PubMed Central

Objective Firefighters are chronically exposed to smoke and products of incomplete combustion, which frequently contain PAHs. This study examined the possibility of an association between PAH-induced epigenetic alterations and occupational firefighting exposure. Methods Promoter methylation was analyzed in four genes in blood DNA from 18 firefighters (FF) and 20 non-firefighting controls (Non-FF). Jurkat and NPrEC cells were treated with benzo[a]pyrene to ascertain the epigenetic effects of this type of agent. Results FF had a higher prevalence of DUSP22 promoter hypomethylation in blood DNA (p=0.03) and the extent of hypomethylation correlated with duration of firefighting service (p=0.04), but not with age. Benzo[a]pyrene reduced promoter methylation and increased gene expression of the same gene in Jurkat and NPrEC cells. Conclusions Cumulative occupational exposure to combustion-derived PAHs during firefighting can cause epigenetic changes in promoters of specific genes. PMID:22796920

Ouyang, Bin; Baxter, C. Stuart; Lam, Hung-Ming; Yeramaneni, Samrat; Levin, Linda; Haynes, Erin; Ho, Shuk-mei

2012-01-01

121

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a New York City firefighter exposed to World Trade Center dust.  

PubMed

We report a sentinel case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a firefighter exposed to high concentrations of World Trade Center dust during the rescue effort from September 11 to 24. The firefighter presented with a Pa(O2) of 53 mm Hg and responded to oxygen and corticosteroids. Computed tomography scan showed patchy ground glass density, thickened bronchial walls, and bilateral pleural effusions. Bronchoalveolar lavage recovered 70% eosinophils, with only 1% eosinophils in peripheral blood. Eosinophils were not degranulated and increased levels of interleukin-5 were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum. Mineralogic analysis counted 305 commercial asbestos fibers/10(6) macrophages including those with high aspect ratios, and significant quantities of fly ash and degraded fibrous glass. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare consequence of acute high dust exposure. World Trade Center dust consists of large particle-size silicates, but fly ash and asbestos fibers may be found in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. PMID:12231487

Rom, William N; Weiden, Michael; Garcia, Roberto; Yie, Ting An; Vathesatogkit, Pratan; Tse, Doris B; McGuinness, Georgeann; Roggli, Victor; Prezant, David

2002-09-15

122

Can Firefighter Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides exploratory research regarding emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (N = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (N = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90 – Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale and Proactive Coping Scale. Using an exploratory\\/liberal Type 1 error rate (? ? .10)

Shannon L. Wagner; Crystal A. Martin

2011-01-01

123

Can Firefighters’ Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and Proactive Coping Scale. Using an exploratory\\/liberal Type 1 error rate (? ? .10), our results suggested that for

Shannon L. Wagner; Crystal A. Martin

2012-01-01

124

Expanded access to naloxone among firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical technicians in Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Naloxone is a medication that reverses respiratory depression from opioid overdose if given in time. Paramedics routinely administer naloxone to opioid overdose victims in the prehospital setting, and many states are moving to increase access to the medication. Several jurisdictions have expanded naloxone administration authority to nonparamedic first responders, and others are considering that step. We report here on policy change in Massachusetts, where several communities have equipped emergency medical technicians, law enforcement officers, and firefighters with naloxone. PMID:24922133

Davis, Corey S; Ruiz, Sarah; Glynn, Patrick; Picariello, Gerald; Walley, Alexander Y

2014-08-01

125

A modified SCBA facepiece for accurate metabolic data collection from firefighters.  

PubMed

To better assess the energy expenditure and exertion of firefighters during simulated firefighting activities, a commercial firefighter self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) facepiece was modified to interface with a portable metabolic monitoring device (Cosmed K4b(2)) while still functioning as a positive pressure SCBA air supply. To validate the device, standard National Fire Protection Association 1981 SCBA function tests were conducted and 14 subjects performed variable-workload assessments using all combinations of two test devices (Cosmed K4b(2) and metabolic cart) and two masks (modified SCBA facepiece and stock manufacturer-supplied breath collection). Metabolic data collected with the Cosmed K4b(2) via the modified facepiece were found to be accurate when compared to a ParvoMedics Truemax 2400 metabolic cart (average per cent difference: 4.6%). This modified facepiece design is suitable for use in metabolic studies requiring the utilisation of an SCBA system. Furthermore, the well-established overestimation of oxygen consumption from the Cosmed K4b(2) system was replicated. PMID:25323675

Kesler, Richard M; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Motl, Robert W; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Horn, Gavin P

2014-10-17

126

Physical fitness improvements and occupational low-back loading - an exercise intervention study with firefighters.  

PubMed

The impact of exercise on firefighter job performance and cardiorespiratory fitness has been studied extensively, but its effect on musculoskeletal loading remains unknown. The aim of this study was to contrast the physical fitness and low-back loading outcomes of two groups of firefighters who completed different exercise programmes. Before and after 12 weeks of exercise, subjects performed a physical fitness test battery, the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) and simulated job tasks during which peak L4/L5 joint compression and reaction shear forces were quantified using a dynamic biomechanical model. Subjects who exercised exhibited statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) in body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, power, endurance and flexibility, but FMS scores and occupational low-back loading measures were not consistently affected. Firefighters who are physically fit are better able to perform essential job duties and avoid cardiac events, but short-term improvements in physical fitness may not necessarily translate into reduced low-back injury risk. PMID:24689834

Beach, Tyson A C; Frost, David M; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P

2014-01-01

127

Stressors and coping strategies of U.K. firefighters during on-duty incidents.  

PubMed

Operational response by firefighters requires an abrupt change from rest to near-maximal physical effort and incorporates almost instant stress management that must be made during extreme heat, limited time and partial information, yet little is known about the coping strategies incorporated to manage the physiological and psychological demands associated with this environment. A sample of 22 UK firefighters took part in focus groups identifying frequently used coping techniques based upon problem-focused and emotion-focused coping methods. Findings suggest problem-orientated coping comprised half of the total coping strategies quoted by participants, with a third of responses being categorized as emotion-focused methods, and 17% were considered to be both problem-focused and emotion-focused techniques. Responses indicate problem-focused methods are often utilized en route to the incident, and at the early stages of operational tasks. Emotion-focused responses are more common during periods of fatigue and exhaustion and post-incident, and problem-focused and emotion-focused techniques were found post-incident, although there was often an overlap between methods and they perhaps should not be treated as three distinct stages. The importance of peer support and potential benefits to firefighter well-being and operational performance are discussed. PMID:25312623

Young, Paul M; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth

2014-12-01

128

Advanced Clinical Interventions Performed by Emergency Medical Responder Firefighters prior to Ambulance Arrival.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Data on the clinical interventions performed by emergency medical responder firefighters (EMRFs) are limited outside the context of cardiac arrest. We sought to understand the broader medical role of firefighters by examining fire-ambulance arrival order and documenting specific interventions provided by firefighters with advanced EMR training. Methods. A secondary analysis was conducted using electronic patient care records from a single ambulance service and two municipal fire departments that partner to provide emergency response in two suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Firefighters in both municipalities are dispatched to all medical calls, regardless of severity, and receive training in the following advanced EMR skills: intravenous line placement, administration of oral nitroglycerin and aspirin, placement of supraglottic airways, administration of albuterol via nebulizer, and injections of intramuscular glucagon and epinephrine. Time stamps for unit arrival on scene were used to determine arrival order and to quantify fire lead time (i.e., the interval EMRFs were on scene before paramedics). Results. Fire and ambulance records were linked for 10,403 patient encounters that occurred over 2.5 years. EMRFs arrived first in 9,001 calls (88%) with an average fire lead time of 4.5 minutes. In the two communities, firefighters performed at least one of the six advanced training interventions in 688 patient encounters (7.6%) when they reached the patient first, the most frequent being intravenous line placement (n = 340; 3.8%) and administration of oral nitroglycerin or aspirin (n = 303; 3.4%). EMRFs arrived first to 96 cases of cardiac arrest and performed chest compressions in 78%, automated external defibrillator use in 44%, supraglottic airway placement in 32%, and intravenous line starts in 18%. A modest positive association was observed between increasing fire lead time and use of cardiac arrest interventions by EMRFs. Conclusions. EMRFs performed advanced EMR training interventions in a small fraction of the patients they were able to reach before paramedics, and further study of the clinical significance of these interventions in the hands of this responder group is needed. EMRF training in these communities should continue to emphasize the fervent and consistent application of BLS resuscitation interventions in victims of cardiac arrest. PMID:25153541

Boland, Lori L; Satterlee, Paul A; Fernstrom, Karl M; Hanson, Kai G; Desikan, Prasanna; LaCroix, Brian K

2015-01-01

129

Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

2006-03-09

130

Response of soil microbial communities to fire and fire-fighting chemicals.  

PubMed

Worldwide, fire-fighting chemicals are rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective and efficient tool in wildfires control and in prescribed burns for habitat management. However, despite its widespread use as water additives to control and/or slow the spread of fire, information concerning the impact of these compounds on soil ecosystems is scarce. In the present work we examine, under field conditions, the response of the microbial communities to three different fire-chemicals at normal doses of application. The study was performed with a Humic Cambisol over granite under heath, located in the temperate humid zone (Galicia, NW Spain) with the following treatments: unburned soil (US) and burned soil added with water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). The microbial mass (microbial C), activity (?-glucosidase, urease) and community structure [phospholipids fatty acids (PLFA) pattern] were measured on soil samples collected at different sampling times during a 5year period after a prescribed fire. The results showed a negative short-term effect of the fire on the microbial properties. The microbial biomass and activity levels tended to recover with time; however, changes in the microbial community structure (PLFA pattern) were still detected 5years after the prescribed fire. Compared to the burned soil added with water, the ammonium polyphosphate and the Firesorb treatments were the fire-fighting chemicals that showed a higher influence on the microbial communities over the whole study period. Our data indicated the usefulness of the PLFAs analysis to detect the long-term impact of both fire and fire-fighting chemicals on the soil microbial communities and hence on the soil quality of forest ecosystems. PMID:20888616

Barreiro, A; Martín, A; Carballas, T; Díaz-Raviña, M

2010-11-15

131

Acute Symptoms in Firefighters who Participated in Collection Work after the Community Hydrogen Fluoride Spill Accident  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to analyze the relationship between clinical status and work characteristics of firefighters and other public officers who engaged on collection duties in the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill that occurred on September 27, 2012, in Gumi City, South Korea. Methods We investigated the clinical status, personal history, and work characteristics of the study subjects and performed physical examination and several clinical examinations, including chest radiography, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and blood testing in 348 firefighters, police officers, volunteer firefighters, and special warfare reserved force who worked at the hydrogen fluoride spill area. Results The subjects who worked near the accident site more frequently experienced eye symptoms (p?=?0.026), cough (p?=?0.017), and headache (p?=?0.003) than the subjects who worked farther from the accident site. The longer the working hours at the accident area, the more frequently the subjects experienced pulmonary (p?=?0.027), sputum (p?=?0.043), and vomiting symptoms (p?=?0.003). The subjects who did not wear respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced dyspnea than those who wore respiratory protective devices (p?=?0.013). In the pulmonary function test, the subjects who worked near the accident site had a higher decease in forced vital capacity than the subjects who worked farther from the site (p?=?0.019); however, no statistical association was found between serum calcium/phosphate level, echocardiography result, chest radiographic result, and probation work characteristics. Conclusions The subjects who worked near the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill, worked for an extended period, or worked without wearing respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced upper/lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms. Further follow-up examination is needed for the workers who were exposed to hydrogen fluoride during their collection duties in the chemical plant in Gumi City. PMID:24472575

2013-01-01

132

Physiological responses and air consumption during simulated firefighting tasks in a subway system.  

PubMed

Professional firefighters (33 men, 3 women), ranging in age from 30 to 53 years, participated in a simulation of a subway system search and rescue while breathing from their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). We tested the hypothesis that during this task, established by expert firefighters to be of moderate intensity, the rate of air consumption would exceed the capacity of a nominal 30-min cylinder. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, and air consumption were measured with a portable breath-by-breath gas exchange analysis system, which was fully integrated with the expired port of the SCBA. The task involved descending a flight of stairs, walking, performing a search and rescue, retreat walking, then ascending a single flight of stairs to a safe exit. This scenario required between 9:56 and 13:24 min:s (mean, 12:10 ± 1:10 min:s) to complete, with an average oxygen uptake of 24.3 ± 4.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (47 ± 10 % peak oxygen uptake) and heart rate of 76% ± 7% of maximum. The highest energy requirement was during the final single-flight stair climb (30.4 ± 5.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). The average respiratory exchange ratio (carbon dioxide output/oxygen uptake) throughout the scenario was 0.95 ± 0.08, indicating a high carbon dioxide output for a relatively moderate average energy requirement. Air consumption from the nominal "30-min" cylinder averaged 51% (range, 26%-68%); however, extrapolation of these rates of consumption suggested that the low-air alarm, signalling that only 25% of the air remains, would have occurred as early as 11 min for an individual with the highest rate of air consumption, and at 16 min for the group average. These data suggest that even the moderate physical demands of walking combined with search and rescue while wearing full protective gear and breathing through the SCBA impose considerable physiological strain on professional firefighters. As well, the rate of air consumption in these tasks classed as moderate, compared with high-rise firefighting, would have depleted the air supply well before the nominal time used to describe the cylinders. PMID:20962923

Williams-Bell, F Michael; Boisseau, Geoff; McGill, John; Kostiuk, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L

2010-10-01

133

Exposures and cross-shift lung function declines in wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland fire fighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency Hotshot Crew with environmental sampling and pulmonary function testing during a large wildfire. We characterized particles by examining size distribution and mass concentration, and conducting elemental and morphological analyses. We examined associations between cross-shift lung function change and various analytes, including levoglucosan, an indicator of wood smoke from burning biomass. The levoglucosan component of the wildfire aerosol showed a predominantly bimodal size distribution: a coarse particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter about 12 ?m and a fine particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 0.5 ?m. Levoglucosan was found mainly in the respirable fraction and its concentration was higher for fire line construction operations than for mop-up operations. Larger cross-shift declines in forced expiratory volume in one second were associated with exposure to higher concentrations of respirable levoglucosan (p < 0.05). Paired analyses of real-time personal air sampling measurements indicated that higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with higher particulate concentrations when examined by mean values, but not by individual data points. However, low CO concentrations did not provide reliable assurance of concomitantly low particulate concentrations. We conclude that inhalation of fine smoke particles is associated with acute lung function decline in some wildland firefighters. Based on short-term findings, it appears important to address possible long-term respiratory health issues for wildland firefighters. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: a file containing additional information on historical studies of wildland fire exposures, a file containing the daily-exposure-severity questionnaire completed by wildland firefighter participants at the end of each day, and a file containing additional details of the investigation of correlations between carbon monoxide concentrations and other measured exposure factors in the current study.]. PMID:24568319

Gaughan, Denise M; Piacitelli, Chris A; Chen, Bean T; Law, Brandon F; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Enright, Paul L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Leonard, Stephen S; Wagner, Gregory R; Kobzik, Lester; Kales, Stefanos N; Hughes, Michael D; Christiani, David C; Siegel, Paul D; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Hoover, Mark D

2014-01-01

134

Autonomous UAV-based mapping of large-scale urban firefights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with very low false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type. The combined results of the high-intensity firefight data collect and a detailed systems study demonstrate the readiness of the FightSight concept for full system development and integration.

Snarski, Stephen; Scheibner, Karl; Shaw, Scott; Roberts, Randy; LaRow, Andy; Breitfeller, Eric; Lupo, Jasper; Nielson, Darron; Judge, Bill; Forren, Jim

2006-05-01

135

Uptake of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Among Trainers in a Fire-Fighting Training Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exposure of fire-fighting trainers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was assessed by personal air sampling. Uptake of PAH was determined by biological monitoring, measuring a metabolite of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, in urine. Eight-hour time-weighted average concentrations benzo(a)pyrene of 0.029 ug\\/m3 (instructor), 0.045 ug\\/m3 (safety officer), and 0.16 ug\\/m3 (fire assistant) were found. Both tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from

F. D. J. R. Feunekes; F. J. Jongeneelen; H. v. d. Laana; F. H. G. Schoonhof

1997-01-01

136

Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Fabrics Suitable for Skin Layer of Firefighters’ Protective Clothing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensorial comfort, usually described as "fabric hand or feel", is the sensation of how the fabric feels when it is worn next to the skin. This feeling deals with properties of the fabric such as prickling, itching, stiffness or smoothness. It can also be related to its attributes related to physiological comfort, as for instance when a fabric is wet its sensorial properties change and fabric may cling to the skin. Wet feeling and wet clinging can be a major source of sensorial discomfort in situations of profuse sweating like in firefighters' working environment. For the objective evaluation of this aspect of comfort Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was used for the present study. Seven commercially available knitted fabrics of different fibre blends in different knitted structures suitable for skin layer of firefighters' protective clothing were evaluated in virgin (original non-treated) state and then in wet state. The influence of fabric physical parameters, fibre content, fabric construction and moisture content on fabric surface properties were determined. For statistical evaluation of results student's-test was carried out to predict the level of significance on coefficient of friction (MIU) and geometrical surface roughness (SMD) due to presence of moisture. Pearson correlation coefficients were also calculated between MIU and SMD in virgin state and in wet state.

Nawaz, Nazia; Troynikov, Olga; Watson, Chris

137

What Does It Cost to Prevent On-Duty Firefighter Cardiac Events? A Content Valid Method for Calculating Costs  

PubMed Central

Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the International Association of Fire Chiefs. We used the Content Validity Index (CVI) to identify the content valid components of the draft cost model. This was accomplished by having fire chiefs rate the relevancy of cost components using a 4-point Likert scale (highly relevant to not relevant). We received complete survey data from 65 fire chiefs (65% response rate). We retained 5 components and 21 subcomponents based on CVI scores ?0.70. The five main components include, (1) investment costs, (2) orientation and training costs, (3) medical and pharmaceutical costs, (4) education and continuing education costs, and (5) maintenance costs. Data from a diverse sample of fire chiefs has produced a content valid method for calculating the cost of a prevention program among firefighters. PMID:24455288

Patterson, P. Daniel; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E.; Weaver, Matthew D.; Hostler, David

2013-01-01

138

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

139

High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator  

PubMed Central

Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O.; Berbarie, Rafic F.

2014-01-01

140

High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.  

PubMed

Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

Adams, Jenny; DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O; Berbarie, Rafic F

2014-07-01

141

Mindfulness Is Associated With Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience resources including mindfulness, optimism, personal mastery, and social support. The Mindful Awareness and Attention Scale (MAAS; Brown &

Bruce W. Smith; J. Alexis Ortiz; Laurie E. Steffen; Erin M. Tooley; Kathryn T. Wiggins; Elizabeth A. Yeater; John D. Montoya; Michael L. Bernard

2011-01-01

142

A Low-Glycemic Nutritional Fitness Program to Reverse Metabolic Syndrome in Professional Firefighters: Results of a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background The risk for cardiovascular events is higher for those with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it is known that firefighters have a fourfold risk for cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to quantify MetS prevalence and evaluate the effect of a low glycemic nutritional fitness program on the reduction of MetS risk factors among firefighters. Methods Professional firefighters were screened for MetS then enrolled in a low glycemic nutritional fitness program for a 12-week period. Anthropometric and physiologic measurements were obtained at the start and end of the program. Subjects with ?3 of the following were positive for MetS: waist ?40 (men) or ?35 inches (women), BP?135 (systole) or ?85 (diastole) mmHg, fasting blood sugar ?100mg/dl, triglycerides ?150mg/dl, and high-density lipoproteins <40 (men) or <50 mg/dl (women). Weekly training was provided with low glycemic nutrition and regular fitness and evaluation of individual progress. Results Seventy-five firefighters (age 42+8yrs, mostly Caucasian men) had a total MetS prevalence of 46.7% (p<0.05 vs normal population). One platoon (10 men, age 48±5yrs) was enrolled in the 12-week program. Most (7/10) had MetS at the baseline, but this prevalence decreased significantly after 12 weeks to 3 subjects (p=0.02). On average, subjects had 3.2±1.6 vs 1.9±1.7 MetS risk factors (p<0.01) at baseline and 12 week interval, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS and MetS risk factors are higher among professional firefighters compared to general population. A short-duration low glycemic fitness program can successfully improve anthropometric and physiologic measures and reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:21263343

Carey, Mary G.; Al-Zaiti, Salah S.; Liao, Limei; Martin, Heather N.; Butler, Rachael A.

2011-01-01

143

The Effects of Disaster Exposure and Post-Disaster Critical Incidents on Intrusions, Avoidance Reactions and Health Problems Among Firefighters: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighters are at risk to be confronted with critical incidents and disasters. This study focused on the predictive value of these variables and their interaction effect for intrusions, avoidance reactions, and health problems among firefighters 18 months post-disaster (N = 639). Furthermore, the course of intrusions, avoidance reactions, and health problems in the period 2–3 weeks to 18 months post-disaster was assessed.

Peter G. van der Velden; Berdi Christiaanse; Rolf J. Kleber; Frans G. H. Marcelissen; Sasja A. M. Dorresteijn; Annelieke N. Drogendijk; Albert Jan-Roskam; Linda Grievink; Berthold P. R. Gersons; Miranda Olff; Mariel L. Meewisse

2006-01-01

144

Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

Abeles, F. J.

1980-01-01

145

The impact of different types of textile liners used in protective footwear on the subjective sensations of firefighters.  

PubMed

The paper presents ergonomic evaluation of footwear used with three types of textile liners differing in terms of design and material composition. Two novel textile composite liners with enhanced hygienic properties were compared with a standard liner used in firefighter boots. The study involved 45 healthy firefighters from fire and rescue units who wore protective footwear with one of the three types of liners. The study was conducted in a laboratory under a normal atmosphere. The ergonomic properties of the protective footwear and liners were evaluated according to the standard EN ISO 20344:2012 as well as using an additional questionnaire concerning the thermal and moisture sensations experienced while wearing the footwear. The study was conducted on a much larger group of subjects (45) than that required by the ISO standard (3) to increase the reliability of subjective evaluations. Some statistically significant differences were found between the different types of textile liners used in firefighter boots. It was confirmed that the ergonomic properties of protective footwear worn in the workplace may be improved by the use of appropriate textile components. PMID:25479972

Irzma?ska, Emilia

2015-03-01

146

A screening-level assessment of the health risks of chronic smoke exposure for wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, benzene, and respirable particulate matter. Data defining daily exposures to smoke at prescribed burns and wildfires, potential days of exposure in a year, and career lengths were used to estimate average and reasonable maximum career inhalation exposures to these substances. Of the 15 substances in smoke that were evaluated, only benzene and formaldehyde posed a cancer risk greater than 1 per million, while only acrolein and respirable particulate matter exposures resulted in hazard indices greater than 1.0. The estimated upper-bound cancer risks ranged from 1.4 to 220 excess cancers per million, and noncancer hazard indices ranged from 9 to 360, depending on the exposure group. These values only indicate the likelihood of adverse health effects, not whether they will or will not occur. The risk assessment process narrows the field of substances that deserve further assessment, and the hazards identified by risk assessment generally agree with those identified as a concern in occupational exposure assessments. PMID:15238338

Booze, Thomas F; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Quiring, Sharon J; Ottmar, Roger D

2004-05-01

147

Ergonomic risks on the operational activities of firefighters from Rio de Janeiro.  

PubMed

The Fire Brigade of the State of Rio de Janeiro (CBMERJ) is Brazil's most ancient and is one of the military forces of the state. It has the primary function of activities related to civil defense of the state. This study aims to contribute to the improvement of the current situation by proposing a solution of eliminating totally or at least mitigating risks of ergonomic injury, since all operating activities are based on the performance of man, applying techniques and equipment with intensive use of hands, teamwork, extended shifts and living with stressful situations, which enhance the occurrence of awkward postures among other ergonomic risk factors. This is a quantitative study. The fields of study were five operational units with the highest statistical service of the Corporation. The following items were analyzed: profile of the firemen, work environment, activity performed, adequacy of training received and epidemiological assessment of pain. In total, 208 questionnaires were answered. Data analysis was performed by frequency and presented in tables, charts and graphs. It is important to implement procedures aimed at occupational health and safety of firefighters in the light of ergonomic concepts, so that crews activities are carried out with increased safety and quality. PMID:22317695

Vitari, Flávia Curi; Francisco, Hilmar Soares; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva

2012-01-01

148

Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

1996-01-01

149

Chiropractic management of a 47-year–old firefighter with lumbar disk extrusion  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This case report describes the effect of exercise-based chiropractic treatment on chronic and intractable low back pain complicated by lumbar disk extrusion. Clinical Features A 47-year–old male firefighter experienced chronic, unresponsive low back pain. Pre- and posttreatment outcome analysis was performed on numeric (0-10) pain scale, functional rating index, and the low back pain Oswestry data. Secondary outcome assessments included a 1-rep maximum leg press, balancing times, push-ups and sit-ups the patient performed in 60 seconds, and radiographic analysis. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated with Pettibon manipulative and rehabilitative techniques. At 4 weeks, spinal decompression therapy was incorporated. After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient's self-reported numeric pain scale had reduced from 6 to 1. There was also overall improvement in muscular strength, balance times, self-rated functional status, low back Oswestry scores, and lumbar lordosis using pre- and posttreatment radiographic information. Conclusion Comprehensive, exercise-based chiropractic management may contribute to an improvement of physical fitness and to restoration of function, and may be a protective factor for low back injury. This case suggests promising interventions with otherwise intractable low back pain using a multimodal chiropractic approach that includes isometric strengthening, neuromuscular reeducation, and lumbar spinal decompression therapy. PMID:19646377

Schwab, Matthew J.

2008-01-01

150

Optimal body balance disturbance tolerance skills as a methodological basis for selection of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is the methodology of optimal choice of firefighters to solve difficult rescue tasks. 27 firefighters were analyzed: aged from 22-50 years of age, and with 2-27 years of work experience. Body balance disturbance tolerance skills (BBDTS) measured by the 'Rotational Test' (RT) and time of transition (back and forth) on a 4 meter beam located 3 meters above the ground, was the criterion for simulation of a rescue task (SRT). RT and SRT were carried out first in a sports tracksuit and then in protective clothing. A total of 4 results of the RT and SRT is the substantive base of the 4 rankings. The correlation of the RT and SRT results with 3 criteria for estimating BBDTS and 2 categories ranged from 0.478 (p<0.01) - 0.884 (p<0.01) and the results of SRT 0.911 (p<0.01). The basic ranking very highly correlated indicators of SRT (0.860 and 0.844), while the 6 indicators of RT only 2 (0.396 and 0.381; p<0.05). There was no correlation between the results of the RT and SRT, but there was an important partial correlation of these variables, but only then was the effect stabilized. The Rotational Test is a simple and easy to use tool for measuring body balance disturbance tolerance skills. However, the BBDTS typology is an accurate criteria for forecasting on this basis, including the results of accurate motor simulations, and the periodic ability of firefighters to solve the most difficult rescue tasks. PMID:24738515

Jagie??o, W?adys?aw; Wójcicki, Zbigniew; Barczy?ski, Bart?omiej J; Litwiniuk, Artur; Kalina, Roman Maciej

2014-01-01

151

This certificate program was developed in response to concerns about the structural health of U.S. public use firefighting aircraft. Learn about the critical factors involved  

E-print Network

.S. public use firefighting aircraft. Learn about the critical factors involved in aircraft health management of Engineering Emergency Response Aviation Safety Management Certificate Program Certificate courses-28, 2010 Aircraft Health Management--November 1-4, 2010 Aircraft Health Management is approved by the FAA

Thomases, Becca

152

An Educational Intervention for Police and Firefighters for Elders at Risk: Limits of Education Alone as a Strategy for Behavior Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a research project aimed at the health care needs of the vulnerable community-dwelling elderly, an educational intervention was delivered to police and firefighters in worksite settings. A single educational intervention proved insufficient to produce lasting attitudinal and behavioral change as measured by follow-up surveys 3 and 6…

Nusbaum, N. J.; Mistretta, M.; Wegner, J.

2007-01-01

153

High work output combined with high ambient temperatures caused heat exhaustion in a wildland firefighter despite high fluid intake.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case study is to examine the physiological/behavioral factors leading up to heat exhaustion in a male wildland firefighter during wildland fire suppression. The participant (24 years old, 173 cm, 70 kg, and 3 years firefighting experience) experienced heat exhaustion following 7 hours of high ambient temperatures and arduous work on the fire line during the month of August. At the time of the heat-related incident (HRI), core temperature was 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) and skin temperature was 34.4 °C (93.9 °F). His work output averaged 1067 counts·min(-1) (arbitrary units for measuring activity) for the 7 hours prior to the HRI, a very high rate of work over an extended time period during wildfire suppression. In the 2.5 hours leading up to the heat incident, he was exposed to a mean ambient temperature of 44.6 °C (112.3 °F), with a maximum temperature of 59.7 °C (139.5 °F). He consumed an average of 840 mL·h(-1) in the 7 hours leading up to the incident and took an average of 24 ± 11 drinks·h(-1) (total of 170 drinks). The combined effects of a high work rate and high ambient temperatures resulted in an elevated core temperature and a higher volume and frequency of drinking than typically seen in this population, ultimately ending in heat exhaustion and removal from the fire line. The data demonstrate that heat-related incidents can occur even with aggressive fluid intake during wildland fire suppression. PMID:21664560

Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

2011-06-01

154

Evaluating the physical demands on firefighters using track-type stair descent devices to evacuate mobility-limited occupants from high-rise buildings.  

PubMed

The physical demands on firefighting personnel were investigated when using different types of track-type stair descent devices designed for the emergency evacuation of high rise buildings as a function of staircase width and evacuation urgency. Twelve firefighters used five track-type stair descent devices during simulated urgent and non-urgent evacuations. The devices were evaluated under two staircase width conditions (1.12, and 1.32 m), and three devices were also evaluated under a narrower staircase condition (0.91 m). Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) data, spine motion, heart rates, Borg Scale ratings, task durations and descent velocities. Stair descent speeds favored the devices that had shorter fore/aft dimensions when moving through the landing. EMG results indicated that there were tradeoffs due to design features, particularly on the landings where the physical demands tended to be greater. On the landings, devices that could be rolled on four wheels reduced the deltoid and bicep activation levels. PMID:25113864

Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Hedman, Glenn E; Reichelt, Paul A; Park, Sanghyun; Conrad, Karen M

2015-01-01

155

Evaluating the physical demands on firefighters using hand-carried stair descent devices to evacuate mobility-limited occupants from high-rise buildings.  

PubMed

The physical demands on firefighting personnel were investigated when using different types of hand-carried stair descent devices designed for the emergency evacuation of high rise buildings as a function of staircase width and evacuation urgency. Twelve firefighters used three hand-carried stair descent devices during simulated urgent and non-urgent evacuations. The devices were evaluated under three staircase width conditions (0.91, 1.12, and 1.32 m). For comparison, an urgent manual carry was also performed on the 1.12 m wide stairs. Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) data, heart rates, Borg Scale ratings, task durations and descent velocities. Results indicated that the stair chair with extended front handles, which allows the front person to descend the stairs facing forward, reduced the time integrated back muscle EMG by half and showed a descent velocity that was 1.8 times faster than the other stair descent devices in the study. There were no differences across staircase widths. PMID:23759793

Lavender, Steven A; Hedman, Glenn E; Mehta, Jay P; Reichelt, Paul A; Conrad, Karen M; Park, Sanghyun

2014-05-01

156

Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: A pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and levoglucosan.  

SciTech Connect

Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest ServiceFSavannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribedburn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 701±95 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n¼9). PM2.5 and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM2.5 exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample size, this pilot study demonstrates that urinary MP concentrations may be effective biomarkers of occupational exposure to wood smoke among wildland firefighters.

Neitzel, R.; Naeher, L., P.; Paulsen, M.; Dunn, R.; Stock, A.; Simpson, C., D.

2009-04-01

157

Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

2010-01-01

158

Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N?=?70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1?77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N?=?123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect. PMID:24146820

Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

2013-01-01

159

Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters  

SciTech Connect

A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

Canfield, Jesse

2012-09-04

160

Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters  

ScienceCinema

A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

Canfield, Jesse

2014-06-02

161

46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vessel leaves port if reasonable and practicable; but, unless...Summoning of crew members and offshore workers to their stations...the general alarm; (2) Simulation of a fire emergency that varies...Reporting of crew members and offshore workers to...

2010-10-01

162

75 FR 23785 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS...explanation for any differences from the guidelines...fire service leadership during the annual...fire service leadership and have been...the inherent differences between urban...priority to stress management,...

2010-05-04

163

76 FR 71048 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS...It explains the differences, if any, between...Nation's fire service leadership during the annual...Due to inherent differences among urban...Federal Emergency Management Agency. [FR...

2011-11-16

164

78 FR 65678 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS...It explains the differences, if any, between...Nation's fire service leadership during the annual...Priorities Inherent differences exist between...Federal Emergency Management Agency. [FR...

2013-11-01

165

77 FR 37687 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket ID...Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION...year. It explains the differences, if any, between...Nation's fire service leadership during the annual Criteria...Federal Emergency Management Agency. [FR...

2012-06-22

166

20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees...position so classified under State statutes or court decisions. Generally, these positions...and villages. In most States, a police officer is a...

2010-04-01

167

Wildland Firefighter Training Opportunity Deadline to Apply: April 20, 2012  

E-print Network

with physical fitness training followed by classroom and practical field exercises. Participants will camp out: · Nomination by a Fire Management Officer · Satisfactory completion of all pre-course work · Successful

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

168

New fire-fighting water bucket is lifted by helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter lifts a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket that will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, the 324-gallon container will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

169

New fire-fighting water bucket is filled for demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

- A NASA helicopter hovers over the water while a high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket fills. The 324-gallon container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

170

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fire hose of sufficient length to reach every part of the loading area with an effective stream of water must be laid and connected to the water main, ready for immediate use. (c) No repair work may be carried out in a cargo space...

2013-10-01

171

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fire hose of sufficient length to reach every part of the loading area with an effective stream of water must be laid and connected to the water main, ready for immediate use. (c) No repair work may be carried out in a cargo space...

2012-10-01

172

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

...fire hose of sufficient length to reach every part of the loading area with an effective stream of water must be laid and connected to the water main, ready for immediate use. (c) No repair work may be carried out in a cargo space...

2014-10-01

173

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fire hose of sufficient length to reach every part of the loading area with an effective stream of water must be laid and connected to the water main, ready for immediate use. (c) No repair work may be carried out in a cargo space...

2010-10-01

174

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fire hose of sufficient length to reach every part of the loading area with an effective stream of water must be laid and connected to the water main, ready for immediate use. (c) No repair work may be carried out in a cargo space...

2011-10-01

175

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...storage station; and, (2) Near the transfer pump of each buried combustible liquid storage tank. (f) Vehicles transporting explosives and blasting agents shall be equipped with fire protection as recommended in Code 495, section 20,...

2010-07-01

176

46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dioxide, they shall be recharged. (i) Steam smothering lines shall be tested with at...square inch of air pressure or by blowing steam through the lines at the working pressure...for detecting corrosion and defects using hammer test or such other means as may be...

2011-10-01

177

46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dioxide, they shall be recharged. (i) Steam smothering lines shall be tested with at...square inch of air pressure or by blowing steam through the lines at the working pressure...for detecting corrosion and defects using hammer test or such other means as may be...

2012-10-01

178

46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dioxide, they shall be recharged. (i) Steam smothering lines shall be tested with at...square inch of air pressure or by blowing steam through the lines at the working pressure...for detecting corrosion and defects using hammer test or such other means as may be...

2013-10-01

179

46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.  

...dioxide, they shall be recharged. (i) Steam smothering lines shall be tested with at...square inch of air pressure or by blowing steam through the lines at the working pressure...for detecting corrosion and defects using hammer test or such other means as may be...

2014-10-01

180

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a...law enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling 25 years; or (2) After becoming age 50 and completing any combination...law enforcement officer or nuclear materials courier totaling...

2011-01-01

181

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...services. (4) Resource provider has personnel with documented training certification and degree experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider has 24-hour availability of personnel and...

2013-07-01

182

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...services. (4) Resource provider has personnel with documented training certification and degree experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider has 24-hour availability of personnel and...

2012-07-01

183

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

...services. (4) Resource provider has personnel with documented training certification and degree experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider has 24-hour availability of personnel and...

2014-07-01

184

77 FR 42417 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amended by adding paragraphs (h) and (i) to read as follows: Sec...Notwithstanding paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section, an employee...emergency response services for wildland fire protection is eligible to be...Notwithstanding paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section,...

2012-07-19

185

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...working places; or a portable water car of at least 500-gallons...strategic locations. Two portable water cars, readily available, may...haulage roads: (i) A tank of water of at least 55-gallon capacity...pounds of 16d nails 3 claw hammers 25 bags of wood fiber...

2010-07-01

186

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Resource provider has documented history of participation in successful salvage...experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider...availability of personnel and equipment, and history of response times compatible with...

2010-07-01

187

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2) Resource provider has documented history of participation in successful salvage...experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider...availability of personnel and equipment, and history of response times compatible with...

2011-07-01

188

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...not exceeding 2 miles from each working section: 1,000 board feet of brattice boards 2 rolls of brattice cloth 2 hand saws 25 pounds of 8d nails 25 pounds of 10d nails 25 pounds of 16d nails 3 claw hammers 25 bags of wood fiber...

2013-07-01

189

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...not exceeding 2 miles from each working section: 1,000 board feet of brattice boards 2 rolls of brattice cloth 2 hand saws 25 pounds of 8d nails 25 pounds of 10d nails 25 pounds of 16d nails 3 claw hammers 25 bags of wood fiber...

2012-07-01

190

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...not exceeding 2 miles from each working section: 1,000 board feet of brattice boards 2 rolls of brattice cloth 2 hand saws 25 pounds of 8d nails 25 pounds of 10d nails 25 pounds of 16d nails 3 claw hammers 25 bags of wood fiber...

2011-07-01

191

76 FR 58460 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Long-Term Retardant for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...used to prepare the product; 2. Identification of the source of supply for each ingredient; 3. Copies of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the product and for each ingredient used to prepare the product; and 4. Specific mixing...

2011-09-21

192

76 FR 58461 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...used to prepare the product, 2. Identification of the source of supply for each ingredient, 3. Copies of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the product and for each ingredient used to prepare the product, and 4. Specific mixing...

2011-09-21

193

76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...used to prepare the product, 2. Identification of the source of supply for each ingredient, 3. Copies of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the product and for each ingredient used to prepare the product, and 4. Specific mixing...

2011-09-21

194

Factor analytic structure of the Impact of Events Scale – Revised when used with a firefighting sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The Impact of Events Scale (IES)\\/Impact of Events Scale – Revised (IES-R) is arguably one of the most well known tools used to assess post-traumatic symptomatology. The background literature reveals a significant gap with respect to the structural properties of the IES\\/IES-R when used with emergency service populations. In response to these identified gaps, this paper aims to

Shannon L. Wagner

2011-01-01

195

Autonomous UAV-based mapping of large-scale urban firefights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational

Stephen Snarski; Karl Scheibner; Scott Shaw; Randy Roberts; Andy LaRow; Eric Breitfeller; Jasper Lupo; Darron Nielson; Bill Judge; Jim Forren

2006-01-01

196

75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...building. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Melissa Frey, Fire and Aviation Management...equipment and supplies to fire departments. The FFP...agency or the individual fire department. A cooperative agreement collects information from the...

2010-10-05

197

A Comparison of Firefighters and Police Officers: The Influence of Gender and Relationship Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany, M.…

Shaffer, Tammy J.

2010-01-01

198

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...function under contract on September 24, 1983; or (4) The...undertaken in response to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, if— (i) Without...will not extend beyond September 30, 2012; and...

2011-10-01

199

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...function under contract on September 24, 1983; or (4) The...undertaken in response to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, if— (i) Without...will not extend beyond September 30, 2012; and...

2010-10-01

200

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...function under contract on September 24, 1983; or (4) The...undertaken in response to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, if— (i) Without...will not extend beyond September 30, 2012; and...

2013-10-01

201

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...function under contract on September 24, 1983; or (4) The...undertaken in response to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, if— (i) Without...will not extend beyond September 30, 2012; and...

2012-10-01

202

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

...function under contract on September 24, 1983; or (4) The...undertaken in response to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, if— (i) Without...will not extend beyond September 30, 2012; and...

2014-10-01

203

New fire-fighting water bucket releases its load for a demonstration.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter releases the contents of the high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket it holds. The 324-gallon container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

204

New fire-fighting water bucket is readied for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers attach a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket to a NASA helicopter. Holding 324 gallons of water, it will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

205

Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

Abeles, F. J.

1980-01-01

206

New fire-fighting water bucket is lifted from water for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter lifts a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket filled with water. The container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center.. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

207

New fire-fighting water bucket releases its water for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter releases 324 gallons of water onto a building in a simulated fire control demonstration. The high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

208

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...resource provider. (b) Table 155.4030(b) lists the...and response timeframes. Table 155.4030(b )—Salvage...the timeframes listed in the table in § 155.4030(b) will...consistent with applicable Area Contingency Plans (ACPs) and the...

2011-07-01

209

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...timeframes. (1) If your vessel is at the pier or transiting a COTP zone within the...listed. (2) If your vessel is at the pier or transiting a COTP zone outside the...If your vessel is calling at any CONUS pier or an OCONUS pier within 50 miles of...

2010-07-01

210

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...timeframes. (1) If your vessel is at the pier or transiting a COTP zone within the...listed. (2) If your vessel is at the pier or transiting a COTP zone outside the...If your vessel is calling at any CONUS pier or an OCONUS pier within 50 miles of...

2011-07-01

211

Learning for the Frontline: How Fire-Fighters Integrate Learnt Behaviours with Difficult Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emergency service teams hold an important role however the stress associated with their position can strain workplace relationships. Although it is not always possible to change the incidents to which teams respond, it is possible to shape the way personnel communicate with each other about these incidents. Yet little is known on how learnt…

Dadich, Ann

2012-01-01

212

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements of the Underwriter's Laboratories, Inc., or Factory Mutual Research Corp.'s specifications. Cotton or cotton-polyester jacketed hose shall be treated in accordance with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Specification...

2011-07-01

213

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for hose in Bureau of Mines' Schedule 2G. The cover shall be polyester, or other material with flame-spread qualities and mildew resistance equal or superior to polyester. The bursting pressure shall be at least 4 times the water...

2011-07-01

214

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

...shall be provided at strategic locations. Two portable water cars...dust shall be provided at locations where welding, cutting...the following materials at locations not exceeding 2 miles from...involved and within 1-hour's delivery time from each mine....

2014-07-01

215

An Examination of the Preferences for Leadership Style of Firefighters of Different Rank and Generational Cohort  

E-print Network

). This generation is credited with landing a man on the moon and eliminating polio, tetanus, turberculosis, and whooping cough, yet they also experienced the Great Depression where 9 million Americans actually ?lost their life savings? (Zemke et al., 2000, p. 31...

Odom, Summer Rachelle Felton

2012-07-16

216

Reinvesting the IT Dollar: From IT Firefighting to Quality Strategic Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how organizations can become effective, efficient managers of the large maintenance part of their information technology budgets by using service management processes. Discusses the example of the University of Sydney Library's use of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) set of service management practices. (EV)

Stern, Andrea

2001-01-01

217

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accordance with the revised program. (b) New or revised provisions. Before implementing any new or revised approved provision in the program...maintenance of refuge alternatives. (4) Scenarios requiring a discussion of options and...

2010-07-01

218

Firefights, raids, and assassinations: tactical forms of cartel violence and their underpinnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines some specific types of narco-generated combat, assault, and brutality that over the last decade have acquired an increasingly organized and paramilitary character. The planning; training; intelligence and counterintelligence preparation; mobility; communications; type of weaponry; levels of intensity; and sheer audacity substantially exceed the threats with which traditional law enforcement had been trained and equipped to deal. It

Graham H. Turbiville Jr

2010-01-01

219

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

2010-10-01

220

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

2013-10-01

221

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

2012-10-01

222

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

2011-10-01

223

Brave Firefighters, Endangered National Icons and Bumbling Land Managers: Network TV Myths about the 1988 Yellowstone Wildfires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that reporters often seek out the most available news sources rather than those who have the most expertise, that journalists tend to focus on specific events rather than the context in which they occur, and that news stories are presented as stylized social constructs rather than as factual accounts of what happened. A study…

Smith, Conrad

224

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND EXPOSURE TO SMOKE AMONG FIREFIGHTERS AT PRESCRIBED BURNS. (R827355C002)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

225

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

...nautical school ship propelled by steam, in which a part of the fuel-oil...Inspection. (d) On every steam propelled nautical school ship...each boiler room. On every steam propelled nautical school ship...propelled by internal-combustion engines shall be equipped with the...

2014-10-01

226

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(b) You must obtain written consent from the resource provider stating that they agree to be listed in your plan. This consent must state that the resource provider agrees to provide the services that are listed in §§ 155.4030(a) through...

2010-07-01

227

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(b) You must obtain written consent from the resource provider stating that they agree to be listed in your plan. This consent must state that the resource provider agrees to provide the services that are listed in §§ 155.4030(a) through...

2013-07-01

228

Chitotriosidase is a Biomarker for the Resistance to World Trade Center Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Purpose World Trade Center (WTC) exposure caused airflow obstruction years after exposure. Chitinases and IgE are innate and humoral mediators of obstructive airway disease. We investigated if serum expression of chitinases and IgE early after WTC exposure predicts subsequent obstruction. Methods With a nested case-control design, 251 FDNY personnel had chitotriosidase, YKL-40 and IgE measured in serum drawn within months of 9/11/2001. The main outcome was subsequent Forced Expiratory Volume after one second/Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) less than the lower limit of normal (LLN). Cases (N=125) had abnormal FEV1/FVC whereas controls had normal FEV1/FVC (N=126). In a secondary analysis, resistant cases (N=66) had FEV1 (?107%) one standard deviation above the mean. Logistic regression adjusted for age, BMI, exposure intensity and post-exposure FEV1/FVC modeled the association between early biomarkers and later lung function. Results Cases and Controls initially lost lung function. Controls recovered to pre-9/11 FEV1 and FVC while cases continue to decline. Cases expressed lower serum chitotriosidase and higher IgE levels. Increase in IgE increased the odds of airflow obstruction and decreased the odds of above average FEV1. Alternately, increasing chitotriosidase decreased the odds of abnormal FEV1/FVC and increased the odds of FEV1?107%. Serum YKL-40 was not associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in this cohort. Conclusions Increased serum chitotriosidase reduces the odds of developing obstruction after WTC-particulate matter exposure and is associated with recovery of lung function. Alternately, elevated IgE is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and progressive lung function decline. PMID:23744081

Cho, Soo Jung; Nolan, Anna; Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Kwon, Sophia; Naveed, Bushra; Schenck, Edward; Tsukiji, Jun; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Weiden, Michael D.

2013-01-01

229

77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provisions in 42 CFR Part 84 to test and approve air-purifying respirators...a PAPR. NIOSH has developed test procedures for a composite particulate...84.190(b). The standard test procedures are available upon...available on the NIOSH NPPTL Web site at:...

2012-11-16

230

The Use of Prehospital Ketamine for Control of Agitation in a Metropolitan Firefighter-based EMS System.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Prehospital personnel frequently encounter agitated, combative, and intoxicated patients in the field. In recent years, ketamine has been described as an effective sedative agent to treat such patients; however, a paucity of research exists describing the use of prehospital ketamine. The objective of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of the Columbus Division of Fire's experience with utilizing ketamine in the prehospital setting. We hypothesized that ketamine administration improves patient condition, is effective at sedating patients, and does not result in endotracheal intubation in the prehospital setting or in the emergency department (ED). Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort chart review of Columbus Division of Fire patient care reports and hospital records from destination hospitals in the central Ohio region between October 2010 and October 2012. All patients receiving ketamine administered by Columbus Division of Fire personnel for sedation were included. Patients 17 years and younger were excluded. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients noted to have an "improved" condition recorded in the data field of the patient care report. The secondary outcomes were the effectiveness of sedation and the performance of endotracheal intubation. Results. A total of 36 patients met inclusion criteria over the study period. Data were available on 35 patients for analysis. The mean IV dose of ketamine was 138 mg (SD = 59.5, 100-200). The mean IM dose of ketamine was 324 mg (SD = 120, 100-500). Prehospital records noted an improvement in patient condition after ketamine administration in 32 cases (91%, 95% CI 77-98%). Six patients required sedation post-ketamine administration either by EMS (2) or in the ED (4) (17%, 95% CI 6.5-34%). Endotracheal intubation was performed in eight (23%, 95% CI 10-40%) patients post-ketamine administration. Conclusion. We found that in a cohort of patients administered ketamine, paramedics reported a subjective improvement in patient condition. Endotracheal intubation was performed in 8 patients. PMID:25153713

Keseg, David; Cortez, Eric; Rund, Douglas; Caterino, Jeffrey

2015-01-01

231

33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under...deepwater port must be approved by the Commandant (G-PSE)....

2010-07-01

232

33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under...deepwater port must be approved by the Commandant (G-PSE)....

2011-07-01

233

33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?  

...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted...

2014-07-01

234

33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted...

2013-07-01

235

33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? 149.402 Section 149.402...protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard? Except as permitted under...deepwater port must be approved by the Commandant (G-PSE)....

2012-07-01

236

Health-related quality of life of firefighters and police officers 8.5 years after the air disaster in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam. In the troublesome aftermath rumours emerged on potential\\u000a toxic exposures and health consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term impact of this disaster on the health-related\\u000a quality of life (HRQoL) of professional assistance workers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Historic cohort study, using questionnaires to assess occupational disaster exposure, HRQoL

Pau line Slottje; Jos W. R. Twisk; Nynke Smidt; Anja C. Huizink; Anke B. Witteveen; Willem van Mechelen; Tjabe Smid

2007-01-01

237

The Comparative Effectiveness of Levels of Training and Years of Work Experience in Firefighters as Determining Factors in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been known by other names and not well studied prior to returning Vietnam veterans who suffered psychological dysfunction. However, the term PTSD became part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders in 1981. Since that time PTSD has been researched extensively in veterans. However,…

Turner, Melva W.

2011-01-01

238

Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.  

SciTech Connect

Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

1990-06-01

239

5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier from...employee becomes 60 years of age. ((b)(2) The...statute, i.e., age 60 for a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier, age 61 for an air...

2011-01-01

240

33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting...

2010-07-01

241

Extreme sacrifice: sudden cardiac death in the US Fire Service  

PubMed Central

Firefighting is a hazardous profession which has claimed on average the lives of 105 US firefighters per year for the past decade. The leading cause of line-of-duty mortality is sudden cardiac death, which accounts for approximately 45% of all firefighter duty-related fatalities. Strenuous physical activity, emotional stress, and environmental pollutants all strain the cardiovascular system, and each can increase the risk of sudden cardiac events in susceptible individuals. Sudden cardiac death is more likely to occur during or shortly after emergency duties such as fire suppression, despite the fact that these duties comprise a relatively small proportion of firefighters' annual duties. Additionally, cardiac events are more likely to occur in firefighters who possess an excess of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease along with underlying atherosclerosis and/or structural heart disease. In this review, we propose a theoretical model for the interaction between underlying cardiovascular disease in firefighters and the multifactorial physiological strain of firefighting. PMID:23849605

2013-01-01

242

30 CFR 250.188 - What incidents must I report to MMS and when must I report them?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...vessel (including an aircraft) striking another...that damage or disable safety systems or equipment (including firefighting systems). (b) You...

2010-07-01

243

33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2010-07-01

244

33 CFR 127.1503 - Portable fire extinguishers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2010-07-01

245

33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2010-07-01

246

33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2010-07-01

247

33 CFR 127.1505 - Emergency response and rescue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2010-07-01

248

33 CFR 127.1501 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2010-07-01

249

33 CFR 127.605 - Emergency outfits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.605...must include— (1) One explosion-proof flashlight;...

2010-07-01

250

33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2012-07-01

251

33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2013-07-01

252

33 CFR 127.1505 - Emergency response and rescue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2013-07-01

253

33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2014-07-01

254

33 CFR 127.1505 - Emergency response and rescue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2011-07-01

255

33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2011-07-01

256

33 CFR 127.1501 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2012-07-01

257

33 CFR 127.1505 - Emergency response and rescue.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2014-07-01

258

33 CFR 127.1501 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2011-07-01

259

33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2012-07-01

260

33 CFR 127.1505 - Emergency response and rescue.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2012-07-01

261

33 CFR 127.1503 - Portable fire extinguishers.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2014-07-01

262

33 CFR 127.1503 - Portable fire extinguishers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2011-07-01

263

33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2014-07-01

264

33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2013-07-01

265

33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2014-07-01

266

33 CFR 127.1503 - Portable fire extinguishers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2012-07-01

267

33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2011-07-01

268

33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2012-07-01

269

33 CFR 127.1509 - Equipment for controlling and extinguishing fires.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2013-07-01

270

33 CFR 127.1501 - General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2013-07-01

271

33 CFR 127.1503 - Portable fire extinguishers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment §...

2013-07-01

272

A GIS-based decision support system for determining the shortest and safest route to forest fires: a case study in Mediterranean Region of Turkey.  

PubMed

The ability of firefighting vehicles and staff to reach a fire area as quickly as possible is critical in fighting against forest fires. In this study, a Geographical Information System-based decision support system was developed to assist fire managers in determining the fastest and the safest or more reliable access routes from firefighting headquarters to fire areas. The decision support system was tested in the Kahramanmaras Forestry Regional Directoratein the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study area consisted of forested lands which had been classified according to fire sensitivity. The fire response routing simulations considered firefighting teams located in 20 firefighting headquarter locations. The road network, the locations of the firefighting headquarters, and possible fire locations were mapped for simulation analysis. In alternative application simulations, inaccessible roads which might be closed due to fire or other reasons were indicated in the network analysis so that the optimum route was not only the fastest but also the safest and most reliable path. The selection of which firefighting headquarters to use was evaluated by considering critical response time to potential fire areas based on fire sensitivity levels. Results indicated that new firefighting headquarters should be established in the region in order to provide sufficient firefighting response to all forested lands. In addition, building new fire access roads and increasing the design speed on current roads could also increase firefighting response capabilities within the study area. PMID:21509512

Akay, Abdullah E; Wing, Michael G; Sivrikaya, Fatih; Sakar, Dursun

2012-03-01

273

The health of women in the US fire service  

PubMed Central

Background Despite statements from national fire service organizations, including the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) and the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC), promoting a diverse work force related to gender within the fire service, rates of women firefighters remain very low. Thus, research into why this extensive gender disparity continues is a high priority. Recent years have seen a number of large scale studies on firefighter health and health risk behaviors however, none have focused on the health of women firefighters and nearly all have eliminated women from the sample due to small sample size. Data from the present report is drawn from all females in a large, randomly selected cohort of firefighters in an epidemiological study designed to assess health outcomes and health risk behaviors identified as most important to the fire service. Methods Data reported for the present study were collected as baseline data for the Firefighter Injury and Risk Evaluation (FIRE) Study, a longitudinal cohort study examining risk factors for injury in both career and volunteer firefighters in the IAFC Missouri Valley Region. Of the departments assessed, only 8 career and 6 volunteer departments had any women firefighters. All the women solicited for participation chose to enroll in the study. The number of women ranged from 1 to 7 in career departments and 1 to 6 in volunteer departments. Results Where possible, comparisons are made between female firefighters and published data on male firefighters as well as comparisons between female firefighters and military members. Compared to male firefighters, females had more favorable body composition among both career and volunteer firefighters. Tobacco use rates were generally higher among females than males and rates among female firefighters were similar to the rates of female military members. While rates of alcohol use were higher than the general population, only one of the participants evidenced responses in the range of concern on the CAGE screening. Conclusions In general, the findings offer an interesting glimpse of the health of women in the fire service as a generally healthy occupational workforce with some unique health risk behavior challenges. They also highlight some of the similarities and differences between male and female firefighters and bolster the argument for studying female firefighters as a unique occupational sub-population. PMID:23114186

2012-01-01

274

Teaching Guide for Fire Cadet Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of five performance-based secondary level guides for vocational education. Part 1 provides tools, resources, and a process to be used at the local level to develop a firefighter cadet training curriculum. It includes a comprehensive overview of the career field; a performance-based listing of firefighting job tasks; a description of…

Kempton, Robert F.

275

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE  

E-print Network

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE HOW NEBRASKANS BENEFIT: · improved protection of life and property from wildland fires · improved firefighting capability in rural fire districts · increased firefighter knowledge of wildland fire suppression and prevention · reduced forest

Farritor, Shane

276

14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.  

...311 X X X X 15. A snow and ice control plan, as required under § 139...and procedures for meeting the aircraft rescue and firefighting requirements, in accordance...description of any approved exemption to aircraft rescue and firefighting requirements, as...

2014-01-01

277

14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...311 X X X X 15. A snow and ice control plan, as required under § 139...and procedures for meeting the aircraft rescue and firefighting requirements, in accordance...description of any approved exemption to aircraft rescue and firefighting requirements, as...

2013-01-01

278

14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...311 X X X X 15. A snow and ice control plan, as required under § 139...and procedures for meeting the aircraft rescue and firefighting requirements, in accordance...description of any approved exemption to aircraft rescue and firefighting requirements, as...

2011-01-01

279

14 CFR 139.203 - Contents of Airport Certification Manual.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...311 X X X X 15. A snow and ice control plan, as required under § 139...and procedures for meeting the aircraft rescue and firefighting requirements, in accordance...description of any approved exemption to aircraft rescue and firefighting requirements, as...

2012-01-01

280

Integral Leadership and Signal Detection for High Reliability Organizing and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last ten years, the fire management community has made significant advances in firefighter safety and leadership development. Yet, there is no discernible downward trend in entrapment fatalities. While the complexity of the job and exposure of an increasing number of firefighters to increasingly severe situations has surely increased over that time frame, the best we can say is

J. M. Saveland

2005-01-01

281

Instruction: Cable and Slow-Scan. Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rockford Cable Project is an experimental program using two-way cable television to train firefighters in prefire planning. The instructional design calls for firefighters across the city to view videotapes simultaneously and respond to computerized questions via a specially-designed pushbutton terminal. The project provides for centralized…

Pachuta, Jack

282

Fire on the Mountain: What Motivates Homeowners to Reduce Their Wildfire Risk?  

E-print Network

their level of concern for their property, landscape, pets, and health. A separate study in Ouray County managers estimated that between 50 and 95% of firefighting expenditures were attributable to defense and 95% of firefighting expenditures were attributable to defense of private property. (Photo credit

283

The Development of Children's Ability to Fill the Gaps in Their Knowledge by Consulting Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated children's ability to recognize gaps in their knowledge and seek missing information from appropriate informants. In Experiment 1, forty-five 4- and 5-year-olds were adept in assigning questions from 3 domains (medicine, firefighting, and farming) to corresponding experts (doctor, firefighter, or farmer). However, when…

Aguiar, Naomi R.; Stoess, Caryn J.; Taylor, Marjorie

2012-01-01

284

Wildfire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes the 3 elements that are needed for a fire triangle, and how the job of firefighters is to eliminate at least one of the elements. Learn how wildfires spread, what firefighters need to know in order to fight fires and why rehabilitation is important after a fire.

Idaho PTV

2011-10-07

285

Transportable Pumps Could Save Oil Cargoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transportable pumps designed for firefighting used to salvage crude oil from tankships leaking, burning, or grounded. Pump incorporated into self-contained transportable module along with engine and controls. Module carried by helicopter, boat, or van to site of fire provides large quantities of water at high pressure in firefighting mode or pump oil into barge in salvage mode.

Burns, R.

1984-01-01

286

The Effect of Computer-Based Simulation Training on Fire Ground Incident Commander Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the establishment of the first volunteer fire brigades in the United States, firefighters have lost their lives in fire fighting operations at emergency incidents and live-fire training activities. While there are various reasons for these firefighter deaths and injuries, the United States Fire Administration (2002) reported that many of…

Hall, Kurt A.

2010-01-01

287

Acute respiratory effects of a fire involving silicone rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acute pulmonary irritation was found in five firefighters who inhaled combustion products from silicone rubber. Pulmonary function measured by spirometry was depressed, a variety of respiratory symtoms were reported, and two firefighters had persistent shortness of breath and rales at the lung bases posteriorly. Environmental measurements and comparisons with observations from other fires strongly suggest that these effects were

T. J. Smith; A. W. Musk; A. Gold; P. Roto

1978-01-01

288

ANALYSIS OF A FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS FIRE LEADING TO A BACKDRAFT EXPLOSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tragic backdraft explosion during a flammable liquids fire in the basement of a New York City hardware store caused three firefighter fatalities and numerous injuries on June 17, 2001. The backdraft explosion occurred soon after the firefighters forced open a locked door and boarded window. This paper presents a FDS code simulation of the fire leading up to the

Robert Zalosh; San-Ping Ho

289

Coping, Functioning, and Adjustment of Rescue Workers After the Oklahoma City Bombing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have not previously considered postdisaster adjustment in the context of psychiatric disorders. After the Oklahoma City bombing, a volunteer sample of 181 firefighters who served as rescue and recovery workers was assessed with a structured diagnostic interview. The firefighters had relatively low rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and described little functional impairment, positive social adjustment, and high job

Carol S. North; Laura Tivis; J. Curtis McMillen; Betty Pfefferbaum; Jann Cox; Edward L. Spitznagel; Kenneth Bunch; John Schorr; Elizabeth M. Smith

2002-01-01

290

Sleep Restriction during Simulated Wildfire Suppression: Effect on Physical Task Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the effects of sleep restriction on firefighters’ physical task performance during simulated wildfire suppression. Methods Thirty-five firefighters were matched and randomly allocated to either a control condition (8-hour sleep opportunity, n = 18) or a sleep restricted condition (4-hour sleep opportunity, n = 17). Performance on physical work tasks was evaluated across three days. In addition, heart rate, core temperature, and worker activity were measured continuously. Rate of perceived and exertion and effort sensation were evaluated during the physical work periods. Results There were no differences between the sleep-restricted and control groups in firefighters’ task performance, heart rate, core temperature, or perceptual responses during self-paced simulated firefighting work tasks. However, the sleep-restricted group were less active during periods of non-physical work compared to the control group. Conclusions Under self-paced work conditions, 4 h of sleep restriction did not adversely affect firefighters’ performance on physical work tasks. However, the sleep-restricted group were less physically active throughout the simulation. This may indicate that sleep-restricted participants adapted their behaviour to conserve effort during rest periods, to subsequently ensure they were able to maintain performance during the firefighter work tasks. This work contributes new knowledge to inform fire agencies of firefighters’ operational capabilities when their sleep is restricted during multi-day wildfire events. The work also highlights the need for further research to explore how sleep restriction affects physical performance during tasks of varying duration, intensity, and complexity. PMID:25615988

Vincent, Grace; Ferguson, Sally A.; Tran, Jacqueline; Larsen, Brianna; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

2015-01-01

291

An examination of the benefits of health promotion programs for the national fire service  

PubMed Central

Background Firefighters suffer from high prevalence of obesity, substandard fitness, and cardiovascular-related deaths. There have been a limited number of firefighter health promotion programs that have been developed and empirically-tested for this important occupational group. We evaluated the health of firefighters from departments with well-developed health promotion programs and compared them with those from departments not having such programs using a large national sample of career fire departments that varied in size and mission. We measured a broad array of important individual firefighter health outcomes (e.g., body composition, physical activity, and general and behavioral health) consistent with national fire service goals and addressed significant statistical limitations unaccounted for in previous studies. Methods Using the approach of purposive sampling of heterogeneous instances, we selected and conducted a national evaluation of 10 departments already implementing wellness and fitness programs (Wellness Approach; WA) with 10 departments that did not (Standard). Participants were 1,002 male firefighters (WA n = 522; Standard n = 480) who underwent assessments including body composition, fitness, and general/behavioral health (e.g., injury, depressive symptoms). Results Firefighters in WA departments were healthier than their Standard department counterparts. For example, they were less likely to be obese (adjusted [A]OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41-0.82), more likely to meet endurance capacity standards for firefighting (AOR = 5.19; 95% CI = 2.49-10.83) and have higher estimated VO2max (40.7 ± 0.6 vs. 37.5 ± 1.3 for firefighters in Standard departments; p = 0.001). In addition, WA firefighter were substantially less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.17-0.54) or ever have been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.14-0.52) and they expressed higher job satisfaction across several domains. However, WA firefighters were somewhat more likely to have reported an injury to Workers’ Compensation (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.05-2.90). It was notable that both groups evidenced high prevalence of smokeless tobacco use and binge drinking. Conclusions Firefighters in departments selected based on having strong wellness programs (WA) were healthier along a number of dimensions important to firefighter wellness and operational readiness. However, several health areas require greater attention including problematic alcohol consumption and smokeless tobacco use, suggesting that more emphasis on these behavioral health issues is needed in the fire service. PMID:24007391

2013-01-01

292

"F-The French Connection."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information for teachers on the chemistry of flourine. Points out that it links aerosols with refrigerants, anaesthetics with fire-fighting agents, batteries with blood substitutes, and atomic energy with the steel, petroleum, and aluminum industries. (JN)

Sleigh, John; Plevey, Ray

1986-01-01

293

5 CFR 831.912 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police officers...SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters...deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...

2010-01-01

294

46 CFR 108.499 - Fire axes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...108.499 Section 108.499 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Miscellaneous Firefighting Equipment § 108.499...

2013-10-01

295

46 CFR 108.497 - Fireman's outfits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...108.497 Section 108.497 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Miscellaneous Firefighting Equipment § 108.497...

2013-10-01

296

Employee Spotlight: Kristen Honig June 24, 2014  

E-print Network

and the sacrifices, challenges and camaraderie of the men and women protecting communities in the path to complete the basic firefighting courses and physical fitness test." Honig was fortunate as well. "My mom

297

5 CFR 842.403 - Computation of basic annuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...which entitlement to an annuity is based— (i) Is at least age 62; and (ii) Is not a customs and border protection...reserve technician, law enforcement officer, firefighter, nuclear materials courier, or air traffic controller. [52 FR...

2013-01-01

298

5 CFR 842.403 - Computation of basic annuity.  

...which entitlement to an annuity is based— (i) Is at least age 62; and (ii) Is not a customs and border protection...reserve technician, law enforcement officer, firefighter, nuclear materials courier, or air traffic controller. [52 FR...

2014-01-01

299

5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Presidential appointee, beyond the age(s) provided by statute, i.e., age 60 for a law enforcement officer, firefighter, nuclear materials courier, or customs and border protection officer, and age 61 for an air traffic...

2012-01-01

300

5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Presidential appointee, beyond the age(s) provided by statute, i.e., age 60 for a law enforcement officer, firefighter, nuclear materials courier, or customs and border protection officer, and age 61 for an air traffic...

2013-01-01

301

5 CFR 831.502 - Automatic separation; exemption.  

...Presidential appointee, beyond the age(s) provided by statute, i.e., age 60 for a law enforcement officer, firefighter, nuclear materials courier, or customs and border protection officer, and age 61 for an air traffic...

2014-01-01

302

5 CFR 842.403 - Computation of basic annuity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...which entitlement to an annuity is based— (i) Is at least age 62; and (ii) Is not a customs and border protection...reserve technician, law enforcement officer, firefighter, nuclear materials courier, or air traffic controller. [52 FR...

2012-01-01

303

Number: SMF 6.7 Revision: 2 Effective Date: 15-Oct -13 Page 1 of 2 CHECK OFF LIST SAFETY ORIENTATION LECTURE  

E-print Network

: Fire-fighting equipment. Point out dry chemical, CO2, and class D extinguishers and different uses. How to use the ship's paging system. The dangers of a vessel's motion (including when sleeping). 2

Kurapov, Alexander

304

Federal policy towards emergency responder interoperability : a path forward  

E-print Network

Emergency responders have suffered from a lack of cross-agency radio communications for the past three decades. After numerous firefighters died in the terrorist attacks of September 11, partially due to a lack of ...

Weir, Tristan John

2006-01-01

305

Aerospace Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace safety. Topics include hazard communications, lockout/tagout, confined space entry, fall protection, PPE, firefighting and bloodborne pathogens.

2010-10-18

306

78 FR 13315 - Bridger-Teton National Forest; Wyoming; Teton to Snake Fuels Management Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...improve firefighter and public safety. The...County's Community Wildfire Protection Plan. As...the National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy, and the Healthy Forests...human communities from wildfires originating on...

2013-02-27

307

76 FR 58079 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...construction. Rehabilitate taxiways B, A, and B-1--design. Pavement condition update. Acquire aircraft rescue and firefighting...apron, sealcoat. Runway 13/31 markings and miscellaneous pavement repairs. Mark surface painted hold position signs....

2011-09-19

308

76 FR 21702 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 124B; Application for Expansion; North American Shipbuilding, LLC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...include propulsion units, controllable pitch propellers, dynamic positioning systems, safety and firefighting equipment, centrifuges, compartment doors, electronic equipment, and guide rollers (duty rate range: Free-6.0%). The applicant is...

2011-04-18

309

The Long-Haul Effects of Interest Arbitration: The Case of New York State’s Taylor Law  

E-print Network

The authors examine debates about the effects of mandatory interest arbitration on police and firefighters in New York State under the Taylor Law from 1974 to 2007. Comparing experience with interest arbitration in the ...

Kochan, Thomas Anton

310

33 CFR 155.1045 - Response plan requirements for vessels carrying oil as a secondary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...trained to meet the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2010-07-01

311

33 CFR 155.1045 - Response plan requirements for vessels carrying oil as a secondary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...trained to meet the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2013-07-01

312

33 CFR 155.1040 - Response plan requirements for unmanned tank barges carrying oil as a primary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...identified). (8) Damage stability data, if applicable. (9) Location...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the barge. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2011-07-01

313

33 CFR 155.1035 - Response plan requirements for manned vessels carrying oil as a primary cargo.  

...location). (8) Damage stability data (can be maintained separately...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2014-07-01

314

33 CFR 155.1040 - Response plan requirements for unmanned tank barges carrying oil as a primary cargo.  

...identified). (8) Damage stability data, if applicable. (9) Location...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the barge. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2014-07-01

315

33 CFR 155.1040 - Response plan requirements for unmanned tank barges carrying oil as a primary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identified). (8) Damage stability data, if applicable. (9) Location...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the barge. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2013-07-01

316

33 CFR 155.1040 - Response plan requirements for unmanned tank barges carrying oil as a primary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...identified). (8) Damage stability data, if applicable. (9) Location...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the barge. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2012-07-01

317

33 CFR 155.1045 - Response plan requirements for vessels carrying oil as a secondary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...trained to meet the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2012-07-01

318

33 CFR 155.1035 - Response plan requirements for manned vessels carrying oil as a primary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...location). (8) Damage stability data (can be maintained separately...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2012-07-01

319

33 CFR 155.1045 - Response plan requirements for vessels carrying oil as a secondary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...trained to meet the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2011-07-01

320

33 CFR 155.1035 - Response plan requirements for manned vessels carrying oil as a primary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...location). (8) Damage stability data (can be maintained separately...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2011-07-01

321

33 CFR 155.1045 - Response plan requirements for vessels carrying oil as a secondary cargo.  

...trained to meet the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2014-07-01

322

33 CFR 155.1035 - Response plan requirements for manned vessels carrying oil as a primary cargo.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...location). (8) Damage stability data (can be maintained separately...chemical characteristics, health and safety hazards, and spill and firefighting...oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of...

2013-07-01

323

76 FR 70807 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determination: The emergency radio dispatch system is used for both eligible (aircraft rescue and firefighting and aviation security) and ineligible (normal law enforcement activities and medical emergencies) purposes. The PFC approval was...

2011-11-15

324

A General Framework to Generate Sizing Systems from 3D Motion Data Applied to Face Mask Design  

E-print Network

]), by public safety departments (e.g. res- pirators for firefighters [2]), and for medical (e.g. aerosol face for the design of face masks [3], [1], [2], [4], helmets [5], gloves [6] or more general, for apparel [7

Wuhrer, Stefanie

325

Description of FMV Project "Adaptive Technology" Rogier Woltjer  

E-print Network

of cyber- netics, systems theory, cognitive systems engineering, ecological psychology, cognitive work as a whole, in three applications: C3Fire (a fire-fighting emergency management microworld), DKE (a war- game

Zhao, Yuxiao

326

46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements. 167...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-70 Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements....

2012-10-01

327

46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. ...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-65 Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation...

2014-10-01

328

46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. ...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-65 Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation...

2013-10-01

329

46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements. 167...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-70 Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements....

2010-10-01

330

46 CFR 167.45-5 - Steam fire pumps or their equivalent.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. 167.45-5...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-5 Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. (a) All...

2014-10-01

331

46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. ...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-65 Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation...

2010-10-01

332

46 CFR 167.45-5 - Steam fire pumps or their equivalent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. 167.45-5...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-5 Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. (a) All...

2013-10-01

333

46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements. 167...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-70 Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements....

2014-10-01

334

46 CFR 167.45-5 - Steam fire pumps or their equivalent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. 167.45-5...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-5 Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. (a) All...

2011-10-01

335

46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements. 167...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-70 Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements....

2011-10-01

336

46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. ...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-65 Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation...

2011-10-01

337

46 CFR 167.45-5 - Steam fire pumps or their equivalent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. 167.45-5...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-5 Steam fire pumps or their equivalent. (a) All...

2012-10-01

338

46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. ...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-65 Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation...

2012-10-01

339

46 CFR 167.45-70 - Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements. 167...NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-70 Portable fire extinguishers, general requirements....

2013-10-01

340

36 CFR 261.52 - Fire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of all flammable material. (e) Going into or being upon an area. (f) Possessing, discharging or using any kind of firework or other pyrotechnic device. (g) Entering an area without any firefighting tool prescribed by the order. (h)...

2010-07-01

341

46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

2011-10-01

342

46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

2010-10-01

343

46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.  

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

2014-10-01

344

46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

2012-10-01

345

46 CFR 154.1170 - Hand hose line: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand hose line: General. 154.1170 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1170 Hand hose line: General. Each dry chemical hand hose line must: (a) Not be longer...

2013-10-01

346

33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection...three engines. 3 Small electrical appliances, such as fans, are exempt. 4 Not required if a fixed foam system...

2012-07-01

347

33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection...three engines. 3 Small electrical appliances, such as fans, are exempt. 4 Not required if a fixed foam system...

2011-07-01

348

33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?  

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection...three engines. 3 Small electrical appliances, such as fans, are exempt. 4 Not required if a fixed foam system...

2014-07-01

349

33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection...three engines. 3 Small electrical appliances, such as fans, are exempt. 4 Not required if a fixed foam system...

2013-07-01

350

33 CFR 149.409 - How many fire extinguishers are needed?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection...three engines. 3 Small electrical appliances, such as fans, are exempt. 4 Not required if a fixed foam system...

2010-07-01

351

46 CFR 154.1165 - Controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Firefighting...system hose, monitor, pipe or control circuits must not prevent the operation of other hoses, monitors, or control circuit that are connected to the same...

2010-10-01

352

49 CFR 194.117 - Training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...necessary to control any accidental discharge of oil and to minimize the potential for fire, explosion, toxicity, or environmental damage, and (iv) The proper firefighting procedures and use of equipment, fire suits, and breathing...

2010-10-01

353

Fire and Rescue Technology. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides occupational information about fire and rescue operations personnel, such as fire science, fire protection engineering, emergency medical technicians, and firefighters. Provides information about organizations in these fields. (JOW)

Valesey, Brigitte G.

1997-01-01

354

78 FR 76114 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the ROK's capability to meet current and future requirements for troop movement, medical evacuation, aircraft recovery, parachute drop, search and rescue, disaster relief, fire-fighting and heavy construction support. The ROK will...

2013-12-16

355

46 CFR 154.1145 - Dry chemical supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dry chemical supply. 154.1145 Section 154.1145 ...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1145 Dry chemical supply. (a) A vessel with a cargo...

2011-10-01

356

46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150 Shipping...and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above...

2013-10-01

357

46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150 Shipping...and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above...

2010-10-01

358

46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied...

2011-10-01

359

46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied...

2012-10-01

360

46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150 Shipping...and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above...

2012-10-01

361

46 CFR 154.1145 - Dry chemical supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dry chemical supply. 154.1145 Section 154.1145 ...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1145 Dry chemical supply. (a) A vessel with a cargo...

2013-10-01

362

46 CFR 154.1145 - Dry chemical supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dry chemical supply. 154.1145 Section 154.1145 ...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1145 Dry chemical supply. (a) A vessel with a cargo...

2010-10-01

363

46 CFR 154.1145 - Dry chemical supply.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dry chemical supply. 154.1145 Section 154.1145 ...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1145 Dry chemical supply. (a) A vessel with a cargo...

2014-10-01

364

46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150 Shipping...and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above...

2011-10-01

365

46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied...

2014-10-01

366

46 CFR 154.1145 - Dry chemical supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dry chemical supply. 154.1145 Section 154.1145 ...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1145 Dry chemical supply. (a) A vessel with a cargo...

2012-10-01

367

46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied...

2013-10-01

368

46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.  

...2014-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150 Shipping...and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above...

2014-10-01

369

46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied...

2010-10-01

370

77 FR 1051 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Qualified Product List for Wild Land Fire Chemicals. OMB Control...used in direct wildland fire suppression operations...safety of the wildland fire chemicals utilized on FS...List for Class A foams for Wild land Firefighting''...

2012-01-09

371

40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and other organizations to discharges of oil or releases of hazardous substances...including firefighting equipment), dispersants, or other mitigating substances and...that may be affected directly by onshore oil or indirectly by oil-related...

2011-07-01

372

40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and other organizations to discharges of oil or releases of hazardous substances...including firefighting equipment), dispersants, or other mitigating substances and...that may be affected directly by onshore oil or indirectly by oil-related...

2010-07-01

373

78 FR 62305 - Fire Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...office buildings in honor of the National Fallen Firefighters Memorial Service. I call on all Americans to participate in this observance with appropriate programs and activities and by renewing their efforts to prevent fires and their tragic...

2013-10-16

374

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2014-10-01

375

46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34... Powerful streams of water per pump Minimum hydrant...the number of streams of water required by table...pump, while delivering water through the fire main system at...

2012-10-01

376

46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.  

...FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34... Powerful streams of water per pump Minimum hydrant...the number of streams of water required by table...pump, while delivering water through the fire main system at...

2014-10-01

377

46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34... Powerful streams of water per pump Minimum hydrant...the number of streams of water required by table...pump, while delivering water through the fire main system at...

2013-10-01

378

46 CFR 34.10-5 - Fire pumps-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34... Powerful streams of water per pump Minimum hydrant...the number of streams of water required by table...pump, while delivering water through the fire main system at...

2011-10-01

379

M113: Armored Rescuer - Duration: 4:04.  

NASA Video Gallery

The space shuttle required a unique rescue vehicle, one strong enough to bull its way into a launch pad and carry a flight crew and firefighters to safety. The answer is a group of M113 armored per...

380

78 FR 76387 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...arresting system). Rehabilitate taxiways H, B, and F. Airfield marking. Acquire and install wildlife fence. Airport security fencing. Replace aircraft rescue and firefighting vehicles 343 and 344. Terminal building modifications. PFC...

2013-12-17

381

33 CFR 154.1045 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tiers for Effective Daily Application Capability Response time forcompleted application...peer-reviewed scientific evidence of improved capability. (j) The owner or operator...response resources with firefighting capability. The owner or operator of a...

2011-07-01

382

33 CFR 154.1045 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for facilities that handle, store, or transport...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tiers for Effective Daily Application Capability Response time forcompleted application...peer-reviewed scientific evidence of improved capability. (j) The owner or operator...response resources with firefighting capability. The owner or operator of a...

2010-07-01

383

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P to... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory...Subpart P to Part 1915—Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory) Model Fire Safety Plan Note...The level of firefighting capability present in the...

2011-07-01

384

29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P to... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory...Subpart P to Part 1915—Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory) Model Fire Safety Plan Note...The level of firefighting capability present in the...

2010-07-01

385

Telemetry Speeds Forest-Fire Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne system rapidly delivers hard copy to firefighters. Sensors in airplane send data to ground station for image processing. Imagery immediately transferred to U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) maps by photo interpreter. Maps transmitted by telecopies directly to fire-control camps. Receipt by fire camp less than 10 minutes. Information aids in decisions involving deployment of firefighters and equipment, flood control, monitoring oilspills, observing thermal currents, and pollutions monitoring.

Arvesen, J. C.; Cherbonneaux, J. W.

1984-01-01

386

Effect of base layer materials on physiological and perceptual responses to exercise in personal protective equipment.  

PubMed

Ten men (non-firefighters) completed a 110 min walking/recovery protocol (three 20-min exercise bouts, with recovery periods of 10, 20, and 20 min following successive bouts) in a thermoneutral laboratory while wearing firefighting personal protective equipment over one of four base layers: cotton, modacrylic, wool, and phase change material. There were no significant differences in changes in heart rate, core temperature, rating of perceived exertion, thermal discomfort, and thermal strain among base layers. Sticking to skin, coolness/hotness, and clothing humidity sensation were more favorable (p < 0.05) for wool compared with cotton; no significant differences were identified for the other 7 clothing sensations assessed. Separate materials performance testing of the individual base layers and firefighting ensembles (base layer + turnout gear) indicated differences in thermal protective performance and total heat loss among the base layers and among ensembles; however, differences in heat dissipation did not correspond with physiological responses during exercise or recovery. PMID:23849898

Smith, Denise L; Arena, Logan; DeBlois, Jacob P; Haller, Jeannie M; Hultquist, Eric M; Lefferts, Wesley K; Russell, Tim; Wu, Annie; Fehling, Patricia C

2014-05-01

387

Mapping Wildfires In Nearly Real Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne infrared-sensing system flies over wildfire as infrared detector in system and navigation subsystem generate data transmitted to firefighters' camp. There, data plotted in form of map of fire, including approximate variations of temperature. System, called Firefly, reveals position of fires and approximate thermal intensities of regions within fires. Firefighters use information to manage and suppress fires. Used for other purposes with minor modifications, such as to spot losses of heat in urban areas and to map disease and pest infestation in vegetation.

Nichols, Joseph D.; Parks, Gary S.; Denning, Richard F.; Ibbott, Anthony C.; Scott, Kenneth C.; Sleigh, William J.; Voss, Jeffrey M.

1993-01-01

388

Use of an Eye-Safe, Portable LIDAR for Remote Wildland Fire and Smoke Detection  

SciTech Connect

During periods of drought when surface water supplies are severely limited, wildland forest fires tend to become more frequent and often can grow into major fires that threaten valuable timber, real estate, and even human lives. Fire-fighting crews are critically dependent upon accurate and timely weather data to help ensure that individuals are not inadvertently exposed to dangerous conditions and to enhance normal fire-fighting activities. To that end, the use of an eye-safe, portable lidar for remote wildland fire and smoke detection is described.

MATTHEW, PARKER

2004-11-29

389

Stennis acquires new ladder truck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Stennis Space Center Fire Department added to its fire-fighting capabilities with acquisition of a new emergency response vehicle, Ladder-1, for use on-site. The E-One HP78 Aerial Truck is a combination aerial ladder and fire suppression unit and is designed with the latest safety technology. Featuring a 78-foot ladder and a pumping capability of 1,500 gallons per minute, the new truck provides firefighters with a tremendous rescue and fire suppression tool, Stennis Fire Chief Clark Smith said.

2009-01-01

390

The psychological costs of war: military combat and mental health.  

PubMed

We exploit plausibly exogenous variation in overseas deployment assignment to estimate the effect of combat exposure on psychological well-being. Controlling for pre-deployment mental health, we find that active-duty soldiers deployed to combat zones are more likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than their counterparts deployed outside the United States in non-combat zones. Among those deployed to combat zones, those deployed to locales where they engage in enemy firefight or witness allied or civilian deaths are at an increased risk for suicidal ideation and PTSD relative to their active-duty counterparts deployed to combat zones without enemy firefight. PMID:23220456

Cesur, Resul; Sabia, Joseph J; Tekin, Erdal

2013-01-01

391

State of Alaska Fire Service Training. Instructor Certification Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for local Alaskan fire departments, this pamphlet provides the criteria and qualifications for certificates of firefighter instructors (basic, advanced, master), a list of approved subject categories for each level of certification, sample certification applications, a list of resource publications, and a training course outline (basic…

Hagevig, William

392

Middleware support for service discovery in special operations mobile ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology can play a significant role in the management and coordination activities of special operations such as emergency response, military combat missions, forest firefighting, etc. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be used quite effectively to manage resource sharing in such operations due to their flexibility and ease of establishment. The concept of service discovery has some appealing characteristics and

Yasser Gadallah; Mohamed Adel Serhani; Nader Mohamed

2010-01-01

393

Diversity in the Mideast; Kuwait and Yemen  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on two types of action which mark oil industry activity at opposite ends of the Arabian Peninsula. In Kuwait, the astounding achievements of firefighting teams have captured world headlines. Some 1,200 miles to the south, Yemen is establishing itself as a center for exploration and production.

Vielvoye, R.

1991-12-02

394

Evaluation of Full-Facepiece Respirator Fit on Fire Fighters in the Municipality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of personal variables on the fit of the respirators used by firefighters and workers in highly polluted environments. However, resistance from many plants managers was met to conduct the study on their workers. Therefore, we were forced to limit the study on firefighters who were found very cooperative. Forty volunteer firefighters from different departments participated in the study. They were subjected to a daily leak rate measurement using a Control Negative Pressure (CNP) fit tester for five consecutive days. Two types of respirators were used for each volunteer: the Drager type and the MSA. At the end of the study, the association between face shape and presence of beard with the respirator leak rates was investigated. A significant difference in the leak rate was detected between the two types of respirators used, with the Drager respirator having higher leak rates. The presence of a beard increased dramatically the leak rate whatever the face shape was. The oval shape was the best fitting to the respirators, followed by the rounded and finally the rectangular face. The study recommends that personal variables like face shape must be taken into consideration and fit testing must be carried out periodically, to specify the respirator that best fits each firefighter. Having beard must be absolutely prohibited, since it can be life threatening in environmental dangerous conditions such those encountered during extinguishing fires and overhaul situations. PMID:23343987

Balkhyour, Mansour A.

2013-01-01

395

46 CFR 34.15-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1962-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing...for prior to November 19, 1952, shall meet the...at least one pound of carbon dioxide shall be available...the number of pounds of carbon dioxide required shall...for on or after November 19, 1952, but prior...

2010-10-01

396

Postural analysis of paramedics simulating frequently performed strenuous work tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paramedics who perform emergency rescue functions are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries. Through an interview and survey process firefighters, many of whom are cross-trained paramedics in a consortium of 14 suburban fire departments, identified and rated tasks that were perceived to be both strenuous and frequently performed. The objective of the current study was to describe the working postures and

Steven A Lavender; Karen M Conrad; Paul A Reichelt; Fred T. Meyer; Paul W Johnson

2000-01-01

397

English Leadership Quarterly, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 16, published during 1994. Articles in number 1 deal with practical advice, and include: "The Law of Privacy and the Writing Teacher" (Ben T. Allen); Beware of Teachers Who Laminate Their Lesson Plans and Other Useful Suggestions about Teaching" (Robert Perrin); "Firefighter, Cook,…

Strickland, James, Ed.; Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

1994-01-01

398

Improved Helmet-Padding Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide foamed into lightweight padding material for use in helmets. Exhibits increased resistance to ignition, combustion, and impact, and it outgasses less. Foam satisfies offgassing and toxicity requirements of NASA/JSC criteria (NHB80601B). Helmets containing this improved padding material used by firefighters, police, offshore drilling technicians, construction workers, miners, and race-car drivers.

Dawn, Frederic S.; Weiss, Fred R.; Eck, John D.

1994-01-01

399

Persistent organic pollutants in 9\\/11 world trade center rescue workers: Reduction following detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to toxins following the September 11, 2001 attack on and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) is of particular concern given the ultra fine particulate dust cloud, high temperature combustion, and months-long fire. Firefighters, paramedics, police and sanitation crews are among the approximately 40000 personnel who labored for weeks and months on rescue and cleanup efforts. Many of

James Dahlgren; Marie Cecchini; Harpreet Takhar; Olaf Paepke

2007-01-01

400

Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anyone who watches the television news has seen images of firefighters rescuing people from burning buildings and paramedics treating bombing victims. How do these individuals make the split-second decisions that save lives? Most studies of decision making, based on artificial tasks assigned in laboratory settings, view people as biased and unskilled. Gary Klein is one of the developers of the

Gary Klein

1999-01-01

401

Learning How to Learn: Implications for Non Traditional Adult Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, learning how to learn for non traditional adult students is discussed with a focus on police officers and firefighters. Learning how to learn is particularly relevant for all returning non-traditional adults; however in the era of terrorism it is critical for the public safety officers returning to college after years of absence…

Tovar, Lynn A.

2008-01-01

402

33 CFR 155.4052 - Drills and exercises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Drills and exercises. 155.4052 Section 155.4052...Firefighting § 155.4052 Drills and exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator...to have a response plan shall conduct exercises as necessary to ensure that the...

2011-07-01

403

Simulating Building Fires for Movies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fire scenes for cinematography staged at relatively low cost in method that combines several existing techniques. Nearly realistic scenes, suitable for firefighter training, produced with little specialized equipment. Sequences of scenes set up quickly and easily, without compromising safety because model not burned. Images of fire, steam, and smoke superimposed on image of building to simulate burning of building.

Rodriguez, Ricardo C.; Johnson, Randall P.

1987-01-01

404

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2010-07-01

405

33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable...Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for LNG, the operator...

2011-07-01

406

Information literacy landscapes: an emerging picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To describe the various landscapes in which information literacy has been explored and to propose new ways of thinking about information literacy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Draws on constructivist-influenced grounded theory method employed during doctoral research into information literacy practices of firefighters. Findings – Information-literate people are more usefully described as being engaged, enabled, enriched and embodied. Information literacy is

Annemaree Lloyd

2006-01-01

407

BESNARD, D. (2000). Expert error. The case of trouble-shooting in electronics. Proceedings of the 19th international conference SafeComp2000, Rotterdam, Netherlands (pp. 74-85).  

E-print Network

conference SafeComp2000 - Computer Safety, Reliability and Security, Rotterdam : Netherlands (2000)" #12 be considered as a form of reasoning whose goal is to identify causes of facts assessed as abnormal [7, 8 an aircraft [11], fire-fighting [12],

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

408

Image Source: http://activefiremaps.fs.fed.us Daily Wildfire Update  

E-print Network

. Resources: No update available EFF/FEMA Status: The fire has met the conditions for Emergency Fire Fund (EFF, but is still being patrolled by firefighters. Resources: Shared resources with the Shell Fire (above) EFF/FEMA. Resources: Approximately 100 personnel, including two hand crews EFF/FEMA Status: The state is providing

409

Fire Wars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova site presents the science of wildfires. Sections provide information on how firefighters are outfitted, how plants have adapted to wildfires, the physics and chemistry of fire, and more. A description of the challenges and dangers faced in producing this Nova program are also included.

2007-10-30

410

Research Overview Department of Fire Protection Engineering  

E-print Network

monitoring and prediction Wildland Fires WIFIRE ­ Real Time Wildfire Predictions Example of a test simulation responsible for wildland fire spread (new instabilities discovered) and characterize the process in a simple manner for operational firefighting. Wildland Fires Fundamental Wildland Fire Spread Research #12

Shapiro, Benjamin

411

Technology applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review was made of recent and current efforts to apply aerospace derived solutions to nonaerospace problems. Specific problems discussed include transportation, environmental pollution and abatement, housing and urban construction, firefighter equipment, and mine safety. Medical diseases and equipment are also discussed.

1972-01-01

412

NASA helicopter helps fight brush fire at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter flies over fire-fighting equipment and personnel in order to drop its load of water on a wildfire at KSC. Before being extinguished, the fire burned about 20 acres at a site near gate 2C on Kennedy Parkway North (route 3).

2000-01-01

413

NASA helicopter helps fight brush fire at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter dips its fire-fighting bucket into the river to pick up and deliver a cargo of water to a wildfire at KSC. Before being extinguished, the fire burned about 20 acres at a site near gate 2C on Kennedy Parkway North (route 3).

2000-01-01

414

Hippocampal Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Lisa M. Shin,1,2* Patrick S. Shin,3  

E-print Network

and re- duced hippocampal volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of the current function in PTSD. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and a word-stem completion task to study regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the hippocampus in 16 firefighters: 8 with PTSD (PTSD group) and 8

Patel, Aniruddh D.

415

46 CFR 169.549 - Ring lifebuoys and water lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 7 ? 2012-10-01 ? 2012-10-01 ? false ? Ring lifebuoys and water lights. ? 169.549 ? Section 169.549 ? Shipping ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ? NAUTICAL SCHOOLS ? SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS ? Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment ? Additional...

2012-10-01

416

46 CFR 169.549 - Ring lifebuoys and water lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 7 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Ring lifebuoys and water lights. ? 169.549 ? Section 169.549 ? Shipping ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ? NAUTICAL SCHOOLS ? SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS ? Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment ? Additional...

2010-10-01

417

Public Safety Core. Integrated Academic and Technical Competencies (ITAC).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which lists the public safety core competencies that are part of the Integrated Academic and Technical Competencies (ITAC) in Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations develop a course to provide students with knowledge and skills applicable to public safety careers, including but not limited to firefighter,…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

418

Proceedings of Fifth NRIFD Symposium November 30-December 2, 2005  

E-print Network

objectives. Unprecedented expenditures on wildland firefighting over the past several years have brought federal wildland fire management to the forefront of political debate [1, 2]. Federal expenditures restoration of ecosystem health and reduction of the risk of damaging fire. In 2003 a record area was burned

419

A test battery related to ergonomics of protective clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specialised protective clothing, such as that worn by firefighters, is usually tested only to standards which give requirements for the materials used (e.g. EN469). However, this testing often neglects the effect the manufacturing process of the garment has on the material properties, the effects of clothing design, sizing and fit, as well as the interaction of the clothing with other

George Havenith; Ronald Heus

2004-01-01

420

29 CFR 553.104 - Private individuals who volunteer services to public agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the elderly in hospitals or nursing homes; assisting in a school library or cafeteria; or driving a school bus to carry a football team or band on a trip. Similarly, individuals may volunteer as firefighters or auxiliary police, or volunteer to...

2013-07-01

421

29 CFR 553.104 - Private individuals who volunteer services to public agencies.  

...the elderly in hospitals or nursing homes; assisting in a school library or cafeteria; or driving a school bus to carry a football team or band on a trip. Similarly, individuals may volunteer as firefighters or auxiliary police, or volunteer to...

2014-07-01

422

29 CFR 553.104 - Private individuals who volunteer services to public agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the elderly in hospitals or nursing homes; assisting in a school library or cafeteria; or driving a school bus to carry a football team or band on a trip. Similarly, individuals may volunteer as firefighters or auxiliary police, or volunteer to...

2010-07-01

423

29 CFR 553.104 - Private individuals who volunteer services to public agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the elderly in hospitals or nursing homes; assisting in a school library or cafeteria; or driving a school bus to carry a football team or band on a trip. Similarly, individuals may volunteer as firefighters or auxiliary police, or volunteer to...

2011-07-01

424

29 CFR 553.104 - Private individuals who volunteer services to public agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the elderly in hospitals or nursing homes; assisting in a school library or cafeteria; or driving a school bus to carry a football team or band on a trip. Similarly, individuals may volunteer as firefighters or auxiliary police, or volunteer to...

2012-07-01

425

46 CFR 11.920 - Subjects for MODU endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Organization of fire drills X X X X X X X Classes and chemistry of fire X X X X X X X Firefighting systems... Procedures/rules for lifeboats, survival suits, PFDs, life rafts and emergency signals X X X X X X X...

2010-10-01

426

Long Island Sound area contingency plan. Change 3  

SciTech Connect

Contained in this revision are: Updated Marine Firefighting annex; Updated Hazardous Material response annex; Comprehensive update of resource phone numbers; Listing of State Historic Protection Officers (SHPO`s); Response techniques and listing of facilities which handle Group V Oils; and Substantial update to the Sensitive Areas on Long Island.

NONE

1998-12-31

427

Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

Executive Educator, 1984

1984-01-01

428

46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps. 154.1135 Section 154.1135...Equipment Firefighting § 154.1135 Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of the...

2010-10-01

429

46 CFR 169.559 - Fire pumps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 169.559 Section 169.559 Shipping...Firefighting Equipment § 169.559 Fire pumps. (a) Each sailing school vessel must be equipped with fire pumps as required in Table...

2010-10-01

430

SIGMA-ALDRICH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-print Network

SIGMA-ALDRICH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Date Printed: 03/04/2004 Date Updated: 09/01/2002 Version. Section 5 - Fire Fighting Measures FLAMMABLE HAZARDS Flammable Hazards: Yes EXPLOSION HAZARDS Material not use water. Do not use carbon dioxide extinguisher on this material. FIREFIGHTING Protective Equipment

Choi, Kyu Yong

431

TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS), PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA), AND RELATED ORGANIC FLUOROCHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A host of organic fluorochemicals increasingly are being used as surfactant coatings for fabrics and paper products, fire-fighting foams, electronic etching baths and insecticides. Concern for the potential toxicological risk of these types of chemicals had been minimal until re...

432

IR Sensors for Imaging and Health Monitoring Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution IR detectors for imaging applications are typically based on Schottky monolithic focal plane arrays (PtSi Schottky barrier devices) that are expensive to fabricate and require cryogenic cooling. In applications requiring greater portability and where lower resolution is acceptable (viz. night vision systems used by the military and lightweight cameras used by firefighters), uncooled pyroelectric vidicons are frequently employed. In

Otto Gregory

2004-01-01

433

Methodology of Training and Support for Urban Search and Rescue With Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primordial task of the fire-fighting and rescue services in the event of a large crisis is the search for human survivors on the incident site. This task, being complex and dangerous, often leads to loss of lives. Unmanned search and rescue devices can provide a valuable tool for saving human lives and speeding up the search and rescue operations.

Janusz Bedkowski; Karol Majek; Igor Ostrowski; Andrzej Mas?owski; Antonio Coelho; Artur Adamek; Geert De Cubber

2013-01-01

434

48 March 2004/Vol. 47, No. 3 COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM magine a software assistant agent (AA) that proactively provides  

E-print Network

48 March 2004/Vol. 47, No. 3 COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM I magine a software assistant agent (AA and collaborates with other AAs to share knowledge and arrange person-to-person contact. The following descriptive is received by a home- land security (HLS) analyst, local firefighters, and state police. The AA

435

Robot Contest as a Laboratory for Experiential Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By designing, building, and operating autonomous robots students learn key engineering subjects and develop systems-thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork skills. Such events as the Trinity College Fire-Fighting Home Robot Contest (TCFFHRC) offer rich opportunities for students to apply their skills by requiring design, and implementation of…

Verner, Igor M.; Ahlgren, David J.

2004-01-01

436

The Future of Public Employee Retirement Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

People covered by public pensions are often the subject of 'pension envy:' that is, their benefits might seem more generous and their contributions lower than those offered by the private sector. Yet this book points out that such judgments are often inaccurate, since civil servants hold jobs with few counterparts in private industry, such as firefighters, police, judges, and teachers.

Gary Anderson

437

46 CFR 34.20-15 - Piping-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other purpose than firefighting, drills, and testing. (g) Tankships of 100,000 or more DWT (metric) and combination carriers of 50,000 or more DWT (metric) that have a keel laying date on or after January 1, 1975, must have at...

2010-10-01

438

Fire incidents involving regulators used in portable oxygen systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To address the causes and prevention of fire incidents involving aluminum bodied oxygen regulators used by firefighters or emergency medical technicians. Methods—The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and an independent forensic investigator examined several incidents involving injury to firefighters and emergency medical technicians to determine why regulators in these incidents flashed. Results—Data and test results from investigations revealed that aluminum was a contributing factor, and there were a number of safe handling techniques which firefighters and emergency medical technicians could use to reduce the risk of regulator fires. A provisional test method was proposed by the American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) in late 2000 to identify designs that would have a propensity for flashing. Results of the test method show good correlation with actual fire incidents. Conclusion—Development of the ASTM standard and associated testing will be helpful to oxygen regulator designers to design safer oxygen regulator systems. As well, there are a number of additional safe handling procedures that firefighters and emergency medical technicians can follow to reduce the risk of a regulator fire. PMID:11565969

Washenitz, F; Stoltzfus, J; Newton, B; Kubinski, L

2001-01-01

439

33 CFR 155.4010 - Purpose of this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...that are carrying group I-IV oils, and that are required by...marine firefighting actions can save lives, property, and prevent the escalation of potential oil spills to worst case...

2010-07-01

440

33 CFR 155.4010 - Purpose of this subpart.  

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...that are carrying group I-IV oils, and that are required by...marine firefighting actions can save lives and property, and prevent the escalation of potential oil spills to worst case...

2014-07-01

441

33 CFR 155.4010 - Purpose of this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...that are carrying group I-IV oils, and that are required by...marine firefighting actions can save lives, property, and prevent the escalation of potential oil spills to worst case...

2012-07-01

442

33 CFR 155.4010 - Purpose of this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...that are carrying group I-IV oils, and that are required by...marine firefighting actions can save lives, property, and prevent the escalation of potential oil spills to worst case...

2013-07-01

443

33 CFR 155.4010 - Purpose of this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...that are carrying group I-IV oils, and that are required by...marine firefighting actions can save lives, property, and prevent the escalation of potential oil spills to worst case...

2011-07-01

444

Aktau Plastics Plant Explosives Material Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been cooperating with the Republic of Kazakhstanin Combined Threat Reduction (CTR) activities at the BN350 reactor located at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC) in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan since 1994. DOE contract personnel have been stationed at this facility for the last two years and DOE representatives regularly visit this location to oversee the continuing cooperative activities. Continued future cooperation is planned. A Russian news report in September 1999 indicated that 75 metric tons of organic peroxides stored at the Plastics Plant near Aktau were in danger of exploding and killing or injuring nearby residents. To ensure the health and safety of the personnel at the BN350 site, the DOE conducted a study to investigate the potential danger to the BN350 site posed by these materials at the Plastics Plant. The study conclusion was that while the organic peroxides do have hazards associated with them, the BN350 site is a safe distance from the Plastics Plant. Further, because the Plastics Plant and MAEC have cooperative fire-fighting agreements,and the Plastics Plant had exhausted its reserve of fire-fighting foam, there was the possibility of the Plastics Plant depleting the store of fire-fighting foam at the BN350 site. Subsequently, the DOE decided to purchase fire-fighting foam for the Plastics Plant to ensure the availability of free-fighting foam at the BN350 site.

CASE JR.,ROGER S.

1999-12-01

445

FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION Table Of Contents  

E-print Network

EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Section 9 FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION Table Of Contents Section: Page 09 and Melting Kettles.............................9-25 09.F First response Fire Protection......................................9-26 09.G Fixed Fire Suppression Systems.................................9-31 09.H Firefighting

US Army Corps of Engineers

446

Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site in Thessaloniki, sending thick black  

E-print Network

Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site by firefighters, officials said. Since Thursday, the fire service had been battling to bring the blaze at the Tagarades dump under control. Efforts had been hampered by the extreme heat as the fire burned plastic items

Columbia University

447

46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

2010-10-01

448

46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

2014-10-01

449

46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

2011-10-01

450

46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

2013-10-01

451

46 CFR 154.1155 - Hand hose line: Coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand hose line: Coverage. 154.1155 Section...Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1155 Hand hose line: Coverage. The coverage for the area for a hand hose line under § 154.1150 must not...

2012-10-01

452

ADJECTIVE RATINGS FOR FIRE BEHAVIOR For many years now in America we have used the National Fire Danger Rating System  

E-print Network

of fireline intensity (in feet of flame length) and in rate of spread (in chains per hour). The Fire Behavior--haul firefighters, equipment working--haul equipment, trees torching--haul retardant, and crown fire--haul everybody to safety. Since fireline intensity and flame length are directly proportional (Byram, 1959)--the larger one

453

2011 Media Reports of Buprenorphine Diversion and Misuse U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d , C o l l e g e P a r k  

E-print Network

of buprenorphine diversion/trafficking & buprenorphine in jail trafficking ("Drug Meant to Treat Heroin Users Being ("When Children's Scribbles Hide a Prison Drug," New York Times) 5/26/11 WV trafficking Firefighter in Operation Postage Stamp," States News Service) 3/16/11 NY trafficking Drug ring sold Suboxone and Lortab

Milchberg, Howard

454

EXPLORING THE BIOTRANSFORMATION POTENTIAL OF FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL-BASED POLYMER FORMULATIONS DURING AEROBIC BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Fluorotelomer alcohols have been widely used over the past 50 years in surface protection products for paper, packaging, textile, and carpet goods; in industrial surfactant mixtures; in aqueous fire-fighting foams, and as processing aids during the production of fluoropolymer pla...

455

46 CFR 13.501 - Original application for “Tankerman-Engineer” endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...13.503; (e) Meet the requirement of a firefighting course in § 13.507; (f) Meet the requirement of a course in DL or LG appropriate for the endorsement applied for in § 13.509; and (g) Be capable of speaking and understanding,...

2010-10-01

456

46 CFR 13.401 - Original application for “Tankerman-Assistant” endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chapter; (d) Meet the requirement of a firefighting course in § 13.407; (e) (1) Meet the requirement of a course in DL or LG appropriate for the endorsement applied for in § 13.409; or (2) Present evidence of service on tankships or...

2010-10-01

457

46 CFR 13.301 - Original application for “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...13.303; (e) Meet the requirement of a firefighting course in § 13.307; (f) Meet the requirement of a course in DL or LG appropriate for the endorsement applied for in § 13.309; and (g) Be capable of speaking, and...

2010-10-01

458

46 CFR 13.201 - Original application for “Tankerman-PIC” endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chapter; (e) Meet the requirement of a course on firefighting in § 13.207; (f) Meet the requirement of a course in DL or LG appropriate for the endorsement applied for in § 13.209; and (g) Be capable of speaking and...

2010-10-01

459

46 CFR 16.105 - Definitions of terms used in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970 (21 U...sail a vessel, or to control, monitor, or maintain...auxiliary equipment or systems. Operation includes...appliances; firefighting systems and equipment; and navigation...education, treatment, follow-up testing, and...

2012-10-01

460

46 CFR 16.105 - Definitions of terms used in this part.  

...Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970 (21 U...sail a vessel, or to control, monitor, or maintain...auxiliary equipment or systems. Operation includes...appliances; firefighting systems and equipment; and navigation...education, treatment, follow-up testing, and...

2014-10-01

461

46 CFR 16.105 - Definitions of terms used in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970 (21 U...sail a vessel, or to control, monitor, or maintain...auxiliary equipment or systems. Operation includes...appliances; firefighting systems and equipment; and navigation...education, treatment, follow-up testing, and...

2011-10-01

462

46 CFR 16.105 - Definitions of terms used in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970 (21 U...sail a vessel, or to control, monitor, or maintain...auxiliary equipment or systems. Operation includes...appliances; firefighting systems and equipment; and navigation...education, treatment, follow-up testing, and...

2010-10-01

463

46 CFR 16.105 - Definitions of terms used in this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970 (21 U...sail a vessel, or to control, monitor, or maintain...auxiliary equipment or systems. Operation includes...appliances; firefighting systems and equipment; and navigation...education, treatment, follow-up testing, and...

2013-10-01

464

29 CFR 553.106 - Payment of expenses, benefits, or fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compensation and must not be tied to productivity. However, this does not preclude the payment...volunteer firefighters. The following factors will be among those examined in determining...can only be determined by examining the total amount of payments made...

2010-07-01

465

Reductive Defluorination of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate  

E-print Network

mM) as bulk reductant in anoxic aqueous solution at 70 °C and pH 9 was evaluated in this study from sur- factants, firefighting foams, to coatings (1). PFOS has been detected globally in human blood human health risk (6, 7). These findings have prompted environmental regulatory agencies and the in

Wysocki, Vicki H.

466

Remarks Following the City of Charlottesville's 9/11 Commemoration Ceremony Hon. S. Ward Casscells III, M.D.  

E-print Network

. This week has reminded us of the courage of our firefighters, our police, our EMTs, and our military." Today he can walk and speak. But we have not succeeded in stopping the rise of Army suicides. In my of its JAG School, which has contributed importantly to military justice, as well as the Batten School

Acton, Scott

467

VOL. 31, NO. 3 SPRING 2005 he National Science Foundation awarded Electrical and Computer Engineering Assistant Professor  

E-print Network

innovation competition hosted by the College of Engineering. COE students Nick O'Brien, Chandler Nault in Germany in 2004 and joined the College of Engineering faculty the same year. Muetze receives NSF CAREER award T he FireSite, a transmitter/receiver system designed to guide firefighters out of smoke

Sheridan, Jennifer

468

Crisis Intervention by Social Workers in Fire Departments: An Innovative Role for Social Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a unique use of social workers as crisis response team (CRT) members in a nontraditional host setting, municipal fire departments in Arizona. The role of modern-day firefighters has changed dramatically and now includes responding to a wide variety of crises and emergencies other than fires, such as motor vehicle accidents,…

Cacciatore, Joanne; Carlson, Bonnie; Michaelis, Elizabeth; Klimek, Barbara; Steffan, Sara

2011-01-01

469

DOWNTOWN MEDICAL: A DETOXIFICATION PROGRAM FOR WTC RESPONDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

or most Americans, the attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) are a traumatic memory that grows less painful with the passage of time. For the firefighters and rescue workers who spent months at Ground Zero, however, time is bringing more questions than consolation. The attack on the towers, and their collapse, brought toxic expo- sures that were unprecedented, beginning

E. ROOT DAVID

470

Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in

Ingrid Ericson; Mercedes Gómez; Martí Nadal; Bert van Bavel; Gunilla Lindström; José L. Domingo

2007-01-01

471

Education and Treatment for Boys Who Set Fires: Specificity, Moderators, and Predictors of Recidivism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the relative absence of treatment outcome studies, information about the specificity and utility of interventions for children who set fires has not been reported. In a treatment outcome study with young boys referred for firesetting that compared brief home visitation from a firefighter, fire safety education (FSE), and cognitive-behavioral…

Kolko, David J.; Herschell, Amy D.; Scharf, Deborah M.

2006-01-01

472

Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Fire Protection Specialist, CDC 57150, 17-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This five-volume course is designed to provide the student with information about fire protection, first aid and rescue, and special situation firefighting techniques. The course is one of number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in civilian setting. The course…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

473

Centered on Education for Public Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Ohio Association of Community Colleges, community colleges educate the majority of the nation's first responders, since more than 60 percent of all new nurses and nearly 85 percent of law enforcement officers, firefighters and emergency medical technicians are educated by community colleges. One of those Ohio schools, Owens…

Reese, Susan

2007-01-01

474

Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used as stain resistant coatings for cloth, paper, and leather, and as surfactants, fire-fighting foams, and photographic developers. Individual PFAAs have been shown to accumulate in fish and wildlife; however, the extent of this accumulat...

475

Wildfire: A Family Activity Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This family activity book provides information for discovering and demonstrating the science of fire--how firefighters decide which fires to let burn and which to put out, how fires start and spread, and what to do when they flare up. Chapters include: (1) "A Game about Wildfire"; (2) "Create a Fire Safety Commercial"; (3) "Make a Fire Escape…

WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

476

Working Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore the contribution that an information literacy approach to the empirical study of workplace learning can make to how people understand and conceptualise workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: Three cohorts of fire-fighters working in two regional locations in NSW, Australia were…

Lloyd, Annemaree; Somerville, Margaret

2006-01-01

477

L-3 Communications Clinic Sensor Location Estimation  

E-print Network

cost as low as $1 Low Range of Operation Works Indoors Prone to Errors MICA2 Mote #12;Applications Localization People Firefighters/Servicemen/S.W.A.T. Inventory Tools/Equipment MICA2 Mote Features include Accelerometer Microphone Motion/Light Detector Speaker LEDs etc MICA2 Mote #12;MICA2 Motes use Received

Patwari, Neal

478

Mary E. Lacey Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy  

E-print Network

is responsible for the long term stewardship of Naval Laboratories and Warfare Centers where most of the Navy and implementation of NSPS. Ms. Lacey was Technical Director of the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), where she systems, firefighting technology and nuclear weapons safety. #12;She earned a bachelor's of science degree

479

ME Senior Practicum Projects Overview -2008-09/10  

E-print Network

Sat Fiberoptic Mass Gauging A. Yalin System (9) · SAE Aero Competition (10) H. Sakurai · Neonatal Transport Medical Unit (11) S. James B. Woods · SCAMP ­ Cryogenic Firefighter (12) T. Bradley · Afghanistan Solar Purification System (17) V. Manivannan #12;ME Senior Practicum Projects Overview - 2008- 09/10 Formula Hybrid

480

Easy Programming: Empowering People to Build Their Own Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three software development tools-Spark, Burn and Firefighter-which take a developer from a rough idea of a task to a working program are described. Spark helps the developer map a specific task to a fairly generic predefined task model and then customize that model to more accurately reflect the task. Spark refines the mapping to yield a configuration of mechanisms, or

David Marques; Geoffroy Dallemagne; Georg Klinker; John P. Mcdermott; David Tung

1992-01-01

481

78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...responders to remain in radio contact when they are inside a building. For example, a mobile repeater enables firefighters...As we noted above, mobile repeaters can improve...them to stay in radio contact with their command centers...licensees may operate mobile repeater stations...

2013-11-01

482

2. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD ROGERS DRY LAKE. REVETMENTS AR7 (NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD ROGERS DRY LAKE. REVETMENTS AR-7 (NEAR DISTANCE) AND AR-2 (FAR DISTANCE) ARE VISIBLE TO THE RIGHT OF THE FIREFIGHTING TRAINING MODEL AT LEFT. (Panoramic view number 2 OF 2 for AR-8). - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base, Rammed Earth Aircraft Dispersal Revetments, Western Shore of Rogers Dry Lake, Boron, Kern County, CA

483

76 FR 61137 - Hours of Service of Drivers: Western Pilot Service Application for Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...company that operates in support of wild-land firefighting operations...and mileage logs and attend a fire weather outlook briefing. The...If there is no late afternoon fire activity, the drivers are usually...Western contends that with no fire activity, drivers may...

2011-10-03

484

Factors affecting fuel break effectiveness in the control of large fires on the Los Padres National Forest, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As wildfires have increased in frequency and extent, so have the number of homes developed in the wildland-urban interface. In California, the predominant approach to mitigating fire risk is construction of fuel breaks, but there has been little empirical study of their role in controlling large fires.We constructed a spatial database of fuel breaks on the Los Padres National Forest in southern California to better understand characteristics of fuel breaks that affect the behaviour of large fires and to map where fires and fuel breaks most commonly intersect. We evaluated whether fires stopped or crossed over fuel breaks over a 28-year period and compared the outcomes with physical characteristics of the sites, weather and firefighting activities during the fire event. Many fuel breaks never intersected fires, but others intersected several, primarily in historically fire-prone areas. Fires stopped at fuel breaks 46% of the time, almost invariably owing to fire suppression activities. Firefighter access to treatments, smaller fires and longer fuel breaks were significant direct influences, and younger vegetation and fuel break maintenance indirectly improved the outcome by facilitating firefighter access. This study illustrates the importance of strategic location of fuel breaks because they have been most effective where they provided access for firefighting activities.

Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Brennan, Teresa J.

2011-01-01

485

75 FR 39705 - Notice of Temporary Closures on Public Lands in Northwestern Elko County, NV  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...use, and occupancy during wild horse capture operations scheduled...aircraft to herd and capture wild horses from various portions...Rock Creek and Little Humboldt Wild Horse HMAs and adjacent public...members of organized rescue or fire-fighting forces in the...

2010-07-12

486

Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire

2000-01-01

487

Page 1 of 3 Policy: Fire Protection Equipment Policy  

E-print Network

requirements. #12;Page 3 of 3 2. Automatic water fire suppression systems (sprinkler systems) shall supervise and schedule all inspections and tests of fire alarm, suppression and firefighting water supply systems at MSU-Bozeman. Impairment testing at MSU is in accordance the current International Fire Code

Dyer, Bill

488

31 CFR 29.302 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service as described in section 31-1230(a)(4) of the D.C. Code (1997). Optional retirement means regular longevity retirement under section 4-618 of the D.C. Code (1997) (under the Police and Firefighters Plan) or section...

2010-07-01

489

Charles Stephenson, CommTech/NLECTC-SE Interoperable Communications  

E-print Network

Charles Stephenson, CommTech/NLECTC-SE CommTech Interoperable Communications Technology Software and efficiently communicate with one another across agency and jurisdictional boundaries. It is dedicated, firefighters, and emergency technicians in different jurisdictions in communities across the country. Comm

Ellingson, Steven W.

490

A stochastic model for assessing bush fire attack on the buildings in bush fire prone areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bush fires are a major natural and socio-economic hazard in Australia. Under extreme fire weather conditions, bush fires spread very rapidly and are difficult to contain by firefighting services. When spreading on the rural\\/urban interface, they can cause significant damage to buildings or structures. The well known examples of such disastrous bush fire events include the bush fires which occurred

Z. Tan; S. Midgley

2009-01-01

491

Major incident preparedness and on-site work among Norwegian rescue personnel – a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background A major incident has occurred when the number of live casualties, severity, type of incident or location requires extraordinary resources. Major incident management is interdisciplinary and involves triage, treatment and transport of patients. We aimed to investigate experiences within major incident preparedness and management among Norwegian rescue workers. Methods A questionnaire was answered by 918 rescue workers across Norway. Questions rated from 1 (doesn’t work) to 7 (works excellently) are presented as median and range. Results Health-care personnel constituted 34.1% of the participants, firefighters 54.1% and police 11.8%. Training for major incident response scored 5 (1, 7) among health-care workers and 4 (1, 7) among firefighters and police. Preparedness for major incident response scored 5 (1, 7) for all professions. Interdisciplinary cooperation scored 5 (3, 7) among health-care workers and police and 5 (1, 7) among firefighters. Among health-care workers, 77.5% answered that a system for major-incident triage exists; 56.3% had triage equipment available. The majority – 45.1% of health-care workers, 44.7% of firefighters and 60.4% of police – did not know how long it would take to get emergency stretchers to the scene. Conclusions Rescue personnel find major incident preparedness and on-scene multidisciplinary cooperation to function well. Some shortcomings are reported with regard to systems for major incident triage, tagging equipment for triage and knowledge about access to emergency stretchers. PMID:23134634

2012-01-01

492

Material Safety Data Sheet 5SC Miticide/Insecticide  

E-print Network

HAZARD: None HAZARDOUS COMBUSTION PRODUCTS: Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Liquid-800-535-5053 EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: Water spray, foam, dry chemical, and carbon dioxide. SPECIAL FIRE-FIGHTING PROCEDURE minutes, then continue rinsing eye. Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice. SKIN

Alpay, S. Pamir

493

Forest Fires Regional Distribution and Numerical Simulation Based on Universal Kriging Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires are devastating disasters, which are considered as the most serious disasters at the 21 century. When forest fires occur, ignition points have not yet developed for many unmanned area and away from the roads and railways. Therefore, precision positioning of the ignition point and fire-fighting forces and analysis of fires regional distribution are particularly important. In this paper,

Guang Lu; Wei Xue

2009-01-01

494

Fire Weather Products for Public and Emergency Use: Extending Professional Resources to the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large wildfires require significant resources to combat, including dedicated meteorological support to provide accurate and timely forecasts to assist incident commanders in making decisions for logistical and tactical firefighting operations. Smaller fires often require the same capabilities for understanding fire and the fire weather environment, but access to needed resources and tools is often limited due to technical, training, or education limitations. Providing fire weather information and training to incident commanders for smaller wildfires should prove to enhance firefighting capabilities and improve safety for both firefighters and for the public as well. One of the premier tools used to support fire weather forecasting for the largest wildfires is the FX-Net product, a thin-client version of the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System used by NWS incident meteorologists (IMETs) deployed to large wildfires. We present results from an ongoing project to extend the sophisticated products available from FX-Net to more accessible and mobile software platforms, such as Google Earth. The project involves input from IMETs and fire commanders to identify the key parameters used in fighting wildfires, and involves a large training component for fire responders to utilize simplified products to improve understanding of fire weather in the context of firefighting operations.

Rogers, M. A.; Schranz, S.; Kriederman, L.

2012-12-01

495

Removal and Disposal of An Environmental Carcinogen: Asbestos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article details the removal and disposal of asbestos ceiling material in a Yale University building. The removal process utilized a water and wetting agent technique used by firefighters and the debris disposal was in a sanitary landfill, following federal regulations for the handling of hazardous materials. (MA)

Fodero, Severio D.

1977-01-01

496

46 CFR 34.10-15 - Piping-T/ALL.  

...VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-15 Piping...international voyage, the diameter of the fire main shall be sufficient for the effective...b). The discharge of this quantity of water through hoses and nozzles at a...

2014-10-01

497

46 CFR 34.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-10...effective spray patterns of water, one of which shall be from...50-foot length of hose. In main machinery spaces all portions...effective spray patterns of water, each of which shall be...

2012-10-01

498

46 CFR 34.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.  

...FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-10...effective spray patterns of water, one of which shall be from...50-foot length of hose. In main machinery spaces all portions...effective spray patterns of water, each of which shall be...

2014-10-01

499

46 CFR 34.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-10...effective spray patterns of water, one of which shall be from...50-foot length of hose. In main machinery spaces all portions...effective spray patterns of water, each of which shall be...

2011-10-01

500

46 CFR 34.10-10 - Fire station hydrants, hose and nozzles-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-10...effective spray patterns of water, one of which shall be from...50-foot length of hose. In main machinery spaces all portions...effective spray patterns of water, each of which shall be...

2013-10-01