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1

Firefighting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes of operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

2001-01-01

2

Firefighting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

2001-01-01

3

Firefighting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters are like astronauts. They both face dangerous, even hostile environments such as a building full of fire and the vacuum of space. They are both get breathing air from tanks on their backs. Early in the 1970's, NASA began working to improve firefighter breathing systems, which had hardly changed since the 1940s. NASA's Johnson Space Center conducted a 4-year program that applied technology from the portable life support systems used by Apollo astronauts on the moon. The new breathing system is made up of an air bottle, a frame and harness, a face mask, and a warning device. The new system weighs less than 20 pounds, one-third less than the old gear. The new air bottle provides 30 minutes of breathing air, as much as the old system. Like a good hiker's backpack, the new system puts the weight on the firefighter's hips rather than the shoulders. The face mask provides better visibility and the warning device lets the firefighter know when air in the bottle is low. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

2004-01-01

4

Firefighters' Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

1976-01-01

5

Firefighting Trainer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighting trainees conduct fire control exercises using a prototype simulator known as the Emergency Management Computer Aided Training System (EMCAT). Developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MFS) in response to a request from the Huntsville (AL) Fire Department, EMCAT enables a trainee to assume the role of fireground commander and make quick decisions on best use of his fire fighting personnel and equipment.

1984-01-01

6

INL@Work Firefighter  

SciTech Connect

Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

Baron, Wendy

2011-01-01

7

INL@Work Firefighter  

ScienceCinema

Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

Baron, Wendy

2013-05-28

8

Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

1984-01-01

9

Firefighter Autopsy Protocol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Fire Administration (USFA) has a major commitment to improving the health and safety of firefighters. This mission has created an accompanying interest in learning about the causes of firefighter deaths and injuries. In the process of re...

2005-01-01

10

Outfitting Wildland Firefighters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive flash-based poster shows the equipment that firefighters use in their work, along with how they use it. Simply click on a piece of equipment, and a sidebar explains its use and history in firefighting.

Krock, Lexi; Online, Nova

11

FIREFIGHTER POCKET CARDS  

E-print Network

TEXAS FIREFIGHTER POCKET CARDS UPDATED: FEBRUARY 2014 #12;#12;i Table of Contents Guide.............................................................................. Predictive Service Area Map................................................... Firefighter Pocket Cards 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 62 68 69 #12;1 Firefighter's Guide to Percentiles

12

Improved Clothing for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of space technology should reduce incidence of injuries, heat exhaustion, and fatigue in firefighters. Using advanced materials and design concepts of aerospace technology, protective gear was fabricated and tested for the heat, face, torso, hand and foot. In tests, it was found that new gear protects better than conventional firefighter gear, weighs 40 percent less, and reduces wearer's energy expenditure by 25 percent.

Abeles, F. J.

1982-01-01

13

Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

1978-01-01

14

Advanced Transceivers for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents concept of improved portable radio transceiver for firefighters. Based in part on study of propagation of radio waves in such environments as high-rise buildings, ships, and tunnels. Study takes into account possible health hazard posed by personal tranceivers and needs and wishes expressed by firefighters in interviews. Conceptual radio attaches to clothing to allow hands-free use; voice-actuated with microphone worn at throat. Speaker placed near wearer's shoulder. Flexible antenna placed either horizontally across shoulders, vertically at one shoulder, or on transceiver itself.

Blood, B. D.; Gandhi, O. P.; Radke, R. E.

1986-01-01

15

Serum pneumoproteins in firefighters.  

PubMed

Serum Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) were measured in a cross-sectional study in 402 firefighters. For the population as a whole, no associations were detected between serum pneumoproteins and smoke exposure. SP-A levels were increased in symptomatic subjects exposed to fire smoke within 2 days before testing. SP-A levels were higher after an inhalation incident ever. CC16 was negatively associated with the number of fires fought in the last 12 months in current nonsmokers. These associations between pneumoprotein levels reiterate the importance of adequate use of self-contained breathing apparatus by firefighters. PMID:21595570

Greven, Frans; Krop, Esmeralda; Burger, Nena; Kerstjens, Huib; Heederik, Dick

2011-06-01

16

Coast Guard Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

1977-01-01

17

The Physics of Firefighting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, from The Physics Teacher, provides an explanation of the physics of how water puts out fires. It also contains a description of how firefighters determine the water pressure for their hoses--and this physics is taught in fire academies.

Egler, Robert

2007-10-30

18

Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment  

E-print Network

The Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment is being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration with the Atlanta Fire Department. The VE allows the user to: navigate around the environment, viewing a house on fire from any angle; command firefighters and watch them execute those commands; and see realistic fire and smoke behavior reacting to changes in the environment. The VE user is a commanding officer trainee who instructs teams of virtual firefighters to perform different actions to help put out virtual fires. The correct sequence of commands will successfully extinguish the flame with the least amount of danger to the firefighters and the least amount of damage to the home. This simulation was developed using the Simple Virtual Environment (SVE) library, an extensible framework for building VE applications. This is the first example of a firefighter training environment that combines representations of animated firefighters with a reasonable simulation and animation of smoke and fire.

Tazama U St Julien; Chris D. Shaw

2003-01-01

19

Characterization of Firefighter Smoke Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of firefighter exposure was undertaken as part of a larger smoke exposure study. Teams of Chicago Fire Department\\u000a firefighters were issued equipment for monitoring exposure conditions during structural fire suppression activity (knockdown\\u000a and overhaul) and search and rescue operations. Potential inhalation exposure was characterized by outfitting firefighters\\u000a with direct-reading gas meters and personal cascade impactors. The gas meters

Thomas Z. Fabian; Jacob L. Borgerson; Pravinray D. Gandhi; C. Stuart Baxter; Clara Sue Ross; James E. Lockey; James M. Dalton

20

Firefighting module development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

Burns, R. A.

1981-01-01

21

Pedagogical Reforms in Firefighter Education  

E-print Network

The purpose of this paper is to explore improvement in pedagogical methods related to firefighter training and education by examining research literature related to risk taking behavior and cognitive decision making. Research has identified a correlation between various external and internal factors that influence the decisions firefighters make. Once these influences are indentified, improved pedagogical methods can be developed for initial training and continuing education in firefighter professional development. This is the first in a series of research projects intended at eliminating preventable firefighter line-ofduty deaths due to suboptimal decision making on the fireground.

Jeffrey K. Pardue

22

Firefighter command training virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment is being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration with the Atlanta Fire Department. The VE allows the user to: navigate around the environment, viewing a house on fire from any angle; command firefighters and watch them execute those commands; and see realistic fire and smoke behavior reacting to changes in the environment. The VE

Tazama U. St. Julien; Christopher D. Shaw

2003-01-01

23

Slow firefighting M.E. Messinger  

E-print Network

Slow firefighting M.E. Messinger S.P. Yarnell Mount Allison University #12;Slow firefighting M graph At step , the pyro burns vertex At step , the firefighter "moves" and then the pyro "moves" select burned vertices? ·burn a particular set of vertices? ·avoid containment? pyro firefighter ·minimize

Bonato, Anthony

24

Characterization of Firefighter Exposures During Fire Overhaul  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have characterized firefighter exposures during fire suppression. However, minimal information is available regarding firefighter exposures during overhaul, when firefighters look for hidden fire inside attics, ceilings, and walls, often without respiratory protection. A comprehensive air monitoring study was conducted to characterize City of Phoenix firefighter exposures during the overhaul phase of 25 structure fires. Personal samples were collected

Dawn M. Bolstad-Johnson; Jefferey L. Burgess; Clifton D. Crutchfield; Steve Storment; Richard Gerkin; Jeffrey R. Wilson

2000-01-01

25

Posttraumatic stress reactions in volunteer firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volunteer firefighters in NSW were surveyed for experiences of posttraumatic stress. Firefighters were asked to describe their experiences of stress and indices were obtained of psychological disturbance. Findings indicated that most firefighters felt that their safety had been threatened. One-quarter of firefighters indicated that they experienced significant levels of posttraumatic stress, although many respondents attributed their stress to personal events.

Richard A. Bryant; Allison G. Harvey

1996-01-01

26

KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with an aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Kennedy Space Center aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle supports heavy traffic at the Space Coast Regional Airport in Titusville, Florida, where aircraft capable of carrying water were staged during the recent brushfires throughout Florida. Aircraft were supporting firefighting efforts in Brevard, Volusia, and Flagler counties.

1998-01-01

27

The firefighter problem with more than one firefighter on trees  

E-print Network

In this paper we study the complexity of the firefighter problem and related problems on trees when more than one firefighter is available at each time step, and answer several open questions of Finbow and MacGillivray 2009. More precisely, when $b \\geq 2$ firefighters are allowed at each time step, the problem is NP-complete for trees of maximum degree $b+2$ and polynomial-time solvable for trees of maximum degree $b+2$ when the fire breaks out at a vertex of degree at most $b+1$. Moreover we present a polynomial-time algorithm for a subclass of trees, namely $k$-caterpillars.

Bazgan, Cristina; Ries, Bernard

2011-01-01

28

Firefighter Training Virtual Environment  

E-print Network

l fluid dynamics (CFD) model of fire-driven fluid flow. It numerically solves the Navier-Stokes equations appropriate for low speed, thermally driven flow with an emphasis on smoke and heat transport from fires. We model the house offline with FDS and extract fire and smoke data for the entire house volume at one-second increments. We use this pre-computed data to visualize and animate the fire and smoke in our simulation. To draw fire and smoke, we are implementing a voxel-based splatting renderer, which uses the FDS smoke density to control the opacity and color of each screen-aligned splat. Our splat--based Doppler radar[2] renderer runs in real-time, so we are confident that this smoke and fire rendering will also yield real-time update. For interactive simulation, we must have data available for every sequence of actions that the firefighters can perform. When a firefighter sprays water on the fire, the blaze should subside and more smoke/steam should be produced. Therefore we m

Tazama U St Julien; Chris D. Shaw

2002-01-01

29

FIREFIGHTING FIREFIGHTING 1. Exposure Data 1.1 Activities and tasks of firefighters  

E-print Network

The terms firefighting and firefighters are broad and encompass several types of fire scenarios such as municipal, wildland, industrial, aviation, military, and oil wells. Some municipal firefighters may be permanently assigned to tasks other than fighting fires, including fire scene investigation (i.e. the investigation of suspected criminal fires started by arsonists), hazardous material response, building safety inspections, or technical and administrative support. These individuals may or may not have experience fighting fires, and may or may not be working for municipal fire departments. In addition, municipal firefighters are increasingly being called upon for emergency medical response. Finally, the term firemen may refer either to firefighters or to individuals who operate and maintain equipment for power generation (e.g. steam boilers), heating, ventilation, humidity control, refrigeration, and air conditioning. Workers in this latter category are also referred to as stationary engineers or stationary firemen (Decoufle et al., 1977), and are not considered in this monograph. There are two more or less distinct phases in municipal structural firefighting: knockdown and overhaul. During knockdown, firefighters control and extinguish the fire.

unknown authors

30

in this issue 1 SDM Tackles Firefighting  

E-print Network

in this issue 1 SDM Tackles Firefighting 2 Welcome Letter 3 Systems and Service at Philips Lifeline, and marketer of firefight- ing apparatus and equip- ment, to develop a set of best practices for product

Gabrieli, John

31

Effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on firefighters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies to determine the amount of CO gas inhaled by firefighters during their firefighting with comparison between smokers and nonsmokers are discussed. It was found that the blood CO concentration after firefighting operations was considerably higher than in normal time, and that even normal time concentrations were higher in firefighters than in fire academy trainees. Smoking was found to be a major factor in increasing CO concentration.

Igoshi, I.

32

Colour vision requirements of firefighters.  

PubMed

To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended. PMID:8776247

Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

1996-04-01

33

Parameterized Complexity of Firefighting Revisited  

E-print Network

The Firefighter problem is to place firefighters on the vertices of a graph to prevent a fire with known starting point from lighting up the entire graph. In each time step, a firefighter may be permanently placed on an unburned vertex and the fire spreads to its neighborhood in the graph in so far no firefighters are protecting those vertices. The goal is to let as few vertices burn as possible. This problem is known to be NP-complete, even when restricted to bipartite graphs or to trees of maximum degree three. Initial study showed the Firefighter problem to be fixed-parameter tractable on trees in various parameterizations. We complete these results by showing that the problem is in FPT on general graphs when parameterized by the number of burned vertices, but has no polynomial kernel on trees, resolving an open problem. Conversely, we show that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the number of unburned vertices, even on bipartite graphs. For both parameterizations, we additionally give refined ...

Cygan, Marek; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan

2011-01-01

34

Evaluation of carotid wave intensity in firefighters following firefighting.  

PubMed

Sudden cardiac events are the leading cause of line-of-duty firefighter deaths, but little information exists elucidating the physiologic responses. Wave intensity (WI) is a new hemodynamic index that provides information about the dynamic behavior of the heart and the vascular system and their interaction. The larger first peak wave (W1) occurs during early systole and is associated with cardiac contractility. The second smaller peak (W2) follows a period of relatively little net wave (NA) production and may be caused by reflected waves from the brain. This study aimed at determining arterial WI changes in response to live firefighting activities. We examined the WI of 39 firefighters (2 females) with a mean age of 28 1 years and BMI of 26.6 0.7 kg m(-2) at rest, and immediately after 3 h of live firefighting drills. WI was assessed on the right common carotid artery using an Aloka high-resolution ultrasound. The magnitude of the W1 decreased significantly from 15,925 1,341 to 11,540 886 mmHg m s(-3), p < 0.05. The magnitude of W2 remained unchanged (W2: from 2,080 200 to 2,144 358 mmHg m s(-3)). Net NA decreased from 53 5 to 40 4 mmHg m s(-2). In conclusions, our data suggest that left ventricular function and arterial-ventricular coupling decreased following live firefighting, and this may be related to the documented increase in risk of clinical events during and after firefighting activities. PMID:22038143

Yan, Huimin; Fahs, Christopher A; Ranadive, Sushant; Rossow, Lindy M; Lane, Abbi D; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Echols, George; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Rowland, Thomas; Fernhall, Bo

2012-07-01

35

Using Virtual Environments to Train Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using virtual environments for training and mission rehearsal gives US Navy firefighters an edge in fighting real fires. A test run on the ex-USS Shadwell measured the improvement. The results suggest that virtual environments serve effectively for training and mission rehearsal for shipboard firefighting. VE training provides a flexible environment where a firefighter can not only learn an unfamiliar part

David L. Tate; Linda E. Sibert; Tony King

1997-01-01

36

Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an extensive field study of current firefighting practices, we have developed a system called Siren to support tacit communication between firefighters with multiple levels of redundancy in both communication and user alerts. Siren provides a foundation for gathering, integrating, and distributing contextual data, such as location and temperature. It also simplifies the devel- opment of firefighting applications using

Xiaodong Jiang; Nicholas Y. Chen; Jason I. Hong; Kevin Wang; Leila Takayama; James A. Landay

2004-01-01

37

Lolo Interagency Hotshot Crew Senior Firefighter  

E-print Network

OUTREACH Lolo Interagency Hotshot Crew Senior Firefighter GS-0462-4/5 NORTHERN REGION LOLO NATIONAL/HCREW-4/5G (Merit) OCRP-462-IHC/HCREW-4/5DP (Demo) Minimum NWCG Qualifications: Firefighter Type 1 (FFT1) S-290 Intermediate Fire Behavior Duties The Senior Firefighter position serves as an experienced

Mazzotti, Frank

38

Letting tools talk: interactive technology for firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work-in-progress report we present the results of a preliminary analysis of a set of fieldwork studies conducted in collaboration with a firefighter school and a firefighter brigade. To inspire the design of ubiquitous computing systems, we provide a description of the equipment used by firefighters, practices built upon them and a set of common properties.

Sebastian Denef; Leonardo Ramirez; Tobias Dyrks

2009-01-01

39

FAR vision Data visualization system for firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation firefighting equipment was designed in order to increase security and to enable faster and more efficient execution of firefighting missions. New firefighting equipment is provided with temperature sensors, sensors for detecting chemical waste and toxic fumes and sensors for monitoring user's health. All this data that can mean the difference between life and death is rarely available to

Aleksandar Minja; Vojin Senk

2011-01-01

40

Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

Wallace, R. J.

1984-05-01

41

Air contaminants encountered by firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of eight air contaminants suspected of causing acute and chronic health problems for firefighters were measured in over 200 fires in the City of Boston using a personal air sampler. Threatening concentrations of both carbon monoxide and acrolein were found in a small proportion of the fires. Less hazardous levels of hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen dioxide and

ROBERT D. TREITMAN; WILLIAM A. BURGESS; AVRAM GOLD

1980-01-01

42

Firefighting Women and Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses were received from 37 of 103 department chiefs and 206 of 1,108 female firefighters. The 58% who reported sexual harassment indicated greater stress, sexual stereotyping, acts of violence, use of sick leave, and fear. Although most departments have a policy, over half of those harassed did not report incidents. (SK)

Rosell, Ellen; And Others

1995-01-01

43

77 FR 39717 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FEMA-2012-0022] Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency...the fiscal year 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program year. That notice included...found in the ``FY 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Guidance and...

2012-07-05

44

46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13.307 Shipping...13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a Tankerman-PIC...successful completion from (a) A course in shipboard firefighting,...

2013-10-01

45

A Case of Poisoned Firefighters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed for an introductory biology course for science majors. The activity is intended to reinforce the basic concepts of cellular respiration (including the electron transport chain and generation of the proton motive force) and to link O2 transport explicitly to cellular respiration. Students are initially engaged by considering the cases of firefighters exposed to smoke that could contain carbon monoxide (CO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN).

Ms. Bethany A Cook (New Mexico State University Biology); PhD Michele I Shuster (New Mexico State University Biology)

2007-02-26

46

3/2 Firefighters are not enough  

E-print Network

The firefighter problem is a monotone dynamic process in graphs that can be viewed as modeling the use of a limited supply of vaccinations to stop the spread of an epidemic. In more detail, a fire spreads through a graph, from burning vertices to their unprotected neighbors. In every round, a small amount of unburnt vertices can be protected by firefighters. How many firefighters per turn, on average, are needed to stop the fire from advancing? We prove tight lower and upper bounds on the amount of firefighters needed to control a fire in the Cartesian planar grid and in the strong planar grid, resolving two conjectures of Ng and Raff.

Feldheim, Ohad N

2010-01-01

47

Associating ECG features with firefighter's activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we associate features obtained from ECG signals with the expected levels of stress of real firefighters in action when facing specific events such as fires or car accidents. Five firefighters were monitored using wearable technology collecting ECG signals. Heart rate and heart rate variability features were analyzed in consecutive 5-min intervals during several types of events. A

J. Pallauf; P. Gomes; S. Bras; J. P. S. Cunha; M. Coimbra

2011-01-01

48

Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special

Cox, Clarice Robinson

49

Firefighters versus Stotts: The End of Quotas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supreme Court has ruled that a federal district court had no authority to require a municipal employer, in violation of the seniority provisions of its collective bargaining agreement, to lay off more senior White firefighters before laying off Black firefighters. (MLW)

Copus, David A.; Lindsay, Ronald

1984-01-01

50

Perceptions of work stress in Australian firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study surveyed 747 firefighters on their perceptions of work stress. The current emphasis in the fire brigades is on the management of traumatic or critical incident stress, but other work stressors may also be important. The firefighters rated their jobs as more stressful than other occupations, and psychological work stress as highest among a set of potential sources and

Carmen C. Moran; Evelyn Colless

1995-01-01

51

Learning amongst Norwegian Fire-Fighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach

Sommer, Morten; Nja, Ove

2011-01-01

52

Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting  

E-print Network

Based on an extensive field study of current firefighting practices, we have developed a system called Siren to support tacit communication between firefighters with multiple levels of redundancy in both communication and user alerts. Siren provides a foundation for gathering, integrating, and distributing contextual data, such as location and temperature. It also simplifies the development of firefighting applications using a peer-to-peer network of embedded devices through a uniform programming interface based on the information space abstraction. As a proof of concept, we have developed a prototype context -aware messaging application in the firefighting domain. We have evaluated this application with firefighters and they have found it to be useful for improving many aspects of their current work practices.

Xiaodong Jiang; Nicholas Y. Chen; Jason I. Hong; Kevin Wang; Leila Takayama; James A. Landay

2004-01-01

53

Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n?=?322) and non-firefighters (n?=?107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters. PMID:24795815

2014-01-01

54

Hazmat Firefighters: Medical and Incident Surveillance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

List of Publications: Injuries due to hazardous materials accidents; Mechanisms of and facility types involved in hazardous materials accidents; Fitness for duty evaluations in hazardous materials firefighters; Fitness for duty evaluations in hazardous ma...

S. N. Kales

1999-01-01

55

Questionnaire on Firefighters Protective Clothing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to investigate the subjective perception of firefighters to the current in-service FPC to provide\\u000a valuable data in FPC research and to guide the design of FPC in the future. A survey was carried out on 1201 firefighters\\u000a from 119 fire stations, 25 provinces. The survey was related to basic information, trouble experienced, subjective evaluation,

Dongmei Huang; Hua Yang; Zhengkun Qi; Lei Xu; Xudong Cheng; Liming Li; Heping Zhang

56

Fixed Parameter Tractable Algorithm for Firefighting Problem  

E-print Network

The firefighter problem is defined as below. A fire initially breaks out at a vertex r on a graph G. In each step, a firefighter chooses to protect one vertex, which is not yet burnt. And the fire spreads out to its unprotected neighboring vertices afterwards. The objective of the problem is to choose a sequence of vertices to protect, in order to save maximum number of vertices from the fire. In this paper, we will introduce a parameter k into the firefighter problem and give several FPT algorithms using a random separation technique of Cai, Chan and Chan. We will prove firefighter problem is FPT on general graph if we take total number of vertices burnt to be a parameter. If we parameterize the number of protected vertices, we discover several FPT algorithms of the firefighter problem on degree bounded graph and unicyclic graph. Furthermore, we also study the firefighter problem on weighted and valued graph, and the problem with multiple fire sources on degree-bounded graph.

Leung, Ming Lam

2011-01-01

57

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A firefighter waits for his companions before tackling the flames on a simulated aircraft. Firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

58

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters in full gear wait to approach a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. The firefighters are with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

2000-01-01

59

Undiagnosed Sleep Problems May Be Common Among Firefighters  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Undiagnosed Sleep Problems May Be Common Among Firefighters These disorders linked to risk for ... shift work disorder and restless leg syndrome are common among firefighters, new research shows. These conditions are ...

60

46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tankerman-PIC Endorsement 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for an original Tankerman-PIC endorsement shall present a certificate of successful completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved...

2010-10-01

61

Analysis of Commercially Available Firefighting Helmet and Boot Options for the Joint Firefighter Integrated Response Ensemble (JFIRE).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency in conjunction with the Air Force Research Lab is exploring modifications the Joint Firefighter Integrated Response Ensemble (JFIRE) for firefighters. The JFIRE consists of the Joint Services Integrated Suit ...

J. C. Laine, J. L. Schroeder

2012-01-01

62

Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.  

PubMed

Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study. PMID:24467725

Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

2014-05-01

63

FIREFIGHTING 1. Exposure Data 1.1 Activities and tasks of firefighters  

E-print Network

The terms firefighting and firefighters are broad and encompass several types of fire scenarios such as municipal, wildland, industrial, aviation, military, and oil wells. Some municipal firefighters may be permanently assigned to tasks other than fighting fires, including fire scene investigation (i.e. the investigation of suspected criminal fires started by arsonists), hazardous material response, building safety inspections, or technical and administrative support. These individuals may or may not have experience fighting fires, and may or may not be working for municipal fire departments. In addition, municipal firefighters are increasingly being called upon for emergency medical response. Finally, the term firemen may refer either to firefighters or to individuals who operate and maintain equipment for power generation (e.g. steam boilers), heating, ventilation, humidity control, refrigeration, and air conditioning. Workers in this latter category are also referred to as stationary engineers or stationary firemen (Decoufle et al., 1977), and are not considered in this monograph. There are two more or less distinct phases in municipal structural firefighting: knockdown and overhaul. During knockdown, firefighters control and extinguish the fire.

unknown authors

64

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A firefighter (right) holds a water hose in readiness as others enter a smoke-filled simulated aircraft. The activities are part of fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters have already extinguished flames from the aircraft.

2000-01-01

65

Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting Xiaodong Jiang1  

E-print Network

reassessment of dynamic situations, and close co- ordination within teams. Furthermore, the smoke, heat, and noise in a structure fire mask the environment and force firefighters to operate with an incomplete firefighting practices [23], we found that firefighters often need to exchange information about

Madiraju, Praveen

66

Correlates of work injury frequency and duration among firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined demographic, personality, and economic incentive correlates of workplace injuries suffered by 171 firefighters over a 12-year period. Results showed that female firefighters experienced more injuries than male firefighters. Several Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales (Conversion Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviate, and Social Introversion) were positively related to injury frequency. Regression analyses revealed that age, tenure, gender, marital status,

Hui Liao; Richard D. Arvey; Richard J. Butler; Steven M. Nutting

2001-01-01

67

Baseline Measurements of Smoke Exposure Among Wildland Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive measurements of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters are summarized, showing that firefighters can be exposed to significant levels of carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants, including formaldehyde, acrolein, and respirable particulate matter. Benzene was also measured and found to be well below permissible exposure limits, with the highest concentrations occurring among firefighters working with engines and torches burning petroleum-based fuel.

Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar

2004-01-01

68

Advanced Wildland Firefighter Deadline to Apply: April 10, 2012  

E-print Network

Advanced Wildland Firefighter Academy Deadline to Apply: April 10, 2012 The Alaska Advanced Wildland Firefighter Academy is now accepting applications for its 2012 training session May 27-June 10 level firefighters. The course includes training in the use of portable pumps and water, wildland fire

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

69

Wildland Firefighter Training Opportunity Deadline to Apply: April 20, 2012  

E-print Network

Wildland Firefighter Training Opportunity Deadline to Apply: April 20, 2012 The Alaska Basic Wildland Firefighter Academy is now accepting nominations for its 2012 training session May 20-26, 2012 in Tok, Alaska. This academy is designed to train participants with no wildland firefighter skills

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

70

Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment Tazama U. St. Julien  

E-print Network

Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment Tazama U. St. Julien stjulien@cc.gatech.edu Chris The Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment is being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration on fire from any angle; command firefighters and watch them execute those commands; and see realistic fire

Shaw, Chris

71

A MVC prototype for the landmarke firefighter navigation system  

E-print Network

A MVC prototype for the landmarke firefighter navigation system Markus Scholz, Leonardo Ramirez Berning, Matthias Budde, Dimana Shishkova, Till Riedel and Michael Beigl I. INTRODUCTION FirefightersIT@Work project was to search for alternative approaches to support firefighters. From their work

Beigl, Michael

72

MONITORING FIREFIGHTERS EXPOSURE TO SMOKE DURING FIRE EXPERIMENTS AND WILDFIRES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the research project FUMEXP is to study the potential effect of forest-fire smoke emissions on forest firefighter's health. FUMEXP implied an extensive number of measurements of individual exposure to smoke pollutants and of medical parameters, for a group of firefighters during fire experiments and wildfires. For the smoke exposure monitoring, ten firefighters from four different fire

Ana Isabel Miranda; Vera Martins; Pedro Casco; Jorge Humberto Amorim; Joana Valente; Richard Tavares; Carlos Borrego; Oxana Tchepel; Antnio Jorge Ferreira; Carlos Robalo; Domingos Xavier Viegas; Lus Mrio Ribeiro; Lus Paulo Pita

73

Ubiquitous Computing for Firefighters: Field Studies and  

E-print Network

In this paper, we demonstrate how field studies, interviews, and low-fidelity prototypes can be used to inform the design of ubiquitous computing systems for firefighters. We describe the artifacts and processes used by firefighters to assess, plan, and communicate during emergency situations, showing how accountability affects these decisions, how their current Incident Command System supports these tasks, and some drawbacks of existing solutions. These factors informed the design of a large electronic display for supporting the incident commander, the person who coordinates the overall response strategy in an emergency. Although our focus was on firefighters, our results are applicable for other aspects of emergency response as well, due to common procedures and training.

Prototypes Of Large; Xiaodong Jiang; Jason I. Hong; Leila A. Takayama; James A. L

2004-01-01

74

Fitness for work evaluation of firefighters in Tehran.  

PubMed

Firefighting is extremely strenuous and physically demanding work and involves ability to cope with emergency life-or-death situations. Because of the high physical demands of firefighting, successful job performance and minimizing of morbidity and mortality depends on fitness for duty. The firefighting department of Tehran does not perform periodic medical assessment for firefighters. The aim of this study was to evaluate medical fitness among firefighters in Tehran. In this cross sectional study we examined 147 firefighters. Medical and occupational history obtained by interview, then we performed physical examination, blood tests, ECG, spirometry and audiometry. Then results compared with guidelines for firefighters in the USA, Australia and the United Kingdom. Seven percent of our participants had a kind of pulmonary dysfunction and 25% had some degrees of hearing loss. A considerable percent of them had modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors. Thirteen participitants were unfit for this job that among them; ten firefighters were unfit based on vision capability, one case due to hypertention and two cases because of pulmonary dysfunction. Because of hazardouse nature of firefighting; preplacement, periodic medical evaluations and assesment of fitness for firefighters in Iran is highly recommended. Establishment of fitness criteria for firefighters in Iran is necessery to perform assigned functions safely. PMID:23690108

Mehrdad, Ramin; Movasatian, Farid; Momenzadeh, Akram Sadat

2013-01-01

75

Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

1982-01-01

76

Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

Smith, W. L.

1973-01-01

77

The NASA firefighter's breathing system program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

1974-01-01

78

Exposure of firefighters to toxic air contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A personal sampling apparatus for firefighters was developed to sample the fire atmosphere for CO, CO2, O2, NO2, HCI, HCN and particulate content. Two fire companies made ninety successful sample runs during structural fires. CO presented a potential acute hazard and particulate concentrations were high. HCN was detected at low levels in half the samples. HCI was detected in only

AVRAM GOLD; W. M. A. BURGESS; EDWARD V. CLOUGHERTY

1978-01-01

79

Beyond training: new firefighters and critical reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This paper aims to initiate a conversation within the disaster community about the applicability of critical reflection to the professional work of firefighters. Critical reflection is a term commonly used within the nursing and teaching professions. Although it has contested meanings, it generally conveys the sense of purposeful enquiry about one's professional conduct, ethics and decision making. Fire

Merilyn Childs

2005-01-01

80

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. 139.319 Section... Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements. (a) Rescue and firefighting...authorized by the Administrator, must limit air carrier operations on the...

2010-01-01

81

33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?  

...general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment 149.401 What...general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each...

2014-07-01

82

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2014-01-01

83

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2012-01-01

84

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2010-01-01

85

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2013-01-01

86

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2011-01-01

87

14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. 139.317 Section 139.317 Aeronautics...rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the...following rescue and firefighting equipment and agents are the minimum required for the...

2010-01-01

88

14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. 139.317 Section 139.317 Aeronautics...rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents. Unless otherwise authorized by the...following rescue and firefighting equipment and agents are the minimum required for the...

2011-01-01

89

Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

Weinstein, Leonard Murray

2007-01-01

90

Associating ECG features with firefighter's activities.  

PubMed

In this paper we associate features obtained from ECG signals with the expected levels of stress of real firefighters in action when facing specific events such as fires or car accidents. Five firefighters were monitored using wearable technology collecting ECG signals. Heart rate and heart rate variability features were analyzed in consecutive 5-min intervals during several types of events. A questionnaire was used to rank these types of events according to stress and fatigue and a measure of association was applied to compare this ranking to the ECG features. Results indicate associations between this ranking and both heart rate and heart rate variability features extracted in the time domain. Finally, an example of differences in inter personal responses to stressful events is shown and discussed, motivating future challenges within this research field. PMID:22255709

Pallauf, J; Gomes, P; Brs, S; Cunha, J P S; Coimbra, M

2011-01-01

91

Virtual environments for shipboard firefighting training  

Microsoft Academic Search

A virtual environment (VE) of portions of the ex-USS Shadwell, the Navy's full-scale fire research and test ship, has been developed to study the feasibility of using immersive VE as a tool for shipboard firefighting training and mission rehearsal. The VE system uses a head-mounted display and 3D joystick to allow users to navigate through and interact with the environment.

David L. Tate; Linda Sibert; T. King

1997-01-01

92

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters surround a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. Those at left wait their turn as the crew on the right turn their hoses toward the fire. The firefighters are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

2000-01-01

93

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

94

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters in full gear douse a fire on a simulated aircraft. The firefighters, who are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

95

Work demands during firefighting training: does age matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighting is known to be demanding, but low retirement age in this field means the capacity of the older worker to fight fires is less understood. In the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA), firefighting is a critical secondary task that all personnel must be capable of. Heart rate (HR), work ability index and subjective work demand were obtained from 48 RFA

A. I. Bennett; J. Hanley; P. Buckle; R. S. Bridger

2011-01-01

96

Economic Consequences of Firefighter Injuries and Their Prevention. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Every occupation brings degrees of safety risk, and one of the higher risk jobs is firefighting. At the scene or on the way to a fire, a multiple vehicle crash, an explosion, or even while training, firefighters face a relatively high chance of being inju...

2004-01-01

97

Automatic and Robust Breadcrumb System Deployment for Indoor Firefighter Applications  

E-print Network

by the Science and Technology Directorate of the Depart- ment of Homeland Security [6] which allows a firefighterAutomatic and Robust Breadcrumb System Deployment for Indoor Firefighter Applications Hengchang Liu Computer Science Dept. University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA, USA hl4d@cs.virginia.edu Jingyuan Li

Whitehouse, Kamin

98

Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Firefighter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based education curriculum, developed by firefighters and educators in West Virginia, is designed for use as a resource for the development of improved firefighter training programs. It consists of an introductory note to the instructor and 140 competency sheets. These sheets deal with tasks in the following areas: general

West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

99

The effectiveness of a firefighter burn injury awareness program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A burn-related injury to a firefighter can result in a few weeks of missed duty, can require months of complex care at a burn center, and can also result in the end of a career. The greater Washington, DC metropolitan area has approximately 13 000 career and volunteer firefighters. The Burn Center at Washington Hospital Center, which serves the metropolitan

J Woods; K Hollowed; A Pavlovich; J Shupp

2010-01-01

100

Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during

Olorunfemi Adetona; Hall; B. Daniel; L Naeher

2011-01-01

101

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess

E S Hansen

1990-01-01

102

Mortality among firefighters from three northwestern United States cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore whether exposure among firefighters to fire smoke could lead to an increased risk of cancer, lung disease, and heart disease, the mortality of 4546 firefighters who were employed by the cities of Seattle and Tacoma, WA and Portland, OR for at least one year between 1944 and 1979 were compared with United States national mortalities and with mortality

P A Demers; N J Heyer; L Rosenstock

1992-01-01

103

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report continues a series of annual studies by the USFA of onduty firefighter fatalities in the United States. The specific objective of this study is to identify all onduty firefighter fatalities that occurred in the United States and its protectora...

2006-01-01

104

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For 34 years, the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) has tracked the number of firefighter fatalities and conducted an annual analysis. Through the collection of information on the causes of firefighter deaths, the USFA is able to focus on specific problems ...

2011-01-01

105

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report continues a series of annual studies by the USFA of onduty firefighter fatalities in the United States.The specific objective of this study is to identify all onduty firefighter fatalities that occurred in the United States and its protectorat...

2004-01-01

106

Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For 35 years, the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) has tracked the number of firefighter fatalities and conducted an annual analysis. Through the collection of information on the causes of firefighter deaths, USFA is able to focus on specific problems and ...

2012-01-01

107

Automatic and robust breadcrumb system deployment for indoor firefighter applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breadcrumb systems (BCS) have been proposed to aid firefighters inside buildings by communicating their physiological parameters to base stations outside the buildings. In this paper, we describe the design, implementation and evaluation of an automatic and robust breadcrumb system for firefighter applications. Our solution includes a breadcrumb dispenser with an optimized link estimator that is used to decide when to

Hengchang Liu; Jingyuan Li; Zhiheng Xie; Shan Lin; Kamin Whitehouse; John A. Stankovic; David Siu

2010-01-01

108

Respiratory symptoms, atopy and bronchial hyperreactivity in professional firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess respiratory health in professional firefighters. A total of 101 male professional firefighters from Basel, Switzerland, were included in the study. A control group consisting of 735 male subjects of the general population was composed of the Basel sample of the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults. All

D. Miedinger; P. N. Chhajed; D. Stolz; C. Gysin; A. B. Wanzenried; C. Schindler; C. Surber; H. C. Bucher; M. Tamm; J. D. Leuppi

2007-01-01

109

Health hazards of firefighters: acute pulmonary effects after toxic exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an environmental monitoring and medical surveillance programme to evaluate potential health hazards from firefighting, complete baseline medical examinations were performed on a cohort of 77 firefighters. During a ten day study period, 37 follow up medical examinations were performed after exposure to fire to monitor any significant differences in pre-fire and post-fire physiological indices, including pulmonary function

P W Brandt-Rauf; B Cosman; L F Fallon; T Tarantini; C Idema

1989-01-01

110

46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535...131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a...the general alarm; (2) Simulation of a fire emergency that varies...are held, and details of training in fire fighting and of...

2011-10-01

111

46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535...131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a...the general alarm; (2) Simulation of a fire emergency that varies...are held, and details of training in fire fighting and of...

2010-10-01

112

46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535...131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a...the general alarm; (2) Simulation of a fire emergency that varies...are held, and details of training in fire fighting and of...

2012-10-01

113

46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535...131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a...the general alarm; (2) Simulation of a fire emergency that varies...are held, and details of training in fire fighting and of...

2013-10-01

114

KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with a railroad tanker car  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Kennedy Space Center railroad tanker car loaded with 20,000 gallons of water and retrofitted with a special attachment for directly filling fire trucks was transported to the scene of a fire in north Brevard County to assist with firefighting efforts.

1998-01-01

115

Firefighter safety: rampant unsafe practices as documented in mainstream media.  

PubMed

More than 30,000 firefighters are injured on the fireground each year. Literature suggests that injury often occurs when protective gear is not used properly. According to firefighters, failure to correctly wear protective equipment occurs for several reasons: (1) gear not used because of haste, (2) cumbersome gear can sometimes interfere with performance, and (3) cultural factors. The purpose of this study is to quantify improper gear and tactic use in a publicly available, online video repository in order to better understand unsafe firefighting. This was an Institutional Review Board-exempt study of public video records. A search for "fire fighting videos" was conducted at YouTube (www.youtube.com). The first 50 videos that contained volunteer or career firefighters at work fighting fires were selected evaluated for appropriate use of personal protective equipment and for safe behavior. The videos were evaluated by two highly experienced professional firefighters. Of the 50 videos reviewed, 25 (50%) demonstrated violations of firefighting safety principles. Of the unsafe videos, 21 (42%) displayed firefighters improperly using gear, while the other 4 (8%) were related to unsound tactics. The most common problem was failure to wear or properly secure a self-contained breathing apparatus when appropriate (14 videos or 28%). The second most common failure was lack of helmet, hood, or approved gloves (11 videos or 22%). In conclusion, firefighting as documented on YouTube is often unsafe because of failure to properly use personal protective equipment. Half of the videos reviewed contained unsafe practices. With such a shockingly high rate of unsafe firefighting, the profession is in need of additional education and reform. In response to this epidemic, a multidisciplinary educational program has been developed to improve firefighter awareness of gear limitations and burn injury risk. Effectiveness of educational programs should be documented in additional prospective studies. PMID:25106028

Kahn, Steven A; Woods, Jason; Sipes, Jan C; Toscano, Nicole; Bell, Derek E

2014-01-01

116

The Firefighter Recruitment and Selection Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the firefighter recruitment and selection process is the first step in permanent employment with a fire department. This lesson describes the major components of fire service testing and provides a basic overview of the selection process. Carefully follow the instructions detailed below and report your progress as indicated. Fire service entry-level testing usually involves three major components: Written exam; Physical ability/agility test; and Oral board. Each area is just important as the other and failure in any of the three will disqualify you from getting the job you\\'re looking for. Written Exam Let\\'s begin by looking at the ...

Noll, Gary

2007-10-17

117

The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

Burns, Ralph A.

1986-01-01

118

Polymer Fabric Protects Firefighters, Military, and Civilians  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1967, NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. In 2005, the PBI fiber and polymer business was sold to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form. PBI is now used in numerous firefighting, military, motor sports, and other applications.

2008-01-01

119

Selected physiological and psychological responses to live-fire drills in different configurations of firefighting gear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine selected physiological and psychological responses to strenuous live-fire drills in different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) performed three sets of firefighting drills in a training structure that contained live fires in two different configurations of firefighting gear. On separate days subjects wore: (a) the NFPA 1500 (1987)

D. L. SMITH; S. J. PETRUZZELLO

1998-01-01

120

Field Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Work Capacity of Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighters ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs?=??0.65 and ?0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mLmin?1) and relative (mLkg?1min?1) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs?=??0.79 to 0.55 and ?0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (skg?1), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighters aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Desiree; Malm, Christer

2013-01-01

121

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., turn their hoses toward the fire on the simulated aircraft.

2000-01-01

122

75 FR 23785 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...with facilities used on a part-time or irregular basis. Fire stations with sleeping quarters will receive higher consideration than stations where there are no sleeping quarters for firefighters. Facilities open for broad usage and have a...

2010-05-04

123

Non-Reflective, Wettable, Fibrous Fabric Assemblies for Firefighters' Clothing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) has developed a nonreflective, wettable, firefighters' proximity garment made from water-absorptive fibrous fabric assemblies in combination with a vapor barrier fabric and insulation liner. When wet...

Z. Kupferman

1977-01-01

124

46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 196.15-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a)...

2010-10-01

125

46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for Tankerman-PIC (Barge) Endorsement 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a Tankerman-PIC (Barge) endorsement shall present a certificate of...

2010-10-01

126

Predicting performance on a firefighter's ability test from fitness parameters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict firefighter performance on the test. Thirty-eight experienced firefighters performed the AT and underwent assessments for the fitness parameters. Multiple regression analyses indicated that variation in the fitness parameters explained a significant, F(6, 36) = 6.31, p < .001, proportion (55%) of the variation observed in the AT. The results demonstrated that upper muscular strength and endurance as well as low body composition were significantly related (p < .01) to better performances on the simulated firefighting tasks. Variables such as low back and hamstring flexibility, upper and lower body strength, and body composition may contribute significantly to the model's predictive power. PMID:19177948

Michaelides, Marcos A; Parpa, Koulla M; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-12-01

127

Preventing noise-induced hearing loss in firefighters.  

PubMed

NIOSH recommends the use of quieter equipment, better work practices, and hearing protection devices and implementation of effective hearing loss prevention programs to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in firefighters. PMID:23991707

Chalupka, Stephanie

2013-09-01

128

Economic benefit of the PHLAME wellness programme on firefighter injury  

PubMed Central

Background Work-related injuries and illness are prevalent and costly. Firefighting is especially hazardous and many firefighters sustain work-related injuries. Workplace health promotion programmes have shown positive return on investment (ROI). Little is known about how similar programmes would impact injury and cost among firefighters. Aims To evaluate the impact of a workplace health promotion intervention on workers compensation (WC) claims and medical costs among Oregon fire departments participating in the PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models Effects) health promotion programme compared with Oregon fire departments not participating in PHLAME. Methods Data from firefighters from four large urban fire departments in Oregon were evaluated using a retrospective quasi-experimental study design. Outcomes were (i) total annual firefighter WC claims, (ii) total annual incurred medical costs prior to and after implementation of the PHLAME firefighter worksite health promotion programme (iii) and an ROI analysis. Results Data were obtained from 1369 firefighters (mean age of 42 years, 91% white, 93% male). WC claims (P < 0.001) and medical costs (P < 0.01) were significantly lower among PHLAME fire departments compared with Oregon fire departments not participating in the programme. Fire departments participating in the PHLAME TEAM programme demonstrated a positive ROI of 4.611.00 (TEAM is used to indicate the 12-session peer-led health promotion programme). Conclusions Fire department WC claims and medical costs were reduced after implementation of the PHLAME workplace health promotion programme. This is a low cost, team-based, peer-led, wellness programme that may provide a feasible, cost-effective means to reduce firefighter injury and illness rates. PMID:23416849

2013-01-01

129

Physical Work Limits for Toronto Firefighters in Warm Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between time to reach critical end points (tolerance time [TT] and metabolic rate for three different environmental temperatures (25C, 30C, and 35C, 50% relative humidity), while wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Thirty-seven Toronto firefighters (33 male and 4 female) were divided into four work groups defined as Heavy (H, n

G. A. Selkirk; T. M. McLellan

2004-01-01

130

Development of a walking aerobic capacity test for structural firefighters.  

PubMed

Firefighting requires high fitness to perform job tasks and minimize risk of job-related cardiac death. To reduce this risk, the International Association of Firefighters has recommended firefighters possess a VO2max ? 42 mlkg-1min-1. This recommendation is not universally applied because existing screening tests require costly equipment and do not accommodate firefighters unable to run. The purpose of this study was to develop a walking test to predict VO2max in firefighters using a standard treadmill. Thirty-eight male firefighters wore a vest weighing 20% of their body weight and performed a walking VO2max test on a standard treadmill. Walking speed was dependent on leg length and ranged from 3.6 to 4.3 mph. The test began with a 3-minute warm-up, after which the speed was increased to test speed. Every minute thereafter, the grade increased 1% until participants reached exhaustion. For cross-validation, 13 firefighters also performed a running VO2max test. The average test time was 16.95 2.57 minutes (including warm-up) and ranged between 8 and 22 minutes. Average VO2max was 48.4 6.5 mlkg-1min-1. Stepwise linear regression included time as the only significant independent variable explaining 76% of the variance in VO2max (p < 0.001). The standard error of the estimate was 3.2 mlkg-1min-1. The equation derived is: VO2max (mlkgmin-1) = 11.373 + time (minute) 2.184. On average, VO2max values measured while walking were 4.62 5.86 mlkg-1min-1, lower than running values. This test has good potential for predicting VO2max among structural firefighters, and minimal equipment needs make it feasible for fire departments to administer. PMID:24552804

Moore, Karlie J; Penry, Jason T; Gunter, Katherine B

2014-08-01

131

Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.  

SciTech Connect

Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

2011-10-01

132

Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 20032006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

2011-01-01

133

Pseudo-outbreak of antimony toxicity in firefighters - Florida, 2009.  

PubMed

Antimony oxides, in combination with halogens, have been used as flame retardants in textiles since the 1960s. Uniforms made from fabric containing antimony are common among the estimated 1.1 million firefighters in the United States. In October 2008, CDC received a report from the fire chief of a fire department in Florida (fire department A) regarding an outbreak of antimony toxicity among 30 firefighters who had elevated antimony levels detected in hair samples. This report summarizes the ensuing health hazard evaluation conducted by CDC to determine the source of antimony exposure. In February 2009, CDC administered questionnaires to and collected urine samples from two groups of firefighters: 20 firefighters from fire department A who did not wear pants made from antimony-containing fabric, and 42 firefighters from fire department B (also located in Florida) who did. All 20 firefighters from fire department A and 41 (98%) from fire department B had urine antimony concentrations below or within the laboratory reference range. CDC concluded that wearing pants made from antimony-containing fabric was not associated with elevated levels of urinary antimony. Only validated methods (e.g., urine testing) should be used for the determination of antimony toxicity. Accurate and timely risk communication during suspected workplace exposures should underscore the importance of using validated tests, thereby refuting an unproven hypothesis, allaying unsubstantiated concerns, and enhancing public trust. PMID:19940836

2009-11-27

134

33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?  

...2014-07-01 false What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment 149.402 What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved...

2014-07-01

135

Project FIRES (Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System). Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards 'Goals for Firefighter Protection' Revision D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the performance goals necessary for the development of a structural firefighter's protective ensemble. The protective ensemble consists of five integrated elements: (1) the protective garment system for body protection, (2) a self-cont...

F. Abeles, A. Bruno, R. DelVecchio, V. Himel

1978-01-01

136

Validation of a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment for firefighters.  

PubMed

Delisle, AT, Piazza-Gardner, AK, Cowen, TL, Huq, MBS, Delisle, AD, Stopka, CB, and Tillman, MD. Validation of a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment for firefighters. J Strength Cond Res 28(10): 2717-2723, 2014-Currently, a submaximal protocol is used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters by estimating their true aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max); however, this submaximal test has not been cross-validated among firefighters. Thirty firefighters (85% male, 15% female), completed the submaximal protocol and the maximal (Bruce) treadmill protocol on separate occasions. Pearson's correlation analyses between the submaximal and Bruce protocol revealed a significant moderate positive correlation (r = 0.635, p = 0.005). The range of mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values and SDs produced from the submaximal and maximal protocols varied greatly (35.4-50.9 vs. 28.6-58.4 mlkgmin, and SD of 3.91 vs. 7.22, respectively). The submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test underestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the majority of firefighters (72.4%) and overestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the remainder of firefighters. Participants with a higher body fat percentage were more likely (p = 0.0157) to have an overestimated true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max than those with a lower-body fat percentage. Our results indicate the current submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters is an improvement over previous protocols. However, our findings also show that the accuracy of this submaximal test for predicting the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in firefighters is questionable, and may not identify firefighters who possess substandard cardiorespiratory fitness, particularly in those with a higher percentage of body fat. Thus, the results of this study indicate that improvements to the current Fire Service Joint Management, Wellness & Fitness Initiative (WFI) V[Combining Dot Above]O2 assessment is still needed to accurately reflect the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of individual firefighters. PMID:24714540

Delisle, Anthony T; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K; Cowen, Tiffany L; Huq, Mona B Sayedul; Delisle, Alexis D; Stopka, Christine B; Tillman, Mark D

2014-10-01

137

PCDD, PCDF, and PCB exposure in current and former firefighters from Eastern Siberia.  

PubMed

The current study examines whether the occupation of firefighting contributes to exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compared serum dioxin concentrations and congener profiles of current firefighters (n=13) with those of men who have ceased employment as firefighters (n=17) and with men employed in occupations other than firefighter (n=10). We found that compared to former or non-firefighters, current firefighters have higher levels of dioxins primarily due to the contribution of PCBs and to a lesser extent PCDFs. PCDFs were significantly higher in former firefighters compared to non-firefighters (p<0.05). Comparisons with studies performed by other investigators suggest that local environmental conditions contribute to some of the elevation of PCBs. The congeners 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzodioxin and PCB-114 were significantly higher in current firefighters when compared to former or non-firefighters. Moreover, levels of these congeners were inversely correlated with years since employed as firefighter (Spearman r=-0.610, p=0.009 and Spearman r=-0.53, p=0.03, respectively). The classes of dioxins show an overall decline with years since employed as firefighters, this decline is most evident with PCDDs (Spearman r=-0.46, p=0.06). Together, the combination of evidence supports firefighting as a source of exposure to dioxins. PMID:21979175

Chernyak, Yury I; Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Brodsky, Efim S; Grassman, Jean A

2012-08-13

138

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

... false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting 155.4030...

2014-07-01

139

Altering the Mission Statement: The Training of Firefighters as Intelligence Gatherers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fire service is one of the premier emergency response agencies in the United States. As our nation strives to expand and enhance its homeland security efforts, firefighters have been recognized as an underutilized asset. The opportunity for firefighte...

R. J. Blatus

2008-01-01

140

Project FIRES (Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System). Volume 1: Program Overview and Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Overall performance requirements and evaluation methods for firefighters protective equipment have been established and published as the Protective Ensemble Performance Standards (PEPS). Current firefighters protective equipment was tested and evaluated a...

F. Abeles, A. Bruno, R. DelVecchio, V. Himel

1978-01-01

141

77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guard [USCG-2012-0848] Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills...continuing response to the explosion, fire and sinking of the Mobile Offshore Drilling...voluntary guidance concerning lifesaving and fire-fighting equipment, training, and...

2012-11-23

142

Physiological strain and countermeasures with firefighting.  

PubMed

Protective clothing is integral to the task of firefighting, but at the same time can increase physiological strain and impair work capacity. Encapsulation of the head and the high thermal resistance and/or low water vapor permeability of the clothing ensemble impede evaporative heat dissipation, thus elevating the rate of heat storage and creating a state of uncompensable heat stress (UHS). In addition, the additional weight from carrying a supplemental air supply and the greater respiratory work of breathing through a regulator can create a negative spiral of thermal hyperpnea from greater respiratory demands and metabolic heat production. The elevated respiratory demands also increase cardiac strain and potentially the risk for myocardial events. Tolerance time during UHS is determined by three factors: the core temperature at the beginning of the heat stress exposure, the core temperature that can be tolerated before exhaustion or collapse ensues, and the rate of increase in core temperature from the beginning to end of the heat stress exposure. Protective clothing is often employed in highly dynamic environments, making portability, longevity and integration with the task requirements and clothing critical design characteristics for countermeasures. To date, most countermeasures have been relatively indirect in nature, primarily with alterations in work scheduling along with physiological manipulations such as cooling manipulations during recovery periods. Advances are required in materials science to develop lighter and less restrictive protective equipment, concurrent with cooling strategies that target specific regions or which can be effectively implemented during exercise. PMID:21029197

Cheung, S S; Petersen, S R; McLellan, T M

2010-10-01

143

Heat Illness Basics for Wildland Firefighters  

E-print Network

The human body can tolerate deep cold and sweltering heat so long as the bodys core temperature doesnt vary much from 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Small changes in the bodys core temperature affect cellular structures and chemical reactions. Most temperature regulating systems in the human body are designed to prevent overheating. Muscle contractions are the bodys main source of heat. When a muscle contracts during work, 75 percent of the potential energy is lost as heat. During rest, the body produces about 100 kilocalories of heat per hour, but the body can produce 10 to 15 times as much heat during exercise, depending on the exercise intensity, the size of the muscles being used, and the environmental conditions (which affect how the body loses heat). Active muscles produce most of the bodys heat. Heat illnesses include heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. Consuming water or sports drinks does not guarantee that you wont suffer heat illnesses. The first step in any suspected heat illness is to have the firefighter stop working. Consuming more water or fluid will not stop the problem. REMEMBER, sweat that drips off your body cant keep you cool. Sweat has to evaporate from your skin to cool you off.

Forest Service; Joe Domitrovich; Brian Sharkey

2010-01-01

144

Occupational exposure to woodsmoke and oxidative stress in wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

Experimental studies indicate that exposure to woodsmoke could induce oxidative stress. However studies have not been conducted among the general population and specialized occupational groups despite the existence of elevated woodsmoke exposure situations. Therefore, we investigated whether there were across workshift changes in oxidative stress biomarkers among wildland firefighters who are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. We collected pre- and post-workshift urine samples from 19 wildland firefighters before and after prescribed burns. We measured malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in the samples, and analyzed whether there were cross-shift changes in their levels, and the relationships between the changes and the length of firefighting career, age of firefighter, and quantified workshift exposure to particulate matter. Overall no significant cross-shift change was observed for 8-oxodG or MDA in the urine samples of the firefighters. Changes in both biomarkers were also not associated with PM2.5, which was used as a marker of exposure. However, overall unadjusted geometric mean 8-oxo-dG levels in the samples (31 ?g/g creatinine) was relatively higher compared to those measured in healthy individuals in many occupational or general population studies. Additionally, cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG excretion were dependent on the length of firefighting career (p=0.01) or age of the subject (p=0.01). Significant increases in 8-oxo-dG level from pre-shift to post-shift were observed for those who had been firefighters for 2 years or less. The results indicate that oxidative stress response measured as cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG may depend on age or the length of a firefighter's career. These results suggest the need to investigate the longer term health effects of cumulative exposure of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters, because increased body burden of oxidative stress is a risk factor for many diseases and is theorized to be involved in aging. PMID:23434577

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Zhang, Jim Junfeng; Hall, Daniel B; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Vena, John E; Naeher, Luke P

2013-04-01

145

The Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy Scale: measure development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy (FFCSE) Scale, a new measure developed to assess firefighters perceived competence in managing stressful and traumatic experiences encountered on the job. Two samples of firefighters completed the FFCSE Scale at two different time points. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional structure, which was further supported with confirmatory factor analysis

Jessica E. Lambert; Charles C. Benight; Erica Harrison; Roman Cieslak

2011-01-01

146

The Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy Scale: measure development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors evaluated the psychometric properties of the Firefighter Coping Self-Efficacy (FFCSE) Scale, a new measure developed to assess firefighters perceived competence in managing stressful and traumatic experiences encountered on the job. Two samples of firefighters completed the FFCSE Scale at two different time points. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a unidimensional structure, which was further supported with confirmatory factor analysis

Jessica E. Lambert; Charles C. Benight; Erica Harrison; Roman Cieslak

2012-01-01

147

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237.102-70 Section 237.102-70...contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. (a) Under 10 U.S.C. 2465...performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at any military installation or...

2010-10-01

148

Worksite Utrition Education improves Food choices of on-duty Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME:Heart attack and stroke kill over 50% of firefighters who die on duty. Yet research on firefighters dietary practices is virtually nonexistent. To determine the potential effects of worksite nutrition education on food choices, 38 male firefighters, between the ages of 27-50 years old, attended mandatory nutrition education taught by a Registered Dietitian. Of these, 27 completed the study.

Hope McClusky Bilyk; Cathy Kapica

1996-01-01

149

OUTSIDER WITHIN THE FIREHOUSESubordination and Difference in the Social Interactions of African American Women Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the perspective of African American women firefighters, the authors examine the social interactions that make them excluded outsiders within their firehouses and different from not only dominant white men but also other subordinated groups of Black men and white women firefighters. Drawing on extensive survey data from 24 Black women career firefighters nationwide and detailed interviews with 22 of

JANICE D. YODER; PATRICIA ANIAKUDO

1997-01-01

150

Selected physiological and psychobiological responses to physical activity in different configurations of firefighting gear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to examine selected physiological and psychobiological responses to different configurations of protective firefighting gear. Career firefighters (n = 10) walked on a treadmill (35?km h, 10% grade) for 15?min in three different clothing configurations. On separate days subjects wore: (a) station blues, (b) a hip boot configuration of firefighting gear, and (c) the current NFPA 1500

D. L. SMITH; S. J. PETRUZZELLO; J. M. KRAMER; S. E. WARNER; B. G. BONE; J. E. MISNER

1995-01-01

151

Firefighter Training Virtual Environment (sketches_0264) Tazama U. St. Julien, Chris D. Shaw  

E-print Network

Firefighter Training Virtual Environment (sketches_0264) Tazama U. St. Julien, Chris D. Shaw The Firefighter Training Simulation is a virtual environment being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration firefighters to perform different actions to help put out virtual fires. This simulation was developed using

Shaw, Chris

152

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...ANNUITY Eligibility 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...completing any combination of service as a firefighter,law enforcement officer or...

2010-01-01

153

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...ANNUITY Eligibility 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...completing any combination of service as a firefighter,law enforcement officer or...

2011-01-01

154

Pilot Study of Firefighter Three-Dimensional Anthropometry to Improve Seatbelt Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second leading cause of line-of-duty deaths for US firefighters is attributed to vehicular accidents, and a number of those firefighters who died were not wearing their seatbelt. It has been proven that many firefighters are not physically able to rea...

2008-01-01

155

Effect of fire smoke on some biochemical parameters in firefighters of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Firefighters who are facing fires, are frequently exposed to hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, benzene, sulphur dioxide, etc. This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes in activity involved firefighters in comparison to normal subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two groups of male firefighters volunteered to participate in the study. The

Abdulrahman L Al-Malki; Ameen M Rezq; Mohamed H Al-Saedy

2008-01-01

156

Exposure of firefighters to diesel emissions in fire stations  

SciTech Connect

Personal sampling techniques were used to evaluate firefighter exposure to particulates from diesel engine emissions. Selected fire stations in New York, Boston and Los Angeles were studied. Firefighter exposure to total particulates increased with the number of runs conducted during an 8-hr period. In New York and Boston where the response level ranged from 7 to 15 runs during an 8-hr shift, the resulting exposure levels of total airborne particulates from diesel exhaust were 170 to 480 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (TWA). Methylene chloride extracts of the diesel particulates averaged 24% of the total. The authors' findings suggest that additional research is necessary to assess fire station concentrations of vehicle diesel exhaust that may have adverse health consequences to firefighters.

Froines, J.R.; Hinds, W.C.; Duffy, R.M.; Lafuente, E.J.; Liu, W.C.

1987-03-01

157

Lesbian firefighters: shifting the boundaries between masculinity and femininity.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores the interaction between gender and sexuality, comparing the experiences of lesbian and heterosexual women firefighters in the UK. It finds that female firefighters are constructed in terms of their sexuality. Lesbians may find it easier than heterosexual women to be accepted into the "watch culture," in which "masculinity" is highly prized and fitting in with colleagues is seen as essential for performing the job safely. Lesbians who come out at work may also avoid unwanted sexual attention, which is often problematic for heterosexual women who are stereotyped as being sexually available to male firefighters. While the acceptance of lesbian sexuality is based largely on the adoption of characteristics defined as "masculine," lesbians also provide a challenge to accepted models of "femininity." PMID:19042297

Wright, Tessa

2008-01-01

158

Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?  

PubMed Central

Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=??0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=??0.82) and bench press (rs?=??0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.83) and bench press (rs?=??0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=??0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=??0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

2014-01-01

159

Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.  

PubMed

This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 4.9 mLkgmin) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 73.91 mLkg (VO2ex = 86 5%; VO2al = 9 3%; VO2la- = 5 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 15 beatsmin) and VO2 (8.862.67mLkgmin) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 8 beatsmin; VO2 = 4.57 1.07 mLkgmin), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies. PMID:19996788

Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

2010-12-01

160

Physiological work demands of Spanish wildland firefighters during wildfire suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this study was to analyze the physiological demands and thermal strain of wildland firefighters during real wildfire\\u000a suppression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsThe response of core temperature and heart rate (HR) were analyzed in 200 wildland firefighters during wildfire suppression\\u000a activities of different duration: n=52), 13h (n=70), 35h (n=44), and >5h (n=34). The exercise workload (TRIMP), the physiological strain index (PSI),

Jose A. Rodrguez-Marroyo; Jorge Lpez-Satue; Raul Perna; Beln Carballo; Juan Garca-Lpez; Carl Foster; Jos G. Villa

161

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., wait while the NASA/USAF water carrier truck directs its water cannon toward a burning simulated aircraft (out of view).

2000-01-01

162

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer vehicle from Naval Station Mayport, Fla., stands by during fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. In the background is the simulated aircraft that was set on fire for the exercise. Firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station (in the background) gather around the site of the extinguished flames.

2000-01-01

163

Factors Related to Sleep Disorders among Male Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders in male firefighters working in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Methods Self-administered questionnaires including the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form, Psychosocial Well-Being Index-Short Form, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Beck-Depression Inventory-2 as well as surveys collecting socio-demographic characteristics and work-related factors were given to 730 male firefighters. After exclusion for missing data, 657 male firefighters were included, and logistic regression analysis adjusted for the work-related factors, psychosocial factors, and general risk factors were used to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and associated factors. Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 48.7%. Shift work (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI?=?1.02-2.45), musculoskeletal symptoms (adjusted OR 2.89, 95% CI?=?2.02-4.14), and depression (adjusted OR 7.04 95% CI?=?4.03-12.30) were associated with sleep disorders. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms, shift work, and depression are associated with sleep disorders. Integrated health management is needed to promote good sleep quality among firefighters. PMID:24864191

2014-01-01

164

Use of contact lenses by firefighters: Part 2. Clinical evaluation.  

PubMed

Contact lenses can be worn in a variety of environmental conditions and do not increase the wearers risk of injury. In many situations they offer significant corneal protection. Currently firefighters are prohibited from using contact lenses. To evaluate whether contact lenses are a safe form of visual correction 50 firefighters were fitted, and examined after 1, 4 and 10 months of contact lens wear. Twenty-nine were fitted with soft contact lenses, and 21 with rigid gas permeable contact lenses. Statistically significant increase in lid sulcus hyperaemia was found in both the SCL and RGPCL groups (P < 0.01, P = 0.02, respectively), as well as an increase in hyperaemia of the vertical quadrant of the bulbar conjunctivae (P = 0.01, P = 0.02, respectively). In addition the RGPCL group showed a statistically significant increase in hyperaemia of the lateral portion of the bulbar conjunctivae (P < 0.01), consistent with exposure epitheliopathy. The SCL group showed statistically significant increase in corneal staining in the vertical quadrant for all visits (P = 0.02, P = 0.01, P = 0.02 for all visits, respectively), indicative of lens dehydration. These findings although clinically significant are not unique to firefighting, and are found within a "normal" population of contact lens wearers. In conjunction with questionnaire data (Owen et all, 1996) we conclude that soft contact lenses can be worn safely by firefighters without additional risk. PMID:9196662

Owen, C G; Margrain, T H; Woodward, E G

1997-05-01

165

Provocation, Hostility, Aggression, and Victimization: Firefighters and Incarcerated Felons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines self-reported histories of victimization among two groups of men. Violence, provocation, hostility, and aggression inventories were administered to a prosocial group of firefighters and an antisocial group of incarcerated felons. Fourteen of the 15 possible behavioral-abuse correlations were significant when both groups were considered

Alexander, E. Carlene; And Others

1995-01-01

166

A Heat Transfer Model for Firefighters' Protective Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate and flexible model of heat transfer through firefighter protective clothing has many uses, including investigating the degree of protection, in terms of burn injury and heat stress, of a particular fabric assembly and analyzing cheaply and quickly the expected performance of new or candidate fabric designs or fabric combinations.

William E. Mell; J. Randall Lawson

2000-01-01

167

Protective Clothing and Equipment for Firefighters: Current Standards and Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment of the state-of-the-art in protective clothing and equipment for the firefighter is provided, with a description of relevant standards which fire departments can use in developing purchase specifications. Areas covered by the report are: hel...

A. F. Sears, E. V. Clougherty

1978-01-01

168

Blood Pressure in Firefighters, Police Officers, and Other Emergency Responders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Increased risk begins in the prehypertensive range and increases further with higher pressures. The strenuous duties of emergency responders (firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel) can interact with their personal risk profiles, including elevated blood pressure, to precipitate acute cardiovascular events. Approximately three-quarters of

Stefanos N. Kales; Antonios J. Tsismenakis; Chunbai Zhang; Elpidoforos S. Soteriades

2009-01-01

169

Evaluation of wireless sensor technologies in a firefighting environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In firefighter environments navigational support could help to reduce casualties. While exact indoor localization is still a research problem, an alternative may be a bread crumb based approach in which not the exact localization but the recovery of laid out wireless sensor nodes is crucial. Recovery, however, can be enabled using sensors typically employed for indoor positioning in wireless sensor

Erhard Schubert; Markus Scholz

2010-01-01

170

Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.  

PubMed

Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of thesix types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that can produce hazardous levels of noise, this study showed that the average noise levels experienced by firefighters was below generally accepted guidelines. PMID:23339379

Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

2013-01-01

171

Vol. 34, No. 13 Friday, July 15, 2011 Lake City, Hinsdale County, Colorado 81235 U.S.P.S. No. 436-630 Firefighters Respond  

E-print Network

-630 Firefighters Respond to Lightning Strike Fire at High Bridge Ranch Firefighters from Lake City Fire/Rescue, U spread to adjacent acreage without the firefighters' efforts, he said. In addition to Holley, others

Ryan, Joe

172

Selected hormonal and immunological responses to strenuous live-fire firefighting drills.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of strenuous live-fire firefighting drills and a 90 min recovery period on selected hormonal, immunological and psychological variables. Apparently healthy, male, professional firefighters (n = 11) performed three trials of standardized firefighting tasks in a live-fire training structure. There was significant leukocytosis immediately post firefighting activity that persisted following recovery, although there was a variable response among the leukocyte subsets. Most notable was the decrease in number and percentage of lymphocytes following 90 min of recovery. Plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol were significantly elevated post firefighting activity and cortisol remained elevated following 90 min of recovery. Elevated cortisol immediately following activity was related to reduced feelings of energy. These data demonstrate the magnitude of the physiological and psychological disruption following strenuous firefighting activity and suggest that immune function may be altered following such activity. This is a finding that may have practical consequences for this group of first responders. PMID:15764306

Smith, D L; Petruzzello, S J; Chludzinski, M A; Reed, J J; Woods, J A

2005-01-01

173

Exposure to Duty-Related Incident Stressors in Urban Firefighters and Paramedics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the variables that might be associated with posttraumatic stress symptomatology in high-risk occupational groups such as professional firefighters and paramedics. A sample of 173 urban professional firefighter\\/EMT's and firefighter\\/paramedics rated and ranked the stressfulness of 33 actual and\\/or potential duty-related incident stressors. They also reported whether they had experienced each of these incident stressors within the

Randal Beaton; Shirley Murphy; Clark Johnson; Ken Pike; Wayne Corneil

1998-01-01

174

Physiological responses of firefighters and performance predictors during a simulated rescue of hospital patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is incomplete information about how physically demanding rescue work may be. The aim therefore of this paper was to examine the physiological responses of firefighters during a simulated rescue of hospital patients and to relate the firefighters' performance to their endurance, strength and working technique. Fourteen part-time male firefighters with a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 4.40.3l\\/min (meanSD) served

Erna D. von Heimburg; Anna Kari R. Rasmussen; Jon Ingulf Medb

2006-01-01

175

Line of duty deaths among U.S. firefighters: an analysis of fatality investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighting is a high hazard occupation. In the U.S. alone, over 100 firefighters die in the line-of-duty each year and over 80 000 are injured. In this presentation, we summarise results from an independent analysis of firefighter fatality investigations completed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) between 2004 and 2008 (N=143). Of the 143 investigation reports

D M DeJoy; K Kunadharaju; T D Smith

2010-01-01

176

Doffing procedures for firefighters' contaminated turnout gear: Documentation for videotape  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the doffing procedures and provides a copy of the videotape script, which includes a fire brigade returning to a mock decontamination area after dealing with a simulated fire. The report also provides background information explaining why the videotape was made, how the project was accomplished, and what the procedures are intended to accomplish. Overall, the video gives step-by-step instructions for the removal of contaminated turnout gear and indicates how firefighters and radiation protection personnel can work together cooperatively. These new doffing procedures were developed with the advice and participation of actual nuclear power plant firefighting personnel at the Seabrook Station of New Hampshire Yankee utility and may be adapted to enhance any existing in-plant procedures. The video includes comments from members of the fire brigade, an equipment review, and a discussion of the doffing area arrangement.

Not Available

1992-07-01

177

FIREFIGHTER SAFETY AND THE DEPLOYMENT OF RESOURCES (Year 2  

E-print Network

Report) that was submitted by the principle investigators (Jason Averill, Dr. Lori Moore-Merrell, and Dr. Kathy Notarianni) earlier this year. The purpose of this report is to describe the findings of a smaller study that focused on detailing the effect of crew size on the cardiovascular strain experienced by firefighters. This adjunct study was conducted as part of the larger Deployment Study. The focus of the parent project Firefighter Safety and Deployment of Resources Study was on understanding of the effect of deployment of resources on the time required to achieve critical steps in fire suppression during low-hazard residential fires. The time required to achieve critical steps is important for several reasons, notably, as discussed in

Denise L. Smith, Ph.D.; Ron Benedict M. S

178

Blowout contingency plans can cut firefighting and capping risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prepared in advance of drilling, blowout contingency plans and immediate response plans can reduce firefighting, well capping, and possible relief well costs during a blowout. Regional and site-specific blowout contingency plans are especially beneficial for operators working world-wide, where logistics difficulties can easily bog down operations. This article is the first of an 8-part series on well control. Future articles

Abel

1995-01-01

179

Basis for criticality category B firefighting designation for K Basins. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes.

Jensen, M.A.

1995-03-23

180

Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

2003-09-01

181

Comparison of firefighters and non-firefighters and the test methods used regarding the effects of personal protective equipment on individual mobility.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the current pilot test method and ascertain reliable measurements for a standard test method of mobility with personal protective equipment (PPE), such as physical performance and balance ability tests; 2) to compare two participant groups (firefighters versus non-firefighters) and to investigate whether non-firefighters are appropriate as a standard participant group in the field of PPE or not. Totally, 18 participants (nine professional firefighters and nine untrained males) performed the current pilot test method consisting of a balance test, completed prior to and after a performance test. Significant differences were found between PPE conditions and CON (the control clothing ensemble: T-shirt, shorts, and running shoes) for the functional balance test, physical performance test, heart rate, and subjective evaluations in firefighters group. Therefore, the present pilot test method is valid as a standard test method for assessing mobility while wearing PPE. Moreover, the present result shows that firefighters are more reliable than non-firefighters in testing of PPE with current test methods. PMID:24462474

Son, Su-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Muraki, Satoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

2014-07-01

182

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

...contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting 155.4045...

2014-07-01

183

77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations AGENCY: The National...with Composite Protection for Wildland Fire- Fighting Operations; Notice of...

2012-11-16

184

Functional, postural and perceived balance for predicting the work ability of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The importance of balance abilities for firefighting and rescue work has already been recognized, but there are no valid balance tests available in the test batteries for the physical work capacity of firefighters. Moreover, few studies have examined the associations between balance and work ability in general. Valid work-related balance tests are needed for the purpose of screening in

Anne Punakallio; Sirpa Lusa; Ritva Luukkonen

2004-01-01

185

Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants contained in firefighting water  

E-print Network

. A previous paper aimed at proposing a process for purifying firefighting water containing fluorinated contained in firefighting water Authors & affiliations: Clement Baudequin (1), Estelle Couallier (1 prepared from specific aqueous formulations, called foam concentrates diluted in water to 1-6% and applied

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,

Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

2012-01-01

187

Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Other Psychological Symptoms in Trauma-Exposed Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighters are exposed to a range of potentially traumatic stressors, yet studies examining the impact of this exposure are equivocal. Although some studies suggest increased risk for mental health problems, others suggest unusual resilience. Type of assessment methodology may contribute to the lack of consistent findings. We assessed 142 trauma-exposed, professional firefighters utilizing a standardized clinical interview and self-report measures

Eric C. Meyer; Rose Zimering; Erin Daly; Jeffrey Knight; Barbara W. Kamholz; Suzy Bird Gulliver

2012-01-01

188

Multidimensional, Threshold Effects of Social Support in Firefighters: Is More Support Invariably Better?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between social support (Social Provisions Scale) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) in a sample of male firefighters in a midwestern community (N=53). The authors assessed 5 types of perceived support from 2 sources: peer firefighters and supervisors. Results indicate that reassurance of worth and social

Varvel, Shiloh Jordan; He, Yuhong; Shannon, Jennifer K.; Tager, David; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Chaichanasakul, Adipat; Mendoza, Monique M.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

2007-01-01

189

The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) Firefighter Study: Testing Mediating Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team intervention with their work shift or a control condition. Intervention

Krista W. Ranby; David P. MacKinnon; Amanda J. Fairchild; Diane L. Elliot; Kerry S. Kuehl; Linn Goldberg

2011-01-01

190

Aerial firefighting against urban fire: Mock-up house experiments of fire suppression by helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995 claimed approximately 6400 lives. The majority was killed in large fires after the earthquake. Roads were cut off and collapsed buildings blocked the access of fire engines to fire fields. Water mains were broken and lack of water prevented firefighting efforts. If aerial firefighting had been effectively applied, many lives could have been saved.In

Tadashi Konishi; Hironori Kikugawa; Yusaku Iwata; Hiroshi Koseki; Kohei Sagae; Akihiko Ito; Katsutoshi Kato

2008-01-01

191

The surviving rate of an outerplanar graph for the firefighter problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a connected graph with n?2 vertices. Let k?1 be an integer. Suppose that a fire breaks out at a vertex v of G. A firefighter starts to protect vertices. At each time interval, the firefighter protects k-vertices not yet on fire. At the end of each time interval, the fire spreads to all the unprotected vertices that

Weifan Wang; Xubin Yue; Xuding Zhu

2011-01-01

192

Slip and fall risk among firefighters in relation to balance, muscular capacities and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influencing the safety of firefighters work environment is almost impossible. Therefore, good individual physical capacities and adequate protective equipment are important in preventing accidents due to slips and falls. This study investigated slip and fall risk in walking experiments with firefighters wearing fire-protective equipment and determined the associations of balance, muscular capacities and age with the risk of slipping. Professional

Anne Punakallio; Mikko Hirvonen; Raoul Grnqvist

2005-01-01

193

Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Firefighters: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Obesity, despite being a significant determinant of fitness for duty, is reaching epidemic levels in the workplace. Firefighters fitness is important to their health and to public safety.Research Methods and Procedures: We examined the distribution of BMI and its association with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Massachusetts firefighters who underwent baseline (1996) and annual medical examinations through

Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Russ Hauser; Ichiro Kawachi; Dimitrios Liarokapis; David C. Christiani; Stefanos N. Kales

2005-01-01

194

76 FR 58460 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Long-Term Retardant for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...product to ensure that the product meets the needs of the firefighters in the field. The collection of this information for each...solicit and award contracts in a timely manner to provide firefighters with safe and effective wildland fire chemical...

2011-09-21

195

76 FR 58461 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...product to ensure that the product meets the needs of the firefighters in the field. The collection of this information for each...solicit and award contracts in a timely manner to provide firefighters with safe and effective wildland fire chemical...

2011-09-21

196

Handy navigation in ever-changing spaces: an ethnographic study of firefighting practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ethnographic study, conducted to gain an insight of the practices around navigation of firefighters on the first line of intervention. We argue that the common approach of looking only at the technical aspects is incomplete. We show instead, that navigation of firefighters in ever-changing spaces is a collective craft or art, where technology is only one

Sebastian Denef; Leonardo Ramirez; Tobias Dyrks; Gunnar Stevens

2008-01-01

197

Ubiquitous computing for firefighters: field studies and prototypes of large displays for incident command  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrate how field studies, interviews, and low-fidelity prototypes can be used to inform the design of ubiquitous computing systems for firefighters. We describe the artifacts and processes used by firefighters to assess, plan, and communicate during emergency situations, showing how accountability affects these decisions, how their current Incident Command System supports these tasks, and some drawbacks

Xiaodong Jiang; Jason I. Hong; Leila A. Takayama; James A. Landay

2004-01-01

198

Stress and Strain among Police, Firefighters, and Government WorkersA Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matched samples of police officers, firefighters, and other municipal workers were compared with regard to self-reports of stress and various mental, physical, and behavioral problems reflecting strain resulting from stress. The police reported more stress than the other groups. Nonetheless, strain was greatest among municipal workers, while the police and firefighters did not differ markedly. It was concluded that police

MICHAEL PENDLETON; EZRA STOTLAND; PHILIP SPIERS; EDWARD KIRSCH

1989-01-01

199

Assessing gait changes in firefighters due to fatigue and protective clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, roughly 11,000 firefighters are injured as a result of slips, trips and falls, which account for over 25% of all fireground injuries. Wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) can increase risk of fall-related injuries due to its weight, restrictiveness, and increased heat stress. Modification of PPE may serve to mitigate firefighter injuries related to loss of balance and falls.

Kiwon Park; Karl S. Rosengren; Gavin P. Horn; Denise L. Smith; Elizabeth T. Hsiao-Wecksler

2011-01-01

200

Monitoring of firefighters exposure to smoke during fire experiments in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires represent a serious threat to public security in Europe due to the large burned area. Moreover, smoke pollution due to forest fire events is an important public health issue for the communities directly affected, and particularly for the personnel involved in firefighting operations. Aiming to contribute to the scientific knowledge concerning firefighters exposure to forest fires smoke, data

Ana Isabel Miranda; Vera Martins; Pedro Casco; Jorge Humberto Amorim; Joana Valente; Richard Tavares; Carlos Borrego; Oxana Tchepel; Antnio Jorge Ferreira; Carlos Robalo Cordeiro; Domingos Xavier Viegas; Lus Mrio Ribeiro; Lus Paulo Pita

2010-01-01

201

Perception and Attitudes of Firefighters on Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise exposure of firefighters results in increased risk of hearing loss. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) can be prevented by the consistent use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). However, little is known about firefighters' perceptions and attitudes on NIHL and HPD use. The purposes of the study were (1) to identify common noise sources of fire fighting equipment and activities; and

Oisaeng Hong; Daniel Samo; Rebecca Hulea; Brenda Eakin

2008-01-01

202

Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN)

Joel Wilson; Dan Steingart; Russell Romero; Jessica Reynolds; Eric Mellers; Andrew Redfern; Lloyd Lim; William Watts; Colin Patton; Jessica Baker; Paul Wright

2005-01-01

203

Perceptual and physiological heat strain: Examination in firefighters in laboratory- and field-based studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighting demands performing heavy muscular work under adverse and potentially dangerous conditions. Although the physiological and psychological responses to simulated firefighting activities have been described, the heat strain has not been characterised using standardised indices of exerciseheat strain. The purpose of the study is to describe the physiological and perceptual strain associated with working in personal protective equipment and performing

S. J. Petruzzello; J. I. Gapin; E. Snook; D. L. Smith

2009-01-01

204

Physiological responses to simulated stair climbing in professional firefighters wearing rubber and leather boots.  

PubMed

No studies have considered whether a firefighter's boots are a factor influencing physiological responses. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to a fire simulation activity (stair climb) in professional firefighters wearing rubber boots (RB) and leather boots (LB). Twelve professional firefighters participated in two counterbalanced simulated firefighter stair climb (SFSC) sessions, one wearing RB and the other wearing LB. Heart rate, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), expiratory ventilation (V(E)), blood lactate (BLa), salivary cortisol (SCORT), and leg strength were assessed prior to and following a SFSC. LB elicited significantly greater SCORT values and knee flexion time to peak torque. Furthermore, RB revealed significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion peak torque after SFSC. BLa was positively related to knee flexion peak torque after SFSC in the RB. Firefighters when wearing the RB may be more effective at resisting fatigue and increase more force production. PMID:19543910

Huang, Chun-Jung; Garten, Ryan S; Wade, Chip; Webb, Heather E; Acevedo, Edmund O

2009-09-01

205

Sleep Problems, Depression, Substance Use, Social Bonding, and Quality of Life in Professional Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Little attention has been given to factors contributing to firefighters' psychosomatic well-being. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine such contributing factors in a sample of professional firefighters. Methods Measures assessing sleep, depression, substance use, social bonding, and quality of life were examined in 112 firefighters. Results Overall, many firefighters reported sleep deprivation (59%), binge drinking behavior (58%), poor mental well-being (21%), current nicotine use (20%), hazardous drinking behavior (14%), depression (11%), poor physical well-being (8%), caffeine overuse (5%), or poor social bonding (4%). Conclusions Small-to-medium correlations were identified between sleep deprivation, depression, physical/mental well-being, and drinking behaviors. High-risk behaviors that impact psychosomatic well-being are prevalent in professional firefighters, which require environmental and individual-based health promotion interventions. The inter-correlation relationships between such behaviors, therefore, need to be explored in further details. PMID:21785370

Carey, Mary G; Al-Zaiti, Salah S; Dean, Grace E; Sessanna, Loralee; Finnell, Deborah S

2011-01-01

206

AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF COMBINATORICS Volume 41 (2008), Pages 1528 Average firefighting on infinite grids  

E-print Network

In the Firefighter Problem, a fire breaks out at a vertex of a graph G, then f firefighters protect f vertices. At each subsequent time step, the fire spreads from each burned vertex to all of its unprotected neighbours, then f firefighters protect f unburned vertices. Once a vertex is protected or burned, it remains so from then onward. A common objective is to determine the minimum number f, such that if f vertices are protected at each time step, then the fire can be contained on a graph G. In this paper, average firefighting is introduced: the number of vertices protected in each time step is allowed to vary. If the number of firefighters used is periodic and the average number (per time step) is strictly greater than 3/2, then a fire on the Cartesian grid can be contained. Similar results are also determined for the triangular and strong grids. 1

M. E. Messinger

207

Effect of fire smoke on some biochemical parameters in firefighters of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Firefighters who are facing fires, are frequently exposed to hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, benzene, sulphur dioxide, etc. This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes in activity involved firefighters in comparison to normal subjects. Subjects and Methods Two groups of male firefighters volunteered to participate in the study. The first included 28 firefighters from Jeddah, while the second included 21 firefighters from Yanbu, with overall age ranged 2048 years. An additional group of 23 male non-firefighters volunteered from both cities as normal control subjects, of age range 2043 years. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes. Results The results obtained showed that, there were statistically significant differences in liver function, kidney function, serum lipid profile, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, iron and its biologically active derivatives, and blood picture in firefighters as compared with the normal control group. These results indicate that, fire smoke mainly affects serum biochemical and blood hematological parameters. Such results might point out to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to avoid such hazardous health effects that might endanger firefighters under their highly drastic working conditions. Conclusion Besides using of personal protective equipments for firefighters to protect them against exposure to toxic materials of fire smoke, it is recommended that, firefighters must be under continuous medical follow up through a standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for early detection of any serum biochemical or blood hematological changes that might happen during their active service life and to allow for early treatment whenever necessary. PMID:19077241

Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Rezq, Ameen M; Al-Saedy, Mohamed H

2008-01-01

208

Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework.  

PubMed

Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call "cardiovascular strain". The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters. PMID:24602344

Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Garcia-Rivas, Javier; Kim, Hyoungryoul; Zaldivar, Frank; Israel, Leslie; Baker, Dean

2014-01-01

209

Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call cardiovascular strain. The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters. PMID:24602344

2014-01-01

210

Performance of firefighters' protective clothing after heat exposure.  

PubMed

Heat and mechanical protection properties of 6 fabric combinations commonly used in firefighters' protective clothing were assessed before and after different heat treatment. It was shown that after heat exposure, the values obtained were generally lower than in the original state. The mechanical properties of the materials were more affected by heat than by heat protective properties. In 2 cases, degradation started before a visible change in the material could be observed, which might be potentially dangerous for the end user who will not realize the alteration of the material. PMID:18394326

Rossi, Ren M; Bolli, Walter; Stmpfli, Rolf

2008-01-01

211

Association of body mass index and health status in firefighters.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the usefulness of body mass index (BMI) as a preventive screening tool for general health and duty fitness status among firefighters. Two major BMI categorization methods were used: (1) "standard" [low (< 27), medium (> or = 27 < 30), high (> 30)]; and (2) WHO [(normal (< 25), overweight (> or = 25 < 30), obese (> or = 30 < 39), morbidly obese (> or = 39)]. Using the "standard" categorization, nearly 60% of individuals had medium or high BMI's; using the World Health Organization categorization, 80.7% of individuals were found to be overweight, obese, or morbidly obese. Statistically significant, inverse correlation between BMI and each of the following parameters was noted: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, VO2max, METS, and total cholesterol. Inconsistent or statistically insignificant correlation was found between BMI and HDL, Chol/HDL ratio, triglycerides, FVC% predicted, and FEV1 second% predicted. Findings were similar to previous studies of such correlates. BMI continues to prove useful as a screening tool and may be useful in identifying individual firefighters for health and fitness intervention measures. PMID:12391773

Clark, Sharon; Rene, Antonio; Theurer, Wesley M; Marshall, Muriel

2002-10-01

212

High Resolution 12-lead Electrocardiograms of On-Duty Professional Firefighters: A Pilot Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular deaths among on-duty firefighters are high; double that of police officers and quadruple that of first responders. The aim of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of obtaining high resolutions ECGs of on-duty firefighters useful for detecting ECG predictors for cardiac events. Methods Twenty-eight professional firefighters (age, 46 6 years) wore a 12-lead ECG Holter for 24 hours (16 hours while on-duty and 8 hours post-duty). All activities including fire and medical calls were monitored. Results On average the recordings were 92% analyzable. All were in sinus with a heart rate of 80 11bpm (35188 range). The average rr50 over the 24-hour Holter study was 6.2 6% (range: 123%) and rms-SD was 81 55 (range: 24209). Using the QRS/Tsimple formula, the average spatial QRS-T angle was 104 17 degrees (range 78132 degrees). Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia occurred irrespectively of activity or time of day in three (11%) firefighters, which was significantly higher than in comparable normal populations (p<0.05). Conclusions This preliminary work demonstrates that it is feasible to obtain high resolution ECGs during firefighting activities and further points to the high prevalence of arrhythmias among firefighters. The strategy of continuous field monitoring of firefighters could provide new insight into the association between their specific professional lifestyle and high cardiac risks. PMID:21206348

Carey, Mary G.; Thevenin, Bernard J.-M.

2010-01-01

213

Psychophysiological responses in experienced firefighters undertaking repeated self-contained breathing apparatus tasks.  

PubMed

In order to safely and effectively extinguish fires and rescue life, firefighters are required to routinely wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), yet little is known about the specific physiological and psychological demands associated with repeated exposure to tasks that require SCBA. A total of 12 experienced firefighters took part in a series of commonly encountered SCBA activities: free search, guideline search and live firefighting tasks under room temperature (?20C) and extreme heat (?180C) conditions to assess changes in heart rate, blood pressure, mood, perceived workload and air usage. Findings demonstrate that live firefighting is associated with greater perceived exhaustion than free search or guideline exercises; however, all tasks lead to high cardiovascular demand regardless of the presence of heat. No significant impact of task upon mood and no significant differences between the perceived demands of guideline, free search and live firefighting exercises were found. Practitioner Summary: This study considered the physiological and psychological responses of firefighters undertaking SCBA exercises. Although live firefighting is associated with greater perceived exertion, the absence of differences in psychological domains between exercises demonstrates that task demands are not always dependent upon the presence of fire and that all tasks are mentally challenging. PMID:25363022

Young, Paul M; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A

2014-12-01

214

Self-reported short- and long-term respiratory effects among PVC-exposed firefighters  

SciTech Connect

Firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were studied to assess respiratory effects at 5-6 wk post-incident and again 22 mo following the fire. Exposed subjects reported significantly more frequent and severe respiratory symptoms at both time points than did firefighter controls. In longitudinal analyses, a number of symptoms persisted over time, and acute symptom scores were significantly correlated with chronic scores. At Time 2, approximately 18% of exposed firefighters, compared with none of the controls, reported that since the time of the PVC exposure, a physician had told them that they had either asthma and/or bronchitis.

Markowitz, J.S. (Columbia Univ., NY (USA))

1988-10-01

215

Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.  

PubMed

Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30min walking and 10min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

2014-11-01

216

Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

Beck, E. J.

1974-01-01

217

78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative...Foresters and State Agency FEPP Property Managers. Estimated Annual...addresses when provided, will be a matter of public record....

2013-12-09

218

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2011-07-01

219

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2012-07-01

220

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2013-07-01

221

Analysis of Firetruck Crashes and Associated Firefighter Injuries in the United States  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C.

2012-01-01

222

Application of real-time particle sensors to help mitigate exposures of wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

High particulate exposures have been demonstrated to decrease lung function among firefighters. In this article, the authors demonstrated the feasibility of using small real-time particle sensors to inform wildland firefighters so they may make informed decisions on the use of personal respiratory protection. Using 1 mg/m3 as an indicator point for use of appropriately designed respiratory protection, such sensors could help prevent 16% to 74% of particulate exposure during prescribed burns when firefighters assess exposure as low or medium. Adherence to such a guideline for the use of respiratory protection would involve its deployment during 3% to 22% of individual 8-hour shifts. In addition, data-logging sensors would provide a valuable tool for tracking exposure to particulates among wildland firefighters for occupational health monitoring. PMID:16961007

Edwards, Rufus; Johnson, Michael; Dunn, Kevin H; Naeher, Luke P

2005-01-01

223

Application of real-time particulate sensors to help mitigate exposures of wildland firefighters.  

SciTech Connect

High Particulate exposures have been demonstrated to decrease lung function among firefighters. In this article, the authors demonstrated the feasibility of using small real-time particle sensors to inform wildland firefighters so they can make informed decisions on the use of personal respiratory protection. Using 1mg/m3 as an indicator point for use of appropriately designed respiratory protection, such sensors could help prevent 16% to 74% of particulate exposure prescribed burns when firefighters assess exposure as low or medium. Adherence to such a guideline for the use of respiratory protection would involve its deployment of 3% to 22% of individual shifts. In addition, sensors are a valuable tool for tracking exposure to particulates among wildland firefighters for occupational health monitoring.

Edwards, Rufus; Johnson, Michael: Dunn, Kevin H.; Naeher, Luke P.

2005-02-01

224

Abrasion-Resistant Aluminized-Coated Aramid Fabrics for Manufacture of Firefighters' Protective Clothing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The required yardage of two experimental approaches to developing an abrasion resistant fabric for firefighters protective clothing has been delivered to NCTRF, Natick, MA, for fabrication into uniforms. The first is an electron-beam (EB) cured coating on...

R. Brenneman

1985-01-01

225

World Trade Center-exposed NYC firefighters face increased cancer risk:  

Cancer.gov

In the largest cancer study of firefighters ever conducted, research published in this weeks 9/11 Special Issue of The Lancet found that New York City firefighters exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site were at least 19 percent more likely to develop cancer in the seven years following the disaster as their non-exposed colleagues and up to 10 percent more likely to develop cancer than a similar sample from the general population.

226

Association Between Lung Function and Exposure to Smoke Among Firefighters at Prescribed Burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the short-term effects of exposures to PM3.5, acrolein, formaldehyde, and carbon monoxide on lung function in a group of firefighters performing prescribed burns. Spirometric measurements were made on 65 firefighters at the beginning, midpoint, and end of their work shift, while exposure was measured over the entire day. The interquartile range (IQR) of daily personal PM3.5 exposures was

James C. Slaughter; Jane Q. Koenig; Timothy E. Reinhardt

2004-01-01

227

Illinois Firefighter Line of Duty Deaths Digital Image Collection Database: A Knowledge Management Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

IFLODD: The Illinois Firefighter Line of Duty Deaths Digital Image Collection Database is a knowledge management initiative\\u000a at the Illinois Fire Service Institute (IFSI) Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It collects and provides\\u000a Internet access to a multi-dimensional dataset of photographs and fire department records that document Illinois firefighters\\u000a who died in the line of duty. This paper discusses

Lian Ruan; Adam Groves

228

Incident-Related Stressors, Locus of Control, Coping, and Psychological Distress Among Firefighters in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was an investigation into the associations between incident-related stressors, locus of control, coping, and psychological distress in firefighters in Northern Ireland during the time of political violence. Among 248 male firefighters, greater psychological distress was associated with greater frequency of incident-related negative emotions, external locus of control, less task- and emotion-focused coping, and greater avoidance coping. It was

Jill Brown; Gerry Mulhern; Stephen Joseph

2002-01-01

229

Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51

Stefanos N Kales; Elpidoforos S Soteriades; Stavros G Christoudias; David C Christiani

2003-01-01

230

A preliminary investigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms among firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency service personnel are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is little in-depth information on the psychological responses of firefighters to the daily incidents that they attend. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the PTSD symptoms of firefighters in relation to traumatic events experienced by them, and the availability of social support. Thirty-one UK fire

Cheryl Haslam; Krissie Mallon

2003-01-01

231

Active Versus Passive Cooling During Work in Warm Environments While Wearing Firefighting Protective Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and selfcontained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35C, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the heat-stress trials. Subjects walked at 4.5 kmh with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50 min) and rest (30

G. A. Selkirk; T. M. McLellan; J. Wong

2004-01-01

232

Influence of genetic susceptibility on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESOxidative DNA damage has been implicated in carcinogenesis. The DNA damage can be assessed from the urinary excretion of the DNA-repair product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). The factors were investigated that influenced the excretion of urinary 8-OH-dG in 78 firefighters.METHODS53 Out of 78 firefighters were exposed to fire within 5 days of the study and 25 were not. 8-OH-dG was measured by

Yun-Chul Hong; Hye-Sook Park; Eun-Hee Ha

2000-01-01

233

Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

2000-05-01

234

Ergonomic comparison of a chem\\/bio prototype firefighter ensemble and a standard ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighter turnout gear and equipment protect the wearer against external hazards but, unfortunately, restrict mobility.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine the ease of mobility and comfort while wearing a new prototype firefighter ensemble\\u000a (PE) with additional chemical\\/biological hazard protection compared to a standard ensemble (SE) by measuring static and dynamic\\u000a range of motion (ROM), job-related tasks, and

Aitor Coca; R. Roberge; A. Shepherd; J. B. Powell; J. O. Stull; W. J. Williams

2008-01-01

235

The physical demands upon (Dutch) fire-fighters in relation to the maximum acceptable energetic workload  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the tasks and activities that make physical demands on Dutch fire-fighters and to compare them with a guideline related to the development of excessive fatigue. The occupational physical demands on Dutch fire-fighters were assessed by conducting a task analysis during 85 24-h shifts. While workplace observations on the duration and frequency of

Jurriaan Bos; Eric Mol; Bart Visser; Monique HW Frings-Dresen

2004-01-01

236

Dyrks et al. Designing for FirefightersBuilding Empathy Designing for FirefightersBuilding Empathy through Live Action Role-Playing  

E-print Network

In this paper we present a role-playing workshop in a firefighting scenario conducted within the frame of a multidisciplinary consortium. Our work focuses on developing a navigation ubicomp infrastructure leveraging the cognitive skills of firefighters. Technology for navigation must understand existing navigation practices in order to provide adequate support. To deal with the complexity of this process, we use a participatory design approach based on a strong synergy among partners. We argue that a key aspect for the creation of this synergy is the construction of a bond of empathy allowing technology experts to understand the needs of the users of technology and also allowing firefighters to understand the role and activities of technology developers in the process. We present an account of the workshop conducted and some insights of the role that this method can play for complex, multidisciplinary teams working on developing safety-critical technology.

Tobias Dyrks; Leonardo Ramirez; Sebastian Denef; Berthold Penkert; Daniel Meyer

237

Life-saving uncooled IR camera for use in firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent description by a firefighter on the experience of entering a building that is on fire was to liken it to being blindfolded, then being lead to a maze and told there is a victim at the center which you have to recover. In simple terms, firefighters are totally blind and what they need are 'eyes' that can see in the dark and through dense smoke. The development of lightweight thermal cameras using uncooled IR staring arrays and a helmet mounted display has now given the firefighter the 'eyes' in such situations which means less time to achieve a rescue and enhanced personal safety for the firefighter. This paper gives details on the development of the uncooled array camera and how it's been configured to withstand the extreme temperature conditions encountered during a firefighting environment. Also, how the camera and display system have been designed to provide the firefighter with a helmet mounted configuration to enable total 'hands free' operation. This is followed by a description of the special tests required to prove that the complete system can survive in a fire environment and finally a short video which demonstrates how the system performs in real life situations.

Bennett, Mel V.; Matthews, Iain

1996-06-01

238

The effect of pre-warming on performance during simulated firefighting exercise.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of active pre-warming on speed and quality of performance during simulated firefighting exercise. Twelve male firefighters performed two trials in counterbalanced order. They were either pre-warmed by 20-min cycling at 1.5Wattkg(-)(1) body mass (WARM) or remained thermoneutral (CON) prior to a simulated firefighting activity. After the pre-warming, gastrointestinal temperature (P<0.001), skin temperature (P=0.002), and heart rate (P<0.001) were higher in WARM than in CON. During the firefighting activity, rating of perceived exertion, thermal sensation and discomfort were higher for WARM than for CON. Finish time of the firefighting activity was similar, but the last task of the activity was completed slower in WARM than in CON (P=0.04). In WARM, self-reported performance quality was lower than in CON (P=0.04). It is concluded that pre-warming reduces the speed during the last part of simulated firefighting activity and reduces self-reported quality of performance. PMID:24816137

Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Mol, Eric; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

2014-11-01

239

Exposure of wildland firefighters to carbon monoxide, fine particles, and levoglucosan.  

PubMed

Wildland firefighters are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. Eighteen wildland firefighters were monitored for their personal exposure to particulate matter with median aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns (PM2.5), levoglucosan (LG), and carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 prescribed burns at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate the effect on exposure of various factors and to examine whether the firefighters were able to qualitatively estimate their own exposures. Exposure to PM2.5 and CO was higher when firefighters performed 'holding' tasks compared with 'lighting' duties, whereas exposures to CO and LG were higher when burns were in compartments with predominantly pine vegetation (P < 0.05). Exposures to PM2.5 (64-2068 g m(-3)) and CO (0.02-8.2 p.p.m.) fell within the ranges observed in previous studies. Some recommended shorter term exposure limits for CO were exceeded in a few instances. The very low LG:PM2.5 ratios in some samples suggest that the exposures of wildland firefighters to pollutants at prescribed burns may be substantially impacted by non-woodsmoke sources. The association of the qualitative exposure estimation of the firefighters with actual PM2.5 and CO measurements (P < 0.01) indicates that qualitative estimation may be used to assess exposure in epidemiology studies. PMID:23813888

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Simpson, Christopher D; Onstad, Gretchen; Naeher, Luke P

2013-10-01

240

Effects of Liquid Cooling Garments on Recovery and Performance Time in Individuals Performing Strenuous Work Wearing a Firefighter Ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages

Jung-Hyun Kim; Aitor Coca; W. Jon Williams; Raymond J. Roberge

2011-01-01

241

Research | Article Biomonitoring of Chemical Exposure among New York City Firefighters Responding to the World Trade Center Fire and Collapse  

E-print Network

firefighters to smoke and dust of unprecedented magnitude and duration. The chemicals and the concentrations produced from any fire are difficult to predict, but estimates of internal dose exposures can be assessed by the biological monitoring of blood and urine. We analyzed blood and urine specimens obtained from 321 firefighters responding to the WTC fires and collapse for 110 potentially fire-related chemicals. Controls consisted of 47 firefighters not present at the WTC. Sampling occurred 3 weeks after 11 September, while fires were still burning. When reference or background ranges were available, most chemical concentrations were found to be generally low and not outside these ranges. Compared with controls, the exposed firefighters showed significant differences in adjusted geometric means for six of the chemicals and significantly greater detection rates for an additional three. Arrival time was a significant predictor variable for four chemicals. Special Operations Command firefighters (n = 95), compared with other responding WTC firefighters (n = 226), had differences in concentrations or detection rate for 14 of the chemicals. Values for the Special Operations Command firefighters were also significantly different from the control group values for these same chemicals and for two additional chemicals. Generally, the chemical concentrations in the other firefighter group were not different from those of controls. Biomonitoring was used to characterize firefighter

Kerry Kelly; David Prezant

242

2010 Jeanette Reinhardt-KleinFIREFIGHTERS: ATTITUDES, BELIEFS, AND BEHAVIORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HIGH-RISK BEHAVIORS BY  

E-print Network

This study investigated the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that contribute to risk-taking intentions among firefighters. To examine if attitudes have an effect on risk-taking intentions, the Theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen (TPB; 1988, 1991, 2001) was applied. A questionnaire and scenarios were developed to assess the TPB. Further interest was if emotion-laden stimuli moderate firefighters intentions to engage in risky scenarios. Two primes, one depicted a firefighter fighting a fire blast (hero), the other one depicted a firefighter handing candy to children (public servant) were used in the study. The study consisted of 155 firefighters who were randomly assigned to three groups: hero group, public servant group, and control group. It was assumed that firefighters primed with the picture of a hero will show higher risk-taking intentions than firefighters primed with the picture of a public servant. Further, firefighters in the control group will show less risk-taking intentions. The hypotheses were not supported in this study. Path model analyses, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) were used to analyze the data. The path model showed that attitudes and subjective norms were strong predictors of intentions for firefighters risk-taking intentions

Jeanette Reinhardt-klein

243

This certificate program was developed in response to concerns about the structural health of U.S. public use firefighting aircraft. Learn about the critical factors involved  

E-print Network

.S. public use firefighting aircraft. Learn about the critical factors involved in aircraft health management.extension.ucdavis.edu/aviation .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. n Aviation safety officers n Emergency services pilots n Forest firefighter aviators n Border patrol

Thomases, Becca

244

Acute health effects among firefighters exposed to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire  

SciTech Connect

Firefighters are frequently being called on to fight fires that are chemical in nature. In the aftermath of a chemical fire in Plainfield, New Jersey on March 20-21, 1985, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study which surveyed 80 firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as well as 15 nonexposed firefighter subjects. By means of an 81-item symptom checklist, exposed firefighters reported more frequent and severe symptoms at 5-6 weeks post incident. This was true for a total symptomatology score as well as 19 individual items. Some of the items with an elevated risk were consistent with exposure to hydrogen chloride, the main pyrolysis product of polyvinyl chloride. Other items with an elevated risk appeared to be related to smoke inhalation while others seemed psychosocial in nature. Analyses conducted within the exposed firefighter group showed that fighting the fire the first day, being a truckman, and residence within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the firehouse were significant risk factors for high total symptom scores. These risk factors may have been associated with level or duration of exposure to the toxic substances produced during the fire.

Markowitz, J.S.; Gutterman, E.M. (New York State Psychiatric Institute (USA)); Schwartz, S.; Link, B.; Gorman, S.M. (Columbia Univ., New York (USA))

1989-05-01

245

Effects of simulated firefighting on the responses of salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and psychological variables.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simulated firefighting intervention on salivary alpha-amylase (sA-A), free cortisol (sC), anxiety (STAI), and profile of mood states (POMS) in 20 male firefighters (age 32 +/- 1 years, VO(2peak): 43 +/- 5 ml/kg per min). During the 12-min firefighting intervention (ambient temperature: 13 +/- 1 degrees C; relative humidity: 63 +/- 1%), individuals spent 63 +/- 28% of the time working at heart rate (HR) >85% of individual HR(max), [La] (peak) 9.2 +/- 2.9 mM and ratings of perceived exertion 16 +/- 2. At 30 min post-intervention significant (p < 0.001) increases in sA-A (174%) and sC (109%) were found with regard to values recorded before and after 90 min of the firefighting intervention. Since no differences emerged between pre-intervention and post intervention for STAI and POMS values, the hormonal changes were attributable to the intense physical stress of the simulated intervention. Further research is needed during real firefighting activities, where high emotional stress may also be present. PMID:19401900

Perroni, F; Tessitore, A; Cibelli, G; Lupo, C; D'Artibale, E; Cortis, C; Cignitti, L; De Rosas, M; Capranica, L

2009-04-01

246

Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN) called SmokeNet for personnel tracking. The project aims to address urban/industrial firefighting procedures in need of improvement. Two "user-needs" studies with the Chicago and Berkeley Fire Departments are briefly presented. The FIRE project"s initial HMD prototype designs are then discussed with regard to feedback from the user-needs studies. These prototypes are evaluated in their potential costs and benefits to firefighters and found to need improvement. Next, some currently available commercial HMDs are reviewed and compared in their cost, performance, and potential for use by firefighters. Feedback from the Berkeley Fire Department user-needs study, in which the initial prototypes were demonstrated, is compiled into a concept selection matrix for the next prototypes. This matrix is used to evaluate a variety of HMDs, including some of the commercial units presented, and to select the best design options. Finally, the current prototypes of the two best design options are presented and discussed.

Wilson, Joel; Steingart, Dan; Romero, Russell; Reynolds, Jessica; Mellers, Eric; Redfern, Andrew; Lim, Lloyd; Watts, William; Patton, Colin; Baker, Jessica; Wright, Paul

2005-05-01

247

Design of Monocular Head-Mounted Displays for Increased Indoor Firefighting Safety and Efficiency  

E-print Network

Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN) called SmokeNet for personnel tracking. The project aims to address urban/industrial firefighting procedures in need of improvement. Two user-needs studies with the Chicago and Berkeley Fire Departments are briefly presented. The FIRE projects initial HMD prototype designs are then discussed with regard to feedback from the user-needs studies. These prototypes are evaluated in their potential costs and benefits to firefighters and found to need improvement. Next, some currently available commercial HMDs are reviewed and compared in their cost, performance, and potential for use by firefighters. Feedback from the Berkeley Fire Department user-needs study, in which the initial prototypes were demonstrated, is compiled into a concept selection matrix for the next prototypes. This matrix is used to evaluate a variety of HMDs, including some of the commercial units presented, and to select the best design options. Finally, the current prototypes of the two best design options are presented and discussed.

Joel Wilson; Dan Steingart; Russell Romero; Jessica Reynolds; Eric Mellers; Andrew Redfern; Lloyd Lim; William Watts; Colin Patton; Jessica Baker; Paul Wright

248

Title: IdentifICation of the Best Methods of Firefighter Training at the  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the methods of training currently in use by the Menomonie and Rice Lake fire departments. To achieve the purpose of this study four goals were established: 1) analyze training of full-time firefighters and Paid On Call (POC) firefighters at the Menomonie Fire Department (MFD) and Rice Lake Fire Department (RLFD), 2) determine the most effective methods of training by means of a survey of MFD and RLFD firefighters and analysis of the results, 3) make recommendations to the MFD and RLFD to make its training more effective and efficient while meeting applicable codes and 4) survey firefighters to determine what they feel is the most practical and effective in terms of training. To maximize the effectiveness of firefighter training the author developed the following conclusions: 1. Whenever possible, hands-on training should be utilized. 2. Classroom training should be kept to a minimum. 3. Implementing closely monitored mentoring programs over the next five to ten years. 111 Acknowledgments

Brad Luedtke; Graduate Degree; Major Ms; Risk Control

249

Air-quality management alternatives: United States Air Force fire-fighter training facilities. Doctoral thesis  

SciTech Connect

Air-pollutant emissions from fire-fighter training fires are a small portion of all annual air emissions from fixed and mobile sources at an Air Force installation. However, a single-practice fire burning 300 gallons of aviation fuel releases an estimated one ton of criteria air pollutants during a one- to five-minute period. Bases report conducting fire-fighter training 4 to 134 times per year, burning 100 to 2000 gallons of fuel per fire. Based on current emissions-inventory methodology, 4 installations emit over 100 tons of air pollutants annually from fire-fighter practice fires. A research methodology utilizing questionnaires, interviews, and site visits is developed and applied. This method enabled fire-prevention and environmental-management experts and professionals to provide data, opinions, and to evaluate candidate air-quality management alternatives. Analysis of survey data, interview findings, opinions, and management alternative evaluations integrated with air-quality-management indexes developed through this research lead to the study conclusions and recommendations. Implications for future policy and actions include recommendations to improve recording and reporting data via Facility Use and Firefighter Training Indexes. If adopted, the policy and actions would result in a more-efficient and standardized fire-fighter training program Air Force-wide. Further research is needed to verify air-emission factors, and to determine concentrations of PAH emissions in smoke and fugitive soot particles.

Brewer, R.E.

1988-01-01

250

DNR Wildland Firefighter Training The MN DNR is offering Wildfire Training March 17-21, 2014 in Rm 110 Green Hall on the St.  

E-print Network

DNR Wildland Firefighter Training The MN DNR is offering Wildfire Training March 17-21, 2014 in Rm courses: L-180 Human factors on the fireline S-130 Firefighter training (recommended online preparation NOMINATION Course S-130/190/L180 Course Name: Basic Wildland Firefighting Priority _____ of ______ IQCS

Weiblen, George D

251

Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire GTR-NRS-P-84 CAN ACCEPTABLE RISK BE DEFINED IN WILDLAND FIREFIGHTING?  

E-print Network

ACCEPTABLE RISK BE DEFINED IN WILDLAND FIREFIGHTING? David Clancy Owner and Principal Consultant, Human, fire managers, and firefighters, who must ensure that risks are managed at a level that is as low for--or consensus on--defining "acceptable risk" in the field of firefighting. Risk assessment

252

Occupational stress and strain in relation to personal protective equipment of Japanese firefighters assessed by a questionnaire.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate differences in actual work environments, mobility and satisfaction between firefighters wearing aluminized and non-aluminized personal protective equipment (PPE), and to suggest a proper standard test method for Japanese firefighters' PPE. A survey from two cities in Japan (City A: aluminized PPE; City B: non aluminized PPE) was undertaken. A total of 525 firefighters from City A and 757 from City B participated. Firefighters spent 22.5 min (City A) and 27.3 min (City B) on average firefighting with the full set of PPE in one incident, but the heat strain experienced among firefighters from City A was twice that of firefighters from City B (57.5% and 28.4%). Firefighters spent 65.9 min on one incident and 24.2 min for suppression of fire with the full set of PPE on average. The toughest task that caused physical strain in City A was 'stair climbing' and in City B was 'drawing up a hose filled with water'. The most restricted body region due to PPE was the knee for both groups. Evaluations revealed that the aluminized fire jacket had worse ventilation and mobility than the non-aluminized, while the non-aluminized one received with more unfavorable evaluations for water resistance and maintainability. PMID:23196389

Son, Su-Young; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

2013-01-01

253

Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

Reinhardt, T.E.

1991-10-01

254

Original Article Occupational Stress and Strain in Relation to Personal Protective Equipment of Japanese Firefighters Assessed by a Questionnaire  

E-print Network

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to elucidate differences in actual work environments, mobility and satisfaction between firefighters wearing aluminized and non-aluminized personal protective equipment (PPE), and to suggest a proper standard test method for Japanese firefighters PPE. A survey from two cities in Japan (City A: aluminized PPE; City B: non aluminized PPE) was undertaken. A total of 525 firefighters from City A and 757 from City B participated. Firefighters spent 22.5 min (City A) and 27.3 min (City B) on average firefighting with the full set of PPE in one incident, but the heat strain experienced among firefighters from City A was twice that of firefighters from City B (57.5 % and 28.4%). Firefighters spent 65.9 min on one incident and 24.2 min for suppression of fire with the full set of PPE on average. The toughest task that caused physical strain in City A was stair climbing and in City B was drawing up a hose filled with water. The most restricted body region due to PPE was the knee for both groups. Evaluations revealed that the aluminized fire jacket had worse ventilation and mobility than the non-aluminized, while the non-aluminized one received with more unfavorable evaluations for water resistance and maintainability.

Su-young Son; Joo-young Lee; Yutaka Tochihara

2012-01-01

255

Fatal Accident Circumstances and Epidemiology (FACE) Report: Carbon Monoxide Kills Three Volunteer Firefighters Inside Well in Pennsylvania, May 1, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The deaths of three volunteer firefighters from carbon-monoxide (630080) inside a 33 foot deep water well were investigated. A total of four volunteer firefighters responded to a request from a local resident to remove the remains of a dead animal from a ...

1990-01-01

256

Determination of Firefighter Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzene During Fire Fighting Using Measurement of Biological Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accomplishing their duties, firefighters are potentially exposed to a vast array of toxic combustion and pyrolysis products such as benzene, carbon monoxide, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAH and benzene was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and t,t -muconic acid, respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period

Chantal Caux; Cindy OBrien; Claude Viau

2002-01-01

257

Handy Navigation in Ever-Changing Spaces an Ethnographic Study of Firefighting Practices  

E-print Network

This paper presents an ethnographic study, conducted to gain an insight of the practices around navigation of firefighters on the first line of intervention. We argue that the common approach of looking only at the technical aspects is incomplete. We show instead, that navigation of firefighters in ever-changing spaces is a collective craft or art, where technology is only one of the relevant pieces, but not the only one. Therefore design should take a deep look at existing navigation practices of firefighters. In order to identify relevant work practices, we conducted our ethnographic study to find out patterns of navigation work and based on our findings, we provide an outline of how the navigation practices can be supported by ubiquitous computing. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.1 [Information interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI)]:

Sebastian Denef; Leonardo Ramirez; Tobias Dyrks; Gunnar Stevens

258

Personal carbon monoxide exposures among firefighters at prescribed forest burns in the Southeastern United States.  

PubMed

Exposure to combustion products from wildland fires causes respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The authors evaluated carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of a group of wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in the southeastern United States of America. A total of 149 person-days of samples were collected using data logging CO monitors. A questionnaire was administered to collect data on job tasks and self-reported smoke exposure. Overall, the highest exposures were seen amongst firefighters assigned to holding and mop-up tasks (geometric mean [GM]: 2.6 ppm), whereas the lowest were associated with lighting and jobs such as burn boss (GM: 1.6 and 0.3 ppm, respectively). The self-reported smoke exposure showed a significant linear trend with increasing CO exposure. The numbers of acres burned or burn duration, however, were not good predictors of exposure. PMID:23298425

Dunn, K H; Shulman, S; Stock, A L; Naeher, L P

2013-01-01

259

The relationship between physical activity and thermal protective clothing on functional balance in firefighters.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status, and task performance was analyzed. There was an effect of equipment and training status on performance with the group reporting both aerobic and resistance training performing better than the group reporting no physical training. In conclusion, firefighters walk more slowly as a strategy to maintain balance when wearing TPC, which may be suboptimal given the emergent nature of fire suppression. This result was most prominent in the group reporting no physical training. PMID:23367817

Kong, Pui W; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Raki; Hostler, David

2012-12-01

260

Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61% of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95% CI 7.4556); training (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 1.831.3) and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 1.128.8) carried significantly higher relative risks of CHD death. Compared to the active firefighters, the CHD victims had a significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate regression models: age ? 45 years (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.615.9), current smoking (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.817.4), hypertension (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.011.1), and a prior diagnosis of arterial-occlusive disease (OR 15.6, 95% CI 3.568.6). Conclusions Our findings strongly support that most on-duty CHD fatalities are work-precipitated and occur in firefighters with underlying CHD. Improved fitness promotion, medical screening and medical management could prevent many of these premature deaths. PMID:14613487

Kales, Stefanos N; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Christoudias, Stavros G; Christiani, David C

2003-01-01

261

Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.  

PubMed

Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

2014-09-01

262

An occupational exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in firefighters.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are unintentional byproducts of combustion and industrial processes. Firefighters face the risk of occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs. Congener-specific analyses of 17 PCDD/Fs were performed on 20 serum samples collected from firefighters and fire scene investigators, and four soot samples that had deposited on the surfaces of the fire helmets and were collected after the firefighters had fought fires. The PCDD/F concentrations on the helmets that were contaminated by being worn at the fire scenes were 63-285 times higher than those on a clean helmet. The median serum PCDD/F concentration of the 16 firefighters (12 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1)lipid) was not different from those of the males from the general Taiwanese population (9.4 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid). However, the median PCDD/F level in the four fire scene investigators (15 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid) was higher than those in the male from the general Taiwanese population (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Furthermore, the serum samples from the firefighters and fire scene investigators, and the soot samples from the fire scenes presented similarly distinctive PCDD/F profiles that had elevated proportions for 10 PCDF congeners. Limited data indicated that the fire scene investigators were occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes. We suggested that the firefighters were not occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes due to appropriate protection. However, the fire scene investigators may have had more occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs due to poor protection, and further research must be performed to confirm this. PMID:21458022

Hsu, Jing-Fang; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsueh Wen; Liao, Chin-Kun; Liao, Pao-Chi

2011-05-01

263

Physiological responses of fire-fighter instructors during training exercises.  

PubMed

Thirteen male instructors were monitored during a total of 44 live fire training exercises (ambient temperature 74+/-42 degrees C). Exposure time during the 'Hot Fire' (HF), 'Fire Behaviour' and 'Fire Attack' exercises was 33.0+/-7.9 min (n=30); 26.3+/-5.5 min (n=6); and 7.3+/-2.6 min (n=8) respectively. At the end of the exercises, mean core temperature (t(core)) was 38.5+/-0.9 degrees C (n=32), however eight instructors had a t(core) above 39 degrees C. The mean maximum temperature under the fire hood was 41.2+/-4.6 degrees C (n=40). Mean maximum heart rate (HR) was 138+/-26 bpm (n=34) however, in five exercises, HR exceeded 90% of the instructors' HR reserve. Mean fluid deficit was 0.62+/-0.6 l (n=30) at the end of the HF exercises, the maximum being 2.54 l. Four instructors doubted their ability to perform a rescue at the end of the exercise. The energy cost of performing simulated rescues of a 50 kg dummy in the cool was investigated in a pilot study. Mean HR during the rescues was 79+/-7% of the instructors' HR reserve and it was estimated that this could increase t(core) by 0.4 to 0.6 degrees C. The physiological responses to the fire-fighting exercises varied considerably and reflected the differences in work performed and external heat load. The results obtained from some individuals give cause for concern, and signs of heat strain were seen in at least two individuals. PMID:15204300

Eglin, Clare M; Coles, Sue; Tipton, Michael J

2004-04-15

264

Firefighting and fire prevention: Facilities instructions, standards and techniques. Volume 5-2  

SciTech Connect

The operation and maintenance personnel around a powerplant, pumping plant, or other Reclamation establishment are not presumed to be firefighters, but occasionally their duties may make it necessary for them to fight fires. The purpose of this volume is to supply them with fundamental facts which may prove valuable in such an emergency and acquaint them with the use, care, and testing of firefighting equipment. It is assumed that operation and maintenance personnel are familiar with the common safety practices in connection with fire prevention and general safety around electrical equipment. This volume is designed to help improve the work along these lines.

Watson, H.E.

1992-02-01

265

75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative...services. The FEPP program loans property to the state who in turn sub...agencies comes from Federal Property and Administration Services...addresses when provided, will be a matter of public record....

2010-10-05

266

Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required. PMID:24472292

2013-01-01

267

Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies; Student Manual, Part B. Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course designed to develop performance capabilities in the student of the fire service is presented in a manual. Each chapter is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the material covered in class. Specific objectives are: (1) To train "Support Assistant" B personnel to augment and assist firefighters, (2) To train personnel to

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

268

The impact of firefighter personal protective equipment and treadmill protocol on maximal oxygen uptake.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO(2max) between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO(2max) was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO(2) in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO(2) but not VO(2max). These results suggest that firefighters' maximal performance determined from a typical VO(2max) test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

2013-01-01

269

Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and

Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

2012-01-01

270

HIGH INSPJRED AIR TEMPERATURES SUPPLIED BY BREATHING APPARATUS DURING FIREFIGHTING MAY LIMIT HEAT EXPOSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

carried out by the Royal Navy (RN), subjects reported that the air supplied by the BA during 10 minutes exposure to 160C became uncomfortably hoe, suggesting that they may be at risk ofthermal injuries to their lungs during exposure to higher temperatures. Normally, RN firefighters are protected from high temperatures by a sea water system which produces a near vertical

James R. House

271

A heat transfer model for incorporating carbon foam fabrics in firefighter's garment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, a numerical study was performed to predict and investigate the performance of a thermal protection system for firefighter's garment consisting of carbon foam fabric in both the outer shell and the thermal liner elements. Several types of carbon foam with different thermal conductivity, porosity, and density were introduced to conduct a parametric study. Additionally, the thickness of the introduced carbon foam fabrics was varied to acquire optimum design. Simulation was conducted for a square planar 2D geometry of the clothing comprising of different fabric layers and a double precision pressure-based implicit solver, under transient state condition was used. The new anticipated thermal protection system was tested under harsh thermal environmental conditions that firefighters are exposed to. The parametric study showed that employing carbon foam fabric with one set of designed parameters, weight reduction of 33 % in the outer shell, 56 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 2 % at the inner edge of the garment was achieved when compared to the traditional firefighter garment model used by Song et al. (Int J Occup Saf Ergon 14:89-106, 2008). Also, carbon foam fabric with another set of designed parameters resulted in a weight reduction of 25 % in the outer shell, 28 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 6 % at the inner edge of the garment. As a result, carbon foam fabrics make the firefighter's garment more protective, durable, and lighter in weight.

Elgafy, Ahmed; Mishra, Sarthak

2014-04-01

272

Heart rate response of firefighters to actual emergencies. Implications for cardiorespiratory fitness.  

PubMed

Heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) responses during actual fire-suppression emergencies were monitored in 10 male firefighters. These firefighters worked at 157 +/- 8 beats per minute (bpm) for 15 +/- 7 minutes. This was 88 +/- 6% of their previously determined HR max. Based on treadmill testing, the HR x VO2 relationship was established for each firefighter. The predicted VO2 derived from HR monitoring in actual emergencies was 25.6 +/- 8.7 mL.kg-1.min-1 or 63 +/- 14% of VO2 max (40.0 +/- 6.5 mL.kg-1.min-1). These values on the cardiorespiratory response to actual emergencies are very similar to results derived from studies employing fire-suppression simulations. Recommendations for the VO2 max of firefighters ranging from 33.5 to 42.0 mL.kg-1.min-1 that have been generated from simulation testing appear appropriate given the cardiorespiratory responses to actual emergencies. PMID:1506937

Sothmann, M S; Saupe, K; Jasenof, D; Blaney, J

1992-08-01

273

Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns  

EPA Science Inventory

Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

274

Daily stressors and social support availability as predictors of depressed mood in male firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of daily stressors and social support availability on depressed mood was assessed over a 9-month period in 68 male firefighters. At 3-monthly intervals, an abbreviated Daily Stress Index (DSI) was completed for 16 days prior to administration of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). After negative affectivity, depressed mood and daily stress levels 3 months previously had been taken

Mark P. Roy; Andrew Steptoe

1994-01-01

275

Design consideration for shock-absorbing spring at the tail of firefighter-assistive robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design consideration for torsional spring at the tail of firefighter-assistive robot in order to improve the shock resistance with increasing its compliance mechanically. The tail was frequently broken during the robot dropped on the floor and crashed against objects in fire site. To decrease fracture of the tail and preserve functions of the robot, the

Dong-Hwan Shin; Jinung An; Yong-Soo Kang

2011-01-01

276

An Activity Network Approach for the Analysis of Manning Policies in Firefighting Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a semi-empirical method for the analysis of manning policies in firefighting. Since manpower costs account for a major share of non-volunteer fire departments' budgets, manning level is one of the most important policy issues relating to fire departments faced by local government decision makers. Yet, practically no analytic research of manning levels has been previously carried out.

Jonathan Halpern; Efstratios Sarisamlis; Yair Wand

1982-01-01

277

Forest fire prevention: a GIS tool for fire-fighting planning and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the organization of efficient and effective firefighting activities an understanding of the potential ignition risk level and the allocation of the means in a territory is needed. The IBIMET, Institute of the National Research Council and the DISTAF, Department of Environmental Science and Technology in Forestry of the University of Florence, has been charged by the Tuscany Region administration

Enrico Marchi; Enrico Tesi; Niccol Brachetti Montorselli; Claudio Conese; Laura Bonora; Maurizio Romani

278

A Screening-Level Assessment of the Health Risks of Chronic Smoke Exposure for Wildland Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide,

Thomas F. Booze; Timothy E. Reinhardt; Sharon J. Quiring; Roger D. Ottmar

2004-01-01

279

Human factors in firefighting: ergonomic, cardiopulmonary, and psychogenic stress-related issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many issues in firefighting that involve human factors and cardiopulmonary conditioning. Population-based mortality and disability surveillance studies suggest a relatively small but significant excess of disability but not mortality from nonmalignant cardiovascular disease for fire fighters. More targeted cohort and case-control studies do not support such an excess and instead suggest a strong healthy worker effect. Pulmonary function

Tee L. Guidotti

1992-01-01

280

Race "Outsider Within" the Firehouse: African American and White Women Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed and interviewed black and white women firefighters regarding subordination through imposed exclusion, tokenism, and omnirelevance of race/ethnicity in their perceptions of work experience. Both groups experienced insufficient instruction, hostility, silence, hypersupervision, insufficient support, stereotyping, and intertwining of race

Yoder, Janice D.; Berendsen, Lynne L.

2001-01-01

281

The support system of the firefighter's activity by detecting objects in smoke space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, crisis management's response to terrorist attacks and natural disasters, as well as accelerating rescue operations has become an important issue. We aim to make a support system for firefighters using the application of various engineering techniques such as information technology and radar technology. In rescue operations, one of the biggest problems is that the view of firefighters is obstructed by dense smoke. One of the current measures against this condition is the use of search sticks, like a blind man walking in town. The most important task for firefighters is to understand inside situation of a space with dense smoke. Therefore, our system supports firefighters' activity by visualizing the space with dense smoke. First, we scan target space with dense smoke by using millimeter-wave radar combined with a gyro sensor. Then multiple directional scan data can be obtained, and we construct a 3D map from high-reflection point dataset using 3D image processing technologies (3D grouping and labeling processing). In this paper, we introduce our system and report the results of the experiment in the real smoke space situation and practical achievements.

Sakai, Masaki; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Takagi, Mikio

2005-12-01

282

Task-Relevant Sound and User Experience in Computer-Mediated Firefighter Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently intense to make the training viable and effective.

Houtkamp, Joske M.; Toet, Alexander; Bos, Frank A.

2012-01-01

283

Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study  

E-print Network

2003 Kales et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL. Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45 % of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods: We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefighters examined in 1996/1997, whose vital status and continued professional activity were re-documented in 1998. Results: The circadian pattern of CHD deaths was associated with emergency response calls: 77% of CHD deaths and 61 % of emergency dispatches occurred between noon and midnight. Compared to non-emergency duties, fire suppression (OR = 64.1, 95 % CI 7.4556); training (OR = 7.6, 95 % CI 1.831.3) and alarm response (OR = 5.6, 95 % CI 1.128.8) carried significantly higher

Biomed Central; Stefanos N Kales; Elpidoforos S Soteriades; Stavros G Christoudias; David C Christiani; Stavros G Christoudias; David C Christiani

2003-01-01

284

Cancer Risk Among Firefighters: A Review and Meta-analysis of 32 Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to review 32 studies on firefighters and to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the cancer risk using a meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive search of computerized databases and bibliographies from identified articles was performed. Three criteria used to assess the probable, possible, or unlikely risk for 21 cancers included pattern of meta-relative risks, study type,

Grace K. LeMasters; Ash M. Genaidy; Paul Succop; James Deddens; Tarek Sobeih; Heriberto Barriera-Viruet; Kari Dunning; James Lockey

2006-01-01

285

Mediating Effects of Social Support on Firefighters' Sense of Community and Perceptions of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between psychological sense of community, social-support networks, and care-giver stress and satisfaction among firefighters. No significant gender differences were obtained, but zero-order correlates demonstrated significant relationships among all four variables. In examining the mediating effects of

Cowman, Shaun E.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Liao-Troth, Matthew

2004-01-01

286

Firefighting facilities at coal mines (Revision of BM-RI--5363)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication is a revision of Report of Investigations 5363, updated to reflect the improvement in fire protection at selected coal mines. It contains suggestions on what may be considered good fire protective equipment, suggested methods of organizing the attack on fires at various locations underground, and helpful hints on testing and evaluating fire-fighting facilities.

R. W. Stahl; R. T. Davis

1968-01-01

287

Firefighting and fire prevention: Facilities instructions, standards and techniques. Volume 5-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and maintenance personnel around a powerplant, pumping plant, or other Reclamation establishment are not presumed to be firefighters, but occasionally their duties may make it necessary for them to fight fires. The purpose of this volume is to supply them with fundamental facts which may prove valuable in such an emergency and acquaint them with the use, care,

1992-01-01

288

The Impact of Obesity on Back and Core Muscular Endurance in Firefighters  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between obesity and measures of back and core muscular endurance in firefighters. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in career firefighters without low back pain. Obesity measures included body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Muscular endurance was assessed with the Modified Biering Sorensen (back) and Plank (core) tests. Relationships were explored using t-tests and regression analyses. Results. Of the 83 participants enrolled, 24 (29%) were obese (BMI ? 30). Back and core muscular endurance was 27% lower for obese participants. Significant negative correlations were observed for BMI and body fat percentage with back and core endurance (r = ?0.42 to ?0.52). Stepwise regression models including one obesity measure (BMI, body fat percentage, and fat mass/fat-free mass), along with age and self-reported physical exercise, accounted for 1719% of the variance in back muscular endurance and 2937% of the variance in core muscular endurance. Conclusions. Obesity is associated with reduced back and core muscular endurance in firefighters, which may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Obesity should be considered along with back and core muscular endurance when designing exercise programs for back pain prevention in firefighters. PMID:23213491

Mayer, John M.; Nuzzo, James L.; Chen, Ren; Quillen, William S.; Verna, Joe L.; Miro, Rebecca; Dagenais, Simon

2012-01-01

289

Line-of-duty deaths among U.S. firefighters: an analysis of fatality investigations.  

PubMed

More than 100 firefighters die in the line-of-duty in the U.S. each year and over 80,000 are injured. This study examined all firefighter fatality investigations (N = 189) completed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for fatalities occurring between 2004 and 2009. These investigations produced a total of 1167 recommendations for corrective actions. Thirty-five high frequency recommendations were derived from the total set: six related to medical fatalities and 29 to injury-related fatalities. These high frequency recommendations were mapped onto the major operational components of firefighting using a fishbone or cause-effect diagram. Over 70% of the 30 non-external recommendations were categorized within the personnel and incident command components of the fishbone diagram. Root cause techniques suggested four higher order causes: under-resourcing, inadequate preparation for/anticipation of adverse events during operations, incomplete adoption of incident command procedures, and sub-optimal personnel readiness. These findings are discussed with respect to the core culture of firefighting. PMID:21376916

Kunadharaju, Kumar; Smith, Todd D; DeJoy, David M

2011-05-01

290

When pranks become harassment: The case of african American women firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys and interviews with 22 African American women firefighters suggest that a key to defining gender harassment rests in the organizational climate. Eight subtle as well as overt climatic indicators of gender harassment are identified. Initiation rites into a work group or pranks become harassing when they occur in a context of exclusion rather than ultimate inclusion. Although such harassment

Janice D. Yoder; Patricia Aniakudo

1996-01-01

291

The physical demands upon (Dutch) fire-fighters in relation to the maximum acceptable energetic workload.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the tasks and activities that make physical demands on Dutch fire-fighters and to compare them with a guideline related to the development of excessive fatigue. The occupational physical demands on Dutch fire-fighters were assessed by conducting a task analysis during 85 24-h shifts. While workplace observations on the duration and frequency of physical tasks and activities were recorded, the heart rate was measured. This was then used to calculate the heart rate reserve percentage (%HRR) for predefined working periods, tasks and activities during 24-h shifts. The findings indicate that actual fire-fighting during 24-h shifts is characterised by a low frequency of incidents, a short 'turn-out' time, short tasks, and activities with a moderate to occasionally high energetic workload. Two tasks which sometimes occur in actual fire-fighting exceeded the guideline on energetic workload. The conclusion was that, though the number of incidents and the occupational demands are low during 24-h shifts, the peak loads for these two tasks are energetically high and could lead to excessive fatigue. Consequently, attention may need to be paid to health surveillance for persons exposed to such energetic peak loads, the development of physical and medical selection procedures, training, and workplace adjustments. PMID:14681000

Bos, Jurriaan; Mol, Eric; Visser, Bart; Frings-Dresen, Monique

2004-03-15

292

O IAWF. Pnnted in U.S.A. Firefighter Safety Zones: A Theoretical Model Based on Radiative Heating  

E-print Network

Abstract. Quantitative information regarding safety zone size for wildland firefighters is limited. We present a 3-surface theoretical model that describes the net radiant energy transfer to a firefighter standing a specified distance from a fire of specified height. Model predictions compare favorably with qualitative data from entrapments on four wildfires and two previously published models. Calculations indicate that for most fires, safety zones must be greater than 20 m wide to ensure firefighter survival. A general rule-of-thumb derived from this work is that a safety zone radius must be equal to or greater than 4 times the maximum flame height.

Bret W. Butler; Jack D. Cohen

293

Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data.

Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

2011-01-01

294

When a hero becomes a patient: firefighter burn injuries in the National Burn Repository.  

PubMed

Firefighters receive significant training and are outfitted with state-of-the-art protective equipment. However, given the unpredictable nature of their work environment, injuries still occur. The National Burn Repository (NBR) was viewed as a resource for defining the epidemiology of these injuries on a national level and to identify predictive factors for outcomes in this population. The NBR was queried for the occupation of "firefighter" for the years 1990-2008. Records were screened for completeness, and 597 patients were identified for analysis. Data examined included demographics, %TBSA burn, length of stay (LOS), injury circumstance, and disposition. Multiple linear regression models were created to determine factors related to outcome measures. The majority of patients were white (84%) and male (96%). The mean age was 35 years. Most injuries were caused by fire/flame (73%). Only six deaths (1%) were reported. Most injuries were work-related (86%), and most patients were discharged home (92%). Inhalation injury was documented in 9% of patients. The mean LOS was 6.5 11.3 days (median 2 days), and few patients had critical care requirements. The average %TBSA was 6 11.7%. Patients with larger injuries had increased LOS. The presence of inhalation injury, elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels, and advancing age were significantly associated with larger burns. From the NBR data, most firefighter burn injuries were small, and few firefighter burn patients required critical care resources or had significant disability. Firefighters comprise a small number of burn center admissions each year, yet they are an important population to consider for burn prevention efforts. PMID:22138811

Matt, Sarah E; Shupp, Jeffery W; Carter, Elizabeth A; Flanagan, Katherine E; Jordan, Marion H

2012-01-01

295

Cardiorespiratory responses of firefighters to a computerized fire strategies and tactics drill during physical activity.  

PubMed

Firefighters are subjected to a combination of physical and mental challenges in the course of their occupational responsibilities. However, due to the ecological factors involved with firefighting, it makes it extremely difficult to examine physiological and psychological changes that occur as a result of these combined challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a computer-based Fire Strategies and Tactics Drill (FSTD) in eliciting psychological and physiological measures of stress in professional firefighters. In one session, participants exercised at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min (exercise alone condition, EAC), and in the other session the firefighter exercised for an equal amount of time and responded to the FSTD (dual challenge condition; DCC) while exercising. Cardiorespiratory (heart rate [HR], respiration rate [RR], minute ventilation [V(E)], oxygen consumption [VO(2)], ventilatory efficiency [V(E)/VO(2)], and respiratory exchange ratio [RER]) and psychometric measures (State Anxiety Inventory [SAI] and Ratings of Perceived Exertion [RPE]) were obtained throughout the experimental protocols. The NASA Task Load Index was used to assess perceived physical and mental load during each condition. The results demonstrated that the participants perceived overall workload to be higher in the DCC. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no differences between the EAC and DCC for VO(2) or RER, but the DCC did elicit significantly greater elevations in HR, RR, V(E), and V(E)/VO(2) compared to the EAC. These results suggest that the FSTD utilized in this study provides an effective method for examining the physiological and psychological responses of firefighters in a research laboratory environment. PMID:19793579

Webb, Heather E; McMinn, David R; Garten, Ryan S; Beckman, Jamie L; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

2010-05-01

296

Assessment of physical fitness aspects and their relationship to firefighters' job abilities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters and firefighting performance on an "Ability Test" (AT) that included a set of 6 simulated firefighting tasks. The relationships between each fitness parameter and each task of the AT were determined. Ninety firefighters participated in this study (age 33 7 years). The AT completion time was associated with abdominal strength (r = -0.53, p < 0.01), relative power (r = -0.44, p < 0.01), upper-body muscular endurance (push-ups, r = -0.27, p < 0.05) (sit-ups, r = -0.41, p < 0.01), and upper-body strength (1 repetition maximum bench press, r = -0.41, p < 0.01). In addition, poor performance on the AT was associated with high resting heart rate (r = 0.36, p < 0.01), high body mass index (r = 0.34, p < 0.01), high body fat (BF)% (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), increasing age (r = 0.42, p < 0.01), and large waist size (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Multiple regression analyses indicated that a significant (F[5, 53] = 14.02, p < 0.01) proportion (60%) of the variation observed in the AT was explained by the variation of the fitness parameters used in the model. This study demonstrated that fitness variables, such as abdominal strength, power (step test), push-ups, resting Hr, and BF%, contributed significantly to the predictive power of firefighters' AT performance. The findings of this study may be useful to fire department instructors and trainers in the design and implementation of training programs that are more specifically tailored to improving both individual firefighting skills and general fire suppression performance. PMID:20703167

Michaelides, Marcos A; Parpa, Koulla M; Henry, Leah J; Thompson, Gerald B; Brown, Barry S

2011-04-01

297

The Effects of Injury and Accidents on Self-rated Depression in Male Municipal Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between self-rated depression and experiences of injury and accidents in municipal firefighters. Methods A panel survey of 186 municipal firefighters measured with depressive symptoms according to the Beck's depression index (BDI) was conducted. The effects of job-related injuries and accidents were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires that were taken once in a 12-month period from 2005 to 2006. Firefighters were classified into the Depression Group or Control Group based on follow-up BDI results with a cutoff level that was set to having "over mild depression." Results The depression Group was comprised of 17 (9.1%) workers, including 9 firefighters who met had sufficient BDI scores twice in the 2-year test period and newly sufficient BDI scores in the follow-up test. A significantly higher number of subjects in the Depression Group experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period as compared to the Control Group (15.4% vs. 1.5%, p=0.04). Firefighters who experienced injuries and accidents in the 2-year test period had a 7.4 times higher risk of being in the Depression Group than those who had not. As compared to accidents, near-miss accidents revealed stronger risks related to being classified as in the Depression group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-18.18 vs. Adjusted OR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.08-16.58). Conclusion The above results suggest that we should establish an effective program to promote mental health for groups at high risk for self-rated depression, including persons who have experienced consecutive injuries and accidents as well as near-miss injuries. PMID:22953198

Chung, Yun Kyung

2011-01-01

298

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage...plan in accordance with NFPA 1405, Guide for Land-Based Firefighters Who Respond to Marine...

2014-07-01

299

Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including ...

D. Baclawski

2007-01-01

300

Physiological strains of wearing aluminized and non-aluminized firefighters' protective clothing during exercise in radiant heat.  

PubMed

This study examined the influences of aluminized (Type A) and non-aluminized firefighters' protective clothing (Type B, C, D and CON) on physiological and subjective responses in radiant heat. Total clothing weight was 6.24, 6.38, 6.06, 5.76 and 3.82 kg for Type A, B, C, D and CON, respectively. Eight firefighters performed exercise at an air temperature of 30C with 50%RH. Three bouts of 10 min-bicycle exercise in radiant heat (a globe temperature of 70C) was spaced by a 10 min rest with no radiant heat. Results showed that rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, and body weight loss were significantly greater in Type A than in other types (p<0.05). For Type A, thermal gradient of the body reached 0.0 0.7C, heart rate showed a maximum level of 183 11 bpm and 1.9% of body weight was lost due to sweat secretion. Firefighters felt the hottest and most discomfort in Type A. It appeared that firefighters' thermoregulatory mechanism was severely challenged by wearing aluminized protective clothing during exercise in strong radiant heat. Therefore, it is suggested that the safe upper limits while wearing aluminized firefighters' clothing should be distinguished from those for typical firefighters' protective clothing. PMID:21173532

Chou, Chinmei; Tochihara, Yutaka; Ismail, Mohamed Saat; Lee, Joo-Young

2011-01-01

301

Development of infrared scene projectors for testing fire-fighter cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed two types of infrared scene projectors for hardware-in-the-loop testing of thermal imaging cameras such as those used by fire-fighters. In one, direct projection, images are projected directly into the camera. In the other, indirect projection, images are projected onto a diffuse screen, which is then viewed by the camera. Both projectors use a digital micromirror array as

Jorge E. Neira; Joseph P. Rice; Francine K. Amon

2008-01-01

302

Development of Infrared Scene Projectors for Testing FireFighter Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed two types of infrared scene projectors for hardware-in-the-loop testing of thermal imaging cameras such as those used by fire-fighters. In one, direct projection, images are projected directly into the camera. In the other, indirect projection, images are projected onto a diffuse screen, which is then viewed by the camera. Both projectors use a digital micromirror array as

Jorge E. Neira; Joseph P. Rice; Francine K. Amon

303

Comparison of two cool vests on heat-strain reduction while wearing a firefighting ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a six-pack versus a four-pack cool vest in reducing heat strain in men dressed in firefighting ensemble, while resting and exercising in a warm\\/humid environment [34.4C (day bulb), 28.9C (wet bulb)]. Male volunteers (n = 12) were monitored for rectal temperature (T\\u000are), mean skin temperature (T\\u000ask), heart rate, and energy expenditure during

B. L. Bennett; R. D. Hagan; K. A. Huey; C. Minson; D. Cain

1995-01-01

304

Tympanic temperature and heart rate changes in firefighters during treadmill runs performed with different fireproof jackets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six well-trained firefighters performed six treadmill runs at 70% of the velocity at VO2max (Maximal aerobic velocity MAV = 13.260.3 km h). A recovery time of 1 week was allowed between trials. The first session was performed by subjects wearing only shorts (i.e. no fire jacket, J0). A similar protocol was applied subsequently to test the physiological eOEects associated with

Foued Ftaiti; Jean Claude Duflot; Caroline Nicol; Laurent Grlot

2001-01-01

305

UNDULATION TRAINING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HIERARCHICAL FITNESS AND IMPROVED FIREFIGHTER JOB PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peterson, MD, Dodd, DJ, Alvar, BA, Rhea, MR, and Favre, M. Undulation training for development of hierarchical fitness and improvedfirefighter job performance. J StrengthCond Res 22(5): 1683-1695, 2008Firefighters routinely encounter physical demands that contribute to countless musculoskeletal injuries. Seemingly, a progressive prescription for fitness would offer superior protection against intrinsic job risks. The purpose of this study was to investigate

MARK D. PETERSON; DANIEL J. DODD; BRENT A. ALVAR; MATTHEW R. RHEA; MIKE FAVRE

306

Expanded access to naloxone among firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical technicians in Massachusetts.  

PubMed

Naloxone is a medication that reverses respiratory depression from opioid overdose if given in time. Paramedics routinely administer naloxone to opioid overdose victims in the prehospital setting, and many states are moving to increase access to the medication. Several jurisdictions have expanded naloxone administration authority to nonparamedic first responders, and others are considering that step. We report here on policy change in Massachusetts, where several communities have equipped emergency medical technicians, law enforcement officers, and firefighters with naloxone. PMID:24922133

Davis, Corey S; Ruiz, Sarah; Glynn, Patrick; Picariello, Gerald; Walley, Alexander Y

2014-08-01

307

A Wireless Sensor Network and Incident Command Interface for Urban Firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fire Information and Rescue Equipment project at UC Berkeley has developed a prototype wireless sensor network (WSN) and Incident Command (IC) interface for urban and industrial firefighting and emergency response. A fixed WSN deployment in the building acts as a backbone for communication between mobile personnel and Incident Command. The Telos Sky mote 802.15.4 platform with the TinyOS operating

Joel Wilson; Vikas Bhargava; Andrew Redfern; Paul Wright

2007-01-01

308

Physiological Monitoring in Firefighter Ensembles: Wearable Plethysmographic Sensor Vest versus Standard Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the accuracy of a wearable sensor vest for real-time monitoring of physiological responses to treadmill exercise. Ten subjects in standard firefighter ensembles, treadmill exercising at 50% VO2 max, had heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperature (Tsk), oxygen saturation (SaO2), tidal volume (VT), and minute ventilation ([Vdot]E) recorded concurrently by a wearable plethysmographic sensor vest and standard

Aitor Coca; Raymond J. Roberge; W. Jon Williams; Douglas P. Landsittel; Jeffrey B. Powell; Andrew Palmiero

2009-01-01

309

Cancer incidence among firefighters in Seattle and Tacoma, Washington (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine if exposure to carcinogens in fire smoke increases the risk of cancer, we examined the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 2,447 male firefighters in Seattle and Tacoma, (Washington, USA). The study population was followed for 16 years (197489) and the incidence of cancer, ascertained using a population-based tumor registry, was compared with local rates

Paul A. Demers; Harvey Checkoway; Thomas L. Vaughan; Noel S. Weiss; Nicholas J. Heyer; Linda Rosenstock

1994-01-01

310

Comorbid Trends in World Trade Center Cough Syndrome and Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background: We describe the relationship between World Trade Center (WTC) cough syndrome symptoms, pulmonary function, and symptoms consistent with probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in WTC-exposed firefighters in the first year post-September 11, 2001 (baseline), and 3 to 4 years later (follow-up). Methods: Five thousand three hundred sixty-three firefighters completed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and questionnaires at both times. Relationships among WTC cough syndrome, probable PTSD, and PFTs were analyzed using simple and multivariable models. We also examined the effects of cofactors, including WTC exposure. Results: WTC cough syndrome was found in 1,561 firefighters (29.1%) at baseline and 1,186 (22.1%) at follow-up, including 559 with delayed onset (present only at follow-up). Probable PTSD was found in 458 firefighters (8.5%) at baseline and 548 (10.2%) at follow-up, including 343 with delayed onset. Baseline PTSD symptom counts and probable PTSD were associated with WTC cough syndrome at baseline, at follow-up, and in those with delayed-onset WTC cough syndrome. Similarly, WTC cough syndrome symptom counts and WTC cough syndrome at baseline were associated with probable PTSD at baseline, at follow-up, and in those with delayed-onset probable PTSD. WTC arrival time and work duration were cofactors of both outcomes. A small but consistent association existed between pulmonary function and WTC cough syndrome, but none with PTSD. Conclusions: The study showed a moderate association between WTC cough syndrome and probable PTSD. The presence of one contributed to the likelihood of the other, even after adjustment for shared cofactors such as WTC exposure. PMID:21546435

Niles, Justin K.; Gustave, Jackson; Cohen, Hillel W.; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Kelly, Kerry J.; Glass, Lara; Prezant, David J.

2011-01-01

311

Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight (-0.44.1, -1.13.6kg) and overestimated their height (2918, 1716mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p=0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p<0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p<0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than 2.2kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25mm. Practitioner Summary: This study along with literature revealed that the self-reported approach is not a sustainable option for anthropometric surveys, even for gathering data from physically active professional groups, such as firefighters, who presumably are knowledgeable of their body dimensions. Self-reported anthropometric information is undependable in important population subgroups. PMID:25198061

Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

2014-12-01

312

The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) Firefighter Study: Testing Mediating Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team intervention with their work shift or a control condition. Intervention sessions taught benefits of a healthy diet and regular exercise and sought to improve social norms and social support from coworkers for healthy behavior. At post-test team intervention participants had increased their fruit and vegetable consumption as compared to control participants. An increase in knowledge of fruit and vegetable benefits and improved dietary coworker norms partially mediated these effects. Exercise habits and VO2 max were related to targeted mediators but were not significantly changed by the team intervention. Partial support was found for both the action and conceptual theories underlying the intervention. Our findings illustrate how an effective programs process can be deconstructed to understand the underpinnings of behavior change and refine interventions. Further, fire stations may improve the health of firefighters by emphasizing the benefits of healthy diet and exercise behaviors while also encouraging behavior change by coworkers as a whole. PMID:21728433

Ranby, Krista W.; MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Elliot, Diane L.; Kuehl, Kerry S.; Goldberg, Linn

2012-01-01

313

Smokeless Tobacco and Dual Use among Firefighters in the Central United States  

PubMed Central

Little is known about smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in the fire service, whose personnel need to maintain high levels of health and fitness given the rigorous physical and mental job requirements. We examined the relationships among variables associated with SLT use and dual tobacco use (SLT and smoking) among 353 male career firefighters. Around 13% of male career firefighters reported being current exclusive SLT users, and 2.6% used both cigarettes and SLT. Age-adjusted models revealed that race, binge drinking, and dietary fat consumption were positively associated with exclusive SLT use when compared to nontobacco users. SLT users were much more likely to binge drink (OR = 3.98, P < .01) and consume high fat foods (OR = 1.94, P < .05). Only high dietary fat consumption was a strong correlate (OR = 8.41, P < .05) of dual use when compared to nontobacco users. SLT and dual tobacco use are associated with significant health risks. Detailed information on the predictors of SLT use among firefighters will aid in developing more effective tobacco prevention and cessation intervention in fire service. PMID:23533451

Jitnarin, Nattinee; Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara

2013-01-01

314

The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity in Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. CVD is the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, and the prevalence of obesity is a growing concern in the Fire Service. Methods. Traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures of cardiovascular health and a measurement of CVD were described and compared between nonobese and obese career firefighters who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Results. In the group of 116 men (mean age 43 8?yrs), the prevalence of obesity was 51.7%. There were no differences among traditional CVD risk factors or the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (criterion measure) between obese and nonobese men. However, significant differences in novel markers, including CRP, subendocardial viability ratio, and the ejection duration index, were detected. Conclusions. No differences in the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors between obese and nonobese men were found. Additionally, CAC was similar between groups. However, there were differences in several novel risk factors, which warrant further investigation. Improved CVD risk identification among firefighters has important implications for both individual health and public safety. PMID:22888409

Smith, Denise L.; Fehling, Patricia C.; Frisch, Adam; Haller, Jeannie M.; Winke, Molly; Dailey, Michael W.

2012-01-01

315

Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat.  

PubMed

This study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N=10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consisted of 2 bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise in the heat with two brief 15-min rest periods between each exercise phase. Exercise induced significant dehydration (>3%) and elevated rectal temperature (>38.9C), for all three conditions. Neither caffeine nor menthol reduced perceived exertion compared to placebo (p>0.05). Mood ratings (i.e., alertness, hedonic tone, tension) significantly deteriorated over time (p<0.05), but there was no difference among the three conditions. Simple reaction time, short-term memory, and retrieval memory did not alter with treatments or repeated evaluations. Reaction accuracy from a math test remained unchanged throughout the experimental period; reaction time from the math test was significantly faster after exposure to the heat (p<0.05). It is concluded that, exhaustive exercise in the heat severely impacted mood, but minimally impacted cognition. These treatments failed to show ergogenic benefits in a simulated firefighting paradigm in a hot environment. PMID:23891504

Zhang, Yang; Balilionis, Gytis; Casaru, Catalina; Geary, Colleen; Schumacker, Randall E; Neggers, Yasmin H; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D; Richardson, Mark T; Bishop, Phillip A; Green, James M

2014-05-01

316

Effect of strenuous live-fire drills on cardiovascular and psychological responses of recruit firefighters.  

PubMed

The study examined the effects of repeated strenuous live-fire drills on cardiovascular and psychological responses of male recruit firefighters (n = 7). Participants performed three trials of a standardized set of tasks while inside a training structure containing several live fires. Measurements of heart rate, aortic blood flow, perceived exertion, respiratory and thermal distress, reaction time, and error rate were obtained before testing, after each trial and during recovery. Heart rate increased significantly during each of the trials, reaching age-predicted maximal values. Stroke volume was significantly lower after trial 3 versus trial 1 and prevalues. Perceived exertion, respiratory distress, and thermal distress all increased, indicating greater stress following firefighting activities. Reaction time and error rate did not change significantly, but there was a tendency for more errors following trials 2 and 3 versus trial 1. The training drills resulted in considerable physiological and psychological strain, which has the potential to impair cognitive function. Firefighters are encouraged to take all possible steps to mitigate the extent of the cardiovascular strain. PMID:11219758

Smith, D L; Manning, T S; Petruzzello, S J

2001-02-20

317

Physical fitness profile of professional Italian firefighters: differences among age groups.  

PubMed

Firefighters perform many tasks which require ahigh level of fitness and their personal safety may be compromised by the physiological aging process. The aim of the study was to evaluate strength (bench-press), power (countermovement jump), sprint (20m) and endurance (with and without Self Contained Breathing Apparatus - S.C.B.A.) of 161 Italian firefighters recruits in relation to age groups (<25yr; 26-30yr; 31-35yr; 36-40yr; 41-42yr). Descriptive statistics and an ANOVA were calculated to provide the physical fitness profile for each parameter and to assess differences (p<0.05) among age groups. Anthropometric values showed an age-effect for height and BMI, while performances values showed statistical differences for strength, power, sprint tests and endurance test with S.C.B.A. Wearing the S.C.B.A., 14% of all recruits failed to complete the endurance test. We propose that the firefighters should participate in an assessment of work capacity and specific fitness programs aimed to maintain an optimal fitness level for all ages. PMID:23849328

Perroni, Fabrizio; Cignitti, Lamberto; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura

2014-05-01

318

Long term health complaints following the Amsterdam Air Disaster in police officers and fire-fighters  

PubMed Central

Background On 4 October 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Fire?fighters and police officers assisted with the rescue work. Objectives To examine the long term health complaints in rescue workers exposed to a disaster. Methods A historical cohort study was performed among police officers (n?=?834) and fire?fighters (n?=?334) who performed at least one disaster related task and reference groups of their non?exposed colleagues (n?=?634 and n?=?194, respectively). The main outcome measures included digestive, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous system, airway, skin, post?traumatic stress, fatigue, and general mental health complaints; haematological and biochemical laboratory values; and urinalysis outcomes. Results Police officers and fire?fighters who were professionally exposed to a disaster reported more physical and mental health complaints, compared to the reference groups. No clinically relevant statistically significant differences in laboratory outcomes were found. Conclusions This study is the first to examine long term health complaints in a large sample of rescue workers exposed to a disaster in comparison to reference groups of non?exposed colleagues. Findings show that even in the long term, and in the absence of laboratory abnormalities, rescue workers report more health complaints. PMID:16644894

Huizink, A C; Slottje, P; Witteveen, A B; Bijlsma, J A; Twisk, J W R; Smidt, N; Bramsen, I; van Mechelen, W; van der Ploeg, H M; Bouter, L M; Smid, T

2006-01-01

319

Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters. PMID:23395527

Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2013-06-01

320

Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO2Theta) above which lactate accumulates was 23 (8) ml/kg/min. The chronotropic index, a measure of cardiovascular strain during XT was 35 (8) /L compared with reference values for men of 40 /L. Total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were 202 (34),126 (29), and 55 (15) mg/dl, respectively. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors, 2 subjects had resting hypertension (BP.140/90), and 23 had pre-hypertension (.120/80 but <140/90). Seven had exaggerated exercise induced hypertension but only one had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data. CONCLUSIONS A-ECG screening correctly identified the individual with CAD although there was no trend for A-ECG parameters to distinguish those with elevated BP or multiple risk factors but normal XT ECG. We have demonstrated that a new technology, advanced-ECG, can be introduced for remote firefighter risk assessment. This simple, time and cost-effective approach to risk identification that can be acquired remotely and transmitted securely can detect individuals potentially at risk for line-of-duty death. Additional research is needed to further document its value.

Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

2011-01-01

321

Establishment of performance standards and a cut-score for the Canadian Forces Firefighter Physical Fitness Maintenance Evaluation (FF PFME).  

PubMed

The Bookmark method for setting cut-scores was used to re-set the cut-score for the Canadian Forces Firefighter Physical Fitness Maintenance Evaluation (FF PFME). The time required to complete 10 tasks that together simulate a first-response firefighting emergency was accepted as a measure of work capacity. A panel of 25 Canadian Forces firefighter supervisors set cut-scores in three rounds. Each round involved independent evaluation of nine video work samples, where the times systematically increased from 400seconds to 560seconds. Results for Round 1 were discussed before moving to Round 2 and results for Round 2 were discussed before moving to Round 3. Accounting for the variability among panel members at the end of Round 3, a cut-score of 481seconds (mean Round 3 plus 2 SEM) was recommended. Firefighters who complete the FF PFME in 481seconds or less have the physical capacity to complete first-response firefighting work. PMID:25102916

Todd Rogers, W; Docherty, David; Petersen, Stewart

2014-11-01

322

Assessment of Health Effects in New York City Firefighters after Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs): The Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the

Kerry J. Kelly; Edmond Connelly; Gustave A. Reinhold; Mike Byrne; David J. Prezant

2002-01-01

323

Development of a speech amplifier system for use with the Navy A4 oxygen breathing apparatus and a proposed firefighting instructor's breathing device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Navy damage control personnel (especially firefighters) are often required to work in areas of possible or actual oxygen deficiency and areas where the concentration of smoke or other toxic gases is high. In these situations, the investigator or firefighter normally wears an Oxygen Breathing Apparatus (OBA) for respiratory protection. Presently, the Naval Ship Engineering Center is considering the use of

T. A. Giordano

1976-01-01

324

Application of End-Exhaled Breath Monitoring to Assess Carbon Monoxide Exposures of Wildland Firefighters at Prescribed Burns.  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to the range of combustion products from wildland fires has been demonstrated to cause respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) has been previously shown to be highly correlated with the range of contaminants found in wildland fires. In this article, we assess the feasibility of using a simple, noninvasive biological test to assess exposure to CO for a group of wildland firefighters. Measurements of CO exposure were collected using personal monitors as well as in exhaled breath for wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in FebruaryMarch 2004. Overall, the CO concentrations measured in this study group were low with a shift mean of 1.87 ppm. Correspondingly, the cross-shift difference in carboxyhemoglobin as estimated from exhaled breath CO levels was also low (median increase =+0.2% carboxyhemoglobin). The use of exhaled breath measurements for CO has limitations in characterizing exposures within this worker population.

Dunn, K.H.; Devaux, I; Stock, A.; Naeher, L.P.

2009-04-01

325

Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

2006-03-09

326

Effects of shift schedules on fatigue and physiological functions among firefighters during night duty.  

PubMed

To examine the effects of shift schedules on fatigue and physiological functions among firefighters a 17-day field study at a fire station was carried out. Eleven firefighters, who were engaged in firefighting emergency services, participated in this study. At the fire station, night duty (22:00-07:00) was divided into 5 periods (P1: 22:00-00:00; P2: 23:45-01:45; P3: 01:30-03:30; P4: 03:15-05:15; P5: 05:00-07:00). The participants were assigned to one of these 5 periods and awakened to answer calls from the city's central information centre. They took naps in individual rooms during night duty, except when on night shift or when called out on an emergency. Subjective complaints of fatigue, critical flicker fusion frequencies, 3-choice reaction times, and oral temperature were measured before and after work and following breaks during their 24 working hours. Heart rate variability was also recorded to evaluate autonomic nerve activity. The results show that during P3 and P4, participants who had to wake up at midnight took shorter naps. The rates of subjective complaints regarding P3 and P4 tended to be higher than those for P1, P2, and P5. The ratios of the low frequency component of heart rate variability to the high frequency component during P4 were significantly lower than those during P5. It is assumed that such an irregular sleeping pattern causes many complaints of subjective fatigue, and adversely affects physiological functions. A night-duty shift schedule ensuring undisturbed naps should be considered. PMID:15764302

Takeyama, H; Itani, T; Tachi, N; Sakamura, O; Murata, K; Inoue, T; Takanishi, T; Suzumura, H; Niwa, S

2005-01-01

327

Trends in Respiratory Symptoms of Firefighters Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster: 2001-2005  

PubMed Central

Background Respiratory symptoms, either newly reported after the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on 11 September 2001 (9/11) or increased in severity, have been well documented in WTC-exposed workers and New York City residents. However, considerable uncertainty exists over the persistence of symptoms. Objectives In this study, our goals were to describe trends in post-9/11 respiratory and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in WTC-exposed firefighters and to examine symptom progression in the cohort that completed both year 1 and year 4 questionnaires. Methods We analyzed questionnaire responses from 10,378 firefighters in yearly intervals, from 2 October 2001 to 11 September 2005, defining exposure based on arrival time at the WTC site. For the cohort of 3,722 firefighters who completed the two questionnaires, we also calculated exposure duration summing months of work at the site. Results In cross-sectional analyses, the prevalence of dyspnea, wheeze, rhinosinusitis, and GERD remained relatively stable, whereas cough and sore throat declined, especially between 1 and 2 years post-9/11. We found a doseresponse relationship between arrival time and symptoms in all years (p < 0.01). Logistic models of symptoms at year 4 in the cohort demonstrated independent effects of earlier arrival and longer work duration: each additional month of work increased the odds of symptoms 811%. Conclusions Protracted work exposures increased the odds of respiratory and GERD symptoms 4 years later. In most large disasters, exposures may be unavoidable during the rescue phase, but our data strongly suggest the need to minimize additional exposures during recovery and cleanup phases. PMID:19590693

Webber, Mayris P.; Gustave, Jackson; Lee, Roy; Niles, Justin K.; Kelly, Kerry; Cohen, Hillel W.; Prezant, David J.

2009-01-01

328

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF FIREFIGHTING STUDENTS DURING SIMULATED SMOKE-DIVING IN THE HEAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

While wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and fire-protective clothing, 35 healthy firefighting students aged 1927 years performed smoke-diving (entry into a smoke-filled room) during a simulated shipboard fire. The mean (SD) ambient temperature inside the simulator was 11912C, and the task lasted 174?min. All subjects were fit according to their maximal oxygen consumption, which was 52.45.2?mL\\/min\\/kg (4.080.45?l\\/min). During the smoke-diving

Sirpa Lusa; Veikko Louhevaara; Juhani Smolander; Mika Kivimki; Olli Korhonen

1993-01-01

329

Acute Toxicity of Firefighting Chemical Formulations to Four Life Stages of Fathead Minnow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry

Mark P. Gaikowski; Steven J. Hamilton; Kevin J. Buhl; Susan F. McDonald; Cliff H. Summers

1996-01-01

330

Exposures and cross-shift lung function declines in wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland fire fighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency Hotshot Crew with environmental sampling and pulmonary function testing during a large wildfire. We characterized particles by examining size distribution and mass concentration, and conducting elemental and morphological analyses. We examined associations between cross-shift lung function change and various analytes, including levoglucosan, an indicator of wood smoke from burning biomass. The levoglucosan component of the wildfire aerosol showed a predominantly bimodal size distribution: a coarse particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter about 12?m and a fine particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 0.5?m. Levoglucosan was found mainly in the respirable fraction and its concentration was higher for fire line construction operations than for mop-up operations. Larger cross-shift declines in forced expiratory volume in one second were associated with exposure to higher concentrations of respirable levoglucosan (p < 0.05). Paired analyses of real-time personal air sampling measurements indicated that higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with higher particulate concentrations when examined by mean values, but not by individual data points. However, low CO concentrations did not provide reliable assurance of concomitantly low particulate concentrations. We conclude that inhalation of fine smoke particles is associated with acute lung function decline in some wildland firefighters. Based on short-term findings, it appears important to address possible long-term respiratory health issues for wildland firefighters. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: a file containing additional information on historical studies of wildland fire exposures, a file containing the daily-exposure-severity questionnaire completed by wildland firefighter participants at the end of each day, and a file containing additional details of the investigation of correlations between carbon monoxide concentrations and other measured exposure factors in the current study.]. PMID:24568319

Gaughan, Denise M; Piacitelli, Chris A; Chen, Bean T; Law, Brandon F; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Enright, Paul L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Leonard, Stephen S; Wagner, Gregory R; Kobzik, Lester; Kales, Stefanos N; Hughes, Michael D; Christiani, David C; Siegel, Paul D; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Hoover, Mark D

2014-01-01

331

The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand\\/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between\\u000a two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed\\u000a two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5kmh, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each\\u000a bout was separated by a 15-min recovery

David Barr; Thomas Reilly; Warren Gregson

2011-01-01

332

A fractionation of the physiological burden of the personal protective equipment worn by firefighters.  

PubMed

Load carriage increases physiological strain, reduces work capacity and elevates the risk of work-related injury. In this project, the separate and combined physiological consequences of wearing the personal protective equipment used by firefighters were evaluated. The overall impact upon performance was first measured in 20 subjects during a maximal, job-related obstacle course trial and an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion (with and without protective equipment). The fractional contributions of the thermal protective clothing, helmet, breathing apparatus and boots were then separately determined during steady-state walking (4.8kmh(-1), 0% gradient) and bench stepping (20cm at 40stepsmin(-1)). The protective equipment reduced exercise tolerance by 56% on a treadmill, with the ambulatory oxygen consumption reserve (peak minus steady-state walking) being 31% lower. For the obstacle course, performance declined by 27%. Under steady-state conditions, the footwear exerted the greatest relative metabolic impact during walking and bench stepping, being 8.7 and 6.4 times greater per unit mass than the breathing apparatus. Indeed, the relative influence of the clothing on oxygen cost was at least three times that of the breathing apparatus. Therefore, the most efficient way to reduce the physiological burden of firefighters' protective equipment, and thereby increase safety, would be to reduce the mass of the boots and thermal protective clothing. PMID:22143844

Taylor, Nigel A S; Lewis, Michael C; Notley, Sean R; Peoples, Gregory E

2012-08-01

333

When the smoke disappears: dealing with extinguishing chemicals in firefighting wastewater.  

PubMed

Water is not enough. Nowadays, numerous chemicals are used for fire extinction. After use, however, these may unintentionally enter sewerage systems. In order to safely treat firefighting wastewater (FFWW), knowledge of the potential effects of these chemicals on biological treatment processes is essential. This study characterized and mimicked the composition of FFWW containing two powders, three foams and one foam degrader. Nitrogen (162-370 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1)) and phosphorus (173-320 mg PO4(3-)-P L(-1)) concentrations exceeded discharge limits, whereas chemical and biological oxygen demand, suspended solids and detergent concentrations remained sufficiently low. Adequate nutrient removal could be obtained through FeCl3 addition and nitrification/denitrification with acetate as substrate. In batch tests, residual nitrifying activities of 84, 81, 89, 95 and 93% were observed in the presence of powders, foams, foam degrader, synthetic and real FFWW, respectively. All categories showed higher denitrification rates than the control. Although the powders at first seemed to inhibit anammox activity at 82%, after pH correction anammox was fully feasible, allowing nitrogen removal through oxygen-limited nitrification/denitrification (OLAND). Detailed cost calculations indicated that OLAND could save 11% of capital and 68% of operational costs compared to nitrification/denitrification, identifying OLAND as the most recommendable process for nitrogen removal from firefighting wastewaters. PMID:24759534

Courtens, E N P; Meerburg, F; Mausen, V; Vlaeminck, S E

2014-01-01

334

Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Fabrics Suitable for Skin Layer of Firefighters Protective Clothing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensorial comfort, usually described as fabric hand or feel, is the sensation of how the fabric feels when it is worn next to the skin. This feeling deals with properties of the fabric such as prickling, itching, stiffness or smoothness. It can also be related to its attributes related to physiological comfort, as for instance when a fabric is wet its sensorial properties change and fabric may cling to the skin. Wet feeling and wet clinging can be a major source of sensorial discomfort in situations of profuse sweating like in firefighters working environment. For the objective evaluation of this aspect of comfort Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was used for the present study. Seven commercially available knitted fabrics of different fibre blends in different knitted structures suitable for skin layer of firefighters protective clothing were evaluated in virgin (original non-treated) state and then in wet state. The influence of fabric physical parameters, fibre content, fabric construction and moisture content on fabric surface properties were determined. For statistical evaluation of results student's-test was carried out to predict the level of significance on coefficient of friction (MIU) and geometrical surface roughness (SMD) due to presence of moisture. Pearson correlation coefficients were also calculated between MIU and SMD in virgin state and in wet state.

Nawaz, Nazia; Troynikov, Olga; Watson, Chris

335

Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.  

PubMed

Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

2002-01-01

336

High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator  

PubMed Central

Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O.; Berbarie, Rafic F.

2014-01-01

337

High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.  

PubMed

Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

Adams, Jenny; DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O; Berbarie, Rafic F

2014-07-01

338

What Does It Cost to Prevent On-Duty Firefighter Cardiac Events? A Content Valid Method for Calculating Costs  

PubMed Central

Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the International Association of Fire Chiefs. We used the Content Validity Index (CVI) to identify the content valid components of the draft cost model. This was accomplished by having fire chiefs rate the relevancy of cost components using a 4-point Likert scale (highly relevant to not relevant). We received complete survey data from 65 fire chiefs (65% response rate). We retained 5 components and 21 subcomponents based on CVI scores ?0.70. The five main components include, (1) investment costs, (2) orientation and training costs, (3) medical and pharmaceutical costs, (4) education and continuing education costs, and (5) maintenance costs. Data from a diverse sample of fire chiefs has produced a content valid method for calculating the cost of a prevention program among firefighters. PMID:24455288

Patterson, P. Daniel; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E.; Weaver, Matthew D.; Hostler, David

2013-01-01

339

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

340

Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of

Denise Baclawski

2010-01-01

341

Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire

Mogen, David S.

342

Firefighters. Grade Two. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the occupational cluster of public service, this unit entitled "Firefighters" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC) element (life-role

Fox, Joan; And Others

343

Mindfulness Is Associated With Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience resources including mindfulness, optimism, personal mastery, and social support. The Mindful Awareness and Attention Scale (MAAS; Brown &

Bruce W. Smith; J. Alexis Ortiz; Laurie E. Steffen; Erin M. Tooley; Kathryn T. Wiggins; Elizabeth A. Yeater; John D. Montoya; Michael L. Bernard

2011-01-01

344

A Low-Glycemic Nutritional Fitness Program to Reverse Metabolic Syndrome in Professional Firefighters: Results of a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background The risk for cardiovascular events is higher for those with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it is known that firefighters have a fourfold risk for cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to quantify MetS prevalence and evaluate the effect of a low glycemic nutritional fitness program on the reduction of MetS risk factors among firefighters. Methods Professional firefighters were screened for MetS then enrolled in a low glycemic nutritional fitness program for a 12-week period. Anthropometric and physiologic measurements were obtained at the start and end of the program. Subjects with ?3 of the following were positive for MetS: waist ?40 (men) or ?35 inches (women), BP?135 (systole) or ?85 (diastole) mmHg, fasting blood sugar ?100mg/dl, triglycerides ?150mg/dl, and high-density lipoproteins <40 (men) or <50 mg/dl (women). Weekly training was provided with low glycemic nutrition and regular fitness and evaluation of individual progress. Results Seventy-five firefighters (age 42+8yrs, mostly Caucasian men) had a total MetS prevalence of 46.7% (p<0.05 vs normal population). One platoon (10 men, age 485yrs) was enrolled in the 12-week program. Most (7/10) had MetS at the baseline, but this prevalence decreased significantly after 12 weeks to 3 subjects (p=0.02). On average, subjects had 3.21.6 vs 1.91.7 MetS risk factors (p<0.01) at baseline and 12 week interval, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS and MetS risk factors are higher among professional firefighters compared to general population. A short-duration low glycemic fitness program can successfully improve anthropometric and physiologic measures and reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:21263343

Carey, Mary G.; Al-Zaiti, Salah S.; Liao, Limei; Martin, Heather N.; Butler, Rachael A.

2011-01-01

345

Physiological effects of boot weight and design on men and women firefighters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two leather (L1, L2) and two rubber (R1, R2) boots on firefighters' metabolic and respiratory variables during simulated firefighting tasks. Twenty-five men and 25 women, while wearing full turnout clothing, a 10.5-kg backpack, gloves, helmet, and one of four randomly assigned pairs of firefighter boots, walked for 6 min at 3 mph (4.8 km/hr) on a level treadmill while carrying a 9.5-kg hose and climbed a stair ergometer for 6 min at 45 steps per min without the hose. Minute ventilation (VE), absolute and relative oxygen consumption (VO2 and VO2 ml kg min(-1), respectively), CO(2) production (VCO2), heart rate (HR), and peak inspiratory (PIF) and expiratory (PEF) flow rates were measured, and an average of the breath-by-breath data from minute 6 was used for analysis. During treadmill exercise, a 1-kg increase in boot weight caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in VE (9%), VO2 (5 - 6%), VCO2 (8%), and HR (6%) for men, whereas a 1-kg increase caused significant increases in VO2 (3 - 4.5%) and VCO2 (4%) for women. During stair ergometry, a 1-kg increase in boot weight caused significant increases in VE(approximately 3%), relative VO2 (approximately 2%), VCO2 (3%), and PIF (approximately 4%) in men and women (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in absolute VO2 (approximately 3.5%) in men only. Mean increases in metabolic and respiratory variables per 1-kg increase in boot weight were in the 5 to 12% range observed previously for men during treadmill walking but were considerably smaller for women. Mean increases in oxygen consumption during stair ergometry were statistically significant but were smaller in the current study than previously observed and may not be practically significant. There was no significant effect of boot design in addition to boot weight for either mode of exercise. PMID:20521197

Turner, Nina L; Chiou, Sharon; Zwiener, Joyce; Weaver, Darlene; Spahr, James

2010-08-01

346

Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

Sullivan, J. L.

1975-01-01

347

Analysis of steam formation and migration in firefighters' protective clothing using X-ray radiography.  

PubMed

X-ray radiography was used to quantify evaporation and moisture transfer in a multilayer firefighter protective clothing system with defined wetted layers exposed to low thermal radiation. Evaporation was faster and took place at higher temperatures if the moisture was located in the outer layers of the clothing system. Moisture that evaporated in the outer layers of the clothing system was found to move inwards and condense in the inner layers and on the cap of the measurement cell. Results found in this study correlated well with the findings of our former study based on simple temperature distribution measurements to determine moisture transfer in protective clothing layers at low level thermal radiation. PMID:20540841

Keiser, Corinne; Wyss, Peter; Rossi, Ren M

2010-01-01

348

Technology transfer from space to earth - The NASA Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Responding to the recent demand of fire services for a better equipment, NASA has prepared two improved versions of Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) by taking advantage of the spacesuit design. In the new FBS, the conventional oxygen tube is replaced by a 40% lighter air tube with twice as much pressure. The load is attached to a wide waist belt and distributed on the hips instead of the shoulder, thus making it easier to carry. The two versions of the FBS are essentially the same, the only difference being the capacities of the air tubes. Also the face mask used is smaller, lighter and provides better vision and mobility. The FBS had a notable impact, with the fire departments reporting improved efficiency. Unlike other technology transfer cases, the FBS concept is commercially successful in finding diverse fields of application.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Anuskiewicz, T.; Keune, F. A.

1976-01-01

349

A comparison of cooling techniques in firefighters after a live burn evolution  

PubMed Central

Objective We compared two active cooling devices to passive cooling in a moderate (?22C) temperature environment on heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tc) recovery when applied to firefighters following 20 min. of fire suppression. Methods Firefighters (23 male, 2 female) performed 20 minutes of fire suppression at a live fire evolution. Immediately following the evolution, the subjects removed their thermal protective clothing and were randomized to receive forearm immersion (FI), ice water perfused cooling vest (CV) or passive (P) cooling in an air-conditioned medical trailer for 30 minutes. Heart rate and deep gastric temperature were monitored every five minutes during recovery. Results A single 20-minute bout of fire suppression resulted in near maximal HR (17513 - P, 17220 - FI, 17712 beatsmin?1 - CV) when compared to baseline (p < 0.001), a rapid and substantial rise in Tc (38.20.7 - P, 38.30.4 - FI, 38.30.3 - CV) compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and mass lost from sweating of nearly one kilogram. Cooling rates (C/min) differed (p = 0.036) by device with FI (0.050.04) providing higher rates than P (0.030.02) or CV (0.030.04) although differences over 30 minutes were small and recovery of body temperature was incomplete in all groups. Conclusions During 30 min. of recovery following a 20-minute bout of fire suppression in a training academy setting, there is a slightly higher cooling rate for FI and no apparent benefit to CV when compared to P cooling in a moderate temperature environment. PMID:21294631

Colburn, Deanna; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Morley, Julia L; Goss, Fredric L; Chen, Yi-Fan; Moore, Charity G; Hostler, David

2010-01-01

350

Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

Abeles, F. J.

1980-01-01

351

Effect of fatigue and hypohydration on gait characteristics during treadmill exercise in the heat while wearing firefighter thermal protective clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the gait characteristics of individuals walking in heat while wearing firefighting equipment in fatigued and non-fatigued states. Nineteen subjects performed a 50-min treadmill protocol in a heated room while gait patterns were recorded using a digital video camcorder. Forty gait cycles were analyzed near the beginning (9min) and at the end (3949min) of exercise. Spatio-temporal gait variables

Pui W. Kong; Gillian Beauchamp; Joe Suyama; David Hostler

2010-01-01

352

Evidence of remediation-induced alteration of subsurface poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance distribution at a former firefighter training area.  

PubMed

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of fluorinated chemicals that are utilized in firefighting and have been reported in groundwater and soil at several firefighter training areas. In this study, soil and groundwater samples were collected from across a former firefighter training area to examine the extent to which remedial activities have altered the composition and spatial distribution of PFASs in the subsurface. Log Koc values for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), estimated from analysis of paired samples of groundwater and aquifer solids, indicated that solid/water partitioning was not entirely consistent with predictions based on laboratory studies. Differential PFAA transport was not strongly evident in the subsurface, likely due to remediation-induced conditions. When compared to the surface soil spatial distributions, the relative concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFAA precursors in groundwater strongly suggest that remedial activities altered the subsurface PFAS distribution, presumably through significant pumping of groundwater and transformation of precursors to PFAAs. Additional evidence for transformation of PFAA precursors during remediation included elevated ratios of perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) to PFOS in groundwater near oxygen sparging wells. PMID:24866261

McGuire, Meghan E; Schaefer, Charles; Richards, Trenton; Backe, Will J; Field, Jennifer A; Houtz, Erika; Sedlak, David L; Guelfo, Jennifer L; Wunsch, Assaf; Higgins, Christopher P

2014-06-17

353

Health responses of New York City firefighter spouses and their families post-September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.  

PubMed

Much attention has been focused on New York City firefighters and their responses to the traumatic events of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, given their extensive involvement in rescue efforts, and the overwhelming loss of life among the fire department employees. It quickly became evident that the impact of this horrendous event had resonated deeply not only on the families and children of the firefighters who gave their lives, but also on those who had survived. The goal of this study was to conduct semi-structured focus groups of women whose firefighter husbands were directly involved in rescue efforts at Ground Zero. We hoped to identify patterns in survivors' responses to the events as well as any coping mechanisms that the participants used to manage their exposure to the tragedy. An analysis of transcripts from interviews reveals the nature and extent of the impact of the trauma on these women, their husbands, and their children. There were two recurring themes that were apparent from the interview data. Women used patterns of connectedness to other spouses to cope with the emotional impact of the event. In addition, participants reported a constant need to be vigilant in helping their families cope. Issues related to the family's physical, mental, and spiritual health in the context of nursing practice are discussed. PMID:16938791

Menendez, Anne Marie; Molloy, Janice; Magaldi, Maryann Corrigan

2006-10-01

354

Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

1996-01-01

355

Chiropractic management of a 47-year-old firefighter with lumbar disk extrusion  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This case report describes the effect of exercise-based chiropractic treatment on chronic and intractable low back pain complicated by lumbar disk extrusion. Clinical Features A 47-yearold male firefighter experienced chronic, unresponsive low back pain. Pre- and posttreatment outcome analysis was performed on numeric (0-10) pain scale, functional rating index, and the low back pain Oswestry data. Secondary outcome assessments included a 1-rep maximum leg press, balancing times, push-ups and sit-ups the patient performed in 60 seconds, and radiographic analysis. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated with Pettibon manipulative and rehabilitative techniques. At 4 weeks, spinal decompression therapy was incorporated. After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient's self-reported numeric pain scale had reduced from 6 to 1. There was also overall improvement in muscular strength, balance times, self-rated functional status, low back Oswestry scores, and lumbar lordosis using pre- and posttreatment radiographic information. Conclusion Comprehensive, exercise-based chiropractic management may contribute to an improvement of physical fitness and to restoration of function, and may be a protective factor for low back injury. This case suggests promising interventions with otherwise intractable low back pain using a multimodal chiropractic approach that includes isometric strengthening, neuromuscular reeducation, and lumbar spinal decompression therapy. PMID:19646377

Schwab, Matthew J.

2008-01-01

356

Health surveillance for rural volunteer firefighters and emergency medical services personnel.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of coronary heart disease risk screening as a primary prevention tool. Screening included a lipid screening and American College of Cardiology Framingham cardiac risk profile for volunteers 45 years and older desiring A (interior) or B (exterior) classifications. Health surveillance records from 1998 to 2003 were reviewed for all firefighters and emergency medical services personnel in a rural New York county. Of the 1,458 volunteers evaluated, 1,166 were men and 292 were women. Three hundred fifteen individuals were screened for coronary heart disease risk; 52 had scores indicative of substantially increased risk. Subsequently, a health care provider or cardiologist saw 39 of these individuals, 26 (67%) of whom received pharmacologic, surgical, or other health care intervention. Coronary heart disease risk screening is an effective intervention in this population, and provides volunteers and their primary care providers with added motivation to actively reduce the risk of coronary heart disease via early intervention. PMID:17323871

Gaetano, Diana E; Ackerman, Susan; Clark, Arleen; Hodge, Bernadette; Hohensee, Thomas; May, John; Whiteman, Wendy

2007-02-01

357

Passive acoustic monitoring of human physiology during activity indicates health and performance of soldiers and firefighters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Army Research Laboratory has developed a unique gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor that has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin. This facilitates the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repels ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. The sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth produce excellent signatures for detection and spectral analysis of diverse physiological events. Acoustic signal processing detects heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. Comfortable acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Noise-canceling sensor arrays help remove out-of-phase motion noise and enhance covariant physiology by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and two additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist acoustic sensors will indicate systolic blood pressure. Larger torso-sized arrays can be used to acoustically inspect the lungs and heart, or built into beds for sleep monitoring. Acoustics is an excellent input for sensor fusion.

Scanlon, Michael V.

2003-04-01

358

Fire-fighting resources and fire preparedness for underground coal mines. Information circular/1994  

SciTech Connect

This U.S. Bureau of Mines report describes various fire fighting resources available to the mining industry and examines the fire preparedness of four western coal mines. The fire fighting resources covered include fire extinguishers, water hoses and nozzles, and fire fighting foam. Information regarding fire fighting equipment indicates that an inadequate maintenance program may cause component failure of fire extinguishers; damage to water hoses is usually a result of improper care; and foam may be a convenient means of conveying water to the fire. One area of particular interest was fire hose water nozzles. Several brands of fire hose nozzles randomly selected, both expensive and inexpensive, were tested at various water pressures. Little difference was found in the maximum throw distance in the fog stream mode. However, dramatic differences were seen among these nozzles when tested for throw distance in the straight stream mode. Performance data relative to water nozzles and specific practices to improve the state of preparedness in many of these areas are discussed. An examination of the mine emergency preparedness of four western coal mines showed state-of-the-art monitoring systems were common at the mine sites. All four mines used carbon monoxide (CO) sensors, and one mine incorporated smoke sensors. Fire safety at all the mine sites was stressed, including early detection and rapid response of the miners to evacuate the mine. However, the mines placed little emphasis on performance of water nozzles, or personal protective clothing for the underground firefighters.

Conti, R.S.

1994-01-01

359

Ergonomic risks on the operational activities of firefighters from Rio de Janeiro.  

PubMed

The Fire Brigade of the State of Rio de Janeiro (CBMERJ) is Brazil's most ancient and is one of the military forces of the state. It has the primary function of activities related to civil defense of the state. This study aims to contribute to the improvement of the current situation by proposing a solution of eliminating totally or at least mitigating risks of ergonomic injury, since all operating activities are based on the performance of man, applying techniques and equipment with intensive use of hands, teamwork, extended shifts and living with stressful situations, which enhance the occurrence of awkward postures among other ergonomic risk factors. This is a quantitative study. The fields of study were five operational units with the highest statistical service of the Corporation. The following items were analyzed: profile of the firemen, work environment, activity performed, adequacy of training received and epidemiological assessment of pain. In total, 208 questionnaires were answered. Data analysis was performed by frequency and presented in tables, charts and graphs. It is important to implement procedures aimed at occupational health and safety of firefighters in the light of ergonomic concepts, so that crews activities are carried out with increased safety and quality. PMID:22317695

Vitari, Flvia Curi; Francisco, Hilmar Soares; Mello, Mrcia Gomide da Silva

2012-01-01

360

The European, Japanese and US protective helmet, gloves and boots for firefighters: thermoregulatory and psychological evaluations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and subjective responses of the European, Japanese (JPN) and US firefighters' helmet, gloves and boots for international standardisation. Three experimental conditions were evaluated (clothing mass: 9.4, 8.2 and 10.1kg for the three conditions, respectively) at the air temperature of 32C and 60% relative humidity. The results showed that there was no significant difference among the three conditions in oxygen consumption, heart rate, total sweat rate, rectal temperature and mean skin temperature, whereas peripheral temperatures and subjective perceptions were lower in the JPN condition than in the other conditions (P<0.05). These results indicate that a 0.5-kg reduction in helmet mass and a 1.1-kg reduction in boot mass during exercise resulted in a significant decrease in head and leg temperatures and subjective perceptions, while a 1.9-kg reduction in total clothing mass had insignificant influences on the metabolic burden and overall body temperature. PMID:24798188

Lee, Joo-Young; Yamamoto, Yota; Oe, Riichi; Son, Su-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

2014-08-01

361

A screening-level assessment of the health risks of chronic smoke exposure for wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, benzene, and respirable particulate matter. Data defining daily exposures to smoke at prescribed burns and wildfires, potential days of exposure in a year, and career lengths were used to estimate average and reasonable maximum career inhalation exposures to these substances. Of the 15 substances in smoke that were evaluated, only benzene and formaldehyde posed a cancer risk greater than 1 per million, while only acrolein and respirable particulate matter exposures resulted in hazard indices greater than 1.0. The estimated upper-bound cancer risks ranged from 1.4 to 220 excess cancers per million, and noncancer hazard indices ranged from 9 to 360, depending on the exposure group. These values only indicate the likelihood of adverse health effects, not whether they will or will not occur. The risk assessment process narrows the field of substances that deserve further assessment, and the hazards identified by risk assessment generally agree with those identified as a concern in occupational exposure assessments. PMID:15238338

Booze, Thomas F; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Quiring, Sharon J; Ottmar, Roger D

2004-05-01

362

Physical demands of firefighter search and rescue in ambient environmental conditions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the physiological responses and limitations to a simulated search and rescue scenario in a high-rise building under ambient conditions. Sixteen firefighters performed the scenario under four conditions: standard duration breathing apparatus (SDBA) and 45 mm hose; extended duration breathing apparatus (EDBA) and 45 mm hose; SDBA and 70 mm hose; EDBA and 70 mm hose. Core temperature, skin temperature and heart rate were monitored. In four of 32 trials the casualty was rescued; the remainder of the trials were terminated for safety, high core temperature or shortage of air. Final core temperature and heart rate were higher in the EDBA (39.1 degrees C; 72% heart rate reserve (HRR)) than SDBA conditions (38.6 degrees C; 67%HRR). No differences were observed between hose sizes. The scenario proved too onerous to complete successfully in the majority of cases. Replacing SDBA with EDBA eliminates air supply as a limiting factor, but brings with it challenges of managing thermal strain. PMID:18568961

Richmond, V L; Rayson, M P; Wilkinson, D M; Carter, J M; Blacker, S D

2008-07-01

363

HKR CONNECTIONS C H O O L O F H U M A N K I N E T I C S A N D R E C R E A T I O N N E W S L E T T E RFA L L I S S U E 2 0 1 2 To qualify as a firefighter,  

E-print Network

RFA L L I S S U E 2 0 1 2 To qualify as a firefighter, potential candidates have to pass a grueling firefighters but the rest of the tests were new for them. AHS co-ordinator Liam Kelly said there was a lot requirements of firefighting, find a facility that would work, we had to get the equipment built, buy

Oyet, Alwell

364

Quality of life in relation to upper and lower respiratory conditions among retired 9\\/11-exposed firefighters with pulmonary disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and World Trade Center (WTC) cough syndrome conditions in male firefighters\\u000a who retired due to a 9\\/11-related pulmonary disability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsFrom 3\\/1\\/2008 to 1\\/31\\/2009, we contacted 275 disability-retired firefighters and compared their HRQoL and current aerodigestive\\u000a conditions to those from WTC-exposed non-disabled retired and active firefighters. Relationships between HRQoL and explanatory\\u000a variable(s) were examined

Amy Berninger; Mayris P. Webber; Jessica Weakley; Jackson Gustave; Rachel Zeig-Owens; Roy Lee; Fairouz Al-Othman; Hillel W. Cohen; Kerry Kelly; David J. Prezant

2010-01-01

365

Effect of fatigue and hypohydration on gait characteristics during treadmill exercise in the heat while wearing firefighter thermal protective clothing.  

PubMed

This study compared the gait characteristics of individuals walking in heat while wearing firefighting equipment in fatigued and non-fatigued states. Nineteen subjects performed a 50-min treadmill protocol in a heated room while gait patterns were recorded using a digital video camcorder. Forty gait cycles were analyzed near the beginning (9 min) and at the end (39-49 min) of exercise. Spatio-temporal gait variables including step frequency, step length, swing time, stance time, cycle time and double-support time were determined. Gait variability was quantified by the standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) of each variable. Left-right symmetry was calculated using the symmetry index (SI) and symmetry angle (SA). Paired t-tests (alpha = 0.05) were performed to identify difference between the beginning and the end of the protocol for each measured variable. Spatio-temporal gait characteristics did not differ between the beginning and the end of exercise. Gait variability of the double-support time increased at the end as measured by both SD (P = 0.037) and CV (P = 0.030) but no change was observed for other variables. Left-right symmetry measured using either SI or SA did not differ between sessions. In summary, spatio-temporal gait characteristics and symmetry while wearing firefighting equipment are insensitive to physiological fatigue. Prolonged walking in heat while wearing firefighting equipment may increase gait variability and therefore the likelihood of a fall. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential relationship between fatigue and gait variability and to investigate the possible influence of individual variation. PMID:19962897

Kong, Pui W; Beauchamp, Gillian; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, David

2010-02-01

366

Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters  

SciTech Connect

The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

Denise Baclawski

2010-03-08

367

The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each bout was separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which one of four conditions were administered: ice vest (VEST), hand/forearm immersion (W), ice vest combined with hand/forearm immersion (VEST + W) and control (CON). Core temperature was significantly lower at the end of the recovery period in the VEST + W (37.97 0.23C) and W (37.96 0.19C) compared with the VEST (38.21 0.12C) and CON (38.29 0.25C) conditions and remained consistently lower throughout the second bout of exercise. Heart rate responses during the recovery period and bout 2 were similar between the VEST + W and W conditions which were significantly lower compared with the VEST and CON which did not differ from each other. Mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the start of bout 2 in the cooling conditions compared with CON; these differences reduced as exercise progressed. These findings demonstrate that hand/forearm immersion (~19C) is more effective than ice vests in reducing the physiological strain when firefighters re-enter structural fires after short rest periods. Combining ice vests with hand/forearm immersion provides no additional benefit. PMID:21079990

Barr, David; Reilly, Thomas; Gregson, Warren

2011-06-01

368

Effects of liquid cooling garments on recovery and performance time in individuals performing strenuous work wearing a firefighter ensemble.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages of 15 min exercise at 75% VO2max, and 10 min rest following each exercise stage. During each session, one of the following six conditions was administered in a randomized order: control (no cooling, CON); air ventilation of exhaust SCBA gases rerouted into the PFE (AV); top cooling garment (TCG); TCG combined with AV (TCG+AV); a shortened whole body cooling garment (SCG), and SCG combined with AV (SCG+AV). Results showed that total PT completed was longer under SCG and SCG+AV compared with CON, AV, TCG, and TCG+AV (p<0.01). Magnitude of core temperature (Tc) elevation was significantly decreased when SCG was utilized (p<0.01), and heart rate recovery rate (10 min) was enhanced under SCG, SCG+AV, TCG, and TCG+AV compared with CON (p<0.05). Estimated Esw rate (kgh(-1)) was the greatest in CON, 1.62 (0.37), and the least in SCG+AV 0.98 (0.44): (descending order: CON>AV>TCG=TCG+AV>SCG>SCG+AV) without a statistical difference between the conditions (p<0.05). Results of the present study suggest that the application of LCG underneath the PFE significantly improves the recovery during a short period of rest and prolongs performance time in subsequent bouts of exercise. LCG also appears to be an effective method for body cooling that promotes heat dissipation during uncompensable heat stress. PMID:21660834

Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

2011-07-01

369

Cardiovascular biomarkers predict susceptibility to lung injury in World Trade Center dust-exposed firefighters.  

PubMed

Pulmonary vascular loss is an early feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biomarkers of inflammation and of metabolic syndrome predict loss of lung function in World Trade Center (WTC) lung injury (LI). We investigated if other cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers also predicted WTC-LI. This nested case-cohort study used 801 never-smoker, WTC-exposed firefighters with normal pre-9/11 lung function presenting for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) before March 2008. A representative subcohort of 124 out of 801 subjects with serum drawn within 6 months of 9/11 defined CVD biomarker distribution. Post-9/11 forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at defined cases were as follows: susceptible WTC-LI cases with FEV1 ?77% predicted (66 out of 801) and resistant WTC-LI cases with FEV1 ?107% predicted (68 out of 801). All models were adjusted for WTC exposure intensity, body mass index at SPE, age on 9/11 and pre-9/11 FEV1. Susceptible WTC-LI cases had higher levels of apolipoprotein-AII, C-reactive protein and macrophage inflammatory protein-4 with significant relative risks (RRs) of 3.85, 3.93 and 0.26, respectively, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.858. Resistant WTC-LI cases had significantly higher soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule and lower myeloperoxidase, with RRs of 2.24 and 2.89, respectively (AUC 0.830). Biomarkers of CVD in serum 6 months post-9/11 predicted either susceptibility or resistance to WTC-LI. These biomarkers may define pathways either producing or protecting subjects from pulmonary vascular disease and associated loss of lung function after an irritant exposure. PMID:22903969

Weiden, Michael D; Naveed, Bushra; Kwon, Sophia; Cho, Soo Jung; Comfort, Ashley L; Prezant, David J; Rom, William N; Nolan, Anna

2013-05-01

370

Can firefighter instructors perform a simulated rescue after a live fire training exercise?  

PubMed

Two studies were undertaken to determine whether firefighter instructors are capable of performing a simulated rescue task after undertaking a live fire training exercise (LFTE) lasting approximately 40 min. In the first study, ten instructors performed two simulated rescue tasks in air at 19 degrees C, involving dragging an 81-kg dummy for 15 m along a corridor and down two flights of stairs. The first rescue acted as a control (Rcontrol) and was conducted when they were euhydrated and normothermic. The second task was undertaken 10.4 (3.3) min [mean (SD)] after a LFTE resulting in an average rectal temperature of 38.1 (0.4) degrees C (Rhot). All instructors were able to successfully complete Rcontrol and Rhot in 90.1 (28.6) s and 78.7 (15.6) s respectively. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were higher after the LFTE [162 (16) beats min(-1) versus 180 (15) beats min(-1); and 13.3 (2.4) versus 15.7 (2.1), respectively, P<0.001]. In the second study, six instructors (one instructor participated twice giving seven trials) undertook a simulated rescue task in 16 degrees C involving dragging an 85-kg dummy along a flat surface 79 (65) s after a LFTE that increased rectal temperature to 38.3 (0.7) degrees C. On six occasions the instructor was able to successfully complete the full 30-m drag in 41.7 (6.9) s and one instructor dragged the dummy for 20 m before stopping through exhaustion. HR during the rescue task reached 173 (19) beats min(-1) and RPE was 16.3 (2.4). In conclusion, most of the instructors were able to perform a rescue task after the LFTE, however they were close to their physical limit. PMID:16096842

Eglin, Clare M; Tipton, Michael J

2005-10-01

371

Personal PM(2.5) exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in Southeastern United States.  

PubMed

This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM(2.5) and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM(2.5) samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters' qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: "none" or "very little," "low," "moderate," "high," and "very high." An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM(2.5) ranged from 5.9-2673 ?g/m(3) on burn days. Geometric mean PM(2.5) exposure was 280 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 140, 557 ?g/m(3), n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 10, 26 ?g/m(3), n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM(2.5) differed across levels of the firefighters' categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 71, 203 ?g/m(3)) and high to very high = 664 ?g/m(3) (95% CL = 373, 1185 ?g/m(3)); p < 0.0001 on burn days). Time-weighted average PM(2.5) and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM(2.5) pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m(3) for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM(2.5). Correlation analysis shows that either PM(2.5) or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns. PMID:21762011

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel B; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke P

2011-08-01

372

Effects of fire fighting uniform (modern, modified modern, and traditional) design changes on exercise duration in New York City Firefighters.  

PubMed

Fire departments have replaced traditional uniforms with modern, more thermal protective gear. Although the new uniforms afford superior burn protection, they may reduce work time. Our purpose was to determine if exercise time was (1) reduced by wearing the modern versus traditional uniform, and (2) increased by a design change to a modified modern uniform (T-shirt and short pants rather than a shirt and long pants under the outer uniform). Male firefighters (n = 23; age 27 to 59) performed a maximum exercise test in gym clothes (maximal oxygen consumption = 46 +/- 9 ml/kg/min) and then returned on separate days to exercise using a moderately high intensity, constant work rate treadmill protocol while wearing fire fighting breathing apparatus and each of three uniforms. Firefighters exceeded anaerobic threshold by 1 minute and eventually reached or exceeded maximum heart rate and maximal oxygen consumption. Exercise time in modern (15 +/- 3 min) was significantly less than in traditional (18 +/- 5 min) uniform. Exercise time in modified modern (17 +/- 5 min) was significantly greater than in modern and not significantly different than in traditional uniforms. The rate of change in oxygen consumption and water loss were significantly affected by uniform type, with faster rates in modern compared with modified modern or traditional uniforms. These findings show the impact that design changes have on energy demands and exercise duration. PMID:10609231

Malley, K S; Goldstein, A M; Aldrich, T K; Kelly, K J; Weiden, M; Coplan, N; Karwa, M L; Prezant, D J

1999-12-01

373

A Computerized, Self-Administered Questionnaire to Evaluate Posttraumatic Stress Among Firefighters After the World Trade Center Collapse  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine the frequency of psychological symptoms and elevated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk among New York City firefighters after the World Trade Center (WTC) attack and whether these measures were associated with Counseling Services Unit (CSU) use or mental healthrelated medical leave over the first 2.5 years after the attack. Methods. Shortly after the WTC attack, a computerized, binary-response screening questionnaire was administered. Exposure assessment included WTC arrival time and loss of a co-worker while working at the collapse. We determined elevated PTSD risk using thresholds derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and a sensitivity-specificity analysis. Results. Of 8487 participants, 76% reported at least 1 symptom, 1016 (12%) met criteria for elevated PTSD risk, and 2389 (28%) self-referred to the CSU, a 5-fold increase from before the attack. Higher scores were associated with CSU use, functional job impairment, and mental healthrelated medical leave. Exposureresponse gradients were significant for all outcomes. Conclusions. This screening tool effectively identified elevated PTSD risk, higher CSU use, and functional impairment among firefighters and therefore may be useful in allocating scarce postdisaster mental health resources. PMID:19890176

Corrigan, Malachy; McWilliams, Rita; Kelly, Kerry J.; Niles, Justin; Cammarata, Claire; Jones, Kristina; Wartenberg, Daniel; Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Glass, Lara; Schorr, John K.; Feirstein, Ira

2009-01-01

374

Physiological responses to wearing a prototype firefighter ensemble compared with a standard ensemble.  

PubMed

This study investigated the physiological responses to wearing a standard firefighter ensemble (SE) and a prototype ensemble (PE) modified from the SE that contained additional features, such as magnetic ring enclosures at the glove-sleeve interface, integrated boot-pant interface, integrated hood-SCBA facepiece interface, and a novel hose arrangement that rerouted self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) exhaust gases back into the upper portion of the jacket. Although the features of the PE increased the level of encapsulation of the wearer that could lead to increased physiological stress compared with the SE, it was hypothesized that the rerouted exhaust gases provided by the PE hose assembly would (1) provide convective cooling to the upper torso, (2) reduce the thermal stress experienced by the wearer, and (3) reduce the overall physiological stress imposed by the PE such that it would be either less or not significantly different from the SE. Ten subjects (seven male, three female) performed treadmill exercise in an environmental chamber (22C, 50% RH) at 50% [image omitted]O(2max) while wearing either the SE with an SCBA or the PE with an SCBA either with or without the hose attached (designated PEWH and PENH, respectively). Heart rate (HR), rectal and intestinal temperatures (T(re), T(in)), sweat loss, and endurance time were measured. All subjects completed at least 20 min of treadmill exercise during the testing. At the end of exercise, there was no difference in T(re) (p = 0.45) or T(in) (p = 0.42), HR, or total sweat loss between the SE and either PEWH or PENH (p = 0.59). However, T(sk) was greater in PEWH and PENH compared with SE (p < 0.05). Total endurance time in SE was greater than in either PEWH or PENH (p < 0.05). Thus, it was concluded that the rerouting of exhaust gases to the jacket did not provide significant convective cooling or reduce thermal stress compared with the SE under the mild conditions selected, and the data did not support the hypotheses of the present study. PMID:21154108

Williams, W Jon; Coca, Aitor; Roberge, Raymond; Shepherd, Angie; Powell, Jeffrey; Shaffer, Ronald E

2011-01-01

375

An Educational Intervention for Police and Firefighters for Elders at Risk: Limits of Education Alone as a Strategy for Behavior Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a research project aimed at the health care needs of the vulnerable communitydwelling elderly, an educational intervention was delivered to police and firefighters in worksite settings. A single educational intervention proved insufficient to produce lasting attitudinal and behavioral change as measured by follow-up surveys 3 and 6 months after the educational intervention. The data highlight the difficulty

N. J. Nusbaum; M. Mistretta; J. Wegner

2007-01-01

376

Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire GTR-NRS-P-84 WILDLAND FIREFIGHTERS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT  

E-print Network

WILDLAND FIREFIGHTERS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) Charles G. Palmer, Ed.D. Phyllis of Montana Alysha Spear University of Montana Abstract.--Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects between 3 and 7 percent of the American child

377

CHAPTER 2NOAA Operations, Research, & Facilities By Line Office Incident Meteorologist Joel Curtis (second from left) monitors a forest fire with local firefighters in Derby, Montana  

E-print Network

(second from left) monitors a forest fire with local firefighters in Derby, Montana #12;#12;2-31 CHAPTER 2 importance to the nation's economy and further emphasizing the need for access to data and sound science Lakes ecosystems. This research provides the strong science foundation required to effectively man- age

378

Short-term test-retest reliability of the Job Content Questionnaire and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire items and scales among professional firefighters.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about the short-term test-retest reliability of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERIQ). Seventeen JCQ and six ERIQ items were qualitatively reviewed by 19 firefighters in focus groups. The items were then administered twice to 81 firefighters with a time interval of 1-8 weeks. The short-term reliability of the JCQ and ERIQ items and scales with the four-point Likert item responses was at least fair or moderate with several complementary statistical methods. It improved substantially when the four-point responses were simplified into the two ('agree' or 'disagree') responses. The JCQ psychological demands and the ERIQ effort scales were among the least reliable scales and their items were most frequently indicated by the firefighters to be clarified. The responses of professional firefighters to the JCQ and ERIQ items and scales were stable during an 8-week period, particularly when dichotomous item responses were used. PMID:24712524

Choi, BongKyoo; Ko, Sangbaek; Dobson, Marnie; Schnall, Peter L; Garcia-Rivas, Javier; Israel, Leslie; Baker, Dean

2014-06-01

379

Cold-water immersion and iced-slush ingestion are effective at cooling firefighters following a simulated search and rescue task in a hot environment.  

PubMed

Firefighters are exposed to hot environments, which results in elevated core temperatures. Rapidly reducing core temperatures will likely increase safety as firefighters are redeployed to subsequent operational tasks. This study investigated the effectiveness of cold-water immersion (CWI) and iced-slush ingestion (SLUSH) to cool firefighters post-incident. Seventy-four Australian firefighters (mean SD age: 38.9 9.0 years) undertook a simulated search and rescue task in a heat chamber (105 5 C). Testing involved two 20-min work cycles separated by a 10-min rest period. Ambient temperature during recovery periods was 19.3 2.7 C. Participants were randomly assigned one of three 15-min cooling protocols: (i) CWI, 15 C to umbilicus; (ii) SLUSH, 7 gkg(-1) body weight; or (iii) seated rest (CONT). Core temperature and strength were measured pre- and postsimulation and directly after cooling. Mean temperatures for all groups reached 38.9 0.9 C at the conclusion of the second work task. Both CWI and SLUSH delivered cooling rates in excess of CONT (0.093 and 0.092 compared with 0.058 Cmin(-1)) and reduced temperatures to baseline measurements within the 15-min cooling period. Grip strength was not negatively impacted by either SLUSH or CONT. CWI and SLUSH provide evidence-based alternatives to passive recovery and forearm immersion protocols currently adopted by many fire services. To maximise the likelihood of adoption, we recommend SLUSH ingestion as a practical and effective cooling strategy for post-incident cooling of firefighters in temperate regions. PMID:25017114

Walker, Anthony; Driller, Matthew; Brearley, Matt; Argus, Christos; Rattray, Ben

2014-10-01

380

Usefulness of coronary and carotid imaging rather than traditional atherosclerotic risk factors to identify firefighters at increased risk for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 45% of deaths in on-duty firefighters, in contrast to 15% of all deaths occurring on conventional jobs. Therefore, with the goal of developing a tailored prevention program, we assessed CVD risk in a cohort of 50 firefighters using imaging and traditional risk factors. Participants were aged ?40 years without a history of CVD or diabetes. CVD risk was assessed by way of history, physical examination, blood tests, risk scores, coronary artery calcium (CAC), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Median age was 46years; 90% of subjects were men, 92% were white, and 30% were former smokers. Only 4% of subjects were hypertensive but 48% were prehypertensive. Only 14% of subjects had a normal body mass index; 38% were overweight, 48% were obese, and 46% had a high waist circumference. Based on fasting glucose ?100mg/dl or hemoglobin A1c ?5.6%, 50% of subjects had prediabetes and 2% had diabetes. Median total cholesterol was 196mg/dl; median high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was 1.0mg/L. CAC was detected in 22% of subjects and carotid plaque was detected in 36%. Using standard reference databases, 54% of subjects had cIMT greater than the seventy-fifth percentile; 66% had carotid plaque and/or cIMT greater than the seventy-fifth percentile. Atherogenic lipoprotein markers and risk scores did not differ between firefighters who had subclinical atherosclerosis and those who did not. Traditional CVD risk assessment does not adequately identify at-risk firefighters. In contrast, CAC and cIMT were useful for identifying increased risk and implementing primary prevention. In conclusion, early detection and integration of imaging with traditional risk assessment will be important in preventing premature death and disability among firefighters. PMID:24630792

Ratchford, Elizabeth V; Carson, Kathryn A; Jones, Steven R; Ashen, M Dominique

2014-05-01

381

The management of heat stress for the firefighter: a review of work conducted on behalf of the Toronto Fire Service.  

PubMed

This report provides a summary of research conducted through a grant provided by the Workplace Safety Insurance Board of Ontario. The research was divided into two phases; first, to define safe work limits for firefighters wearing their protective clothing and working in warm environments; and, the second, to examine strategies to reduce the thermal burden and extend the operational effectiveness of the firefighter. For the first phase, subjects wore their protective ensemble and carried their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and performed very light, light, moderate or heavy work at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C. Thermal and evaporative resistance coefficients were obtained from thermal manikin testing that allowed the human physiological responses to be compared with modeled data. Predicted continuous work times were then generated using a heat strain model that established limits for increases in body temperature to 38.0 degrees C, 38.5 degrees C and 39.0 degrees C. Three experiments were conducted for the second phase of the project. The first study revealed that replacing the duty uniform pants that are worn under the bunker pants with shorts reduced the thermal strain for activities that lasted longer than 60 min. The second study examined the importance of fluid replacement. The data revealed that fluid replacement equivalent to at least 65% of the sweat lost increased exposure time by 15% compared with no fluid replacement. The last experiment compared active and passive cooling. Both the use of a mister or forearm and hand submersion in cool water significantly increased exposure time compared with passive cooling that involved only removing most of the protective clothing. Forearm and hand submersion proved to be most effective and produced dramatic increases in exposure time that approximated 65% compared with the passive cooling procedure. When the condition of no fluid replacement and passive cooling was compared with fluid replacement and forearm and hand submersion, exposure times were effectively doubled with the latter condition. The heat stress wheel that was generated can be used by Commanders to determine safe work limits for their firefighters during activities that involve wearing their protective clothing and carrying their SCBA. PMID:16922185

McLellan, Tom M; Selkirk, Glen A

2006-07-01

382

Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States.  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM{sub 2.5} and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: 'none' or 'very little,' 'low,' 'moderate,' 'high,' and 'very high.' An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM{sub 2.5} ranged from 5.9-2673 {mu}g/m{sup 3} on burn days. Geometric mean PM{sub 2.5} exposure was 280 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 140, 557 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 10, 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM{sub 2.5} differed across levels of the firefighters categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 71, 203 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and high to very high = 664 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 373, 1185 {mu}g/m{sup 3}); p < 0.0001 on burn days. Time-weighted average PM{sub 2.5} and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM{sub 2.5} pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH{reg_sign}-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m{sup 3} for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}. Correlation analysis shows that either PM{sub 2.5} or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns.

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel, B.; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke, P.

2011-07-15

383

High work output combined with high ambient temperatures caused heat exhaustion in a wildland firefighter despite high fluid intake.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case study is to examine the physiological/behavioral factors leading up to heat exhaustion in a male wildland firefighter during wildland fire suppression. The participant (24 years old, 173 cm, 70 kg, and 3 years firefighting experience) experienced heat exhaustion following 7 hours of high ambient temperatures and arduous work on the fire line during the month of August. At the time of the heat-related incident (HRI), core temperature was 40.1 C (104.2 F) and skin temperature was 34.4 C (93.9 F). His work output averaged 1067 countsmin(-1) (arbitrary units for measuring activity) for the 7 hours prior to the HRI, a very high rate of work over an extended time period during wildfire suppression. In the 2.5 hours leading up to the heat incident, he was exposed to a mean ambient temperature of 44.6 C (112.3 F), with a maximum temperature of 59.7 C (139.5 F). He consumed an average of 840 mLh(-1) in the 7 hours leading up to the incident and took an average of 24 11 drinksh(-1) (total of 170 drinks). The combined effects of a high work rate and high ambient temperatures resulted in an elevated core temperature and a higher volume and frequency of drinking than typically seen in this population, ultimately ending in heat exhaustion and removal from the fire line. The data demonstrate that heat-related incidents can occur even with aggressive fluid intake during wildland fire suppression. PMID:21664560

Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

2011-06-01

384

Pulmonary Function Predicting Confirmed Recovery From Lower-Respiratory Symptoms in World Trade Center-Exposed Firefighters, 2001 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: We examined the relationship between pulmonary function (FEV1) and confirmed recovery from three lower-respiratory symptoms (LRSs) (cough, dyspnea, and wheeze) up to 9 years after symptom onset. Methods: The study included white and black male World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters who reported at least one LRS on a medical monitoring examination during the first year after September 11, 2001. Confirmed recovery was defined as reporting no LRSs on two consecutive and all subsequent examinations. FEV1 was assessed at the first post-September 11, 2001, examination and at each examination where symptom information was ascertained. We used stratified Cox regression models to analyze FEV1, WTC exposure, and other variables in relation to confirmed symptom recovery. Results: A total of 4,368 firefighters met inclusion criteria and were symptomatic at year 1, of whom 1,592 (36.4%) experienced confirmed recovery. In univariable models, first post-September 11, 2001, concurrent, and difference between first post-September 11, 2001, and concurrent FEV1 values were all significantly associated with confirmed recovery. In adjusted analyses, both first post-September 11, 2001, FEV1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07 per 355-mL difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10) and FEV1 % predicted (HR, 1.08 per 10% predicted difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) predicted confirmed recovery. WTC exposure had an inverse association with confirmed recovery in the model with FEV1, with the earliest arrival group less likely to recover than the latest arrival group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.92). Conclusions: Higher FEV1 and improvement in FEV1 after September 11, 2001, predicted confirmed LRS recovery, supporting a physiologic basis for recovery and highlighting consideration of spirometry as part of any postexposure respiratory health assessment. PMID:22576633

Soo, Jackie; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

2012-01-01

385

Firefighters, Critical Incidents, and Drinking to Cope: The Adequacy of Unit-Level Performance Resources as a Source of Vulnerability and Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the moderating role of unit-level performance resources on the distress-mediated relationship between the intensity of involvement in workplace critical incidents and problematic drinking behavior (i.e., drinking to cope). Building on recent developments in hierarchical linear modeling, the authors tested a cross-level, moderated-mediation model using data from 1,481 firefighters in 144 companies. The findings indicate that (a) there

Samuel B. Bacharach; Peter A. Bamberger; Etti Doveh

2008-01-01

386

Use of participant focus groups to identify barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence in randomized controlled trials involving firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background Firefighters are at increased risk for back injuries, which may be mitigated through exercise therapy to increase trunk muscle endurance. However, long-term adherence to exercise therapy is generally poor, limiting its potential benefits. Focus groups can be used to identify key barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence among study participants. Objective To explore barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods Participants enrolled in a previous RCT requiring twice-weekly worksite exercise therapy for 24 weeks were asked to take part in moderated focus group discussions centered on eight open-ended questions related to exercise adherence. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using a social ecological framework to identify key intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional barriers and potential facilitators to exercise adherence. Results A total of 27 participants were included in the four focus group discussions, representing 50% of those assigned to a worksite exercise therapy group in the previous RCT, in which only 67% of scheduled exercise therapy sessions were completed. Lack of self-motivation was cited as the key intrapersonal barrier to adherence, while lack of peer support was the key interpersonal barrier reported, and lack of time to exercise during work shifts was the key institutional barrier identified. Conclusion Focus group discussions identified both key barriers and potential facilitators to increase worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters. Future studies should consider educating and reminding participants about the benefits of exercise, providing individual and group incentives based on exercise adherence and performance, providing outside monitoring of exercise adherence, varying the exercise routine, encouraging group exercise and competition, and scheduling exercise during each work shift. PMID:23515182

Mayer, John M; Nuzzo, James L; Dagenais, Simon

2013-01-01

387

Body regional influences of L-menthol application on the alleviation of heat strain while wearing firefighter's protective clothing.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of menthol application according to the amount of surface area on physiological and psychological heat strains, along with body regional influences. Male students underwent two stages of experiments: [Experiment 1] Cutaneous thermal threshold test at rest on eight body regions with/without a 0.8% menthol application at T (a) 28C and 50% RH; [Experiment 2] Six exercise tests with/without a 0.8% menthol spray at T (a) 28C and 40% RH, while wearing firefighter's protective clothing (No menthol, PC(NO); Face and neck menthol, PC(FN); Upper body menthol, PC(UP); Whole body menthol application, PC(WB)) or wearing normal clothing (No menthol, NC(NO); Upper body menthol, NC(UP)). Experiment 1 showed that menthol caused no significant influence on cutaneous warm thresholds, while menthol applications evoked earlier detection of cool sensations, especially on the chest (P = 0.043). Experiment 2 revealed that NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) caused lower mean skin temperature, especially with higher peripheral vasoconstrictions on the extremities at rest. During exercise, NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) induced greater and earlier increases in rectal temperatures (T (re)) and a delayed sweat response, but lessened psychological burdens (P < 0.05). Both physiological and psychological effects of PC(FN) were insignificant. For a composite analysis, individual Menthol Sensitivity Index at cooling in Experiment 1 had significant relationships with the threshold for T (re) increase and changes in heart rate in NC(UP) of Experiment 2 (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that menthol's topical influence is body region-dependent, as well as depending on the exposed body surface area. PMID:21964942

Lee, Joo-Young; Nakao, Kouhei; Bakri, Ilham; Tochihara, Yutaka

2012-06-01

388

AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF COMBINATORICS Volume 43 (2009), Pages 5777 The Firefighter Problem: A survey of results, directions and questions  

E-print Network

Imagine that a fire breaks out at one or more vertices of a graph, and at each time interval spreads to all neighbouring vertices that have not been protected earlier on. This is the general setup for The Firefighter Problem, which has attracted considerable attention since being introduced in 1995. We survey the directions and results that have been pursued, including algorithms and complexity, bounds, and containing the fire on infinite grids. The paper concludes with a collection of 26 open problems and possible research projects.

Stephen Finbow; Gary Macgillivray

389

Evaluating the physical demands on firefighters using track-type stair descent devices to evacuate mobility-limited occupants from high-rise buildings.  

PubMed

The physical demands on firefighting personnel were investigated when using different types of track-type stair descent devices designed for the emergency evacuation of high rise buildings as a function of staircase width and evacuation urgency. Twelve firefighters used five track-type stair descent devices during simulated urgent and non-urgent evacuations. The devices were evaluated under two staircase width conditions (1.12, and 1.32m), and three devices were also evaluated under a narrower staircase condition (0.91m). Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) data, spine motion, heart rates, Borg Scale ratings, task durations and descent velocities. Stair descent speeds favored the devices that had shorter fore/aft dimensions when moving through the landing. EMG results indicated that there were tradeoffs due to design features, particularly on the landings where the physical demands tended to be greater. On the landings, devices that could be rolled on four wheels reduced the deltoid and bicep activation levels. PMID:25113864

Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Hedman, Glenn E; Reichelt, Paul A; Park, Sanghyun; Conrad, Karen M

2015-01-01

390

Review Article The Management of Heat Stress for the Firefighter: A Review of Work Conducted on Behalf of the Toronto Fire Service  

E-print Network

Workplace Safety Insurance Board of Ontario. The research was divided into two phases; first, to define safe work limits for firefighters wearing their protective clothing and working in warm environments; and, the second, to examine strategies to reduce the thermal burden and extend the operational effectiveness of the firefighter. For the first phase, subjects wore their protective ensemble and carried their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and performed very light, light, moderate or heavy work at 25C, 30C or 35C. Thermal and evaporative resistance coefficients were obtained from thermal manikin testing that allowed the human physiological responses to be compared with modeled data. Predicted continuous work times were then generated using a heat strain model that established limits for increases in body temperature to 38.0C, 38.5C and 39.0C. Three experiments were conducted for the second phase of the project. The first study revealed that replacing the duty uniform pants that are worn under the bunker pants with shorts reduced the thermal strain for activities that lasted longer than 60 min. The second study examined the importance of fluid replacement. The data revealed that fluid replacement equivalent to at least 65 % of the sweat lost increased exposure time by 15 % compared with no fluid replacement. The last experiment compared active and passive cooling. Both the use of a mister or forearm and hand submersion in

Tom M. Mclellan; Glen A. Selkirk

2006-01-01

391

Evaluating the physical demands on firefighters using hand-carried stair descent devices to evacuate mobility-limited occupants from high-rise buildings.  

PubMed

The physical demands on firefighting personnel were investigated when using different types of hand-carried stair descent devices designed for the emergency evacuation of high rise buildings as a function of staircase width and evacuation urgency. Twelve firefighters used three hand-carried stair descent devices during simulated urgent and non-urgent evacuations. The devices were evaluated under three staircase width conditions (0.91, 1.12, and 1.32m). For comparison, an urgent manual carry was also performed on the 1.12m wide stairs. Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) data, heart rates, Borg Scale ratings, task durations and descent velocities. Results indicated that the stair chair with extended front handles, which allows the front person to descend the stairs facing forward, reduced the time integrated back muscle EMG by half and showed a descent velocity that was 1.8 times faster than the other stair descent devices in the study. There were no differences across staircase widths. PMID:23759793

Lavender, Steven A; Hedman, Glenn E; Mehta, Jay P; Reichelt, Paul A; Conrad, Karen M; Park, Sanghyun

2014-05-01

392

Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: A pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and levoglucosan.  

SciTech Connect

Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest ServiceFSavannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribedburn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 70195 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n9). PM2.5 and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM2.5 exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample size, this pilot study demonstrates that urinary MP concentrations may be effective biomarkers of occupational exposure to wood smoke among wildland firefighters.

Neitzel, R.; Naeher, L., P.; Paulsen, M.; Dunn, R.; Stock, A.; Simpson, C., D.

2009-04-01

393

Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

1976-01-01

394

Wildland Firefighters and Injury Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildland fire suppression represents a high-risk environment. On the line, we are exposed to such things as erratic fire behavior, rough terrain, falling snags, and sharp tools. Each of these has the ability to hurt or even kill us as a worst case scenario. We are also exposed to hazards and possible injury when doing any of the other duties

Charles Palmer

395

Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N?=?70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1?77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 2153) post-9/11. Controls (N?=?123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect. PMID:24146820

Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

2013-01-01

396

Real-time and time-integrated PM2.5 and CO from prescribed burns in chipped and non-chipped plots: firefighter and community exposure and health implications.  

PubMed

In this study, smoke data were collected from two plots located on the Francis Marion National Forest in South Carolina during prescribed burns on 12 February 2003. One of the plots had been subjected to mechanical chipping, the other was not. This study is part of a larger investigation of fire behavior related to mechanical chipping, parts of which are presented elsewhere. The primary objective of the study reported herein was to measure PM(2.5) and CO exposures from prescribed burn smoke from a mechanically chipped vs. non-chipped site. Ground-level time-integrated PM(2.5) samplers (n=9/plot) were placed at a height of 1.5 m around the sampling plots on the downwind side separated by approximately 20 m. Elevated time-integrated PM(2.5) samplers (n=4/plot) were hung atop approximately 30 ft poles at positions within the interior of each of the plots. Real-time PM(2.5) and CO data were collected at downwind locations on the perimeter of each plot. Time-integrated perimeter 12-h PM(2.5) concentrations in the non-chipped plot (AVG 519.9 microg/m(3), SD 238.8 microg/m(3)) were significantly higher (1-tail P-value 0.01) than those at the chipped plot (AVG 198.1 microg/m(3), SD 71.6 microg/m(3)). Similarly, interior time-integrated 8-h PM(2.5) concentrations in the non-chipped plot (AVG 773.4 microg/m(3), SD 321.8 microg/m(3)) were moderately higher (1-tail P-value 0.06) than those at the chipped plot (AVG 460.3 microg/m(3), SD 147.3 microg/m(3)). Real-time PM(2.5) and CO data measured at a position in the chipped plot were uniformly lower than those observed at the same position in the non-chipped plot over the same time period. These results demonstrate that smoke exposures resulting from burned chipped plots are considerably lower than from burned non-chipped plots. These findings have potentially important implications for both firefighters working prescribed burnings at chipped vs. non-chipped sites, as well as nearby communities who may be impacted from smoke traveling downwind from these sights. PMID:16736059

Naeher, Luke P; Achtemeier, Gary L; Glitzenstein, Jeff S; Streng, Donna R; Macintosh, David

2006-07-01

397

Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters  

ScienceCinema

A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

Canfield, Jesse

2014-06-02

398

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...damage or decay. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...damage or decay. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...damage or decay. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...the system manufacturer's design, installation,...

2012-10-01

399

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...damage or decay. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...damage or decay. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...damage or decay. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...the system manufacturer's design, installation,...

2013-10-01

400

Firefighting training for nuclear facility personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the Browns Ferry incident of 1975, an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to fire protection at nuclear power plants in the United States. Regulatory Guide 1.120, NUREG-0050, and NRC Branch Technical Position 9.5-1 were developed to specifically address the nature of such programs, including fire suppression training for plant fire brigades. In early 1978,

Ken L. Walker; E. F. Bates

1980-01-01

401

Emergency Response: Elearning for Paramedics and Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on an innovative research project with academics, software developers, and organizational pilot sites to design and develop elearning software for an emergency response simulation with supporting collaborative tools. In particular, this article focuses on the research that the author has conducted to provide the theoretical

Taber, Nancy

2008-01-01

402

Characterization of Firefighter Safety Zone Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Perhaps one of the most critical decisions made on wildland fires is the identification of suitable safety zones. Past fire entrapments and near misses (e.g. Thirtymile fire, Price Canyon, and South Canyon Fires) illustrate the need to continually assess ...

B. W. Butler

2006-01-01

403

Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters  

SciTech Connect

A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

Canfield, Jesse

2012-09-04

404

46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...course. 13.407 Section 13.407 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for Tankerman-Assistant Endorsement 13.407 Eligibility:...

2011-10-01

405

46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...course. 13.407 Section 13.407 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for Tankerman-Assistant Endorsement 13.407 Eligibility:...

2010-10-01

406

New fire-fighting water bucket is lifted by helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter lifts a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket that will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, the 324-gallon container will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

407

New fire-fighting water bucket is filled for demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

- A NASA helicopter hovers over the water while a high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket fills. The 324-gallon container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

408

Leadership in project management: from firefighter to firelighter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To demonstrate two distinct leadership requirements for project managers and establish a theoretical basis for distinguishing between these two types of leadership. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A framework linking transactional and transformational leadership qualities with project management attributes is developed. Findings Explains how reactive decisions relating to monitoring of schedules and budgeting data of projects has received the greatest

Elizabeth Barber; James Warn

2005-01-01

409

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...explosive) materials other than those of Division 1.4 (explosive). No welding, burning, cutting, or riveting operations involving the use of fire, flame, spark, or arc-producing equipment may be conducted on board except in an...

2012-10-01

410

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...explosive) materials other than those of Division 1.4 (explosive). No welding, burning, cutting, or riveting operations involving the use of fire, flame, spark, or arc-producing equipment may be conducted on board except in an...

2011-10-01

411

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...explosive) materials other than those of Division 1.4 (explosive). No welding, burning, cutting, or riveting operations involving the use of fire, flame, spark, or arc-producing equipment may be conducted on board except in an...

2010-10-01

412

Ecological model of occupational stress. Application to urban firefighters.  

PubMed

1. Multiple individual and organizational barriers make it difficult for occupational health nurses and other providers to understand and handle stress in the workplace. 2. Recent research suggests adverse health effects resulting from occupational stress are more related to the context or conditions of work than workers' characteristics. 3. The ecological approach described in this article provides a means to examine the context in which stress occurs through an analysis of four levels of influence. The levels of influence include the microsystem, the organizational system, the peri-organizational system, and the extra-organizational system. 4. Through a careful analysis using this approach, an identification of the entire spectrum of factors contributing to the occurrence of workplace stressors can be identified, and more effective interventions addressing existing and potential problems related to occupational stress can be developed. PMID:11760257

Salazar, M K; Beaton, R

2000-10-01

413

Review: autophagy in neurodegeneration: firefighter and/or incendiarist?  

PubMed

Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation system that is found ubiquitously in eukaryotes. Autophagy is responsible for the degradation of most long-lived proteins and some organelles. Cytoplasmic constituents, including organelles, are sequestered into double-membrane autophagosomes, which subsequently fuse with lysosomes where their contents are degraded. This system has been implicated in various physiological processes including protein and organelle turnover, stress response, cellular differentiation, programmed cell death and pathological conditions. Defects in the autophagy machinery might have several consequences, as they have been associated with neurodegenerative disease and different forms of cancer. Thus, autophagy occupies a crucial position within the cell's metabolism, and its modulation may represent an alternative therapeutic strategy in several pathological settings including stroke, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Parkinson's diseases and cancer. Recently, research has begun to identify some characteristics of neuronal autophagy. The results suggest that autophagy may provide a neuroprotective mechanism. However, there is evidence showing that dysfunction of autophagy in certain pathological situations can trigger and mediate programmed cell death. Autophagy has also been defined as prime suspect cause of non-apoptotic cellular demise. However, there is now mounting evidence that autophagy and apoptosis share several common regulatory elements that are crucial in any attempt to understand the dual role of autophagy in cell death and cell survival. It will be of fundamental importance to dissect whether autophagy is primarily a strategy for survival or whether autophagy can also be a part of a cell death programme and thus contribute to cell death. Many questions are open. Is autophagy a direct death execution pathway? Is autophagy an innocent bystander? Is autophagy a defence mechanism or just a scavenger or self-clearance tool in the cell? A profound understanding of the biological effects and the mechanisms underlying autophagy in neurones might be helpful in seeking effective new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the defining characteristics of autophagy with special attention to its role in neurodegenerative disorders, and recent efforts to delineate the pathway of autophagic protein degradation in neurone. PMID:19555462

Rami, A

2009-10-01

414

Virtual Full Replication by Adaptive Segmentation Gunnar Mathiason, Sten F. Andler  

E-print Network

that can communicate. Firefighters share mission information through a distributed real- time database. Some sub-groups of firefighters may share specific information of mutual interest. The firefighters

Son, Sang H.

415

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...paragraph (a) of this section. (g) Welding, cutting, soldering. One portable fire extinguisher or 240 pounds of rock dust shall be provided at locations where welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame is being done. (h) Powerlines....

2010-07-01

416

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection 77.1108-1 Type...delivering 50 gallons of water a minute at a nozzle...are used as a source of water supply, the tanks shall be...per shift. (b) Fire extinguishers....

2013-07-01

417

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection 77.1108-1 Type...delivering 50 gallons of water a minute at a nozzle...are used as a source of water supply, the tanks shall be...per shift. (b) Fire extinguishers....

2012-07-01

418

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COAL MINES Fire Protection 75.1100-1...50 gallons of water a minute at...least 300 feet of fire hose with nozzles...30 gallons of water per minute at...e) Portable fire extinguisher...expellant to supply the foam....

2013-07-01

419

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAL MINES Fire Protection 75.1100-1...50 gallons of water a minute at...least 300 feet of fire hose with nozzles...30 gallons of water per minute at...e) Portable fire extinguisher...expellant to supply the foam....

2012-07-01

420

A system dynamics view of project management firefighting at a startup company  

E-print Network

Fire fighting in project management is the unplanned allocation of resources to either fix problems or speed completion of a project. In a startup company environment, fire fighting oftentimes becomes the norm rather than ...

Chiang, Melvin H. (Melvin Hsiang)

2008-01-01

421

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for hose in Bureau of Mines' Schedule 2G. The cover shall be polyester, or other material with flame-spread qualities and mildew resistance equal or superior to polyester. The bursting pressure shall be at least 4 times the water...

2011-07-01

422

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements of the Underwriter's Laboratories, Inc., or Factory Mutual Research Corp.'s specifications. Cotton or cotton-polyester jacketed hose shall be treated in accordance with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Specification...

2011-07-01

423

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for hose in Bureau of Mines' Schedule 2G. The cover shall be polyester, or other material with flame-spread qualities and mildew resistance equal or superior to polyester. The bursting pressure shall be at least 4 times the water...

2010-07-01

424

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements of the Underwriter's Laboratories, Inc., or Factory Mutual Research Corp.'s specifications. Cotton or cotton-polyester jacketed hose shall be treated in accordance with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Specification...

2010-07-01

425

46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...damage or decay. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...instruction manual. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...the system manufacturer's design, installation, operation...approximately 15 seconds from any nozzle designated by the marine...

2013-10-01

426

46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...damage or decay. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...instruction manual. Ensure that nozzles are unobstructed. Cylinders...the system manufacturer's design, installation, operation...approximately 15 seconds from any nozzle designated by the marine...

2012-10-01

427

Lightweight, Neoprene-Coated, Aluminized, Asbestos-Aramid Fabric for Shipboard Firefighters Coveralls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Clothing Textile Research Facility (NCTRF) has evaluated two types of neoprene-coated and aluminized, asbestos-aramid base fabrics (Fabrics A B) to develop a lighter, less bulky and more flexible coated fabric than is currently used in the manufa...

M. W. Roy

1980-01-01

428

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01... 155.4040 Section 155.4040 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...Assessment of structural stability Initial analysis is completed. This is a...

2014-07-01

429

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

...A summary of the procedures related to deploying refuge alternatives. (11) A summary of the construction methods for 15 psi stoppings constructed prior to an event. (12) A summary of the procedures related to refuge alternative use. (d)...

2014-07-01

430

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

...experience to work in the specific regional geographic environment(s) that the vessel operates in (e.g., bottom type, water turbidity, water depth, sea state and temperature extremes). (13) Resource provider has the logistical and...

2014-07-01

431

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...experience to work in the specific regional geographic environment(s) that the vessel operates in (e.g., bottom type, water turbidity, water depth, sea state and temperature extremes). (13) Resource provider has the logistical and...

2012-07-01

432

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...experience to work in the specific regional geographic environment(s) that the vessel operates in (e.g., bottom type, water turbidity, water depth, sea state and temperature extremes). (13) Resource provider has the logistical and...

2011-07-01

433

Learning for the Frontline: How Fire-Fighters Integrate Learnt Behaviours with Difficult Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emergency service teams hold an important role however the stress associated with their position can strain workplace relationships. Although it is not always possible to change the incidents to which teams respond, it is possible to shape the way personnel communicate with each other about these incidents. Yet little is known on how learnt

Dadich, Ann

2012-01-01

434

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

...voice radio communications that provide for...other required emergency vehicles...safety. (iv) Emergency communications systems on the...through a direct communications link, the North American Emergency Response...

2014-01-01

435

'Firefighter dentistry': the impact of the supply of dentists on rural public dental services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to dental care in the predominantly rural state of Tasmania remains challenged by the shortage of dental professionals. Without a dental school, Tasmania is dependent on dentists who have relocated from interstate or overseas. Within the public sector, which experiences intractable problems with recruitment and retention of dentists, dental visit patterns are characterised by a high proportion of episodic

Judi Walker; Rosemary Cane

436

Firefights, raids, and assassinations: tactical forms of cartel violence and their underpinnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines some specific types of narco-generated combat, assault, and brutality that over the last decade have acquired an increasingly organized and paramilitary character. The planning; training; intelligence and counterintelligence preparation; mobility; communications; type of weaponry; levels of intensity; and sheer audacity substantially exceed the threats with which traditional law enforcement had been trained and equipped to deal. It

Graham H. Turbiville Jr

2010-01-01

437

A Textile Antenna for Off-Body Communication Integrated Into Protective Clothing for Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of intelligent textile systems to increase the wearer's level of protection has exposed the necessity of wearable communication tools and has led to research in textile antennas. However, most textile fabrics are quite thin (0.5 mm), making it challenging for antenna designers to provide an antenna which operates adequately and resiliently in the 2.4-2.4835-GHz industrial-scientific-medical bandwidth. Flexible pad

Carla Hertleer; Hendrik Rogier; Luigi Vallozzi; Lieva Van Langenhove

2009-01-01

438

76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels...approved information collection, Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels...suppliers) of water [[Page 58463...Whether this collection of...

2011-09-21

439

The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity.

Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

2003-01-01

440

An Examination of the Preferences for Leadership Style of Firefighters of Different Rank and Generational Cohort  

E-print Network

Though management and leadership styles have been investigated somewhat in terms of generations' views on important leader attributes and their own leadership behaviors, little research has been reported on the perspectives of followers...

Odom, Summer Rachelle Felton

2012-07-16

441

Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

Abeles, F. J.

1980-01-01

442

New fire-fighting water bucket releases its water for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter releases 324 gallons of water onto a building in a simulated fire control demonstration. The high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

443

New fire-fighting water bucket is lifted from water for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter lifts a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket filled with water. The container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center.. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

444

New fire-fighting water bucket releases its load for a demonstration.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter releases the contents of the high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket it holds. The 324-gallon container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

445

New fire-fighting water bucket is readied for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers attach a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket to a NASA helicopter. Holding 324 gallons of water, it will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

446

Smoke Exposure Among Firefighters at Prescribed Burns in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummarySeveral suggestions are presented for managing smoke exposure at prescribedburns. First, a risk assessment is underway and, when completed, could be used toassess the long-term health risks among prescribed burners. Second, a smoke exposuremanagement program could be implemented to reduce overexposures to smokeat prescribed fires. This program would include the following elements:. Improve smoke exposure hazard awareness training.. Monitor CO

Timothy E. Reinhardt; Roger D. Ottmar; Andrew J. S. Hanneman

447

Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies; Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies. Instructor Guide--Part B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide has been developed for use in presenting part "B" of the course of instruction for Support Assistance for Fire Emergencies. It is arranged by class sessions of three hours each. Some of the sessions are divided into two or more sections covering specific subject areas. The intention is to include instruction which will extend the

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

448

Providing Better Subject Access to Nonprint Fire Emergency Materials for Illinois Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois Fire Service Institute Library (FSI Library) has the most comprehensive and popular nonprint fire emergency collection in Illinois. Besides providing descriptive cataloging for nonprint materials, the Library assigns in-depth subject terms and modified Library of Congress Classification to the catalog records. The Library reviewed its subject list and found numerous inconsistencies and duplications, because catalog records are acquired

Lian Ruan

2001-01-01

449

Firefighter Foundation and Regional Burn Center Collaborate to Reduce Burn-Related Injuries in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the USA seniors (age 65 and older) account for over 250 000 burn injuries annually. More than 1200 seniors die as a result of fire each year. These fires are usually a result of smoking materials that ignite clothing or upholstery. Cooking accidents account for the largest number of non-fatal burn injuries in this population. The District of Columbias

J Woods; K Hollowed; A Pavlovich; J Shupp

2010-01-01

450

Classification of fatal firefighter accidents in the Netherlands: Time pressure and aim of the suppression activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire fighting is a risky profession. The risks however differ per turn out. Sometimes time pressure is high and human lives are at stake. In other situations, there is hardly any time pressure and repression is only aimed at damage control. We analyzed all sufficiently documented fatal fire fighter fire suppression accidents (36 accidents causing 66 fatalities) in the Netherlands

N. Rosmuller; B. J. M. Ale

2008-01-01

451

U.S. Fire Administration/Technical Report Series Special Report: Improving Firefighter Communications  

E-print Network

The U.S. Fire Administration develops reports on selected major fires throughout the country. The fires usually involve multiple deaths or a large loss of property. But the primary criterion for deciding to do a report is whether it will result in significant lessons learned. In some cases these lessons bring to light new knowledge about fire--the effect of building construction or contents, human behavior in fire, etc. In other cases, the lessons are not new but are serious enough to highlight once again, with yet another fire tragedy report. In some cases, special reports are developed to discuss events, drills, or new technologies which are of interest to the fire service. The reports are sent to fire magazines and are distributed at National and Regional fire meetings. The International Association of Fire Chiefs assists the USFA in disseminating the findings throughout the fire service. On a continuing basis the reports are available on request from the USFA; announcements of their availability are published widely in fire journals and newsletters. This body of work provides detailed information on the nature of the fire problem for policymakers who must decide on allocations of resources between fire and other pressing problems, and within the fire service to improve codes and code enforcement, training, public fire education, building technology, and other related areas.

unknown authors

452

Persistent Hyperreactivity and Reactive Airway Dysfunction in Firefighters at the World Trade Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

and control subjects to be hyperreactive (95% confidence interval, 1.8-25.2; p 0.004), and hyperreactivity persisted in 55% of those hyperreactive at 1 and\\/or 3 months. In highly exposed subjects, hyperreactivity 1 or 3 months post-collapse was the sole predictor for reactive airways dysfunction (p 0.021). In conclusion, develop- ment and persistence of hyperreactivity and reactive airways dys- function were strongly

Gisela I. Banauch; Dawn Alleyne; Raoul Sanchez; Kattia Olender; Hillel W. Cohen; Michael Weiden; Kerry J. Kelly; David J. Prezant

453

Federal Aerial Firefighting: Assessing Safety and Effectiveness Blue Ribbon Panel Report to the  

E-print Network

Executive Summary...................................................................................................... i FINDING 1SAFETY.............................................................................................................. i FINDING 2NEW ENVIRONMENT, NEW RISKS......................................................................... ii

Chief Usda

454

Emergency Duties and Deaths from Heart Disease among Firefighters in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Deaths from coronary heart disease were associated with suppressing a fire (32.1% of all such deaths), responding to an alarm (13.4%), returning from an alarm (17.4%), engaging in physical training (12.5%), responding to nonfire emergencies (9.4%), and performing nonemergency duties (15.4%). As compared with the odds of death from coronary heart disease during nonemergency duties, the odds were 12.1

Stefanos N. Kales; Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Costas A. Christophi; David C. Christiani

2007-01-01

455

The technology application process as applied to a firefighter's breathing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FBS Program indicated that applications of advanced technology can result in an improved FBS that will satisfy the requirements defined by municipal fire departments. To accomplish this technology transfer, a substantial commitment of resources over an extended period of time has been required. This program has indicated that the ability of NASA in terms of program management such as requirement definition, system analysis, and industry coordination may play as important a role as specific sources of hardware technology. As a result of the FBS program, a sequence of milestones was passed that may have applications as generalized milestones and objectives for any technical application program.

Mclaughlan, P. B.

1974-01-01

456

Portable long-wavelength infrared camera for civilian applications [medicine, firefighting, volcanology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 9 ?m cutoff 256256 hand-held quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) camera has been demonstrated. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE?T) of 26 mK has been achieved. In this paper, the authors discuss the performance of this portable long-wavelength infrared camera in quantum efficiency, NE?T, minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD), uniformity, etc. and its civilian applications

S. D. Gunapala; T. N. Krabach; S. V. Bandara; J. K. Liu

1997-01-01

457

Performance of an unprotected steel structure subjected to repeated fire at a firefighter training facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of a single story unprotected steel structure exposed to repeated fire during the training of fire fighters is described. Temperatures are monitored on the structure using resistance temperature detectors connected to a data acquisition system. Temperatures of up to 384C are measured in the steel of the structures, which are below levels likely to cause much degradation in

Lyle P. Carden; Ahmad M. Itani

2007-01-01

458

Project FIRES (Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System). Volume 3: Test and Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the tests to identify equipment currently on the market which meets the Protective Ensemble Performance Standards (See Project FIRES: Phase 1A Final Report, Volume 2). The purpose of the testing was to determine which items were suita...

F. Abeles, A. Bruno, R. DelVecchio, V. Himel

1978-01-01

459

Matching Assistance to Firefighters Grants to the Reported Needs of the U.S. Fire Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the second needs assessment of the U.S. fire service, a rough comparison was made between needs reported in the first needs assessment survey and resources requested and granted to the same fire departments in 2001-2004 under the Assistance to ...

J. R. Hall, M. A. Whitney, M. J. Karter

2006-01-01

460

Federal Certification of Personal Protective Equipment and Clothing for Firefighters and Emergency Response Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1997 Senate Appropriations Report, Number 104-368, accompanying the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act of 1977; P.L. 104-208, states, 'The Committee is aware of concern over the lack of standards and certification of personal protective clothing ...

D. Satcher

1997-01-01

461

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

...loading point is provided with one of the following: (i) Two portable water cars; or (ii) Two portable chemical cars; or (iii) One portable water car or one portable chemical car, and either (a ) a portable foam-generating...

2014-07-01

462

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

...number and size for the particular fire hazard involved; (3) Replaced...Health Administration. (c) Fire hose. Fire hose and couplings shall meet...S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Specification 182...

2014-07-01

463

77 FR 42417 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...amended by adding paragraphs (h) and (i) to read as follows: Sec...Notwithstanding paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section, an employee...emergency response services for wildland fire protection is eligible to be...Notwithstanding paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section,...

2012-07-19

464

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...function under contract on September 24, 1983; or (4) The...undertaken in response to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, if (i) Without...will not extend beyond September 30, 2012; and...

2012-10-01

465

Accelerated Spirometric Decline in New York City Firefighters With ?1-Antitrypsin Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse caused massive air pollution, producing variable amounts of lung function reduction in the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) rescue workforce. ?1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a risk factor for obstructive airway disease. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study of the first 4 years post-September 11, 2001, investigated the influence of AAT deficiency on adjusted longitudinal spirometric change (FEV1) in 90 FDNY rescue workers with WTC exposure. Workers with protease inhibitor (Pi) Z heterozygosity were considered moderately AAT deficient. PiS homozygosity or PiS heterozygosity without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity was considered mild deficiency, and PiM homozygosity was considered normal. Alternately, workers had low AAT levels if serum AAT was ? 20 ?mol/L. Results: In addition to normal aging-related decline (37 mL/y), significant FEV1 decline accelerations developed with increasing AAT deficiency severity (110 mL/y for moderate and 32 mL/y for mild) or with low AAT serum levels (49 mL/y). Spirometric rates pre-September 11, 2001, did not show accelerations with AAT deficiency. Among workers with low AAT levels, cough persisted in a significant number of participants at 4 years post-September 11, 2001. Conclusions: FDNY rescue workers with AAT deficiency had significant spirometric decline accelerations and persistent airway symptoms during the first 4 years after WTC exposure, representing a novel gene-by-environment interaction. Clinically meaningful decline acceleration occurred even with the mild serum AAT level reductions associated with PiS heterozygosity (without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity). PMID:20634282

Brantly, Mark; Izbicki, Gabriel; Hall, Charles; Shanske, Alan; Chavko, Robert; Santhyadka, Ganesha; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Weiden, Michael D.; Prezant, David J.

2010-01-01

466

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...function under contract on September 24, 1983; or (4) The...undertaken in response to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, if (i) Without...will not extend beyond September 30, 2012; and...

2013-10-01

467

48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...function under contract on September 24, 1983; or (4) The...undertaken in response to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, if (i) Without...will not extend beyond September 30, 2012; and...

2011-10-01

468

Obstructive Airways Disease With Air Trapping Among Firefighters Exposed to World Trade Center Dust  

PubMed Central

Background: The World Trade Center (WTC) collapse produced a massive exposure to respirable particulates in New York City Fire Department (FDNY) rescue workers. This group had spirometry examinations pre-September 11, 2001, and post-September 11, 2001, demonstrating declines in lung function with parallel declines in FEV1 and FVC. To date, the underlying pathophysiologic cause for this has been open to question. Methods: Of 13,234 participants in the FDNY-WTC Monitoring Program, 1,720 (13%) were referred for pulmonary subspecialty evaluation at a single institution. Evaluation included 919 full pulmonary function tests, 1,219 methacholine challenge tests, and 982 high-resolution chest CT scans. Results: At pulmonary evaluation (median 34 months post-September 11, 2001), median values were FEV1 93% predicted (interquartile range [IQR], 83%-101%), FVC 98% predicted (IQR, 89%-106%), and FEV1/FVC 0.78 (IQR, 0.72-0.82). The residual volume (RV) was 123% predicted (IQR, 106%-147%) with nearly all participants having normal total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. Also, 1,051/1,720 (59%) had obstructive airways disease based on at least one of the following: FEV1/FVC, bronchodilator responsiveness, hyperreactivity, or elevated RV. After adjusting for age, gender, race, height and weight, and tobacco use, the decline in FEV1 post-September 11, 2001, was significantly correlated with increased RV percent predicted (P < .0001), increased bronchodilator responsiveness (P < .0001), and increased hyperreactivity (P = .0056). CT scans demonstrated bronchial wall thickening that was significantly associated with the decline in FEV1 post-September 11, 2001 (P = .024), increases in hyperreactivity (P < .0001), and increases in RV (P < .0001). Few had evidence for interstitial disease. Conclusions: Airways obstruction was the predominant physiologic finding underlying the reduction in lung function post-September 11, 2001, in FDNY WTC rescue workers presenting for pulmonary evaluation. PMID:19820077

Weiden, Michael D.; Ferrier, Natalia; Nolan, Anna; Rom, William N.; Comfort, Ashley; Gustave, Jackson; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Zheng, Shugi; Goldring, Roberta M.; Berger, Kenneth I.; Cosenza, Kaitlyn; Lee, Roy; Webber, Mayris P.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Aldrich, Thomas K.

2010-01-01

469

Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies: Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies. Instructor Guide--Part A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor guide contains four lessons to be used in a course for Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies. The course is arranged by class sessions of three hours each, with each session divided into two or more sections. Each lesson plan has the same format: Course Title and Number; Objectives; Instructional Aids; Selected References;

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

470

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...services. (4) Resource provider has personnel with documented training certification and degree experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider has 24-hour availability of personnel and equipment, and...

2010-07-01

471

Colorado State Forest Service Summary of 2009 Forestry-related Legislation in Colorado  

E-print Network

to Persons Engaged in Emergency Response Activities Enacts the "Marc Mullenix Volunteer Firefighter surplus firefighting equipment for later use; volunteer firefighters, their commanders Incentives for Volunteer Firefighters Creates a fund in the Division of Fire Safety to provide tuition

472

2009-10 CATALOG *Designates only grades of "C" or better may be EMERGENCY SERVICES -MUNICIPAL used to fulfill this requirement.  

E-print Network

)____ FIRE 137 (3)____ FIRE 202 (3)____ COMPUTATION:- (3) FIRE 203 (3)____ Math/Computer Science Firefighter I, Series II 3 FIRE 131 Firefighter I, Series I 3 FIRE 135 Firefighter I, Series III 3 FIRE 137 Optional Summer Fire 131 Firefighter I, Series I 3 Fire 133 Firefighter I, Series II 3 Fire 135 Firefighter

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

473

FireEye: Needs and Usability Assessment of a Head-Mounted Display for  

E-print Network

This project explores the needs of firefighters and usability aspects for a prototype designed to increase firefighting safety. Every year, about 100 firefighters die in the line of duty (NFPA, 2005), and 16 % of firefighter fatalities in 1999 were due to firefighters

Jon Snydal; Alan Van Pelt; Joel Wilson

2005-01-01

474

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND EXPOSURE TO SMOKE AMONG FIREFIGHTERS AT PRESCRIBED BURNS. (R827355C002)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

475

"Speak up, Speak out": The Lived Experiences of Female Firefighters in the UK Fire and Rescue Service  

E-print Network

' Potential Influence on UK Rape Law Ben Warwick (Law) Chaotic Imaginings in the Poetry of Percy Bysshe House, Ustinov College Multidisciplinary Freshly brewed coffee from 10:15 and lunch available for all.Seminar@durham.ac.uk w: www.dur.ac.uk/ustinov.college/collegelife/seminars or find us on Facebook: The Ustinov Seminar

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

476

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, customs and border protection officers, law enforcement officers, members of the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Supreme Court Police, and nuclear...Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...Supreme Court Police, and nuclear...couriers. (a) An employee...Supreme Court Police, or nuclear materials... (2) After becoming age 50 and completing...of service as a...

2013-01-01

477

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, customs and border protection officers, law enforcement officers, members of the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Supreme Court Police, and nuclear...Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...Supreme Court Police, and nuclear...couriers. (a) An employee...Supreme Court Police, or nuclear materials... (2) After becoming age 50 and completing...of service as a...

2012-01-01

478

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, customs and border protection officers, law enforcement officers, members of the...  

...Supreme Court Police, and nuclear...Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...Supreme Court Police, and nuclear...couriers. (a) An employee...Supreme Court Police, or nuclear materials... (2) After becoming age 50 and completing...of service as a...

2014-01-01

479

Effectiveness of rest pauses and cooling in alleviation of heat stress during simulated fire-fighting activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has examined whether cooling a fire fighter with a high velocity fan, during 10 minute rest pauses between, and following, 10 minute work periods, decreases heat stress during repetitive fire fighting activity. Twelve professional fire fighters (mean age 31.8 + 6.7 years) completed two 40 minute work\\/recovery trials in an environmental chamber at 40 oC and 70 %

J. B. CARTER; E. W. Banister; J. B. Morrison

1999-01-01

480

Proposed protocol for a multi-centre study to compare clinical and trade tests of colour vision in firefighters.  

PubMed

Fire-brigade recruits in the UK have their colour vision screened using the Ishihara test. This is unsatisfactory because it rejects subjects with minor deficiencies in colour vision and does not test for blue defects. The Home Office is currently reviewing its recommendations on visual standards. This paper summarizes defects in colour vision, discusses alternative clinical and trade tests for the fire-brigade, and proposes a multi-centre study to collect data on the performance of fire-brigade recruits in clinical and trade tests. PMID:7841418

Rees, H

1994-12-01

481

Small-Scale Test Protocol for Firefighting Foams DEF(AUST)5706: Effect of Bubble Size Distribution and Expansion Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental program described in this paper sought to assess the suitability of the small scale DEF(AUST)5706 standard\\u000a for measuring the suppression and burnback performance of Class B foams on pool fires. DEF(AUST)5706 is an Australian Defence\\u000a standard mandatory for use by the Australian Navy, Army and Air Force. The test protocol required the measurement of the 3\\/4\\u000a control, extinguishment

Ashlea J. Laundess; Mark S. Rayson; Bogdan Z. Dlugogorski; Eric M. Kennedy

2011-01-01

482

The influence of shift work on emotional exhaustion in firefighters : The role of work-family conflict and social support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose With the demand for continuous services increasing, organizations have relied more upon shift work to adapt to the needs of consumers. However, relatively little research has adequately explored the effects of different types of shifts on emotional exhaustion, particularly as they relate to work-family conflict and social support. In this paper based on the conservation of resources (COR)

Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben

2009-01-01

483

Reliable MIMO communication between firefighters equipped with wearable antennas and a base station using space-time codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-body wireless data communication using textile antennas integrated into clothing increases the safety of rescue workers operating in an indoor environment as vital information can be communicated to the command station. The indoor radio propagation is influenced by fading and shadowing. Yet, MIMO techniques significantly enhance the reliability of such a wireless link, producing a lower bit error rate for

Patrick Van Torre; Luigi Vallozzi; Hendrik Rogier; Marc Moeneclaey; Jo Verhaevert

2011-01-01

484

Effects of forearm vs. leg submersion in work tolerance time in a hot environment while wearing firefighter protective clothing.  

PubMed

This study compared physiological responses and total work tolerance time following forearm submersion (FS) or leg submersion (LS) in cool water, after performing work in a hot environment while wearing fire fighting protective clothing (FPC). Participants walked at 3.5 mph on a treadmill in a hot environment (WBGT 32.8 0.9C) until a rectal temperature (T(rec)) of 38.5C was reached. Participants were then subjected to one of two peripheral cooling interventions, in a counterbalanced order. Forearms or lower legs were submerged in water (16.9 0.8C) for a total of 20 min, followed by a work tolerance trial. Results indicated no significant difference (p = 0.052) between work tolerance time (LS = 21.36 5.35 min vs. FS = 16.27 5.56 min). Similarly, there was no significant difference for T(rec) (p = 0.65), heart rate (HR) (p = 0.79), mean skin temperature (T(sk)) (p = 0.68), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (p = 0.54). However, LS ratings of thermal comfort (RTC) at Minute 14 (p = 0.03) were significantly lower for LS (10 1) vs. FS (12 1). Results indicate little difference between FS and LS for physiological measures. Despite a lack of statistical significance a 5-min (24%) increase was found during the work tolerance time following LS. PMID:21756136

Katica, Charles P; Pritchett, Robert C; Pritchett, Kelly L; Del Pozzi, Andrew T; Balilionis, Gytis; Burnham, Tim

2011-08-01

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Brave Firefighters, Endangered National Icons and Bumbling Land Managers: Network TV Myths about the 1988 Yellowstone Wildfires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that reporters often seek out the most available news sources rather than those who have the most expertise, that journalists tend to focus on specific events rather than the context in which they occur, and that news sto