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Sample records for firefighters

  1. Firefighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes of operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

  2. Firefighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

  3. Firefighter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    The responsibilities of a firefighter extend far beyond simply responding to fire emergencies. At many departments, responding to medical calls or car accidents is the most frequent activity, and a routine shift might also entail dealing with hazardous materials, gas leaks, structural collapses, floods, ice storms, wild animals, or the myriad…

  4. Firefighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Firefighters are like astronauts. They both face dangerous, even hostile environments such as a building full of fire and the vacuum of space. They are both get breathing air from tanks on their backs. Early in the 1970's, NASA began working to improve firefighter breathing systems, which had hardly changed since the 1940s. NASA's Johnson Space Center conducted a 4-year program that applied technology from the portable life support systems used by Apollo astronauts on the moon. The new breathing system is made up of an air bottle, a frame and harness, a face mask, and a warning device. The new system weighs less than 20 pounds, one-third less than the old gear. The new air bottle provides 30 minutes of breathing air, as much as the old system. Like a good hiker's backpack, the new system puts the weight on the firefighter's hips rather than the shoulders. The face mask provides better visibility and the warning device lets the firefighter know when air in the bottle is low. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

  5. Firefighters' Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

  6. Firefighting Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefighting trainees conduct fire control exercises using a prototype simulator known as the Emergency Management Computer Aided Training System (EMCAT). Developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MFS) in response to a request from the Huntsville (AL) Fire Department, EMCAT enables a trainee to assume the role of fireground commander and make quick decisions on best use of his fire fighting personnel and equipment.

  7. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  8. INL@Work Firefighter

    ScienceCinema

    Baron, Wendy

    2013-05-28

    Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

  9. INL@Work Firefighter

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

  10. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are working jointly to develop a helicopter transportable firefighting module that can shave precious minutes in combating shipboard or harbor fires. The program was undertaken in 1975, after a series of disastrous fires on oil tankers indicated a need for a lightweight, self-contained system that could be moved quickly to the scene of a fire. A prototype module was delivered to the Coast Guard last year and service testing is under way. The compact module weighs little more than a ton but it contains everything needed to fight a fire. The key component is a high output pump, which delivers up to 2,000 gallons of sea water a minute; the pump can be brought up to maximum output in only one minute after turning on the power source, a small Allison gas turbine engine. The module also contains hose, a foam nozzle and a spray nozzle, three sets of protective clothing for firefighters, and fuel for three hours operation. Designed to be assembled without special tools, the module can be set up for operation in less than 20 minutes.

  11. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  12. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  13. FIREFIGHTER POCKET CARDS

    E-print Network

    TEXAS FIREFIGHTER POCKET CARDS UPDATED: FEBRUARY 2014 #12;#12;i Table of Contents Guide.............................................................................. Predictive Service Area Map................................................... Firefighter Pocket Cards 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 62 68 69 #12;1 Firefighter's Guide to Percentiles

  14. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 ?g/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 ?g/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  15. Improved Clothing for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Application of space technology should reduce incidence of injuries, heat exhaustion, and fatigue in firefighters. Using advanced materials and design concepts of aerospace technology, protective gear was fabricated and tested for the heat, face, torso, hand and foot. In tests, it was found that new gear protects better than conventional firefighter gear, weighs 40 percent less, and reduces wearer's energy expenditure by 25 percent.

  16. Improved Gloves for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J.

    1983-01-01

    New firefighter's gloves are more flexible and comfortable than previous designs. Since some firefighters prefer gloves made of composite materials while others prefer dip-coated gloves, both types were developed. New gloves also find uses in foundries, steelmills, and other plants where they are substituted for asbestos gloves.

  17. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  18. Advanced Transceivers for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blood, B. D.; Gandhi, O. P.; Radke, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Report presents concept of improved portable radio transceiver for firefighters. Based in part on study of propagation of radio waves in such environments as high-rise buildings, ships, and tunnels. Study takes into account possible health hazard posed by personal tranceivers and needs and wishes expressed by firefighters in interviews. Conceptual radio attaches to clothing to allow hands-free use; voice-actuated with microphone worn at throat. Speaker placed near wearer's shoulder. Flexible antenna placed either horizontally across shoulders, vertically at one shoulder, or on transceiver itself.

  19. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  20. Firefighting module development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1981-10-01

    The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

  1. Firefighting module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

  2. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section...Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master...that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board...

  3. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section...Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station...

  4. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section...Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station...

  5. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section...Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master...that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board...

  6. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section...Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station...

  7. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section...Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station...

  8. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section...Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master...that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board...

  9. 49 CFR 195.430 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 195.430 Section...Operation and Maintenance § 195.430 Firefighting equipment. Each operator shall maintain adequate firefighting equipment at each pump station...

  10. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section...Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master...that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board...

  11. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section...Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master...that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board...

  12. Hardiness in professional Spanish firefighters.

    PubMed

    De la Vega, Ricardo; Ruiz, Roberto; Gómez, Juan; Rivera, Oswaldo

    2013-10-01

    As a high risk, physically demanding, and stressful profession, firefighting presents an ideal context for the study of hardiness. Hardiness of professional Spanish firefighters was assessed. Participants (53 firefighters; M age = 36.1 yr., SD = 8.2) volunteered to complete the adapted Spanish version of the Personal Views Survey. Results showed that participants' mean Hardiness score was slightly high. Hardiness was influenced by years of service. Spanish firefighters present a homogenous set of personal characteristics related to managing stressful working circumstances. The effect of experience on Hardiness levels is discussed. PMID:24611261

  13. KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with an aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Kennedy Space Center aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle supports heavy traffic at the Space Coast Regional Airport in Titusville, Florida, where aircraft capable of carrying water were staged during the recent brushfires throughout Florida. Aircraft were supporting firefighting efforts in Brevard, Volusia, and Flagler counties.

  14. Task: Firefighters Coordination System 4 System story

    E-print Network

    Task: Firefighters Coordination System 4 System story Summary: The goal is to develop a smart Firefighters Coordination System (FCS). The main objective of this system is to ensure that information is effectively spread among a team of firefighters and also is propagated from a firefighter to and from his

  15. Slow firefighting M.E. Messinger

    E-print Network

    Bonato, Anthony

    Slow firefighting M.E. Messinger S.P. Yarnell Mount Allison University #12;Slow firefighting M graph At step , the pyro burns vertex At step , the firefighter "moves" and then the pyro "moves" select burned vertices? ·burn a particular set of vertices? ·avoid containment? pyro firefighter ·minimize

  16. The firefighter problem with more than one firefighter on trees

    E-print Network

    Bazgan, Cristina; Ries, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the complexity of the firefighter problem and related problems on trees when more than one firefighter is available at each time step, and answer several open questions of Finbow and MacGillivray 2009. More precisely, when $b \\geq 2$ firefighters are allowed at each time step, the problem is NP-complete for trees of maximum degree $b+2$ and polynomial-time solvable for trees of maximum degree $b+2$ when the fire breaks out at a vertex of degree at most $b+1$. Moreover we present a polynomial-time algorithm for a subclass of trees, namely $k$-caterpillars.

  17. Sizing Firefighters: Method and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Routley, J. Gordon; Wilbur, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article reports new anthropometric information of U.S. firefighters for fire apparatus design applications (Study 1) and presents a data method to assist in firefighter anthropometric data usage for research-to-practice propositions (Study 2). Background Up-to-date anthropometric information of the U.S. firefighter population is needed for updating ergonomic and safety specifications for fire apparatus. Method A stratified sampling plan of three-age by three-race/ethnicity combinations was used to collect anthropometric data of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the U.S. regions; 71 anthropometric dimensions were measured (Study 1). Differences among original, weighted, and normality transformed data from Study 1 were compared to allowable observer errors (Study 2). Results On average, male firefighters were 9.8 kg heavier and female firefighters were 29 mm taller than their counterparts in the general U.S. population. They also have larger upper-body builds than those of the general U.S. population. The data in weighted, unweighted, and normality transformed modes were compatible among each other with a few exceptions. Conclusion The data obtained in this study provide the first available U.S. national firefighter anthropometric information for fire apparatus designs. The data represent the demographic characteristics of the current firefighter population and, except for a few dimensions, can be directly employed into fire apparatus design applications without major weighting or nonnormality concerns. Application The up-to-date firefighter anthropometric data and data method will benefit the design of future fire apparatus and protective equipment, such as seats, body restraints, cabs, gloves, and bunker gear. PMID:25141595

  18. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Underground rescue and firefighting operations. 57.4362 Section... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Underground rescue and firefighting operations. 57.4362 Section... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Underground rescue and firefighting operations. 57.4362 Section... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Underground rescue and firefighting operations. 57.4362 Section... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Underground rescue and firefighting operations. 57.4362 Section... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue and firefighting operations. Following...

  3. Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

  4. Colour vision requirements of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

    1996-04-01

    To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended. PMID:8776247

  5. Parameterized Complexity of Firefighting Revisited

    E-print Network

    Cygan, Marek; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan

    2011-01-01

    The Firefighter problem is to place firefighters on the vertices of a graph to prevent a fire with known starting point from lighting up the entire graph. In each time step, a firefighter may be permanently placed on an unburned vertex and the fire spreads to its neighborhood in the graph in so far no firefighters are protecting those vertices. The goal is to let as few vertices burn as possible. This problem is known to be NP-complete, even when restricted to bipartite graphs or to trees of maximum degree three. Initial study showed the Firefighter problem to be fixed-parameter tractable on trees in various parameterizations. We complete these results by showing that the problem is in FPT on general graphs when parameterized by the number of burned vertices, but has no polynomial kernel on trees, resolving an open problem. Conversely, we show that the problem is W[1]-hard when parameterized by the number of unburned vertices, even on bipartite graphs. For both parameterizations, we additionally give refined ...

  6. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping ...Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  7. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping ...Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  8. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping ...Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  9. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping ...Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  10. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping ...Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a) At each inspection for...

  11. Effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on firefighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshi, I.

    The results of studies to determine the amount of CO gas inhaled by firefighters during their firefighting with comparison between smokers and nonsmokers are discussed. It was found that the blood CO concentration after firefighting operations was considerably higher than in normal time, and that even normal time concentrations were higher in firefighters than in fire academy trainees. Smoking was found to be a major factor in increasing CO concentration.

  12. Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

  13. Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, R. J.

    1984-05-01

    The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

  14. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169...Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or...charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready...

  15. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169...Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or...charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready...

  16. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169...Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or...charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready...

  17. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169...Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or...charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready...

  18. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169...Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or...charge shall ensure that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times ready...

  19. 46 CFR 131.590 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 131.590 Section 131.590 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.590 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that the vessel's required firefighting equipment is on board...

  20. Firefighter Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite there being a significant amount of research investigating workplace learning, research exploring firefighter workplace learning is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore how firefighters conceptualize, report, and practice workplace learning. The researcher also investigated how firefighters

  1. Sleep Quality of Professional Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdad, Ramin; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Esfahani, Amir Hossein Naseri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Firefighting is a unique job with contradictious demands that expose firefighters to many well documented causal factors of sleep debt, but no studies in Iran and only a few worldwide studies have investigated their sleep quality while sleep problems may lead to catastrophes especially in critical service workers. The aim of this study is to evaluate sleep quality and its related factors among a sample of professional Iranian firefighters. Methods: Using simple random sampling method in a cross-sectional study, 427 personnel of fire and rescue service were invited. They completed the Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a data collection sheet about their demographic and occupational features during an individual face to face interview in central office and firehouses throughout Tehran. Response rate was 88.7%. Results: The mean ± SD global PSQI score was 7.97 ± 3.77. Sleep latency was the component of PSQI with the greatest degree of abnormality. 69.9% of participants were poor sleepers. Interestingly, we found no significant differences between sleep quality of shift workers and non shift workers. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, only having another job, smoking and years of job experience were predictors of poor sleep. Conclusions: In comparison with adult population of Tehran, sleep quality deterioration is notably more common in Tehran firefighters which require health promotion interventions to prevent its serious adverse outcomes. PMID:24130955

  2. Model Training Guide. Firefighter I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.; Gallagher, Leigh S.

    This firefighter training guide for a 180-hour course was developed to assist training officers in planning training with emphasis on conformance to recommended National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 1001) standards. The material in the guide is referenced to current editions of the International Fire Service Training Association manuals and…

  3. Firefighting Women and Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosell, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Survey responses were received from 37 of 103 department chiefs and 206 of 1,108 female firefighters. The 58% who reported sexual harassment indicated greater stress, sexual stereotyping, acts of violence, use of sick leave, and fear. Although most departments have a policy, over half of those harassed did not report incidents. (SK)

  4. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...shall provide an adequate supply of firefighting equipment which is adapted to...

  5. 78 FR 65678 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...departments using paid- on-call firefighting personnel--not less than 25 percent...departments using paid-on-call firefighting personnel--not less than 10 percent...among urban, suburban, and rural firefighting needs, AFG has different...

  6. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section 176.164... § 176.164 Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters...installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e) A vessel...

  7. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  8. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section 176.164... § 176.164 Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters...installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e) A vessel...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...shall provide an adequate supply of firefighting equipment which is adapted to...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...shall provide an adequate supply of firefighting equipment which is adapted to...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...shall provide an adequate supply of firefighting equipment which is adapted to...

  12. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  13. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  14. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...from— (a) A course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  15. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section 176.164... § 176.164 Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters...installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e) A vessel...

  16. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  17. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section 176.164... § 176.164 Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters...installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e) A vessel...

  18. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...from— (a) A course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1108 - Firefighting equipment; requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...MINES Fire Protection § 77.1108 Firefighting equipment; requirements; general...shall provide an adequate supply of firefighting equipment which is adapted to...

  20. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for an original...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  1. 46 CFR 13.507 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.507 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.507 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  2. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for an original...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  3. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  4. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for an original...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  5. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  6. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...from— (a) A course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  7. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Fire precautions and firefighting. 176.164 Section 176.164... § 176.164 Fire precautions and firefighting. (a) Matches, lighters...installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e) A vessel...

  8. 46 CFR 13.207 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.207 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.207 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for an original...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  9. 46 CFR 13.307 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.307 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.307 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...from— (a) A course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  10. 46 CFR 13.407 - Eligibility: Firefighting course.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Eligibility: Firefighting course. 13.407 Section 13...Endorsement § 13.407 Eligibility: Firefighting course. Each applicant for a...completion from a course in shipboard firefighting, approved by the Commandant and...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 56.4330...drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. These...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 56.4330...drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. These...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 56.4330...drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. These...

  14. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 56.4330...drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. These...

  15. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 56.4330...drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. These...

  16. Automatic and Robust Breadcrumb System Deployment for Indoor Firefighter Applications

    E-print Network

    Stankovic, John A.

    Automatic and Robust Breadcrumb System Deployment for Indoor Firefighter Applications Hengchang Liu, implementation and eval- uation of an automatic and robust breadcrumb system for firefighter applications. Our General Terms Applications, Algorithms, Design, Experimentation Keywords Breadcrumb systems, firefighter

  17. 3/2 Firefighters are not enough

    E-print Network

    Feldheim, Ohad N

    2010-01-01

    The firefighter problem is a monotone dynamic process in graphs that can be viewed as modeling the use of a limited supply of vaccinations to stop the spread of an epidemic. In more detail, a fire spreads through a graph, from burning vertices to their unprotected neighbors. In every round, a small amount of unburnt vertices can be protected by firefighters. How many firefighters per turn, on average, are needed to stop the fire from advancing? We prove tight lower and upper bounds on the amount of firefighters needed to control a fire in the Cartesian planar grid and in the strong planar grid, resolving two conjectures of Ng and Raff.

  18. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a) At each inspection...

  19. High-Capacity, Portable Firefighting Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes an evaluation of firefighting module that delivers water at 5,000 gal/min (320 L/s). Is compact, self-contained, portable water pump. Besides firefighting, module used for flood control, pumping water into large vessels, and pump water from sinking ships.

  20. 46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.247 Section 169.247 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.247 Firefighting equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection and at...

  1. 46 CFR 169.839 - Firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment. 169.839 Section 169.839 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 169.839 Firefighting equipment. (a) The master or person in charge shall ensure that the...

  2. Firefighters versus Stotts: The End of Quotas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copus, David A.; Lindsay, Ronald

    1984-01-01

    The Supreme Court has ruled that a federal district court had no authority to require a municipal employer, in violation of the seniority provisions of its collective bargaining agreement, to lay off more senior White firefighters before laying off Black firefighters. (MLW)

  3. Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Clarice Robinson

    Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

  4. Learning amongst Norwegian Fire-Fighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Morten; Nja, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach…

  5. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  6. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation,...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall be held at least once every six months for persons assigned surface...

  13. Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n?=?322) and non-firefighters (n?=?107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters. PMID:24795815

  14. Medical impairing injuries among Swedish firefighters.

    PubMed

    Bylund, Per-Olof; Björnstig, Ulf

    1999-01-01

    Using insurance data, medically impairing injuries sustained by 111 firefighters were analyzed. The injury incidence per year among full-time working firefighters was 39 per 10 000, and among part-time working firefighters 6 per 10 000. More than half (51%) were injured during fitness training, 14% during job training, and 13% during emergency response, while 4% were injured in traffic crashes and 18% in other injury events. Soccer and floorball caused 82% of all fitness injuries, of which more than half were meniscal or sprain injuries of knees or ankles. None of those injured during emergency response suffered from burn injuries, however during job training 4 sustained burns. Less injurious fitness training and practice activities could greatly reduce impairing injuries among firefighters and consequently reduce economical losses and disability. PMID:12441425

  15. Fixed Parameter Tractable Algorithm for Firefighting Problem

    E-print Network

    Leung, Ming Lam

    2011-01-01

    The firefighter problem is defined as below. A fire initially breaks out at a vertex r on a graph G. In each step, a firefighter chooses to protect one vertex, which is not yet burnt. And the fire spreads out to its unprotected neighboring vertices afterwards. The objective of the problem is to choose a sequence of vertices to protect, in order to save maximum number of vertices from the fire. In this paper, we will introduce a parameter k into the firefighter problem and give several FPT algorithms using a random separation technique of Cai, Chan and Chan. We will prove firefighter problem is FPT on general graph if we take total number of vertices burnt to be a parameter. If we parameterize the number of protected vertices, we discover several FPT algorithms of the firefighter problem on degree bounded graph and unicyclic graph. Furthermore, we also study the firefighter problem on weighted and valued graph, and the problem with multiple fire sources on degree-bounded graph.

  16. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A training officer controls elements of a fire training exercise at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters tackled flames from a burning simulated aircraft.

  17. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A firefighter waits for his companions before tackling the flames on a simulated aircraft. Firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  18. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters in full gear wait to approach a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. The firefighters are with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

  19. A CB protective firefighter turnout suit.

    PubMed

    Barker, Roger; Deaton, Shawn; Liston, Gail; Thompson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research that developed a prototype chemical and biological (CB) protective firefighter suit. It is presented as a case study demonstrating an integrated systems approach to designing, developing and evaluating a protective clothing ensemble based on end user requirements. It includes a discussion of the process that was used to gain an understanding of firefighter performance needs for a structural turnout suit that also incorporated chemical protection. It describes the design features of the turnout suit that were developed to meet these expectations as well as the program of testing and evaluation used to characterize garment performance. It discusses ensemble level performance evaluations in instrumented fire manikin tests and man-in-stimulant test procedures. It describes studies conducted to determine the impact of prototype garment design features on heat stress, wear comfort and ergonomic function in structural firefighting applications. PMID:20540836

  20. 77 FR 37687 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal...) 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program year. It explains the differences, if any, between... expertise in the fields of fire prevention and firefighter safety research and development. Authority: 15...

  1. 76 FR 71048 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal...) 2011 Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program year. It explains the differences, if any, between... of fire prevention and firefighter safety research and development. Authority: 15 U.S.C. 2229,...

  2. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80...and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  3. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60...and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  4. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60...and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  5. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80...and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  6. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60...and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  7. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60...and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  8. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60...and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  9. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60...and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  10. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80...and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  11. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60...and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  12. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60...and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  13. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60...and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  14. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80...and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  15. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60...and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  16. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80...and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It...in charge to see that the vessel's firefighting equipment is at all times...

  17. 75 FR 23785 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal... Firefighters Grant program year, as well as an explanation for any differences from the guidelines recommended... prevention and firefighter safety research and development. Authority: 15 U.S.C. 2229, 2229a. FOR...

  18. Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment Tazama U. St. Julien

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Chris

    Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment Tazama U. St. Julien stjulien@cc.gatech.edu Chris The Firefighter Command Training Virtual Environment is being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration on fire from any angle; command firefighters and watch them execute those commands; and see realistic fire

  19. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  20. A MVC prototype for the landmarke firefighter navigation system

    E-print Network

    Beigl, Michael

    A MVC prototype for the landmarke firefighter navigation system Markus Scholz, Leonardo Ramirez Berning, Matthias Budde, Dimana Shishkova, Till Riedel and Michael Beigl I. INTRODUCTION FirefightersIT@Work project was to search for alternative approaches to support firefighters. From their work

  1. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  2. Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting Xiaodong Jiang1

    E-print Network

    Madiraju, Praveen

    Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting Xiaodong Jiang1 , Nicholas Y. Chen1 , Jason I. Hong. Based on an extensive field study of current firefighting practices, we have developed a system called Siren to support tacit communication between firefighters with multiple levels of redundancy in both

  3. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212... May Be Covered § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social Security coverage purposes under section 218 of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position...

  6. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A firefighter (right) holds a water hose in readiness as others enter a smoke-filled simulated aircraft. The activities are part of fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters have already extinguished flames from the aircraft.

  7. Determining Best Practices to Reduce Occupational Health Risks in Firefighters.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Suzanne L; Phillips, Jonathan S; Twilbeck, Travis J

    2015-07-01

    The physical demands of firefighting are extensive, and firefighters face increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal injury, and cancer. To reduce these risks, a tailored wellness initiative program (FIT Firefighter) was developed and executed. Implementation of FIT Firefighter, consisting of assessment, educational, instructional, and personal coaching and training elements regarding nutrition, health, fitness, wellness, and strength and conditioning, revealed enhanced healthy behavior change including increased motivation and marked improvements in blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, back flexibility, and biceps strength among participating firefighters. PMID:25563676

  8. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  9. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  10. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  11. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  13. Fire Service Training. Firefighting Procedures. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers firefighting procedures and principles. Emphasis is placed on pre-fire planning, the techniques for applying a plan to a course of action, and the selection of proper fire fighting procedures to meet specific needs. Besides the methods of…

  14. Task: Firefighters Coordination System 4 System story

    E-print Network

    a DEECo architecture for the firefighters coordination system as detailed as possible, following IRM the IRM-SA model together with the final DEECo architecture by hand. Make as many sketches as needed on the FCS requirements and the rules of IRM-SA and DEECo. #12;

  15. Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

  16. The NASA firefighter's breathing system program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

  17. Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

  18. Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

  19. Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard Murray

    2007-01-01

    Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

  20. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Firefighting Services and Response Timeframes. Additionally, you must list those resource... the required salvage and marine firefighting services and response timeframes. Table 155.4030(b)—Salvage and Marine Firefighting Services and Response Timeframes Service Location of incident...

  1. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Firefighting Services and Response Timeframes. Additionally, you must list those resource... salvage and marine firefighting services and response timeframes. Table 155.4030(b)—Salvage and Marine... and marine firefighting resource providers will coordinate with other response resources,...

  2. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30...SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30...SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77.1108-1...1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under...Department of Agriculture Forest Service Specification...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77.1108-1...1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under...Department of Agriculture Forest Service Specification...

  6. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. 291.530...Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies...as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the...

  7. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. 291.530...Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies...as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75...1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment shall be maintained in a...

  9. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050 Ensuring that the...successful salvage and/or marine firefighting operations, including equipment deployment...continuous training program. For marine firefighting providers, they meet the...

  10. 46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL. ...CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18 Firefighting equipment: General—TB/ALL. ...his responsibility to maintain this firefighting equipment in proper condition at...

  11. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?...

  12. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section...FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Type and quality of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-1 Section 75...Protection § 75.1100-1 Type and quality of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under this subpart...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1110 - Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. 77.1110 Section 77.1110...77.1110 Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment shall be continuously...

  15. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. 139.315... § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An...must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting and emergency medical response...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Type and quality of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-1 Section 75...Protection § 75.1100-1 Type and quality of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under this subpart...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 77.1109 Section 77...77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation plants...shall be equipped with the following firefighting equipment. (a) Each...

  18. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. 31.10-18a... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. (a...05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting systems required in part 154 of...

  19. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. 139.315... § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An...must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting and emergency medical response...

  20. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section...FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 77.1109 Section 77...77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation plants...shall be equipped with the following firefighting equipment. (a) Each...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77.1108-1 Section 77...Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under this §...

  3. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050 Ensuring that the...successful salvage and/or marine firefighting operations, including equipment deployment...continuous training program. For marine firefighting providers, they meet the...

  4. 46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL. ...CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18 Firefighting equipment: General—TB/ALL. ...his responsibility to maintain this firefighting equipment in proper condition at...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 77.1109 Section 77...77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation plants...shall be equipped with the following firefighting equipment. (a) Each...

  6. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...

  7. 46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL. ...CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18 Firefighting equipment: General—TB/ALL. ...his responsibility to maintain this firefighting equipment in proper condition at...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1110 - Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. 77.1110 Section 77.1110...77.1110 Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment shall be continuously...

  9. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. 139.315... § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An...must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting and emergency medical response...

  10. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237...102-70 Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. ...into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at...

  11. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050 Ensuring that the...successful salvage and/or marine firefighting operations, including equipment deployment...continuous training program. For marine firefighting providers, they meet the...

  12. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. 139.315... § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An...must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting and emergency medical response...

  13. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. 31.10-18a... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. (a...05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting systems required in part 154 of...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1110 - Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. 77.1110 Section 77.1110...77.1110 Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment shall be continuously...

  15. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...

  16. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?...

  17. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section...FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must...

  18. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. 31.10-18a... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. (a...05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting systems required in part 154 of...

  20. 75 FR 54026 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...RIN 1625-AA19 Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans...vessel response plan salvage and marine firefighting requirements for tank vessels carrying...rule entitled ``Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1110 - Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. 77.1110 Section 77.1110...77.1110 Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment shall be continuously...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75...1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment shall be maintained in a...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 77.1109 Section 77...77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation plants...shall be equipped with the following firefighting equipment. (a) Each...

  4. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section...FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must...

  5. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050 Ensuring that the...successful salvage and/or marine firefighting operations, including equipment deployment...continuous training program. For marine firefighting providers, they meet the...

  6. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Type and quality of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-1 Section 75...Protection § 75.1100-1 Type and quality of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under this subpart...

  8. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75...1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment shall be maintained in a...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77.1108-1 Section 77...Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under this §...

  11. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040 Section...FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a) You must...

  12. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237...102-70 Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. ...into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1110 - Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. 77.1110 Section 77.1110...77.1110 Examination and maintenance of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment shall be continuously...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Type and quality of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-1 Section 75...Protection § 75.1100-1 Type and quality of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under this subpart...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Type and quality of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-1 Section 75...Protection § 75.1100-1 Type and quality of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under this subpart...

  16. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. 31.10-18a... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. (a...05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting systems required in part 154 of...

  17. 46 CFR 31.10-18a - Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. 31.10-18a... Liquefied gas vessels: additional firefighting equipment inspections. (a...05-1, the master shall ensure that the firefighting systems required in part 154 of...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75...1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment shall be maintained in a...

  19. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...

  20. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050 Ensuring that the...successful salvage and/or marine firefighting operations, including equipment deployment...continuous training program. For marine firefighting providers, they meet the...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77.1108-1 Section 77...Protection § 77.1108-1 Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. Firefighting equipment required under this §...

  2. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237...102-70 Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. ...into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at...

  3. 46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL. ...CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18 Firefighting equipment: General—TB/ALL. ...his responsibility to maintain this firefighting equipment in proper condition at...

  4. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. 139.315... § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An...must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting and emergency medical response...

  5. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?...

  6. 75 FR 55973 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...RIN 1625-AA19 Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans...vessel response plan salvage and marine firefighting requirements for tank vessels carrying...required by the Salvage and Marine Firefighting final rule remains February 22,...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1100-3 - Condition and examination of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-3 Section 75...1100-3 Condition and examination of firefighting equipment. All firefighting equipment shall be maintained in a...

  8. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237...102-70 Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. ...into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at...

  9. 46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL. ...CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-18 Firefighting equipment: General—TB/ALL. ...his responsibility to maintain this firefighting equipment in proper condition at...

  10. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 77.1109 Section 77...77.1109 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. Preparation plants...shall be equipped with the following firefighting equipment. (a) Each...

  12. 48 CFR 237.102-70 - Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. 237...102-70 Prohibition on contracting for firefighting or security-guard functions. ...into contracts for the performance of firefighting or security-guard functions at...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 57.4330...57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures for the...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 57.4330...57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures for the...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 57.4330...57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures for the...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 57.4330...57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures for the...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 57.4330...57.4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine...shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures for the...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction...shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that...

  3. 75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative Agreements. DATES: Comments... Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Cooperative Agreements. OMB Number: 0596-NEW....

  4. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Heavy lift 1 Estimated. (2) Marine Firefighting: (i) Remote assessment and consultation Firefighter in voice contact with QI/Master/Operator. (ii) On-site fire assessment Firefighter representative on...

  5. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Heavy lift 1 Estimated. (2) Marine Firefighting: (i) Remote assessment and consultation Firefighter in voice contact with QI/Master/Operator. (ii) On-site fire assessment Firefighter representative on...

  6. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Heavy lift 1 Estimated. (2) Marine Firefighting: (i) Remote assessment and consultation Firefighter in voice contact with QI/Master/Operator. (ii) On-site fire assessment Firefighter representative on...

  7. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Heavy lift 1 Estimated. (2) Marine Firefighting: (i) Remote assessment and consultation Firefighter in voice contact with QI/Master/Operator. (ii) On-site fire assessment Firefighter representative on...

  8. Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Juha Ari; Koponen, Jani; Koikkalainen, Janne; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eight firefighters' exposure to Sthamex 3% AFFF (aqueous film forming foam) in the simulation of aircraft accidents at Oulu airport in Finland. Study was conducted in 2010 before limitation for the use of PFOA and PFOS in AFFFs. Due to prospective limitation also eight commercially available AFFFs were evaluated from occupational and environmental point of view to find substitutive AFFFs for future. The firefighters' exposure to twelve perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) was analyzed in order to observe the signs of accumulation during three consecutive training sessions. The firefighters' short-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) was analyzed by urinalysis of 2-butoxyacetic acid (2-BAA). For the background information also the concentration of PFAS in used AFFF-liquid was analyzed. Fire fighters' serum PFHxS and PFNA concentrations seemed to increase during the three training sessions although they were not the main PFAS in used AFFF. The statistical significance for the elevations was not able to test due to limited size of test group. In two training sessions, the average urinary excretions of 2-BAA exceeded the reference limit of the occupationally unexposed population. In the evaluations of the firefighting foams, non-fluorine based products were favored and the alcohol resistance properties of foams were recommended for consideration due to the increasing use of biofuels. PMID:25447453

  9. KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with a railroad tanker car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Kennedy Space Center railroad tanker car loaded with 20,000 gallons of water and retrofitted with a special attachment for directly filling fire trucks was transported to the scene of a fire in north Brevard County to assist with firefighting efforts.

  10. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131.535 Shipping...OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must...

  11. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131.535 Shipping...OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must...

  12. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131.535 Shipping...OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must...

  13. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping...DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-37 Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on...

  14. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131.535 Shipping...OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must...

  15. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping...DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-37 Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on...

  16. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping...DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-37 Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on...

  17. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping...DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-37 Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on...

  18. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131.535 Shipping...OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must...

  19. 46 CFR 98.30-37 - Firefighting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting requirements. 98.30-37 Section 98.30-37 Shipping...Tanks and Intermediate Bulk Containers § 98.30-37 Firefighting requirements. No person may lift a portable tank on...

  20. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80 Section 78.17-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to...

  1. 46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 196.15-60 Section 196.15-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person...

  2. 46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 97.15-60 Section 97.15-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person...

  3. 46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting equipment, general. 78.17-80 Section 78.17-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-80 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner, master, or person in charge to...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation... organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to pomptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable condition....

  5. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation... organizations. (b) Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to pomptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. (c) Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable condition....

  6. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  7. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  8. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  9. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  10. 46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must... drill, nor immediately before or after the abandon-ship drill. If none can be held on schedule,...

  11. 77 FR 39717 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Management Agency (FEMA) published a notice in the Federal Register at 77 FR 37687 notifying the public of... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal... Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program year. That notice included an incorrect docket ID of...

  12. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters in full gear douse a fire on a simulated aircraft. The firefighters, who are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  13. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters surround a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. Those at left wait their turn as the crew on the right turn their hoses toward the fire. The firefighters are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

  14. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  15. Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Firefighter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This competency-based education curriculum, developed by firefighters and educators in West Virginia, is designed for use as a resource for the development of improved firefighter training programs. It consists of an introductory note to the instructor and 140 competency sheets. These sheets deal with tasks in the following areas: general…

  16. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-11-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  17. The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Ralph A.

    1986-01-01

    The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

  18. Polymer Fabric Protects Firefighters, Military, and Civilians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In 1967, NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. In 2005, the PBI fiber and polymer business was sold to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form. PBI is now used in numerous firefighting, military, motor sports, and other applications.

  19. ZrP nanoplates based fire-fighting foams stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lecheng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Li, Hai

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting foam, as a significant innovation in fire protection, greatly facilitates extinguishments for liquid pool fire. Recently, with developments in LNG industry, high-expansion firefighting foams are also used for extinguishing LNG fire or mitigating LNG leakage. Foam stabilizer, an ingredient in fire-fighting foam, stabilizes foam bubbles and maintains desired foam volume. Conventional foam stabilizers are organic molecules. In this work, we developed a inorganic based ZrP (Zr(HPO4)2 .H2O, Zirconium phosphate) plates functionalized as firefighting foam stabilizer, improving firefighting foam performance under harsh conditions. Several tests were conducted to illustrate performance. The mechanism for the foam stabilization is also proposed. Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3122

  20. Firefighter safety: rampant unsafe practices as documented in mainstream media.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Woods, Jason; Sipes, Jan C; Toscano, Nicole; Bell, Derek E

    2014-01-01

    More than 30,000 firefighters are injured on the fireground each year. Literature suggests that injury often occurs when protective gear is not used properly. According to firefighters, failure to correctly wear protective equipment occurs for several reasons: (1) gear not used because of haste, (2) cumbersome gear can sometimes interfere with performance, and (3) cultural factors. The purpose of this study is to quantify improper gear and tactic use in a publicly available, online video repository in order to better understand unsafe firefighting. This was an Institutional Review Board-exempt study of public video records. A search for "fire fighting videos" was conducted at YouTube (www.youtube.com). The first 50 videos that contained volunteer or career firefighters at work fighting fires were selected evaluated for appropriate use of personal protective equipment and for safe behavior. The videos were evaluated by two highly experienced professional firefighters. Of the 50 videos reviewed, 25 (50%) demonstrated violations of firefighting safety principles. Of the unsafe videos, 21 (42%) displayed firefighters improperly using gear, while the other 4 (8%) were related to unsound tactics. The most common problem was failure to wear or properly secure a self-contained breathing apparatus when appropriate (14 videos or 28%). The second most common failure was lack of helmet, hood, or approved gloves (11 videos or 22%). In conclusion, firefighting as documented on YouTube is often unsafe because of failure to properly use personal protective equipment. Half of the videos reviewed contained unsafe practices. With such a shockingly high rate of unsafe firefighting, the profession is in need of additional education and reform. In response to this epidemic, a multidisciplinary educational program has been developed to improve firefighter awareness of gear limitations and burn injury risk. Effectiveness of educational programs should be documented in additional prospective studies. PMID:25106028

  1. Firefighter safety and photovoltaic installations research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backstrom, Robert; Dini, Dave

    2012-10-01

    Under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Assistance to Fire Fighters grant, UL LLC examined fire service concerns of photovoltaic (PV) systems. These concerns included firefighter vulnerability to electrical and casualty hazards when mitigating a fire involving photovoltaic (PV) modules systems. Findings include: 1. The electric shock hazard due to application of water is dependent on voltage, water conductivity, distance and spray pattern of the suppression stream. 2. Outdoor weather exposure rated electrical enclosures are not resistant to water penetration by fire hose streams. 3. Firefighter's gloves and boots afford limited protection against electrical shock provided the insulating surface is intact and dry. 4. "Turning off" an array is not a simple matter of opening a disconnect switch. 5. Tarps offer varying degrees of effectiveness. 6. Fire equipment scene lighting and exposure fires may illuminate PV systems sufficiently to cause a lock-on hazard. 7. Severely damaged PV arrays are capable of producing hazardous conditions. 8. Damage to modules from tools may result in both electrical and fire hazards. 9. Severing of conductors in both metal and plastic conduit results in electrical and fire hazards. 10. Responding personnel must stay away from the roofline in the event of modules or sections of an array sliding off the roof. 11. Fires under an array but above the roof may breach roofing materials and decking allowing fire to propagate into the attic space. Several tactical considerations were developed utilizing the data from the experiments.

  2. High exposure of California firefighters to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Park, June-Soo; Voss, Robert W; McNeel, Sandra; Wu, Nerissa; Guo, Tan; Wang, Yunzhu; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; Petreas, Myrto

    2015-03-01

    Concern about persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Californians prompted the state's biomonitoring program to conduct a study in firefighters, who are occupationally exposed to high levels of POPs. In this work we present serum concentrations of several classes of POPs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) in 101 Southern California firefighters. Despite recently reported declining trends of PBDEs in Californians, high levels were measured in firefighters' serum (?5PBDEs: median = 59.1 ng/(g of lipid); range = 18.8-714 ng/(g of lipid)) in comparison to other populations in California during the same period. In addition, nearly one-third of subjects had particularly high serum levels of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), consistent with other recent results in firefighters; this pattern may be a marker of recent firefighting activity. In contrast, serum levels of PCBs and OCPs measured in firefighters' sera were not elevated compared to U.S. levels. Multivariable analysis indicated that lower levels of serum PBDEs were associated with turnout gear cleaning and storage practices after fires. Our study supports the hypothesis that firefighting activities are likely to increase exposure to PBDEs and that good housekeeping and personal hygiene practices may reduce exposure to these compounds. PMID:25643236

  3. Field Tests for Evaluating the Aerobic Work Capacity of Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Gavhed, Désirée; Malm, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Working as a firefighter is physically strenuous, and a high level of physical fitness increases a firefighter’s ability to cope with the physical stress of their profession. Direct measurements of aerobic capacity, however, are often complicated, time consuming, and expensive. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlations between direct (laboratory) and indirect (field) aerobic capacity tests with common and physically demanding firefighting tasks. The second aim was to give recommendations as to which field tests may be the most useful for evaluating firefighters’ aerobic work capacity. A total of 38 subjects (26 men and 12 women) were included. Two aerobic capacity tests, six field tests, and seven firefighting tasks were performed. Lactate threshold and onset of blood lactate accumulation were found to be correlated to the performance of one work task (rs?=??0.65 and ?0.63, p<0.01, respectively). Absolute (mL·min?1) and relative (mL·kg?1·min?1) maximal aerobic capacity was correlated to all but one of the work tasks (rs?=??0.79 to 0.55 and ?0.74 to 0.47, p<0.01, respectively). Aerobic capacity is important for firefighters’ work performance, and we have concluded that the time to row 500 m, the time to run 3000 m relative to body weight (s·kg?1), and the percent of maximal heart rate achieved during treadmill walking are the most valid field tests for evaluating a firefighter’s aerobic work capacity. PMID:23844153

  4. Firefighter Hand Anthropometry and Structural Glove Sizing: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Hildreth, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the current use and fit of structural firefighting gloves and developed an improved sizing scheme that better accommodates the U.S. firefighter population. Background Among surveys, 24% to 30% of men and 31% to 62% of women reported experiencing problems with the fit or bulkiness of their structural firefighting gloves. Method An age-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the United States participated in the study. Fourteen hand dimensions relevant to glove design were measured. A cluster analysis of the hand dimensions was performed to explore options for an improved sizing scheme. Results The current national standard structural firefighting glove-sizing scheme underrepresents firefighter hand size range and shape variation. In addition, mismatch between existing sizing specifications and hand characteristics, such as hand dimensions, user selection of glove size, and the existing glove sizing specifications, is significant. An improved glove-sizing plan based on clusters of overall hand size and hand/finger breadth-to-length contrast has been developed. Conclusion This study presents the most up-to-date firefighter hand anthropometry and a new perspective on glove accommodation. The new seven-size system contains narrower variations (standard deviations) for almost all dimensions for each glove size than the current sizing practices. Application The proposed science-based sizing plan for structural firefighting gloves provides a step-forward perspective (i.e., including two women hand model–based sizes and two wide-palm sizes for men) for glove manufacturers to advance firefighter hand protection. PMID:26169309

  5. Why Firefighting Is Never Enough: Preserving High-Quality Product

    E-print Network

    Black, Laura

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we add to insights already developed in single-project models about insufficient resource allocation and the "firefighting" and last-minute rework that often result by asking why dysfunctional resource ...

  6. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  7. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  8. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  9. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  10. 49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provided with a fixed fire extinguishing system. Each adjacent cargo compartment either must be protected by a fixed fire extinguishing installation or must be accessible for firefighting operations. (e)...

  11. The Relationship between Chronotype and Sleep Quality in Korean Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji-Ae; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung-Sook; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the relationship between chronotype and sleep disturbance, and assessed various factors that might be associated with sleep disturbance in Korean firefighters. Methods Self-administered questionnaires assessing chronotype, depression, alcohol use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress response and sleep quality were examined in 515 firefighters. Results Evening type firefighters more reported depression, alcohol use, PTSD, stress response and sleep disturbance. Also evening chronotype was the most significant risk factor for poor sleep quality (odds ratio [OR], 4.812; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.448–9.459), even after controlling for all other variables (OR, 3.996; 95% CI, 1.806–8.841). Conclusion Chronotype was the factor most strongly associated with sleep disturbance, and therefore should be considered an important variable in sleep quality, particularly in occupations involving stressful activities, such as firefighting. PMID:26243849

  12. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., turn their hoses toward the fire on the simulated aircraft.

  13. DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE OF BOAT UNDER THE WATERLINE. ZINCS ARE ALSO ADDED HERE TO PRESERVE THE METAL. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York, New York County, NY

  14. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    SciTech Connect

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  15. Development of a walking aerobic capacity test for structural firefighters.

    PubMed

    Moore, Karlie J; Penry, Jason T; Gunter, Katherine B

    2014-08-01

    Firefighting requires high fitness to perform job tasks and minimize risk of job-related cardiac death. To reduce this risk, the International Association of Firefighters has recommended firefighters possess a VO2max ? 42 ml·kg-1·min-1. This recommendation is not universally applied because existing screening tests require costly equipment and do not accommodate firefighters unable to run. The purpose of this study was to develop a walking test to predict VO2max in firefighters using a standard treadmill. Thirty-eight male firefighters wore a vest weighing 20% of their body weight and performed a walking VO2max test on a standard treadmill. Walking speed was dependent on leg length and ranged from 3.6 to 4.3 mph. The test began with a 3-minute warm-up, after which the speed was increased to test speed. Every minute thereafter, the grade increased 1% until participants reached exhaustion. For cross-validation, 13 firefighters also performed a running VO2max test. The average test time was 16.95 ± 2.57 minutes (including warm-up) and ranged between 8 and 22 minutes. Average VO2max was 48.4 ± 6.5 ml·kg-1·min-1. Stepwise linear regression included time as the only significant independent variable explaining 76% of the variance in VO2max (p < 0.001). The standard error of the estimate was 3.2 ml·kg-1·min-1. The equation derived is: VO2max (ml·kg·min-1) = 11.373 + time (minute) × 2.184. On average, VO2max values measured while walking were 4.62 ± 5.86 ml·kg-1·min-1, lower than running values. This test has good potential for predicting VO2max among structural firefighters, and minimal equipment needs make it feasible for fire departments to administer. PMID:24552804

  16. Economic benefit of the PHLAME wellness programme on firefighter injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Work-related injuries and illness are prevalent and costly. Firefighting is especially hazardous and many firefighters sustain work-related injuries. Workplace health promotion programmes have shown positive return on investment (ROI). Little is known about how similar programmes would impact injury and cost among firefighters. Aims To evaluate the impact of a workplace health promotion intervention on workers’ compensation (WC) claims and medical costs among Oregon fire departments participating in the PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models’ Effects) health promotion programme compared with Oregon fire departments not participating in PHLAME. Methods Data from firefighters from four large urban fire departments in Oregon were evaluated using a retrospective quasi-experimental study design. Outcomes were (i) total annual firefighter WC claims, (ii) total annual incurred medical costs prior to and after implementation of the PHLAME firefighter worksite health promotion programme (iii) and an ROI analysis. Results Data were obtained from 1369 firefighters (mean age of 42 years, 91% white, 93% male). WC claims (P < 0.001) and medical costs (P < 0.01) were significantly lower among PHLAME fire departments compared with Oregon fire departments not participating in the programme. Fire departments participating in the PHLAME TEAM programme demonstrated a positive ROI of 4.61–1.00 (TEAM is used to indicate the 12-session peer-led health promotion programme). Conclusions Fire department WC claims and medical costs were reduced after implementation of the PHLAME workplace health promotion programme. This is a low cost, team-based, peer-led, wellness programme that may provide a feasible, cost-effective means to reduce firefighter injury and illness rates. PMID:23416849

  17. Physiological responses to simulated firefighter exercise protocols in varying environments.

    PubMed

    Horn, Gavin P; Kesler, Richard M; Motl, Robert W; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Petrucci, Matthew N; Fernhall, Bo; Rosengren, Karl S

    2015-01-01

    For decades, research to quantify the effects of firefighting activities and personal protective equipment on physiology and biomechanics has been conducted in a variety of testing environments. It is unknown if these different environments provide similar information and comparable responses. A novel Firefighting Activities Station, which simulates four common fireground tasks, is presented for use with an environmental chamber in a controlled laboratory setting. Nineteen firefighters completed three different exercise protocols following common research practices. Simulated firefighting activities conducted in an environmental chamber or live-fire structures elicited similar physiological responses (max heart rate: 190.1 vs 188.0 bpm, core temperature response: 0.047°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and accelerometry counts. However, the response to a treadmill protocol commonly used in laboratory settings resulted in significantly lower heart rate (178.4 vs 188.0 bpm), core temperature response (0.037°C/min vs 0.043°C/min) and physical activity counts compared with firefighting activities in the burn building. Practitioner Summary: We introduce a new approach for simulating realistic firefighting activities in a controlled laboratory environment for ergonomics assessment of fire service equipment and personnel. Physiological responses to this proposed protocol more closely replicate those from live-fire activities than a traditional treadmill protocol and are simple to replicate and standardise. PMID:25597759

  18. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  19. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers....

  20. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers....

  1. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers....

  2. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in...

  3. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in...

  4. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or...

  5. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.417 What...

  6. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What firefighting and fire protection equipment must...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.402 What firefighting and fire protection equipment...

  7. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.417 What...

  8. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in...

  9. 33 CFR 149.402 - What firefighting and fire protection equipment must be approved by the Coast Guard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What firefighting and fire protection equipment must...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.402 What firefighting and fire protection equipment...

  10. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or...

  11. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.417 What...

  12. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.417 What...

  13. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in...

  14. 33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.417 What...

  15. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or...

  16. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or...

  17. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures...DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149...the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or...

  18. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident...arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in...

  19. Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A leading contributing factor to firefighter injury and death is lack of fitness. Therefore, the Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) was established that includes a focus on providing fitness assessments to all fire service personnel. The current fitness assessment includes a submaximal exercise test protocol and associated prediction equation to predict individual VO2peak as a measure of fitness. There is limited information on the accuracy, precision, and sources of error of this prediction equation. This study replicated previous research by validating the accuracy of the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for a group of firefighters and further examining potential sources of error for an individual firefighters’ assessment. Methods The sample consisted of 22 firefighters who completed a maximal exercise test protocol similar to the WFI submaximal protocol, but the test was terminated when firefighters reached a maximal level of exertion (i.e., measured VO2peak). We then calculated the predicted VO2peak based on the WFI prediction equation along with individual firefighters’ body mass index (BMI) and 85% of maximum heart rate. The data were analyzed using paired samples t-tests in SPSS v. 21.0. Results The difference between predicted and measured VO2peak was -0.77?±?8.35 mL•kg-1•min-1. However, there was a weak, statistically non-significant association between measured VO2peak and predicted VO2peak (R2?=?0.09, F(1,21)?=?2.05, p?=?0.17). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC?=?0.215, p?>?0.05) and Pearson (r?=?0.31, p?=?0.17) and Spearman (??=?0.28, p?=?0.21) correlation coefficients were small. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 8.5 mL•kg-1•min-1. Further, both age and baseline fitness level were associated with increased inaccuracy of the prediction equation. Conclusions We provide data on the inaccuracy and sources of error for the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for predicting fitness level in individual firefighters, despite apparently accurate predictions for a group of firefighters. These results suggest that the WFI prediction equation may need to be reevaluated as a means of precisely determining fitness for individual firefighters, which may affect employment status, duty assignment, and overall life safety of the firefighter. PMID:24860611

  20. Validation of a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Anthony T; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K; Cowen, Tiffany L; Huq, Mona B Sayedul; Delisle, Alexis D; Stopka, Christine B; Tillman, Mark D

    2014-10-01

    Currently, a submaximal protocol is used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters by estimating their true aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max); however, this submaximal test has not been cross-validated among firefighters. Thirty firefighters (85% male, 15% female), completed the submaximal protocol and the maximal (Bruce) treadmill protocol on separate occasions. Pearson's correlation analyses between the submaximal and Bruce protocol revealed a significant moderate positive correlation (r = 0.635, p = 0.005). The range of mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values and SDs produced from the submaximal and maximal protocols varied greatly (35.4-50.9 vs. 28.6-58.4 ml·kg·min, and SD of 3.91 vs. 7.22, respectively). The submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test underestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the majority of firefighters (72.4%) and overestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the remainder of firefighters. Participants with a higher body fat percentage were more likely (p = 0.0157) to have an overestimated true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max than those with a lower-body fat percentage. Our results indicate the current submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters is an improvement over previous protocols. However, our findings also show that the accuracy of this submaximal test for predicting the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in firefighters is questionable, and may not identify firefighters who possess substandard cardiorespiratory fitness, particularly in those with a higher percentage of body fat. Thus, the results of this study indicate that improvements to the current Fire Service Joint Management, Wellness & Fitness Initiative (WFI) V[Combining Dot Above]O2 assessment is still needed to accurately reflect the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of individual firefighters. PMID:24714540

  1. Effects of air bottle design on postural control of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Hur, Pilwon; Park, Kiwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) air bottle design and vision on postural control of firefighters. Twenty-four firefighters were tested using four 30-minute SCBA bottle designs that varied by mass and size. Postural sway measures were collected using a forceplate under two visual conditions (eyes open and closed) and two stance conditions (quiet and perturbed stances). For perturbed stance, a mild backward impulsive pull at the waist was applied. In addition to examining center of pressure postural sway measures for both stance conditions, a robustness measure was assessed for the perturbation condition. The results suggest that wearing heavy bottles significantly increased excursion and randomness of postural sway only in medial-lateral direction but not in anterior-posterior direction. This result may be due to stiffening of plantar-flexor muscles. A significant interaction was obtained between SCBA bottle design and vision in anterior-posterior postural sway, suggesting that wearing heavy and large SCBA air bottles can significantly threaten postural stability in AP direction in the absence of vision. SCBA bottle should be redesigned with reduced weight, smaller height, and COM closer to the body of the firefighters. Firefighters should also widen their stance width when wearing heavy PPE with SCBA. PMID:25683531

  2. 76 FR 58460 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Long-Term Retardant for Wildland Firefighting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection...Retardant for Wildland Firefighting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...revision. Abstract: The Forest Service and cooperating wildland firefighting agencies need...

  3. 76 FR 58461 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection...A Foams for Wildland Firefighting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...revision. Abstract: The Forest Service and cooperating wildland firefighting agencies need...

  4. 76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection...Gels) for Wildland Firefighting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...revision 1. Abstract: The Forest Service and cooperating wildland firefighting agencies need...

  5. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater...

  6. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater...

  7. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater...

  8. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater...

  9. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater...

  10. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...Guard [USCG-2012-0848] Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills...continuing response to the explosion, fire and sinking of the Mobile Offshore Drilling...voluntary guidance concerning lifesaving and fire-fighting equipment, training, and...

  11. 78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... currently approved information collection, Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and...

  12. 76 FR 58461 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... product to ensure that the product meets the needs of the firefighters in the field. The collection of... ensure the Agency can solicit and award contracts in a timely manner to provide firefighters with...

  13. 76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... of the firefighters in the field. The collection of this information for each product submission is... timely manner to provide firefighters with safe and effective wildland fire chemical products....

  14. Firefighting training for nuclear facility personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Ken L.; Bates, E.F.

    1980-07-01

    As a result of the Browns Ferry incident of 1975, an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to fire protection at nuclear power plants in the United States. Regulatory Guide 1.120, NUREG-0050, and NRC Branch Technical Position 9.5-1 were developed to specifically address the nature of such programs, including fire suppression training for plant fire brigades. In early 1978, the Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center (NSC) and the Fire Protection Training Division of the Texas Engineering Extension Service developed a one-week course emphasizing hands-on exercises to meet the need for training nuclear power plant personnel in firefighting skills. During the past two years six NSC staff members have completed the program, and the result has been greatly increased confidence and improved ability to handle fire situations as well as other types of emergencies. As a result of this, we believe that this type of training is very valuable, if not essential for selected research reactor personnel from each facility. Proposed standard ANS 15.17 would require that 'active fire protection elements' such as brigade training of this nature be a part of each research reactor's fire protection program. This paper discusses a special course that is designed for non-utility nuclear personnel needing combined fire and radiological emergency training. Included in the curriculum are classroom lectures on theory and numerous field exercises covering the use of breathing apparatus under fire conditions, application techniques for handheld extinguishers, and flammable liquid fire control. Special sessions cover the control of radioactive contamination in fire emergencies, with live isotopes used to give the student realistic training in this area. (author)

  15. Exposure of firefighters to diesel emissions in fire stations

    SciTech Connect

    Froines, J.R.; Hinds, W.C.; Duffy, R.M.; Lafuente, E.J.; Liu, W.C.

    1987-03-01

    Personal sampling techniques were used to evaluate firefighter exposure to particulates from diesel engine emissions. Selected fire stations in New York, Boston and Los Angeles were studied. Firefighter exposure to total particulates increased with the number of runs conducted during an 8-hr period. In New York and Boston where the response level ranged from 7 to 15 runs during an 8-hr shift, the resulting exposure levels of total airborne particulates from diesel exhaust were 170 to 480 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (TWA). Methylene chloride extracts of the diesel particulates averaged 24% of the total. The authors' findings suggest that additional research is necessary to assess fire station concentrations of vehicle diesel exhaust that may have adverse health consequences to firefighters.

  16. The NASA Firefighter's Breathing System Program: A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlan, Pat B.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through its Technology Utilization Program, has been making its advanced technology developments available to the public. This has coincided in recent years with a growing demand within the fire service for improved protective equipment. A better breathing system for firefighters was one of the more immediate needs identified by the firefighting organizations. The Johnson Space Center (JSC), based upon their experience in providing life support systems for space flight, was subsequently requested to determine the feasibility of providing an improved breathing system for firefighters. Such a system was determined to be well within the current state of the art, and the Center is well into a development program to provide design verification of this improved protective' equipment. This report - outlines the overall objectives of this program, progress to date, and future planned activities.

  17. 77 FR 42417 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...to quickly increase their firefighting workforce to address wildfire...many years, for experienced firefighting personnel. They wish not...are similarly situated to firefighting personnel in that they perform...and inside homes as well. Forest fires can also result...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures for the surface portions of their operations. These procedures shall...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures for the surface portions of their operations. These procedures shall...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue... firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. (a) Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures for the surface portions of their operations. These procedures shall...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting... Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting... Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction. Each operator of an underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable...

  4. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-30 Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which conform... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment....

  5. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency... SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes...

  6. Firefighter Training Virtual Environment (sketches_0264) Tazama U. St. Julien, Chris D. Shaw

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Chris

    Firefighter Training Virtual Environment (sketches_0264) Tazama U. St. Julien, Chris D. Shaw The Firefighter Training Simulation is a virtual environment being developed at Georgia Tech in collaboration firefighters to perform different actions to help put out virtual fires. This simulation was developed using

  7. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208...

  8. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency... SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes...

  9. Technical Support office Lecture on fire safety and practical firefighting exercise.

    E-print Network

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    INVITATION Technical Support office Lecture on fire safety and practical firefighting exercise firefighting training between the hours of 13:00 to 14:30 Lecture Hall B 315 in the South building, campus prevention and control protection. *Means of escape to safe area. *Selection of firefighting equipment

  10. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208...

  11. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency... SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes...

  12. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208...

  13. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208...

  14. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters... RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations § 842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement... or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier retiring under § 842.208...

  15. Technical Support office Lecture on fire safety and practical firefighting exercise.

    E-print Network

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    INVITATION Technical Support office Lecture on fire safety and practical firefighting exercise by the Department of Safety on Friday 9 october 2015. Theory between the hours 09:30 to 12:00 Practical firefighting protection. *Means of escape to safe area. *Selection of firefighting equipment - various extinguishing

  16. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency... SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes...

  17. 24 CFR 291.530 - Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligible firefighter/emergency... SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Good Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.530 Eligible firefighter/emergency medical technicians. A person qualifies as a firefighter/emergency medical technician for the purposes...

  18. Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=?-0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=?-0.82) and bench press (rs?=?-0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.83) and bench press (rs?=?-0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=?-0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=?-0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  19. Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=??0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=??0.82) and bench press (rs?=??0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.83) and bench press (rs?=??0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=??0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=??0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

  20. Exploring Physical Health in a Sample of Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Stacy; Gillespie, Gordon L; Christianson, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Firefighters' work responsibilities involve strenuous physical activity and exposure to extremely stressful situations. The purpose of this research study was to describe the physical activity, stress, and culture promoting or inhibiting a healthy work environment. A descriptive qualitative study design was used with a convenience sample of firefighters from an urban Midwestern public fire service. Respondents participated in focus groups from which data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Themes derived from the data were Stressors Affecting Physical Health, Barriers to Physical Health, Facilitators of Physical Health, and Motivators for Physical Health. Future research is needed to test interventions based on the study findings. PMID:26012517

  1. Effect of heat on firefighters' work performance and physiology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rodney; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-10-01

    Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking) in firefighting clothing for six hours, separated by dedicated rest breaks. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area). Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate were recorded continuously throughout the protocol. Urine output was measured before and during the protocol, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. Ad libitum fluid intake was also recorded. There were no differences in overall work output between conditions for any physical task. Heart rate was higher in the HOT (55±2% HRmax) compared to the CON condition (51±2% HRmax) for the rest periods between bouts, and for the static hose hold task (69±3% HRmax versus 65±3% HRmax). Tc and Tsk were 0.3±0.1°C and 3.1±0.2°C higher in the HOT compared to the CON trial. Both pre- and within- shift fluid intake were increased two-fold in the heat, and participants in the heat recorded lower USG results than their CON counterparts. There was no difference between the CON and HOT conditions in terms of their work performance, and firefighters in both experimental groups increased their work output over the course of the simulated shift. Though significantly hotter, participants in the heat also managed to avoid excessive cardiovascular and thermal strain, likely aided by the frequent rest breaks in the protocol, and through doubling their fluid intake. Therefore, it can be concluded that wildland firefighters are able to safely and efficiently perform their duties under hot conditions, at least over six hours. PMID:26590449

  2. Comparison of aerobic capacity in annually certified and uncertified volunteer firefighters.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Rodney L; Heath, Edward M

    2013-05-01

    The leading cause of mortality among firefighters has been cardiac arrest precipitated by stress and overexertion with volunteer firefighters having double the death rate from this cause compared with career firefighters. In an attempt to reduce on-duty sudden cardiac deaths, annual fitness testing, and certification, has been widely instigated in wildland firefighters, who have half the cardiac arrest death rate of structural firefighters. The hypothesis was that annual fitness testing would serve as motivation to produce higher cardiorespiratory fitness. This study compared predicted aerobic capacity in annually certified and uncertified volunteer firefighters. Each firefighter performed a submaximal treadmill test to predict V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. Certified volunteer firefighters, who participated in annual fitness testing, had a predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 39.9 ± 8.4 ml·kg·min. Uncertified volunteer firefighters had a predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 37.8 ± 8.5 ml·kg·min. Annual fitness testing during the certification process did not contribute to statistically higher (F2,78 = 0.627, p = 0.431) V[Combining Dot Above]O2max levels in certified volunteer firefighters. Although there was no significant difference in predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values for certified and uncertified volunteer firefighters, it was reported that 30% of volunteer firefighters had predicted aerobic capacities below the recommended minimum V[Combining Dot Above]O2max level of 33.5 ml·kg·min. Current annual fitness testing for volunteer firefighters does not seem to be effective. Thus, the study emphasizes the need of a higher priority for firefighter fitness programs to best ensure the safety of firefighters and the public. PMID:22744416

  3. Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting

    E-print Network

    Hartke, Stephen

    38 Chapter 3 Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting 3 are occurring. This is particularly relevant in disease spread processes, where vaccinations and quarantines then on. The response allowed is only a limited number of vaccinations of non­infected vertices

  4. Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting

    E-print Network

    Hartke, Stephen

    38 Chapter 3 Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting 3 are occurring. This is particularly relevant in disease spread processes, where vaccinations and quarantines. The response allowed is only a limited number of vaccinations of non-infected vertices. Specifically, let G

  5. Operating experiences of retardant bombers during firefighting operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, J. W., Jr.; Morris, G. J.; Avery, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Data are presented on operational practices and maneuver accelerations experienced by two Douglas DC-6B airplanes converted to retardant bombers and used in firefighting operations. The data cover two fire seasons in the mountainous regions of the northwestern United States.

  6. A Firefighting Training Unit for the Royal Navy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Describes efforts to modernize the firefighting training facilities of the Royal Navy in the United Kingdom through the use of computer-controlled simulations of ship fires. The structure of a prototype compartment and the control system that sets up various training scenarios and modulates the environment in response to actions by the trainees…

  7. 30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 56.4330 Section 56.4330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control...

  8. Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

  9. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., wait while the NASA/USAF water carrier truck directs its water cannon toward a burning simulated aircraft (out of view).

  10. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer vehicle from Naval Station Mayport, Fla., stands by during fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. In the background is the simulated aircraft that was set on fire for the exercise. Firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station (in the background) gather around the site of the extinguished flames.

  11. Behind the Brotherhood: Rewards and Challenges for Wives of Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regehr, Cheryl; Dimitropoulos, Gina; Bright, Elaine; George, Sharon; Henderson, Joscelyn

    2005-01-01

    Support of family is paramount to reducing the impact of highly stressful work on firefighters. Yet the degree of stress encountered by the family members, particularly spouses, resulting from ongoing job demands and exposure to traumatic situations is unclear. This qualitative study examined the effects of emergency service work on spouses of…

  12. Pilot task-based assessment of noise levels among firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, RL; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational noise exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based noise exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential noise exposure sources, and to use collected task-based noise levels to create noise exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of noise-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for noise of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. METHODS Task-based noise exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These levels were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr noise exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. RESULTS Task-based noise levels were found to range from 82–109 dBA, with the highest levels resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate potential for overexposure to noise from a variety of firefighting tasks and equipment, and suggest a need for further exposure characterization and additional hearing loss prevention efforts. RELEVANCE TO INDUSTRY Firefighters may be at risk of noise-induced hearing loss, which can affect their fitness for duty and ability to respond effectively to emergencies. The results of this study suggest that additional efforts at hearing loss prevention among firefighters are warranted. PMID:24443622

  13. Biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams in water.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, A; Bergendahl, J; Rangwala, A

    2015-07-01

    Fluorinated fire-fighting foams may be released into the environment during fire-fighting activities, raising concerns due to the potential environmental and health impacts for some fluorinated organics. The current study investigated (1) the biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams, and (2) the applicability of current standard measures used to assess biodegradability of fluorinated fire-fighting foams. The biodegradability of three fluorinated fire-fighting foams was evaluated using a 28-day dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Die-Away Test. It was found that all three materials, diluted in water, achieved 77-96% biodegradability, meeting the criteria for "ready biodegradability". Defluorination of the fluorinated organics in the foam during biodegradation was measured using ion chromatography. It was found that the fluorine liberated was 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated initial amount, indicating incomplete degradation of fluorinated organics, and incomplete CF bond breakage. Published biodegradability data may utilize biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) metrics to quantify organics. COD and TOC of four fluorinated compounds were measured and compared to the calculated carbon content or theoretical oxygen demand. It was found that the standard dichromate-based COD test did not provide an accurate measure of fluorinated organic content. Thus published biodegradability data using COD for fluorinated organics quantification must be critically evaluated for validity. The TOC measurements correlated to an average of 91% of carbon content for the four fluorinated test substances, and TOC is recommended for use as an analytical parameter in fluorinated organics biodegradability tests. PMID:25813673

  14. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke. PMID:24566608

  15. The effect of a novel tactical training program on physical fitness and occupational performance in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Ross; Clasey, Jody L; Palmer, Thomas; Symons, Thorburn B; Abel, Mark G

    2015-03-01

    Structural firefighting is a dangerous and physically demanding profession. Thus, it is critical that firefighters exercise regularly to maintain optimal physical fitness levels. However, little is known about optimal training methods for firefighters, and exercise equipment is often not available to on-duty firefighters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a novel supervised on-duty physical training program on the physical fitness and occupational performance of structural firefighters. Twenty professional male firefighters were divided into a supervised exercise group (SEG; n = 11) and a control group (CG; n = 9). The SEG participated in a 12-week circuit training intervention. The SEG exercised for 1 hour on 2 d·wk. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects performed a battery of physical fitness tests and a simulated fire ground test (SFGT). At baseline, there were no significant differences (p = 0.822) in the completion rate of the SFGT in the SEG (82%) vs. the CG (78%). After the intervention, a significantly greater proportion of the firefighters in the SEG completed the SFGT compared with the CG (SEG = 100% vs. CG = 56%; p < 0.013). In addition, the SEG demonstrated significant improvements in body mass, fat mass, and body mass index (p ? 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that training with firefighter equipment improved occupational performance and anthropometric outcomes in incumbent firefighters. Furthermore, implementing a supervised exercise program using firefighter equipment can be done so in a safe and feasible manner. PMID:25162645

  16. Simulated Firefighting Task Performance and Physiology Under Very Hot Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Williams-Bell, Michael; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of very hot (45°C) conditions on the performance of, and physiological responses to, a simulated firefighting manual-handling task compared to the same work in a temperate environment (18°C). Methods: Ten male volunteer firefighters performed a 3-h protocol in both 18°C (CON) and 45°C (VH). Participants intermittently performed 12 × 1-min bouts of raking, 6 × 8-min bouts of low-intensity stepping, and 6 × 20-min rest periods. The area cleared during the raking task determined work performance. Core temperature, skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously. Participants also periodically rated their perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation. Firefighters consumed water ad libitum. Urine specific gravity (USG) and changes in body mass determined hydration status. Results: Firefighters raked 19% less debris during the VH condition. Core and skin temperature were 0.99 ± 0.20 and 5.45 ± 0.53°C higher, respectively, during the VH trial, and heart rate was 14–36 beats.min?1 higher in the VH trial. Firefighters consumed 2950 ± 1034 mL of water in the VH condition, compared to 1290 ± 525 in the CON trial. Sweat losses were higher in the VH (1886 ± 474 mL) compared to the CON trial (462 ± 392 mL), though both groups were hydrated upon protocol completion (USG < 1.020). Participants' average RPE was higher in the VH (15.6 ± 0.9) compared to the CON trial (12.6 ± 0.9). Similarly, the firefighers' thermal sensation scores were significantly higher in the VH (6.4 ± 0.5) compared to the CON trial (4.4 ± 0.4). Conclusions: Despite the decreased work output and aggressive fluid replacement observed in the VH trial, firefighters' experienced increases in thermal stress, and exertion. Fire agencies should prioritize the health and safety of fire personnel in very hot temperatures, and consider the impact of reduced productivity on fire suppression efforts. PMID:26617527

  17. "It Happened in Seconds" Firefighter Burn Prevention Program: Evaluation of a "Train the Trainer" Course.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven A; Held, Jenny M; Hollowed, Kathleen A; Woods, Jason; Holmes, James H

    2016-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 100 firefighter fatalities and tens of thousands of injuries in the United States. 'It Happened in Seconds' is a firefighter burn injury awareness program offered to firefighters nationwide. The course focuses on situational awareness, personal protective equipment, and burn injury prevention. In order to create more instructors, a 'Train the Trainer' instructor course was developed to prepare experienced firefighters and healthcare providers from around the United States to teach firefighters in their respective communities. This study evaluates trainees' perception of the instructor course. Three instructor courses were held in a period between November 2013 and January 2015. Trainees were asked to complete both precourse/postcourse assessments and provide demographics. In both surveys, trainees rated their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention and their awareness about firefighter-specific burn issues using a 5-point Likert Scale (1 = none and 5 = high). The postassessment asked if trainees thought the course should be mandatory for all firefighters. Pretest and post-test scores were compared using a Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. A total of 140 experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals completed the Train the Trainer course. The average age was 40 ± 9 years, and 41 were women and 99 men. The average trainee had 13.6 ± 9 years experience in his or her respective job and 11 ± 9 years experience in burn care. Trainees reported a significant increase in their confidence to instruct firefighters about burn prevention (2.9/5 precourse vs 4.5/5 postcourse, P < .0001) and in their current awareness of firefighter-specific burn issues (3.2 precourse vs 4.4 postcourse, P < .0001). In the postcourse assessment, 139 of 140 respondents agreed that the 'It Happened in Seconds' course should be mandatory for all firefighters. This study showed that experienced firefighters and healthcare professionals thought that the course significantly improved their awareness level of issues specific to firefighter burn injury as well as their confidence in teaching these concepts to firefighters. Based on this positive evaluation, additional instructors will be trained to provide the course to all firefighters nationwide. Additional research must be conducted to evaluate whether the 'It Happened in Seconds' course results in a decreased rate of firefighter burn injuries. PMID:26284648

  18. Doffing procedures for firefighters' contaminated turnout gear: Documentation for videotape

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report summarizes the doffing procedures and provides a copy of the videotape script, which includes a fire brigade returning to a mock decontamination area after dealing with a simulated fire. The report also provides background information explaining why the videotape was made, how the project was accomplished, and what the procedures are intended to accomplish. Overall, the video gives step-by-step instructions for the removal of contaminated turnout gear and indicates how firefighters and radiation protection personnel can work together cooperatively. These new doffing procedures were developed with the advice and participation of actual nuclear power plant firefighting personnel at the Seabrook Station of New Hampshire Yankee utility and may be adapted to enhance any existing in-plant procedures. The video includes comments from members of the fire brigade, an equipment review, and a discussion of the doffing area arrangement.

  19. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF FIREFIGHTING AND ACTIVE COOLING DURING REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Duncan, Michael D.; Hu, Chengcheng; Littau, Sally R.; Caseman, Delayne; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Davis-Gorman, Grace; McDonagh, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the cardiovascular and hemostatic effects of fire suppression and post-exposure active cooling. Methods Forty-four firefighters were evaluated prior to and after a 12 minute live-fire drill. Next, 50 firefighters undergoing the same drill were randomized to post-fire forearm immersion in 10°C water or standard rehabilitation. Results In the first study, heart rate and core body temperature increased and serum C-reactive protein decreased but there were no significant changes in fibrinogen, sE-selectin or sL-selectin. The second study demonstrated an increase in blood coagulability, leukocyte count, factors VIII and X, cortisol and glucose, and a decrease in plasminogen and sP-selectin. Active cooling reduced mean core temperature, heart rate and leukocyte count. Conclusions Live-fire exposure increased core temperature, heart rate, coagulability and leukocyte count; all except coagulability were reduced by active cooling. PMID:23090161

  20. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  1. Vol. 34, No. 13 Friday, July 15, 2011 Lake City, Hinsdale County, Colorado 81235 U.S.P.S. No. 436-630 Firefighters Respond

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Joe

    -630 Firefighters Respond to Lightning Strike Fire at High Bridge Ranch Firefighters from Lake City Fire/Rescue, U spread to adjacent acreage without the firefighters' efforts, he said. In addition to Holley, others

  2. Basis for criticality category B firefighting designation for K Basins. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M.A.

    1995-03-23

    This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes.

  3. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 ?g/m(3) to 2700 ?g/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 ?g/m(3) to 355 ?g/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles. PMID:25679824

  4. Exposure of Firefighters to Particulates and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, C. Stuart; Hoffman, Joseph D.; Knipp, Michael J.; Reponen, Tiina; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Firefighting continues to be among the most hazardous yet least studied occupations in terms of exposures and their relationship to occupational disease. Exposures are complex, involving mixtures of particles and chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Adverse health effects associated with these agents include elevated incidences of coronary heart disease and several cancers. PAHs have been detected at fire scenes, and in the firehouse rest area and kitchen, routinely adjoining the truck bay, and where firefighters spend a major part of each shift. An academic-community partnership was developed with the Cincinnati Fire Department with the goal of understanding active firefighters' airborne and dermal PAH exposure. PAHs were measured in air and particulates, and number and mass concentrations, respectively, of submicron (0.02–1 ?m) and PM2.5 (2.5 ?m diameter and less) particles during overhaul events in two firehouses and a University of Cincinnati administrative facility as a comparison location. During overhaul firefighters evaluate partially combusted materials for re-ignition after fire extinguishment and commonly remove Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). Face and neck wipes were also collected at a domestic fire scene. Overhaul air samples had higher mean concentrations of PM2.5 and submicron particles than those collected in the firehouse, principally in the truck bay and kitchen. Among the 17 PAHs analyzed, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene were generally detectable. Naphthalene was present in 7 out of 8 overhaul activities, in 2 out of 3 firehouse (kitchen and truck bay) samples, and in none collected from the control site. In firefighter face and neck wipes a greater number of PAHs were found, several of which have carcinogenic activity, such as benzofluoranthene, an agent also found in overhaul air samples. Although the concentration for naphthalene, and all other individual PAHs, was very low, the potential simultaneous exposure to multiple chemicals even in small quantities in combination with high ultrafine particle exposure deserves further study. It is recommended that personal respiratory and skin protection be worn throughout the overhaul process. PMID:24512044

  5. Exposure of firefighters to particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C Stuart; Hoffman, Joseph D; Knipp, Michael J; Reponen, Tiina; Haynes, Erin N

    2014-01-01

    Firefighting continues to be among the most hazardous yet least studied occupations in terms of exposures and their relationship to occupational disease. Exposures are complex, involving mixtures of particles and chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Adverse health effects associated with these agents include elevated incidences of coronary heart disease and several cancers. PAHs have been detected at fire scenes, and in the firehouse rest area and kitchen, routinely adjoining the truck bay, and where firefighters spend a major part of each shift. An academic-community partnership was developed with the Cincinnati Fire Department with the goal of understanding active firefighters' airborne and dermal PAH exposure. PAHs were measured in air and particulates, and number and mass concentrations, respectively, of submicron (0.02-1 ?m) and PM2.5 (2.5 ?m diameter and less) particles during overhaul events in two firehouses and a University of Cincinnati administrative facility as a comparison location. During overhaul firefighters evaluate partially combusted materials for re-ignition after fire extinguishment and commonly remove Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). Face and neck wipes were also collected at a domestic fire scene. Overhaul air samples had higher mean concentrations of PM2.5 and submicron particles than those collected in the firehouse, principally in the truck bay and kitchen. Among the 17 PAHs analyzed, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene were generally detectable. Naphthalene was present in 7 out of 8 overhaul activities, in 2 out of 3 firehouse (kitchen and truck bay) samples, and in none collected from the control site. In firefighter face and neck wipes a greater number of PAHs were found, several of which have carcinogenic activity, such as benzofluoranthene, an agent also found in overhaul air samples. Although the concentration for naphthalene, and all other individual PAHs, was very low, the potential simultaneous exposure to multiple chemicals even in small quantities in combination with high ultrafine particle exposure deserves further study. It is recommended that personal respiratory and skin protection be worn throughout the overhaul process. PMID:24512044

  6. Cardiac strain associated with high-rise firefighting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous studies have reported the physiological strain associated with firefighting, cardiac responses during a large-scale fire operation have not been reported and cardiac responses have not been compared based on crew assignment. The aims of this study were (1) to characterize cardiac strain during simulated high-rise firefighting, and (2) to compare the cardiac strain associated with different work assignments (fire suppression vs. search and rescue) and different modes of vertical ascent (stairs vs. elevator). Firefighters (N = 42) completed one assignment (fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support) during one of two trials that differed by ascent mode. Assignments were divided into three phases: Ascent (ascend lobby to 8th floor), Staging (remain in holding area on 8th floor), and Work (perform primary responsibilities). When comparing assignments within the same ascent mode, mean heart rate (HRmean) was higher (p = 0.031) for fire suppression than for search and rescue during Work in the stair trial (170 ± 14 vs. 155 ± 11 beats/min). Search and rescue crews experienced greater cumulative cardiac strain (HRmean × duration) during Work than did fire suppression crews (stairs: 1978 ± 366 vs. 1502 ± 190 beats; elevator: 1755 ± 514 vs. 856 ± 232 beats; p<0.05). When comparing ascent mode, HRmean and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were higher (35-57 beats/min; p?0.001) for both fire suppression and search and rescue during Ascent and Staging phases in the stairs vs. the elevator trial. During Work, HRmean was higher (p = 0.046) for search and rescue in the stairs vs. the elevator trial (155 ± 11 vs. 138 ± 19 beats/min). HRmean and HRpeak were 47 and 34 beats/min higher (p < 0.01), respectively, when materials were transported to the staging area using the stairs compared with the elevator. Study findings suggest that high-rise firefighting results in considerable cardiac strain and that search and rescue and material support crews experienced more cardiac strain than fire suppression crews due primarily to differences in assignment duration. Furthermore, using stairs to transport firefighters and equipment to upper floors results in significantly greater cardiac strain than using the elevator. PMID:25369509

  7. Comparison of firefighters and non-firefighters and the test methods used regarding the effects of personal protective equipment on individual mobility.

    PubMed

    Son, Su-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Muraki, Satoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the current pilot test method and ascertain reliable measurements for a standard test method of mobility with personal protective equipment (PPE), such as physical performance and balance ability tests; 2) to compare two participant groups (firefighters versus non-firefighters) and to investigate whether non-firefighters are appropriate as a standard participant group in the field of PPE or not. Totally, 18 participants (nine professional firefighters and nine untrained males) performed the current pilot test method consisting of a balance test, completed prior to and after a performance test. Significant differences were found between PPE conditions and CON (the control clothing ensemble: T-shirt, shorts, and running shoes) for the functional balance test, physical performance test, heart rate, and subjective evaluations in firefighters group. Therefore, the present pilot test method is valid as a standard test method for assessing mobility while wearing PPE. Moreover, the present result shows that firefighters are more reliable than non-firefighters in testing of PPE with current test methods. PMID:24462474

  8. 77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations AGENCY: The National...with Composite Protection for Wildland Fire- Fighting Operations; Notice of...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment....1100-2 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (a) Working sections. (1) Each working section... materials for one or more mines may be stored at a central warehouse or building supply company and...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment....1100-2 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (a) Working sections. (1) Each working section... materials for one or more mines may be stored at a central warehouse or building supply company and...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-2 Section 75.1100-2 Mineral...Fire Protection § 75.1100-2 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (a) Working sections. (1)...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-2 Section 75.1100-2 Mineral...Fire Protection § 75.1100-2 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (a) Working sections. (1)...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-2 Section 75.1100-2 Mineral...Fire Protection § 75.1100-2 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (a) Working sections. (1)...

  14. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a)...

  16. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35...Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment—TB/ALL. (a) No extensive...

  17. Physiological, Perceptual and Psychological Responses of Career versus Volunteer Firefighters to Live-fire Training Drills.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, Steven J; Poh, Paula Y S; Greenlee, Tina A; Goldstein, Eric; Horn, Gavin P; Smith, Denise L

    2014-11-13

    A primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of short-term live-fire firefighting activities on key physiological, perceptual and psychological variables and whether occupational status influenced these responses. It was also of interest to examine whether individual difference factors differentiated the occupational status groups and if so, whether such individual difference factors influenced perceptual and psychological responses to firefighting activities. Male firefighters (n?=?52 career, n?=?53 volunteer firefighters) participated in 18?min of simulated firefighting activity in a training structure that contained live fires. Measures of heart rate (HR) and Tcore were obtained before and after firefighting activities along with perceptions of thermal sensations, exertion, respiratory distress and affect. Firefighting activities resulted in significant elevations in HR and Tcore , whereas thermal sensations, respiratory distress, exertion and affect all showed significant and sizable changes reflecting greater distress and dysphoria. Occupational status and individual difference factors accounted for some of this negative change. The findings replicate and extend previous work by demonstrating the influence of occupational status and individual difference factors in the psychological responses to firefighting activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25393336

  18. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35...Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment—TB/ALL. (a) No extensive...

  20. Hearing among male firefighters: a comparison with hearing data from screened and unscreened male population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Sun; Hong, Oi Saeng; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether hearing loss is associated with firefighting. We conducted cross-sectional study comparing hearing threshold levels (HTLs) of 912 male firefighters with two hearing databases obtained from an otologically normal male Korean population (KONP) and a non-industrial noise-exposed male Korean population (KNINEP), considering age and the main roles of firefighters. Firefighters' age-adjusted HTLs were significantly worse than those of KONP (prevalence ratio (PR)=5.29, P<0.001)but not different from those of KNINEP (PR=0.99, P=0.550). Rescuers (PR=1.005, P<0.001) had worse hearing than the KNINEP after age adjustment. Comparison of firefighters' HTLs (50th and 90th percentiles) with those of KONP and KNINEP by age and frequency showed that firefighters' HTLs had significant increases (poorer hearing) across most age groups and frequencies compared with KONP. Compared with KNINEP, firefighters' HTLs were worse in the younger age groups (<45 years) but not different in the older age groups (>45 years). In conclusion, the hearing thresholds of younger firefighters and rescuers were worse than expected by normal aging alone. Future research should include longitudinal studies to consider variable risk factors, such as military service, smoking, and so on. PMID:25352160

  1. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a)...

  2. 46 CFR 31.10-19 - All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false All firefighting equipment may be tested-TB/ALL. 31.10-19 Section...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-19 All firefighting equipment may be tested—TB/ALL. (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35...Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment—TB/ALL. (a) No extensive...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-2 Section 75.1100-2 Mineral...Fire Protection § 75.1100-2 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (a) Working sections. (1)...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-2 Section 75.1100-2 Mineral...Fire Protection § 75.1100-2 Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (a) Working sections. (1)...

  6. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35...Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment—TB/ALL. (a) No extensive...

  7. 46 CFR 35.01-35 - Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment-TB/ALL. 35.01-35 Section 35.01-35...Requirements § 35.01-35 Repairs and alterations to firefighting equipment—TB/ALL. (a) No extensive...

  8. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403 of this part,...

  9. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  10. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  11. 33 CFR 149.404 - Can I use firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that has no Coast Guard standards? 149.404 Section 149.404 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighting equipment that has no Coast Guard standards? A deepwater port may use firefighting equipment for which there is no Coast Guard standard as supplemental equipment, pursuant to § 149.403, if...

  12. Hearing among male firefighters: A comparison with hearing data from screened and unscreened male population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, T S; Hong, O S; Kim, K S; Yoon, C S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether hearing loss is associated with firefighting. We conducted cross-sectional study comparing hearing threshold levels (HTLs) of 912 male firefighters with two hearing databases obtained from an otologically normal male Korean population (KONP) and a non-industrial noise-exposed male Korean population (KNINEP), considering age and the main roles of firefighters. Firefighters' age-adjusted HTLs were significantly worse than those of KONP (prevalence ratio (PR)=5.29, P<0.001)but not different from those of KNINEP (PR=0.99, P=0.550). Rescuers (PR=1.005, P<0.001) had worse hearing than the KNINEP after age adjustment. Comparison of firefighters' HTLs (50th and 90th percentiles) with those of KONP and KNINEP by age and frequency showed that firefighters' HTLs had significant increases (poorer hearing) across most age groups and frequencies compared with KONP. Compared with KNINEP, firefighters' HTLs were worse in the younger age groups (<45 years) but not different in the older age groups (>45 years). In conclusion, the hearing thresholds of younger firefighters and rescuers were worse than expected by normal aging alone. Future research should include longitudinal studies to consider variable risk factors, such as military service, smoking, and so on. PMID:25352160

  13. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  14. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighters are adequate. (a) You are responsible for determining the adequacy of the resource providers...

  15. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... misconduct, is entitled to an annuity— (1) After completing any combination of service as a...

  16. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... firefighters are adequate. (a) You are responsible for determining the adequacy of the resource providers...

  17. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers... ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. (a... misconduct, is entitled to an annuity— (1) After completing any combination of service as a...

  18. Multidimensional, Threshold Effects of Social Support in Firefighters: Is More Support Invariably Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvel, Shiloh Jordan; He, Yuhong; Shannon, Jennifer K.; Tager, David; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Chaichanasakul, Adipat; Mendoza, Monique M.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between social support (Social Provisions Scale) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) in a sample of male firefighters in a midwestern community (N=53). The authors assessed 5 types of perceived support from 2 sources: peer firefighters and supervisors. Results indicate that reassurance of worth and social…

  19. 46 CFR 167.45-30 - Use of approved fire-fighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of approved fire-fighting equipment. 167.45-30 Section 167.45-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS... approved fire-fighting equipment. Portable fire extinguishers or fire-extinguishing systems which...

  20. 46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel. 167.45-40 Section 167.45-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Firefighting and Fire Prevention Requirements § 167.45-40 Fire-fighting equipment...

  1. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  2. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  3. 33 CFR 149.403 - How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment or procedures? 149.403 Section 149.403... DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.403 How may I request the use of alternate or supplemental firefighting and fire prevention equipment...

  4. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, customs and border protection officers, law enforcement officers, members of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Firefighters, customs and border... Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, customs and border protection officers, law enforcement officers, members... annuity— (1) After completing any combination of service as a firefighter, customs and border...

  5. Integrating a Wireless Sensor Network into Firefighter Protective Clothing PI: Dr. Huantian Cao, Design, Housing and Merchandising

    E-print Network

    Integrating a Wireless Sensor Network into Firefighter Protective Clothing PI: Dr. Huantian Cao. Xiaolin Li, Computer Science Currently there are approximately 1.2 million firefighters in the United States. Of these firefighters, approximately 210,000 are career/paid and approximately 1 million

  6. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, customs and border protection officers, law enforcement officers, members of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Firefighters, customs and border... Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, customs and border protection officers, law enforcement officers, members... annuity— (1) After completing any combination of service as a firefighter, customs and border...

  7. 5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, customs and border protection officers, law enforcement officers, members of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Firefighters, customs and border... Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, customs and border protection officers, law enforcement officers, members... annuity— (1) After completing any combination of service as a firefighter, customs and border...

  8. Preventing fire-related occupational deaths: residential sprinklers save civilians, property, and firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Keshia M; Frattaroli, Shannon; Somers, Scott

    2015-02-01

    Residential fires are an important public health problem, with proven strategies to prevent death and injury. Residential sprinkler systems are one such strategy. While the benefits of this technology tend to center on civilian lives and property, there are also benefits for firefighters. The purpose of this article is to describe these benefits and discuss residential sprinkler systems as a strategy to reduce the risk of firefighter injury and death. Because of the benefits for firefighter safety, firefighters' knowledge about fire prevention, and their authority on this topic, firefighters are an essential stakeholder for raising awareness among the public and policymakers about the existence of and benefits associated with residential sprinkler systems. PMID:25816165

  9. Psychophysiological responses in experienced firefighters undertaking repeated self-contained breathing apparatus tasks.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    In order to safely and effectively extinguish fires and rescue life, firefighters are required to routinely wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), yet little is known about the specific physiological and psychological demands associated with repeated exposure to tasks that require SCBA. A total of 12 experienced firefighters took part in a series of commonly encountered SCBA activities: free search, guideline search and live firefighting tasks under room temperature (?20°C) and extreme heat (?180°C) conditions to assess changes in heart rate, blood pressure, mood, perceived workload and air usage. Findings demonstrate that live firefighting is associated with greater perceived exhaustion than free search or guideline exercises; however, all tasks lead to high cardiovascular demand regardless of the presence of heat. No significant impact of task upon mood and no significant differences between the perceived demands of guideline, free search and live firefighting exercises were found. PMID:25363022

  10. Development and validation of a fitness screening protocol for firefighter applicants.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, N; Jamnik, V K

    1992-09-01

    It is imperative that fitness screening protocols for firefighter applicants embody the specific physical requirements of fighting fires. Based on the physiological characterization of experienced firefighters performing essential tasks, a test battery was developed that includes both job related performance tests and a combination of health related and performance related laboratory tests of physical fitness. Fifty-three firefighters with an average of 5.4 years of experience completed the battery and provided Likert scale comparisons of the tests with actual firefighting operations for criterion validation. "Acceptable" through "maximum" times were established for the job related performance tests, and "minimum" through "optimum" standards were developed for the physical fitness tests. Guidelines for the medical screening of firefighter applicants are also described. In addition, an overall scoring procedure was formulated for the ranking of acceptable applicants. PMID:1325259

  11. Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call “cardiovascular strain”. The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters. PMID:24602344

  12. Effect of fire smoke on some biochemical parameters in firefighters of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Rezq, Ameen M; Al-Saedy, Mohamed H

    2008-01-01

    Background Firefighters who are facing fires, are frequently exposed to hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, benzene, sulphur dioxide, etc. This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes in activity involved firefighters in comparison to normal subjects. Subjects and Methods Two groups of male firefighters volunteered to participate in the study. The first included 28 firefighters from Jeddah, while the second included 21 firefighters from Yanbu, with overall age ranged 20–48 years. An additional group of 23 male non-firefighters volunteered from both cities as normal control subjects, of age range 20–43 years. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes. Results The results obtained showed that, there were statistically significant differences in liver function, kidney function, serum lipid profile, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, iron and its biologically active derivatives, and blood picture in firefighters as compared with the normal control group. These results indicate that, fire smoke mainly affects serum biochemical and blood hematological parameters. Such results might point out to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to avoid such hazardous health effects that might endanger firefighters under their highly drastic working conditions. Conclusion Besides using of personal protective equipments for firefighters to protect them against exposure to toxic materials of fire smoke, it is recommended that, firefighters must be under continuous medical follow up through a standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for early detection of any serum biochemical or blood hematological changes that might happen during their active service life and to allow for early treatment whenever necessary. PMID:19077241

  13. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugênio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Nogueira, EC, Porto, LGG, Nogueira, RM, Martins, WR, Fonseca, RMC, Lunardi, CC, and de Oliveira, RJ. Body composition is strongly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in a large Brazilian military firefighter cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 33-38, 2016-Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (?12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ? 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 ml·kg·min; p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 ml·kg·min; p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance. PMID:26691405

  14. Arterial Stiffness, Oxidative Stress, and Smoke Exposure in Wildland Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, Denise M.; Siegel, Paul D.; Hughes, Michael D.; Chang, Chiung-Yu; Law, Brandon F.; Campbell, Corey R.; Richards, Jennifer C.; Kales, Stefanos F.; Chertok, Marcia; Kobzik, Lester; Nguyen, Phuongson; O’Donnell, Carl R.; Kiefer, Max; Wagner, Gregory R.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between exposure, oxidative stress, symptoms, and cardiorespiratory function in wildland firefighters. Methods We studied two Interagency Hotshot Crews with questionnaires, pulse wave analysis for arterial stiffness, spirometry, urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? (8-isoprostane) and 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the smoke exposure marker (urinary levoglucosan). Arterial stiffness was assessed by examining levels of the aortic augmentation index, expressed as a percentage. An oxidative stress score comprising the average of z-scores created for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane was calculated. Results Mean augmentation index % was higher for participants with higher oxidative stress scores after adjusting for smoking status. Specifically for every one unit increase in oxidative stress score the augmentation index % increased 10.5% (95% CI: 2.5, 18.5%). Higher mean lower respiratory symptom score was associated with lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity. Conclusions Biomarkers of oxidative stress may serve as indicators of arterial stiffness in wildland firefighters. PMID:24909863

  15. Volatile Organic Compounds Off-gassing from Firefighters' Personal Protective Equipment Ensembles after Use.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E; Booher, Donald; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Horn, Gavin P; Dalton, James

    2015-01-01

    Firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) ensembles will become contaminated with various compounds during firefighting. Some of these compounds will off-gas following a response, which could result in inhalation exposure. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated during controlled structure burns that subsequently off-gassed from the firefighters' PPE, and were systemically absorbed and exhaled in firefighters' breath. Three crews of five firefighters performed entry, suppression, and overhaul during a controlled burn. We used evacuated canisters to sample air inside the burn structure during active fire and overhaul. After each burn, we placed PPE from two firefighters inside clean enclosures and sampled the air using evacuated canisters over 15 min. Firefighters' exhaled breath was collected ?1 hr before and 4-14 min after each burn. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the evacuated canister samples were analyzed for 64 VOCs and the exhaled breath samples were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene (BTEXS). Fourteen of the same VOCs were detected off-gassing from PPE in 50% or more of the samples. Compared to background levels, we measured >5 fold increases in mean off-gas concentrations of styrene, benzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, acetone, and cyclohexane. Several of the compounds detected off-gassing from PPE were also measured at concentrations above background during active fire and overhaul, including benzene, propene, and styrene. The overhaul and off-gas air concentrations were well below applicable short-term occupational exposure limits. Compared to pre-burn levels, we measured >2 fold increases in mean breath concentrations of benzene, toluene, and styrene after the burns. Air concentrations of BTEXS measured off-gassing from firefighters' used PPE and in firefighters' post-burn exhaled breath were significantly correlated. The firefighters may have absorbed BTEXS through both the dermal route (during firefighting) and inhalation route (from off-gassing PPE after firefighting). Firefighters should be made aware of the potential for inhalation exposure when doffing and traveling in confined vehicles with contaminated PPE and take measures to minimize this exposure pathway. PMID:25751596

  16. High Resolution 12-lead Electrocardiograms of On-Duty Professional Firefighters: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mary G.; Thevenin, Bernard J.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular deaths among on-duty firefighters are high; double that of police officers and quadruple that of first responders. The aim of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of obtaining high resolutions ECGs of on-duty firefighters useful for detecting ECG predictors for cardiac events. Methods Twenty-eight professional firefighters (age, 46 ± 6 years) wore a 12-lead ECG Holter for 24 hours (16 hours while on-duty and 8 hours post-duty). All activities including fire and medical calls were monitored. Results On average the recordings were 92% analyzable. All were in sinus with a heart rate of 80 ±11bpm (35–188 range). The average rr50 over the 24-hour Holter study was 6.2 ±6% (range: 1–23%) and rms-SD was 81 ± 55 (range: 24–209). Using the QRS/Tsimple formula, the average spatial QRS-T angle was 104 ±17 degrees (range 78–132 degrees). Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia occurred irrespectively of activity or time of day in three (11%) firefighters, which was significantly higher than in comparable normal populations (p<0.05). Conclusions This preliminary work demonstrates that it is feasible to obtain high resolution ECGs during firefighting activities and further points to the high prevalence of arrhythmias among firefighters. The strategy of continuous field monitoring of firefighters could provide new insight into the association between their specific professional lifestyle and high cardiac risks. PMID:21206348

  17. The Impact of Sleep Restriction and Simulated Physical Firefighting Work on Acute Inflammatory Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally A.; Vincent, Grace E.; Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effect restricted sleep has on wildland firefighters’ acute cytokine levels during 3 days and 2 nights of simulated physical wildfire suppression work. Methods Firefighters completed multiple days of physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18) or 4-h (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17) sleep opportunity each night. Blood samples were collected 4 times a day (i.e., 06:15, 11:30, 18:15, 21:30) from which plasma cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-4, IL-10) were measured. Results The primary findings for cytokine levels revealed a fixed effect for condition that showed higher IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep each night. An interaction effect demonstrated differing increases in IL-6 over successive days of work for the SR and CON conditions. Fixed effects for time indicated that IL-6 and IL-4 levels increased, while IL-1?, TNF-? and IL-8 levels decreased. There were no significant effects for IL-10 observed. Conclusion Findings demonstrate increased IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep when compared to those who had a restricted 4-h sleep. Firefighters’ IL-6 levels increased in both conditions which may indicate that a 4-h sleep restriction duration and/or period (i.e., 2 nights) was not a significant enough stressor to affect this cytokine. Considering the immunomodulatory properties of IL-6 and IL-4 that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines, the rise in IL-6 and IL-4, independent of increases in IL-1? and TNF-?, could indicate a non-damaging response to the stress of simulated physical firefighting work. However, given the link between chronically elevated cytokine levels and several diseases, further research is needed to determine if firefighters’ IL-8 and IL-6 levels are elevated following repeated firefighting deployments across a fire season and over multiple fire seasons. PMID:26378783

  18. Self-reported short- and long-term respiratory effects among PVC-exposed firefighters

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, J.S. )

    1988-10-01

    Firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were studied to assess respiratory effects at 5-6 wk post-incident and again 22 mo following the fire. Exposed subjects reported significantly more frequent and severe respiratory symptoms at both time points than did firefighter controls. In longitudinal analyses, a number of symptoms persisted over time, and acute symptom scores were significantly correlated with chronic scores. At Time 2, approximately 18% of exposed firefighters, compared with none of the controls, reported that since the time of the PVC exposure, a physician had told them that they had either asthma and/or bronchitis.

  19. Climate change and wildland firefighter health and safety.

    PubMed

    Withen, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The author examines how climate change is impacting wildland firefighters. Climate change has made wildland fires more frequent and more intense. The increase in frequency and intensity of fires has pushed the number of fatalities and injuries higher in recent decades. The most common hazards on fires follow the trend of fire in general in that these hazards become more frequent and intense. Burnovers, heat exhaustion, tree hazards, and many other common fire hazards are more likely. The fire suppression agencies are making every effort to improve health and safety on fires by improving communication, weather forecasting, mapping, fire shelters, decision making and more. Despite these efforts, wildfires are becoming ever more hazardous because of climate change and the increasing frequency and intensity of wildfires. PMID:25816171

  20. Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-11-01

    Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

  1. US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

  2. Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

  3. Analysis of Firetruck Crashes and Associated Firefighter Injuries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

  4. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING FORWARD. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING FORWARD. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK AND PROPS AND RUDDER UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York, New York County, NY

  5. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK. WATER INTAKE PORTS ARE LOCATED AMIDSHIP UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York, New York County, NY

  6. Analysis of firetruck crashes and associated firefighter injuries in the United States.

    PubMed

    Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

  7. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Salvage: (i) Remote assessment and consultation Salvor is in voice contact with Qualified Individual (QI... voice contact with QI/Master/Operator. (ii) On-site fire assessment Firefighter representative on...

  8. Fire and Ice - Safety, Comfort, and Getting the Firefighters' Job Done

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Butzer, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Daily life for firefighters consists of working with life-threatening hazards in hostile environments. A major hazard is excessive ambient heat. New hazards have arisen from protective gear that was intended to increase survival time of firefighters while finding and rescuing victims. The insulation is so good now that a firefighter's metabolic heat buildup cannot escape. This forces body core temperatures to life threatening levels in about 20 minutes of moderate activity. Using NASA space suit technology, Oceaneering Space Systems developed a liquid cooling garment prototype that will remove up to 250 watts of metabolic heat. After testing and certification as an approved accessory for firefighter use, this garment will be available for use by any individual encapsulated in protective clothing. This demonstration will present a high surface area circulated liquid cooling garment displayed on a mannequin and available for attendees to try on to experience the effects of active cooling.

  9. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng; Feng, Shengrong; Li, Kai; Pan, Shunchen; Su, Junhong; Jin, Weiqi

    2000-05-01

    From the concept and need background of firefighters to the thermal imager, we discuss how the helmet-mounted camera applied in the bad environment of conflagration, especially at the high temperature, and how the better matching between the thermal imager with the helmet will be put into effect in weight, size, etc. Finally, give a practical helmet- mounted IR camera based on the uncooled focal plane array detector for in firefighting.

  10. An Examination of the Preferences for Leadership Style of Firefighters of Different Rank and Generational Cohort 

    E-print Network

    Odom, Summer Rachelle Felton

    2012-07-16

    -1 ? ? AN EXAMINATION OF THE PREFERENCES FOR LEADERSHIP STYLE OF FIREFIGHTERS OF DIFFERENT RANK AND GENERATIONAL COHORT A Dissertation by SUMMER RACHELLE FELTON ODOM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Educational Human Resource Development ? ? AN EXAMINATION OF THE PREFERENCES FOR LEADERSHIP STYLE OF FIREFIGHTERS OF DIFFERENT RANK AND GENERATIONAL COHORT A...

  11. The effect of pre-warming on performance during simulated firefighting exercise.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Mol, Eric; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the effect of active pre-warming on speed and quality of performance during simulated firefighting exercise. Twelve male firefighters performed two trials in counterbalanced order. They were either pre-warmed by 20-min cycling at 1.5 Watt kg(-)(1) body mass (WARM) or remained thermoneutral (CON) prior to a simulated firefighting activity. After the pre-warming, gastrointestinal temperature (P < 0.001), skin temperature (P = 0.002), and heart rate (P < 0.001) were higher in WARM than in CON. During the firefighting activity, rating of perceived exertion, thermal sensation and discomfort were higher for WARM than for CON. Finish time of the firefighting activity was similar, but the last task of the activity was completed slower in WARM than in CON (P = 0.04). In WARM, self-reported performance quality was lower than in CON (P = 0.04). It is concluded that pre-warming reduces the speed during the last part of simulated firefighting activity and reduces self-reported quality of performance. PMID:24816137

  12. Life-saving uncooled IR camera for use in firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Mel V.; Matthews, Iain

    1996-06-01

    A recent description by a firefighter on the experience of entering a building that is on fire was to liken it to being blindfolded, then being lead to a maze and told there is a victim at the center which you have to recover. In simple terms, firefighters are totally blind and what they need are 'eyes' that can see in the dark and through dense smoke. The development of lightweight thermal cameras using uncooled IR staring arrays and a helmet mounted display has now given the firefighter the 'eyes' in such situations which means less time to achieve a rescue and enhanced personal safety for the firefighter. This paper gives details on the development of the uncooled array camera and how it's been configured to withstand the extreme temperature conditions encountered during a firefighting environment. Also, how the camera and display system have been designed to provide the firefighter with a helmet mounted configuration to enable total 'hands free' operation. This is followed by a description of the special tests required to prove that the complete system can survive in a fire environment and finally a short video which demonstrates how the system performs in real life situations.

  13. Coarsening of firefighting foams containing fluorinated hydrocarbon surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Matthew J.; Dougherty, John A.; Otto, Nicholas; Conroy, Michael W.; Williams, Bradley A.; Ananth, Ramagopal; Fleming, James W.

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of gas between bubbles in foam causes growth of large bubbles at the expense of small bubbles and leads to increasing mean bubble size with time thereby affecting drainage. Experimental data shows that the effective diffusivity of nitrogen gas in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), which is widely used in firefighting against burning liquids, is several times smaller than in 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) foam based on time-series photographs of bubble size and weighing scale recordings of liquid drainage. Differences in foam structure arising from foam production might contribute to the apparent difference in the rates of coarsening. AFFF solution produces wetter foam with initially smaller bubbles than SDS solution due in part to the lower gas-liquid surface tension provided by the fluorosurfactants present in AFFF. Present method of foam production generates microbubble foam by high-speed co-injection of surfactant solution and gas into a tube of 3-mm diameter. These results contribute to our growing understanding of the coupling between foam liquid fraction, bubble size, surfactant chemistry, and coarsening. NRC Resident Research Associate at NRL

  14. Blowout contingency plans can cut firefighting and capping risks

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-01

    Prepared in advance of drilling, blowout contingency plans and immediate response plans can reduce firefighting, well capping, and possible relief well costs during a blowout. Regional and site-specific blowout contingency plans are especially beneficial for operators working world-wide, where logistics difficulties can easily bog down operations. This article is the first of an 8-part series on well control. Future articles will cover pressurized tree removal, well capping operations, techniques for killing wells after capping, snubbing operations, handling H{sub 2}S, shallow gas hazards, and project management. Because it is impossible to eliminate the potential for a blowout, the only logical and responsible position is to make plans to react before an accident occurs. Such a blowout contingency plan for operations should include information about the following: Immediate reaction plan (evacuations, internal and public notifications, and data collection); Blowout contingency plan (general logistic plans or site-specific plans with relief well details); Engineering modeling; Mobilization of resources to control the blowout (first wave of equipment and personnel); and Means for taking and verifying appropriate responses. The paper discusses immediate response plans, blowout contingency plans, regional and site specific plans, and recommends the absolute minimum requirements for a plan that should be created.

  15. Common Sleep Disorders Increase Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes and Adverse Health Outcomes in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Laura K.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.; Wang, Wei; O'Brien, Conor S.; Sullivan, Jason P.; Qadri, Salim; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Heart attacks and motor vehicle crashes are the leading causes of death in US firefighters. Given that sleep disorders are an independent risk factor for both of these, we examined the prevalence of common sleep disorders in a national sample of firefighters and their association with adverse health and safety outcomes. Methods: Firefighters (n = 6,933) from 66 US fire departments were assessed for common sleep disorders using validated screening tools, as available. Firefighters were also surveyed about health and safety, and documentation was collected for reported motor vehicle crashes. Results: A total of 37.2% of firefighters screened positive for any sleep disorder including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 28.4%; insomnia, 6.0%; shift work disorder, 9.1%; and restless legs syndrome, 3.4%. Compared with those who did not screen positive, firefighters who screened positive for a sleep disorder were more likely to report a motor vehicle crash (adjusted odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.29–3.12, p = 0.0021) and were more likely to self-report falling asleep while driving (2.41, 2.06–2.82, p < 0.0001). Firefighters who screened positive for a sleep disorder were more likely to report having cardiovascular disease (2.37, 1.54–3.66, p < 0.0001), diabetes (1.91, 1.31–2.81, p = 0.0009), depression (3.10, 2.49–3.85, p < 0.0001), and anxiety (3.81, 2.87–5.05, p < 0.0001), and to report poorer health status (p < 0.0001) than those who did not screen positive. Adverse health and safety associations persisted when OSA and non-OSA sleep disorders were examined separately. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are prevalent in firefighters and are associated with increased risk of adverse health and safety outcomes. Future research is needed to assess the efficacy of occupational sleep disorders prevention, screening, and treatment programs in fire departments to reduce these safety and health risks. Citation: Barger LK, Rajaratnam SM, Wang W, O'Brien CS, Sullivan JP, Qadri S, Lockley SW, Czeisler CA, Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group. Common sleep disorders increase risk of motor vehicle crashes and adverse health outcomes in firefighters. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):233–240. PMID:25580602

  16. Fatigue risk management by volunteer fire-fighters: Use of informal strategies to augment formal policy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Drew; Mayger, Katherine; Thomas, Matthew J W; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2015-11-01

    An increasing number and intensity of catastrophic fire events in Australia has led to increasing demands on a mainly volunteer fire-fighting workforce. Despite the increasing likelihood of fatigue in the emergency services environment, there is not yet a systematic, unified approach to fatigue management in fire agencies across Australia. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify informal strategies used in volunteer fire-fighting and examine how these strategies are transmitted across the workforce. Thirty experienced Australian volunteer fire-fighters were interviewed in August 2010. The study identified informal fatigue-management behaviours at the individual, team and brigade level that have evolved in fire-fighting environments and are regularly implemented. However, their purpose was not explicitly recognized as such. This apparent paradox - that fatigue proofing behaviours exist but that they are not openly understood as such - may well resolve a potential conflict between a culture of indefatigability in the emergency services sector and the frequent need to operate safely while fatigued. However, formal controls require fire-fighters and their organisations to acknowledge and accept their vulnerability. This suggests two important areas in which to improve formal fatigue risk management in the emergency services sector: (1) identifying and formalising tacit or informal fatigue coping strategies as legitimate elements of the fatigue risk management system; and (2) developing culturally appropriate techniques for systematically communicating fatigue levels to self and others. PMID:26322733

  17. Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joel; Steingart, Dan; Romero, Russell; Reynolds, Jessica; Mellers, Eric; Redfern, Andrew; Lim, Lloyd; Watts, William; Patton, Colin; Baker, Jessica; Wright, Paul

    2005-05-01

    Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN) called SmokeNet for personnel tracking. The project aims to address urban/industrial firefighting procedures in need of improvement. Two "user-needs" studies with the Chicago and Berkeley Fire Departments are briefly presented. The FIRE project"s initial HMD prototype designs are then discussed with regard to feedback from the user-needs studies. These prototypes are evaluated in their potential costs and benefits to firefighters and found to need improvement. Next, some currently available commercial HMDs are reviewed and compared in their cost, performance, and potential for use by firefighters. Feedback from the Berkeley Fire Department user-needs study, in which the initial prototypes were demonstrated, is compiled into a concept selection matrix for the next prototypes. This matrix is used to evaluate a variety of HMDs, including some of the commercial units presented, and to select the best design options. Finally, the current prototypes of the two best design options are presented and discussed.

  18. Acute health effects among firefighters exposed to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, J.S.; Gutterman, E.M. ); Schwartz, S.; Link, B.; Gorman, S.M. )

    1989-05-01

    Firefighters are frequently being called on to fight fires that are chemical in nature. In the aftermath of a chemical fire in Plainfield, New Jersey on March 20-21, 1985, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study which surveyed 80 firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as well as 15 nonexposed firefighter subjects. By means of an 81-item symptom checklist, exposed firefighters reported more frequent and severe symptoms at 5-6 weeks post incident. This was true for a total symptomatology score as well as 19 individual items. Some of the items with an elevated risk were consistent with exposure to hydrogen chloride, the main pyrolysis product of polyvinyl chloride. Other items with an elevated risk appeared to be related to smoke inhalation while others seemed psychosocial in nature. Analyses conducted within the exposed firefighter group showed that fighting the fire the first day, being a truckman, and residence within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the firehouse were significant risk factors for high total symptom scores. These risk factors may have been associated with level or duration of exposure to the toxic substances produced during the fire.

  19. Air-quality management alternatives: United States Air Force fire-fighter training facilities. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Air-pollutant emissions from fire-fighter training fires are a small portion of all annual air emissions from fixed and mobile sources at an Air Force installation. However, a single-practice fire burning 300 gallons of aviation fuel releases an estimated one ton of criteria air pollutants during a one- to five-minute period. Bases report conducting fire-fighter training 4 to 134 times per year, burning 100 to 2000 gallons of fuel per fire. Based on current emissions-inventory methodology, 4 installations emit over 100 tons of air pollutants annually from fire-fighter practice fires. A research methodology utilizing questionnaires, interviews, and site visits is developed and applied. This method enabled fire-prevention and environmental-management experts and professionals to provide data, opinions, and to evaluate candidate air-quality management alternatives. Analysis of survey data, interview findings, opinions, and management alternative evaluations integrated with air-quality-management indexes developed through this research lead to the study conclusions and recommendations. Implications for future policy and actions include recommendations to improve recording and reporting data via Facility Use and Firefighter Training Indexes. If adopted, the policy and actions would result in a more-efficient and standardized fire-fighter training program Air Force-wide. Further research is needed to verify air-emission factors, and to determine concentrations of PAH emissions in smoke and fugitive soot particles.

  20. Aviation-Related Wildland Firefighter Fatalities--United States, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Butler, Corey R; O'Connor, Mary B; Lincoln, Jennifer M

    2015-07-31

    Airplanes and helicopters are integral to the management and suppression of wildfires, often operating in high-risk, low-altitude environments. To update data on aviation-related wildland firefighting fatalities, identify risk factors, and make recommendations for improved safety, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed reports from multiple data sources for the period 2000-2013. Among 298 wildland firefighter fatalities identified during 2000-2013, 78 (26.2%) were aviation-related occupational fatalities that occurred during 41 separate events involving 42 aircraft. Aircraft crashes accounted for 38 events. Pilots, copilots, and flight engineers represented 53 (68%) of the aviation-related fatalities. The leading causes of fatal aircraft crashes were engine, structure, or component failure (24%); pilot loss of control (24%); failure to maintain clearance from terrain, water, or objects (20%); and hazardous weather (15%). To reduce fatalities from aviation-related wildland firefighting activities, stringent safety guidelines need to be followed during all phases of firefighting, including training exercises. Crew resource management techniques, which use all available resources, information, equipment, and personnel to achieve safe and efficient flight operations, can be applied to firefighting operations. PMID:26225477

  1. 77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures for Composite Multi-Gas and Particulate Protection and Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting... with Composite Protection for Wildland Fire- Fighting Operations; Notice of Testing and...

  2. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

  3. Analysis of foot clearance in firefighters during ascent and descent of stairs.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Richard M; Horn, Gavin P; Rosengren, Karl S; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls are a leading cause of injury to firefighters with many injuries occurring while traversing stairs, possibly exaggerated by acute fatigue from firefighting activities and/or asymmetric load carriage. This study examined the effects that fatigue, induced by simulated firefighting activities, and hose load carriage have on foot clearance while traversing stairs. Landing and passing foot clearances for each stair during ascent and descent of a short staircase were investigated. Clearances decreased significantly (p < 0.05) post-exercise for nine of 12 ascent parameters and increased for two of eight descent parameters. Load carriage resulted in significantly decreased (p < 0.05) clearance over three ascent parameters, and one increase during descent. Decreased clearances during ascent caused by fatigue or load carriage may result in an increased trip risk. Increased clearances during descent may suggest use of a compensation strategy to ensure stair clearance or an increased risk of over-stepping during descent. PMID:26360190

  4. Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

    2013-04-01

    Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

  5. Pulmonary function in firefighters: acute changes in ventilatory capacity and their correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Musk, A W; Smith, T J; Peters, J M; McLaughlin, E

    1979-01-01

    A group of 39 firefighters was examined during routine firefighing duty. Following smoke exposure the average decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) was 0.05 litre (137 observations). This decline in FEV1.0 was related to the severity of smoke exposure as estimated by the firefighter and to the measured particulate concentration of the smoke to which he was exposed. Decreases in FEV1.0 in excess of 0.10 litre were recorded in 30% of observations. Changes in FEV1.0 resulting from a second exposure to smoke on the same tour of duty were greater when smoke exposure at the previous fire was heavy. The repeated episodes of irritation of the bronchial tree that have been documented in this investigation may explain the origin of the previously observed chronic effect of firefighting on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. PMID:444439

  6. PHO T O S BY PA U L MICH NA/ pmichna@dailyherald.com firefighters from the Glenslde Fire Protection District work on the wreckage Wednesday during a

    E-print Network

    Nickrent, Daniel L.

    PHO T O S BY PA U L MICH NA/ pmichna@dailyherald.com firefighters from the Glenslde Fire Protection@dailyherald.com High school students got a chance to see firefighters and paramedics in action Wednes- day during Musulin, 18, of Wheaton poses as avictim whlle Ad- dison firefighter Matt Hennessy checks his symptoms

  7. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

  8. The health of volunteer firefighters three years after a technological disaster.

    PubMed

    Morren, Mattijn; Yzermans, C Joris; van Nispen, Ruth M A; Wevers, Stephan J M

    2005-11-01

    On May 13, 2000, a firework depot exploded in a residential area of the city of Enschede, The Netherlands. Many disaster workers responded, including volunteer firefighters, a group that has received little attention in disaster research. This study examined the presence of health problems in volunteer firefighters who were involved in disaster work, three years after the disaster. Furthermore, it was investigated whether demographic characteristics and disaster exposure predicted health problems. The study population consisted of 246 volunteer firefighters who were deployed in disaster work and 71 non-deployed controls. These firefighters completed a questionnaire which inquired about their perceived health and health change, physical symptoms, post-traumatic stress, mental health problems, and health care utilization. Three years after the disaster, no health differences emerged between deployed and non-deployed firefighters. Good health and health improvement over the previous year were reported. Respondents who encountered more distressing experiences during disaster work or carried out more direct disaster-related recovery tasks reported more mental health problems and health care utilization. However, the most reliable predictors of health problems were distressing experiences unrelated to the disaster in personal life or during work. Three years after the disaster, the health of volunteer firefighters involved in the disaster work was not much impaired, possibly because aftercare was available and utilized. Nevertheless, disaster exposure was associated with elevated post-traumatic stress symptoms and mental health care utilization. Health care workers should direct specific attention to the treatment and prevention of post-traumatic stress symptoms in cases of major accidents or disasters. PMID:16369116

  9. Firefighting and fire prevention: Facilities instructions, standards and techniques. Volume 5-2

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, H.E.

    1992-02-01

    The operation and maintenance personnel around a powerplant, pumping plant, or other Reclamation establishment are not presumed to be firefighters, but occasionally their duties may make it necessary for them to fight fires. The purpose of this volume is to supply them with fundamental facts which may prove valuable in such an emergency and acquaint them with the use, care, and testing of firefighting equipment. It is assumed that operation and maintenance personnel are familiar with the common safety practices in connection with fire prevention and general safety around electrical equipment. This volume is designed to help improve the work along these lines.

  10. Systemic exposure to PAHs and benzene in firefighters suppressing controlled structure fires.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P; Dalton, James

    2014-08-01

    Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre-exposure levels for round 1. We found statistically significant positive correlations between external exposures (i.e. personal air concentrations of PAHs) and biomarkers (i.e. change in urinary PAH metabolite levels in round 1 and change in breath concentrations of benzene in round 2). The results suggest that firefighters wearing full protective ensembles absorbed combustion products into their bodies. The PAHs most likely entered firefighters' bodies through their skin, with the neck being the primary site of exposure and absorption due to the lower level of dermal protection afforded by hoods. Aromatic hydrocarbons could have been absorbed dermally during firefighting or inhaled during the doffing of gear that was off-gassing contaminants. PMID:24906357

  11. Systemic Exposure to PAHs and Benzene in Firefighters Suppressing Controlled Structure Fires

    PubMed Central

    Fent, Kenneth W.; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D.; Stiegel, Matthew A.; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P.; Dalton, James

    2014-01-01

    Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre-exposure levels for round 1. We found statistically significant positive correlations between external exposures (i.e. personal air concentrations of PAHs) and biomarkers (i.e. change in urinary PAH metabolite levels in round 1 and change in breath concentrations of benzene in round 2). The results suggest that firefighters wearing full protective ensembles absorbed combustion products into their bodies. The PAHs most likely entered firefighters’ bodies through their skin, with the neck being the primary site of exposure and absorption due to the lower level of dermal protection afforded by hoods. Aromatic hydrocarbons could have been absorbed dermally during firefighting or inhaled during the doffing of gear that was off-gassing contaminants. PMID:24906357

  12. Risk of Hospitalization Among Firefighters: The National Health Interview Survey, 1986–1994

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David J.; Fleming, Lora E.; Gomez-Marín, Orlando; LeBlanc, William

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the risk of hospitalization among firefighters. Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of 235 897 employed men from the National Health Interview Survey. Firefighters aged 30 to 39 years were at significantly increased risk for hospitalization relative to other employed men in the same age group (odds ratio = 1.93; 95% confidence interval=1.21, 3.09). Findings from this study and others support the call for longitudinal studies to monitor the health of this high-risk occupational group. PMID:15514232

  13. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk. PMID:20582769

  14. Immune and inflammatory responses of Australian firefighters after repeated exposures to the heat.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anthony; Keene, Toby; Argus, Christos; Driller, Matthew; Guy, Joshua H; Rattray, Ben

    2015-12-01

    When firefighters work in hot conditions, altered immune and inflammatory responses may increase the risk of a cardiac event. The present study aimed to establish the time course of such responses. Forty-two urban firefighters completed a repeat work protocol in a heat chamber (100 ± 5°C). Changes to leukocytes, platelets, TNF?, IL-6, IL-10, LPS and CRP were evaluated immediately post-work and also after 1 and 24 h of rest. Increases in core temperatures were associated with significant increases in leukocytes, platelets and TNF? directly following work. Further, platelets continued to increase at 1 h (+31.2 ± 31.3 × 10(9) l, p < 0.01) and remained elevated at 24 h (+15.9 ± 19.6 × 10(9) l, p < 0.01). Sustained increases in leukocytes and platelets may increase the risk of cardiac events in firefighters when performing repeat work tasks in the heat. This is particularly relevant during multi-day deployments following natural disasters. Practitioner Summary: Firefighters regularly re-enter fire affected buildings or are redeployed to further operational tasks. Should work in the heat lead to sustained immune and inflammatory changes following extended rest periods, incident controllers should plan appropriate work/rest cycles to minimise these changes and any subsequent risks of cardiac events. PMID:26082313

  15. 30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. 75.1100-2 Section 75.1100-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1100-2 Quantity and location of...

  16. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

  17. 33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050 Section 155.4050 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77.1108-1 Section 77.1108-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Type and capacity of firefighting equipment. 77.1108-1 Section 77.1108-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS...

  20. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans. 155.4030 Section 155.4030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS...

  1. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans. 155.4030 Section 155.4030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS...

  2. 33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans. 155.4030 Section 155.4030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS...

  3. 75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...should be addressed to: USDA, Forest Service, Attn: Melissa Frey...inspect comments received at USDA Forest Service, F&AM, Room 2SO...and supplies to be used in firefighting and emergency services. The...Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Fire and...

  4. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required. PMID:24472292

  5. Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

    In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems are running…

  6. STS-31 crew training: firefighting, food tasting, EVA prep and post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  7. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). II. Background and Interim Voluntary Guidance The Report of Investigation... SECURITY Coast Guard Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore...-fighting equipment, training, and drills onboard manned offshore facilities and MODUs operating on the...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 57.4330 Section 57.4330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction. 75.1502 Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. 57.4330 Section 57.4330 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction. 75.1502 Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine Emergencies § 75.1502 Mine...

  12. STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

  13. The impact of firefighter personal protective equipment and treadmill protocol on maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO(2max) between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO(2max) was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO(2) in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO(2) but not VO(2max). These results suggest that firefighters' maximal performance determined from a typical VO(2max) test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  14. 75 FR 54026 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil'' (73 FR 80618). This final rule amended... Response Plans for Oil AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule; information collection approval. SUMMARY: On... requirements for tank vessels carrying oil. The amendment triggered information collection...

  15. Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

  16. A heat transfer model for incorporating carbon foam fabrics in firefighter's garment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elgafy, Ahmed; Mishra, Sarthak

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, a numerical study was performed to predict and investigate the performance of a thermal protection system for firefighter's garment consisting of carbon foam fabric in both the outer shell and the thermal liner elements. Several types of carbon foam with different thermal conductivity, porosity, and density were introduced to conduct a parametric study. Additionally, the thickness of the introduced carbon foam fabrics was varied to acquire optimum design. Simulation was conducted for a square planar 2D geometry of the clothing comprising of different fabric layers and a double precision pressure-based implicit solver, under transient state condition was used. The new anticipated thermal protection system was tested under harsh thermal environmental conditions that firefighters are exposed to. The parametric study showed that employing carbon foam fabric with one set of designed parameters, weight reduction of 33 % in the outer shell, 56 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 2 % at the inner edge of the garment was achieved when compared to the traditional firefighter garment model used by Song et al. (Int J Occup Saf Ergon 14:89-106, 2008). Also, carbon foam fabric with another set of designed parameters resulted in a weight reduction of 25 % in the outer shell, 28 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 6 % at the inner edge of the garment. As a result, carbon foam fabrics make the firefighter's garment more protective, durable, and lighter in weight.

  17. Race "Outsider Within" the Firehouse: African American and White Women Firefighters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Janice D.; Berendsen, Lynne L.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed and interviewed black and white women firefighters regarding subordination through imposed exclusion, tokenism, and omnirelevance of race/ethnicity in their perceptions of work experience. Both groups experienced insufficient instruction, hostility, silence, hypersupervision, insufficient support, stereotyping, and intertwining of race…

  18. Mediating Effects of Social Support on Firefighters' Sense of Community and Perceptions of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowman, Shaun E.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Liao-Troth, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychological sense of community, social-support networks, and care-giver stress and satisfaction among firefighters. No significant gender differences were obtained, but zero-order correlates demonstrated significant relationships among all four variables. In examining the mediating effects of…

  19. The support system of the firefighter's activity by detecting objects in smoke space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Masaki; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Takagi, Mikio

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, crisis management's response to terrorist attacks and natural disasters, as well as accelerating rescue operations has become an important issue. We aim to make a support system for firefighters using the application of various engineering techniques such as information technology and radar technology. In rescue operations, one of the biggest problems is that the view of firefighters is obstructed by dense smoke. One of the current measures against this condition is the use of search sticks, like a blind man walking in town. The most important task for firefighters is to understand inside situation of a space with dense smoke. Therefore, our system supports firefighters' activity by visualizing the space with dense smoke. First, we scan target space with dense smoke by using millimeter-wave radar combined with a gyro sensor. Then multiple directional scan data can be obtained, and we construct a 3D map from high-reflection point dataset using 3D image processing technologies (3D grouping and labeling processing). In this paper, we introduce our system and report the results of the experiment in the real smoke space situation and practical achievements.

  20. The Integrated Personnel Development System: The Training and Development of Competent Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Peter; Starling, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article enquires into the nature of an emergent continuous professional development (CPD) mechanism for firefighters in the form of an Integrated Personnel Development System (IPDS), which proposes to base future training for every rank in the service on the acquisition and demonstration of competence for role. IPDS is due to be introduced…