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1

Firefighting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

2001-01-01

2

Firefighting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology used to provide thermal protection for Apollo astronauts and spacecraft components provides firefighters with better protective clothing and equipment. Spinoffs include a portable firefighting module, protective clothing for workers in hazardous environments, fire-retardant paints and forms, fireblocking coating for outdoor structures, and flame-resistant fabric. Perhaps the farthest reaching is the breathing apparatus worn by firefighters throughout the U.S. for protection against smoke inhalation injury. The breathing system weighs approximately 20 pounds, one-third less than past systems, and it enables the wearer to have improved mobility. It consists of a face mask, frame and harness, a warning device, and an air bottle. The basic air cylinder offers the same 30-minutes of operation time as its predecessor. The result is a drastic reduction in the number of inhalation injuries to firefighters. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

2001-01-01

3

Firefighting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters are like astronauts. They both face dangerous, even hostile environments such as a building full of fire and the vacuum of space. They are both get breathing air from tanks on their backs. Early in the 1970's, NASA began working to improve firefighter breathing systems, which had hardly changed since the 1940s. NASA's Johnson Space Center conducted a 4-year program that applied technology from the portable life support systems used by Apollo astronauts on the moon. The new breathing system is made up of an air bottle, a frame and harness, a face mask, and a warning device. The new system weighs less than 20 pounds, one-third less than the old gear. The new air bottle provides 30 minutes of breathing air, as much as the old system. Like a good hiker's backpack, the new system puts the weight on the firefighter's hips rather than the shoulders. The face mask provides better visibility and the warning device lets the firefighter know when air in the bottle is low. Though they have made many design modifications and refinements, manufacturers of breathing apparatus still incorporate the original NASA technology.

2004-01-01

4

Firefighter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The responsibilities of a firefighter extend far beyond simply responding to fire emergencies. At many departments, responding to medical calls or car accidents is the most frequent activity, and a routine shift might also entail dealing with hazardous materials, gas leaks, structural collapses, floods, ice storms, wild animals, or the myriad…

Moore, Pam

2011-01-01

5

Firefighters' Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Public Technology Inc. asked for NASA assistance to devise the original firefighter's radio. Good short-range radio communications are essential during a fire to coordinate hose lines, rescue victims, and otherwise increase efficiency. Useful firefighting tool is lower cost, more rugged short range two-way radio. Inductorless electronic circuit replaced inductances and coils in radio circuits with combination of transistors and other low-cost components. Substitution promises reduced circuit size and cost. Enhanced electrical performance made radio more durable and improved maintainability by incorporating modular construction.

1976-01-01

6

INL@Work Firefighter  

ScienceCinema

Did you know INL has its own firefighting team? Its members help protect our remote 890-square-mile site from range fires and other incidents. Meet firefighter Wendy Baron, who was recently named Idaho's firefighter of the year.

Baron, Wendy

2013-05-28

7

Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

1984-01-01

8

Outfitting Wildland Firefighters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive flash-based poster shows the equipment that firefighters use in their work, along with how they use it. Simply click on a piece of equipment, and a sidebar explains its use and history in firefighting.

Lexi Krock

9

Biomonitoring in California Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 ?g/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 ?g/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

2015-01-01

10

Improved Gloves for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New firefighter's gloves are more flexible and comfortable than previous designs. Since some firefighters prefer gloves made of composite materials while others prefer dip-coated gloves, both types were developed. New gloves also find uses in foundries, steelmills, and other plants where they are substituted for asbestos gloves.

Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J.

1983-01-01

11

Improved Clothing for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of space technology should reduce incidence of injuries, heat exhaustion, and fatigue in firefighters. Using advanced materials and design concepts of aerospace technology, protective gear was fabricated and tested for the heat, face, torso, hand and foot. In tests, it was found that new gear protects better than conventional firefighter gear, weighs 40 percent less, and reduces wearer's energy expenditure by 25 percent.

Abeles, F. J.

1982-01-01

12

30 CFR 56.4331 - Firefighting drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firefighting drills. 56.4331 Section 56.4331 Mineral Resources...Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 56.4331 Firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall...

2010-07-01

13

Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

1978-01-01

14

Advanced Transceivers for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents concept of improved portable radio transceiver for firefighters. Based in part on study of propagation of radio waves in such environments as high-rise buildings, ships, and tunnels. Study takes into account possible health hazard posed by personal tranceivers and needs and wishes expressed by firefighters in interviews. Conceptual radio attaches to clothing to allow hands-free use; voice-actuated with microphone worn at throat. Speaker placed near wearer's shoulder. Flexible antenna placed either horizontally across shoulders, vertically at one shoulder, or on transceiver itself.

Blood, B. D.; Gandhi, O. P.; Radke, R. E.

1986-01-01

15

6.EE Firefighter Allocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A town's total allocation for firefighter's wages and bene?ts in a new budget is \\$600,000. If wages are calculated at \\$40,000 per firefighter and ben...

2012-05-01

16

Hardiness in professional Spanish firefighters.  

PubMed

As a high risk, physically demanding, and stressful profession, firefighting presents an ideal context for the study of hardiness. Hardiness of professional Spanish firefighters was assessed. Participants (53 firefighters; M age = 36.1 yr., SD = 8.2) volunteered to complete the adapted Spanish version of the Personal Views Survey. Results showed that participants' mean Hardiness score was slightly high. Hardiness was influenced by years of service. Spanish firefighters present a homogenous set of personal characteristics related to managing stressful working circumstances. The effect of experience on Hardiness levels is discussed. PMID:24611261

De la Vega, Ricardo; Ruiz, Roberto; Gómez, Juan; Rivera, Oswaldo

2013-10-01

17

Firefighting module development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The firefighting module is a lightweight, compact, self contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency water pumping applications. Units were fabricated and tested. A production type unit is undergoing an inservice evaluation and demonstration program at the port of St Louis. The primary purpose is to promote enhanced harbor fire protection at inland and coastal ports. The module and its development are described.

Burns, R. A.

1981-01-01

18

KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with an aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Kennedy Space Center aircraft rescue firefighting vehicle supports heavy traffic at the Space Coast Regional Airport in Titusville, Florida, where aircraft capable of carrying water were staged during the recent brushfires throughout Florida. Aircraft were supporting firefighting efforts in Brevard, Volusia, and Flagler counties.

1998-01-01

19

30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2014-07-01

20

30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2012-07-01

21

30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2013-07-01

22

30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2010-07-01

23

30 CFR 56.4330 - Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...56.4330 Firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2011-07-01

24

30 CFR 57.4331 - Surface firefighting drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Surface firefighting drills. 57.4331 Section 57.4331 Mineral...Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4331 Surface firefighting drills. Emergency firefighting drills shall...

2010-07-01

25

Electronic Escape Trails for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed wireless-communication and data-processing system would exploit recent advances in radio-frequency identification devices (RFIDs) and software to establish information lifelines between firefighters in a burning building and a fire chief at a control station near but outside the building. The system would enable identification of trails that firefighters and others could follow to escape from the building, including identification of new trails should previously established trails become blocked. The system would include a transceiver unit and a computer at the control station, portable transceiver units carried by the firefighters in the building, and RFID tags that the firefighters would place at multiple locations as they move into and through the building (see figure). Each RFID tag, having a size of the order of a few centimeters, would include at least standard RFID circuitry and possibly sensors for measuring such other relevant environmental parameters as temperature, levels of light and sound, concentration of oxygen, concentrations of hazardous chemicals in smoke, and/or levels of nuclear radiation. The RFID tags would be activated and interrogated by the firefighters and control-station transceivers. Preferably, RFID tags would be configured to communicate with each other and with the firefighters units and the control station in an ordered sequence, with built-in redundancy. In a typical scenario, as firefighters moved through a building, they would scatter many RFID tags into smoke-obscured areas by use of a compressed-air gun. Alternatively or in addition, they would mark escape trails by dropping RFID tags at such points of interest as mantraps, hot spots, and trail waypoints. The RFID tags could be of different types, operating at different frequencies to identify their functions, and possibly responding by emitting audible beeps when activated by signals transmitted by transceiver units carried by nearby firefighters.

Jorgensen, Charles; Schipper, John; Betts, Bradley

2008-01-01

26

Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an extensive field study of current firefighting practices, we have developed a system called Siren to support tacit communication between firefighters with multiple levels of redundancy in both communication and user alerts. Siren provides a foundation for gathering, integrating, and distributing contextual data, such as location and temperature. It also simplifies the devel- opment of firefighting applications using

Xiaodong Jiang; Nicholas Y. Chen; Jason I. Hong; Kevin Wang; Leila Takayama; James A. Landay

2004-01-01

27

Firefighters' communication transceiver test plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for the operational testing of the firefighters communication transceiver were identified. The major concerns centered around the integrity and reliability of the firefighter/microphone interface. The major concern about the radio hardware was that it be intrinsically safe in hazardous atmospheres and that the system not interfere with the fit or facial seal of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). The greatest concern for operational testing purposes as the reliability and clarity of the line of communication between the firefighter and those on the fireground with whom he must maintain contact. A desire to test any units developed in both training exercises and in real responses to hazardous material incidents was expressed. It is felt that a VOX-microphone built into the SCBA facemask gives the best performance. A voice-pickup product device which combines a bone conduction microphone and a speaker into a single ear mounted unit is examined.

Wallace, R. J.

1984-05-01

28

Firefighting Women and Sexual Harassment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses were received from 37 of 103 department chiefs and 206 of 1,108 female firefighters. The 58% who reported sexual harassment indicated greater stress, sexual stereotyping, acts of violence, use of sick leave, and fear. Although most departments have a policy, over half of those harassed did not report incidents. (SK)

Rosell, Ellen; And Others

1995-01-01

29

Model Training Guide. Firefighter I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This firefighter training guide for a 180-hour course was developed to assist training officers in planning training with emphasis on conformance to recommended National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 1001) standards. The material in the guide is referenced to current editions of the International Fire Service Training Association manuals and…

Hagevig, William A.; Gallagher, Leigh S.

30

77 FR 39717 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEMA-2012-0022] Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency...the fiscal year 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program year. That notice included...found in the ``FY 2012 Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Guidance and...

2012-07-05

31

Data Mining and Ergonomic Evaluation of Firefighter’s Motion Based on Decision Tree Classification Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is effective means to promote firefighter’s clothing design through research of firefighters’ motion. In this paper, substantive\\u000a data and picture information are obtained by investigation methods. Based on the survey, the motion is systematically classified\\u000a according to both intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. The decision tree classification model for firefighters’ motion\\u000a is obtained by pattern recognition technique. The key

Lifang Yang; Tianjiao Zhao

32

A Case of Poisoned Firefighters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed for an introductory biology course for science majors. The activity is intended to reinforce the basic concepts of cellular respiration (including the electron transport chain and generation of the proton motive force) and to link O2 transport explicitly to cellular respiration. Students are initially engaged by considering the cases of firefighters exposed to smoke that could contain carbon monoxide (CO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN).

Ms. Bethany A Cook (New Mexico State University Biology)

2007-02-26

33

Firefighters versus Stotts: The End of Quotas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supreme Court has ruled that a federal district court had no authority to require a municipal employer, in violation of the seniority provisions of its collective bargaining agreement, to lay off more senior White firefighters before laying off Black firefighters. (MLW)

Copus, David A.; Lindsay, Ronald

1984-01-01

34

Flexible Scheduling to Fit the Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three flexible scheduling plans were tried in order that firefighters could take regular college courses despite their 24 hours on the 24 off work schedule. Plan one scheduled the firefighters into a regular Monday-Wednesday-Friday class which they attended every other week, making up missed material outside of class. Plan two scheduled special…

Cox, Clarice Robinson

35

Learning amongst Norwegian Fire-Fighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reveal and analyse dominant learning processes in emergency response work from the fire-fighters' point of view, and how fire-fighters develop their competence. Design/methodology/approach: This study adopted an explorative approach using participant observation. The objective of this open-minded approach…

Sommer, Morten; Nja, Ove

2011-01-01

36

NASA firefighters breathing system program report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

Wood, W. B.

1977-01-01

37

30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2012-07-01

38

30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2011-07-01

39

30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2013-07-01

40

30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2010-07-01

41

30 CFR 57.4330 - Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...4330 Surface firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures...operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue...

2014-07-01

42

Pulmonary function decline in firefighters and non-firefighters in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare changes to pulmonary function among firefighters and non-firefighters who were exposed to harmful substances in their work environments. Methods Firefighters (n?=?322) and non-firefighters (n?=?107) in Daegu who received a pulmonary function test in 2008 and 2011 as well as a regular health examination were included. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to evaluate the pulmonary function of the two groups over the three-year period. Results After adjusting for age, height, body mass index, duration of exposure, physical activity, and smoking, which were statistically different between the two groups and known risk factors of pulmonary function, the forced expiratory volume in one s FEV1, forced vital capacity FVC, and FEV1/FVC% over the 3 year period were significantly lower among firefighters compared with non-firefighters. Conclusions Evaluating the working environment of firefighters is difficult; however, our study revealed that pulmonary function declined in firefighters. Thus, more effort should be made to prevent and manage respiratory diseases early by preforming strict and consistent pulmonary function tests in firefighters. PMID:24795815

2014-01-01

43

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marine Firefighting: (i) Remote assessment and consultation Firefighter in voice contact with QI/Master/Operator. (ii) On-site fire assessment Firefighter representative on site. (iii) External firefighting teams...

2010-07-01

44

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A training officer controls elements of a fire training exercise at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters tackled flames from a burning simulated aircraft.

2000-01-01

45

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters in full gear wait to approach a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. The firefighters are with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

2000-01-01

46

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A firefighter waits for his companions before tackling the flames on a simulated aircraft. Firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

47

46 CFR 131.535 - Firefighting training and drills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Firefighting training and drills. 131.535 Section 131.535 Shipping...SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.535 Firefighting training and drills. (a) A fire drill must be...

2010-10-01

48

20 CFR 404.1212 - Police officers and firefighters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Police officers and firefighters. 404.1212 Section 404.1212... § 404.1212 Police officers and firefighters. (a) General. For Social...of the Act, a police officer's or firefighter's position is any position so...

2010-04-01

49

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A firefighter (right) holds a water hose in readiness as others enter a smoke-filled simulated aircraft. The activities are part of fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30 for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla. The firefighters have already extinguished flames from the aircraft.

2000-01-01

50

A CB protective firefighter turnout suit.  

PubMed

This paper describes research that developed a prototype chemical and biological (CB) protective firefighter suit. It is presented as a case study demonstrating an integrated systems approach to designing, developing and evaluating a protective clothing ensemble based on end user requirements. It includes a discussion of the process that was used to gain an understanding of firefighter performance needs for a structural turnout suit that also incorporated chemical protection. It describes the design features of the turnout suit that were developed to meet these expectations as well as the program of testing and evaluation used to characterize garment performance. It discusses ensemble level performance evaluations in instrumented fire manikin tests and man-in-stimulant test procedures. It describes studies conducted to determine the impact of prototype garment design features on heat stress, wear comfort and ergonomic function in structural firefighting applications. PMID:20540836

Barker, Roger; Deaton, Shawn; Liston, Gail; Thompson, Donald

2010-01-01

51

Classroom Challenge: Designing a Firefighting Robot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robots provide teachers with opportunities to teach multidimensional thinking and critical thinking skills. In this article, the author presents a classroom activity wherein students are required to design a firefighting robot. This activity aims to demonstrate the complexity and interdisciplinary nature of the robotics technology.

Roman, Harry T.

2007-01-01

52

Integral Face Shield Concept for Firefighter's Helmet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stowable face shield could be made integral part of helmet worn by firefighters. Shield, made from same tough clear plastic as removable face shields presently used, would be pivoted at temples to slide up inside helmet when not needed. Stowable face shield, being stored in helmet, is always available, ready for use, and is protected when not being used.

Abeles, F.; Hansberry, E.; Himel, V.

1982-01-01

53

The NASA firefighter's breathing system program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

1974-01-01

54

Crew equipment applications - Firefighter's Breathing System.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) represents a significant step in applying NASA's crew equipment technologists and technologies to civilian sector problems. This paper describes the problem, the utilization of user-design committees as a forum for development of design goals, the design of the FBS, and the field test program to be conducted.

Smith, W. L.

1973-01-01

55

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in...

2011-07-01

56

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050 Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate....

2014-07-01

57

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a)...

2013-07-01

58

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in...

2012-07-01

59

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in...

2014-07-01

60

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate. 155.4050...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4050 Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate....

2013-07-01

61

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a)...

2014-07-01

62

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a)...

2012-07-01

63

33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. 155.4040...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4040 Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service. (a)...

2011-07-01

64

33 CFR 155.4030 - Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in response...PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4030 Required salvage and marine firefighting services to list in...

2013-07-01

65

5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...842.405 Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...207 or a law enforcement officer, firefighter or nuclear materials courier...

2010-01-01

66

75 FR 61412 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative...Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative...Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Cooperative...

2010-10-05

67

78 FR 73817 - Information Collection; Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative Agreements and Inventory AGENCY: Forest...Firefighter Property (FFP) program Cooperative Agreements and Inventory. DATES: Comments...Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative Agreements and Inventory. OMB...

2013-12-09

68

Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

Weinstein, Leonard Murray

2007-01-01

69

Competency-Based Education Curriculum for Firefighter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency-based education curriculum, developed by firefighters and educators in West Virginia, is designed for use as a resource for the development of improved firefighter training programs. It consists of an introductory note to the instructor and 140 competency sheets. These sheets deal with tasks in the following areas: general…

West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

70

Work demands during firefighting training: does age matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefighting is known to be demanding, but low retirement age in this field means the capacity of the older worker to fight fires is less understood. In the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA), firefighting is a critical secondary task that all personnel must be capable of. Heart rate (HR), work ability index and subjective work demand were obtained from 48 RFA

A. I. Bennett; J. Hanley; P. Buckle; R. S. Bridger

2011-01-01

71

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters in full gear douse a fire on a simulated aircraft. The firefighters, who are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are taking part in fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

72

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters surround a burning simulated aircraft during training exercises Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. Those at left wait their turn as the crew on the right turn their hoses toward the fire. The firefighters are with Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla.

2000-01-01

73

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

2000-01-01

74

KSC firefighters support recent firefighting efforts with a railroad tanker car  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Kennedy Space Center railroad tanker car loaded with 20,000 gallons of water and retrofitted with a special attachment for directly filling fire trucks was transported to the scene of a fire in north Brevard County to assist with firefighting efforts.

1998-01-01

75

Firefighters' exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids and 2-butoxyethanol present in firefighting foams.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess eight firefighters' exposure to Sthamex 3% AFFF (aqueous film forming foam) in the simulation of aircraft accidents at Oulu airport in Finland. Study was conducted in 2010 before limitation for the use of PFOA and PFOS in AFFFs. Due to prospective limitation also eight commercially available AFFFs were evaluated from occupational and environmental point of view to find substitutive AFFFs for future. The firefighters' exposure to twelve perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAS) was analyzed in order to observe the signs of accumulation during three consecutive training sessions. The firefighters' short-term exposure to 2-butoxyethanol (EGBE) was analyzed by urinalysis of 2-butoxyacetic acid (2-BAA). For the background information also the concentration of PFAS in used AFFF-liquid was analyzed. Fire fighters' serum PFHxS and PFNA concentrations seemed to increase during the three training sessions although they were not the main PFAS in used AFFF. The statistical significance for the elevations was not able to test due to limited size of test group. In two training sessions, the average urinary excretions of 2-BAA exceeded the reference limit of the occupationally unexposed population. In the evaluations of the firefighting foams, non-fluorine based products were favored and the alcohol resistance properties of foams were recommended for consideration due to the increasing use of biofuels. PMID:25447453

Laitinen, Juha Ari; Koponen, Jani; Koikkalainen, Janne; Kiviranta, Hannu

2014-12-01

76

Firefighter safety: rampant unsafe practices as documented in mainstream media.  

PubMed

More than 30,000 firefighters are injured on the fireground each year. Literature suggests that injury often occurs when protective gear is not used properly. According to firefighters, failure to correctly wear protective equipment occurs for several reasons: (1) gear not used because of haste, (2) cumbersome gear can sometimes interfere with performance, and (3) cultural factors. The purpose of this study is to quantify improper gear and tactic use in a publicly available, online video repository in order to better understand unsafe firefighting. This was an Institutional Review Board-exempt study of public video records. A search for "fire fighting videos" was conducted at YouTube (www.youtube.com). The first 50 videos that contained volunteer or career firefighters at work fighting fires were selected evaluated for appropriate use of personal protective equipment and for safe behavior. The videos were evaluated by two highly experienced professional firefighters. Of the 50 videos reviewed, 25 (50%) demonstrated violations of firefighting safety principles. Of the unsafe videos, 21 (42%) displayed firefighters improperly using gear, while the other 4 (8%) were related to unsound tactics. The most common problem was failure to wear or properly secure a self-contained breathing apparatus when appropriate (14 videos or 28%). The second most common failure was lack of helmet, hood, or approved gloves (11 videos or 22%). In conclusion, firefighting as documented on YouTube is often unsafe because of failure to properly use personal protective equipment. Half of the videos reviewed contained unsafe practices. With such a shockingly high rate of unsafe firefighting, the profession is in need of additional education and reform. In response to this epidemic, a multidisciplinary educational program has been developed to improve firefighter awareness of gear limitations and burn injury risk. Effectiveness of educational programs should be documented in additional prospective studies. PMID:25106028

Kahn, Steven A; Woods, Jason; Sipes, Jan C; Toscano, Nicole; Bell, Derek E

2014-01-01

77

The Firefighter Recruitment and Selection Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding the firefighter recruitment and selection process is the first step in permanent employment with a fire department. This lesson describes the major components of fire service testing and provides a basic overview of the selection process. Carefully follow the instructions detailed below and report your progress as indicated. Fire service entry-level testing usually involves three major components: Written exam; Physical ability/agility test; and Oral board. Each area is just important as the other and failure in any of the three will disqualify you from getting the job you\\'re looking for. Written Exam Let\\'s begin by looking at the ...

Gary Noll

2007-10-17

78

The 5000 GPM firefighting module evaluation test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 5000 GPM Firefighting Module development was sponsored and shared by the Navy Facilities Engineering Command. It is a lightweight, compact, self-contained, helicopter-transportable unit for fighting harbor and other specialty fires as well as for use in emergency and shipboard water pumping applications. This unit is a more advanced model of the original 1500 GPM module developed for the U.S. Coast Guard. The module and an evaluation test program conducted at the North Island Naval Air Station, San Diego, California, by NASA and the U.S. Navy, are described.

Burns, Ralph A.

1986-01-01

79

Polymer Fabric Protects Firefighters, Military, and Civilians  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1967, NASA contracted with Celanese Corporation, of New York, to develop a line of PBI textiles for use in space suits and vehicles. In 2005, the PBI fiber and polymer business was sold to PBI Performance Products Inc., of Charlotte, North Carolina, under the ownership of the InterTech Group, of North Charleston, South Carolina. PBI Performance Products now offers two distinct lines: PBI, the original heat and flame resistant fiber; and Celazole, a family of high-temperature PBI polymers available in true polymer form. PBI is now used in numerous firefighting, military, motor sports, and other applications.

2008-01-01

80

High exposure of california firefighters to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.  

PubMed

Concern about persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Californians prompted the state's biomonitoring program to conduct a study in firefighters, who are occupationally exposed to high levels of POPs. In this work we present serum concentrations of several classes of POPs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) in 101 Southern California firefighters. Despite recently reported declining trends of PBDEs in Californians, high levels were measured in firefighters' serum (?5PBDEs: median = 59.1 ng/(g of lipid); range = 18.8-714 ng/(g of lipid)) in comparison to other populations in California during the same period. In addition, nearly one-third of subjects had particularly high serum levels of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), consistent with other recent results in firefighters; this pattern may be a marker of recent firefighting activity. In contrast, serum levels of PCBs and OCPs measured in firefighters' sera were not elevated compared to U.S. levels. Multivariable analysis indicated that lower levels of serum PBDEs were associated with turnout gear cleaning and storage practices after fires. Our study supports the hypothesis that firefighting activities are likely to increase exposure to PBDEs and that good housekeeping and personal hygiene practices may reduce exposure to these compounds. PMID:25643236

Park, June-Soo; Voss, Robert W; McNeel, Sandra; Wu, Nerissa; Guo, Tan; Wang, Yunzhu; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; Petreas, Myrto

2015-03-01

81

Firefighter safety and photovoltaic installations research project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Assistance to Fire Fighters grant, UL LLC examined fire service concerns of photovoltaic (PV) systems. These concerns included firefighter vulnerability to electrical and casualty hazards when mitigating a fire involving photovoltaic (PV) modules systems. Findings include: 1. The electric shock hazard due to application of water is dependent on voltage, water conductivity, distance and spray pattern of the suppression stream. 2. Outdoor weather exposure rated electrical enclosures are not resistant to water penetration by fire hose streams. 3. Firefighter's gloves and boots afford limited protection against electrical shock provided the insulating surface is intact and dry. 4. "Turning off" an array is not a simple matter of opening a disconnect switch. 5. Tarps offer varying degrees of effectiveness. 6. Fire equipment scene lighting and exposure fires may illuminate PV systems sufficiently to cause a lock-on hazard. 7. Severely damaged PV arrays are capable of producing hazardous conditions. 8. Damage to modules from tools may result in both electrical and fire hazards. 9. Severing of conductors in both metal and plastic conduit results in electrical and fire hazards. 10. Responding personnel must stay away from the roofline in the event of modules or sections of an array sliding off the roof. 11. Fires under an array but above the roof may breach roofing materials and decking allowing fire to propagate into the attic space. Several tactical considerations were developed utilizing the data from the experiments.

Backstrom, Robert; Dini, Dave

2012-10-01

82

Plasticizer contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing--a potential factor in increased health risks in firefighters.  

PubMed

Chemical exposures may be responsible for firefighters' elevated incidences of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This study characterized semivolatile chemical contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hood, and one coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270 for semivolatile contaminants, including 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 phthalate diesters. Twenty-two of the chemicals of interest were found on at least one clothing swatch. Only di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer, added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to increase flexibility, was found on every swatch. DEHP concentrations were the highest of any chemical measured, and were 52 to 875 times higher than any PAH concentration measured. DEHP was also detected on most items of unused firefighter personal protective clothing, although at much lower levels. These findings suggest that firefighters are exposed to high levels of DEHP, a probable human carcinogen, and at levels much higher than PAHs, the semivolatile toxic combustion products most extensively studied historically. Firefighter exposure to DEHP and other phthalate diesters therefore merits further study. PMID:24467725

Lacey, Steven; Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

2014-01-01

83

DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF WATER INTAKES FOR FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM ON STARBOARD SIDE OF BOAT UNDER THE WATERLINE. ZINCS ARE ALSO ADDED HERE TO PRESERVE THE METAL. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York, New York County, NY

84

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., turn their hoses toward the fire on the simulated aircraft.

2000-01-01

85

46 CFR 196.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-60 Firefighting equipment, general. (a) It shall be the duty of the owner,...

2010-10-01

86

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers....

2014-07-01

87

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required...information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers...

2011-07-01

88

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers....

2011-07-01

89

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required...information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers...

2012-07-01

90

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers....

2012-07-01

91

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required...information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers...

2014-07-01

92

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required...information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers...

2013-07-01

93

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers....

2013-07-01

94

Economic benefit of the PHLAME wellness programme on firefighter injury  

PubMed Central

Background Work-related injuries and illness are prevalent and costly. Firefighting is especially hazardous and many firefighters sustain work-related injuries. Workplace health promotion programmes have shown positive return on investment (ROI). Little is known about how similar programmes would impact injury and cost among firefighters. Aims To evaluate the impact of a workplace health promotion intervention on workers’ compensation (WC) claims and medical costs among Oregon fire departments participating in the PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models’ Effects) health promotion programme compared with Oregon fire departments not participating in PHLAME. Methods Data from firefighters from four large urban fire departments in Oregon were evaluated using a retrospective quasi-experimental study design. Outcomes were (i) total annual firefighter WC claims, (ii) total annual incurred medical costs prior to and after implementation of the PHLAME firefighter worksite health promotion programme (iii) and an ROI analysis. Results Data were obtained from 1369 firefighters (mean age of 42 years, 91% white, 93% male). WC claims (P < 0.001) and medical costs (P < 0.01) were significantly lower among PHLAME fire departments compared with Oregon fire departments not participating in the programme. Fire departments participating in the PHLAME TEAM programme demonstrated a positive ROI of 4.61–1.00 (TEAM is used to indicate the 12-session peer-led health promotion programme). Conclusions Fire department WC claims and medical costs were reduced after implementation of the PHLAME workplace health promotion programme. This is a low cost, team-based, peer-led, wellness programme that may provide a feasible, cost-effective means to reduce firefighter injury and illness rates. PMID:23416849

2013-01-01

95

Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.  

SciTech Connect

Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

2011-10-01

96

Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

2011-01-01

97

Accuracy of the VO2peak prediction equation in firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background A leading contributing factor to firefighter injury and death is lack of fitness. Therefore, the Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative (WFI) was established that includes a focus on providing fitness assessments to all fire service personnel. The current fitness assessment includes a submaximal exercise test protocol and associated prediction equation to predict individual VO2peak as a measure of fitness. There is limited information on the accuracy, precision, and sources of error of this prediction equation. This study replicated previous research by validating the accuracy of the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for a group of firefighters and further examining potential sources of error for an individual firefighters’ assessment. Methods The sample consisted of 22 firefighters who completed a maximal exercise test protocol similar to the WFI submaximal protocol, but the test was terminated when firefighters reached a maximal level of exertion (i.e., measured VO2peak). We then calculated the predicted VO2peak based on the WFI prediction equation along with individual firefighters’ body mass index (BMI) and 85% of maximum heart rate. The data were analyzed using paired samples t-tests in SPSS v. 21.0. Results The difference between predicted and measured VO2peak was -0.77?±?8.35 mL•kg-1•min-1. However, there was a weak, statistically non-significant association between measured VO2peak and predicted VO2peak (R2?=?0.09, F(1,21)?=?2.05, p?=?0.17). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC?=?0.215, p?>?0.05) and Pearson (r?=?0.31, p?=?0.17) and Spearman (??=?0.28, p?=?0.21) correlation coefficients were small. The standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 8.5 mL•kg-1•min-1. Further, both age and baseline fitness level were associated with increased inaccuracy of the prediction equation. Conclusions We provide data on the inaccuracy and sources of error for the WFI VO2peak prediction equation for predicting fitness level in individual firefighters, despite apparently accurate predictions for a group of firefighters. These results suggest that the WFI prediction equation may need to be reevaluated as a means of precisely determining fitness for individual firefighters, which may affect employment status, duty assignment, and overall life safety of the firefighter. PMID:24860611

2014-01-01

98

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (x) Aircraft cargo hazards, including hazardous materials/dangerous goods incidents. (xi) Familiarization with firefighters' duties under the airport emergency plan. (3) All rescue and firefighting personnel must participate in at least...

2010-01-01

99

77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Guard [USCG-2012-0848] Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills...continuing response to the explosion, fire and sinking of the Mobile Offshore Drilling...voluntary guidance concerning lifesaving and fire-fighting equipment, training, and...

2012-11-23

100

Validation of a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment for firefighters.  

PubMed

Currently, a submaximal protocol is used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters by estimating their true aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max); however, this submaximal test has not been cross-validated among firefighters. Thirty firefighters (85% male, 15% female), completed the submaximal protocol and the maximal (Bruce) treadmill protocol on separate occasions. Pearson's correlation analyses between the submaximal and Bruce protocol revealed a significant moderate positive correlation (r = 0.635, p = 0.005). The range of mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values and SDs produced from the submaximal and maximal protocols varied greatly (35.4-50.9 vs. 28.6-58.4 ml·kg·min, and SD of 3.91 vs. 7.22, respectively). The submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test underestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the majority of firefighters (72.4%) and overestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the remainder of firefighters. Participants with a higher body fat percentage were more likely (p = 0.0157) to have an overestimated true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max than those with a lower-body fat percentage. Our results indicate the current submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters is an improvement over previous protocols. However, our findings also show that the accuracy of this submaximal test for predicting the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in firefighters is questionable, and may not identify firefighters who possess substandard cardiorespiratory fitness, particularly in those with a higher percentage of body fat. Thus, the results of this study indicate that improvements to the current Fire Service Joint Management, Wellness & Fitness Initiative (WFI) V[Combining Dot Above]O2 assessment is still needed to accurately reflect the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of individual firefighters. PMID:24714540

Delisle, Anthony T; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K; Cowen, Tiffany L; Huq, Mona B Sayedul; Delisle, Alexis D; Stopka, Christine B; Tillman, Mark D

2014-10-01

101

Effects of air bottle design on postural control of firefighters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) air bottle design and vision on postural control of firefighters. Twenty-four firefighters were tested using four 30-minute SCBA bottle designs that varied by mass and size. Postural sway measures were collected using a forceplate under two visual conditions (eyes open and closed) and two stance conditions (quiet and perturbed stances). For perturbed stance, a mild backward impulsive pull at the waist was applied. In addition to examining center of pressure postural sway measures for both stance conditions, a robustness measure was assessed for the perturbation condition. The results suggest that wearing heavy bottles significantly increased excursion and randomness of postural sway only in medial-lateral direction but not in anterior-posterior direction. This result may be due to stiffening of plantar-flexor muscles. A significant interaction was obtained between SCBA bottle design and vision in anterior-posterior postural sway, suggesting that wearing heavy and large SCBA air bottles can significantly threaten postural stability in AP direction in the absence of vision. SCBA bottle should be redesigned with reduced weight, smaller height, and COM closer to the body of the firefighters. Firefighters should also widen their stance width when wearing heavy PPE with SCBA. PMID:25683531

Hur, Pilwon; Park, Kiwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

2015-05-01

102

5 CFR 842.208 - Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.208 Firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear...completing any combination of service as a firefighter,law enforcement officer or...

2010-01-01

103

Firefighters' multiple exposure assessments in practice.  

PubMed

During the past decade, more research has focused on firefighters' multiple exposures via multi-route exposure. Multi-route exposure can alter the kinetics of chemicals; this has brought changes to the recommendations on biomonitoring. In addition, the possibility that the chemicals in smoke have additive and synergistic effects has not been consistently taken into account. In this study, biomonitoring and occupational hygienic measurements were used to determine smoke diving trainers' exposure to smoke in conventional and modern simulators. Biological action limit values (BALs) for 1-hydroxypyrene, linked with the ratio of pyrene to benzo[a]pyrene, were established for conventional and modern simulator types. The additive and synergistic effects for the main compounds detected in the air during the suppression of a fire were also calculated. According to the biomonitoring results, dermal exposure played a role in exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and it seemed to delay the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-naphthol. The calculated BALs for 1-hydroxypyrene were 6 nmol/L and 53 nmol/L for the conventional and modern simulators, respectively. The combined cancer and eye disorders or upper respiratory tract irritation effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the conventional simulator were from 6.5 to 7.0-fold higher than in the modern simulator. PMID:22710199

Laitinen, Juha; Mäkelä, Mauri; Mikkola, Jouni; Huttu, Ismo

2012-08-13

104

Physiological strain and countermeasures with firefighting.  

PubMed

Protective clothing is integral to the task of firefighting, but at the same time can increase physiological strain and impair work capacity. Encapsulation of the head and the high thermal resistance and/or low water vapor permeability of the clothing ensemble impede evaporative heat dissipation, thus elevating the rate of heat storage and creating a state of uncompensable heat stress (UHS). In addition, the additional weight from carrying a supplemental air supply and the greater respiratory work of breathing through a regulator can create a negative spiral of thermal hyperpnea from greater respiratory demands and metabolic heat production. The elevated respiratory demands also increase cardiac strain and potentially the risk for myocardial events. Tolerance time during UHS is determined by three factors: the core temperature at the beginning of the heat stress exposure, the core temperature that can be tolerated before exhaustion or collapse ensues, and the rate of increase in core temperature from the beginning to end of the heat stress exposure. Protective clothing is often employed in highly dynamic environments, making portability, longevity and integration with the task requirements and clothing critical design characteristics for countermeasures. To date, most countermeasures have been relatively indirect in nature, primarily with alterations in work scheduling along with physiological manipulations such as cooling manipulations during recovery periods. Advances are required in materials science to develop lighter and less restrictive protective equipment, concurrent with cooling strategies that target specific regions or which can be effectively implemented during exercise. PMID:21029197

Cheung, S S; Petersen, S R; McLellan, T M

2010-10-01

105

Correlates of work injury frequency and duration among firefighters.  

PubMed

This study examined demographic, personality, and economic incentive correlates of workplace injuries suffered by 171 firefighters over a 12-year period. Results showed that female firefighters experienced more injuries than male firefighters. Several Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scales (Conversion Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviate, and Social Introversion) were positively related to injury frequency. Regression analyses revealed that age, tenure, gender, marital status, type of injury, and wage variables were significant when predicting the duration of injuries as well as an interaction between marital status and gender. Two MMPI scales (Psychopathic Deviate and Schizophrenia) were also significantly related to injury duration. Indemnity cost estimates were calculated. The results underscore the importance of distinguishing the duration of injury from the occurrence of injury. PMID:11482634

Liao, H; Arvey, R D; Butler, R J; Nutting, S M

2001-07-01

106

Lesbian firefighters: shifting the boundaries between masculinity and femininity.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explores the interaction between gender and sexuality, comparing the experiences of lesbian and heterosexual women firefighters in the UK. It finds that female firefighters are constructed in terms of their sexuality. Lesbians may find it easier than heterosexual women to be accepted into the "watch culture," in which "masculinity" is highly prized and fitting in with colleagues is seen as essential for performing the job safely. Lesbians who come out at work may also avoid unwanted sexual attention, which is often problematic for heterosexual women who are stereotyped as being sexually available to male firefighters. While the acceptance of lesbian sexuality is based largely on the adoption of characteristics defined as "masculine," lesbians also provide a challenge to accepted models of "femininity." PMID:19042297

Wright, Tessa

2008-01-01

107

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters.  

PubMed Central

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess mortality from cancer was seen for persons aged 30 to 74 (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 173, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 104-270). A significant increase in lung cancer was seen in the group aged 60 to 74 (SMR 317, 95% CI 117-691), whereas non-pulmonary cancer was significantly increased in the group aged 30 to 49 (SMR 575, 95% CI 187-1341). It is concluded that inhalation of carcinogenic and toxic compounds during firefighting may constitute an occupational cancer risk. An extended use of respiratory protective equipment is advocated. PMID:2271386

Hansen, E S

1990-01-01

108

Laboratory or field tests for evaluating firefighters' work capacity?  

PubMed

Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=?-0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=?-0.82) and bench press (rs?=?-0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=?-0.83) and bench press (rs?=?-0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=?-0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=?-0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

2014-01-01

109

Laboratory or Field Tests for Evaluating Firefighters' Work Capacity?  

PubMed Central

Muscle strength is important for firefighters work capacity. Laboratory tests used for measurements of muscle strength, however, are complicated, expensive and time consuming. The aims of the present study were to investigate correlations between physical capacity within commonly occurring and physically demanding firefighting work tasks and both laboratory and field tests in full time (N?=?8) and part-time (N?=?10) male firefighters and civilian men (N?=?8) and women (N?=?12), and also to give recommendations as to which field tests might be useful for evaluating firefighters' physical work capacity. Laboratory tests of isokinetic maximal (IM) and endurance (IE) muscle power and dynamic balance, field tests including maximal and endurance muscle performance, and simulated firefighting work tasks were performed. Correlations with work capacity were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). The highest significant (p<0.01) correlations with laboratory and field tests were for Cutting: IE trunk extension (rs?=?0.72) and maximal hand grip strength (rs?=?0.67), for Stairs: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.81) and barbell shoulder press (rs?=??0.77), for Pulling: IE shoulder extension (rs?=??0.82) and bench press (rs?=??0.85), for Demolition: IE knee extension (rs?=?0.75) and bench press (rs?=?0.83), for Rescue: IE shoulder flexion (rs?=??0.83) and bench press (rs?=??0.82), and for the Terrain work task: IE trunk flexion (rs?=??0.58) and upright barbell row (rs?=??0.70). In conclusion, field tests may be used instead of laboratory tests. Maximal hand grip strength, bench press, chin ups, dips, upright barbell row, standing broad jump, and barbell shoulder press were strongly correlated (rs?0.7) with work capacity and are therefore recommended for evaluating firefighters work capacity. PMID:24614596

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Malm, Christer

2014-01-01

110

Predicting Performance on a Firefighter's Ability Test from Fitness Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to identify the relationships between various fitness parameters such as upper body muscular endurance, upper and lower body strength, flexibility, body composition and performance on an ability test (AT) that included simulated firefighting tasks. A second intent was to create a regression model that would predict…

Michaelides, Marcos A.; Parpa, Koulla M.; Thompson, Jerald; Brown, Barry

2008-01-01

111

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30, firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station Mayport, Fla., wait while the NASA/USAF water carrier truck directs its water cannon toward a burning simulated aircraft (out of view).

2000-01-01

112

Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer vehicle from Naval Station Mayport, Fla., stands by during fire training exercises at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30. In the background is the simulated aircraft that was set on fire for the exercise. Firefighters with the Fire and Emergency Services at the Naval Station (in the background) gather around the site of the extinguished flames.

2000-01-01

113

Provocation, Hostility, Aggression, and Victimization: Firefighters and Incarcerated Felons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines self-reported histories of victimization among two groups of men. Violence, provocation, hostility, and aggression inventories were administered to a prosocial group of firefighters and an antisocial group of incarcerated felons. Fourteen of the 15 possible behavioral-abuse correlations were significant when both groups were considered…

Alexander, E. Carlene; And Others

1995-01-01

114

Behind the Brotherhood: Rewards and Challenges for Wives of Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Support of family is paramount to reducing the impact of highly stressful work on firefighters. Yet the degree of stress encountered by the family members, particularly spouses, resulting from ongoing job demands and exposure to traumatic situations is unclear. This qualitative study examined the effects of emergency service work on spouses of…

Regehr, Cheryl; Dimitropoulos, Gina; Bright, Elaine; George, Sharon; Henderson, Joscelyn

2005-01-01

115

Factors Related to Sleep Disorders among Male Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders in male firefighters working in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Methods Self-administered questionnaires including the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form, Psychosocial Well-Being Index-Short Form, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Beck-Depression Inventory-2 as well as surveys collecting socio-demographic characteristics and work-related factors were given to 730 male firefighters. After exclusion for missing data, 657 male firefighters were included, and logistic regression analysis adjusted for the work-related factors, psychosocial factors, and general risk factors were used to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and associated factors. Results The prevalence of sleep disorders was 48.7%. Shift work (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI?=?1.02-2.45), musculoskeletal symptoms (adjusted OR 2.89, 95% CI?=?2.02-4.14), and depression (adjusted OR 7.04 95% CI?=?4.03-12.30) were associated with sleep disorders. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms, shift work, and depression are associated with sleep disorders. Integrated health management is needed to promote good sleep quality among firefighters. PMID:24864191

2014-01-01

116

Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting  

E-print Network

38 Chapter 3 Response Strategies in Deterministic Models of Spread: Vaccination and Firefighting 3 are occurring. This is particularly relevant in disease spread processes, where vaccinations and quarantines. The response allowed is only a limited number of vaccinations of non-infected vertices. Specifically, let G

Hartke, Stephen

117

Preliminary domain theory for robot-assisted wildland firefighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a preliminary domain theory for robot-assisted wildland firefighting domain. The domain theory is based on a focus group hosted by the Texas Engineering Extension Service with eight subject matter experts and nine technologists. Wildland fire fighting is characterized by the large area affected and the longer duration of the response, on the order of weeks or months.

Robin R. Murphy; Rachel Brown; Reginald Grant; Clint T. Arnett

2009-01-01

118

Line of duty firefighter fatalities: an evolving trend over time.  

PubMed

Between 1990 and 2012, 2775 firefighters were killed in the line of duty. Myocardial infarction (MI) was responsible for approximately 40% of these mortalities, followed by mechanical trauma, asphyxiation, and burns. Protective gear, safety awareness, medical care, and the age of the workforce have evolved since 1990, possibly affecting the nature of mortality during this 22-year time period. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the causes of firefighter mortality have changed over time to allow a targeted focus in prevention efforts. The U.S. Fire Administration fatality database was queried for all-cause on-duty mortality between 1990 to 2000 and 2002 to 2012. The year 2001 was excluded due to inability to eliminate the 347 deaths that occurred on September 11. Data collected included age range at the time of fatality (exact age not included in report), type of duty (on-scene fire, responding, training, and returning), incident type (structure fire, motor vehicle crash, etc), and nature of fatality (MI, trauma, asphyxiation, cerebrovascular accident [CVA], and burns). Data were compared between the two time periods with a ? test. Between 1990 and 2000, 1140 firefighters sustained a fatal injury while on duty, and 1174 were killed during 2002 to 2012. MI has increased from 43% to 46.5% of deaths (P = .012) between the 2 decades. CVA has increased from 1.6% to 3.7% of deaths (P = .002). Asphyxiation has decreased from 12.1% to 7.9% (P = .003) and burns have decreased from 7.7% to 3.9% (P = .0004). Electrocution is down from 1.8% to 0.5% (P = .004). Death from trauma was unchanged (27.8 to 29.6%, P = .12). The percentage of fatalities of firefighters over age 40 years has increased from 52% to 65% (P = .0001). Fatality by sex was constant at 3% female. Fatalities during training have increased from 7.3% to 11.2% of deaths (P = .00001). The nature of firefighter mortality has evolved over time. In the current decade, line-of-duty mortality is more likely to occur during training. Mortality from burns, asphyxiation, and electrocution has decreased; but death from MI and CVA has increased, particularly in older firefighters. Outreach and education should be targeted toward vehicle safety, welfare during training, and cardiovascular disease prevention in the firefighter population. PMID:25055007

Kahn, Steven A; Woods, Jason; Rae, Lisa

2015-01-01

119

Seasonal heat acclimatization in wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine changes in physiological markers of heat acclimatization across a 4-month wildland fire season. Wildland firefighters (WLFF) (n=12) and non-WLFF (n=14) were assessed pre- and post-season for body mass, percent body fat, and peak VO?. Both groups completed a 60-min heat stress trial (walking at 50% of peak VO?) in a climate controlled chamber (43.3 °C, 33% RH) pre and post-fire season (May through September). During the trials, core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), physiological strain index (PSI), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. There were no differences pre or post-season between the WLFF and non-WLFF groups in body mass, percent body fat, or peak V.O2. During the 73 days where the WLFF were involved in direct wildland fire suppression, daily high temperature for the WLFF was higher compared to the non-WLFF, 30.6 ± 5.4 °C and 26.9 ± 6.1 °C, respectively, p<0.05. Tc was lower at post-season compared to pre-season (p<0.05) for the WLFF at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 37.9 ± 0.3, 38.3 ± 0.3 and 38.5 ± 0.3 °C, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 37.8 ± 0.3, 38.1 ± 0.3 and 38.2 ± 0.4 °C, respectively). For WLFF, PSI was lower (p<0.05) at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at post-season compared to pre-season (4.2 ± 0.7, 5.6 ± 0.9, 6.5 ± 0.9, and 7.1 ± 1.1 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min pre-season, respectively; 3.6 ± 0.8, 4.9 ± 1.0, 5.7 ± 1.2, 6.3 ± 1.3 for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-season, respectively). For WLFF, RPE was lower during the post-season trial at 30, 45, and 60 min (pre 30, 45, and 60: 11.7 ± 1.4, 12.3 ± 1.2, and 13.5 ± 1.4, respectively; post 30, 45, and 60: 10.7 ± 1.2, 11.3 ± 1.3, and 11.9 ± 1.5, respectively), p<0.05. There were no differences between pre and post-season for the non-WLFF for Tc and PSI, but RPE was lower at 15 min during the pre-season trial. WLFFs demonstrated significant decreases in Tc, PSI, and RPE during controlled heat stress after the season. Since an age and fitness-matched control group experienced no indication of heat acclimatization, it is suggested that the long-term occupational heat exposure accrued by the WLFFs was adequate to incur heat acclimatization. PMID:25436962

Lui, Brianna; Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

2014-10-01

120

Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.  

PubMed

Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that can produce hazardous levels of noise, this study showed that the average noise levels experienced by firefighters was below generally accepted guidelines. PMID:23339379

Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

2013-01-01

121

Physiological Effects of Boot Weight and Design on Men and Women Firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two leather (L1, L2) and two rubber (R1, R2) boots on firefighters’ metabolic and respiratory variables during simulated firefighting tasks. Twenty-five men and 25 women, while wearing full turnout clothing, a 10.5-kg backpack, gloves, helmet, and one of four randomly assigned pairs of firefighter boots, walked for 6 min

Nina L. Turner; Sharon Chiou; Joyce Zwiener; Darlene Weaver; James Spahr

2010-01-01

122

Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.  

PubMed

Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 ?g/m(3) to 2700 ?g/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 ?g/m(3) to 355 ?g/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles. PMID:25679824

Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

2015-04-01

123

Physiological determinants of the candidate physical ability test in firefighters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relative importance of physiological characteristics during firefighting performance, as assessed by the Candidate Physical Ability Test (CPAT). Subjects included career and volunteer firefighters aged 18-39 (N = 33). Upper- and lower-body strength, muscle endurance, lower body muscle power, body composition analysis, aerobic capacity, anaerobic fitness, and the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure response to stair climbing were assessed to determine the physiological characteristics of the subjects. To quantify firefighting performance, the CPAT was administered by members of the fire service. Absolute and relative mean power during the Wingate anaerobic cycling test (WAnT), relative peak power during the WAnT, and absolute maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were significantly higher in those who passed the CPAT (N = 18), compared to those who failed (N = 15; p < 0.01). Mean power during the WAnT, fatigue index during WAnT, absolute VO2max, upper body strength, grip strength, and the HR response to stair climbing were significantly related to CPAT performance time (p < 0.01). Absolute VO2max and anaerobic fatigue resistance during WAnT best predicted CPAT performance (Adj. R2 = 0.817; p < 0.001). Performance on the ceiling breach and pull was the only CPAT task that was not significantly related to the physiological characteristics assessed. Measures of anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness best predict overall CPAT performance, and individual task performance. Remedial programs aimed at improving firefighting performance should target anaerobic and aerobic fitness qualities. PMID:20938354

Sheaff, Andrew K; Bennett, Angela; Hanson, Erik D; Kim, You-Sin; Hsu, Jeffrey; Shim, Jae K; Edwards, Steven T; Hurley, Ben F

2010-11-01

124

Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

2003-09-01

125

Comparison of firefighters and non-firefighters and the test methods used regarding the effects of personal protective equipment on individual mobility.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the current pilot test method and ascertain reliable measurements for a standard test method of mobility with personal protective equipment (PPE), such as physical performance and balance ability tests; 2) to compare two participant groups (firefighters versus non-firefighters) and to investigate whether non-firefighters are appropriate as a standard participant group in the field of PPE or not. Totally, 18 participants (nine professional firefighters and nine untrained males) performed the current pilot test method consisting of a balance test, completed prior to and after a performance test. Significant differences were found between PPE conditions and CON (the control clothing ensemble: T-shirt, shorts, and running shoes) for the functional balance test, physical performance test, heart rate, and subjective evaluations in firefighters group. Therefore, the present pilot test method is valid as a standard test method for assessing mobility while wearing PPE. Moreover, the present result shows that firefighters are more reliable than non-firefighters in testing of PPE with current test methods. PMID:24462474

Son, Su-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Muraki, Satoshi; Tochihara, Yutaka

2014-07-01

126

77 FR 68784 - Standard Test Procedures Approval Process for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations; Standard Test Procedures...for Respirators To Be Used in Wildland Fire-Fighting Operations AGENCY: The National...with Composite Protection for Wildland Fire- Fighting Operations; Notice of...

2012-11-16

127

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2013-07-01

128

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2012-07-01

129

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2014-07-01

130

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2011-07-01

131

33 CFR 149.417 - What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater... What firefighting equipment must a helicopter landing deck on a manned deepwater port have? Each helicopter landing deck on a manned...

2010-07-01

132

33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...firefighting resource providers listed in response plans. 155.4035 Section 155.4035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4035 Required pre-incident information and...

2010-07-01

133

33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Salvage and Marine Firefighting § 155.4045 Required agreements or contracts with...

2010-07-01

134

Cardiac Strain Associated with High-rise Firefighting.  

PubMed

Although numerous studies have reported the physiological strain associated with firefighting, cardiac responses during a large-scale fire operation have not been reported and cardiac responses have not been compared based on crew assignment. The aims of this study were (1) to characterize cardiac strain during simulated high-rise firefighting, and (2) to compare the cardiac strain associated with different work assignments (fire suppression vs. search and rescue) and different modes of vertical ascent (stairs vs. elevator). Firefighters (N = 42) completed one assignment (fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support) during one of two trials that differed by ascent mode. Assignments were divided into three phases: Ascent (ascend lobby to 8th floor), Staging (remain in holding area on 8th floor), and Work (perform primary responsibilities). When comparing assignments within the same ascent mode, mean heart rate (HRmean) was higher (p = 0.031) for fire suppression than for search and rescue during Work in the stair trial (170 ± 14 vs. 155 ± 11 beats/min). Search and rescue crews experienced greater cumulative cardiac strain (HRmean × duration) during Work than did fire suppression crews (stairs: 1978 ± 366 vs. 1502 ± 190 beats; elevator: 1755 ± 514 vs. 856 ± 232 beats; p<0.05). When comparing ascent mode, HRmean and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were higher (35-57 beats/min; p?0.001) for both fire suppression and search and rescue during Ascent and Staging phases in the stairs vs. the elevator trial. During Work, HRmean was higher (p = 0.046) for search and rescue in the stairs vs. the elevator trial (155 ± 11 vs. 138 ± 19 beats/min). HRmean and HRpeak were 47 and 34 beats/min higher (p < 0.01), respectively, when materials were transported to the staging area using the stairs compared with the elevator. Study findings suggest that high-rise firefighting results in considerable cardiac strain and that search and rescue and material support crews experienced more cardiac strain than fire suppression crews due primarily to differences in assignment duration. Furthermore, using stairs to transport firefighters and equipment to upper floors results in significantly greater cardiac strain than using the elevator. PMID:25369509

Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

2015-04-01

135

Physician Weight Recommendations for Overweight and Obese Firefighters, United States, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction National guidelines state that health care professionals (HCPs) should advise patients on the importance of maintaining a healthy weight. Firefighters have high rates of obesity, and cardiovascular events are the leading cause of line-of-duty deaths in firefighters. This study assessed the association of age and body mass index (BMI) with HCP weight recommendations among male firefighters. Methods We used data on self-reported HCP weight recommendations and measured BMI from a 2011–2012 national sample of male firefighters (N = 1,002). HCP recommendations were recorded as no advice, maintain, gain, or lose weight, and BMI was categorized as normal (<25.0 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), class I obese (30.0–34.9 kg/m2), and class II or III obese (?35.0 kg/m2). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the odds of receiving weight advice by age and BMI categories. Results Most firefighters (96%) reported visiting an HCP in the past year. Most (69%) firefighters and 48% of class I to III obese firefighters reported receiving no weight advice. Higher BMI predicted HCP advice to lose weight (odds ratio class I obese vs normal weight: 12.98; 95% confidence interval: 5.38–31.34). Younger firefighters were less likely to receive weight loss advice than older firefighters, except among those who were class II or III obese. Conclusions HCPs are important sources of health information for firefighters. Overweight and obese firefighters, particularly those who are younger, do not consistently receive HCP advice to lose weight. This marks a missed opportunity to prevent further weight gain and reduce obesity-related health outcomes. PMID:25010998

Wilkinson, Michelle Lynn; Brown, Austin Lane; Poston, Walker Seward Carlos; Haddock, Christopher Keith; Jahnke, Sara Anne

2014-01-01

136

The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

2012-01-01

137

Functional, postural and perceived balance for predicting the work ability of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The importance of balance abilities for firefighting and rescue work has already been recognized, but there are no valid balance tests available in the test batteries for the physical work capacity of firefighters. Moreover, few studies have examined the associations between balance and work ability in general. Valid work-related balance tests are needed for the purpose of screening in

Anne Punakallio; Sirpa Lusa; Ritva Luukkonen

2004-01-01

138

Physiological, Perceptual and Psychological Responses of Career versus Volunteer Firefighters to Live-fire Training Drills.  

PubMed

A primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of short-term live-fire firefighting activities on key physiological, perceptual and psychological variables and whether occupational status influenced these responses. It was also of interest to examine whether individual difference factors differentiated the occupational status groups and if so, whether such individual difference factors influenced perceptual and psychological responses to firefighting activities. Male firefighters (n?=?52 career, n?=?53 volunteer firefighters) participated in 18?min of simulated firefighting activity in a training structure that contained live fires. Measures of heart rate (HR) and Tcore were obtained before and after firefighting activities along with perceptions of thermal sensations, exertion, respiratory distress and affect. Firefighting activities resulted in significant elevations in HR and Tcore , whereas thermal sensations, respiratory distress, exertion and affect all showed significant and sizable changes reflecting greater distress and dysphoria. Occupational status and individual difference factors accounted for some of this negative change. The findings replicate and extend previous work by demonstrating the influence of occupational status and individual difference factors in the psychological responses to firefighting activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25393336

Petruzzello, Steven J; Poh, Paula Y S; Greenlee, Tina A; Goldstein, Eric; Horn, Gavin P; Smith, Denise L

2014-11-13

139

Multidimensional, Threshold Effects of Social Support in Firefighters: Is More Support Invariably Better?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between social support (Social Provisions Scale) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) in a sample of male firefighters in a midwestern community (N=53). The authors assessed 5 types of perceived support from 2 sources: peer firefighters and supervisors. Results indicate that reassurance of worth and social…

Varvel, Shiloh Jordan; He, Yuhong; Shannon, Jennifer K.; Tager, David; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Chaichanasakul, Adipat; Mendoza, Monique M.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

2007-01-01

140

Hearing among male firefighters: a comparison with hearing data from screened and unscreened male population.  

PubMed

We investigated whether hearing loss is associated with firefighting. We conducted cross-sectional study comparing hearing threshold levels (HTLs) of 912 male firefighters with two hearing databases obtained from an otologically normal male Korean population (KONP) and a non-industrial noise-exposed male Korean population (KNINEP), considering age and the main roles of firefighters. Firefighters' age-adjusted HTLs were significantly worse than those of KONP (prevalence ratio (PR)=5.29, P<0.001)but not different from those of KNINEP (PR=0.99, P=0.550). Rescuers (PR=1.005, P<0.001) had worse hearing than the KNINEP after age adjustment. Comparison of firefighters' HTLs (50th and 90th percentiles) with those of KONP and KNINEP by age and frequency showed that firefighters' HTLs had significant increases (poorer hearing) across most age groups and frequencies compared with KONP. Compared with KNINEP, firefighters' HTLs were worse in the younger age groups (<45 years) but not different in the older age groups (>45 years). In conclusion, the hearing thresholds of younger firefighters and rescuers were worse than expected by normal aging alone. Future research should include longitudinal studies to consider variable risk factors, such as military service, smoking, and so on. PMID:25352160

Kang, Tae Sun; Hong, Oi Saeng; Kim, Kyoo Sang; Yoon, Chung Sik

2015-01-01

141

Multidimensional, Threshold Effects of Social Support in Firefighters: Is More Support Invariably Better?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between social support (Social Provisions Scale) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) in a sample of male firefighters in a midwestern community (N = 53). The authors assessed 5 types of perceived support from 2 sources: peer firefighters and supervisors. Results indicate that reassurance of worth and social integration support from supervisors had the strongest negative

Shiloh Jordan Varvel; Yuhong He; Jennifer K. Shannon; David Tager; Rashanta A. Bledman; Adipat Chaichanasakul; Monique M. Mendoza; Brent Mallinckrodt

2007-01-01

142

Respiratory protection for wildland firefighters - Much ado about nothing or time to revisit accepted thinking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory protection for wildland firefighters is a complex issue and the subject of heated debate and diverging opinions. Sampling has shown that wildland firefighters are exposed to a complex mixture of combustion products including carbon monoxide, irritant gases and vapours, carcinogens and ultra fine respirable particles. While some studies have been interpreted to show that exposure levels, when averaged over

C. C. Austin; N. Goyer

143

Hearing among male firefighters: A comparison with hearing data from screened and unscreened male population  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether hearing loss is associated with firefighting. We conducted cross-sectional study comparing hearing threshold levels (HTLs) of 912 male firefighters with two hearing databases obtained from an otologically normal male Korean population (KONP) and a non-industrial noise-exposed male Korean population (KNINEP), considering age and the main roles of firefighters. Firefighters' age-adjusted HTLs were significantly worse than those of KONP (prevalence ratio (PR)=5.29, P<0.001)but not different from those of KNINEP (PR=0.99, P=0.550). Rescuers (PR=1.005, P<0.001) had worse hearing than the KNINEP after age adjustment. Comparison of firefighters' HTLs (50th and 90th percentiles) with those of KONP and KNINEP by age and frequency showed that firefighters' HTLs had significant increases (poorer hearing) across most age groups and frequencies compared with KONP. Compared with KNINEP, firefighters' HTLs were worse in the younger age groups (<45 years) but not different in the older age groups (>45 years). In conclusion, the hearing thresholds of younger firefighters and rescuers were worse than expected by normal aging alone. Future research should include longitudinal studies to consider variable risk factors, such as military service, smoking, and so on. PMID:25352160

Kang, T S; Hong, O S; Kim, K S; Yoon, C S

2015-01-01

144

The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) Firefighter Study: Testing Mediating Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team intervention with their work shift or a control condition. Intervention

Krista W. Ranby; David P. MacKinnon; Amanda J. Fairchild; Diane L. Elliot; Kerry S. Kuehl; Linn Goldberg

2011-01-01

145

Serum heavy metals and hemoglobin related compounds in Saudi Arabia firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including heavy metals, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane and some particulates. Many of these materials have been implicated in the triggering of several diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of fire smoke exposure on serum heavy metals and possible affection on iron functions compounds (total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation percent, ferritin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity blood hemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin,). Subjects and methods Two groups of male firefighter volunteers were included; the first included 28 firefighters from Jeddah city, while the second included 21 firefighters from Yanbu city with an overall age rang of 20–48 years. An additional group of 23 male non-firefighters volunteered from both cities as normal control subjects. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for relevant parameters. Results The results obtained showed that there were no statistically significant changes in the levels of serum heavy metals in firefighters as compared to normal control subjects. Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin were statistically increased in Jeddah firefighters, (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05 respectively) and Yanbu firefighters, (p < 0.005 and p < 0.001 respectively) as compared to normal control group while serum TIBC and UIBC were statistically decreased in Yanbu firefighters as compared to Jeddah firefighters, (p < 0.005 and p < 0.005 respectively) and normal control group, (p < 0.005 and p < 0.01 respectively). On the other hand, serum transferrin saturation percent was elevated in only Yanbu firefighters, (p < 0.05) as compared to Jeddah firefighters. Besides, there was no statistically significant change in blood hemoglobin and serum iron on comparison between all studied groups. Conclusion Such results might point to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to avoid such hazardous health effects (elevated Blood carboxyhemoglobin and serum ferritin and decreased serum TIBC and UIBC) that might endanger firefighters working under dangerous conditions. Firefighters must be under regular medical follow-up through standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for early detection of any serum biochemical or blood hematological changes. PMID:19583874

Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L

2009-01-01

146

Psychophysiological responses in experienced firefighters undertaking repeated self-contained breathing apparatus tasks.  

PubMed

In order to safely and effectively extinguish fires and rescue life, firefighters are required to routinely wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), yet little is known about the specific physiological and psychological demands associated with repeated exposure to tasks that require SCBA. A total of 12 experienced firefighters took part in a series of commonly encountered SCBA activities: free search, guideline search and live firefighting tasks under room temperature (?20°C) and extreme heat (?180°C) conditions to assess changes in heart rate, blood pressure, mood, perceived workload and air usage. Findings demonstrate that live firefighting is associated with greater perceived exhaustion than free search or guideline exercises; however, all tasks lead to high cardiovascular demand regardless of the presence of heat. No significant impact of task upon mood and no significant differences between the perceived demands of guideline, free search and live firefighting exercises were found. PMID:25363022

Young, Paul M; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A

2014-12-01

147

Physiological responses to simulated stair climbing in professional firefighters wearing rubber and leather boots.  

PubMed

No studies have considered whether a firefighter's boots are a factor influencing physiological responses. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to a fire simulation activity (stair climb) in professional firefighters wearing rubber boots (RB) and leather boots (LB). Twelve professional firefighters participated in two counterbalanced simulated firefighter stair climb (SFSC) sessions, one wearing RB and the other wearing LB. Heart rate, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), expiratory ventilation (V(E)), blood lactate (BLa), salivary cortisol (SCORT), and leg strength were assessed prior to and following a SFSC. LB elicited significantly greater SCORT values and knee flexion time to peak torque. Furthermore, RB revealed significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion peak torque after SFSC. BLa was positively related to knee flexion peak torque after SFSC in the RB. Firefighters when wearing the RB may be more effective at resisting fatigue and increase more force production. PMID:19543910

Huang, Chun-Jung; Garten, Ryan S; Wade, Chip; Webb, Heather E; Acevedo, Edmund O

2009-09-01

148

Effect of fire smoke on some biochemical parameters in firefighters of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Firefighters who are facing fires, are frequently exposed to hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, benzene, sulphur dioxide, etc. This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes in activity involved firefighters in comparison to normal subjects. Subjects and Methods Two groups of male firefighters volunteered to participate in the study. The first included 28 firefighters from Jeddah, while the second included 21 firefighters from Yanbu, with overall age ranged 20–48 years. An additional group of 23 male non-firefighters volunteered from both cities as normal control subjects, of age range 20–43 years. Blood samples were collected from all volunteer subjects and investigated for some relevant serum biochemical and blood hematological changes. Results The results obtained showed that, there were statistically significant differences in liver function, kidney function, serum lipid profile, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, iron and its biologically active derivatives, and blood picture in firefighters as compared with the normal control group. These results indicate that, fire smoke mainly affects serum biochemical and blood hematological parameters. Such results might point out to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to avoid such hazardous health effects that might endanger firefighters under their highly drastic working conditions. Conclusion Besides using of personal protective equipments for firefighters to protect them against exposure to toxic materials of fire smoke, it is recommended that, firefighters must be under continuous medical follow up through a standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for early detection of any serum biochemical or blood hematological changes that might happen during their active service life and to allow for early treatment whenever necessary. PMID:19077241

Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Rezq, Ameen M; Al-Saedy, Mohamed H

2008-01-01

149

High Resolution 12-lead Electrocardiograms of On-Duty Professional Firefighters: A Pilot Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular deaths among on-duty firefighters are high; double that of police officers and quadruple that of first responders. The aim of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of obtaining high resolutions ECGs of on-duty firefighters useful for detecting ECG predictors for cardiac events. Methods Twenty-eight professional firefighters (age, 46 ± 6 years) wore a 12-lead ECG Holter for 24 hours (16 hours while on-duty and 8 hours post-duty). All activities including fire and medical calls were monitored. Results On average the recordings were 92% analyzable. All were in sinus with a heart rate of 80 ±11bpm (35–188 range). The average rr50 over the 24-hour Holter study was 6.2 ±6% (range: 1–23%) and rms-SD was 81 ± 55 (range: 24–209). Using the QRS/Tsimple formula, the average spatial QRS-T angle was 104 ±17 degrees (range 78–132 degrees). Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia occurred irrespectively of activity or time of day in three (11%) firefighters, which was significantly higher than in comparable normal populations (p<0.05). Conclusions This preliminary work demonstrates that it is feasible to obtain high resolution ECGs during firefighting activities and further points to the high prevalence of arrhythmias among firefighters. The strategy of continuous field monitoring of firefighters could provide new insight into the association between their specific professional lifestyle and high cardiac risks. PMID:21206348

Carey, Mary G.; Thevenin, Bernard J.-M.

2010-01-01

150

76 FR 58462 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Water Enhancers (Gels) for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service...Collection; Qualified Products List for Water...to ensure that products are safe and effective prior...firefighters with safe and effective wildland fire chemical products. Estimate of...

2011-09-21

151

76 FR 58461 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Class A Foams for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service...Collection; Qualified Products List for Class...to ensure that products are safe and effective prior...firefighters with safe and effective wildland fire chemical products. Estimate of...

2011-09-21

152

76 FR 58460 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Long-Term Retardant for Wildland Firefighting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service...Collection; Qualified Products List for Long-Term...to ensure that products are safe and effective prior...firefighters with safe and effective wildland fire chemical products. Estimate of...

2011-09-21

153

Analysis of Firetruck Crashes and Associated Firefighter Injuries in the United States  

PubMed Central

Motor vehicle crashes are the second leading cause of death for on-duty firefighters. Firetruck crashes, occurring at a rate of approximately 30,000 crashes per year, have potentially dire consequences for the vehicle occupants and for the community if the firetruck was traveling to provide emergency services. Data from the United States Fire Administration and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shows that firefighters neglect to buckle their seatbelts while traveling in a fire apparatus, thus putting themselves at a high risk for injuries if the truck crashes, especially in rollover crashes. Despite national regulations and departmental guidelines aiming to improve safety on fire apparatuses, belt use among firefighters remains dangerously low. The results from this study indicate that further steps need to be taken to improve belt use. One promising solution would be to redesign firetruck seatbelts to improve the ease of buckling and to accommodate wider variations in firefighter sizes. PMID:23169118

Donoughe, Kelly; Whitestone, Jennifer; Gabler, Hampton C.

2012-01-01

154

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2013-07-01

155

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2012-07-01

156

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2014-07-01

157

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting...Section 75.1502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY...

2011-07-01

158

Fire and Ice - Safety, Comfort, and Getting the Firefighters' Job Done  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily life for firefighters consists of working with life-threatening hazards in hostile environments. A major hazard is excessive ambient heat. New hazards have arisen from protective gear that was intended to increase survival time of firefighters while finding and rescuing victims. The insulation is so good now that a firefighter's metabolic heat buildup cannot escape. This forces body core temperatures to life threatening levels in about 20 minutes of moderate activity. Using NASA space suit technology, Oceaneering Space Systems developed a liquid cooling garment prototype that will remove up to 250 watts of metabolic heat. After testing and certification as an approved accessory for firefighter use, this garment will be available for use by any individual encapsulated in protective clothing. This demonstration will present a high surface area circulated liquid cooling garment displayed on a mannequin and available for attendees to try on to experience the effects of active cooling.

Foley, Tico; Butzer, Melissa

1999-01-01

159

77 FR 42417 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Firefighters  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Health. 2003; 2(1):14; Carey MG, Al-Zaiti SS, Dean GE, Sessanna L, Finnell DS, Sleep Problems, Depression, Substance Use, Social Bonding, and Quality of Life in Professional Firefighters. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2011;...

2012-07-19

160

Posttraumatic Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth of Israeli Firefighters, at One Month following the Carmel Fire Disaster  

PubMed Central

Wildfire disasters are potentially traumatic events which directly and indirectly affect both citizens and first responders. The study of posttraumatic growth is scarcely found in the context of firefighters and only few studies have addressed this construct. In the current study, posttraumatic symptoms and posttraumatic growth were investigated among Israeli firefighters (N = 65), approximately one month after the Carmel Fire Disaster. Eight firefighters (12.3%) were found to be above the cut-off score for probable PTSD, with intrusion symptoms as the most frequent finding compared to avoidance and hyper-arousal symptoms. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was evident to a small but considerable degree; noticeable changes were found regarding personal strength and appreciation of life. Results also revealed significant linear and quadratic relationships between PTSD and PTG. Results are discussed in light of past research on psychological responses among firefighters and first responders. PMID:24286064

Leykin, Dmitry; Lahad, Mooli; Bonneh, Nira

2013-01-01

161

US Coast Guard lightweight fire-fighting module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Coast Guard Fire-fighting Module developed for the purpose of fighting fires in harbors and on ships is described. The module can be lifted by a dockside crane or helicopter and placed on the deck of a patrol boat or cutter for transportation to the scene of the fire. At the fire the module can be set up and put in operation by a crew of two in approximately fifteen minutes. Once in operation the module will deliver water to two fire nozzles at a pressure of 150 psi and a flow rate of 2000 gpm. Sufficient fuel is carried in the module for three hours of continuous operation. A record of the development of the fire fighting module is also presented.

1980-01-01

162

Climate change and wildland firefighter health and safety.  

PubMed

The author examines how climate change is impacting wildland firefighters. Climate change has made wildland fires more frequent and more intense. The increase in frequency and intensity of fires has pushed the number of fatalities and injuries higher in recent decades. The most common hazards on fires follow the trend of fire in general in that these hazards become more frequent and intense. Burnovers, heat exhaustion, tree hazards, and many other common fire hazards are more likely. The fire suppression agencies are making every effort to improve health and safety on fires by improving communication, weather forecasting, mapping, fire shelters, decision making and more. Despite these efforts, wildfires are becoming ever more hazardous because of climate change and the increasing frequency and intensity of wildfires. PMID:25816171

Withen, Patrick

2015-02-01

163

Firefighter's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.

Beck, E. J.

1974-01-01

164

Evaluation of two cooling systems under a firefighter coverall.  

PubMed

Firemen often suffer from heat strain. This study investigated two chest cooling systems for use under a firefighting suit. In nine male subjects, a vest with water soaked cooling pads and a vest with water perfused tubes were compared to a control condition. Subjects performed 30 min walking and 10 min recovery in hot conditions, while physiological and perceptual parameters were measured. No differences were observed in heart rate and rectal temperature, but scapular skin temperature and fluid loss were lower using the perfused vest. Thermal sensation was cooler for the perfused vest than for the other conditions, while the cool pad vest felt initially cooler than control. However, comfort and RPE scores were similar. We conclude that the cooling effect of both tested systems, mainly providing a (temporally) cooler thermal sensation, was limited and did not meet the expectations. PMID:24798511

Teunissen, Lennart P J; Wang, Li-Chu; Chou, Shih-Nung; Huang, Chin-Hsien; Jou, Gwo-Tsuen; Daanen, Hein A M

2014-11-01

165

Effect of firefighters' personal protective equipment on gait.  

PubMed

The biomechanical experiment with eight male and four female firefighters demonstrates that the effect of adding essential equipment: turnout ensemble, self-contained breathing apparatus, and boots (leather and rubber boots), significantly restricts foot pronation. This finding is supported by a decrease in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral excursion of center of plantar pressure (COP) trajectory during walking. The accumulation of this equipment decreases COP velocity and increases foot-ground contact time and stride time, indicating increased gait instability. An increase in the flexing resistance of the boots is the major contributor to restricted foot pronation and gait instability as evidenced by the greater decrease in excursion of COP in leather boots (greater flexing resistance) than in rubber boots (lower resistance). The leather boots also shows the greatest increase in foot contact time and stride time. These negative impacts can increase musculoskeletal injuries in unfavorable fire ground environments. PMID:25683530

Park, Huiju; Kim, Seonyoung; Morris, Kristen; Moukperian, Melissa; Moon, Youngjin; Stull, Jeffrey

2015-05-01

166

World Trade Center-exposed NYC firefighters face increased cancer risk:  

Cancer.gov

In the largest cancer study of firefighters ever conducted, research published in this week’s 9/11 Special Issue of The Lancet found that New York City firefighters exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site were at least 19 percent more likely to develop cancer in the seven years following the disaster as their non-exposed colleagues and up to 10 percent more likely to develop cancer than a similar sample from the general population.

167

A preliminary investigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms among firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency service personnel are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is little in-depth information on the psychological responses of firefighters to the daily incidents that they attend. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the PTSD symptoms of firefighters in relation to traumatic events experienced by them, and the availability of social support. Thirty-one UK fire

Cheryl Haslam; Krissie Mallon

2003-01-01

168

The effect of pre-warming on performance during simulated firefighting exercise.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of active pre-warming on speed and quality of performance during simulated firefighting exercise. Twelve male firefighters performed two trials in counterbalanced order. They were either pre-warmed by 20-min cycling at 1.5 Watt kg(-)(1) body mass (WARM) or remained thermoneutral (CON) prior to a simulated firefighting activity. After the pre-warming, gastrointestinal temperature (P < 0.001), skin temperature (P = 0.002), and heart rate (P < 0.001) were higher in WARM than in CON. During the firefighting activity, rating of perceived exertion, thermal sensation and discomfort were higher for WARM than for CON. Finish time of the firefighting activity was similar, but the last task of the activity was completed slower in WARM than in CON (P = 0.04). In WARM, self-reported performance quality was lower than in CON (P = 0.04). It is concluded that pre-warming reduces the speed during the last part of simulated firefighting activity and reduces self-reported quality of performance. PMID:24816137

Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Mol, Eric; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

2014-11-01

169

Life-saving uncooled IR camera for use in firefighting applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent description by a firefighter on the experience of entering a building that is on fire was to liken it to being blindfolded, then being lead to a maze and told there is a victim at the center which you have to recover. In simple terms, firefighters are totally blind and what they need are 'eyes' that can see in the dark and through dense smoke. The development of lightweight thermal cameras using uncooled IR staring arrays and a helmet mounted display has now given the firefighter the 'eyes' in such situations which means less time to achieve a rescue and enhanced personal safety for the firefighter. This paper gives details on the development of the uncooled array camera and how it's been configured to withstand the extreme temperature conditions encountered during a firefighting environment. Also, how the camera and display system have been designed to provide the firefighter with a helmet mounted configuration to enable total 'hands free' operation. This is followed by a description of the special tests required to prove that the complete system can survive in a fire environment and finally a short video which demonstrates how the system performs in real life situations.

Bennett, Mel V.; Matthews, Iain

1996-06-01

170

Effects of Liquid Cooling Garments on Recovery and Performance Time in Individuals Performing Strenuous Work Wearing a Firefighter Ensemble  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of body cooling using liquid cooling garments (LCG) on performance time (PT) and recovery in individuals wearing a fully equipped prototype firefighter ensemble (PFE) incorporating a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). Six healthy male participants (three firefighters and three non-firefighters) completed six experimental sessions in an environmental chamber (35°C, 50% relative humidity), consisting of three stages

Jung-Hyun Kim; Aitor Coca; W. Jon Williams; Raymond J. Roberge

2011-01-01

171

Biomonitoring of chemical exposure among New York City firefighters responding to the World Trade Center fire and collapse.  

PubMed Central

The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 exposed New York City firefighters to smoke and dust of unprecedented magnitude and duration. The chemicals and the concentrations produced from any fire are difficult to predict, but estimates of internal dose exposures can be assessed by the biological monitoring of blood and urine. We analyzed blood and urine specimens obtained from 321 firefighters responding to the WTC fires and collapse for 110 potentially fire-related chemicals. Controls consisted of 47 firefighters not present at the WTC. Sampling occurred 3 weeks after 11 September, while fires were still burning. When reference or background ranges were available, most chemical concentrations were found to be generally low and not outside these ranges. Compared with controls, the exposed firefighters showed significant differences in adjusted geometric means for six of the chemicals and significantly greater detection rates for an additional three. Arrival time was a significant predictor variable for four chemicals. Special Operations Command firefighters (n = 95), compared with other responding WTC firefighters (n = 226), had differences in concentrations or detection rate for 14 of the chemicals. Values for the Special Operations Command firefighters were also significantly different from the control group values for these same chemicals and for two additional chemicals. Generally, the chemical concentrations in the other firefighter group were not different from those of controls. Biomonitoring was used to characterize firefighter exposure at the WTC disaster. Although some of the chemicals analyzed showed statistically significant differences, these differences were generally small. PMID:14644665

Edelman, Philip; Osterloh, John; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Sam P; Grainger, James; Jones, Robert; Blount, Ben; Calafat, Antonia; Turner, Wayman; Feldman, Debra; Baron, Sherry; Bernard, Bruce; Lushniak, Boris D; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David

2003-01-01

172

Comparison of sensory–Neural Hearing between Firefighters and Office Workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Rescuer systems personnel such as firefighters have importance in health assessment. Because of stressful situation, chemicals, metals, gases and noises, they need many physical and paraclinic examination such as audiometry in periodic examinations. Comparison of sensory – neural hearing between firefighters and office workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study had been done on firefighters and office workers with use of the clinical – health issues. Data had been analyzed in SPSS 11.5 by T-test and Chi-2 with significance level of P<0.05. Results: Mean of hearing threshold in firefighters’ right ear in 4000, 6000, 8000 Hz was 16.05±8.66 dB and in office workers was 15.20±6.47 dB with t=0.786 and P=0.433 had no significant difference, this mean in firefighters’ left ear was 16.17±8.12 dB and in office workers was 15.52±6.67 dB with t=0.617 and P=0.538 had no significant difference too. Mean of hearing threshold in firefighters’ right ear in age 40 or less than it in 4000 Hz was 20.51±10.11 dB and in office workers was 17.50±5.28 dB with t=2.153 and P=0.033 had significant difference. Conclusion: Mean of hearing threshold in firefighters in all frequencies was normal, except 4000 frequency. It showed the early effect of occupational exposure on hearing. PMID:23411914

Assadi, Seyedeh Negar; Esmaily, Habibollah; Mostaan, Leila

2013-01-01

173

Mitigation and prevention of exertional heat stress in firefighters: a review of cooling strategies for structural firefighting and hazardous materials responders.  

PubMed

Most duties performed by firefighters require the use of personal protective equipment, which inhibits normal thermoregulation during exertion, creating an uncompensable heat stress. Structured rest periods are required to correct the effects of uncompensable heat stress and ensure that firefighter safety is maintained and that operations can be continued until their conclusion. While considerable work has been done to optimize firefighter cooling during fireground operations, there is little consensus on when or how cooling should be deployed. A systematic review of cooling techniques and practices among firefighters and hazardous materials operators was conducted to describe the state of the science and provide recommendations for deploying resources for fireground rehab (i.e., structured rest periods during an incident). Five electronic databases were searched using a selected combination of key words. One hundred forty publications were found in the initial search, with 27 meeting all the inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers performed a qualitative assessment of each article based on nine specific questions. From the selected literature, the efficacy of multiple cooling strategies was compared during exertion and immediately following exertion under varying environmental conditions. When considering the literature available for cooling firefighters and hazardous materials technicians during emergency incident rehabilitation, widespread use of cooling devices does not appear to be warranted if ambient temperature and humidity approximate room temperature and protective garments can be removed. When emergency incident rehabilitation must be conducted in hot or humid conditions, active cooling devices are needed. Hand/forearm immersion is likely the best modality for cooling during rehab under hot, humid conditions; however, this therapy has a number of limitations. Cooling during work thus far has been limited primarily to cooling vests and liquid- or air-cooled suits. In general, liquid-perfused suits appear to be superior to air-cooled garments, but both add weight to the firefighter, making current iterations less desirable. There is still considerable work to be done to determine the optimal cooling strategies for firefighters and hazardous materials operators during work. PMID:23379781

McEntire, Serina J; Suyama, Joe; Hostler, David

2013-01-01

174

Design of monocular head-mounted displays for increased indoor firefighting safety and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four monocular Head-Mounted Display (HMD) prototypes from the Fire Information and Rescue Equipment (FIRE) project at UC Berkeley are presented. The FIRE project aims to give firefighters a system of information technology tools for safer and more efficient firefighting in large buildings. The paper begins by describing the FIRE project and its use of a custom wireless sensor network (WSN) called SmokeNet for personnel tracking. The project aims to address urban/industrial firefighting procedures in need of improvement. Two "user-needs" studies with the Chicago and Berkeley Fire Departments are briefly presented. The FIRE project"s initial HMD prototype designs are then discussed with regard to feedback from the user-needs studies. These prototypes are evaluated in their potential costs and benefits to firefighters and found to need improvement. Next, some currently available commercial HMDs are reviewed and compared in their cost, performance, and potential for use by firefighters. Feedback from the Berkeley Fire Department user-needs study, in which the initial prototypes were demonstrated, is compiled into a concept selection matrix for the next prototypes. This matrix is used to evaluate a variety of HMDs, including some of the commercial units presented, and to select the best design options. Finally, the current prototypes of the two best design options are presented and discussed.

Wilson, Joel; Steingart, Dan; Romero, Russell; Reynolds, Jessica; Mellers, Eric; Redfern, Andrew; Lim, Lloyd; Watts, William; Patton, Colin; Baker, Jessica; Wright, Paul

2005-05-01

175

The effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy with traumatised firefighters in Saudi Arabia: A randomized controlled study.  

PubMed

Firefighters are exposed to many traumatic events. The psychological costs of this exposure increase the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study examined the effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) as a short-term treatment for reducing PTSD symptoms among Saudi firefighters. A randomized waiting-list control study was conducted with 34 traumatized firefighters were randomly allocated to NET or Waiting-list Control (WLC). The NET group received four therapy sessions of 60-90 min over a three-week period; those in the WLC condition received the same sessions after a three-week waiting period. Participants in both groups were assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3 and 6 month follow ups. NET led to significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression compared with WLC. After the WLC group received treatment, it showed the same improvements as the NET group. This occurred immediately post-treatment in both groups, but was not sustained at 3 and 6 month follow ups. Coping strategies and social support led to significant changes only in follow up times. NET was effective in reducing PTSD symptoms in traumatised Saudi firefighters. This finding could be helpful in the management of PTSD among people who work as first responders such as firefighters, police officers and emergency medical personal, as well as security officers. PMID:25701801

Alghamdi, Mohammed; Hunt, Nigel; Thomas, Shirley

2015-03-01

176

Modeling thermal insulation of firefighting protective clothing embedded with phase change material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and research on heat transport through firefighting protective clothing when exposed to high temperature or intensive radiation are significant. Phase change material (PCM) takes energy when changes from solid to liquid thus reducing heat transmission. A numerical simulation of heat protection of the firefighting protective clothing embedded with PCM was studied. We focused on the temperature variation by comparing different thicknesses and position conditions of PCM combined in the clothing, as well as the melting state of PCM and human irreversible burns through a simplified one-dimensional model. The results showed it was superior to place PCM between water and proof layer and inner layer, in addition, greater thickness increased protection time while might adding extra burden to the firefighter.

Hu, Yin; Huang, Dongmei; Qi, Zhengkun; He, Song; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Heping

2013-04-01

177

Exposure to bushfire smoke during prescribed burns and wildfires: firefighters' exposure risks and options.  

PubMed

Firefighters are exposed to known health-damaging air pollutants present in bushfire smoke and poorly managed exposure can result in serious health issues. A better understanding of exposure levels and the major factors influencing exposures is crucial for the development of mitigation strategies to minimise exposure risks and adverse health impacts. This study monitored air toxics within the breathing zone of firefighters at prescribed burns and at wildfires in Australia. The results showed that exposure levels were highly variable, with higher exposures (sometimes exceeding occupational exposure standards) associated with particular work tasks (such as patrol and suppression) and with certain burn conditions. The majority of firefighter's exposures were at low and moderate levels (~60%), however considerable attention should be given to the high (~30%) and very high (6%) exposure risk situations for which acute and chronic health risks are very likely and for which control strategies should be developed and implemented to minimise health risks. PMID:20956017

Reisen, Fabienne; Hansen, Dane; Meyer, C P Mick

2011-02-01

178

Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.  

PubMed

Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

2014-09-01

179

An occupational exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in firefighters.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are unintentional byproducts of combustion and industrial processes. Firefighters face the risk of occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs. Congener-specific analyses of 17 PCDD/Fs were performed on 20 serum samples collected from firefighters and fire scene investigators, and four soot samples that had deposited on the surfaces of the fire helmets and were collected after the firefighters had fought fires. The PCDD/F concentrations on the helmets that were contaminated by being worn at the fire scenes were 63-285 times higher than those on a clean helmet. The median serum PCDD/F concentration of the 16 firefighters (12 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1)lipid) was not different from those of the males from the general Taiwanese population (9.4 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid). However, the median PCDD/F level in the four fire scene investigators (15 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid) was higher than those in the male from the general Taiwanese population (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Furthermore, the serum samples from the firefighters and fire scene investigators, and the soot samples from the fire scenes presented similarly distinctive PCDD/F profiles that had elevated proportions for 10 PCDF congeners. Limited data indicated that the fire scene investigators were occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes. We suggested that the firefighters were not occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes due to appropriate protection. However, the fire scene investigators may have had more occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs due to poor protection, and further research must be performed to confirm this. PMID:21458022

Hsu, Jing-Fang; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsueh Wen; Liao, Chin-Kun; Liao, Pao-Chi

2011-05-01

180

Systemic exposure to PAHs and benzene in firefighters suppressing controlled structure fires.  

PubMed

Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre-exposure levels for round 1. We found statistically significant positive correlations between external exposures (i.e. personal air concentrations of PAHs) and biomarkers (i.e. change in urinary PAH metabolite levels in round 1 and change in breath concentrations of benzene in round 2). The results suggest that firefighters wearing full protective ensembles absorbed combustion products into their bodies. The PAHs most likely entered firefighters' bodies through their skin, with the neck being the primary site of exposure and absorption due to the lower level of dermal protection afforded by hoods. Aromatic hydrocarbons could have been absorbed dermally during firefighting or inhaled during the doffing of gear that was off-gassing contaminants. PMID:24906357

Fent, Kenneth W; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P; Dalton, James

2014-08-01

181

Systemic Exposure to PAHs and Benzene in Firefighters Suppressing Controlled Structure Fires  

PubMed Central

Turnout gear provides protection against dermal exposure to contaminants during firefighting; however, the level of protection is unknown. We explored the dermal contribution to the systemic dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons in firefighters during suppression and overhaul of controlled structure burns. The study was organized into two rounds, three controlled burns per round, and five firefighters per burn. The firefighters wore new or laundered turnout gear tested before each burn to ensure lack of PAH contamination. To ensure that any increase in systemic PAH levels after the burn was the result of dermal rather than inhalation exposure, the firefighters did not remove their self-contained breathing apparatus until overhaul was completed and they were >30 m upwind from the burn structure. Specimens were collected before and at intervals after the burn for biomarker analysis. Urine was analyzed for phenanthrene equivalents using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a benzene metabolite (s-phenylmercapturic acid) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; both were adjusted by creatinine. Exhaled breath collected on thermal desorption tubes was analyzed for PAHs and other aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We collected personal air samples during the burn and skin wipe samples (corn oil medium) on several body sites before and after the burn. The air and wipe samples were analyzed for PAHs using a liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. We explored possible changes in external exposures or biomarkers over time and the relationships between these variables using non-parametric sign tests and Spearman tests, respectively. We found significantly elevated (P < 0.05) post-exposure breath concentrations of benzene compared with pre-exposure concentrations for both rounds. We also found significantly elevated post-exposure levels of PAHs on the neck compared with pre-exposure levels for round 1. We found statistically significant positive correlations between external exposures (i.e. personal air concentrations of PAHs) and biomarkers (i.e. change in urinary PAH metabolite levels in round 1 and change in breath concentrations of benzene in round 2). The results suggest that firefighters wearing full protective ensembles absorbed combustion products into their bodies. The PAHs most likely entered firefighters’ bodies through their skin, with the neck being the primary site of exposure and absorption due to the lower level of dermal protection afforded by hoods. Aromatic hydrocarbons could have been absorbed dermally during firefighting or inhaled during the doffing of gear that was off-gassing contaminants. PMID:24906357

Fent, Kenneth W.; Eisenberg, Judith; Snawder, John; Sammons, Deborah; Pleil, Joachim D.; Stiegel, Matthew A.; Mueller, Charles; Horn, Gavin P.; Dalton, James

2014-01-01

182

The Integrated Personnel Development System: The Training and Development of Competent Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article enquires into the nature of an emergent continuous professional development (CPD) mechanism for firefighters in the form of an Integrated Personnel Development System (IPDS), which proposes to base future training for every rank in the service on the acquisition and demonstration of competence for role. IPDS is due to be introduced…

Moran, Peter; Starling, Paul

2005-01-01

183

Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.  

PubMed

The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk. PMID:20582769

Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

2010-07-01

184

The Impact of Obesity on Back and Core Muscular Endurance in Firefighters  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between obesity and measures of back and core muscular endurance in firefighters. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in career firefighters without low back pain. Obesity measures included body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage assessed with air displacement plethysmography. Muscular endurance was assessed with the Modified Biering Sorensen (back) and Plank (core) tests. Relationships were explored using t-tests and regression analyses. Results. Of the 83 participants enrolled, 24 (29%) were obese (BMI ? 30). Back and core muscular endurance was 27% lower for obese participants. Significant negative correlations were observed for BMI and body fat percentage with back and core endurance (r = ?0.42 to ?0.52). Stepwise regression models including one obesity measure (BMI, body fat percentage, and fat mass/fat-free mass), along with age and self-reported physical exercise, accounted for 17–19% of the variance in back muscular endurance and 29–37% of the variance in core muscular endurance. Conclusions. Obesity is associated with reduced back and core muscular endurance in firefighters, which may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Obesity should be considered along with back and core muscular endurance when designing exercise programs for back pain prevention in firefighters. PMID:23213491

Mayer, John M.; Nuzzo, James L.; Chen, Ren; Quillen, William S.; Verna, Joe L.; Miro, Rebecca; Dagenais, Simon

2012-01-01

185

Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies; Student Manual, Part B. Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course designed to develop performance capabilities in the student of the fire service is presented in a manual. Each chapter is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the material covered in class. Specific objectives are: (1) To train "Support Assistant" B personnel to augment and assist firefighters, (2) To train personnel to…

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

186

Race "Outsider Within" the Firehouse: African American and White Women Firefighters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed and interviewed black and white women firefighters regarding subordination through imposed exclusion, tokenism, and omnirelevance of race/ethnicity in their perceptions of work experience. Both groups experienced insufficient instruction, hostility, silence, hypersupervision, insufficient support, stereotyping, and intertwining of race…

Yoder, Janice D.; Berendsen, Lynne L.

2001-01-01

187

The support system of the firefighter's activity by detecting objects in smoke space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, crisis management's response to terrorist attacks and natural disasters, as well as accelerating rescue operations has become an important issue. We aim to make a support system for firefighters using the application of various engineering techniques such as information technology and radar technology. In rescue operations, one of the biggest problems is that the view of firefighters is obstructed by dense smoke. One of the current measures against this condition is the use of search sticks, like a blind man walking in town. The most important task for firefighters is to understand inside situation of a space with dense smoke. Therefore, our system supports firefighters' activity by visualizing the space with dense smoke. First, we scan target space with dense smoke by using millimeter-wave radar combined with a gyro sensor. Then multiple directional scan data can be obtained, and we construct a 3D map from high-reflection point dataset using 3D image processing technologies (3D grouping and labeling processing). In this paper, we introduce our system and report the results of the experiment in the real smoke space situation and practical achievements.

Sakai, Masaki; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Takagi, Mikio

2005-12-01

188

Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

2012-01-01

189

Mediating Effects of Social Support on Firefighters' Sense of Community and Perceptions of Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between psychological sense of community, social-support networks, and care-giver stress and satisfaction among firefighters. No significant gender differences were obtained, but zero-order correlates demonstrated significant relationships among all four variables. In examining the mediating effects of…

Cowman, Shaun E.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Liao-Troth, Matthew

2004-01-01

190

A heat transfer model for incorporating carbon foam fabrics in firefighter's garment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, a numerical study was performed to predict and investigate the performance of a thermal protection system for firefighter's garment consisting of carbon foam fabric in both the outer shell and the thermal liner elements. Several types of carbon foam with different thermal conductivity, porosity, and density were introduced to conduct a parametric study. Additionally, the thickness of the introduced carbon foam fabrics was varied to acquire optimum design. Simulation was conducted for a square planar 2D geometry of the clothing comprising of different fabric layers and a double precision pressure-based implicit solver, under transient state condition was used. The new anticipated thermal protection system was tested under harsh thermal environmental conditions that firefighters are exposed to. The parametric study showed that employing carbon foam fabric with one set of designed parameters, weight reduction of 33 % in the outer shell, 56 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 2 % at the inner edge of the garment was achieved when compared to the traditional firefighter garment model used by Song et al. (Int J Occup Saf Ergon 14:89-106, 2008). Also, carbon foam fabric with another set of designed parameters resulted in a weight reduction of 25 % in the outer shell, 28 % in the thermal liner and a temperature reduction of 6 % at the inner edge of the garment. As a result, carbon foam fabrics make the firefighter's garment more protective, durable, and lighter in weight.

Elgafy, Ahmed; Mishra, Sarthak

2014-04-01

191

Human factors in firefighting: ergonomic, cardiopulmonary, and psychogenic stress-related issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many issues in firefighting that involve human factors and cardiopulmonary conditioning. Population-based mortality and disability surveillance studies suggest a relatively small but significant excess of disability but not mortality from nonmalignant cardiovascular disease for fire fighters. More targeted cohort and case-control studies do not support such an excess and instead suggest a strong healthy worker effect. Pulmonary function

Tee L. Guidotti

1992-01-01

192

Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns  

EPA Science Inventory

Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

193

New York Heart Bills: Presumptions Governing Police and Firefighters' Cardiac Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New York, two statutes govern heart disease suffered by police officers and firefighters - one covering New York City, and the other covering New York State. Both bills establish a line-of-duty presumption which provides that any impairment of health caused by diseases of the heart and the resulting disability or death are presumptive evidence that the impairment was job

Andrea J. Berger

1982-01-01

194

Australian firefighters' exposure to air toxics during bushfire burns of autumn 2005 and 2006.  

PubMed

Bushfire fighting is a hazardous occupation and control strategies are generally in place to minimize the hazards. However, little is known regarding firefighters' exposure to bushfire smoke, which is a complex mixture of toxic gases and particles. In Australia, during the prescribed burning season, firefighters are likely to be exposed on a regular basis to bushfire smoke, but whether these exposures affect health has yet to be determined. There are a number of factors that govern whether exposure to smoke will result in short-term and/or long-term health problems, including the concentrations of air pollutants within the breathing zone of the firefighter, the exposure duration, and health susceptibility of the individual, especially for pre-existing lung or heart disease. This paper presents measurements of firefighters' personal exposure to bushfire smoke, the first step within a risk management framework. It provides crucial information on the magnitude, extent and frequency of personal exposure to bushfire smoke for a range of typical scenarios. It is found that the primary air toxics of concern are carbon monoxide (CO), respirable particles and formaldehyde. Also, work activity is a major factor influencing exposure with exposure standards (both average and short-term limits) likely to be exceeded for activities such as suppression of spot fires, holding the fireline, and patrolling at the edge of a burn area in the urban-rural interface. PMID:18829114

Reisen, Fabienne; Brown, Stephen K

2009-02-01

195

STS-31 Crew Training: Firefighting, Food Tasting, EVA Prep and Post  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle crew is shown lighting a pond of gasoline and then performing firefighting tasks. The crew is also shown tasting food including lemonade, chicken casserole, and tortillas, and performing extravehicular activity (EVA) equipment checkouts in the CCT middeck and airlock.

1990-01-01

196

Indicator Systems for School and Teacher Evaluation: Fire-Fighting It Is!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1979, Gene Glass suggested that it might not be possible to evaluate schools nor to create widely applicable research findings, but that the complexity of education was such that merely "fire-fighting," establishing monitoring systems to alert about educational events, was the best approach. In the United Kingdom, monitoring systems are running…

Fitz-Gibbon, C. T.

197

Task-Relevant Sound and User Experience in Computer-Mediated Firefighter Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently intense to make the training viable and effective.…

Houtkamp, Joske M.; Toet, Alexander; Bos, Frank A.

2012-01-01

198

Influence of genetic susceptibility on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine of firefighters  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Oxidative DNA damage has been implicated in carcinogenesis. The DNA damage can be assessed from the urinary excretion of the DNA-repair product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). The factors were investigated that influenced the excretion of urinary 8-OH-dG in 78 firefighters.?METHODS—53 Out of 78 firefighters were exposed to fire within 5 days of the study and 25 were not. 8-OH-dG was measured by ELISA and the distribution of the genotypes of CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 was measured by polymerase chain reaction.?RESULTS—The homozygous wild type frequencies of CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 ile-val, CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were 31.5%, 56.2%, 60.3%, 50.7%, and 53.4%, respectively. The geometric mean of urinary 8-OH-dG was 14.1 ng/mg creatinine in more active firefighters and 12.3 ng/mg creatinine in non-exposed and less active subjects. Significantly increased concentrations of urinary 8-OH-dG were found to be associated with cigarette smoking, and 14% of the variation of 8-OH-dG was explained by cigarettes smoked per day. The CYP1A1 MspI, CYP1A1 ile-val, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms were not found to be significantly associated with the urinary excretion of 8-OH-dG. However, the subjects carrying the CYP2E1 mutant type excreted higher concentrations of 8-OH-dG and there was a marginally significant interaction of GSTT1 with firefighting activity. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that smoking was the strongest predictor of excretion of 8-OH-dG. Age, body mass index, and firefighting activity were not significant predictive factors for urinary 8-OH-dG.?CONCLUSION—Smoking and CYP2E1 gene polymorphism may be important factors in carcinogenesis and the GSTT1 positive genotype may be a genetic susceptibility factor in firefighters who are exposed regularly to various chemical carcinogens.???Keywords: firefighters; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; susceptibility PMID:10810125

Hong, Y.; Park, H.; Ha, E.

2000-01-01

199

When a hero becomes a patient: firefighter burn injuries in the National Burn Repository.  

PubMed

Firefighters receive significant training and are outfitted with state-of-the-art protective equipment. However, given the unpredictable nature of their work environment, injuries still occur. The National Burn Repository (NBR) was viewed as a resource for defining the epidemiology of these injuries on a national level and to identify predictive factors for outcomes in this population. The NBR was queried for the occupation of "firefighter" for the years 1990-2008. Records were screened for completeness, and 597 patients were identified for analysis. Data examined included demographics, %TBSA burn, length of stay (LOS), injury circumstance, and disposition. Multiple linear regression models were created to determine factors related to outcome measures. The majority of patients were white (84%) and male (96%). The mean age was 35 years. Most injuries were caused by fire/flame (73%). Only six deaths (1%) were reported. Most injuries were work-related (86%), and most patients were discharged home (92%). Inhalation injury was documented in 9% of patients. The mean LOS was 6.5 ± 11.3 days (median 2 days), and few patients had critical care requirements. The average %TBSA was 6 ± 11.7%. Patients with larger injuries had increased LOS. The presence of inhalation injury, elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels, and advancing age were significantly associated with larger burns. From the NBR data, most firefighter burn injuries were small, and few firefighter burn patients required critical care resources or had significant disability. Firefighters comprise a small number of burn center admissions each year, yet they are an important population to consider for burn prevention efforts. PMID:22138811

Matt, Sarah E; Shupp, Jeffery W; Carter, Elizabeth A; Flanagan, Katherine E; Jordan, Marion H

2012-01-01

200

Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data.

Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

2011-01-01

201

Multivariate statistical assessment of predictors of firefighters' muscular and aerobic work capacity.  

PubMed

Physical capacity has previously been deemed important for firefighters physical work capacity, and aerobic fitness, muscular strength, and muscular endurance are the most frequently investigated parameters of importance. Traditionally, bivariate and multivariate linear regression statistics have been used to study relationships between physical capacities and work capacities among firefighters. An alternative way to handle datasets consisting of numerous correlated variables is to use multivariate projection analyses, such as Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction and predictive power of field and laboratory tests, respectively, on firefighters' physical work capacity on selected work tasks. Also, to study if valid predictions could be achieved without anthropometric data. The second aim was to externally validate selected models. The third aim was to validate selected models on firefighters' and on civilians'. A total of 38 (26 men and 12 women) + 90 (38 men and 52 women) subjects were included in the models and the external validation, respectively. The best prediction (R2) and predictive power (Q2) of Stairs, Pulling, Demolition, Terrain, and Rescue work capacities included field tests (R2 = 0.73 to 0.84, Q2 = 0.68 to 0.82). The best external validation was for Stairs work capacity (R2 = 0.80) and worst for Demolition work capacity (R2 = 0.40). In conclusion, field and laboratory tests could equally well predict physical work capacities for firefighting work tasks, and models excluding anthropometric data were valid. The predictive power was satisfactory for all included work tasks except Demolition. PMID:25775243

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Antti, Henrik; Malm, Christer

2015-01-01

202

Multivariate Statistical Assessment of Predictors of Firefighters’ Muscular and Aerobic Work Capacity  

PubMed Central

Physical capacity has previously been deemed important for firefighters physical work capacity, and aerobic fitness, muscular strength, and muscular endurance are the most frequently investigated parameters of importance. Traditionally, bivariate and multivariate linear regression statistics have been used to study relationships between physical capacities and work capacities among firefighters. An alternative way to handle datasets consisting of numerous correlated variables is to use multivariate projection analyses, such as Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction and predictive power of field and laboratory tests, respectively, on firefighters’ physical work capacity on selected work tasks. Also, to study if valid predictions could be achieved without anthropometric data. The second aim was to externally validate selected models. The third aim was to validate selected models on firefighters’ and on civilians’. A total of 38 (26 men and 12 women) + 90 (38 men and 52 women) subjects were included in the models and the external validation, respectively. The best prediction (R2) and predictive power (Q2) of Stairs, Pulling, Demolition, Terrain, and Rescue work capacities included field tests (R2 = 0.73 to 0.84, Q2 = 0.68 to 0.82). The best external validation was for Stairs work capacity (R2 = 0.80) and worst for Demolition work capacity (R2 = 0.40). In conclusion, field and laboratory tests could equally well predict physical work capacities for firefighting work tasks, and models excluding anthropometric data were valid. The predictive power was satisfactory for all included work tasks except Demolition. PMID:25775243

Lindberg, Ann-Sofie; Oksa, Juha; Antti, Henrik; Malm, Christer

2015-01-01

203

Inflammatory Effects of Woodsmoke Exposure among Wildland Firefighters Working at Prescribed Burns at the Savannah River Site, SC  

EPA Science Inventory

Objectives: Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsm...

204

A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Dios, José Ramiro Martínez-de; Baturone, Aníbal Ollero

2012-01-01

205

Comparison of measured and self-reported anthropometric information among firefighters: implications and applications.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height compared to measured values among firefighters and identified factors associated with reporting error. A total of 863 male and 88 female firefighters in four US regions participated in the study. The results showed that both men and women underestimated their body weight ( - 0.4 ± 4.1, - 1.1 ± 3.6 kg) and overestimated their height (29 ± 18 , 17 ± 16 mm). Women underestimated more than men on weight (p = 0.022) and men overestimated more than women on height (p < 0.001). Reporting errors on weight were increased with overweight status (p < 0.001) and were disproportionate among subgroups. About 27% men and 24% women had reporting errors on weight greater than ± 2.2 kg, and 59% men and 28% women had reporting errors on height greater than 25 mm. PMID:25198061

Hsiao, Hongwei; Weaver, Darlene; Hsiao, James; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Whisler, Richard; Ferri, Robert

2014-12-01

206

Modeling heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during flash fire exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a model of heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during a flash fire exposure is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of coupled heat and moisture transport on the protective performance of the garment. Computational results show the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the fabric during the exposure to the flash fire as well as during the cool-down period. Moreover, the duration of the exposure during which the garment protects the firefighter from getting second and third degree burns from the flash fire exposure is numerically predicted. A complete model for the fire-fabric-air gap-skin system is presented.

Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

2005-01-01

207

A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.  

PubMed

This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions. PMID:23202198

De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

2012-01-01

208

Can firefighter instructors perform a simulated rescue after a live fire training exercise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were undertaken to determine whether firefighter instructors are capable of performing a simulated rescue task\\u000a after undertaking a live fire training exercise (LFTE) lasting approximately 40 min. In the first study, ten instructors performed\\u000a two simulated rescue tasks in air at 19°C, involving dragging an 81-kg dummy for 15 m along a corridor and down two flights\\u000a of stairs. The

Clare M. Eglin; Michael J. Tipton

2005-01-01

209

Exercise-induced hypertension among healthy firefighters-a comparison between two different definitions.  

PubMed

Different studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the association of hypertensive response to exercise and cardiovascular morbidity. We compared two different definitions of exaggerated hypertensive response to exercise and their association with cardio-respiratory fitness in a population of healthy firefighters. We examined blood pressure response to exercise in 720 normotensive male career firefighters. Fitness was measured as peak metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) achieved during maximal exercise treadmill tests. Abnormal hypertensive response was defined either as systolic blood pressure ? 200 mm Hg; or alternatively, as responses falling in the upper tertile of blood pressure change from rest to exertion, divided by the maximal workload achieved. Using the simple definition of a 200 mm Hg cutoff at peak exercise less fit individuals (METs ? 12) were protected from an exaggerated hypertensive response (OR 0.45, 95%CI 0.30-0.67). However, using the definition of exercise-induced hypertension that corrects for maximal workload, less fit firefighters had almost twice the risk (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.3-2.47). Blood pressure change corrected for maximal workload is better correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Systolic blood pressure elevation during peak exercise likely represents an adaptive response, whereas elevation out of proportion to the maximal workload may indicate insufficient vasodilation and a maladaptive response. Prospective studies are needed to best define exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. PMID:23246464

Leiba, Adi; Baur, Dorothee M; Kales, Stefanos N

2013-01-01

210

The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models’ Effects) Firefighter Study: Testing Mediating Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models’ Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team intervention with their work shift or a control condition. Intervention sessions taught benefits of a healthy diet and regular exercise and sought to improve social norms and social support from coworkers for healthy behavior. At post-test team intervention participants had increased their fruit and vegetable consumption as compared to control participants. An increase in knowledge of fruit and vegetable benefits and improved dietary coworker norms partially mediated these effects. Exercise habits and VO2 max were related to targeted mediators but were not significantly changed by the team intervention. Partial support was found for both the action and conceptual theories underlying the intervention. Our findings illustrate how an effective program’s process can be deconstructed to understand the underpinnings of behavior change and refine interventions. Further, fire stations may improve the health of firefighters by emphasizing the benefits of healthy diet and exercise behaviors while also encouraging behavior change by coworkers as a whole. PMID:21728433

Ranby, Krista W.; MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Elliot, Diane L.; Kuehl, Kerry S.; Goldberg, Linn

2012-01-01

211

Smokeless Tobacco and Dual Use among Firefighters in the Central United States  

PubMed Central

Little is known about smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in the fire service, whose personnel need to maintain high levels of health and fitness given the rigorous physical and mental job requirements. We examined the relationships among variables associated with SLT use and dual tobacco use (SLT and smoking) among 353 male career firefighters. Around 13% of male career firefighters reported being current exclusive SLT users, and 2.6% used both cigarettes and SLT. Age-adjusted models revealed that race, binge drinking, and dietary fat consumption were positively associated with exclusive SLT use when compared to nontobacco users. SLT users were much more likely to binge drink (OR = 3.98, P < .01) and consume high fat foods (OR = 1.94, P < .05). Only high dietary fat consumption was a strong correlate (OR = 8.41, P < .05) of dual use when compared to nontobacco users. SLT and dual tobacco use are associated with significant health risks. Detailed information on the predictors of SLT use among firefighters will aid in developing more effective tobacco prevention and cessation intervention in fire service. PMID:23533451

Jitnarin, Nattinee; Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara

2013-01-01

212

The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity in Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. CVD is the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, and the prevalence of obesity is a growing concern in the Fire Service. Methods. Traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures of cardiovascular health and a measurement of CVD were described and compared between nonobese and obese career firefighters who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Results. In the group of 116 men (mean age 43 ± 8?yrs), the prevalence of obesity was 51.7%. There were no differences among traditional CVD risk factors or the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (criterion measure) between obese and nonobese men. However, significant differences in novel markers, including CRP, subendocardial viability ratio, and the ejection duration index, were detected. Conclusions. No differences in the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors between obese and nonobese men were found. Additionally, CAC was similar between groups. However, there were differences in several novel risk factors, which warrant further investigation. Improved CVD risk identification among firefighters has important implications for both individual health and public safety. PMID:22888409

Smith, Denise L.; Fehling, Patricia C.; Frisch, Adam; Haller, Jeannie M.; Winke, Molly; Dailey, Michael W.

2012-01-01

213

The Effects of Ice Slurry Ingestion before Exertion in Wildland Firefighting Gear.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose. To investigate the effect of ice slurry ingestion precooling on body core temperature (Tc) during exertion in wildland firefighting garments in uncompensable heat stress. Methods. On two separate trials, 10 males ingested 7.5 g·kg(-1) of either an ice slurry (0.1°C) or control beverage (20°C) during seated rest for 30 minutes prior to simulating the U.S. Forest Service Pack Test on a treadmill in wildland firefighting garments in a hot environment (38.8 ± 1.2°C, 17.5 ± 1.4% relative humidity). Deep gastric temperature, mean skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Ratings of perceived exertion, thermal sensation, comfort, and sweating were assessed. Results. Compared with ingestion of a temperate beverage, precooling with ice slurry before exertion in a hot environment reduced Tc during the first 30 minutes of the exercise bout. Exercise time and distance completed were not different between treatments. Skin temperature, heart rate, and perceptual responses rose in both conditions during exercise but did not differ by condition. Conclusion. Pretreatment with ice slurry prior to exertion in wildland firefighting garments results in a modest reduction in Tc during the first 30 minutes of exercise when compared to pretreatment with control beverage but the ice slurry precooling advantage did not persist throughout the 45-minute exercise protocol. PMID:25290244

Pryor, Riana R; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Francis X; Reis, Steven E; Hostler, David

2014-10-01

214

A modified SCBA facepiece for accurate metabolic data collection from firefighters.  

PubMed

To better assess the energy expenditure and exertion of firefighters during simulated firefighting activities, a commercial firefighter self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) facepiece was modified to interface with a portable metabolic monitoring device (Cosmed K4b(2)) while still functioning as a positive pressure SCBA air supply. To validate the device, standard National Fire Protection Association 1981 SCBA function tests were conducted and 14 subjects performed variable-workload assessments using all combinations of two test devices (Cosmed K4b(2) and metabolic cart) and two masks (modified SCBA facepiece and stock manufacturer-supplied breath collection). Metabolic data collected with the Cosmed K4b(2) via the modified facepiece were found to be accurate when compared to a ParvoMedics Truemax 2400 metabolic cart (average per cent difference: 4.6%). This modified facepiece design is suitable for use in metabolic studies requiring the utilisation of an SCBA system. Furthermore, the well-established overestimation of oxygen consumption from the Cosmed K4b(2) system was replicated. PMID:25323675

Kesler, Richard M; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T; Motl, Robert W; Klaren, Rachel E; Ensari, Ipek; Horn, Gavin P

2015-01-01

215

Stressors and coping strategies of U.K. firefighters during on-duty incidents.  

PubMed

Operational response by firefighters requires an abrupt change from rest to near-maximal physical effort and incorporates almost instant stress management that must be made during extreme heat, limited time and partial information, yet little is known about the coping strategies incorporated to manage the physiological and psychological demands associated with this environment. A sample of 22 UK firefighters took part in focus groups identifying frequently used coping techniques based upon problem-focused and emotion-focused coping methods. Findings suggest problem-orientated coping comprised half of the total coping strategies quoted by participants, with a third of responses being categorized as emotion-focused methods, and 17% were considered to be both problem-focused and emotion-focused techniques. Responses indicate problem-focused methods are often utilized en route to the incident, and at the early stages of operational tasks. Emotion-focused responses are more common during periods of fatigue and exhaustion and post-incident, and problem-focused and emotion-focused techniques were found post-incident, although there was often an overlap between methods and they perhaps should not be treated as three distinct stages. The importance of peer support and potential benefits to firefighter well-being and operational performance are discussed. PMID:25312623

Young, Paul M; Partington, Sarah; Wetherell, Mark A; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Partington, Elizabeth

2014-12-01

216

Accuracy of Body Mass Index-defined Obesity Status in US Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a significant problem affecting United States (US) firefighters. While body mass index (BMI) is widely used to diagnose obesity, its use for this occupational group has raised concerns about validity. We examined rates and types of misclassification of BMI-based obesity status compared to body fat percentage (BF%) and waist circumference (WC). Male career firefighters (N = 994) from 20 US departments completed all three body composition assessments. Mean BMI, BF%, and WC were 29 kg/m2, 23%, and 97 cm, respectively. Approximately 33% and 15% of BF%- and WC-defined obese participants were misclassified as non-obese (false negatives) using BMI, while 8% and 9% of non-obese participants defined by BF% and WC standards were identified as obese (false positives) using BMI. When stratified by race/ethnicity, Pacific Islanders showed high rates of false positive misclassification. Precision in obesity classification would be improved by using WC along with BMI to determine firefighters' weight status. PMID:25379332

Jitnarin, Nattinee; Poston, Walker S.C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Day, Rena S.

2014-01-01

217

Accuracy of Body Mass Index-defined Obesity Status in US Firefighters.  

PubMed

Obesity is a significant problem affecting United States (US) firefighters. While body mass index (BMI) is widely used to diagnose obesity, its use for this occupational group has raised concerns about validity. We examined rates and types of misclassification of BMI-based obesity status compared to body fat percentage (BF%) and waist circumference (WC). Male career firefighters (N = 994) from 20 US departments completed all three body composition assessments. Mean BMI, BF%, and WC were 29 kg/m(2), 23%, and 97 cm, respectively. Approximately 33% and 15% of BF%- and WC-defined obese participants were misclassified as non-obese (false negatives) using BMI, while 8% and 9% of non-obese participants defined by BF% and WC standards were identified as obese (false positives) using BMI. When stratified by race/ethnicity, Pacific Islanders showed high rates of false positive misclassification. Precision in obesity classification would be improved by using WC along with BMI to determine firefighters' weight status. PMID:25379332

Jitnarin, Nattinee; Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Jahnke, Sara A; Day, Rena S

2014-09-01

218

The reciprocal relationship between work characteristics and employee burnout and engagement: a longitudinal study of firefighters.  

PubMed

The paradigm of this study is positive occupational psychology, with the job demands-resources model as the research model and the Conservation of Resources theory as the general stress theory. The research design analyses the job demands-resources model's dynamic nature with normal and reversed causation effects between work characteristics and psychological well-being among Portuguese firefighters. In addition, we analyse a positive (engagement) dimension and a negative (burnout) dimension in the firefighters' well-being, because previously, studies have merely focused on the strain or stress of these professionals. The research questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 651 firefighters, and a two-wave full panel design was used. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the causal direction of the relationship between organizational demands and burnout is reciprocal. Also, we found that the reciprocal model, including cross-lagged reciprocal relationships between organizational demands/supervisory support and burnout/engagement, respectively, is what fits the data best. Practical implications to develop organizational change programmes and suggestions for future research regarding the promotion of occupational health are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24124018

Ângelo, R P; Chambel, M J

2015-04-01

219

Effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat.  

PubMed

This study examined the separate effects of caffeine and menthol on cognition and mood during simulated firefighting in the heat. Participants (N = 10) performed three trials in a counterbalanced order, either with 400 mg caffeine, menthol lozenges, or placebo. The simulated firefighting consisted of 2 bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise in the heat with two brief 15-min rest periods between each exercise phase. Exercise induced significant dehydration (>3%) and elevated rectal temperature (>38.9 °C), for all three conditions. Neither caffeine nor menthol reduced perceived exertion compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Mood ratings (i.e., alertness, hedonic tone, tension) significantly deteriorated over time (p < 0.05), but there was no difference among the three conditions. Simple reaction time, short-term memory, and retrieval memory did not alter with treatments or repeated evaluations. Reaction accuracy from a math test remained unchanged throughout the experimental period; reaction time from the math test was significantly faster after exposure to the heat (p < 0.05). It is concluded that, exhaustive exercise in the heat severely impacted mood, but minimally impacted cognition. These treatments failed to show ergogenic benefits in a simulated firefighting paradigm in a hot environment. PMID:23891504

Zhang, Yang; Balilionis, Gytis; Casaru, Catalina; Geary, Colleen; Schumacker, Randall E; Neggers, Yasmin H; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D; Richardson, Mark T; Bishop, Phillip A; Green, James M

2014-05-01

220

Advanced Clinical Interventions Performed by Emergency Medical Responder Firefighters prior to Ambulance Arrival.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Data on the clinical interventions performed by emergency medical responder firefighters (EMRFs) are limited outside the context of cardiac arrest. We sought to understand the broader medical role of firefighters by examining fire-ambulance arrival order and documenting specific interventions provided by firefighters with advanced EMR training. Methods. A secondary analysis was conducted using electronic patient care records from a single ambulance service and two municipal fire departments that partner to provide emergency response in two suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Firefighters in both municipalities are dispatched to all medical calls, regardless of severity, and receive training in the following advanced EMR skills: intravenous line placement, administration of oral nitroglycerin and aspirin, placement of supraglottic airways, administration of albuterol via nebulizer, and injections of intramuscular glucagon and epinephrine. Time stamps for unit arrival on scene were used to determine arrival order and to quantify fire lead time (i.e., the interval EMRFs were on scene before paramedics). Results. Fire and ambulance records were linked for 10,403 patient encounters that occurred over 2.5 years. EMRFs arrived first in 9,001 calls (88%) with an average fire lead time of 4.5 minutes. In the two communities, firefighters performed at least one of the six advanced training interventions in 688 patient encounters (7.6%) when they reached the patient first, the most frequent being intravenous line placement (n = 340; 3.8%) and administration of oral nitroglycerin or aspirin (n = 303; 3.4%). EMRFs arrived first to 96 cases of cardiac arrest and performed chest compressions in 78%, automated external defibrillator use in 44%, supraglottic airway placement in 32%, and intravenous line starts in 18%. A modest positive association was observed between increasing fire lead time and use of cardiac arrest interventions by EMRFs. Conclusions. EMRFs performed advanced EMR training interventions in a small fraction of the patients they were able to reach before paramedics, and further study of the clinical significance of these interventions in the hands of this responder group is needed. EMRF training in these communities should continue to emphasize the fervent and consistent application of BLS resuscitation interventions in victims of cardiac arrest. PMID:25153541

Boland, Lori L; Satterlee, Paul A; Fernstrom, Karl M; Hanson, Kai G; Desikan, Prasanna; LaCroix, Brian K

2015-01-01

221

Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO2Theta) above which lactate accumulates was 23 (8) ml/kg/min. The chronotropic index, a measure of cardiovascular strain during XT was 35 (8) /L compared with reference values for men of 40 /L. Total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were 202 (34),126 (29), and 55 (15) mg/dl, respectively. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors, 2 subjects had resting hypertension (BP.140/90), and 23 had pre-hypertension (.120/80 but <140/90). Seven had exaggerated exercise induced hypertension but only one had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data. CONCLUSIONS A-ECG screening correctly identified the individual with CAD although there was no trend for A-ECG parameters to distinguish those with elevated BP or multiple risk factors but normal XT ECG. We have demonstrated that a new technology, advanced-ECG, can be introduced for remote firefighter risk assessment. This simple, time and cost-effective approach to risk identification that can be acquired remotely and transmitted securely can detect individuals potentially at risk for line-of-duty death. Additional research is needed to further document its value.

Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

2011-01-01

222

Respiratory Protection for Firefighters- Evaluation of CBRN Canisters for Use During Overhaul.  

PubMed

In the United States, there are approximately 366,600 structural fires each year. After visible flames are extinguished, firefighters begin the overhaul stage of firefighting to smother remaining hot spots and initiate investigations. Typically during overhaul significant ambient concentrations of chemical contaminants remain. However, previous research suggests that the use of air purifying respirators (APR) fitted with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) canisters may reduce occupational respiratory exposures. This pilot study used large-scale prescribed burns of representative structural materials to perform simultaneous, side-by-side, filtering and service-life evaluations of commercially available CBRN filters. Three types of CBRN canisters and one cartridge were challenged in repetitive post live-fire overhaul exposure tests using a sampling manifold apparatus. At a flow rate of 80L/min, nine tests were conducted in the breathing zone for three different exposure durations (0-15 min, 0-30 min, and 0-60 min). Fifty different chemicals were identified for evaluation and results indicate that 21 of the 50 chemicals tested were in the air of the overhaul environment. Respirable particles and formaldehyde were consistently present above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) recommended exposure level (REL) and threshold limit ceiling value (TLVc), respectively. Each filter effectively reduced concentrations for respirable particulates below the maximum recommended level. Formaldehyde was reduced, but not consistently filtered below the TLVc. These results were consistent across all exposure durations. This study indicates that, regardless of brand, CBRN filters provide protection from the vast majority of particle and gas-phase contaminants. However, due to formaldehyde breakthrough, CBRN filters do not provide complete protection during firefighter overhaul. PMID:25738516

Jones, Leaton; Lutz, Eric A; Duncan, Michael; Burgess, Jefferey L

2015-05-01

223

Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

2006-03-09

224

High-intensity, occupation-specific training in a series of firefighters during phase II cardiac rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Six male firefighters who were referred to phase II cardiac rehabilitation after coronary revascularization participated in a specialized regimen of high-intensity, occupation-specific training (HIOST) that simulated firefighting tasks. During each session, the electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure were monitored, and the patients were observed for adverse symptoms. No patient had to discontinue HIOST because of adverse arrhythmias or symptoms. For physicians who must make decisions about return to work, the information collected over multiple HIOST sessions might be more thorough and conclusive than the information gained during a single treadmill exercise stress test (the recommended evaluation method). PMID:23543963

Cheng, Dunlei; Berbarie, Rafic F.

2013-01-01

225

Exposures and cross-shift lung function declines in wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

Respiratory problems are common among wildland firefighters. However, there are few studies directly linking occupational exposures to respiratory effects in this population. Our objective was to characterize wildland fire fighting occupational exposures and assess their associations with cross-shift changes in lung function. We studied 17 members of the Alpine Interagency Hotshot Crew with environmental sampling and pulmonary function testing during a large wildfire. We characterized particles by examining size distribution and mass concentration, and conducting elemental and morphological analyses. We examined associations between cross-shift lung function change and various analytes, including levoglucosan, an indicator of wood smoke from burning biomass. The levoglucosan component of the wildfire aerosol showed a predominantly bimodal size distribution: a coarse particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter about 12 ?m and a fine particle mode with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < 0.5 ?m. Levoglucosan was found mainly in the respirable fraction and its concentration was higher for fire line construction operations than for mop-up operations. Larger cross-shift declines in forced expiratory volume in one second were associated with exposure to higher concentrations of respirable levoglucosan (p < 0.05). Paired analyses of real-time personal air sampling measurements indicated that higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were correlated with higher particulate concentrations when examined by mean values, but not by individual data points. However, low CO concentrations did not provide reliable assurance of concomitantly low particulate concentrations. We conclude that inhalation of fine smoke particles is associated with acute lung function decline in some wildland firefighters. Based on short-term findings, it appears important to address possible long-term respiratory health issues for wildland firefighters. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: a file containing additional information on historical studies of wildland fire exposures, a file containing the daily-exposure-severity questionnaire completed by wildland firefighter participants at the end of each day, and a file containing additional details of the investigation of correlations between carbon monoxide concentrations and other measured exposure factors in the current study.]. PMID:24568319

Gaughan, Denise M; Piacitelli, Chris A; Chen, Bean T; Law, Brandon F; Virji, M Abbas; Edwards, Nicole T; Enright, Paul L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Leonard, Stephen S; Wagner, Gregory R; Kobzik, Lester; Kales, Stefanos N; Hughes, Michael D; Christiani, David C; Siegel, Paul D; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Hoover, Mark D

2014-01-01

226

Autonomous UAV-based mapping of large-scale urban firefights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with very low false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type. The combined results of the high-intensity firefight data collect and a detailed systems study demonstrate the readiness of the FightSight concept for full system development and integration.

Snarski, Stephen; Scheibner, Karl; Shaw, Scott; Roberts, Randy; LaRow, Andy; Breitfeller, Eric; Lupo, Jasper; Nielson, Darron; Judge, Bill; Forren, Jim

2006-05-01

227

Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Fabrics Suitable for Skin Layer of Firefighters’ Protective Clothing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensorial comfort, usually described as "fabric hand or feel", is the sensation of how the fabric feels when it is worn next to the skin. This feeling deals with properties of the fabric such as prickling, itching, stiffness or smoothness. It can also be related to its attributes related to physiological comfort, as for instance when a fabric is wet its sensorial properties change and fabric may cling to the skin. Wet feeling and wet clinging can be a major source of sensorial discomfort in situations of profuse sweating like in firefighters' working environment. For the objective evaluation of this aspect of comfort Kawabata Evaluation System (KES) was used for the present study. Seven commercially available knitted fabrics of different fibre blends in different knitted structures suitable for skin layer of firefighters' protective clothing were evaluated in virgin (original non-treated) state and then in wet state. The influence of fabric physical parameters, fibre content, fabric construction and moisture content on fabric surface properties were determined. For statistical evaluation of results student's-test was carried out to predict the level of significance on coefficient of friction (MIU) and geometrical surface roughness (SMD) due to presence of moisture. Pearson correlation coefficients were also calculated between MIU and SMD in virgin state and in wet state.

Nawaz, Nazia; Troynikov, Olga; Watson, Chris

228

Changes in permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier in firefighters.  

PubMed

The effect on alveolar-capillary barrier permeability of chronic exposure to a smoke produced by the partial combusion of diesel oil, paraffin, and wood was examined. An index of permeability was determined from the rate of transfer from the lung into the blood of the hydrophilic, labelled chelate 99mTc diethylene triamine penta-acetate (MW 492 dalton). The results of this test were expressed as the half time clearance of the tracer from the lung into the blood (T1/2 LB). The study was carried out at the Royal Naval Firefighting School, HMS Excellent. Permeability index was measured on seven non-smoking naval firefighting instructors who had worked at the school for periods of longer than two and a half months. Tests of airway function and carbon monoxide transfer factor were performed on four of these seven instructors. The results of the permeability index showed a T1/2 LB of 26 min +/- 5 (SEM) which differed significantly from that of normal non-smokers. By contrast all other lung function tests had values within the predicted normal range. PMID:3899161

Minty, B D; Royston, D; Jones, J G; Smith, D J; Searing, C S; Beeley, M

1985-09-01

229

High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts.

Jahnke, Sara A.; Hyder, Melissa L.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R. Sue; Poston, Walker S. Carlos

2015-01-01

230

Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

2011-01-01

231

High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.  

PubMed

Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

Adams, Jenny; DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O; Berbarie, Rafic F

2014-07-01

232

Trauma-exposed firefighters: relationships among posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, resource availability, coping and critical incident stress debriefing experience.  

PubMed

This project examines protective factors associated with resilience/posttraumatic growth and risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress among firefighters exposed to critical incidents. The participants were 286 (257 men and 29 women) volunteer and paid firefighters in Whatcom County, Washington. Participants completed an anonymous survey asking about demographics, critical incident exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, resource availability, coping, occupational stress and critical incident stress debriefing experience. Most participants had significant critical incident exposure, and about half had attended critical incident stress debriefing sessions. Posttraumatic growth was associated with being female, critical incident exposure, critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic stress symptoms (negative association), occupational support, occupation satisfaction, occupational effort, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping and personal characteristic resources. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with years of firefighting, burnout, occupational effort and disengagement coping and negatively associated with critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic growth, social support, internal locus of control, personal characteristic resources, energy resources and condition resources. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory and show that the maintenance and acquisition of resources can offset losses and facilitate resilience/posttraumatic growth. Implications of the findings for enhancing firefighter resources, facilitating resilience and minimizing occupational stressors are discussed. PMID:25476961

Sattler, David N; Boyd, Bill; Kirsch, Julie

2014-12-01

233

High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator  

PubMed Central

Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O.; Berbarie, Rafic F.

2014-01-01

234

Firefighters. Grade Two. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the occupational cluster of public service, this unit entitled "Firefighters" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC) element (life-role…

Fox, Joan; And Others

235

Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

Mogen, David S.

236

Physiological effects of boot weight and design on men and women firefighters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two leather (L1, L2) and two rubber (R1, R2) boots on firefighters' metabolic and respiratory variables during simulated firefighting tasks. Twenty-five men and 25 women, while wearing full turnout clothing, a 10.5-kg backpack, gloves, helmet, and one of four randomly assigned pairs of firefighter boots, walked for 6 min at 3 mph (4.8 km/hr) on a level treadmill while carrying a 9.5-kg hose and climbed a stair ergometer for 6 min at 45 steps per min without the hose. Minute ventilation (VE), absolute and relative oxygen consumption (VO2 and VO2 ml kg min(-1), respectively), CO(2) production (VCO2), heart rate (HR), and peak inspiratory (PIF) and expiratory (PEF) flow rates were measured, and an average of the breath-by-breath data from minute 6 was used for analysis. During treadmill exercise, a 1-kg increase in boot weight caused significant (p < 0.05) increases in VE (9%), VO2 (5 - 6%), VCO2 (8%), and HR (6%) for men, whereas a 1-kg increase caused significant increases in VO2 (3 - 4.5%) and VCO2 (4%) for women. During stair ergometry, a 1-kg increase in boot weight caused significant increases in VE(approximately 3%), relative VO2 (approximately 2%), VCO2 (3%), and PIF (approximately 4%) in men and women (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in absolute VO2 (approximately 3.5%) in men only. Mean increases in metabolic and respiratory variables per 1-kg increase in boot weight were in the 5 to 12% range observed previously for men during treadmill walking but were considerably smaller for women. Mean increases in oxygen consumption during stair ergometry were statistically significant but were smaller in the current study than previously observed and may not be practically significant. There was no significant effect of boot design in addition to boot weight for either mode of exercise. PMID:20521197

Turner, Nina L; Chiou, Sharon; Zwiener, Joyce; Weaver, Darlene; Spahr, James

2010-08-01

237

Technology transfer from space to earth - The NASA Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Responding to the recent demand of fire services for a better equipment, NASA has prepared two improved versions of Firefighter's Breathing System (FBS) by taking advantage of the spacesuit design. In the new FBS, the conventional oxygen tube is replaced by a 40% lighter air tube with twice as much pressure. The load is attached to a wide waist belt and distributed on the hips instead of the shoulder, thus making it easier to carry. The two versions of the FBS are essentially the same, the only difference being the capacities of the air tubes. Also the face mask used is smaller, lighter and provides better vision and mobility. The FBS had a notable impact, with the fire departments reporting improved efficiency. Unlike other technology transfer cases, the FBS concept is commercially successful in finding diverse fields of application.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Anuskiewicz, T.; Keune, F. A.

1976-01-01

238

Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

Sullivan, J. L.

1975-01-01

239

Analysis of steam formation and migration in firefighters' protective clothing using X-ray radiography.  

PubMed

X-ray radiography was used to quantify evaporation and moisture transfer in a multilayer firefighter protective clothing system with defined wetted layers exposed to low thermal radiation. Evaporation was faster and took place at higher temperatures if the moisture was located in the outer layers of the clothing system. Moisture that evaporated in the outer layers of the clothing system was found to move inwards and condense in the inner layers and on the cap of the measurement cell. Results found in this study correlated well with the findings of our former study based on simple temperature distribution measurements to determine moisture transfer in protective clothing layers at low level thermal radiation. PMID:20540841

Keiser, Corinne; Wyss, Peter; Rossi, René M

2010-01-01

240

A comparison of cooling techniques in firefighters after a live burn evolution  

PubMed Central

Objective We compared two active cooling devices to passive cooling in a moderate (?22°C) temperature environment on heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tc) recovery when applied to firefighters following 20 min. of fire suppression. Methods Firefighters (23 male, 2 female) performed 20 minutes of fire suppression at a live fire evolution. Immediately following the evolution, the subjects removed their thermal protective clothing and were randomized to receive forearm immersion (FI), ice water perfused cooling vest (CV) or passive (P) cooling in an air-conditioned medical trailer for 30 minutes. Heart rate and deep gastric temperature were monitored every five minutes during recovery. Results A single 20-minute bout of fire suppression resulted in near maximal HR (175±13 - P, 172±20 - FI, 177±12 beats•min?1 - CV) when compared to baseline (p < 0.001), a rapid and substantial rise in Tc (38.2±0.7 - P, 38.3±0.4 - FI, 38.3±0.3° - CV) compared to baseline (p < 0.001), and mass lost from sweating of nearly one kilogram. Cooling rates (°C/min) differed (p = 0.036) by device with FI (0.05±0.04) providing higher rates than P (0.03±0.02) or CV (0.03±0.04) although differences over 30 minutes were small and recovery of body temperature was incomplete in all groups. Conclusions During 30 min. of recovery following a 20-minute bout of fire suppression in a training academy setting, there is a slightly higher cooling rate for FI and no apparent benefit to CV when compared to P cooling in a moderate temperature environment. PMID:21294631

Colburn, Deanna; Suyama, Joe; Reis, Steven E; Morley, Julia L; Goss, Fredric L; Chen, Yi-Fan; Moore, Charity G; Hostler, David

2010-01-01

241

Firefighter feedback during active cooling: A useful tool for heat stress management?  

PubMed

Monitoring an individual's thermic state in the workplace requires reliable feedback of their core temperature. However, core temperature measurement technology is expensive, invasive and often impractical in operational environments, warranting investigation of surrogate measures which could be used to predict core temperature. This study examines an alternative measure of an individual's thermic state, thermal sensation, which presents a more manageable and practical solution for Australian firefighters operating on the fireground. Across three environmental conditions (cold, warm, hot & humid), 49 Australian volunteer firefighters performed a 20-min fire suppression activity, immediately followed by 20 min of active cooling using hand and forearm immersion techniques. Core temperature (Tc) and thermal sensation (TS) were measured across the rehabilitation period at five minute intervals. Despite the decline in Tc and TS throughout the rehabilitation period, there was little similarity in the magnitude or rate of decline between each measure in any of the ambient conditions. Moderate to strong correlations existed between Tc and TS in the cool (0.41, p<0.05) and hot & humid (0.57, p<0.05) conditions, however this was resultant in strong correlation during the earlier stages of rehabilitation (first five minutes), which were not evident in the latter stages. Linear regression revealed TS to be a poor predictor of Tc in all conditions (SEE=0.45-0.54°C) with a strong trend for TS to over-predict Tc (77-80% of the time). There is minimal evidence to suggest that ratings of thermal sensation, which represent a psychophysical assessment of an individual's thermal comfort, are an accurate reflection of the response of an individual's core temperature. Ratings of thermal sensation can be highly variable amongst individuals, likely moderated by local skin temperature. In account of these findings, fire managers require a more reliable source of information to guide decisions of heat stress management. PMID:25455942

Savage, Robbie J; Lord, Cara; Larsen, Brianna L; Knight, Teagan L; Langridge, Peter D; Aisbett, Brad

2014-12-01

242

Induced Sputum Assessment in New York City Firefighters Exposed to World Trade Center Dust  

PubMed Central

New York City Firefighters (FDNY-FFs) were exposed to particulate matter and combustion/pyrolysis products during and after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse. Ten months after the collapse, induced sputum (IS) samples were obtained from 39 highly exposed FDNY-FFs (caught in the dust cloud during the collapse on 11 September 2001) and compared to controls to determine whether a unique pattern of inflammation and particulate matter deposition, compatible with WTC dust, was present. Control subjects were 12 Tel-Aviv, Israel, firefighters (TA-FFs) and 8 Israeli healthcare workers who were not exposed to WTC dust. All controls volunteered for this study, had never smoked, and did not have respiratory illness. IS was processed by conventional methods. Retrieved cells were differentially counted, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), particle size distribution (PSD), and mineral composition were measured. Differential cell counts of FDNY-FF IS differed from those of health care worker controls (p < 0.05) but not from those of TA-FFs. Percentages of neutrophils and eosinophils increased with greater intensity of WTC exposure (< 10 workdays or ? 10 workdays; neutrophils p = 0.046; eosinophils p = 0.038). MMP-9 levels positively correlated to neutrophil counts (p = 0.002; r = 0.449). Particles were larger and more irregularly shaped in FDNY-FFs (1–50 ?m; zinc, mercury, gold, tin, silver) than in TA-FFs (1–10 ?m; silica, clays). PSD was similar to that of WTC dust samples. In conclusion, IS from highly exposed FDNY-FFs demonstrated inflammation, PSD, and particle composition that was different from nonexposed controls and consistent with WTC dust exposure. PMID:15531443

Fireman, Elizabeth M.; Lerman, Yehuda; Ganor, Eliezer; Greif, Joel; Fireman-Shoresh, Sharon; Lioy, Paul J.; Banauch, Gisela I.; Weiden, Michael; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

2004-01-01

243

Variability in performance on a work simulation test of physical fitness for firefighters.  

PubMed

The Canadian Forces Firefighter Physical Fitness Maintenance Evaluation (FF PFME) requires firefighters in full fire-protective ensemble, including self-contained breathing apparatus, to correctly complete 10 work-related tasks on a measured and calibrated course. Fitness for duty is inferred from completion time of the course. We hypothesized that completion time may be dependent on pacing strategy and day-to-day fluctuations in biological function. To examine variability in performance, 20 females and 31 males (mean ± SD; age, 27.6 ± 10.5 years; height, 176.7 ± 8.3 cm; mass, 77.3 ± 13.4 kg) were familiarized with the FF PFME and then completed the test on 6 separate days. Pre-test behaviours (e.g., sleep, diet) and test conditions (e.g., calibration, time of day) were consistent. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in completion time between tests 1 and 6 (18.7%) and between all sequential pairs (e.g., tests 1 and 2). There was also a small but significant increase in the fraction of total test time for task completion and a corresponding decrease in the time to transition between tasks. The performance improvements cannot be explained by differences in effort (heart rate and perceived exertion). Coefficient of variation for tests 1, 2, and 3 was 7% and for tests 4, 5, and 6 was 2.6%. The results indicate the importance of practice on performance and the potential for false-positive or false-negative decision errors if biological variability is not taken into account. PMID:25781347

Boyd, Liam; Rogers, Todd; Docherty, David; Petersen, Stewart

2015-04-01

244

Project FIRES - Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System. Volume 3: Protective Ensemble Design and Procurement Specification, Phase 1B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of the subsystems comprising the protective ensemble for firefighters is described. These include: (1) the garment system which includes turnout gear, helmets, faceshields, coats, pants, gloves, and boots; (2) the self-contained breathing system; (3) the lighting system; and (4) the communication system. The design selection rationale is discussed and the drawings used to fabricate the prototype ensemble are provided. The specifications presented were developed using the requirements and test method of the protective ensemble standard. Approximate retail prices are listed.

Abeles, F. J.

1980-01-01

245

Evidence of remediation-induced alteration of subsurface poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance distribution at a former firefighter training area.  

PubMed

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of fluorinated chemicals that are utilized in firefighting and have been reported in groundwater and soil at several firefighter training areas. In this study, soil and groundwater samples were collected from across a former firefighter training area to examine the extent to which remedial activities have altered the composition and spatial distribution of PFASs in the subsurface. Log Koc values for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), estimated from analysis of paired samples of groundwater and aquifer solids, indicated that solid/water partitioning was not entirely consistent with predictions based on laboratory studies. Differential PFAA transport was not strongly evident in the subsurface, likely due to remediation-induced conditions. When compared to the surface soil spatial distributions, the relative concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFAA precursors in groundwater strongly suggest that remedial activities altered the subsurface PFAS distribution, presumably through significant pumping of groundwater and transformation of precursors to PFAAs. Additional evidence for transformation of PFAA precursors during remediation included elevated ratios of perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) to PFOS in groundwater near oxygen sparging wells. PMID:24866261

McGuire, Meghan E; Schaefer, Charles; Richards, Trenton; Backe, Will J; Field, Jennifer A; Houtz, Erika; Sedlak, David L; Guelfo, Jennifer L; Wunsch, Assaf; Higgins, Christopher P

2014-06-17

246

Ergonomic risks on the operational activities of firefighters from Rio de Janeiro.  

PubMed

The Fire Brigade of the State of Rio de Janeiro (CBMERJ) is Brazil's most ancient and is one of the military forces of the state. It has the primary function of activities related to civil defense of the state. This study aims to contribute to the improvement of the current situation by proposing a solution of eliminating totally or at least mitigating risks of ergonomic injury, since all operating activities are based on the performance of man, applying techniques and equipment with intensive use of hands, teamwork, extended shifts and living with stressful situations, which enhance the occurrence of awkward postures among other ergonomic risk factors. This is a quantitative study. The fields of study were five operational units with the highest statistical service of the Corporation. The following items were analyzed: profile of the firemen, work environment, activity performed, adequacy of training received and epidemiological assessment of pain. In total, 208 questionnaires were answered. Data analysis was performed by frequency and presented in tables, charts and graphs. It is important to implement procedures aimed at occupational health and safety of firefighters in the light of ergonomic concepts, so that crews activities are carried out with increased safety and quality. PMID:22317695

Vitari, Flávia Curi; Francisco, Hilmar Soares; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva

2012-01-01

247

A screening-level assessment of the health risks of chronic smoke exposure for wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

A screening health risk assessment was performed to assess the upper-bound risks of cancer and noncancer adverse health effects among wildland firefighters performing wildfire suppression and prescribed burn management. Of the hundreds of chemicals in wildland fire smoke, we identified 15 substances of potential concern from the standpoints of concentration and toxicology; these included aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, benzene, and respirable particulate matter. Data defining daily exposures to smoke at prescribed burns and wildfires, potential days of exposure in a year, and career lengths were used to estimate average and reasonable maximum career inhalation exposures to these substances. Of the 15 substances in smoke that were evaluated, only benzene and formaldehyde posed a cancer risk greater than 1 per million, while only acrolein and respirable particulate matter exposures resulted in hazard indices greater than 1.0. The estimated upper-bound cancer risks ranged from 1.4 to 220 excess cancers per million, and noncancer hazard indices ranged from 9 to 360, depending on the exposure group. These values only indicate the likelihood of adverse health effects, not whether they will or will not occur. The risk assessment process narrows the field of substances that deserve further assessment, and the hazards identified by risk assessment generally agree with those identified as a concern in occupational exposure assessments. PMID:15238338

Booze, Thomas F; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Quiring, Sharon J; Ottmar, Roger D

2004-05-01

248

Chiropractic management of a 47-year–old firefighter with lumbar disk extrusion  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This case report describes the effect of exercise-based chiropractic treatment on chronic and intractable low back pain complicated by lumbar disk extrusion. Clinical Features A 47-year–old male firefighter experienced chronic, unresponsive low back pain. Pre- and posttreatment outcome analysis was performed on numeric (0-10) pain scale, functional rating index, and the low back pain Oswestry data. Secondary outcome assessments included a 1-rep maximum leg press, balancing times, push-ups and sit-ups the patient performed in 60 seconds, and radiographic analysis. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated with Pettibon manipulative and rehabilitative techniques. At 4 weeks, spinal decompression therapy was incorporated. After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient's self-reported numeric pain scale had reduced from 6 to 1. There was also overall improvement in muscular strength, balance times, self-rated functional status, low back Oswestry scores, and lumbar lordosis using pre- and posttreatment radiographic information. Conclusion Comprehensive, exercise-based chiropractic management may contribute to an improvement of physical fitness and to restoration of function, and may be a protective factor for low back injury. This case suggests promising interventions with otherwise intractable low back pain using a multimodal chiropractic approach that includes isometric strengthening, neuromuscular reeducation, and lumbar spinal decompression therapy. PMID:19646377

Schwab, Matthew J.

2008-01-01

249

Passive acoustic monitoring of human physiology during activity indicates health and performance of soldiers and firefighters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Army Research Laboratory has developed a unique gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor that has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin. This facilitates the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repels ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. The sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth produce excellent signatures for detection and spectral analysis of diverse physiological events. Acoustic signal processing detects heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. Comfortable acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Noise-canceling sensor arrays help remove out-of-phase motion noise and enhance covariant physiology by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and two additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist acoustic sensors will indicate systolic blood pressure. Larger torso-sized arrays can be used to acoustically inspect the lungs and heart, or built into beds for sleep monitoring. Acoustics is an excellent input for sensor fusion.

Scanlon, Michael V.

2003-04-01

250

Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

1996-01-01

251

Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13-32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19-32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135-787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168-2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519-6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50 for each formulation). PMID:8812194

Gaikowski, M P; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; McDonald, S F; Summers, C H

1996-08-01

252

Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters  

SciTech Connect

The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

Denise Baclawski

2010-03-08

253

A Computerized, Self-Administered Questionnaire to Evaluate Posttraumatic Stress Among Firefighters After the World Trade Center Collapse  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine the frequency of psychological symptoms and elevated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk among New York City firefighters after the World Trade Center (WTC) attack and whether these measures were associated with Counseling Services Unit (CSU) use or mental health–related medical leave over the first 2.5 years after the attack. Methods. Shortly after the WTC attack, a computerized, binary-response screening questionnaire was administered. Exposure assessment included WTC arrival time and “loss of a co-worker while working at the collapse.” We determined elevated PTSD risk using thresholds derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and a sensitivity-specificity analysis. Results. Of 8487 participants, 76% reported at least 1 symptom, 1016 (12%) met criteria for elevated PTSD risk, and 2389 (28%) self-referred to the CSU, a 5-fold increase from before the attack. Higher scores were associated with CSU use, functional job impairment, and mental health–related medical leave. Exposure–response gradients were significant for all outcomes. Conclusions. This screening tool effectively identified elevated PTSD risk, higher CSU use, and functional impairment among firefighters and therefore may be useful in allocating scarce postdisaster mental health resources. PMID:19890176

Corrigan, Malachy; McWilliams, Rita; Kelly, Kerry J.; Niles, Justin; Cammarata, Claire; Jones, Kristina; Wartenberg, Daniel; Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.; Glass, Lara; Schorr, John K.; Feirstein, Ira

2009-01-01

254

Proceedings of the Second Conference on the Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire GTR-NRS-P-84 WILDLAND FIREFIGHTERS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT  

E-print Network

WILDLAND FIREFIGHTERS AND ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) Charles G. Palmer, Ed.D. Phyllis of Montana Alysha Spear University of Montana Abstract.--Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects between 3 and 7 percent of the American child

255

Do fire-fighters develop specific ventilatory responses in order to cope with exercise whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus?  

PubMed

In the present study we compared the ventilatory performance whilst wearing self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during exercise, of a group of male fire-fighters (FF, n = 8), with a matched group of male civilians (CV, n = 7). The mean (SEM) physiological characteristics of the subjects (FF vs CV) were: age 31 (2) years vs 32 (4) years; height 179 (2) cm vs 183 (3) cm, P < 0.05; mass 80 (2) kg vs 84 (3) kg; maximum oxygen uptake 4.52 (0.14) 1 x min(-1) vs 4.39 (0.27) 1 x min(-1). Volunteers performed a 23-minute fire-fighting simulation (Firetest), without and with SCBA (Fire-fighter II, Siebe-Gorman/North Safety, Cheshire, UK). During SCBA wear, the FF group used significantly less air and rated their breathlessness significantly lower than the CV group. The mean tidal volume (V(T)) of the FF group remained constant between non-SCBA and SCBA wear conditions, but the CV group increased their mean V(T) by 18%, (P < 0.01). There were no significant between-group differences during the Firetest in total breath duration, inspiratory or expiratory duration, breathing frequency (fb), or heart rate. These data suggest that the respiratory responses of firefighters while wearing SCBA, which are characterised by increases in (fb) but not V(T), may help to reduce their breathlessness during exercise while wearing SCBA. PMID:10408320

Donovan, K J; McConnell, A K

1999-07-01

256

An Educational Intervention for Police and Firefighters for Elders at Risk: Limits of Education Alone as a Strategy for Behavior Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a research project aimed at the health care needs of the vulnerable community-dwelling elderly, an educational intervention was delivered to police and firefighters in worksite settings. A single educational intervention proved insufficient to produce lasting attitudinal and behavioral change as measured by follow-up surveys 3 and 6…

Nusbaum, N. J.; Mistretta, M.; Wegner, J.

2007-01-01

257

This certificate program was developed in response to concerns about the structural health of U.S. public use firefighting aircraft. Learn about the critical factors involved  

E-print Network

.S. public use firefighting aircraft. Learn about the critical factors involved in aircraft health management of Engineering Emergency Response Aviation Safety Management Certificate Program Certificate courses-28, 2010 Aircraft Health Management--November 1-4, 2010 Aircraft Health Management is approved by the FAA

Thomases, Becca

258

Cold-water immersion and iced-slush ingestion are effective at cooling firefighters following a simulated search and rescue task in a hot environment.  

PubMed

Firefighters are exposed to hot environments, which results in elevated core temperatures. Rapidly reducing core temperatures will likely increase safety as firefighters are redeployed to subsequent operational tasks. This study investigated the effectiveness of cold-water immersion (CWI) and iced-slush ingestion (SLUSH) to cool firefighters post-incident. Seventy-four Australian firefighters (mean ± SD age: 38.9 ± 9.0 years) undertook a simulated search and rescue task in a heat chamber (105 ± 5 °C). Testing involved two 20-min work cycles separated by a 10-min rest period. Ambient temperature during recovery periods was 19.3 ± 2.7 °C. Participants were randomly assigned one of three 15-min cooling protocols: (i) CWI, 15 °C to umbilicus; (ii) SLUSH, 7 g·kg(-1) body weight; or (iii) seated rest (CONT). Core temperature and strength were measured pre- and postsimulation and directly after cooling. Mean temperatures for all groups reached 38.9 ± 0.9 °C at the conclusion of the second work task. Both CWI and SLUSH delivered cooling rates in excess of CONT (0.093 and 0.092 compared with 0.058 °C·min(-1)) and reduced temperatures to baseline measurements within the 15-min cooling period. Grip strength was not negatively impacted by either SLUSH or CONT. CWI and SLUSH provide evidence-based alternatives to passive recovery and forearm immersion protocols currently adopted by many fire services. To maximise the likelihood of adoption, we recommend SLUSH ingestion as a practical and effective cooling strategy for post-incident cooling of firefighters in temperate regions. PMID:25017114

Walker, Anthony; Driller, Matthew; Brearley, Matt; Argus, Christos; Rattray, Ben

2014-10-01

259

Absolute vs. Weight-Related Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Firefighters: Fitness Evaluation with and without Protective Clothing and Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus among Age Group.  

PubMed

During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

2015-01-01

260

Absolute vs. Weight-Related Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Firefighters: Fitness Evaluation with and without Protective Clothing and Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus among Age Group  

PubMed Central

During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen’s College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

2015-01-01

261

Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States.  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM{sub 2.5} and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: 'none' or 'very little,' 'low,' 'moderate,' 'high,' and 'very high.' An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM{sub 2.5} ranged from 5.9-2673 {mu}g/m{sup 3} on burn days. Geometric mean PM{sub 2.5} exposure was 280 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 140, 557 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 10, 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM{sub 2.5} differed across levels of the firefighters categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 71, 203 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and high to very high = 664 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 373, 1185 {mu}g/m{sup 3}); p < 0.0001 on burn days. Time-weighted average PM{sub 2.5} and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM{sub 2.5} pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH{reg_sign}-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m{sup 3} for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}. Correlation analysis shows that either PM{sub 2.5} or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns.

Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel, B.; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke, P.

2011-07-15

262

High work output combined with high ambient temperatures caused heat exhaustion in a wildland firefighter despite high fluid intake.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case study is to examine the physiological/behavioral factors leading up to heat exhaustion in a male wildland firefighter during wildland fire suppression. The participant (24 years old, 173 cm, 70 kg, and 3 years firefighting experience) experienced heat exhaustion following 7 hours of high ambient temperatures and arduous work on the fire line during the month of August. At the time of the heat-related incident (HRI), core temperature was 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) and skin temperature was 34.4 °C (93.9 °F). His work output averaged 1067 counts·min(-1) (arbitrary units for measuring activity) for the 7 hours prior to the HRI, a very high rate of work over an extended time period during wildfire suppression. In the 2.5 hours leading up to the heat incident, he was exposed to a mean ambient temperature of 44.6 °C (112.3 °F), with a maximum temperature of 59.7 °C (139.5 °F). He consumed an average of 840 mL·h(-1) in the 7 hours leading up to the incident and took an average of 24 ± 11 drinks·h(-1) (total of 170 drinks). The combined effects of a high work rate and high ambient temperatures resulted in an elevated core temperature and a higher volume and frequency of drinking than typically seen in this population, ultimately ending in heat exhaustion and removal from the fire line. The data demonstrate that heat-related incidents can occur even with aggressive fluid intake during wildland fire suppression. PMID:21664560

Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

2011-06-01

263

Pulmonary Function Predicting Confirmed Recovery From Lower-Respiratory Symptoms in World Trade Center-Exposed Firefighters, 2001 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: We examined the relationship between pulmonary function (FEV1) and confirmed recovery from three lower-respiratory symptoms (LRSs) (cough, dyspnea, and wheeze) up to 9 years after symptom onset. Methods: The study included white and black male World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters who reported at least one LRS on a medical monitoring examination during the first year after September 11, 2001. Confirmed recovery was defined as reporting no LRSs on two consecutive and all subsequent examinations. FEV1 was assessed at the first post-September 11, 2001, examination and at each examination where symptom information was ascertained. We used stratified Cox regression models to analyze FEV1, WTC exposure, and other variables in relation to confirmed symptom recovery. Results: A total of 4,368 firefighters met inclusion criteria and were symptomatic at year 1, of whom 1,592 (36.4%) experienced confirmed recovery. In univariable models, first post-September 11, 2001, concurrent, and difference between first post-September 11, 2001, and concurrent FEV1 values were all significantly associated with confirmed recovery. In adjusted analyses, both first post-September 11, 2001, FEV1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07 per 355-mL difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10) and FEV1 % predicted (HR, 1.08 per 10% predicted difference; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12) predicted confirmed recovery. WTC exposure had an inverse association with confirmed recovery in the model with FEV1, with the earliest arrival group less likely to recover than the latest arrival group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58-0.92). Conclusions: Higher FEV1 and improvement in FEV1 after September 11, 2001, predicted confirmed LRS recovery, supporting a physiologic basis for recovery and highlighting consideration of spirometry as part of any postexposure respiratory health assessment. PMID:22576633

Soo, Jackie; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

2012-01-01

264

Investigating digit ratio (2D:4D) in a highly male-dominated occupation: the case of firefighters.  

PubMed

Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for masculinization through prenatal androgen exposure, is lower (more masculinized) in athletes than in general population controls, and athletes with lower 2D:4D have higher sporting success. Occupations differ markedly in perceived masculinity and actual maleness (sex ratios), but these givens have not yet been picked up and utilized in 2D:4D research. Accordingly, this study extended existing accounts on 2D:4D in athletes to a novel approach: 2D:4D and possible relationships to a variety of candidate variables (demographic, fertility-related, psychological, and other) were investigated in firefighters, a highly male-dominated occupation. Contrary to expectation, 2D:4D in firefighters (N = 134) was not lower than in local male population controls. Lower 2D:4D corresponded to lower service ranks. Replicating previous findings either unequivocally or partly, lower 2D:4D was associated with larger family size, later sibling position, left-handedness, and higher scores in the disinhibition component of sensation seeking. Not replicating prior evidence, 2D:4D was unrelated to body-mass index, offspring sex ratio, and sporting performance level. Novel findings included low 2D:4D in those with low relationship satisfaction and in cigarette smokers, especially among heavy smokers. Absolute finger length, a positive correlate of pubertal-adolescent androgen levels, was also considered. This marker showed negative associations with relationship consensus and satisfaction and positive ones with perceived quality of relationship alternatives and the experience seeking component of sensation seeking. The merits of this additional marker, relative to 2D:4D, for supplementing studies of possible sex-hormonal effects on personality and directions for future inquiry along these lines are discussed. PMID:19954495

Voracek, Martin; Pum, Ulrike; Dressler, Stefan G

2010-04-01

265

"Awake, smoky, and hot": providing an evidence-base for managing the risks associated with occupational stressors encountered by wildland firefighters.  

PubMed

To curtail the spread of wildfire, firefighters are often required to work long hours in hot, smoky conditions with little rest between consecutive shifts. In isolation, heat, smoke, and sleep disruption can have a detrimental impact on cognitive and physical abilities. Far less is known, however, about the combined impact that heat, smoke, and sleep disruption can have on firefighters' performance during wildfire suppression or on human performance in general. The available literature, though scant, suggests that audio and visual tracking may be degraded after sustained heat exposure following one night of sleep deprivation. Exposure to heat and carbon monoxide, in contrast, appears to have only limited impact on cognitive performance, even after physical exercise. Heat and carbon monoxide exposure does, however, increase physiological exertion to a given work or exercise bout. To the authors' knowledge, there are no published studies that have explored the impacts of heat exposure following sleep disruption on physical work performance, sleep disruption and smoke exposure on physical or cognitive work, or the combined impacts of sleep disruption, smoke and heat exposure on cognitive or physical work. While more integrative research is needed, the current review provides a summary of the available evidence and an indication of the degree of confidence agencies can have in the research. This will allow both the scientific community and agencies to make informed recommendations regarding the management of wildland firefighters' health and safety on the fireground. PMID:22264875

Aisbett, B; Wolkow, A; Sprajcer, M; Ferguson, S A

2012-09-01

266

Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers Predict Susceptibility or Resistance to Lung Injury in World Trade Center Dust Exposed Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary vascular loss is an early feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biomarkers of inflammation and of metabolic syndrome, predicts loss of lung function in World Trade Center Lung Injury (WTC-LI). We investigated if other cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers also predicted WTC-LI. This nested case-cohort study used 801 never smoker, WTC exposed firefighters with normal pre-9/11 lung function presenting for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) before March, 2008. A representative sub-cohort of 124/801 with serum drawn within six months of 9/11 defined CVD biomarker distribution. Post-9/11/01 FEV1 at subspecialty exam defined cases: susceptible WTC-LI cases with FEV1?77% predicted (66/801) and resistant WTC-LI cases with FEV1?107% (68/801). All models were adjusted for WTC exposure intensity, BMI at SPE, age at 9/11, and pre-9/11 FEV1. Susceptible WTC-LI cases had higher levels of Apo-AII, CRP, and MIP-4 with significant RRs of 3.85, 3.93, and 0.26 respectively with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.858. Resistant WTC-LI cases had significantly higher sVCAM and lower MPO with RRs of 2.24, and 2.89 respectively; AUC 0.830. Biomarkers of CVD in serum six-month post-9/11 predicted either susceptibility or resistance to WTC-LI. These biomarkers may define pathways producing or protecting subjects from pulmonary vascular disease and associated loss of lung function after an irritant exposure. PMID:22903969

Weiden, Michael D.; Naveed, Bushra; Kwon, Sophia; Cho, Soo Jung; Comfort, Ashley L.; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

2013-01-01

267

Use of the bootstrap method to develop a physical fitness test for public safety officers who serve as both police officers and firefighters  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness testing is a common tool for motivating employees with strenuous occupations to reach and maintain a minimum level of fitness. Nevertheless, the use of such tests can be hampered by several factors, including required compliance with US antidiscrimination laws. The Highland Park (Texas) Department of Public Safety implemented testing in 1991, but no single test adequately evaluated its sworn employees, who are cross-trained and serve as police officers and firefighters. In 2010, the department's fitness experts worked with exercise physiologists from Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital to develop and evaluate a single test that would be equitable regardless of race/ethnicity, disability, sex, or age >50 years. The new test comprised a series of exercises to assess overall fitness, followed by two sequences of job-specific tasks related to firefighting and police work, respectively. The study group of 50 public safety officers took the test; raw data (e.g., the number of repetitions performed or the time required to complete a task) were collected during three quarterly testing sessions. The statistical bootstrap method was then used to determine the levels of performance that would correlate with 0, 1, 2, or 3 points for each task. A sensitivity analysis was done to determine the overall minimum passing score of 17 points. The new physical fitness test and scoring system have been incorporated into the department's policies and procedures as part of the town's overall employee fitness program. PMID:24982558

Cheng, Dunlei; Lee, John; Shock, Tiffany; Kennedy, Kathleen; Pate, Scotty

2014-01-01

268

Evaluating the physical demands on firefighters using track-type stair descent devices to evacuate mobility-limited occupants from high-rise buildings.  

PubMed

The physical demands on firefighting personnel were investigated when using different types of track-type stair descent devices designed for the emergency evacuation of high rise buildings as a function of staircase width and evacuation urgency. Twelve firefighters used five track-type stair descent devices during simulated urgent and non-urgent evacuations. The devices were evaluated under two staircase width conditions (1.12, and 1.32 m), and three devices were also evaluated under a narrower staircase condition (0.91 m). Dependent measures included electromyographic (EMG) data, spine motion, heart rates, Borg Scale ratings, task durations and descent velocities. Stair descent speeds favored the devices that had shorter fore/aft dimensions when moving through the landing. EMG results indicated that there were tradeoffs due to design features, particularly on the landings where the physical demands tended to be greater. On the landings, devices that could be rolled on four wheels reduced the deltoid and bicep activation levels. PMID:25113864

Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Hedman, Glenn E; Reichelt, Paul A; Park, Sanghyun; Conrad, Karen M

2015-01-01

269

Novel Fluorinated Surfactants Tentatively Identified in Firefighters Using Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry and a Case-Control Approach.  

PubMed

Fluorinated surfactant-based aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are made up of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and are used to extinguish fires involving highly flammable liquids. The use of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in some AFFF formulations has been linked to substantial environmental contamination. Recent studies have identified a large number of novel and infrequently reported fluorinated surfactants in different AFFF formulations. In this study, a strategy based on a case-control approach using quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS/MS) and advanced statistical methods has been used to extract and identify known and unknown PFAS in human serum associated with AFFF-exposed firefighters. Two target sulfonic acids [PFOS and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS)], three non-target acids [perfluoropentanesulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS), and perfluorononanesulfonic acid (PFNS)], and four unknown sulfonic acids (Cl-PFOS, ketone-PFOS, ether-PFHxS, and Cl-PFHxS) were exclusively or significantly more frequently detected at higher levels in firefighters compared to controls. The application of this strategy has allowed for identification of previously unreported fluorinated chemicals in a timely and cost-efficient way. PMID:25611076

Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Kay, Margaret; Mueller, Jochen F; Gómez Ramos, María José

2015-02-17

270

The Myths and Realities of Age Limits for Law Enforcement and Firefighting Personnel. A Report by the Chairman of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined current age limitation policies affecting Federal public safety personnel and the interrelationship between job performance and aging. The study concluded that mandatory retirement of competent law enforcement officers and firefighters is unnecessary and wasteful and that the Federal Government's failure to recognize this problem…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

271

Comparison of rehydration regimens for rehabilitation of firefighters performing heavy exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Fire suppression activities results in cardiovascular stress, hyperthermia, and hypohydration. Fireground rehabilitation (rehab) is recommended to blunt the deleterious effects of these conditions. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that three rehydration fluids provided after exercise in thermal protective clothing (TPC) would produce different heart rate or core temperature responses during a second bout of exercise in TPC. Methods: On three occasions, 18 euhydrated firefighters (16 males, 2 females) wearing TPC completed a standardized, 50-minute bout of upper and lower body exercise in a hot room that mimicked the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) rehabilitation guidelines of “two cylinders before rehab” (20 min work, 10 min recovery, 20 min work). After an initial bout of exercise, subjects were randomly assigned water, sport drink, or an intravenous (IV) infusion of normal saline equal to the amount of body mass lost during exercise. After rehydration, the subject performed a second bout of exercise. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, and exercise duration were compared with a two-way ANOVA. Results: Subjects were firefighters aged 28.2±11.3 years with a VO2peak of 37.4±3.4 ml/kg/min. 527±302 mL of fluid were provided during the rehabilitation period. No subject could complete either the pre- or post-rehydration 50-minute bout of exercise. Mean (SD) time to exhaustion (min) was longer (p<0.001) in bout 1 (25.9±12.9 min. water, 28.0±14.1 min. sport drink, 27.4±13.8 min. IV) compared to bout 2 (15.6±9.6 min. water, 14.7±8.6 min. sport drink, 15.7±8.0 min. IV) for all groups but did not differ by intervention. All subjects approached age predicted maximum heart rate at the end of bout 1 (180±11 bpm) and bout 2 (176±13 bpm). Core temperature rose 1.1±0.7°C during bout 1 and 0.5±0.4°C during bout 2. Core temperature, heart rate, and exercise time during bout 2 did not differ between rehydration fluids. Conclusions: Performance during a second bout of exercise in TPC did not differ when firefighters were rehydrated with water, sport drink, or IV normal saline when full rehydration is provided. Of concern was the inability of all subjects to complete two consecutive periods of heavy exercise in TPC suggesting the NFPA “two cylinders before rehab” guideline may not be appropriate in continuous heavy work scenarios. PMID:20095824

Hostler, David; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Reis, Steven E; Kong, Pui Wah; Morley, Julia; Gallagher, Michael; Suyama, Joe

2010-01-01

272

Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: A pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and levoglucosan.  

SciTech Connect

Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest ServiceFSavannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribedburn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 701±95 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n¼9). PM2.5 and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM2.5 exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample size, this pilot study demonstrates that urinary MP concentrations may be effective biomarkers of occupational exposure to wood smoke among wildland firefighters.

Neitzel, R.; Naeher, L., P.; Paulsen, M.; Dunn, R.; Stock, A.; Simpson, C., D.

2009-04-01

273

Firefighter's Breathing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

1976-01-01

274

Modelling fire-fighter responses to exercise and asymmetric infrared radiation using a dynamic multi-mode model of human physiology and results from the Sweating Agile thermal Manikin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, predicted dynamic physiological responses are compared with wear trials results for firefighter suits: impermeable (A), semi-permeable (B) and permeable (C), and underwear. Wear trials consisted of three rest phases and two moderate work phases, with a frontal infrared (IR) radiation exposure of 500 W\\/m 2 for the last 15 min of each work phase. Simulations were performed by detailed

M. G. M. Richards; D. Fiala

2004-01-01

275

Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10years.  

PubMed

The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil-plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS+Fo), Firesorb (BS+Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS+Ap). Soils (0-2cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, ?(15)N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS+Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS+Ap plots had higher values of ?(15)N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS+Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS+Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS+Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS+Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil-plant system after 10years. PMID:25704265

Fernández-Fernández, M; Gómez-Rey, M X; González-Prieto, S J

2015-05-15

276

Comparison of active cooling devices to passive cooling for rehabilitation of firefighters performing exercise in thermal protective clothing: A report from the Fireground Rehab Evaluation (FIRE) trial  

PubMed Central

Background Thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters provides considerable protection from the external environment during structural fire suppression. However, TPC is associated with physiological derangements that may have adverse cardiovascular consequences. These derangements should be treated during on-scene rehabilitation periods. Objective The present study examined heart rate and core temperature responses during the application of four active cooling devices, currently being marketed to the fire service for on-scene rehab, and compared them to passive cooling in a moderate temperature (approximately 24°C) and to an infusion of cold (4°C) saline. Methods Subjects exercised in TPC in a heated room. Following an initial exercise period (BOUT 1) the subjects exited the room, removed TPC, and for 20 minutes cooled passively at room temperature, received an infusion of cold normal saline, or were cooled by one of four devices (fan, forearm immersion in water, hand cooling, water perfused cooling vest). After cooling, subjects donned TPC and entered the heated room for another 50-minute exercise period (BOUT 2). Results Subjects were not able to fully recover core temperature during a 20-minute rehab period when provided rehydration and the opportunity to completely remove TPC. Exercise duration was shorter during BOUT 2 when compared to BOUT 1 but did not differ by cooling intervention. The overall magnitude and rate of cooling and heart rate recovery did not differ by intervention. Conclusions No clear advantage was identified when active cooling devices and cold intravenous saline were compared to passive cooling in a moderate temperature after treadmill exercise in TPC. PMID:20397868

Hostler, David; Reis, Steven E; Bednez, James C; Kerin, Sarah; Suyama, Joe

2010-01-01

277

High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in sport fish species downstream of a firefighting training facility at Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (<40km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (>70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. PMID:24632327

Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken

2014-06-01

278

Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N?=?70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1?77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N?=?123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect. PMID:24146820

Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

2013-01-01

279

Emergency Response: Elearning for Paramedics and Firefighters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on an innovative research project with academics, software developers, and organizational pilot sites to design and develop elearning software for an emergency response simulation with supporting collaborative tools. In particular, this article focuses on the research that the author has conducted to provide the theoretical…

Taber, Nancy

2008-01-01

280

Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters  

SciTech Connect

A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

Canfield, Jesse

2012-09-04

281

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle...cylinder. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle...cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. [CGD...

2011-10-01

282

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle to be sure they...is low. Weigh cylinder. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle to ensure...

2014-10-01

283

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle to be sure they...is low. Weigh cylinder. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle to ensure...

2013-10-01

284

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dioxide Weigh cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle to be sure they...is low. Weigh cylinder. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle to ensure...

2012-10-01

285

46 CFR 169.247 - Firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle...cylinder. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle...cylinders. Recharge if weight loss exceeds 10 pct of weight of charge. [CGD...

2010-10-01

286

Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters  

ScienceCinema

A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

Canfield, Jesse

2014-06-02

287

Carotid artery dissection following minimal postural trauma in a firefighter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotid artery dissections (CAD) are uncommon, but not rare, and are increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity. A case of CAD following minimal sustained postural trauma is described. The causes and outcomes of CAD are discussed, with particular reference to risks that might be found in the workplace.

Stewart Lloyd

288

49 CFR 176.164 - Fire precautions and firefighting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...explosive) materials other than those of Division 1.4 (explosive). No welding, burning, cutting, or riveting operations involving the use of fire, flame, spark, or arc-producing equipment may be conducted on board except in an...

2010-10-01

289

76 FR 71048 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nonaffiliated emergency medical services (EMS) organizations for the purpose of enhancing...directly to fire departments and nonaffiliated EMS organizations to enhance their ability to...may be used for awards to nonaffiliated EMS organizations. No more than 25...

2011-11-16

290

75 FR 23785 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nonaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to enhance their ability...grants to fire departments and nonaffiliated EMS organizations for equipment, training and...appropriation, or $13,650,000, is awarded for EMS equipment and training. However,...

2010-05-04

291

78 FR 65678 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nonaffiliated emergency medical services (EMS) organizations, and state fire training...nonaffiliated emergency medical services (EMS) organizations, and State Fire Training...Providers: Fire departments and nonaffiliated EMS organizations; not less than 3.5...

2013-11-01

292

77 FR 37687 - Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nonaffiliated emergency medical services (EMS) organizations for the purpose of enhancing...nonaffiliated emergency medical services (EMS) organizations to enhance their ability...may be used for awards to nonaffiliated EMS organizations. No more than 25...

2012-06-22

293

46 CFR 78.17-80 - Firefighting equipment, general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...charge shall keep records of such tests and inspections showing the...and/or company conducting the tests and inspections. Such records...in or with the vessel's log book. The conduct of these tests and inspections does not...

2010-10-01

294

46 CFR 97.15-60 - Firefighting equipment, general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...charge shall keep records of such tests and inspections showing the...and/or company conducting the tests and inspections. Such records...in or with the vessel's log book. The conduct of these tests and inspections does not...

2010-10-01

295

New fire-fighting water bucket is lifted by helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter lifts a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket that will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, the 324-gallon container will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

296

New fire-fighting water bucket is filled for demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

- A NASA helicopter hovers over the water while a high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket fills. The 324-gallon container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

297

An Examination of the Preferences for Leadership Style of Firefighters of Different Rank and Generational Cohort  

E-print Network

). This generation is credited with landing a man on the moon and eliminating polio, tetanus, turberculosis, and whooping cough, yet they also experienced the Great Depression where 9 million Americans actually ?lost their life savings? (Zemke et al., 2000, p. 31...

Odom, Summer Rachelle Felton

2012-07-16

298

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...air carrier aircraft from its assigned post or reach any other specified point of...i) of this section from their assigned posts and begin application of an extinguishing...calendar months after June 9, 2004. [Doc. No. FAA-2000-7479, 69 FR...

2012-01-01

299

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...air carrier aircraft from its assigned post or reach any other specified point of...i) of this section from their assigned posts and begin application of an extinguishing...calendar months after June 9, 2004. [Doc. No. FAA-2000-7479, 69 FR...

2011-01-01

300

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...air carrier aircraft from its assigned post or reach any other specified point of...i) of this section from their assigned posts and begin application of an extinguishing...calendar months after June 9, 2004. [Doc. No. FAA-2000-7479, 69 FR...

2014-01-01

301

14 CFR 139.319 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Operational requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...air carrier aircraft from its assigned post or reach any other specified point of...i) of this section from their assigned posts and begin application of an extinguishing...calendar months after June 9, 2004. [Doc. No. FAA-2000-7479, 69 FR...

2013-01-01

302

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements of the Underwriter's Laboratories, Inc., or Factory Mutual Research Corp.'s specifications. Cotton or cotton-polyester jacketed hose shall be treated in accordance with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Specification...

2012-07-01

303

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements of the Underwriter's Laboratories, Inc., or Factory Mutual Research Corp.'s specifications. Cotton or cotton-polyester jacketed hose shall be treated in accordance with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Specification...

2013-07-01

304

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirements for hose in Bureau of Mines' Schedule 2G. The cover shall be polyester, or other material with flame-spread qualities and mildew resistance equal or superior to polyester. The bursting pressure shall be at least 4 times the water...

2014-07-01

305

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements of the Underwriter's Laboratories, Inc., or Factory Mutual Research Corp.'s specifications. Cotton or cotton-polyester jacketed hose shall be treated in accordance with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Specification...

2011-07-01

306

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for hose in Bureau of Mines' Schedule 2G. The cover shall be polyester, or other material with flame-spread qualities and mildew resistance equal or superior to polyester. The bursting pressure shall be at least 4 times the water...

2013-07-01

307

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for hose in Bureau of Mines' Schedule 2G. The cover shall be polyester, or other material with flame-spread qualities and mildew resistance equal or superior to polyester. The bursting pressure shall be at least 4 times the water...

2012-07-01

308

Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies: Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies. Instructor Guide--Part A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor guide contains four lessons to be used in a course for Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies. The course is arranged by class sessions of three hours each, with each session divided into two or more sections. Each lesson plan has the same format: Course Title and Number; Objectives; Instructional Aids; Selected References;…

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

309

Using Biometric Authentication to Improve Fire Ground Accountability: An Assessment of Firefighter Privacy Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two persistent resource management issues that arise in coordinated emergency response efforts are the timely delivery of accurate resource data to decision makers and effective methods for maintaining personnel accountability. Most emergency response agencies rely on manual systems to address each of these issues separately. These manual systems are often inefficient and hinder the effectiveness of the emergency response effort.

Darrell R. Carpenter; McLeod Jr. Alexander J; Jan Guynes Clark

2008-01-01

310

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...delivering 50 gallons of water a minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds per square inch...have at least 300 feet of fire hose with nozzles. A portable water car shall be capable...of 50 gallons of water per minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds per square...

2010-07-01

311

30 CFR 77.1108-1 - Type and capacity of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...delivering 50 gallons of water a minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds per square inch...resistance. The water pressure at the hose nozzle shall not be excessively high so as to present a hazard to the nozzle operator. [36 FR 9364, May...

2010-07-01

312

46 CFR 31.10-18 - Firefighting equipment: General-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of weight of charge. Inspect hose and nozzle to be sure they are clear.1 Dry chemical...unsuitable condition. Inspect hose and nozzle to see if they are clear. Insert charged...for approximately 15 seconds from any nozzle designated by the marine...

2010-10-01

313

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...extinguishers may be required by an authorized representative of the Secretary. (3) Auxiliary equipment such as portable drills, sweepers, and scrapers, when operated more than 600 feet from equipment required to have portable fire extinguishers, shall be...

2014-07-01

314

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...extinguishers may be required by an authorized representative of the Secretary. (3) Auxiliary equipment such as portable drills, sweepers, and scrapers, when operated more than 600 feet from equipment required to have portable fire extinguishers, shall be...

2013-07-01

315

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...extinguishers may be required by an authorized representative of the Secretary. (3) Auxiliary equipment such as portable drills, sweepers, and scrapers, when operated more than 600 feet from equipment required to have portable fire extinguishers, shall be...

2011-07-01

316

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...extinguishers may be required by an authorized representative of the Secretary. (3) Auxiliary equipment such as portable drills, sweepers, and scrapers, when operated more than 600 feet from equipment required to have portable fire extinguishers, shall be...

2012-07-01

317

30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...extinguishers may be required by an authorized representative of the Secretary. (3) Auxiliary equipment such as portable drills, sweepers, and scrapers, when operated more than 600 feet from equipment required to have portable fire extinguishers, shall be...

2010-07-01

318

30 CFR 75.1502 - Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...require immediate donning of self-rescue devices. (ii) Using continuous directional lifelines or equivalent devices, tethers, and doors; (iii) Traversing undercasts or overcasts; (iv) Switching escapeways, as applicable; (v)...

2010-07-01

319

The Upper Respiratory Pyramid: Early Factors and Later Treatment Utilization in World Trade Center Exposed Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated early post 9/11 factors that could predict rhinosinusitis healthcare utilization costs up to 11 years later in 8,079 World Trade Center-exposed rescue/recovery workers. Methods We used bivariate and multivariate analytic techniques to investigate utilization outcomes; we also used a pyramid framework to describe rhinosinusitis healthcare groups at early (by 9/11/2005) and late (by 9/11/2012) time points. Results Multivariate models showed that pre-9/11/2005 chronic rhinosinusitis diagnoses and nasal symptoms predicted final year healthcare utilization outcomes more than a decade after WTC exposure. The relative proportion of workers on each pyramid level changed significantly during the study period. Conclusions Diagnoses of chronic rhinosinusitis within 4 years of a major inhalation event only partially explain future healthcare utilization. Exposure intensity, early symptoms and other factors must also be considered when anticipating future healthcare needs. PMID:24898816

Niles, Justin K.; Webber, Mayris P.; Liu, Xiaoxue; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Glaser, Michelle S.; Weakley, Jessica; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Glass, Lara; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

2015-01-01

320

30 CFR 75.1100-1 - Type and quality of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gallons of water a minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds per...300 feet of fire hose with nozzles. A portable water car shall be capable of providing a flow through the hose of 50 gallons of water per minute at a nozzle pressure of 50 pounds...

2011-07-01

321

A system dynamics view of project management firefighting at a startup company  

E-print Network

Fire fighting in project management is the unplanned allocation of resources to either fix problems or speed completion of a project. In a startup company environment, fire fighting oftentimes becomes the norm rather than ...

Chiang, Melvin H. (Melvin Hsiang)

2008-01-01

322

Support Assistants for Fire Emergencies; Student Manual, Part A. Firefighting for Civil Defense Emergencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A manual intended to help fire departments and Civil Defense organizations train people to support regular fire forces during a national emergency is presented. It contains 11 chapters: Introduction, Modern Weapons and Radioactive Fallout, Role of Fire Service in Civil Defense, Local Fire Department Organization, Role of Support Assistants in…

International Association of Fire Chiefs, New York, NY.

323

The technology application process as applied to a firefighter's breathing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FBS Program indicated that applications of advanced technology can result in an improved FBS that will satisfy the requirements defined by municipal fire departments. To accomplish this technology transfer, a substantial commitment of resources over an extended period of time has been required. This program has indicated that the ability of NASA in terms of program management such as requirement definition, system analysis, and industry coordination may play as important a role as specific sources of hardware technology. As a result of the FBS program, a sequence of milestones was passed that may have applications as generalized milestones and objectives for any technical application program.

Mclaughlan, P. B.

1974-01-01

324

Learning for the Frontline: How Fire-Fighters Integrate Learnt Behaviours with Difficult Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emergency service teams hold an important role however the stress associated with their position can strain workplace relationships. Although it is not always possible to change the incidents to which teams respond, it is possible to shape the way personnel communicate with each other about these incidents. Yet little is known on how learnt…

Dadich, Ann

2012-01-01

325

Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

Abeles, F. J.

1980-01-01

326

Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants contained in firefighting water  

E-print Network

Title: Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants osmosis efficiently treated the water from fire extinguishment. In this work we focused on the reverse osmosis step. Polyamide and cellulose acetate membrane materials were screened in a flat sheet cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

327

Reinvesting the IT Dollar: From IT Firefighting to Quality Strategic Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how organizations can become effective, efficient managers of the large maintenance part of their information technology budgets by using service management processes. Discusses the example of the University of Sydney Library's use of the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) set of service management practices. (EV)

Stern, Andrea

2001-01-01

328

A Comparison of Firefighters and Police Officers: The Influence of Gender and Relationship Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences between fire department and police department personnel (N = 190) concerning work-related stressors and depression were examined with regard to gender and relationship status. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) and the Distressing Event Questionnaire (E. S. Kubany, M.…

Shaffer, Tammy J.

2010-01-01

329

30 CFR 75.1100-2 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...either (a ) a portable foam-generating machine or (b ) a portable high-pressure rock-dusting machine fitted with at least 250 feet of hose and...provided at 500-foot intervals in all main and secondary haulage roads:...

2010-07-01

330

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...experience to work in the specific regional geographic environment(s) that the vessel operates in (e.g., bottom type, water turbidity, water depth, sea state and temperature extremes). (13) Resource provider has the logistical and...

2012-07-01

331

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...experience to work in the specific regional geographic environment(s) that the vessel operates in (e.g., bottom type, water turbidity, water depth, sea state and temperature extremes). (13) Resource provider has the logistical and...

2011-07-01

332

14 CFR 139.317 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pounds of sodium-based dry chemical, halon 1211, or clean agent; or (2...pounds of sodium-based dry chemical, halon 1211, or clean agent and 1,500 gallons...that is required to carry dry chemical, halon 1211, or clean agent for compliance...

2010-01-01

333

DETERMINATION OF PERFLUOROCARBOXYLATES IN GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY FIRE-FIGHTING ACTIVITY. (R821195)  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorinated surfactants are used in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) formulations, which are used to extinguish hydrocarbon-fuel fires. Virtually nothing is known about the occurrence of perfluorinated surfactants in the environment, in particular, at fire-train...

334

Firefighters in the UK and the US: Risk perception of local and organic foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent health scares such as BSE have contributed to the growth of local farmers' markets and consumption of organics sourced globally (Morgan et al.,2006). Yet a central question about alternative agro-food networks (AAFNs) is whether they supply undemocratic diets chiefly for elites (Goodman, 2004). This is relevant to government campaigns such as ‘Generation Scotland’ and ‘5 A Day’ in the

Bruce A. Scholten

2006-01-01

335

The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity.

Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

2003-01-01

336

33 CFR 155.4050 - Ensuring that the salvors and marine firefighters are adequate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...services. (4) Resource provider has personnel with documented training certification and degree experience (Naval Architecture, Fire Science, etc.). (5) Resource provider has 24-hour availability of personnel and equipment, and...

2010-07-01

337

Wisdom in the Lessons Learned Library: Work Ethics and Firefighter Identities in the Fire Orders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes historic and contemporary documents about the Ten Standard Fire Orders in the Lessons Learned Center Library and elsewhere, to examine how justifications for these traditional safety rules have changed over time. Using ethical theory as a lens for analysis, the paper shows how the original Fire Orders attempted to codify an individual \\

J. A. Thackaberry

2005-01-01

338

New fire-fighting water bucket releases its load for a demonstration.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter releases the contents of the high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket it holds. The 324-gallon container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

339

New fire-fighting water bucket releases its water for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter releases 324 gallons of water onto a building in a simulated fire control demonstration. The high-impact- resistant flexible plastic bucket will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

340

New fire-fighting water bucket is readied for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers attach a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket to a NASA helicopter. Holding 324 gallons of water, it will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

341

New fire-fighting water bucket is lifted from water for a demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA helicopter lifts a high-impact-resistant flexible plastic bucket filled with water. The container will be used for fire protection on property and buildings at Kennedy Space Center.. Known as the 'Bambi' bucket, it will also support the Fish and Wildlife Service for controlled burns plus any wild fires in the area.

2000-01-01

342

Firefights, raids, and assassinations: tactical forms of cartel violence and their underpinnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines some specific types of narco-generated combat, assault, and brutality that over the last decade have acquired an increasingly organized and paramilitary character. The planning; training; intelligence and counterintelligence preparation; mobility; communications; type of weaponry; levels of intensity; and sheer audacity substantially exceed the threats with which traditional law enforcement had been trained and equipped to deal. It

Graham H. Turbiville Jr

2010-01-01

343

26 CFR 1.457-4 - Annual deferrals, deferral limitations, and deferral agreements under eligible plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plans of qualified police or firefighters. An eligible plan with participants...that include qualified police or firefighters as defined under section 415...for such qualified police or firefighters that is earlier than the...

2010-04-01

344

5 CFR 550.1301 - Purpose, applicability, and administration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1301 Purpose, applicability...governing the pay of covered Federal firefighters. It implements sections 5542...Applicability. This subpart applies to any firefighter as defined in § 550.1302....

2010-01-01

345

77 FR 55855 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, Assistance to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection; Comment Request, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program-Grant Application Supplemental...of applicants for the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program. DATES: Comments must...comprise of applications for Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program (AFG) and Fire...

2012-09-11

346

29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...elects to pay overtime compensation to firefighters and law enforcement personnel in...compensable. (c) With respect to firefighters employed under section 7(k), who are...of “tour of duty” under which firefighters are employed. Where the public...

2010-07-01

347

5 CFR 410.402 - Paying premium pay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provided by 5 CFR 550.162(c). (6) Firefighter overtime pay. (i) A firefighter compensated under part 550, subpart M...receive basic pay and overtime pay for the firefighter's regular tour of duty (as defined...

2010-01-01

348

5 CFR 850.401 - Electronic notice of coverage determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MODERNIZATION Submission of Law Enforcement, Firefighter, and Nuclear Materials Courier Retirement...notice of law enforcement officer, firefighter, or nuclear materials retirement...for which law enforcement officer, firefighter, or nuclear materials courier...

2010-01-01

349

5 CFR 550.1304 - Overtime hourly rates of pay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1304 Overtime hourly rates of pay. (a) For a firefighter who is covered by (i.e., ...of pay equals 11/2 times the firefighter hourly rate of basic pay for...

2010-01-01

350

77 FR 67743 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Coverage for Certain Intermittent Employees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Benefits program (FEHBP) to temporary firefighters and fire protection personnel. 77...environmental hazards, similar to the wildland firefighters covered by the regulation described...temporary employees like the wildland firefighters, who receive FEHBP coverage only...

2012-11-14

351

5 CFR 842.809 - Transitional provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842...service as a law enforcement officer or firefighter, within the meaning of these terms...length of law enforcement officer and firefighter service under 5 U.S.C....

2010-01-01

352

5 CFR 550.1307 - Authority to regularize paychecks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1307 Authority to...eliminate variation in the amount of firefighters' biweekly paychecks caused by work...that result in varying hours in the firefighters' tours of duty from pay period...

2010-01-01

353

75 FR 62307 - Fire Prevention Week, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...awareness, and we pay tribute to our firefighters, volunteers, and first responders...attention to the lifesaving work our firefighters perform in communities across America...dedication and tireless efforts of our firefighters and first responders in their...

2010-10-08

354

44 CFR 152.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.2 Definitions. Active firefighter is a member of a fire department...or organization in which all active firefighters are considered full-time...

2010-10-01

355

24 CFR 291.540 - Owner-occupancy term.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician submits...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician that...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician is...

2010-04-01

356

5 CFR 550.1306 - Relationship to other entitlements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1306 Relationship to other entitlements. (a) A firefighter who is compensated under...pay, and hazardous duty pay. A firefighter is not entitled to receive...

2010-01-01

357

78 FR 41072 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...provides funding for the hiring of new firefighters and the recruitment and retention of volunteer firefighters. DATES: Comments must be submitted...Fire and Emergency Response Hiring of Firefighters Application (Questions and...

2013-07-09

358

5 CFR 842.803 - Conditions for coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842...a rigorous law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions...secondary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the...

2010-01-01

359

24 CFR 291.510 - Overview of the GNND Sales Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician to...law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician finances...enforcement officers, teachers, and firefighters/emergency medical technicians...

2010-04-01

360

44 CFR 152.1 - Purpose and eligible uses of grant funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...firefighting personnel at scenes of fires and other emergencies; (4) To certify fire inspectors; (5) To establish wellness and fitness programs for firefighting personnel to ensure that the firefighting personnel can carry out their duties;...

2013-10-01

361

44 CFR 152.1 - Purpose and eligible uses of grant funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...firefighting personnel at scenes of fires and other emergencies; (4) To certify fire inspectors; (5) To establish wellness and fitness programs for firefighting personnel to ensure that the firefighting personnel can carry out their duties;...

2011-10-01

362

44 CFR 152.1 - Purpose and eligible uses of grant funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...firefighting personnel at scenes of fires and other emergencies; (4) To certify fire inspectors; (5) To establish wellness and fitness programs for firefighting personnel to ensure that the firefighting personnel can carry out their duties;...

2010-10-01

363

44 CFR 152.1 - Purpose and eligible uses of grant funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...firefighting personnel at scenes of fires and other emergencies; (4) To certify fire inspectors; (5) To establish wellness and fitness programs for firefighting personnel to ensure that the firefighting personnel can carry out their duties;...

2014-10-01

364

44 CFR 152.1 - Purpose and eligible uses of grant funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...firefighting personnel at scenes of fires and other emergencies; (4) To certify fire inspectors; (5) To establish wellness and fitness programs for firefighting personnel to ensure that the firefighting personnel can carry out their duties;...

2012-10-01

365

Effects of Forearm vs. Leg Submersion in Work Tolerance Time in a Hot Environment While Wearing Firefighter Protective Clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared physiological responses and total work tolerance time following forearm submersion (FS) or leg submersion (LS) in cool water, after performing work in a hot environment while wearing fire fighting protective clothing (FPC). Participants walked at 3.5 mph on a treadmill in a hot environment (WBGT 32.8 ± 0.9°C) until a rectal temperature (Trec) of 38.5°C was reached.

Charles P. Katica; Robert C. Pritchett; Kelly L. Pritchett; Andrew T. Del Pozzi; Gytis Balilionis; Tim Burnham

2011-01-01

366

Chitotriosidase is a Biomarker for the Resistance to World Trade Center Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters  

PubMed Central

Purpose World Trade Center (WTC) exposure caused airflow obstruction years after exposure. Chitinases and IgE are innate and humoral mediators of obstructive airway disease. We investigated if serum expression of chitinases and IgE early after WTC exposure predicts subsequent obstruction. Methods With a nested case-control design, 251 FDNY personnel had chitotriosidase, YKL-40 and IgE measured in serum drawn within months of 9/11/2001. The main outcome was subsequent Forced Expiratory Volume after one second/Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) less than the lower limit of normal (LLN). Cases (N=125) had abnormal FEV1/FVC whereas controls had normal FEV1/FVC (N=126). In a secondary analysis, resistant cases (N=66) had FEV1 (?107%) one standard deviation above the mean. Logistic regression adjusted for age, BMI, exposure intensity and post-exposure FEV1/FVC modeled the association between early biomarkers and later lung function. Results Cases and Controls initially lost lung function. Controls recovered to pre-9/11 FEV1 and FVC while cases continue to decline. Cases expressed lower serum chitotriosidase and higher IgE levels. Increase in IgE increased the odds of airflow obstruction and decreased the odds of above average FEV1. Alternately, increasing chitotriosidase decreased the odds of abnormal FEV1/FVC and increased the odds of FEV1?107%. Serum YKL-40 was not associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in this cohort. Conclusions Increased serum chitotriosidase reduces the odds of developing obstruction after WTC-particulate matter exposure and is associated with recovery of lung function. Alternately, elevated IgE is a risk factor for airflow obstruction and progressive lung function decline. PMID:23744081

Cho, Soo Jung; Nolan, Anna; Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Kwon, Sophia; Naveed, Bushra; Schenck, Edward; Tsukiji, Jun; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Weiden, Michael D.

2013-01-01

367

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...solid stream and water spray firehose nozzle. (c) Each firehose under paragraph...solid stream and water spray firehose nozzle that meets subpart 162.027 of this chapter. Combination nozzles and low-velocity water spray...

2010-10-01

368

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...thereof. The total number of fire extinguishers carried shall not be less than two and need not exceed six. (3) When a donkey boiler fitted to burn oil as fuel is located in the machinery space, there shall be substituted for the 12-gallon foam...

2011-10-01

369

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...thereof. The total number of fire extinguishers carried shall not be less than two and need not exceed six. (3) When a donkey boiler fitted to burn oil as fuel is located in the machinery space, there shall be substituted for the 12-gallon foam...

2013-10-01

370

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...thereof. The total number of fire extinguishers carried shall not be less than two and need not exceed six. (3) When a donkey boiler fitted to burn oil as fuel is located in the machinery space, there shall be substituted for the 12-gallon foam...

2012-10-01

371

46 CFR 167.45-40 - Fire-fighting equipment on nautical school ships using oil as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...thereof. The total number of fire extinguishers carried shall not be less than two and need not exceed six. (3) When a donkey boiler fitted to burn oil as fuel is located in the machinery space, there shall be substituted for the 12-gallon foam...

2014-10-01

372

The Use of Prehospital Ketamine for Control of Agitation in a Metropolitan Firefighter-based EMS System.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Prehospital personnel frequently encounter agitated, combative, and intoxicated patients in the field. In recent years, ketamine has been described as an effective sedative agent to treat such patients; however, a paucity of research exists describing the use of prehospital ketamine. The objective of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of the Columbus Division of Fire's experience with utilizing ketamine in the prehospital setting. We hypothesized that ketamine administration improves patient condition, is effective at sedating patients, and does not result in endotracheal intubation in the prehospital setting or in the emergency department (ED). Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort chart review of Columbus Division of Fire patient care reports and hospital records from destination hospitals in the central Ohio region between October 2010 and October 2012. All patients receiving ketamine administered by Columbus Division of Fire personnel for sedation were included. Patients 17 years and younger were excluded. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients noted to have an "improved" condition recorded in the data field of the patient care report. The secondary outcomes were the effectiveness of sedation and the performance of endotracheal intubation. Results. A total of 36 patients met inclusion criteria over the study period. Data were available on 35 patients for analysis. The mean IV dose of ketamine was 138 mg (SD = 59.5, 100-200). The mean IM dose of ketamine was 324 mg (SD = 120, 100-500). Prehospital records noted an improvement in patient condition after ketamine administration in 32 cases (91%, 95% CI 77-98%). Six patients required sedation post-ketamine administration either by EMS (2) or in the ED (4) (17%, 95% CI 6.5-34%). Endotracheal intubation was performed in eight (23%, 95% CI 10-40%) patients post-ketamine administration. Conclusion. We found that in a cohort of patients administered ketamine, paramedics reported a subjective improvement in patient condition. Endotracheal intubation was performed in 8 patients. PMID:25153713

Keseg, David; Cortez, Eric; Rund, Douglas; Caterino, Jeffrey

2015-01-01

373

A systematic review of job-specific workers’ health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such\\u000a occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to\\u000a describe (1) the existing job-specific workers’ health surveillance (WHS) activities and (2) the effectiveness of job-specific\\u000a WHS interventions with respect to work functioning, for

M. J. PlatM; M. H. W. Frings-Dresen; J. K. Sluiter

374

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LUNG FUNCTION AND EXPOSURE TO SMOKE AMONG FIREFIGHTERS AT PRESCRIBED BURNS. (R827355C002)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

375

Brave Firefighters, Endangered National Icons and Bumbling Land Managers: Network TV Myths about the 1988 Yellowstone Wildfires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that reporters often seek out the most available news sources rather than those who have the most expertise, that journalists tend to focus on specific events rather than the context in which they occur, and that news stories are presented as stylized social constructs rather than as factual accounts of what happened. A study…

Smith, Conrad

376

MMP-2 and TIMP-1 predict healing of WTC-lung injury in New York City firefighters  

PubMed Central

Rationale After 9/11/2001, most FDNY workers had persistent lung function decline but some exposed workers recovered. We hypothesized that the protease/anti-protease balance in serum soon after exposure predicts subsequent recovery. Methods We performed a nested case–control study measuring biomarkers in serum drawn before 3/2002 and subsequent forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) on repeat spirometry before 3/2008. Serum was assayed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1,2,3,7,8,9,12 and 13) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1,2,3,4). The representative sub-cohort defined analyte distribution and a concentration above 75th percentile defined elevated biomarker expression. An FEV1 one standard deviation above the mean defined resistance to airway injury. Logistic regression was adjusted for pre-9/11 FEV1, BMI, age and exposure intensity modeled the association between elevated biomarker expression and above average FEV1. Results FEV1 in cases and controls declined 10% of after 9/11/2001. Cases subsequently returned to 99% of their pre-exposure FEV1 while decline persisted in controls. Elevated TIMP-1 and MMP-2 increased the odds of resistance by 5.4 and 4.2 fold while elevated MMP-1 decreased it by 0.27 fold. Conclusions Resistant cases displayed healing, returning to 99% of pre-exposure values. High TIMP-1 and MMP-2 predict healing. MMP/TIMP balance reflects independent pathways to airway injury and repair after WTC exposure. PMID:24447332

2014-01-01

377

Effect of obesity on acute hemostatic responses to live-fire training drills.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity and firefighting activities on coagulation and fibrinolytic activity in relatively young, apparently healthy firefighters. Firefighters performed simulated firefighting activities for 18 minutes in a live-fire training structure. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, before firefighting, and within a few minutes of completing the activity. Nearly all markers of coagulation and fibrinolytic activity increased immediately after firefighting with an overall shift toward a procoagulatory profile. Obese firefighters exhibited lower levels of tissue plasminogen activator activity (0.98 vs 0.63 IU/ml) and higher levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (2.2 vs 4.5 ng/ml) at baseline compared with normal-weight firefighters, suggesting that fibrinolytic activity was lower in obese firefighters. There were few interactions between body mass index and firefighting activity, thus our findings suggest that obese firefighters did not exhibit a greater procoagulatory response to live firefighting compared with normal-weight firefighters. Acute live firefighting produced increases in both fibrinolytic and coagulatory responses; although obesity was associated with a reduced fibrinolytic profile at baseline, the changes produced by acute firefighting were similar in obese and nonobese firefighters. PMID:25306554

Smith, Denise L; Horn, Gavin P; Petruzzello, Steven J; Freund, Gregory G; Woods, Jeffrey A; Cook, Marc D; Goldstein, Eric; Fernhall, Bo

2014-12-01

378

The Comparative Effectiveness of Levels of Training and Years of Work Experience in Firefighters as Determining Factors in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been known by other names and not well studied prior to returning Vietnam veterans who suffered psychological dysfunction. However, the term PTSD became part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders in 1981. Since that time PTSD has been researched extensively in veterans. However,…

Turner, Melva W.

2011-01-01

379

Forest fires in the territory contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident: radioactive aerosol resuspension and exposure of fire-fighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to investigate the processes of resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides by fire in the territories contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In this set of experiments, the dispersed radioactive aerosol composition, the values of airborne radioactive aerosol concentrations, the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate, the deposition flux and the deposition velocity have been obtained

V. A Kashparov; S. M Lundin; A. M Kadygrib; V. P Protsak; S. E Levtchuk; V. I Yoschenko; V. A Kashpur; N. M Talerko

2000-01-01

380

Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.  

SciTech Connect

Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

1990-06-01

381

33 CFR 127.503 - Training: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...training in the following subjects: (1) Basic LNG firefighting procedures. (2) LNG properties and hazards. (b) In addition...and examined Emergency Manual. (2) Advanced LNG firefighting procedures. (3) Security...

2010-07-01

382

5 CFR 831.904 - Conditions for coverage in secondary positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.904 Conditions for coverage in secondary positions...employing agency head to be a secondary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions of 5...

2010-01-01

383

78 FR 62305 - Fire Prevention Week, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...we can both protect our loved ones and keep America's firefighters out of unnecessary danger. To save people they have never...Federal office buildings in honor of the National Fallen Firefighters Memorial Service. I call on all Americans to...

2013-10-16

384

5 CFR 831.903 - Conditions for coverage in primary positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.903 Conditions for coverage in primary positions...employing agency head to be a primary law enforcement officer or firefighter position is covered under the provisions of 5...

2010-01-01

385

44 CFR 150.3 - Nomination process.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nomination process. (a) The Nominating Officials nominating Firefighters and Civil Defense Officers shall submit their nominations...depending on the category of the nominee, as follows: (1) Firefighter: FEMA, Attention: Superintendent, National Fire...

2010-10-01

386

75 FR 25213 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...professional qualifications, and training requirements of DLA firefighters. To local fire departments for training or assistance in...professional qualifications, and training requirements of DLA firefighters. To local fire departments for training or assistance...

2010-05-07

387

5 CFR 831.901 - Applicability and purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.901 Applicability and purpose. (a...special retirement eligibility for law enforcement officers and firefighters employed under the Civil Service Retirement...

2010-01-01

388

20 CFR 404.1206 - Retirement system coverage groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or (8) The employees in police officers' positions or firefighters' positions, or both. If State law requires a State...applies to the coverage of services in police officers' and firefighters' positions in States and interstate instrumentalities...

2010-04-01

389

76 FR 6112 - Federal Benefit Payments Under Certain District of Columbia Retirement Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for District of Columbia teachers, police officers, and firefighters. Benefits for service after that date, and certain other...for District of Columbia teachers, police officers, and firefighters. See 75 FR 71047. [[Page 6113

2011-02-03

390

76 FR 1401 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Forest Service Title: Federal Excess Personal Property and Firefighter Property Cooperative Agreements. OMB Control Number: 0596-NEW...Collection: Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) and Firefighter Property (FFP) Program Cooperative Agreements...

2011-01-10

391

78 FR 58549 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Hiring of Firefighters Application (Questions and Narrative); FEMA Form 080-4b...Emergency Response Recruitment and Retention of Volunteer Firefighters Application (Questions and Narrative). Abstract:...

2013-09-24

392

49 CFR 383.3 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...S. Reserve technicians. (d) Exception for farmers, firefighters, emergency response vehicle drivers, and drivers removing...kilometers (150 miles) of the farmer's farm. (2) Firefighters and other persons who operate CMVs which are...

2010-10-01

393

31 CFR 29.301 - Purpose and scope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...employee's total retirement benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan. (2) This subpart provides...This subpart applies only to benefits under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan for individuals who have...

2010-07-01

394

75 FR 57985 - Records Schedules; Availability and Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information files, master files and claims files relating to firefighter and law enforcement officers' retirement benefits, master...records, newsletters and advisory board decisions regarding firefighter and law enforcement officers' retirement benefits,...

2010-09-23

395

5 CFR 831.911 - Oversight of coverage determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.911 Oversight of coverage determinations. ...Upon deciding that a position is a law enforcement officer or firefighter position, each agency head must notify OPM...

2010-01-01

396

76 FR 6488 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD-Owned Real Estate-Good...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HUD-owned properties, teachers, law enforcement officers, and firefighters/emergency responders. DATES: Comments Due Date: March...HUD-owned properties, teachers, law enforcement officers, and firefighters/emergency responders. Frequency of Submission:...

2011-02-04

397

44 CFR 150.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FEMA means the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Firefighter means a member, regardless of rank or duties, of...serving a public agency, with or without compensation, as a firefighter, a civil defense officer (or member of a recognized...

2010-10-01

398

5 CFR 831.906 - Requests from individuals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.906 Requests from individuals. (a...responsible for enforcing and arrests made; and (2) For firefighters, number of fires fought, names of fires fought,...

2010-01-01

399

5 CFR 831.908 - Mandatory separation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.908 Mandatory separation. (a) The mandatory...C. 8335(b) apply to all law enforcement officers and firefighters in primary and secondary positions. A mandatory...

2010-01-01

400

24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...financing. If the law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician uses conventional financing...mortgage. (1) A law enforcement officer, teacher, or firefighter/emergency medical technician using an FHA-insured...

2010-04-01

401

5 CFR 550.707 - Computation of severance pay fund.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the hourly rate of basic pay in effect at separation. (5) For positions held by firefighters compensated under subpart M of this part, where the firefighter has a recurring cycle of variable workweeks within his or her regular tour of...

2010-01-01

402

44 CFR 152.9 - Reconsideration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.9 Reconsideration. (a) Reconsideration...Administrator, Grant Programs Directorate, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program, FEMA, 800 K Street, NW., South...

2010-10-01

403

5 CFR 842.806 - Mandatory separation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842.806 Mandatory separation...U.S.C. 8425 apply to all law enforcement officers and firefighters, including those in secondary positions, and air...

2010-01-01

404

5 CFR 842.801 - Applicability and purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842.801 Applicability...special retirement eligibility for law enforcement officers, firefighters, and air traffic controllers employed under the...

2010-01-01

405

77 FR 71010 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Assistance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program-Grant Application Supplemental Information...INFORMATON: Collection of Information Title: Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program-Grant Application Supplemental...

2012-11-28

406

44 CFR 152.3 - Availability of funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.3 Availability of funds. ...departments that have received funding under the Assistance to Firefighter Grant Program in previous years are eligible to...

2010-10-01

407

5 CFR 842.808 - Oversight of coverage determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Law Enforcement Officers, Firefighters, and Air Traffic Controllers § 842.808 Oversight...Upon deciding that a position is a law enforcement officer or firefighter position, each agency head must notify OPM...

2010-01-01

408

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

2014-07-01

409

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

2013-07-01

410

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

2012-07-01

411

33 CFR 127.503 - Training: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...training in the following subjects: (1) Basic LNG firefighting procedures. (2) LNG properties and hazards. (b) In addition...and examined Emergency Manual. (2) Advanced LNG firefighting procedures. (3) Security...

2012-07-01

412

33 CFR 127.503 - Training: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...training in the following subjects: (1) Basic LNG firefighting procedures. (2) LNG properties and hazards. (b) In addition...and examined Emergency Manual. (2) Advanced LNG firefighting procedures. (3) Security...

2011-07-01

413

5 CFR 831.902 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.902 Definitions. In this...See 5 U.S.C. 8331(20).) Firefighter means an employee, whose duties are...extinguishing fires or maintaining and using firefighter apparatus and equipment; or...

2010-01-01

414

31 CFR 29.402 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...terms of the Judges Plan, Police and Firefighters Plan, or Teachers Plan, who is or...another under the Judges Plan, Police and Firefighters Plan, or Teachers Plan. Department...receive a benefit under the Police and Firefighters Plan or the Teachers Plan...

2010-07-01

415

31 CFR 29.302 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Code (1997) (under the Police and Firefighters Plan) or section 31-1231(a...that is, age 55 under the Police and Firefighters Plan and age 62 under the Teachers...position covered by the Police and Firefighters Plan or Teachers Plan....

2010-07-01

416

5 CFR 630.210 - Uncommon tours of duty.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...establish an uncommon tour of duty for each firefighter compensated under part 550, subpart...duty shall correspond directly to the firefighter's regular tour of duty, as defined...1302 of this chapter, so that each firefighter accrues and uses leave on the...

2010-01-01

417

5 CFR 550.113 - Computation of overtime pay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...next higher cent. (e)(1) For firefighters compensated under subpart M of this...overtime hours is 11/2 times the firefighter's hourly rate of basic pay under...2) of this section. (2) For firefighters compensated under subpart M of...

2010-01-01

418

5 CFR 550.1305 - Treatment as basic pay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Firefighter Pay § 550.1305 Treatment as basic...nonovertime hours that are part of a firefighter's regular tour of duty (as computed...portion of overtime pay for hours in a firefighter's regular tour of duty is...

2010-01-01

419

31 CFR 29.103 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters Plan under section 11041(a) of the...under the Judges Plan, the Police and Firefighters Plan, or the Teachers Plan, in...the Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters Plan. Freeze date means June...

2010-07-01

420

5 CFR 9901.361 - General provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 U.S.C. 5545b (relating to firefighter pay). (c) Applicability of Fair...part 550, subpart M (dealing with firefighter pay) to NSPS employees, the reference...Consistent with 5 CFR 550.1306(a), a firefighter compensated under 5 CFR part 550,...

2010-01-01

421

National Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bushfires are an inherent part of the Australian environment. We cannot prevent them, but we can minimise the risks they pose to life, property and infrastructure, production systems, and the environment. Australia has a large and very capable force of volunteer and career firefighters, advanced firefighting technologies, and significant firefighting resources. But the geographical scale of our country, the large

Stuart Ellis; Peter Kanowski; Rob Whelan

2004-01-01

422

Extreme sacrifice: sudden cardiac death in the US Fire Service  

PubMed Central

Firefighting is a hazardous profession which has claimed on average the lives of 105 US firefighters per year for the past decade. The leading cause of line-of-duty mortality is sudden cardiac death, which accounts for approximately 45% of all firefighter duty-related fatalities. Strenuous physical activity, emotional stress, and environmental pollutants all strain the cardiovascular system, and each can increase the risk of sudden cardiac events in susceptible individuals. Sudden cardiac death is more likely to occur during or shortly after emergency duties such as fire suppression, despite the fact that these duties comprise a relatively small proportion of firefighters' annual duties. Additionally, cardiac events are more likely to occur in firefighters who possess an excess of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease along with underlying atherosclerosis and/or structural heart disease. In this review, we propose a theoretical model for the interaction between underlying cardiovascular disease in firefighters and the multifactorial physiological strain of firefighting. PMID:23849605

2013-01-01

423

Body Mass Index is a Predictor of Fire Fighter Injury and Worker Compensation Claims  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relationship between lifestyle variables including body mass index (BMI) and filing a worker’s compensation claim due to firefighter injury. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation of firefighter injury related worker compensation claims occurring 5 years after the original PHLAME study intervention. Results Logistic regression analysis for variables predicting filing a worker’s compensation claim due to an injury were performed. with a total of 433 participants. The odds of filing a compensation claim were almost three times higher for firefighters with a BMI >30 compared to firefighters with normal BMI (odds ratio=2.89, p<.05). Conclusions This study addresses a high priority area of reducing firefighter injuries and worker’s compensation claims. Maintaining a healthy body weight is important to reduce injury and worker’s compensation claims among firefighters. PMID:22569476

Kuehl, Kerry S.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Elliot, Diane L.; Moe, Esther L.; DeFrancesco, Carol A.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Goldberg, Linn; Kuehl, Hannah E.

2012-01-01

424

Health hazards of fire fighters: exposure assessment.  

PubMed Central

There is growing concern over the detrimental health effects to firefighters produced by exposure to combustion byproducts of burning materials. To assess the types and levels of exposure encountered by firefighters during their routine occupational duties, members of the Buffalo Fire Department were monitored during firefighting activities with personal, portable, ambient environmental sampling devices. The results indicate that firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, benzene, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane, and particulates. Furthermore, in many cases of the worst exposure to these materials respiratory protective equipment was not used owing to the visual impression of low smoke intensity, and thus these levels represent actual direct exposure of the firefighters. Many of these materials have been implicated in the production of cardiovascular, respiratory, or neoplastic diseases, which may provide an explanation for the alleged increased risk for these illnesses among firefighters. PMID:3179235

Brandt-Rauf, P W; Fallon, L F; Tarantini, T; Idema, C; Andrews, L

1988-01-01

425

41 CFR 61-250.2 - What definitions apply to this part?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...illustrators, technicians (medical, dental, electronic, physical science), and kindred workers. (iv) Sales means occupations...auto), painters (except construction and maintenance), photographic process workers, stationary firefighters, truck and...

2011-07-01

426

Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

1999-01-01

427

A GIS-based decision support system for determining the shortest and safest route to forest fires: a case study in Mediterranean Region of Turkey.  

PubMed

The ability of firefighting vehicles and staff to reach a fire area as quickly as possible is critical in fighting against forest fires. In this study, a Geographical Information System-based decision support system was developed to assist fire managers in determining the fastest and the safest or more reliable access routes from firefighting headquarters to fire areas. The decision support system was tested in the Kahramanmaras Forestry Regional Directoratein the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The study area consisted of forested lands which had been classified according to fire sensitivity. The fire response routing simulations considered firefighting teams located in 20 firefighting headquarter locations. The road network, the locations of the firefighting headquarters, and possible fire locations were mapped for simulation analysis. In alternative application simulations, inaccessible roads which might be closed due to fire or other reasons were indicated in the network analysis so that the optimum route was not only the fastest but also the safest and most reliable path. The selection of which firefighting headquarters to use was evaluated by considering critical response time to potential fire areas based on fire sensitivity levels. Results indicated that new firefighting headquarters should be established in the region in order to provide sufficient firefighting response to all forested lands. In addition, building new fire access roads and increasing the design speed on current roads could also increase firefighting response capabilities within the study area. PMID:21509512

Akay, Abdullah E; Wing, Michael G; Sivrikaya, Fatih; Sakar, Dursun

2012-03-01

428

The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 caused the  

E-print Network

atmospheric plume containing soot, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and hydrochloric acid firefighters, police, paramedics, other first responders [Prezant et al. 2002; Centers for Disease Control

Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

429

5 CFR 831.907 - Withholdings and contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters § 831.907 Withholdings and contributions. (a) During the service covered under the conditions...

2010-01-01

430

KSC-04PD-1257  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Firefighter Chris Maupin (left) and Lt. Keith Abell demonstrate how the special aircraft firefighting vehicle (known as ARF) was used at the site of a recent fire in Brevard County, Fla. The firefighters sit inside the vehicle with a 'driver' in the middle. They are able to direct the hoses to attack fires from above and below. The firefighters teamed up with task forces from Satellite Beach, Malabar, Melbourne, Palm Bay, Patrick Air Force Base and Brevard County to help fight wildfires in the Palm Bay and Malabar areas that threatened homes and property during the Memorial Day holiday weekend.

2004-01-01

431

Getting Your Foot In The Door--A View Into the World of Part-Time  

E-print Network

experience in a variety of fields (construction, military, wildland firefighting, cook, delivery truck driver, bus driver, EMT, retail management, drilling). My favorite aspects of jobs have often been

Militzer, Burkhard

432

77 FR 41444 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Resource Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...recreation, areas with special management designations, lands with...continuation of existing management; Alternative B, which...mechanized firefighting equipment, chemical drops, intensive forestry management, and fire hazard...

2012-07-13

433

75 FR 22675 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...engineering). Aircraft rescue and firefighting truck purchase. Decision Date: March 26, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trang Tran, Seattle Airports District Office, (425) 227-1662. [[Page 22678

2010-04-29

434

Mortality Due to Malignant and Non-Malignant Diseases in Korean Professional Emergency Responders  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was conducted to estimate the cause-specific mortality in male emergency responders (ER), compare with that of Korean men. Mortality was also compared between more experienced firefighters (i.e., firefighters employed ?20 years and firefighters employed ?10 to <20 years) and less experienced firefighters and non-firefighters (i.e., firefighters employed <10 years and non-firefighters) to investigate associations between mortality and exposure to occupational hazards. Methods The cohort was comprised of 33,442 males who were employed as ERs between 1980 and 2007 and not deceased as of 1991. Work history was merged with the death registry from the National Statistical Office of Korea to follow-up on mortality between 1992 and 2007. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for ERs were calculated in reference to the Korean male population. Adjusted relative risks (ARRs) of mortalities for firefighters employed ?20 years and ?10 years to <20 years were calculated in reference to non-firefighters and firefighters employed < 10 years. Results Overall (SMR=0.43, 95%CI=0.39–0.47) and some kinds of cause-specific mortalities were significantly lower among ERs compared with the Korean male population. No significant increase in mortality was observed across the major ICD-10 classifications among ERs. Mortality due to exposure to smoke, fire, and flames (SMR=3.11, 95% CI=1.87–4.85), however, was significantly increased among ERs. All-cause mortality (ARR=1.46, 95% CI=1.13–1.89), overall cancer mortality (ARR=1.54, 95% CI=1.02–2.31) and mortality of external injury, poisoning and external causes (ARR=3.13, 95% CI=1.80–5.46) were significantly increased among firefighters employed ?20 years compared to those of non-firefighters and firefighters employed < 10 years. Conclusions An increase in mortality due to all cancer and external injury, poisoning, and external causes in firefighters employed ?20 years compared with non-firefighters and firefighters employed <10 years suggests occupational exposure. PMID:25756281

Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung Sook

2015-01-01

435

The health of women in the US fire service  

PubMed Central

Background Despite statements from national fire service organizations, including the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) and the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC), promoting a diverse work force related to gender within the fire service, rates of women firefighters remain very low. Thus, research into why this extensive gender disparity continues is a high priority. Recent years have seen a number of large scale studies on firefighter health and health risk behaviors however, none have focused on the health of women firefighters and nearly all have eliminated women from the sample due to small sample size. Data from the present report is drawn from all females in a large, randomly selected cohort of firefighters in an epidemiological study designed to assess health outcomes and health risk behaviors identified as most important to the fire service. Methods Data reported for the present study were collected as baseline data for the Firefighter Injury and Risk Evaluation (FIRE) Study, a longitudinal cohort study examining risk factors for injury in both career and volunteer firefighters in the IAFC Missouri Valley Region. Of the departments assessed, only 8 career and 6 volunteer departments had any women firefighters. All the women solicited for participation chose to enroll in the study. The number of women ranged from 1 to 7 in career departments and 1 to 6 in volunteer departments. Results Where possible, comparisons are made between female firefighters and published data on male firefighters as well as comparisons between female firefighters and military members. Compared to male firefighters, females had more favorable body composition among both career and volunteer firefighters. Tobacco use rates were generally higher among females than males and rates among female firefighters were similar to the rates of female military members. While rates of alcohol use were higher than the general population, only one of the participants evidenced responses in the range of concern on the CAGE screening. Conclusions In general, the findings offer an interesting glimpse of the health of women in the fire service as a generally healthy occupational workforce with some unique health risk behavior challenges. They also highlight some of the similarities and differences between male and female firefighters and bolster the argument for studying female firefighters as a unique occupational sub-population. PMID:23114186

2012-01-01

436

Changes in Risk Taking Propensity Resulting from a Ropes Course Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male firefighters participated in a standard or modified ropes course to determine if risk-taking propensity might change as a result of adventure training. The expectation that a modified course simulating real firefighting would better transfer such training to the workplace was not substantiated. Both samples increased their risk-taking…

MacRae, Sherry; And Others

1993-01-01

437

Wildfire  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes the 3 elements that are needed for a fire triangle, and how the job of firefighters is to eliminate at least one of the elements. Learn how wildfires spread, what firefighters need to know in order to fight fires and why rehabilitation is important after a fire.

Idaho PTV

2011-10-07

438

Transportable Pumps Could Save Oil Cargoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transportable pumps designed for firefighting used to salvage crude oil from tankships leaking, burning, or grounded. Pump incorporated into self-contained transportable module along with engine and controls. Module carried by helicopter, boat, or van to site of fire provides large quantities of water at high pressure in firefighting mode or pump oil into barge in salvage mode.

Burns, R.

1984-01-01

439

5 CFR 846.302 - Crediting civilian service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...V of chapter 84 of title 5 United States Code; (x) A firefighter or law enforcement annuity under FERS as set forth in...extent that the service was as a law enforcement officer or firefighter as described in § 842.809(b) of this chapter;...

2010-01-01

440

Franklin Pierce College's Fire Department: 17 Student Volunteers and a Vintage Engine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventeen student volunteers form the Franklin Pierce College Fire Department. When the firefighters are on duty, they must carry electronic pagers at all times. They also participate in dormitory inspections and attend weekend sessions at a local firefighters' training school. (MLW)

Meyer, Thomas J.

1985-01-01

441

34 CFR 674.56 - Employment cancellation-Federal Perkins, NDSL and Defense loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...note. (d) Cancellation for full-time employment as a firefighter to a local, State, or Federal fire department or fire district...2008, or begins on or after that date, as a full-time firefighter. (e) Cancellation for full-time employment as a...

2010-07-01

442

Maladaptive Self-Appraisals before Trauma Exposure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the proposal that negative appraisals represent a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. Trainee firefighters (N = 68) were assessed during training (before trauma exposure) for PTSD, history of traumatic events, and tendency to engage in negative appraisals. Firefighters were reassessed 4…

Bryant, Richard A.; Guthrie, Rachel M.

2007-01-01

443

29 CFR 553.231 - Compensatory time off.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...enforcement and fire protection employees. For example, if a firefighter's work period is 28 consecutive days, and he or she...worked do not exceed 212 for the work period. If the same firefighter had a work period of only 14 days, overtime...

2010-07-01

444

Research for the Community: Bates Students Learn as They Work Magic for Lewiston and Auburn  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a fire breaks out in the twin cities of Lewiston and Auburn, Maine, the firefighter response time is just a bit quicker these days, thanks to student research at Bates College. When the alarm sounds, firefighters click on a computer map that tells them the size of the burning structure, the quickest route to the fire, the closest hydrant and…

Harward, Donald W.

2001-01-01

445

29 CFR 553.105 - Mutual aid agreements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Town A and Town B have entered into a mutual aid agreement related to fire protection, a firefighter employed by Town A who also is a volunteer firefighter for Town B will not have his or her hours of volunteer service for Town B counted as...

2010-07-01

446

An Assessment of a Mixed Reality Environment: Toward an Ethnomethodological Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training firefighters is a difficult process in which emotions and nonverbal behaviors play an important role. The authors have developed a mixed reality environment for training a small group of firefighters, which takes into account these aspects. The assessment of the environment was made up of three phases: assessing the virtual agents to…

Dugdale, Julie; Pallamin, Nico; Pavard, Bernard

2006-01-01

447

31 CFR 29.334 - Deposit service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service was not paid in full as of June 30, 1997. (b) Police and Firefighters Plan. No credit is allowed for Federal Benefit Payments under the Police and Firefighters Plan for any period of civilian service that was not subject to...

2010-07-01

448

The Development of Children's Ability to Fill the Gaps in Their Knowledge by Consulting Experts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated children's ability to recognize gaps in their knowledge and seek missing information from appropriate informants. In Experiment 1, forty-five 4- and 5-year-olds were adept in assigning questions from 3 domains (medicine, firefighting, and farming) to corresponding experts (doctor, firefighter, or farmer). However, when…

Aguiar, Naomi R.; Stoess, Caryn J.; Taylor, Marjorie

2012-01-01

449

31 CFR 29.105 - Computation of time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (i) The service of a participant under the Police and Firefighters Plan who retires on an immediate annuity is increased by...that is creditable service. (1) Under the Police and Firefighters Plan, credit is allowed for no more than 6 months of...

2010-07-01

450

31 CFR 29.103 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters...in the interest of economy and efficiency...in the interest of economy and efficiency...Judges Plan, the Police and Firefighters...these plans before, on, or after the...Fire Department in effect on June 29,...

2011-07-01

451

31 CFR 29.103 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters...in the interest of economy and efficiency...in the interest of economy and efficiency...Judges Plan, the Police and Firefighters...these plans before, on, or after the...Fire Department in effect on June 29,...

2012-07-01

452

31 CFR 29.103 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters...in the interest of economy and efficiency...in the interest of economy and efficiency...Judges Plan, the Police and Firefighters...these plans before, on, or after the...Fire Department in effect on June 29,...

2014-07-01

453

31 CFR 29.103 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Teachers Plan and the Police and Firefighters...in the interest of economy and efficiency...in the interest of economy and efficiency...Judges Plan, the Police and Firefighters...these plans before, on, or after the...Fire Department in effect on June 29,...

2013-07-01

454

High-speed impedance matching based on muscle characteristic and its application for improving maneuverability of power assist valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report the development of a power-assisted valve for fire engines. In Japan, the number of fire fighters is decreasing year by year; therefore, it is important to reduce the amount of labor involved in firefighting. Although the development of an automatic system is possible in strictly technical terms, firefighting regulations in Japan require that the valve

Motoki Nakano; Shun'ichi Kaneko; Takayuki Tanaka; Koichi Yamano

2010-01-01

455

Impacts of fire service volunteering on the families of volunteers: A literature review and research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the frequently acknowledged importance of the families of fire service volunteers in supporting the volunteering endeavour, little is known about how being a volunteer firefighter impacts on his or her family. Almost no research has been reported on the experiences of families of Australian volunteer firefighters. The limited amount of published research which examined impacts on families of career

SEAN COWLISHAW; JIM MCLENNAN

456

The Effect of Computer-Based Simulation Training on Fire Ground Incident Commander Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the establishment of the first volunteer fire brigades in the United States, firefighters have lost their lives in fire fighting operations at emergency incidents and live-fire training activities. While there are various reasons for these firefighter deaths and injuries, the United States Fire Administration (2002) reported that many of…

Hall, Kurt A.

2010-01-01

457

Instruction: Cable and Slow-Scan. Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rockford Cable Project is an experimental program using two-way cable television to train firefighters in prefire planning. The instructional design calls for firefighters across the city to view videotapes simultaneously and respond to computerized questions via a specially-designed pushbutton terminal. The project provides for centralized…

Pachuta, Jack

458

Fire containment in grids of dimension three and higher  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a deterministic discrete-time model of fire spread introduced by Hart- nell (1995) and the problem of minimizing the number of burnt vertices when deploying a limited number of firefighters per timestep. While only two firefighters per timestep are needed in the two dimensional lattice to contain any outbreak, we prove a conjec- ture of Wang and Moeller (2002)

Mike Develin; Stephen G. Hartke

2007-01-01

459

Implementation of the first wellness-fitness evaluation for the Dallas Fire-Rescue Department  

PubMed Central

More than 100 firefighters lose their lives in the line of duty each year; many of these deaths are caused by cardiovascular events and underlying coronary heart disease. In addition, firefighters are at higher-than-normal risk of developing certain types of cancer. To improve health and fitness among its firefighters, the Dallas Fire-Rescue Department developed and implemented an annual wellness-fitness program in 2008. The program detected and addressed medical issues including coronary disease, hypertension, high triglyceride levels, high cholesterol, high blood glucose levels, and hematuria. Prostate, thyroid, breast, kidney, and bladder cancers were also detected. By identifying these issues, engaging the firefighters' personal physicians, and recommending individualized treatment plans, this program may have extended lives and improved the quality of life for the firefighters. PMID:20671818

Seals, Norman; Martin, JoAnn; Russell, Bryan

2010-01-01

460

Sleep Restriction during Simulated Wildfire Suppression: Effect on Physical Task Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the effects of sleep restriction on firefighters’ physical task performance during simulated wildfire suppression. Methods Thirty-five firefighters were matched and randomly allocated to either a control condition (8-hour sleep opportunity, n = 18) or a sleep restricted condition (4-hour sleep opportunity, n = 17). Performance on physical work tasks was evaluated across three days. In addition, heart rate, core temperature, and worker activity were measured continuously. Rate of perceived and exertion and effort sensation were evaluated during the physical work periods. Results There were no differences between the sleep-restricted and control groups in firefighters’ task performance, heart rate, core temperature, or perceptual responses during self-paced simulated firefighting work tasks. However, the sleep-restricted group were less active during periods of non-physical work compared to the control group. Conclusions Under self-paced work conditions, 4 h of sleep restriction did not adversely affect firefighters’ performance on physical work tasks. However, the sleep-restricted group were less physically active throughout the simulation. This may indicate that sleep-restricted participants adapted their behaviour to conserve effort during rest periods, to subsequently ensure they were able to maintain performance during the firefighter work tasks. This work contributes new knowledge to inform fire agencies of firefighters’ operational capabilities when their sleep is restricted during multi-day wildfire events. The work also highlights the need for further research to explore how sleep restriction affects physical performance during tasks of varying duration, intensity, and complexity. PMID:25615988

Vincent, Grace; Ferguson, Sally A.; Tran, Jacqueline; Larsen, Brianna; Wolkow, Alexander; Aisbett, Brad

2015-01-01

461

KSC-04PD-1256  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, KSC Firefighter Chris Maupin (left) watches as Lt. Keith Abell practices maneuvering apparatus on top of the firefighting vehicle with which they are able to direct the hoses to attack fires from above and below. The firefighters teamed up with task forces from Satellite Beach, Malabar, Melbourne, Palm Bay, Patrick Air Force Base and Brevard County to help fight wildfires in the Palm Bay and Malabar areas that threatened homes and property during the Memorial Day holiday weekend.

2004-01-01

462

An examination of the benefits of health promotion programs for the national fire service  

PubMed Central

Background Firefighters suffer from high prevalence of obesity, substandard fitness, and cardiovascular-related deaths. There have been a limited number of firefighter health promotion programs that have been developed and empirically-tested for this important occupational group. We evaluated the health of firefighters from departments with well-developed health promotion programs and compared them with those from departments not having such programs using a large national sample of career fire departments that varied in size and mission. We measured a broad array of important individual firefighter health outcomes (e.g., body composition, physical activity, and general and behavioral health) consistent with national fire service goals and addressed significant statistical limitations unaccounted for in previous studies. Methods Using the approach of purposive sampling of heterogeneous instances, we selected and conducted a national evaluation of 10 departments already implementing wellness and fitness programs (Wellness Approach; WA) with 10 departments that did not (Standard). Participants were 1,002 male firefighters (WA n = 522; Standard n = 480) who underwent assessments including body composition, fitness, and general/behavioral health (e.g., injury, depressive symptoms). Results Firefighters in WA departments were healthier than their Standard department counterparts. For example, they were less likely to be obese (adjusted [A]OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.41-0.82), more likely to meet endurance capacity standards for firefighting (AOR = 5.19; 95% CI = 2.49-10.83) and have higher estimated VO2max (40.7 ± 0.6 vs. 37.5 ± 1.3 for firefighters in Standard departments; p = 0.001). In addition, WA firefighter were substantially less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.17-0.54) or ever have been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.14-0.52) and they expressed higher job satisfaction across several domains. However, WA firefighters were somewhat more likely to have reported an injury to Workers’ Compensation (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.05-2.90). It was notable that both groups evidenced high prevalence of smokeless tobacco use and binge drinking. Conclusions Firefighters in departments selected based on having strong wellness programs (WA) were healthier along a number of dimensions important to firefighter wellness and operational readiness. However, several health areas require greater attention including problematic alcohol consumption and smokeless tobacco use, suggesting that more emphasis on these behavioral health issues is needed in the fire service. PMID:24007391

2013-01-01

463

14 CFR 121.7 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...chapter, excluding those that apply to aircraft rescue and firefighting service, or (2) A military airport that is active and operational...Qualified Person means a person, performing maintenance for the certificate holder, who...

2013-01-01

464

14 CFR 121.7 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...chapter, excluding those that apply to aircraft rescue and firefighting service, or (2) A military airport that is active and operational...Qualified Person means a person, performing maintenance for the certificate holder, who...

2011-01-01

465

14 CFR 121.7 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chapter, excluding those that apply to aircraft rescue and firefighting service, or (2) A military airport that is active and operational...Qualified Person means a person, performing maintenance for the certificate holder, who...

2012-01-01

466

14 CFR 121.7 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...chapter, excluding those that apply to aircraft rescue and firefighting service, or (2) A military airport that is active and operational...Qualified Person means a person, performing maintenance for the certificate holder, who...

2014-01-01

467

14 CFR 121.7 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chapter, excluding those that apply to aircraft rescue and firefighting service, or (2) A military airport that is active and operational...Qualified Person means a person, performing maintenance for the certificate holder, who...

2010-01-01

468

41 CFR 109-46.000-50 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 11Nuclear ordnance 12Fire control equipment 14Guided missiles 15Aircraft and airframe structural components (except FSC Class 1560, Airframe structural components) 20Ship and marine equipment 22Railway equipment 41Firefighting,...

2010-07-01

469

78 FR 23308 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...petitioner requests a modification of the existing standard...firefighting equipment). Modification Request: The petitioner requests a modification of the existing standard...Mine site during cold weather, the petitioner...

2013-04-18

470

76 FR 22148 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing...firefighting equipment). Modification Request: The petitioner requests a modification of the existing standard...freezing and subfreezing weather conditions and to...

2011-04-20

471

5 CFR 831.912 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes...REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters ...§ 831.912 Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement...

2011-01-01

472

5 CFR 831.912 - Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes by certain police...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement purposes...REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Law Enforcement Officers and Firefighters ...§ 831.912 Elections to be deemed a law enforcement officer for retirement...

2010-01-01

473

30 CFR 75.1501 - Emergency evacuations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Emergency evacuations. 75.1501 Section 75...Emergencies § 75.1501 Emergency evacuations. (a) For each shift...Notification Plan, and the Mine Emergency Evacuation and Firefighting...

2014-07-01

474

30 CFR 75.1501 - Emergency evacuations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Emergency evacuations. 75.1501 Section 75...Emergencies § 75.1501 Emergency evacuations. (a) For each shift...Notification Plan, and the Mine Emergency Evacuation and Firefighting...

2011-07-01

475

30 CFR 75.1501 - Emergency evacuations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Emergency evacuations. 75.1501 Section 75...Emergencies § 75.1501 Emergency evacuations. (a) For each shift...Notification Plan, and the Mine Emergency Evacuation and Firefighting...

2013-07-01

476

30 CFR 75.1501 - Emergency evacuations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Emergency evacuations. 75.1501 Section 75...Emergencies § 75.1501 Emergency evacuations. (a) For each shift...Notification Plan, and the Mine Emergency Evacuation and Firefighting...

2012-07-01

477

78 FR 76383 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...loading bridge. Improve air traffic control tower. Acquire deicing equipment. Rehabilitate...lights. Rehabilitate air traffic control tower. Acquire aircraft rescue and firefighting...lighting and installation of terminal window solar film, both intended to provide...

2013-12-17

478

Burn Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Expo/Demo Derby June 6, 2015 Del Mar Fairgrounds Chiefs’ Party in the Paddock and Golf ... Ball: October 17, 2015 Paddock at the Del Mar Fairgrounds Annual Firefighter Boot Drive Held throughout San ...

479

46 CFR 154.1120 - Nozzles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nozzles. 154.1120 Section 154.1120 Shipping ...Construction and Equipment Firefighting § 154.1120 Nozzles. (a) Nozzles for the water spray system must be spaced to...

2010-10-01

480

46 CFR 154.1140 - Dry chemical system: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dry chemical system: General. 154.1140 Section 154...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1140 Dry chemical system: General. Each liquefied...

2011-10-01

481

46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150 Shipping...and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above...

2011-10-01

482

46 CFR 154.1145 - Dry chemical supply.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dry chemical supply. 154.1145 Section 154.1145 ...Construction and Equipment Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1145 Dry chemical supply. (a) A vessel with a cargo...

2011-10-01

483

50 CFR 216.154 - Mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in § 216.150(c), the mitigation measures contained in the...must be implemented. These mitigation measures include (but are...search-and-rescue, fire-fighting, adverse weather...Authorization. (9) Additional mitigation measures as contained in...

2011-10-01

484

50 CFR 216.154 - Mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in § 216.150(c), the mitigation measures contained in the...must be implemented. These mitigation measures include (but are...search-and-rescue, fire-fighting, adverse weather...Authorization. (9) Additional mitigation measures as contained in...

2010-10-01

485

50 CFR 216.154 - Mitigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in § 216.150(c), the mitigation measures contained in the...must be implemented. These mitigation measures include (but are...search-and-rescue, fire-fighting, adverse weather...Authorization. (9) Additional mitigation measures as contained in...

2013-10-01

486

78 FR 57211 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...construction and installation. Snow removal equipment building design/construct. Snow removal equipment procurement--sweeper truck. Aircraft rescue and firefighting vehicle acquisition. Wildlife hazard assessment. PFC application and...

2013-09-17

487

Federal policy towards emergency responder interoperability : a path forward  

E-print Network

Emergency responders have suffered from a lack of cross-agency radio communications for the past three decades. After numerous firefighters died in the terrorist attacks of September 11, partially due to a lack of ...

Weir, Tristan John

2006-01-01

488

Emitter Localization and Visualization (ELVIS): A Backward Ray Tracing Algorithm for Locating Emitters  

E-print Network

the emergency personnel, such as police, fire-fighters etc., for both tactical and rescue purposes. Except signal strength. There are multiple methods based on this approach: RADAR [3] uses empirically

489

Montana Wildfires  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... At present, the Horse Creek fire covers 6,144 acres (25 square kilometers), and the Ash Creek Complex encompasses 186,820 acres (292 square kilometers). Nearly 700 firefighters are battling these blazes. ...

2014-05-15

490

A message from Dean Joyce Berry December 2010 WCNR Picture  

E-print Network

FIREFIGHTER ASSOCIATION 6 DEPARTMENT OF FISH, WILDLIFE, AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY & DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN DEVELOP NATURAL RESOURCE ECOLOGY LAB 19 RESTORATION ECOLOGY LAB 21 ARCHIVES 20 Dear WCNR, As our Fall semester

491

76 FR 28121 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...operations center. Interactive employee training system. Security cameras. Snow removal equipment. Update airport master plan...firefighting vehicle improvements. Design and installation of security access control systems--phase 1. Construction...

2011-05-13

492

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2014-10-01

493

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2012-10-01

494

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2013-10-01

495

Heat Stress Resources for Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... hot environments such as firefighters, bakery workers, farmers, construction workers, miners, boiler room workers, factory workers, and ... Fire Line During a Wildland Fire in California Construction Laborer Dies from Heat Stroke at End of ...

496

Workplace Suicides on The Rise  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Workplace Suicides on the Rise, Study Finds Police officers, firefighters ... March 17, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Occupational Health Suicide TUESDAY, March 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Workplace suicides ...

497

46 CFR 108.499 - Fire axes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...108.499 Section 108.499 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Miscellaneous Firefighting Equipment § 108.499...

2013-10-01

498

46 CFR 11.309 - Requirements to qualify for an STCW endorsement as Officer in charge of a navigational watch...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Medical first-aid provider. (ii) Radar observer. (iii) Search and rescue. (iv) Basic and advanced firefighting in accordance...vessel with this equipment. (b) Experience gained in the engine department on vessels may be creditable for up to 3...

2014-10-01

499

44 CFR 152.7 - Grant payment, reporting and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ASSISTANCE TO FIREFIGHTERS GRANT PROGRAM § 152.7 Grant payment, reporting and other requirements. (a) Grantees will have...

2010-10-01

500

Keeping Your Students Safe from Fire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses successful cooperative relationship between school staff and firefighters to bring fire safety education to elementary school students with visits, presentations, contests, and a day-long Fire Expo held each year. (ET)

Hartig, Richard W.

1995-01-01