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Sample records for firms domestic wages

  1. Bringing the Firms into Globalization Research: The Effects of Foreign Investment and Exports on Wages in Mexican Manufacturing Firms

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Andrés; Sakamoto, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Researchers specializing in organizations and labor markets have paid insufficient attention to the effects that foreign ownership of a firm and its orientation towards export production may have on the wages it pays to its workers. Using information from a nationally-representative sample of manufacturing firms in Mexico, a paradigmatic case of a developing country that is highly integrated into world markets, we find that foreign-owned and export-oriented firms pay considerably more than nationally-owned firms engaged in the production of goods for sale in the domestic market. Second, beyond paying higher wages to their workers, foreign-owned firms also raise the wages paid by domestic firms operating in the same regional labor markets. The wage premium in foreign and export-oriented firms cannot be explained by their size, industry, geographical location, productivity, use of advanced technology, or the sociodemographic composition of their workforce. We find evidence that wages in foreign-owned companies in Mexico are dependent on the country of origin of the capital investment. A greater difference between the industry-specific wages paid in the country of ownership and Mexico is associated with a higher wage premium in Mexican affiliates. Future work should strive to link information from foreign-owned affiliates with their parent companies abroad. PMID:21566699

  2. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  3. The economic bases of demographic reproduction: from the domestic mode of production to wage-earning.

    PubMed

    Meillassoux, C

    1983-10-01

    This paper explores the economic basis of demographic reproduction through an analysis of the shift from self-sustaining agricultural production to wage earning in the industrial sector. In subsistence societies, the upper limits of demographic reproduction are set more by agricultural capacities than by women's natural fecundity. An increase in the productivity of agriculture is a necessary precondition for demographic growth. Such societies are based on intergenerational circulation of surplus product, i.e., the community contains preproductive members who are fed and bred until they reach a productive age, producers whose surplus product exceeds their individual consumption, and postproducers who depend on the younger generation for their subsistence. The domestic mode of collective labor becomes weakened, however, when producer members become wage earners as a result of temporary or permanent rural exodus. Under such conditions, the investment of the older generation in the next may be lost to the benefit of the industrial sector employing the rural migrants. The shift has 2 major implications. 1st, population growth is no longer tied to domestic agricultural productivity or the storage capcity of the community; rather, it is related to access to cash, wage levels, employment duration, and food prices. These circumstances foster a higher probability of demographic growth. 2nd, disruption of the circulation of subsistence produces depopulation of the rural areas and severe deterioration of the living conditions in these areas. PMID:12266014

  4. Domestic pressures turn the screw on German chemical firms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-31

    Already beset by a European recession, Germany's chemical makers face the added handicaps of a home economy burdened by the costs of reunification, a 6% rise in the value of the mark against the dollar since 1991, high environmental costs, and health care reforms that are cutting into domestic pharmaceutical sales. Some restructuring moves are under way. A 150,000-m.t./year chlorine plane will be shut down in Frankfurt in mid-1993, as Hoechst cuts back its chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) production. Hoechst will discontinue all CFC production in mid-1994, following a 14% cut, to 31,000 m.t./year, last year.

  5. Minimum Wage Increases and the Working Poor. Changing Domestic Priorities Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B.

    Most economists agree that the difficulties of targeting minimum wage increases to low-income families make such increases ineffective tools for reducing poverty. This paper provides estimates of the impact of minimum wage increases on the poverty gap and the number of poor families, and shows which factors are barriers to decreasing poverty…

  6. Domestic Work and the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhhirt, Michael; Ludwig, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that household tasks prohibit women from unfolding their full earning potential by depleting their work effort and limiting their time flexibility. The present study investigated whether this relationship can explain the wage gap between mothers and nonmothers in West Germany. The empirical analysis applied fixed-effects…

  7. 78 FR 32460 - Comment Request for Information Collection for ETA Form 232, Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Federal or State minimum wage, whichever is higher.'' The collection is also required by regulations for... legal federal or State minimum wage rate, whichever is highest unless special procedures apply to the... Agricultural In-Season Wage Report and ETA Form 232-A, Wage Survey Interview Record, Extension with...

  8. Great expectations: Past wages and unemployment durations☆

    PubMed Central

    Böheim, Renè; Horvath, Gerard Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing wages into worker and firm wage components, we find that firm-fixed components are sizeable parts of workers' wages. If workers can only imperfectly observe the extent of firm-fixed components in their wages, they might be misled about the overall wage distribution. Such misperceptions may lead to unjustified high reservation wages, resulting in overly long unemployment durations. We examine the influence of previous wages on unemployment durations for workers after exogenous lay-offs and, using Austrian administrative data, we find that younger workers are, in fact, unemployed longer if they profited from high firm-fixed components in the past. We interpret our findings as evidence for overconfidence generated by imperfectly observed productivity. PMID:22211003

  9. Understanding the City Size Wage Gap*

    PubMed Central

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we decompose city size wage premia into various components. We base these decompositions on an estimated on-the-job search model that incorporates latent ability, search frictions, firm-worker match quality, human capital accumulation and endogenous migration between large, medium and small cities. Counterfactual simulations of the model indicate that variation in returns to experience and differences in wage intercepts across location type are the most important mechanisms contributing to observed city size wage premia. Variation in returns to experience is more important for generating wage premia between large and small locations while differences in wage intercepts are more important for generating wage premia betwen medium and small locations. Sorting on unobserved ability within education group and differences in labor market search frictions and distributions of firm-worker match quality contribute little to observed city size wage premia. These conclusions hold for separate samples of high school and college graduates. PMID:24273347

  10. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  11. Economic Analysis of a Living Wage Ordinance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, George; Bernstein, Peter

    A study estimated the costs of the "Chicago Jobs and Living Wage Ordinance" that would require firms that receive assistance from the city of Chicago to pay their workers an hourly wage of at least $7.60. An estimate of the additional labor cost that would result from the proposed Ordinance was calculated. Results of a survey of contractors,…

  12. Wages and Productivity in Mexican Manufacturing. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    A study examined determinants of wages and productivity in Mexico from 1993 and 1999 using two national surveys. In 1993, 7,619 employees from 575 firms were interviewed. In 1999, 6,259 employees from 722 firms were interviewed. Findings indicate that wage premiums and productivity increased with years of schooling, but workers had higher benefits…

  13. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contact other sources such as the Bureau of Labor Statistics or private or State employment services where... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing wage... with firm or other source; (2) Name, address, and phone number of firm or other source contacted;...

  14. Privatization and Entry of a Foreign Firm with Demand Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the effects of trade with a foreign firm and privatization of the domestic public firm on an incentive for the domestic firm to reduce costs by undertaking R&D investment, under demand uncertainty. We suppose that the domestic firm is less efficient than the foreign firm. However, the domestic firm can lower its marginal costs by conducting cost-reducing R&D investment. We examine the impacts of entry of a foreign firm, and the effects of demand uncertainty, on decisions upon cost-reducing R&D investment by the domestic firm and how these affect the domestic welfare.

  15. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  16. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  17. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  18. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  19. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  20. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a)...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other than cash may be counted as wages on the basis of the fair value of the items when paid. (e) In... agricultural labor, domestic services, and services not in the course of the employer's trade or business. (f... cash or something other than cash, for example, in goods or clothing. (See paragraphs (e) and (f)...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other than cash may be counted as wages on the basis of the fair value of the items when paid. (e) In... agricultural labor, domestic services, and services not in the course of the employer's trade or business. (f... cash or something other than cash, for example, in goods or clothing. (See paragraphs (e) and (f)...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other than cash may be counted as wages on the basis of the fair value of the items when paid. (e) In... agricultural labor, domestic services, and services not in the course of the employer's trade or business. (f... cash or something other than cash, for example, in goods or clothing. (See paragraphs (e) and (f)...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other than cash may be counted as wages on the basis of the fair value of the items when paid. (e) In... agricultural labor, domestic services, and services not in the course of the employer's trade or business. (f... cash or something other than cash, for example, in goods or clothing. (See paragraphs (e) and (f)...

  5. Ageing, productivity and wages in Austria☆

    PubMed Central

    Mahlberg, Bernhard; Freund, Inga; Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Prskawetz, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    Current demographic developments in industrialized countries and their consequences for workforce ageing challenge the sustainability of intergenerational transfers and economic growth. A shrinking share of the young workforce will have to support a growing share of elderly, non-working people. Therefore, the productivity of the workforce is central to a sustainable economic future. Using a new matched employer–employee panel dataset for Austrian firms for the period 2002–2005, we study the relationship between the age structure of employees, labour productivity and wages. These data allow us to account, simultaneously, for both socio-demographic characteristics of employees and firm heterogeneity, in order to explain labour productivity and earnings. Our results indicate that firm productivity is not negatively related to the share of older employees it employs. We also find no evidence for overpayment of older employees. Our results do not show any association between wages and the share of older employees. Furthermore, we find a negative relationship between the share of young employees and labour productivity as well as wages, which is more prevalent in the industry and construction sector. PMID:23734070

  6. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  7. Wage Structures and Labor Turnover in the U.S. and in Japan. Occasional Paper No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob; Higuchi, Yoshio

    A study was conducted to test the proposition that intensive formation of human capital on the job is the basic reason for the strong degree of worker attachment to the firm in Japan. The greater emphasis on training and retraining, much of it specific to the firm, results also in steeper wage trajectories, because of growth of skills in the firm,…

  8. Illness related wage and productivity losses: Valuing 'presenteeism'.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam

    2015-12-01

    One source of productivity loss due to illness is the reduced "quantity" or "quality" of labor input while working, often referred to as presenteeism. Illness-related presenteeism has been found to be potentially more costly than absenteeism. To value presenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy for marginal productivity at the firm level. However, wage may not equal marginal productivity in some scenarios. One instance is when a job involves team production and perfect substitutes for workers are not readily available. Using a Canadian linked employer-employee survey (2001-2005), we test whether relative wage equals relative marginal productivity among team workers and non-team workers with different frequencies of presenteeism (reduction at work due to illness). For the pooled cross-sectional estimates (2001, 2003, 2005) we obtain 13,755 observations with 6842 unique workplaces. There are 6490 observations for the first differences estimates from the odd years and 5263 observations for the first differences estimates from 2001 to 2002 and 2003 to 2004. We find that in both small and large firms, team workers with frequent reductions at work are less productive but earn similarly compared with non-team workers without reductions. We also find that in small firms, workers with occasional work reductions are more productive than workers without reductions, but the reverse is true in large firms. The study findings partially support the literature stating that productivity loss resulting from employee presenteeism could exceed wages if team work is involved. PMID:26547046

  9. 78 FR 46373 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Domestic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... needs prevailing wage rate information in order to determine the appropriate minimum wage an... about this ICR, see the related notice published in the Federal Register on May 30, 2013 (78 FR 32460...; Domestic Agricultural In-Season Wage Report ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On July 31, 2013, the Department...

  10. In Search of the High Road in a Low-Wage Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas R.; Bernhardt, Annette D.

    1996-01-01

    A study examined the effects of high-performance innovations on workers and job quality by conducting six case studies of firms that had implemented reforms in both the production and the service end of their operations. All the firms were in the traditionally low-wage retail industry. These case studies were drawn on to examine, first, the nature…

  11. Why Does the Spatial Agglomeration of Firms Benefit Workers? Examining the Role of Organizational Diversity in U.S. Industries and Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Andrew S.; Villemez, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies across the social sciences show that the spatial agglomeration of employment in a local labor market benefits both firms and workers in terms of better firm performance and higher wages. Drawing from the organizational ecology perspective, we argue that workers receive higher wages in large industrial clusters and urban…

  12. 20 CFR 404.1038 - Domestic employees under age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded... which you are under age 18 if domestic service is not your principal occupation. The exclusion...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1038 - Domestic employees under age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded... which you are under age 18 if domestic service is not your principal occupation. The exclusion...

  14. Waging War on Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closing the Gap, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Focusing on the theme of violence, this newsletter issue includes information about resources for violence information, a list of funding and grant agencies, conference information, and the following brief articles: (1) Waging War on Violence; (2) Minority Health Perspective (Clay Simpson); (3) Inmates Learn Alternatives to Violence; (4) National…

  15. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  16. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  17. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  18. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  19. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  20. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  1. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for...

  2. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  3. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  4. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wages. 404.1041 Section 404.1041 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1041 Wages. (a) The term wages means remuneration paid to you as...

  6. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can ... available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or ...

  7. Interindustry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Judith; Wolff, Edward N.

    1995-01-01

    Wages of female workers differ significantly by industry. The average woman earns about 65% as much as the average man; 12%-22% of the gap is explained by differences in patterns of interindustry wage differentials and 15%-19% by differences in gender distribution of workers. Combined industry effects explain about one-third of the gender wage…

  8. Wage Surveys: Dispelling Some Myths about the "Market Wage."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rynes, Sara L.; Milkovich, George T.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the construct of "market wage" and the process by which it is measured. Argues that both the construct and the measurement of the market wage have not been sufficiently examined by either academics or the courts. Implications for pay administration and future research are noted. (Author/BL)

  9. Costing out a wage and benefit package.

    PubMed

    Allen, R E; Keaveny, T J

    1983-01-01

    Labor costs represent the largest single cost of operation for most organizations. For the unionized employer, the compensation package is determined during contract negotiations. It is important for both union and management negotiators to be able to identify the cost of a proposed agreement. Both parties to a contract should know whether a proposed compensation package is consistent with an organization's ability to pay. In addition, when "trading" demands, both parties should be aware of the cost of the demands being traded. An approach to costing out a labor agreement has been presented in this article. While it can be described as the standard approach, it is subject to several criticisms. Typically, it is applied in a way that assumes that history will repeat itself. In addition, it focuses on the direct cost of a proposed compensation package. While this is certainly relevant, the impact of the compensation package on organization profits is more important. Finally, the time value of money is not taken into account. This would be important if a multi-year contract is being negotiated. While there are legitimate concerns about the approach presented here, our objective is to provide the reader with a basic approach to costing out a wage and benefit package. Anyone involved in contract negotiations or, in the nonunion firm, anyone responsible for administering a wage and benefit program, should be aware of the problems that we have described and seek out reference materials to provide guidance in addressing them. PMID:10260719

  10. The Wages of Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    Net depreciation rates in human capital are estimated from wage data on a longitudinal sample of men aged 45 to 64. The results indicate that wage rates begin to decline in the early 50s at rates under one percent annually and decline at about two percent annually after age 60. (Author)

  11. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  12. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is when a person uses abusive behavior to control a partner or other family member. The ... of any age, sex, culture, or class. When domestic violence is aimed at a child, it is called ...

  13. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  14. 77 FR 62265 - Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Kone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... June 6, 2012 (77 FR 33490). The workers' firm was engaged in activities related to the supply of... Employment and Training Administration Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Wages... Reconsideration for workers and former workers of Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., including workers...

  15. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark, Wascher); and "Wage Mobility of MW Workers" (Smith,…

  16. Wage Determination and Discrimination among Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Joseph F.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzed determinants of wage rates of older workers and the large discrepancies existing between wage earned by Whites, non-Whites, men, and women. Human capital and geographic variables were important wage determinants. Differences in variables cannot completely explain the wage differentials of race and sex. (Author)

  17. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  18. 75 FR 68416 - Administrative Wage Garnishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... 31 U.S.C. 3720D(h)) with respect to administrative wage garnishment. On May 6, 1998 (63 FR 25136... CFR Part 1 Administrative Wage Garnishment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Federal agency debt by administrative wage garnishment. Wage garnishment is a process whereby an...

  19. A living wage for research subjects.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research. PMID:21561519

  20. 75 FR 37457 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S. Department of Labor for approval, when...

  1. 75 FR 4099 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S. Department of Labor for approval,...

  2. Wage Discrimination in the Reemployment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavromaras, Kostas G.; Rudolph, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    Wage discrimination by gender in reemployment was examined by decomposing the wage gap upon reemployment. Results suggest that employers are using discriminatory hiring practices that are less likely to be detected and harder to prove in court. (SK)

  3. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all ... ABOUT The Attorney General Budget & Performance Strategic Plans History AGENCIES BUSINESS Business Opportunities Small & Disadvantaged Business Grants ...

  4. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. (a) The Department of... the Puerto Rico wage area. (c) The step 2 rate for the supervisory wage schedule shall be: (1)...

  5. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  6. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  7. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  8. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wage payments-deductions from wages paid. 4.168 Section 4.168 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.168 Wage payments—deductions from wages paid. (a) The wage requirements of the Act will not...

  9. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wage payments-deductions from wages paid. 4.168 Section 4.168 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.168 Wage payments—deductions from wages paid. (a) The wage requirements of the Act will not...

  10. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wage payments-deductions from wages paid. 4.168 Section 4.168 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.168 Wage payments—deductions from wages paid. (a) The wage requirements of the Act will not...

  11. The Future of Low-Wage Jobs: Case Studies in the Retail Industry. IEE Working Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Annette

    The future of low-wage jobs is examined through a case study of firm restructuring in the retail industry. The study confirms that the retailing sector has come to be dominated by the Wal-Mart model, which emphasizes an efficient technology-driven inventory management system and a human resource approach that includes the following elements:…

  12. Thermodynamics of firms' growth

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1 155 142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing ‘free’ creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  13. Thermodynamics of firms' growth.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Hernando, Alberto; Fernández Bariviera, Aurelio; Hernando, Ricardo; Plastino, Angelo

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of firms' growth and firms' sizes is a topic under intense scrutiny. In this paper, we show that a thermodynamic model based on the maximum entropy principle, with dynamical prior information, can be constructed that adequately describes the dynamics and distribution of firms' growth. Our theoretical framework is tested against a comprehensive database of Spanish firms, which covers, to a very large extent, Spain's economic activity, with a total of 1,155,142 firms evolving along a full decade. We show that the empirical exponent of Pareto's law, a rule often observed in the rank distribution of large-size firms, is explained by the capacity of economic system for creating/destroying firms, and that can be used to measure the health of a capitalist-based economy. Indeed, our model predicts that when the exponent is larger than 1, creation of firms is favoured; when it is smaller than 1, destruction of firms is favoured instead; and when it equals 1 (matching Zipf's law), the system is in a full macroeconomic equilibrium, entailing 'free' creation and/or destruction of firms. For medium and smaller firm sizes, the dynamical regime changes, the whole distribution can no longer be fitted to a single simple analytical form and numerical prediction is required. Our model constitutes the basis for a full predictive framework regarding the economic evolution of an ensemble of firms. Such a structure can be potentially used to develop simulations and test hypothetical scenarios, such as economic crisis or the response to specific policy measures. PMID:26510828

  14. Domestic violence.

    PubMed

    2016-03-30

    Essential facts Domestic violence and abuse includes any incident or repeated incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between family members or intimate partners (including former partners). It can involve psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional abuse, as well as 'honour'-based violence and forced marriage. According to the Office for National Statistics, at least 1.4 million women and 700,000 men aged between 16 and 59 experienced domestic abuse in England and Wales in 2013/14 - equivalent to 8.5% of women and 4.5% of men. PMID:27027171

  15. Insurance within the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiso, Luigi; Pistaferri, Luigi; Schivardi, Fabiano

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the allocation of risk between firms and their workers using matched employer-employee panel data. Unlike previous contributions, this paper focuses on idiosyncratic shocks to the firm, which are the correct empirical counterpart of the theoretical notion of diversifiable risk. We allow for both temporary and permanent shocks to output…

  16. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  17. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  18. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  19. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wage change surveys. 532.247 Section 532... SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.247 Wage change surveys. (a) Wage change surveys shall be conducted in each wage area in years during which full-scale wage surveys are not conducted. (b) Data...

  20. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rate or piece rate is adjusted during a work contract, and is higher than the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing wage, the agreed-upon collective bargaining wage, or the Federal or State minimum wage, in effect... collective bargaining wage, or the Federal or State minimum wage, except where a special procedure...

  1. Innovating Firms and Aggregate Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klette, Tor Jakob; Kortum, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of innovation to confront firm-level evidence. It captures the dynamics of individual heterogeneous firms, describes the behavior of an industry with firm entry and exit, and delivers a general equilibrium model of technological change. While unifying the theoretical analysis of firms, industries, and the aggregate…

  2. Gender, Productivity, and the Marital Wage Premium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    Explanations for married men's wage premium often emphasize greater market productivity due to a gendered division of household labor, though this "specialization thesis" has been insufficiently interrogated. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 972), this paper examines the relationship between wages and…

  3. Hedonic Wage Equations for Higher Education Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Philip E.; Marchand, James R.; Sexton, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses theoretical models of department and faculty choice. Models imply a hedonic wage equation for faculty with wages dependent on productivity, departmental amenities, and locational amenities. Empirical study finds that increased teaching loads and secretaries per faculty member tend to decrease salaries, while hotter than average summers,…

  4. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  5. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  6. Workplace Education for Low-Wage Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrand, Amanda L.; Bassi, Laurie J.; McMurrer, Daniel P.

    The training being provided to low-wage workers, factors affecting the availability and effectiveness of such training, and training outcomes were examined. The major research activities were as follows: (1) identification of 192 employers that invested most heavily in training for low-wage workers; (2) telephone interviews with 40 of the 192…

  7. Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Alice, Ed.; Knack, Martha C., Ed.

    This book reconsiders a largely ignored fact of North American Indian economic life--the place of wage labor in the culture and history of Native Americans. Case studies examine social networks of Native agricultural laborers, the decline of Native communities from self-sufficient producers to lower-class wage laborers, vocational education in…

  8. The Impact of Obesity on Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between body weight and wages have found mixed results. This paper uses a larger data set and several regression strategies in an attempt to generate more consistent estimates of the effect of weight on wages. Differences across gender, race, and ethnicity are explored. This paper finds that weight lowers wages…

  9. Optimal Compensating Wages for Military Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Scott E.; West, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The current U.S. military pay structure offers inequitable and inefficient wages across locations. Military personnel are paid less competitive wages in high-cost and/or low-amenity locations compared to low-cost and/or high-amenity locations. This pay system results in unequal reenlistment rates across locations, which leads to production…

  10. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  11. Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions, and the Gender Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Lemieux, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data from 1979 and 1991 were used to decompose changes in the gender wage gap into three components: skill distribution, wage structure, and improvements in women's position. Relative wage gains by women may have been a source of increasing wage inequality among men. (SK)

  12. 20 CFR 616.10 - Reuse of employment and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of employment and wages. 616.10 Section 616.10 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTERSTATE ARRANGEMENT FOR COMBINING EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES § 616.10 Reuse of employment and wages. Employment and wages which have been used under this...

  13. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... § 531.59 The tip wage credit. In determining compliance with the wage payment requirements of the Act... such employee in the workweek for which the wage payment is made. This credit is in addition to...

  14. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  15. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  16. 5 CFR 532.229 - Local wage survey committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local wage survey committee. 532.229... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.229 Local wage survey committee. (a)(1) A lead agency shall establish a local wage survey committee in each wage area for which it has lead...

  17. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with... wage that is the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing hourly wage or piece rate, the...

  18. 5 CFR 532.247 - Wage change surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Wage change survey data may not be collected before the date ordered by the lead agency. (e) The local wage survey committee shall review all wage change survey data collected and forward the data to the... circumstances surrounding the survey. (f) The lead agency shall review the wage change survey data and,...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-1 - Supplemental wage payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wages include wage payments made without regard to an employee's payroll period, but also may include payments made for a payroll period. Examples of wage payments that are included in supplemental wages... periodic rate (and not an overtime rate) for the current payroll period or at a predetermined...

  20. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wage determination(s). If the initial computer analysis cannot identify the applicable wage... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining a wage determination. 4.4 Section 4.4 Labor... Standards Provisions and Procedures § 4.4 Obtaining a wage determination. (a)(1) Sections 2(a)(1) and (2)...

  1. Historical data indicates a wage premium for black registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Coomer, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    The average observed wage of Black registered nurses (RNs) is higher than that of White RNs in the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses over 2 decades from 1984 to 2004. In this study, wages of Black and White RNs were analyzed controlling for factors likely to affect wages in addition to race. Results indicate racial inequality in wages of RNs: Black RN wages exceeded White RNs wages over 2 decades from 1984-2004. This significant difference remained after controlling for factors likely to affect wages in addition to race such as experience, education, employer type, and specialty among other factors. PMID:24294652

  2. Obesity, employment and wages in Europe.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jaume; Quintana-Domeque, Climent

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between obesity, employment status and wages for several European countries. Our results provide weak evidence that obese workers are more likely to be unemployed or tend to be more segregated in self-employment jobs than their non-obese counterparts. We also find difficult to detect statistically significant relationships between obesity and wages. As previously reported in the literature, the associations between obesity, unemployment and wages seem to be different for men and women. Moreover, heterogeneity is also found across countries. Such heterogeneity can be somewhat explained by some labor market institutions, such as collective bargaining coverage and employer-provided health insurance. PMID:19548553

  3. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    to immediately adjust employment and wages for existing workers. Using Quarterly Workforce Indicator data, we are able to measure the impact on hires, new hire earnings, separations and extended leaves among young women. Earnings for young female new hires fell in California relative to other workers, but changed little relative to country-wide comparison groups. We find strong evidence that separations (of at least three months) among young women and the number and shares of young female new hires increased. Many young women that separate (leave the payroll) eventually return to the same firm. Increased separation and hiring rates among young women in the labor market ("churning") may reflect both increased time spent with children and greater job mobility (i.e., reduced job lock) as the result of mandated paid family leave across the labor market. The third essay, Evidence of an Energy Management Gap in U.S. Manufacturing: Spillovers from Firm Management Practices to Energy Efficiency, merge a well-cited survey of firm management practices into confidential plant level U.S. Census manufacturing data to examine whether generic, i.e. non-energy specific, firm management practices, "spillover" to enhance energy efficiency in the United States. For U.S. manufacturing plants we find this relationship to be more nuanced than prior research on UK plants. Most management techniques are shown to have beneficial spillovers to energy efficiency, but an emphasis on generic targets, conditional on other management practices, results in spillovers that increase energy intensity. Our specification controls for industry specific effects at a detailed 6-digit NAICS level and finds the relationship between management and energy use to be strongest for firms in energy intensive industries. We interpret the empirical result that generic management practices do not necessarily spillover to improved energy performance as evidence of an "energy management gap."

  4. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage... Opportunity Commission. Other equal pay recordkeeping requirements are contained in 29 CFR part 1620.)...

  5. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage... Opportunity Commission. Other equal pay recordkeeping requirements are contained in 29 CFR part 1620.)...

  6. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage... Opportunity Commission. Other equal pay recordkeeping requirements are contained in 29 CFR part 1620.)...

  7. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage... Opportunity Commission. Other equal pay recordkeeping requirements are contained in 29 CFR part 1620.)...

  8. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage... Opportunity Commission. Other equal pay recordkeeping requirements are contained in 29 CFR part 1620.)...

  9. An empirical examination of the influence of industry and firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, B.

    A gradual shift in U.S. firms' 'center of gravity' toward international markets is taking place. This study seeks to explain which drivers are related to this push toward international markets by U.S. firms. In addressing internationalization, previous research has not focused on various drivers that influence the rate of internationalization. Drivers refer to forces, both within and outside the firm, that impact (both positively and negatively) a firm's extent of internationalization. The role of these drivers on the rate of internationalization, though acknowledged in the literature, is yet to be validated through empirical research. This research seeks to narrow the gap in the literature by testing the various relationships among industry drivers, firm drivers, and the rate of internationalization. The objectives of this study are: (A) To develop a conceptual framework that takes into account various forces that influence the internationalization strategy of a firm; (B) To examine empirically (a) the influence of industry drivers on the rate of internationalization pursued by firms; and, (b) the influence of firm drivers on the rate of internationalization by firms. The sample for this study consists of 158 large U.S.- based multinational firms drawn from seven different industries. Data for the study is gathered from a variety of sources including the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis; COMPUSTAT; and WORLDSCOPE databases. Set-wise regression models were used for data analysis. This study found that global market growth rate, domestic market growth rate, relative size of domestic market to international market, employee productivity, administrative investments, as well as new plant and equipment influences the international strategy of firms. This study explains about 24 percent of the variance of the rate of internationalization. This research finding is contributory to our existing understanding of internationalization in many ways

  10. Wages, wage violations, and pesticide safety experienced by migrant farmworkers in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Erin; Nguyen, Ha T; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Farmworkers have the potential to receive wages that fail to meet minimum wage standards. This analysis describes wages and minimum wage violations among farmworkers, and it determines associations of wage violations with personal characteristics and pesticide safety regulation violations. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 300 eastern North Carolina farmworkers conducted in June through August, 2009. Most farmworkers (90.0%) were paid by the hour, but 11.7 percent received piece-rate pay. Wage violations were prevalent among farmworkers: 18.3 percent of all farmworkers, 45.3 percent of farmworkers without H-2A visas, and 3.6 percent of farmworkers with H-2A visas experienced wage violations. Most farmworkers experienced numerous pesticide safety violations. Personal characteristics were not associated with wage violations among farmworkers without H-2A visas, but some pesticide safety violations were associated with wage violations. The association of violations indicates that some growers generally violate regulations. Greater enforcement of all regulations is needed. PMID:21733804

  11. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  12. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  13. The research subject as wage earner.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James A; Weijer, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The practice of paying research subjects for participating in clinical trials has yet to receive an adequate moral analysis. Dickert and Grady argue for a wage payment model in which research subjects are paid an hourly wage based on that of unskilled laborers. If we accept this approach, what follows? Norms for just working conditions emerge from workplace legislation and political theory. All workers, including paid research subjects under Dickert and Grady's analysis, have a right to at least minimum wage, a standard work week, extra pay for overtime hours, a safe workplace, no fault compensation for work-related injury, and union organization. If we accept that paid research subjects are wage earners like any other, then the implications for changes to current practice are substantial. PMID:12516838

  14. 29 CFR 4.3 - Wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... While prevailing wage determinations based upon cross-industry survey data are applicable to most... contracts is often different and the geographic scope of the underlying survey data for the...

  15. 29 CFR 4.3 - Wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... While prevailing wage determinations based upon cross-industry survey data are applicable to most... contracts is often different and the geographic scope of the underlying survey data for the...

  16. 29 CFR 4.3 - Wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... While prevailing wage determinations based upon cross-industry survey data are applicable to most... contracts is often different and the geographic scope of the underlying survey data for the...

  17. Standardizing the home?: Women reformers and domestic service in New Deal New York.

    PubMed

    May, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    In response to the poor working conditions suffered by domestics struggling to survive the Depression, middle-class women's organizations initiated various legislative reforms aimed at tackling the problems they believed plagued the occupation. Throughout these years, organized women debated three key pieces of reform related to domestic service: efforts to suppress street-corner markets, health requirements for prospective domestics, and state-level wage and hour reform. These reforms were united by the rhetoric of privacy, which clubwomen used both to oppose wage and hour reform and to support requirements that domestics have physicals before applying for work. This article examines the fine distinction that middle-class women's organizations drew between public and private in the appropriate application of government power and the resulting conflict between progressive women's gender ideology and their most deeply-held reform ideals. In doing so, it reveals organized women's struggle to reconcile their humane ideals with the reality in their kitchens. PMID:21966705

  18. Fertility timing, wages, and human capital.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, M L; Bloom, D E; Neumark, D

    1993-02-01

    This theoretical model posits that women who delay child bearing will be more likely to invest in human capital (training that enhances productivity but is costly). This investment is conditioned by a greater discount rate than an economy-wide growth rate of wages for non-human capital investor women. The aim of the model is to present a more unified view of relationships between wages and fertility timing identified in earlier research. The empirical analyses, using ordinary least squares techniques, was based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, 1968-82 annually, for a sample of 1817 White working women aged 28-38 in 1982. Data were available for wages, education, work experience, age, number of children, and the percentage in occupations (manager, professional, administrative, service, and blue collar). First wages of women not in school and without a first birth were obtained for 991 women in the sample. Descriptive statistics revealed that the average early wage of late child bearers was 37% higher than the average early wage of early child bearers and 43% higher for 1982 wages. Childless women, compared to early child bearers, experienced a growth in wages from 31-38%. The assumptions in the theoretical model were 1) that all women were equally productive in the labor market in the beginning; 2) that women bore only one child; 3) that women worked continuously for a period of time, except for time out for child bearing; 4) that all women had the option of investing in one type of human capital, which cost the same for all women; 5) that the only source of income was the woman's own earnings; and 6) that a woman's lifetime utility was a function of the present value of her lifetime income and the intervening time period for child birth. Differences in education, experience, tenure, and wages were strongly associated with differences in fertility timing. The results revealed that wages were higher for delayed child bearers, primarily

  19. Efficiency wages in an experimental labor market.

    PubMed

    Rigdon, Mary L

    2002-10-01

    There has been recent experimental support for efficiency wage theories of the labor market. This short paper initiates the larger process of evaluating the boundary conditions of the gift- exchange phenomenon. In particular, we will see whether behavior consistent with the fair wage-effort hypothesis can emerge and be sustained under conditions in which there is (i) a nontrivial marginal cost to providing effort and (ii) increased social distance between subject and experimenter. PMID:16578880

  20. Power law in firms bankruptcy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Byoung Hee; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2007-01-01

    We consider the scaling behaviors for fluctuations of the number of Korean firms bankrupted in the period from 1 August 2002 to 28 October 2003. We observe a power law for the distribution of the number of the bankrupted firms. The Pareto exponent is close to unity. We also consider the daily increments of the number of firms bankrupted. The probability distribution of the daily increments for the firms bankrupted follows the Gaussian distribution in central part and has a fat tail. The tail parts of the probability distribution of the daily increments for the firms bankrupted follow a power law.

  1. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)

  2. Wage Slavery or Creative Work?

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, John

    2011-07-01

    Western philosophical and scientific traditions often view human work as inherently onerous, wearisome, and degrading. Adam Smith, writing in the eighteenth century, saw work as the toil and trouble that is the real price humans pay for everything they need or want. Karl Marx, writing in the nineteenth century, considered wage labor alienating, but saw the possibility of self-expressive work. Dupré and Gagnier, a philosopher and a critic writing near the end of the twentieth century, agreed that work could be self-fulfilling, but only for an elite minority. This article summarizes the Western philosophical views of work from ancient to modern times. It reframes the philosophical positions as empirical questions and addresses them with statistics and models drawn from a 1995 U.S. survey. Observations suggest that work, in modern America, is not usually alienated. The great majority of Americans rate their paid work or other main daily activities (mostly unpaid work) as more autonomous and creative than not. Emotional well-being and the sense of control over one's own life increase with the degree of autonomy and creativity. The employed report less autonomous but more creative activity than do the nonemployed. Emotional well-being and perceived control correlate more strongly with creativity than with autonomy. The overall association thus favors employment, especially for the poorly educated, even though they give up more autonomy when employed. On the whole, work in modern America seems more self-fulfilling than onerous, alienating, or degrading. PMID:24156083

  3. Wage Slavery or Creative Work?

    PubMed Central

    Mirowsky, John

    2013-01-01

    Western philosophical and scientific traditions often view human work as inherently onerous, wearisome, and degrading. Adam Smith, writing in the eighteenth century, saw work as the toil and trouble that is the real price humans pay for everything they need or want. Karl Marx, writing in the nineteenth century, considered wage labor alienating, but saw the possibility of self-expressive work. Dupré and Gagnier, a philosopher and a critic writing near the end of the twentieth century, agreed that work could be self-fulfilling, but only for an elite minority. This article summarizes the Western philosophical views of work from ancient to modern times. It reframes the philosophical positions as empirical questions and addresses them with statistics and models drawn from a 1995 U.S. survey. Observations suggest that work, in modern America, is not usually alienated. The great majority of Americans rate their paid work or other main daily activities (mostly unpaid work) as more autonomous and creative than not. Emotional well-being and the sense of control over one’s own life increase with the degree of autonomy and creativity. The employed report less autonomous but more creative activity than do the nonemployed. Emotional well-being and perceived control correlate more strongly with creativity than with autonomy. The overall association thus favors employment, especially for the poorly educated, even though they give up more autonomy when employed. On the whole, work in modern America seems more self-fulfilling than onerous, alienating, or degrading. PMID:24156083

  4. Children's Domestic Work in Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire: The Petites Bonnes Have the Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to analyse the evolution over the past 40 years of children's domestic work and its representations in urban Cote d'Ivoire, and, particularly, how these practices evolved from family work linked to educational processes, into the kind of wage work that exists today. Listening to the children themselves, the aim is to find out…

  5. 76 FR 31785 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Cumberland, ME, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... an NAF wage area when there are a minimum of 26 NAF wage employees in the survey area, the local... Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Area AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Interim... rule ] to abolish the Cumberland, Maine, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage...

  6. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  7. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  8. Women and Work in Appalachia: The Waging War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Leslie

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the low wages and dead-end jobs most Appalachian women workers face and explores nontraditional employment options which offer higher wages, benefits, security, and a chance for truly meeting a family's needs. (DS)

  9. Low Wages as Occupational Health Hazards.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; De Vogli, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The history of occupational medicine has been characterized by ever-widening recognition of hazards, from fires in 1911 to asbestos in the 1960s, to job strain in the 1990s. In this essay, we argue for broadening the recognition further to include low wages. We first review possible mechanisms explaining the effects of wages on health or health behaviors. Mechanisms involve self-esteem, job satisfaction, deprivation, social rank, the "full" price of bad health, patience, and the ability to purchase health-producing goods and services. Second, we discuss empirical studies that rely on large, typically national, data sets and statistical models that use either instrumental variables or natural experiments and also account for other family income. Finally, we draw implications for laws governing minimum wages and labor unions. PMID:27158950

  10. Zipf law in firms bankruptcy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yoshi

    2004-06-01

    Using an exhaustive list of Japanese bankruptcy in 1997, we discover a Zipf law for the distribution of total liabilities of bankrupted firms in high debt range. The life-time of these bankrupted firms has exponential distribution in correlation with entry rate of new firms. We also show that the debt and size are highly correlated, so the Zipf law holds consistently with that for size distribution. In an attempt to understand “physics” of bankruptcy, we show that a model of debtor-creditor dynamics of firms and a bank, recently proposed by economists, can reproduce these phenomenological findings.

  11. Scaling Behavior of Firm Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Michael H. R.; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Leschhorn, Heiko; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1996-03-01

    The theory of the firm is of considerable interest in economics. The standard microeconomic theory of the firm is largely a static model and has thus proved unsatisfactory for addressing inherently dynamic issues such as the growth of economies. In recent years, many have attempted to develop richer models that provide a more accurate representation of firm dynamics due to learning, innovative effort, and the development of organizational infrastructure. The validity of these new, inherently dynamic theories depends on their consistency with the statistical properties of firm growth, e.g. the relationship between growth rates and firm size. Using the Compustat database over the time period 1975-1991, we find: (i) the distribution of annual growth rates for firms with approximately the same sales displays an exponential form with the logarithm of growth rate, and (ii) the fluctuations in the growth rates --- measured by the width of this distribution --- scale as a power law with the firm sales. We place these findings of scaling behavior in the context of conventional economics by considering firm growth dynamics with temporal correlations and also, by considering a hierarchical organization of the departments of a firm.

  12. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA. PMID:27249874

  13. The Employment Effects of Wage Discrimination against Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Marjorie L.; Johnson, William G.

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation showed that 62% of differences in wages offered to black and white men and 67% of differences in observed wages were not due to productivity differences. Wage discrimination reduced the relative employment rate of black men from 89% to 82% of white men's rate. (SK)

  14. The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet

    A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…

  15. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  16. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  17. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  18. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  19. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20...

  20. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  1. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  2. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  3. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  4. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  5. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26)....

  6. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  7. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20...

  8. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor...

  9. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  10. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  11. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  12. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  13. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  14. Mobility and Wage Equilibration in the Educator Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, William H.; Stone, Joe A.

    Using wage regression equations, this paper examines the wage determination process for educators at the elementary and secondary levels in Oregon. The propositions tested include whether educators are responsive to wage differentials between their teaching jobs and alternative occupations, as well as within the educator labor market, and whether…

  15. Male-Female Wage Differentials in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiker, B. F.; Crouch, Henry L.

    The primary objective of this paper is to describe a method of estimating female-male wage ratios. The estimating technique presented is two stage least squares (2SLS), in which equations are estimated for both men and women. After specifying and estimating the wage equations, the male-female wage differential is calculated that would remain if…

  16. 29 CFR 8.5 - Filing of wage determination record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Filing of wage determination record. 8.5 Section 8.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Review of Wage Determinations § 8.5 Filing of wage determination record. The Associate Solicitor for Fair Labor Standards...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3301-4 - When wages are paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When wages are paid. 31.3301-4 Section 31.3301-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-4 When wages are paid. Wages...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3301-4 - When wages are paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When wages are paid. 31.3301-4 Section 31.3301-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-4 When wages are paid. Wages...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3301-4 - When wages are paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When wages are paid. 31.3301-4 Section 31.3301-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-4 When wages are paid. Wages...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3301-4 - When wages are paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When wages are paid. 31.3301-4 Section 31.3301-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-4 When wages are paid. Wages...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3301-4 - When wages are paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When wages are paid. 31.3301-4 Section 31.3301-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-4 When wages are paid. Wages...

  2. 29 CFR 783.45 - Deductions from wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... receiving cash wages which are less than the applicable minimum wage rate for each hour actually on duty... to seamen subject to the minimum wage provisions of the Act....

  3. Sex, Wage-Earner Status, Occupational Level, and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between wage-earner status, occupational level, and job satisfaction. Findings of this study suggest that sex is a more important determinant of job satisfaction than wage-earner status, and occupational level is a better predictor of job satisfaction than either sex or wage-earner status. (Author)

  4. 5 CFR 532.207 - Time schedule for wage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time schedule for wage surveys. 532.207... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.207 Time schedule for wage surveys. (a) Wage surveys shall be conducted on a 2-year cycle at annual intervals. (b) A full-scale survey shall be made...

  5. 29 CFR 500.81 - Payment of wages when due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of wages when due. 500.81 Section 500.81 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections Wages and Payroll Standards § 500.81 Payment...

  6. 20 CFR 616.10 - Reuse of employment and wages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reuse of employment and wages. 616.10 Section 616.10 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTERSTATE ARRANGEMENT FOR COMBINING EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES § 616.10 Reuse of employment and wages. Employment and...

  7. 46 CFR 252.31 - Wages of officers and crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... different salaries are in the same job during the year, the base wages of the rating carried most of the... lodging allowances; (ix) Overlap in wages (a maximum of three days for officers and two days for unlicensed crew); and (x) Penalty cargo bonuses. (c) Method of calculating U.S. wage cost (WC). Two...

  8. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  9. DNA testing and domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellersh, Cathryn

    2012-02-01

    There are currently about 80 different DNA tests available for mutations that are associated with inherited disease in the domestic dog, and as the tools available with which to dissect the canine genome become increasingly sophisticated, this number can be expected to rise dramatically over the next few years. With unrelenting media pressure focused firmly on the health of the purebred domestic dog, veterinarians and dog breeders are turning increasingly to DNA tests to ensure the health of their dogs. It is ultimately the responsibility of the scientists who identify disease-associated genetic variants to make sensible choices about which discoveries are appropriate to develop into commercially available DNA tests for the lay dog breeder, who needs to balance the need to improve the genetic health of their breed with the need to maintain genetic diversity. This review discusses some of the factors that should be considered along the route from mutation discovery to DNA test and some representative examples of DNA tests currently available. PMID:22071879

  10. Comparable Worth, Job Evaluation and Wage Discrimination: The Employer Approaches Wage Gap Issues in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    The role of women in the work force and the wages paid to women workers have become major employment discrimination issues of the 1980's. Comparable worth, wage discrimination, and the existence and possible influence of sex-related factors in wage administration systems, which include formalized job evaluation schemes, are discussed. (MLW)

  11. 29 CFR 779.17 - Wage and wage payments to tipped employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS... per centum of the applicable minimum wage rate, except that in the case of an employee who...

  12. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  13. The Consequences of Indexing the Minimum Wage to Average Wages in the U.S. Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, David A.; Even, William E.

    The consequences of indexing the minimum wage to average wages in the U.S. economy were analyzed. The study data were drawn from the 1974-1978 May Current Population Survey (CPS) and the 180 monthly CPS Outgoing Rotation Group files for 1979-1993 (approximate annual sample sizes of 40,000 and 180,000, respectively). The effects of indexing on the…

  14. Dual Wage Families: Optimizing Mutual Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine A.; Hartl, Alan

    Dual wage families are becoming the norm. Increased maternal participation in the workplace has transformed the lives of families and these dramatic changes have created an urgent need for strategies to assist families with two working parents. Most individuals pursuing this lifestyle are eager to learn how to cope more effectively with various…

  15. Who Are the "Low-Wage" Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Derek

    A study attempted to identify low-wage workers in the United States by providing a statistical portrait of all workers who made less than $6.25 per hour in 1993. Data for the analysis were gathered from a cross-section of the Merged Outgoing Rotation Group File--Current Population Survey (CPS) for 1993 and panel data from the National Longitudinal…

  16. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  17. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  18. Immigrant Qualifications: Recognition and Relative Wage Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Bruce J.; Iredale, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    Uses a dataset compiled by the Australian government to examine the qualifications of ostensibly skilled immigrants. Around 39% of immigrants have chosen to subject their qualifications to local assessment, and about 42% of these have been recognized as equivalent to Australian counterparts. Wage considerations are discussed. (SLD)

  19. Farm Labor Developments. Employment and Wage Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Estimated employment, wage rates, and origin of seasonal hired agricultural workers in selected activities are presented in tabular form. Employment information was obtained by the Bureau of Employment Security from 269 agricultural reporting areas throughout the country. Agricultural workers were defined as those engaged in the production of…

  20. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps: A Data Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In the authors' 2011 "JEE" article, "Estimating Gender Wage Gaps," they described an interesting class project that allowed students to estimate the current gender earnings gap for recent college graduates using data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Unfortunately, since 2012, NACE no longer…

  1. Comparable Wages, Inflation, and School Finance Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lori L.

    2006-01-01

    A Comparable Wage Index (CWI) is an attractive mechanism for measuring geographic variations in the cost of education. A CWI measures uncontrollable variations in educator pay by observing systematic variations in the earnings of comparable workers who are not educators. Together, the 2000 census and the Occupational Employment Statistics survey…

  2. 29 CFR 4.3 - Wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... types of wage determinations are issued under the Act: Prevailing in the locality or Collective... 5 U.S.C. 5332, or from pertinent collective bargaining agreements with respect to the implementation... localities where the work may be performed which were identified in the initial solicitation. (See §...

  3. Local Clerical and Custodial Wage Administration Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakos, Estelle

    Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC), Illinois, collected salary-related data for clerical and custodial personnel, in order to establish a compatible wage structure, provide business management course information, and improve secretarial career counseling. Limiting data sampling to the geographical boundries of the Moraine Valley District…

  4. WAGE INCENTIVES FOR SOLID WASTE COLLECTION PERSONNEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An assessment was made of a time and wage incentive program for solid waste collection and supervisory personnel in the test city, Covington, Kentucky. On an annualized basis, cost savings amounting to $113,000 (19 percent of budget) resulted from implementation of the new progra...

  5. The Wage Gap: Briefing Paper #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    Women have made slow, steady progress in the labor market since 1979, but the wage gap has not narrowed significantly. This briefing paper updates a September 1987 paper based on "Male-Female Differences in Work Experience, Occupations, and Earnings: 1984" (Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 10, issued in…

  6. The Timing of Childbearing and Women's Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taniguchi, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    Investigates association between wage losses and the timing of childbearing using data from the young women cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey. Consistent with life course theory, the timing of childbearing significantly influences the extent to which this event shapes women's life chances, and lends support to economic benefits of…

  7. Closing the Wage Gap. An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    This document comprises a report on international progress to close the "wage gap", the differential between the earnings of women and men. Information was gathered on pay equity activities from a survey of government agencies, trade unions, women's organizations, and international bodies. Almost all of the jurisdictions surveyed have addressed…

  8. Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Speech patterns differ substantially between whites and many African Americans. I collect and analyze speech data to understand the role that speech may play in explaining racial wage differences. Among blacks, speech patterns are highly correlated with measures of skill such as schooling and AFQT scores. They are also highly correlated with the…

  9. Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, John M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Employment survey data show that, although training intensity in the first three months of employment is similar for men and women, women are employed in positions with shorter training and less capital. These differences and lower market valuation for women's work experience account for much of the wage gap. (SK)

  10. Focus on Wage and Salary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risher, Howard W.

    1989-01-01

    Budget pressures, tightening labor markets, and increasing public interest should prompt colleges and universities to review their wage and salary programs. Many administrators have never been exposed to practices other than those common to higher education, and trustees with corporate experience may provide some insight. (Author/MSE)

  11. Physician assistant wages and employment, 2000-2025.

    PubMed

    Quella, Alicia; Brock, Douglas M; Hooker, Roderick S

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to assess physician assistant (PA) wages, make comparisons with other healthcare professionals, and project their earnings to 2025. The Bureau of Labor Statistics PA employment datasets were probed, and 2013 wages were used to explore median wage differences between large employer categories and 14 years of historical data (2000-2013). Median wages of PAs, family physicians and general practitioners, pharmacists, registered nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physical therapists were compared. Linear regression was used to project the PA median wage to 2025. In 2013, the median hourly wage for a PA employed in a clinical role was $44.70. From 2000 to 2013, PA wages increased by 40% compared with the cumulative inflation rate of 35.3%. This suggests that demand exceeds supply, a finding consistent with similar clinicians such as family physicians. A predictive model suggests that PA employment opportunities and remuneration will remain high through 2025. PMID:25989436

  12. 20 CFR 404.1014 - Domestic service by a student for a local college club, fraternity or sorority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1014 Domestic service by a student for a local college club, fraternity or sorority. (a) General. If you are a student and do work of...

  13. Participatory Research Is the First Step towards Political Action: The Case of Young Female Domestic Servants in Dakar, Senegal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaw, Bamba

    1996-01-01

    Studied working conditions of female domestic workers in Dakar, Senegal, using group interviews. Found that most leave rural families for economic reasons. Village solidarity networks help find work, maintain rural norms, and provide support. Few employers provide written contracts, medical insurance, or adequate wages. Heavy work responsibilities…

  14. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap. PMID:19771940

  15. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  16. Gender-Based Wage Differentials in a Predominantly Female Profession: Observations from Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cheryl, Bland; Gates, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Despite numerous studies examining nursing wages, very little attention has focused on nursing wage differentials. We build on previous research by modeling nursing wages and examining male-female wage differences within the context of the current nursing shortage. Our results show that male nurses do earn a wage premium, largely explained by…

  17. 77 FR 28471 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of Montgomery, PA, as a Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Wage System Wage Area AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Interim rule with request... the Montgomery, Pennsylvania, nonappropriated fund (NAF) Federal Wage System (FWS) wage area and redefine Chester, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties, PA, to the Burlington, NJ, NAF wage area...

  18. 5 CFR 532.245 - Selection of payline and issuance of wage schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of payline and issuance of wage... of wage schedules. (a) The lead agency shall select a payline and construct wage schedules therefrom for issuance as the regular wage schedules for the wage area, after considering all of the...

  19. 5 CFR 532.245 - Selection of payline and issuance of wage schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of payline and issuance of wage... of wage schedules. (a) The lead agency shall select a payline and construct wage schedules therefrom for issuance as the regular wage schedules for the wage area, after considering all of the...

  20. Wage differentials between college graduates with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L

    2002-01-01

    Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues. PMID:15490744

  1. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm...

  2. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm...

  3. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm...

  4. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm...

  5. 10 CFR 603.1230 - Commercial firm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial firm. 603.1230 Section 603.1230 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1230 Commercial firm. A for-profit firm or segment of a for-profit firm (e.g., a division or other business unit) that does a substantial portion of its business in the...

  6. 5 CFR 532.245 - Selection of payline and issuance of wage schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall include in the record all of the wage survey data obtained and the recommendations and reports received from the local wage survey committee and the agency wage committee. (c)(1) The lead agency...

  7. 5 CFR 532.245 - Selection of payline and issuance of wage schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall include in the record all of the wage survey data obtained and the recommendations and reports received from the local wage survey committee and the agency wage committee. (c)(1) The lead agency...

  8. 5 CFR 532.245 - Selection of payline and issuance of wage schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall include in the record all of the wage survey data obtained and the recommendations and reports received from the local wage survey committee and the agency wage committee. (c)(1) The lead agency...

  9. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Youth Employment in Canada: A Panel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Terence

    2003-01-01

    Canadian panel data 1988-90 were used to compare estimates of minimum-wage effects based on a low-wage/high-worker sample and a low-wage-only sample. Minimum-wage effect for the latter is nearly zero. Different results for low-wage subgroups suggest a significant effect for those with longer low-wage histories. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  10. Knowledge Management in Small Firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyasorn, Jessada; Panteli, Niki; Powell, Philip

    This paper explores knowledge management in small and medium-sized firms (SMEs). It investigates the use of Lotus Notes in SMEs of a developing country as a counterpoint to the large firm, developed country emphasis of existing research. It develops taxonomy of Lotus Notes use within the context of different knowledge management processes; notably communicating, co-ordinating and collaborating. The study employs an interpretive approach using three case studies. The key findings suggest that publishing, searching, sharing and retrieving are the user modes for enabling sharing and storing information. Evidence of knowledge creation is found at the departmental level but not at the organizational level. Further, small firms may explore more groupware potential than large organizations and this reflects their different context. Finally, implications for further research are identified.

  11. Ideological Wage Inequalities? The Technical/Social Dualism and the Gender Wage Gap in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Can professional cultures contribute to wage inequality? Recent literature has demonstrated how widely held cultural biases reproduce ascriptive inequalities in the workforce, but cultural belief systems "within" professions have largely been ignored as mechanisms of intra-profession inequality. I argue that cultural ideologies about professional…

  12. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  13. 29 CFR 520.409 - When will authority to pay apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage...

  14. 29 CFR 520.409 - When will authority to pay apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage...

  15. 29 CFR 520.409 - When will authority to pay apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage...

  16. 29 CFR 520.409 - When will authority to pay apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage...

  17. 29 CFR 520.409 - When will authority to pay apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage...

  18. Contingent feasibility for forest carbon credit: evidence from South Korean firms.

    PubMed

    Roh, TaeWoo; Koo, Ja-Choon; Cho, Dong-Sung; Youn, Yeo-Chang

    2014-11-01

    Under the Kyoto Protocol, a global governmental response to climate change, protocol signatories make an effort to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. South Korea is not included in the list of Annex I countries; yet, South Korea is the seventh highest emitter of CO2. The South Korean government has enacted various institutional policies to encourage greenhouse gas reductions. While previous studies have focused on the guidance that reflects the stance of suppliers in the carbon market, this study focuses on South Korean firms' actual demand for forest carbon credits. By applying the contingent valuation method, we estimated domestic firms' willingness to pay for forest carbon credits. We then applied a rank-ordered logistic regression to confirm whether the rank of forest carbon credits, as compared to any other carbon credit, is influenced by a firm's characteristics. The results showed that Korean firms are willing to pay 5.45 USD/tCO2 and 7.77 USD/tCO2 for forest carbon credits in domestic and overseas forest carbon projects, respectively. Therefore, the introduction of forest carbon credits in the Korean carbon market seems reasonable. Analysis of the priority rankings of forest carbon credits, however, demonstrated that forestry projects were least likely to be ranked by firms as their first priority. Although relative preferences for forest carbon credits were influenced by individual firms' characteristics such as prior experience of environmental CSR related activities and whether the firm established an emissions reduction plan, the impact of perceived behavior control, whether the firm was included in the emissions target management scheme on forest carbon credits was negligible. Therefore, forest carbon credits are not a feasible solution without strong government support or institutional instruments. The results of this study are expected to provide policy makers with realistic approaches to formulate climatic change-related policies. PMID:24975805

  19. 75 FR 135 - Department of Defense Wage Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Department of Defense Wage Committee Meetings AGENCY: Civilian Personnel Management... that the Department of Defense Wage Committee will meet in closed session on January 12 and...

  20. Wage Differentials between College Graduates with and without LD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, David L.; Verbeek, Roelant L.

    2002-01-01

    This study compared employment and wage figures for 97 college graduates previously diagnosed with learning disabilities (LD) and 1,130 comparison adults. The observed lower wages for individuals with LD were found to be primarily due to differences in productivity, although the possibility that some of this differential is due to discrimination…

  1. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  2. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  3. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509... pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or any pension, paid by Switzerland or any agency or instrumentality thereof, or by any political subdivisions...

  4. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509... pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or any pension, paid by Switzerland or any agency or instrumentality thereof, or by any political subdivisions...

  5. CETA and Sex Related Wage Differentials: The Boston Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhney, Pawan K.; Jantzen, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of the CETA program on the sexual wage differential of participants. The sources of sex-related wage differentials among CETA Title I (now Title IIB) participants before and after program participation are analyzed in order to examine the impact of training on the earnings gap. (CT)

  6. Community College Enrollment, College Major, and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Andrew M.; Leigh, Duane E.

    2000-01-01

    Independent cross-sections developed using National Longitudinal Survey data reveal a decrease in the gender wage gap from 1989-1994 due to fewer differences in tenure and full-time employment. Disaggregating education by two- and four-year providers and college major accounts for 8.5-11% of the narrower wage gap for the period. (SK)

  7. Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

  8. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  9. 20 CFR 422.114 - Annual wage reporting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations at 26 CFR 301.6011-2, employers who file 250 or more W-2 wage reports per year must file them on... Section 422.114 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General... employer's magnetic media wage reports have no social security numbers or incorrect employee names...

  10. 20 CFR 422.114 - Annual wage reporting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulations at 26 CFR 301.6011-2, employers who file 250 or more W-2 wage reports per year must file them on... Section 422.114 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General... employer's magnetic media wage reports have no social security numbers or incorrect employee names...

  11. 20 CFR 422.114 - Annual wage reporting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulations at 26 CFR 301.6011-2, employers who file 250 or more W-2 wage reports per year must file them on... Section 422.114 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General... employer's magnetic media wage reports have no social security numbers or incorrect employee names...

  12. 20 CFR 422.114 - Annual wage reporting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulations at 26 CFR 301.6011-2, employers who file 250 or more W-2 wage reports per year must file them on... Section 422.114 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General... employer's magnetic media wage reports have no social security numbers or incorrect employee names...

  13. 20 CFR 422.114 - Annual wage reporting process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulations at 26 CFR 301.6011-2, employers who file 250 or more W-2 wage reports per year must file them on... Section 422.114 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General... employer's magnetic media wage reports have no social security numbers or incorrect employee names...

  14. 48 CFR 22.1013 - Review of wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of wage determination. 22.1013 Section 22.1013 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Labor Standards 22.1013 Review of wage determination....

  15. Male-Female Wage Differentials: A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiker, B. F.; Traynham, Earle C.

    This paper reviews some of the past literature on male-female wage differentials in order to determine the early hypotheses which are the historical roots of the current theoretical and empirical work analyzing male-female wage differentials. Part 1 reviews the discrimination hypotheses, which emphasize differences in the labor market conditions…

  16. 29 CFR 500.81 - Payment of wages when due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections Wages and Payroll Standards § 500.81 Payment of... employs any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker must pay the wages owed such worker when due. In... shall pay the worker no less often than every two weeks (or semi-monthly)....

  17. 46 CFR 252.31 - Wages of officers and crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Subsidy Rates § 252.31 Wages of officers and crews. (a) Definitions. When used in this part: (1) Base period. The first base period under the wage index systems, as provided in section 603 of the Act, is the period beginning July 1, 1970 and ending June 30, 1971. Thereafter, base period means any annual...

  18. 48 CFR 22.1007 - Requirement to obtain wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to obtain wage determinations. 22.1007 Section 22.1007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1007 Requirement to obtain wage determinations. The contracting officer shall obtain...

  19. 5 CFR 532.203 - Structure of regular wage schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Each nonsupervisory and leader regular wage schedule shall have 15 grades, which shall be designated as follows: (1) WG means an appropriated fund nonsupervisory grade; (2) WL means an appropriated fund leader... leader grade. (b) Each supervisory regular wage schedule shall have 19 grades, which shall be...

  20. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.59 The tip wage credit. (a) In...), provided that the employer satisfies all the requirements of section 3(m). This tip credit is in...

  1. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Tipped Employees § 531.59 The tip wage credit. (a) In...), provided that the employer satisfies all the requirements of section 3(m). This tip credit is in...

  2. 26 CFR 1.199-2 - Wage limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wage limitation. 1.199-2 Section 1.199-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.199-2 Wage limitation. (a) Rules of application—(1)...

  3. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  4. 48 CFR 22.1012-1 - Prevailing wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... publication of the revised prevailing wage determination on the website. (ii) For purposes of using the e98...) In selecting a prevailing wage determination from the WDOL website for use in a solicitation or other contract action, the contracting officer shall monitor the WDOL website to determine whether the...

  5. Wage Inequality and Demand for Skill: Evidence from Five Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhn, Chinhui

    1999-01-01

    Using 1940-90 Censuses, a study of changes in male wage inequality and skill premiums shows that relative demand for most skilled workers rose steadily over the years. The pace of industrial change, especially in blue-collar manufacturing, was inversely related to the overall growth in wage inequality. (SK)

  6. 29 CFR 525.21 - Lowering of wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employer may reduce the minimum hourly wage rate, guaranteed by a special minimum wage certificate in effect on June 1, 1986, of any worker with disabilities from June 1, 1986 until May 31, 1988, without... which specified a minimum guaranteed rate, i.e., a special certificate issued under former section...

  7. 29 CFR 525.21 - Lowering of wage rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employer may reduce the minimum hourly wage rate, guaranteed by a special minimum wage certificate in effect on June 1, 1986, of any worker with disabilities from June 1, 1986 until May 31, 1988, without... which specified a minimum guaranteed rate, i.e., a special certificate issued under former section...

  8. Wage Differentials Between Federal Government and Private Sector Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Patricia

    This study examined the earnings and wage rate differentials between Federal government and private sector workers in 1960 and 1970 to consider the comparability of these workers and the application of the Comparability Doctrine in Federal pay policy during that period. Two types of earnings and wage rate equations were estimated by ordinary least…

  9. 41 CFR 105-57.006 - Wage garnishment order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wage garnishment order. 105-57.006 Section 105-57.006 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration 57-ADMINISTRATION WAGE GARNISHMENT...

  10. 20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 404.220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.220 Average-monthly-wage method. (a) Who is eligible for this method. You...