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1

Retention Report for First-Time Entering Students to Midlands Technical College, 1988-1991. Report II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, Midlands Technical College implemented a comprehensive student tracking and retention reporting system to provide data on first-time students beginning in fall 1988. Highlighted findings for 1988 through 1991 included the following: (1) the freshman to sophomore retention rate for the fall 1990 cohort was 53.8%, a 6.4% increase over the…

Midlands Technical Coll., Columbia, SC.

2

Fall 1986 First-Time Community College Student Transfer Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1992, 27 Illinois community college districts (38 colleges) participated in a national transfer study conducted by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC). The purpose of the study was to test a model for calculating transfer rates which used as its cohort group those students entering a community college in fall 1986 with no…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

3

ACT Entering Student Survey: Fall 1986, 1989, 1991, and 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every 4 years, Gainesville College, in Georgia, conducts a survey of entering students to determine their demographic characteristics and reasons for enrolling. In fall 1995, 275 first-time freshmen students were surveyed, representing 55% of the total number of first-time freshmen, while the results were compared to findings from the Higher…

Hamilton, John

4

Analysis of the Enrollment Loss among First-Time-in-College Students Attending Miami-Dade Community College. Research Report No. 95-07R.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From fall 1990 to fall 1994, Florida's Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) experienced a decline in enrollment among first-time-in-college students. To determine reasons for the decline, M-DCC examined characteristics and high school of origin of first-time students in the period, categorizing students as direct-entry (i.e., entering within 1…

Brann, Herman I.

5

Small Business Planning and Management for the First-Time Entrepreneur. Instructor's Resource Manual. Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's resource manual and student workbook accompany the textbook of the same name. The manual is intended to help the teacher working with the small business manager and first-time entrepreneur. Each chapter contains these sections: instructional goals; resource people; tips for follow-up activities at the end of each chapter;…

Hamilton, William H.; Connelly, Donald F.

6

The GRS/GRC from the perspective of a graduate student and first time attendee.  

PubMed

The networking and collaborative opportunities afforded to the attendees of the Ocean and Human Health Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) and the Gordon Research Conference (GRC) are vast and great. The GRS/GRC, in particular, has the capability of facilitating interlaboratory and interdisciplinary collaborations. The following article highlights the benefits associated with attending the GRS/GRC as a graduate student and first time attendee. PMID:23354178

Russo, Corey D

2013-01-25

7

Benchmarking & Benchmarks: Effective Practice with Entering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If it takes a village to raise a child, it takes a strong network of committed colleagues to launch an initiative like "SENSE." From its conception in fall 2006 to the first national administration in fall 2009, the Survey of Entering Student Engagement ("SENSE") has been supported by key individuals and groups, without whom there would have been…

Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2010

2010-01-01

8

Students' opinions and attitudes after performing a dental OSCE for the first time: a Jordanian experience.  

PubMed

This study at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan investigated and evaluated students' attitudes and opinions after attempting a dental objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for the first time. The OSCE consisted of sixty-seven stations for fourth-year dental students. After the exam, students were asked to voluntarily complete a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes and opinions about the exam. Of the 134 students who participated in the OSCE, 93.2 percent completed the questionnaire; 43.4 percent said they found the exam difficult and 56.6 percent found it easy (p=0.147). Seventy percent reported that the exam was objective, while 30 percent did not (p<0.001); 65.5 percent indicated that it was a better test than traditional patient-based tests, whereas 34.5 percent did not (p<0.001). Sixty-eight percent stated that there were too many stations, while 30.9 percent stated the number of stations was appropriate and 0.8 percent stated there were too few (p<0.001). Of these respondents, 75.6 percent reported the exam was organized, whereas 21.1 percent said the exam was not very well organized and 3.3 percent said the exam was not organized at all (p<0.001). Overall, the students responded that the OSCE was able to test their clinical judgment and skills and it was a better method for evaluating their clinical skills; most preferred to have such tests in the future. Although the students reported the exam had too many stations, they perceived that it was well organized and that the time allocated for each station was appropriate. These dental students perceived that the OSCE was a suitable method to test operative dentistry clinical judgment and skills. PMID:23314473

Hammad, Mohammad; Oweis, Yara; Taha, Sahar; Hattar, Susan; Madarati, Ahmad; Kadim, Fouad

2013-01-01

9

Using portfolio assignment to support students individually and sustainably -There's always a first time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent education of engineers, using the example of satellite geodesy at the Geodetic Institute of the University Karlsruhe (GIK, Germany), is still suffering from time pressure as well as from heavy curriculum content loading. Within this education students, where the academic teachers have to fulfill high requests from the new generation of students as well as from industry and from research institutions respectively, advanced satellite geodetic knowledge has to be transferred effectively and sustainably. In order to enable the students to train newest aspects related to satellite geodesy as well as important key competences, e.g. capacity for independent and academic work, reflection and evaluation skills, presentation skills, an innovative teaching concept was developed, tested, and evaluated. This teaching concept makes use of very different teaching techniques like portfolio assignment, project work, input from experts, jig saw, advance and post organizer. This presentation will focus on the portfolio assignment component. This teaching technique was used at the GIK during the last two years for the first time, in order to support students individually. The lessons learnt within this teaching experiment are going to be presented.

Mayer, M.

2009-04-01

10

Graduation Rates: A Comparison of First-Time, Full-Time Freshmen Who Entered a Community College Prepared and Those Who Entered Underprepared for College-Level Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year millions of young people graduate from high school and enroll in colleges and universities across the country, and many of these students are underprepared for the demands and academic rigor of college-level courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were significant differences in graduation rates between students

Yates, Kathy Jo

2010-01-01

11

Comparison of Spatial Skills of Students Entering Different Engineering Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Spatial skills have been shown to be important to success in an engineering curriculum, and some question if poor spatial skills prevent students from entering STEM fields or if students with weak spatial skills avoid engineering disciplines believed to highly spatially-oriented. Veurink and Hamlin (2011) found that freshmen students entering

Veurink, N.; Sorby, S. A.

2012-01-01

12

Facilitating Service-Learning for the First Time with Advanced Graduate Students: A Mentoring Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is an examination of the author's experiences facilitating service-learning for the first time in a learning community of an advanced graduate course. The purpose of this paper is to share insights about this process, so that faculty who are considering the implementation of a service-learning pedagogy in similar courses might…

Quinn, Suzanne M. Flannery

2006-01-01

13

Perceived Quality of Service and Behavioral Intentions of First-Time Students Enrolled at The University of North Carolina Asheville  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to use the SERVQUAL (Service Quality Instrument) to examine the perceptions of first-time enrolled students at University of North Carolina Asheville regarding the services they receive from a selected group of departments in the university's One Stop area. In addition, the study examined whether a relationship…

Mitchell, Patrice Black

2011-01-01

14

Depression, anxiety, and perceived hassles among entering medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated depression and anxiety among students who were entering medical school prior to the onset of their medical curriculum. Entering students reported financial, day-to-day, academic, and time hassles as concerns. Interestingly, the population characteristics of gender, marital status, and ethnicity impacted the type of self-reported hassles indicated by the students. Measurements of depression and anxiety indicated that entering

Carol Klose Smith; D. Fred Peterson; Brain F. Degenhardt; Jane C. Johnson

2007-01-01

15

Evaluation of an Online Alcohol Education Program for First-Time-in-College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Alcohol use among college students has maintained its place as a major issue in American higher education since its inception. Although dangerous drinking has always proliferated among college students, institutions have only provided alcohol and other drug (AOD) education and interventions encouraging students to adapt less harmful habits for a…

Reiss, Elayne R.

2010-01-01

16

Decision to Enter the Profession of Student Affairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to consider factors that graduate students in master's degree programs in student affairs identify as influential to their decisions to enter the student affairs profession. A total of 300 master's students from 24 randomly selected graduate programs participated in the study. Relatively few differences were found…

Taub, Deborah J.; McEwen, Marylu K.

2006-01-01

17

The First Time Effect: The Impact of Study Abroad on College Student Intellectual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study abroad programs on American college and university campuses are booming, with a national goal of sending abroad one million students within ten years. In this timely and thought-provoking look at the benefits of studying abroad, Joshua S. McKeown moves beyond the acknowledged cultural and linguistic benefits to focus on how it promotes…

McKeown, Joshua S.

2009-01-01

18

The Socio-Occupational Background of Migrant Students Entering University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First-year students entering Macquarie University in 1971 were sampled according to fathers' birthplace. The distribution of fathers' occupations was compared with the occupational distribution of the Australian male workforce. (Editor)

Mitchell, Janet B.

1976-01-01

19

Waiting for permission to enter the labour ward world: First time parents’ experiences of the first encounter on a labour ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFor women and their partners, the first meeting with professional staff on the labour ward is important. This initial encounter is a short but sensitive meeting. It may be particularly crucial for first time parents, most of whom have no prior experience of the birth environment. The objective of this study was to explore the meaning of first time mothers’

Viola Nyman; Soo Downe; Marie Berg

2011-01-01

20

Benefits & Incentives for Students Entering Supported Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes available benefits and work incentives affecting supported employment placement for students with severe disabilities, including payment for necessary supports (state programs and the Department of Labor), protection of benefits (Social Security programs), and incentives to employers (the Targeted Job Tax Credits program and…

Powell, Thomas H.; Moore, Stephen C.

1992-01-01

21

Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fitness levels of American youth have shown a marked decline in the last decade, according to recent studies. To determine whether such a tendency persists for entering college students, the authors evaluated 115 male and 143 female students for performance on the following fitness-related variables: (1) maximal oxygen consumption (estimated from Astrand cycling protocol), (2) body composition (skin-fold techniques), (3)

Edgar F. Pierce; Susan W. Butterworth; Tracey D. Lynn; Jackie OShea; Warren G. Hammer

1992-01-01

22

The First Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author narrates her experience of meeting a Montessori kid for the first time and shares the characteristics she observed in Montessori students. The author was working as director of academic resources in university housing at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and met Jason, a pre-med sophomore who was the resident…

Black, Beth

2011-01-01

23

Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entering college students were evaluated for performance on maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and joint flexibility tests to determine the relationship of physical activity patterns to fitness levels. Results supported previous research indicating reduced fitness levels in young adults. (SM)

Pierce, Edgar F.; And Others

1992-01-01

24

Attitudes of Students Entering Internships and Residencies in Family Medicine  

PubMed Central

Does self-selection explain why residency-trained family physicians show a stronger patient, social, and multidisciplinary orientation than other physicians? Responses to a questionnaire mailed to 235 senior medical students entering internships or family medicine residencies showed significant differences only in multidisciplinary orientation. The study indirectly suggests that residency training does affect physicians' attitudes.

Beaudoin, Claude; Maheux, Brigitte; Beland, Francois

1991-01-01

25

Facilitating Student Success for Entering California Community College Students: How One Institution Can Make an Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the need to serve a broader and larger population of students at the community college level increases, the rate of student success is decreasing at many institutions. There is a greater need to deliver in-class and co-curricular experiences that meet the students entering college today. The Student Success Project at a large, urban, diverse community college accomplished integration of

Esau Tovar; Merril A. Simon

26

Planning, Organizing, and Conducting a 2Week Study Abroad Trip for Undergraduate Students: Guidelines for First-Time Faculty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides specific recommendations to help faculty members organize, plan, and conduct a short-term overseas study tour. Specifically, strategies are presented to help with managing student anxiety in the pretrip sessions, acclimating the students to their new environment in the early part of the trip, balancing academic content with cultural activities, selecting types of learning activities, and facilitating a

Stephen K. Koernig

2007-01-01

27

Analysis of Persistence After Four Semesters, Fall 1975 Entering Students. Student Flow Project, Report No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Hawaii Community College System conducted a follow-up study of the 8,979 students who enrolled for the first time in fall 1975, to determine persistence rates and to ascertain the characteristics of graduates, persisters, non-persisters, and stop-outs. Those who had attended four continuous semesters and had graduated, were designated…

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

28

A Small-Scale Client Project for Business Writing Students: Developing a Guide for First-Time Home Buyers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This assignment reflects a client-based pedagogy, which is often used in technical and professional communication courses. Unlike service learning pedagogy, which emphasizes social activism, client-based pedagogy focuses on helping students to understand and respond effectively to "real-world" clients and their organizational contexts. Also,…

Kreth, Melinda L.

2005-01-01

29

The Women in Applied Science and Engineering Summer Bridge Program: easing the transition for first-time female engineering students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Women in Applied Science and Engineering (WISE) Summer Bridge Program is designed to prepare incoming female students for the transition from high school to the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences (CEAS) at Arizona State University (ASU). This program offers academic reviews in courses such as mathematics, physics, and chemistry. Computer programming tutorials are also offered in Excel and

Shawna L. Fletcher; Dana C. Newell; Mary R. Anderson-Rowland; Leyla D. Newton

2001-01-01

30

Importance of Computer Competencies for Entering JCCC Students: A Survey of Faculty and Staff.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnson County Community College (JCCC) conducted a survey in response to faculty comments regarding entering students' lack of rudimentary computer skills. Faculty were spending time in non-computer related classes teaching students basic computer skills. The aim of the survey was to determine what the basic computer competencies for entering

Weglarz, Shirley

31

Factors Associated with Engagement Levels among Entering and Returning Hispanic College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the engagement levels among entering and returning Hispanic community college students. This study provides needed data focused specifically on Hispanic student engagement. Limited data exist on the persistence of community college students in general, and Hispanic students in particular. The data were…

Napoles, Gerald F.

2009-01-01

32

Flourishing, Substance Use, and Engagement in Students Entering College: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study explores the association between positive mental health or flourishing, depression, and engaged learning in undergraduates. Participants: Entering first year students (N = 428) at a liberal arts college. Methods: Students completed measures of depression, flourishing, substance use, and student engagement. Results: Based on Keyes’ model of mental health, 69.1% of students were flourishing, 29.0% were moderately

Kathryn Graff Low

2011-01-01

33

Fathering: The First Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a group called "Fathering: The First Time" formed to help new fathers cope with stress and to share support and information. Discusses the therapists' role and group process from euphoria to competency. (JAC)

Klein, Bruce

1985-01-01

34

Surveys of Former Students (Summer), Program Completers, Entering Students, Expansion Classroom Students, Former Students (Fall/Winter), [and] Role of Marketing Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys of former summer students, program completers, entering students, expansion classroom students, and former fall/winter students as well as a discussion of the role of marketing techniques at the Eastern Campus of Cuyahoga Community College are presented. Demographic data for all survey populations were collected and included age, sex,…

Tartaglia, Gary R.

35

Flourishing, Substance Use, and Engagement in Students Entering College: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study explores the association between positive mental health or flourishing, depression, and engaged learning in undergraduates. Participants: Entering first year students (N = 428) at a liberal arts college. Methods: Students completed measures of depression, flourishing, substance use, and student engagement. Results:…

Low, Kathryn Graff

2011-01-01

36

Developing an Empirically Based Typology of Attitudes of Entering Students toward Participation in Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning communities (LC) seek to strengthen and enrich students' connections to each other, their teachers, and the subject matter they are studying. Their success depends on the nature of the learning community program, the learning styles of the students who participate and the reasons why students entered the program. This study uses a…

Jones, Peter R.; Laufgraben, Jodi Levine; Morris, Nancy

2006-01-01

37

Increasing Employment Skill Awareness for Students To Be Better Prepared To Enter the World of Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for increasing employment skill awareness for students to be better prepared to enter the world of work. The problem of insufficient employment skills is documented by data revealing large numbers of students who are unable to meet the demands of employers. Analysis of probable-cause data revealed students' lack of…

Carter, Theresa; McCarroll, Jo Ann; Popek, David

38

The Influence of Student Characteristics on Their Reasons for Entering Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to investigate the characteristics and motivations of students entering teacher training by examining the relationship between selected student characteristics and the influences or reasons given for choosing to become a teacher. The sample of 266 students beginning an introduction to education course was found to be…

Marso, Ronald N.; Pigge, Fred L.

39

Flourishing, Substance Use, and Engagement in Students Entering College: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The present study explores the association between positive mental health or flourishing, depression, and engaged learning in undergraduates. Participants: Entering first year students (N = 428) at a liberal arts college. Methods: Students completed measures of depression, flourishing, substance use, and student engagement. Results:…

Low, Kathryn Graff

2011-01-01

40

Individual and Combined Impact of Institutional Student Support Strategies on First-Time, Full-Time, Degree-Seeking Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although U.S. rates of college enrollment among 18-24 year olds have reached historic highs, rates of degree completion have not kept pace. This is especially evident at community colleges, where a disproportionate number of students from groups who, historically, have had low college-completion rates enroll. One way community colleges are…

Beckert, Kimberly Marrone

2011-01-01

41

Diagnostic Tests for Entering and Departing Undergraduate Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diagnostic test administered at the start of a class should test basic concepts which are recognized as course prerequisites. The questions should not be over-packaged: e.g. students should be required to create models, rather than this being done for them each time. Students should be allowed great latitude in their answers, so we can discover what they are thinking. When administered at the end of a class the goals should be similar: testing concepts taught in the class itself and the retention of necessary concepts from previous classes. Great care has to be taken to avoid teaching to the test. In assessing an entire program, for example an undergraduate majors degree in physics, then one looks for very general skills and knowledge not specific to any one course. The purpose of an undergraduate degree in physics (or indeed any science) is to equip the students with a set of problem-solving skills and basic knowledge which can be applied in a large variety of workplace settings and to allow that student to contribute to civic society as a science-literate person. The creator of any diagnostic test should always have these big goals in mind. We have developed a set of questions which we think fulfill these criteria, yet are not specific to any particular level of science education. They have been administered to students in secondary schools across Canada, incoming first-year science students and final-year physics students at the University of British Columbia. The results will be presented.

Waltham, Chris; Kotlicki, A.

2006-12-01

42

On Visualized Instruction Effect of Students' Entering Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between students' prior learning (knowledge in a content area) and their level of achievement on criterial tests measuring different educational objectives when receiving instruction via programmed booklets complemented by visuals possessing varying degrees of realistic detail. (Author/RK)

Dwyer, Francis M.

1975-01-01

43

Who Are the Future Teachers in Turkey? Characteristics of Entering Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory study examines the background characteristics, socio-cultural values and pedagogical beliefs that entering student teachers bring with them into the faculties of education and explores their possible implications for teacher education in the Turkish context. The study comprised 18,226 first-year student teachers from 51 faculties…

Aksu, Meral; Demir, Cennet Engin; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner; Kiraz, Ercan

2010-01-01

44

Predictors for medical students entering a general surgery residency: national survey results  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe number of general surgery (GS) residency applicants had been decreasing before 2003. This national survey of fourth-year medical students elucidates factors related to the basic surgery clerkship that are associated with the decision to enter a GS residency.

Clifford Y. Ko; José J. Escarce; Laurence Baker; David Klein; Cassandra Guarino

2004-01-01

45

Burnout among Entering MSW Students: Exploring the Role of Personal Attributes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although individual susceptibility to burnout within a similar structural context is well-documented in other helping professions, little is known about the relationship between personal attributes and burnout in social work. Furthermore, despite a large number of entering MSW students with prior work experience, there is a paucity of research…

Han, Meekyung; Lee, Sang E.; Lee, Peter Allan

2012-01-01

46

Sources of Academic and Self-Regulatory Efficacy Beliefs of Entering Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Bandura's (1997) hypothesized sources of self-efficacy on the academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of entering middle school students ("N" = 263) and to explore whether these sources differ as a function of gender, reading ability, and race/ethnicity. For the full sample, mastery…

Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

2006-01-01

47

Perceived Marijuana Norms and Social Expectancies Among Entering College Student Marijuana Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the relationships among perceived social norms, social outcome expectancies, and marijuana use and related consequences among entering college freshman marijuana users. Students (N = 312, 55% female) completed online assessments of their marijuana use, related consequences, perceived norms, and social expectancies related to marijuana use. Results suggested that perceptions of friends' marijuana use were most strongly associated

Clayton Neighbors; Irene M. Geisner; Christine M. Lee

2008-01-01

48

Where the Sun Breezes Don't Stop Shining. Teachers' Journals and Students' Writings on First-Time Homebuying from the New American Homeowners Project, February-June 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The writings of both teachers and students participating in the New Americans Homeowners Project, a project combining English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and information on first-time home-buying for immigrants in language minority groups are presented. The project provided training and technical assistance to ESL teachers, and reached…

Anderson, Catherine, Ed.

49

Where the Sun Breezes Don't Stop Shining. Teachers' Journals and Students' Writings on First-Time Homebuying from the New American Homeowners Project, February-June 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The writings of both teachers and students participating in the New Americans Homeowners Project, a project combining English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and information on first-time home-buying for immigrants in language minority groups are presented. The project provided training and technical assistance to ESL teachers, and reached…

Anderson, Catherine, Ed.

50

The Preparation of Students Entering Kentucky's Public Colleges and Universities in 2002 and 2004. Developmental Education Update  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This update presents information on students entering Kentucky's public postsecondary institutions in 2004, with comparisons to the entering class of 2002. This information updates Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education's 2005 report entitled, "Underprepared Students in Kentucky: A First Look at the 2001 Mandatory Placement Policy." In…

Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2006

2006-01-01

51

Sex Differences in Cooperative Education: A Study of First-Time Cooperative Education Students in Traditional and Non-Traditional Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The data collected in a 1978-79 study of 742 students enrolled in cooperative education (co-op) programs in forty-seven participating colleges and universities describes by sex what students in various fields of study do on their job, what they perceive their work conditions and responsibilities to be, how they view their abilities, and how their…

Heller, Barbara R.; And Others

52

The impact of a freshman academy on science performance of first-time ninth-grade students at one Georgia high school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this within-group experimental study was to find out to what extent ninth-grade students improved their science performance beyond their middle school science performance at one Georgia high school utilizing a freshman academy model. Freshman academies have been recognized as a useful tool for increasing academic performance among ninth-grade students because they address a range of academic support initiatives tailored to improve academic performance among ninth-grade students. The talent development model developed by Legters, Balfanz, Jordan, and McPartland (2002) has served as a foundational standard for many ninth grade academy programs. A cornerstone feature of this model is the creation of small learning communities used to increase ninth-grade student performance. Another recommendation was to offer credit recovery opportunities for ninth graders along with creating parent and community involvement activities to increase academic success among ninth-grade students. While the site's program included some of the initiatives outlined by the talent development model, it did not utilize all of them. The study concluded that the academy did not show a definitive increase in academic performance among ninth-grade students since most students stayed within their original performance category.

Daniel, Vivian Summerour

53

A Descriptive Study Comparing GPA, Retention and Graduation of First-Time, Full-Time, Provisionally Admitted First-Generation College Students and Their Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative research study used ex post facto data to analyze possible relationships between a discrete set of independent variables and academic achievement among provisionally admitted students at a public, four-year historically black university located in the mid-Atlantic United States. The independent variables were first-generation…

Lodhavia, Rajalakshmi

2009-01-01

54

Motivations to nurse: An exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. PMID:24093735

Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-Maclaren, Michelle

2013-05-29

55

The Influence of Religion and High School Biology Courses on Students' Knowledge of Evolution When They Enter College  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students whose high school biology course included evolution but not creationism knew more about evolution when they entered college than did students whose courses included evolution plus creationism or whose courses included neither evolution nor creationism. Similarly, students who believed that their high school biology classes were the primary source of their views of evolution knew more about evolution than

Randy Moore; Sehoya Cotner; Alex Bates

56

Work in progress - the synergistic integration of an entering students program with an engaging introductory course in programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the synergistic integration of a required entering students' program with an introductory course in programming. The course is evenly divided among Python-based algorithmic-centric media programming modules and content specified for ESP students at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). UTEP is an urban university serving a largely Hispanic student population principally drawn from the sister

Eric Freudenthal; Mary K. Roy; Ann Gates

2009-01-01

57

A Five Year Follow-up Study of Entering Fall 1970 Basic Skills Students at Queensborough Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to ascertain the effect of open admissions by investigating the graduation rate of basic skills students, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1,728 students who entered Queensborough Community College in fall 1970 and who were assigned to remedial reading and/or writing. Of a total enrollment of 3,230, 24% or 774 students were…

Bergman, Irwin

58

Attrition and Student Progress at Bronx Community College for Entering Classes: Fall 1972 to Fall 1976 (Progress to Fall 1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data tables summarize the semester-by-semester persistence of each class of regularly matriculated students entering Bronx Community College (BCC) between Fall 1972 and Fall 1976 in terms of graduation and retention rates. For each entering class, the tables provide progress analyses up to Fall 1978 by curriculum group and high school grade…

Eagle, Norman

59

A Comparison of the Academic Experiences and Achievement of University Students Entering by Traditional and Non-Traditional Means.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of three years of student records revealed a marginal disadvantage in academic performance for students entering the University of Newcastle via three different non-traditional enabling programs (findings differed by program), but a positive effect on academic performance of mature age on entry. (EV)

Cantwell, Robert; Archer, Jennifer; Bourke, Sid

2001-01-01

60

Fall 1975 Entering Students at the End of Their Fourth Semester, Fall 1975 Through Spring 1977: Second Report. Student Flow Project, Report No. 27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes data on the progress of students who entered the Hawaii community college system in fall 1975 during their first four semesters. It indicates continuation rates, full-time/part-time ratios, the relationship between credits attempted and credits earned, changes of major, the number of graduates, and changes in the…

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

61

Entering Youth Justice: Comparing the Views of Human Services and Criminology Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper explores how undergraduate students who are relatively new to the field of youth justice conceptualise their possible future work roles. The research compared the views of students who were commencing two undergraduate courses (subjects) concerned with working with young people. One course was taken by human services students and the other was taken by criminology students. Findings

Kerry Wimshurst; Troy Allard

2007-01-01

62

Applicant analysis: 2001 entering class.  

PubMed

There were 7,412 applicants to the entering dental school class of 2001. This is 4.6 percent less than the number of applicants to the entering class of 2000. Since the peak of dental school applicants in 1997 (at 9,829), the number of applicants has declined 24.6 percent. (This decline is most similar to the 25.8 percent decline that has occurred in medical school applicants since their peak of applicants in 1996, at 46,968.) With the decline in applicants and a slight increase in first-time, first-year enrollees, 57.6 percent of the dental school applicants were enrolled in 2001. This is up from 54.5 percent in 2000. Dental schools reported 4,267 first-time, first-year enrollees in 2001. This is an increase of thirty-three first-time, first-year enrollees over the number reported in 2000 and only an increase of fifty-eight over the last two years. Since 1989, when dental school enrollment once again began to increase, the number of first-time, first-year enrollees has increased 14.9 percent. (Total first-year enrollment, which includes first-time enrollees and repeat students, has increased 10.8 percent since 1989.) The number of applicants per first-time, first-year positions was 1.74 in 2001. It was 2.31 in 1997. (The most recent low was 1.34 in 1989.) The average of the GPA and DAT scores of the first-time, first-year enrollees in 2001 were all slightly higher than they were in 2000. Women were approximately 42 percent of the applicants and first-time, first-year enrollees in 2001, up slightly from 2000. Underrepresented minorities comprised over 12.6 percent of the applicants and 11.9 percent of the first-time, first-year enrollees, also up slightly from 2000. PMID:12856969

Weaver, Richard G; Haden, N Karl; Ramanna, Satyan; Valachovic, Richard W

2003-06-01

63

Engaging university learning: the experiences of students entering university via recognition of prior industrial experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the academic experiences of 33 male students from an industrial background were investigated as they completed a two?year education degree. The purpose of the study was to investigate the quality of student adjustment to an academic environment following extensive industrial training and experience. Students completed a series of questionnaires relating to learning as well as a series

Robert H. Cantwell; Jill J. Scevak

2004-01-01

64

Entering the University: The Differentiated Experience of Two Chinese International Students in a New Zealand University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article draws on findings from a longitudinal study of Chinese international students beginning study in a New Zealand university, and focuses on the very different experience of two students in relation to a single course and its assessment requirements, as they sought ways to negotiate identities as university students in their new…

Skyrme, Gillian

2007-01-01

65

How to Motivate Students to Study before They Enter the Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Laboratory exercises constitute an important part of chemical and biochemical courses at the university level. Nevertheless, students frequently are insufficiently prepared for the practical work, which often reduces their work to the level of a technician. A system designed to motivate students to study prior to the laboratory exercise was…

Pogacnik, Lea; Cigic, Blaz

2006-01-01

66

Community and Diversity in Urban Community Colleges: Coursetaking among Entering Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines a sample of 15 courses in relation to four variables of student characteristics: gender, ethnicity, age, and full- or part-time status. Presents findings from the transcript analyses of 6,196 first-semester students from nine urban colleges, which reveal the strongest relations between curriculum and ethnicity. (Contains seven tables and…

Maxwell, William; Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Cypers, Scott; Moon, Hye S.; Brocato, Phillip; Wahl, Kelly; Prather, George

2003-01-01

67

Students' Reasons for Entering Nigerian Primary Teacher Education Programme and Their Career Plans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were to find out what motivated the students in a college of primary teacher education in Nigeria to seek admission into the college, and to identify their career plans. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire administered on 117 final year students of the college towards the end of their programme of…

Ejieh, Michael U. C.

2005-01-01

68

Graduation Rates for Athletes and Other Students Who Entered College in 1992-93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents data on 1991-92 and 1992-93 graduation rates for athletes and other students at 607 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and II institutions. Data include percentages graduating in the following categories: total student population; all athletes; white male athletes; black male athletes; white female athletes; and black…

Chronicle of Higher Education, 1999

1999-01-01

69

Gender and students' vocational choices in entering the field of nursing.  

PubMed

As the demand increases for nursing professionals, existing theories borrowed from the field of industrial psychology may help employers and recruiters to identify appropriate candidates, train, hire and promote nurses in a more effective manner. An important component of these theories is understanding an individual's motivation to choose a certain profession. This preliminary study examined gender differences in motivations to enter the field of nursing. Two theoretical points of view were offered to account for the differences: Holland and Row's models of person-job congruence and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. One hundred and sixty (24 men and 136 women) freshmen from 3 nursing programs were asked to report their motivations to enter nursing. A new instrument based on the models mentioned above and representing 2 basic motivations, self-actualization and survival needs, was developed for the purposes of this study. While both genders mentioned self-actualization as their main motivation for entering nursing, men tended to give survival needs more weight than women did. The motivation patterns as well as the gender differences are discussed in light of recent trends in nursing and within the framework of personnel selection and training. PMID:16115512

Zysberg, Leehu; Berry, Devon M

70

First-Time Generics - November 2007  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... First-Time Generics - November 2007. Generic Drug Name, Generic Manufacturer, Brand Name, Approval Date. 1, INDOCYANINE ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

71

First-Time Generics - November 2002  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... First-Time Generics - November 2002. Generic Drug Name, Generic Manufacturer, Brand Name Product, Approval Date. 1, ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

72

Self-Efficacy, Motivation Constructs, and Mathematics Performance of Entering Middle School Students.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of various motivation variables on task-specific mathematics performance and to explore whether these variables change during the first year of middle school (N = 273). Students' task-specific self-efficacy was the only motivation variable to predict performance and did so both at start and end of year. There were no differences in anxiety, self-concept, or self-efficacy for self-regulation between start and end of year, but, by end of year, students described mathematics as less valuable and reported lower effort and persistence. Gifted students had stronger mathematics self-concept beliefs, and they had more accurate and less overconfident self-efficacy beliefs than did regular education students. There were no gender differences in any of the motivation constructs. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10072312

Pajares; Graham

1999-04-01

73

Get Your First-Time Singers to Sing Well  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|First-time singers present excellent opportunities for choral directors to fine-tune their teaching by truly working with beginners. In this article, the author discusses how beginning singers learn to sing well. Despite the unique challenges and various musical backgrounds of these students, if choral directors can teach them the basics of…

Packwood, Gary

2005-01-01

74

Suggestions for Screening Entering Kindergarten Students To Assist in the Identification of Possibly Gifted Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph is designed for New York parents and school personnel charged with administering the screening instruments for incoming kindergarten students to determine possible giftedness. It begins by explaining Article 65 of New York's Compulsory Education and School Census Law, Section 3208, which requires that parents be notified if their…

Cline, Starr

75

Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility for Students Entering Fall 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended as a guide for reviewing core-curriculum eligibility of student athletes who have completed any portion of their secondary education in a non-U.S. educational system. Beginning with the 1994-95 academic year, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Initial-Eligibility clearinghouse will certify all…

National Collegiate Athletic Association, Overland Park, KS.

76

Individualized Education Program (IEP) Planning Guide for Special Education Students Entering High School Vocational Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to assist school program planners who are working with mainstreamed special education students in vocational education programs. The guide, covering grades 11 and 12, contains vocational program goals, objectives, and evaluation measures for 30 secondary vocational education programs in 15 curriculum areas, as well as for…

Burrell, Lewis P.

77

Entering the World of Work: A Curriculum for Two-Year Technical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that students in two-year technical programs need courses that train them in job and job-hunting skills. The transition from school to work can be difficult, and a job-skills class can prepare them for some of the changes inherent in the process. Itemizes job search strategies. (NB)|

McClung, Xavier V.

2002-01-01

78

A Case Study of Students Entering an Early College High School: Changes in Academic Behavior Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to learn more about the transition experiences of one group of high school students (N = 75) as they began attending one alternative pathway: an Early College High School program on a community college campus. A four-part conceptual framework of college readiness provided a structure from which to explore the…

Healy, James J.

2009-01-01

79

Transitions in higher education: the relationship between the thoughts and aspirations of students entering higher education in art and craft areas and the opportunities awaiting them at graduation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governmental pressure to raise the number of students entering higher education in the UK has seen more aggressive strategies being introduced in order to entice students to continue their education. An argument is raging among art and design academics to whether this expansion is wholly ethical, espe- cially within art and design subjects where the professional opportunities are finite and

David Henderson; Martin Bouette

80

Differentiating between the effect of rapid dietary acculturation and the effect of living away from home for the first time, on the diets of Greek students studying in Glasgow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diets of University students, particularly those living away from the family home, are characterised by a number of undesirable practices such as meal skipping, frequent snacking and low intakes of fruits and vegetables. This study aimed to identify the extent to which the previously reported negative changes in the eating habits of Greek students living in Glasgow were the

Lefkothea-Stella Kremmyda; Angeliki Papadaki; George Hondros; Maria Kapsokefalou; Jane A. Scott

2008-01-01

81

Emporiatric enteritis: lessons learned from U.S. students in Mexico.  

PubMed Central

In the studies reported, evidence has been presented that U.S. students traveling to Mexico represent a model for the study of travelers' diarrhea. The incidence of illness acquisition approximates that published in other studies of travelers. Natural immunity was shown to develop as students remained in Mexico presumably through repeated exposure to prevalent agents, particularly ETEC. ETEC, shigella strains and no detectable agent represented the largest groups when etiologic assessment was made. Food probably served as the important source of diarrhea particularly that due to ETEC and shigella strains. The level of bacteria isolated from food suggested that organism replication occurred due to improper temperature storage rather than to heavy initial contamination. The location of food consumption was related to degree of risk: self preparation was the safest, eating in Mexican homes the least safe and consumption of food in public restaurants was intermediate in risk. Water probably played a role in the transmission of viral infection. The risk of water contamination appeared to be highest during the rainy seasons. Finally, the antimicrobial agents TMP/SMX and TMP alone were shown to effectively prevent and treat this form of travelers' diarrhea.

Dupont, H. L.; Ericsson, C. D.; Dupont, M. W.

1986-01-01

82

Whatever Happened to the Class of 1994? A Three-Year Longitudinal Study of Traditional Freshmen Entering Frederick Community College in the Fall 1994 Semester.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional freshmen, or first-time students who enter college immediately after graduating high school, represent the largest identifiable group of students within Frederick Community College's (FCC) student body. They are afforded a considerable amount of resources from college staff, and for them the college follows various measurements of…

Holton, James M.

83

First-Time Generics - November 2001  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Enter Search terms. ... 201 INJECTION, USP 1 mCi/ML, THALLOUS CHLORIDE Tl-201 INJECTION, USP, 75-569, MOUNT SINAI MEDICAL CENTER. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

84

Syphilitic enteritis.  

PubMed

Relapsing secondary syphilis of which syphilitic enteritis was a major manifestation developed in a 40-year-old man. The enteritis was demonstrated by biopsy. Clinical and histologic resolution of the enteritis followed anti-syphilitic therapy. PMID:6712376

Schlossberg, D; Rudy, F R; Jackson, F W; Dumalag, L B

1984-04-01

85

Family Dynamics and First-Time Homeownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to first-time homeownership is related to household events such as cohabitation and marriage as well as to parents' homeownership. This paper investigates how these relationships have changed during the last few decades, using the first wave of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study and event history analysis techniques, including interaction effects with the calendar year. The study finds that

Annika Smits; Clara H. Mulder

2008-01-01

86

Teaching Physics for the First Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to be a quick and easy resource for anyone teaching physics for the first time. Written after extensive research, this book is filled with reliable labs, demos and activities that work well in the classroom. Also included are lesson plans, diagrams, and teacher notes for every activity. The book is not the end--it is just a…

Mader, Jan; Winn, Mary

2008-01-01

87

Teaching Physics for the First Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed to be a quick and easy resource for anyone teaching physics for the first time. Written after extensive research, this book is filled with reliable labs, demos and activities that work well in the classroom. Also included are lesson plans, diagrams, and teacher notes for every activity. The book is not the end--it is just a…

Mader, Jan; Winn, Mary

2008-01-01

88

Injury Risk in First-Time Snowboarders Versus First-Time Skiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1994 and 1996 we studied injury patterns in more than 22,000 first-time snowboarders and first-time skiers to determine the comparative injury risk of these two popular sports coexisting in winter resort areas. The first-time participants included in this study had no previous experience in their activity of choice and enrolled in Learn to Snowboard and Learn to Ski programs

Daniel Fulham ONeill; Mark R. McGlone

1999-01-01

89

Transition to first-time motherhood.  

PubMed

Becoming a mother for the first time signals a major life transition for many women. But even though age at first birth now spans a broader spectrum in the UK, women's ideas of what mothering will actually entail can remain narrowly focused. Yet everyday experiences of new mothering can feel very different from the ways in which it had been anticipated, envisaged and prepared for. In this article the experiences of a small group of women will be traced as they become mothers for the first time. This qualitative, longitudinal research approach reveals a gap between the women's expectations and their unfolding mothering experiences. In turn, the unexpected hard work and exhaustion of caring for a new baby can leave women confused and ambivalent about their early mothering experiences. These findings have implications for how antenatal preparation and postnatal care are planned and delivered. PMID:21388007

Miller, Tina

2011-02-01

90

Migration and first-time parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the ‘Marriage, Fertility, and Migration’ survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal

Lesia Nedoluzhko; Gunnar Andersson

2007-01-01

91

Characteristics of Health Professions Schools, Public School Systems, and Community-Based Organizations in Successful Partnerships To Increase the Numbers of Underrepresented Minority Students Entering Health Professions Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sought to identify characteristics of health professions schools, public schools, and community-based organizations in successful partnerships to increase the number of underrepresented minority students entering health professions. Found that successful partnerships included professional schools that had a commitment to community service.…

Carline, Jan D.; Patterson, Davis G.

2003-01-01

92

Enteral Access and Enteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition is the route of choice in patients with a functioning gastrointestinal tract. Early enteral nutrition has\\u000a been shown to improve outcomes in a variety of critically ill patient populations. Enteral nutritional support is indicated\\u000a for patients with poor volitional intake, neurological impairment, oropharyngeal dysfunction, short gut syndrome, and major\\u000a trauma or burns. A~number of enteral access options are

Christopher R. Lynch; John C. Fang; Stephen A. McClave

93

Student Retention at Prince George's Community College. Research Brief RB89-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted at Prince George's Community College (PGCC) to examine student retention in two ways. First, the percentage of fall 1987 students who returned for classes the following spring was calculated for several student groups. Second, students entering PGCC for the first time in 1980 were tracked in terms of attendance and degree…

Clagett, Craig A.

94

Critical elements affecting retention of first-time, full-time freshmen at Tennessee State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colleges and universities, including Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) such as Tennessee State University (TSU), place a significant emphasis on student retention. However, to be successful, these institutions need to examine critical elements affecting the retention of their first-time, full-time freshman students. The purpose of this study was to focus on critical elements affecting retention rates of first-time, full-time

Joseph Perry

2010-01-01

95

Increases in knowledge and use of information technology by entering medical students at McMaster University in successive annual surveys.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine self-reported microcomputer and information technology competency, access, and usage by entering medical students and their perceptions of the need for training in additional applications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys of successive classes. SETTING: McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences Medical Undergraduate Program, which has a 33-month, problem-based, self-directed learning curriculum and a high applicant-to-student ratio. PARTICIPANTS: Medical school classes entering in 1987, 1988, and 1989. Response rates were 80%, 90%, and 86% respectively. MEASURES: A self-report questionnaire was sent to each student, with up to two follow-up letters to prompt a response. RESULTS: There was a progressive rise in reported information technology access and use for the three years. For the classes starting in 1987, '88, and '89 respectively, computer access was 29%, 49%, and 49% (P < 0.002 for linear trend), and, among those with computer access, modem access was 17%, 29% and 50% (P = 0.012). Self-service MEDLINE use on CD-ROM at the Health Sciences Library was 65%, 75%, and 89% respectively (P < 0.001) for all respondents within the first few months of starting medical school. Over 50% of each class stated they would take courses, if available, on clinical applications software, office management, online searching, filing, and CD-ROM searching. CONCLUSIONS: Half of the most recent entering students already had access to a personal computer and most wished to learn computer applications that would assist them with patient management, and with information access and organization. Medical schools need to address which applications they will teach or make available and how to bring all students to acceptable competency in their use.

Haynes, R. B.; McKibbon, K. A.; Bayley, E.; Walker, C. J.; Johnston, M. E.

1992-01-01

96

A Study on Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Red Blood Cell Indices in New Entering Students of the University of Isfahan  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Obesity and increased blood pressure are identified as risk factors for cardiac and pulmonary disorders. On the other hand, iron deficiency (another preventable disease) is common in adolescence and considered as associated with health impairment. The present study evaluates body mass index (BMI) and its association with blood pressure and hematological indices in freshman students entering the University of Isfahan in 2009. Methods: All the 1675 students who entered the University of Isfahan in September 2009 were examined. Height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) indices of these students were measured. The prevalence of high blood pressure, its association with BMI and the relation between BMI and anemia, iron deficiency and educational achievement were assessed. Results: All participants, including 514 males and 1161 females, went under clinical observations. The average age was 20.7 ± 3.8. year Among the students, 18.2% of males and 20% of females were underweight. High systolic blood pressure was more common in the students with BMI > 25 kg/m2 (p < 0.001). Anemia was seen in 8.7% of females. In males, however, a relation between anemia frequency and BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was more distinct (p = 0.002). There was no association between anemia and students’ average test scores. Conclusions: High incidence of abnormal BMI in the study population, and its association with systolic blood pressure indicate the importance of nutritional guidelines and counseling programs for freshman students. On the other hand, high incidence of anemia in this population ascertains the necessity of anemia screening programs before academic studies.

Moafi, Alireza; Rahgozar, Soheila; Ghias, Majid; ahar, Elham Vahdat; Borumand, Amirbahador; Sabbaghi, Amirhosein; Sameti, Amirabass; Hashemi, Mostafa

2011-01-01

97

Radiation enteritis  

MedlinePLUS

Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. Along with ...

98

Research and Teaching: Enticing Students to Enter Into Undergraduate Research--The Instrumentality of an Undergraduate Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To encourage students to seek research opportunities with campus faculty, one large university in the Southeast created a course entitled Science for All. A major goal of the course was to encourage students to work directly with faculty on research proje

Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Johnson, Melissa L.

2010-01-01

99

Influences on the Decision to Enter Higher Education in Cyprus: A Comparison of Students' and Teachers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the main influences on the decision of secondary school graduates to select higher education over labour-market entry. It reports the views of prospective higher education students and secondary school teachers regarding the main influences on the students' intention to pursue higher studies. Survey research was used to…

Menon, Maria Eliophotou

2010-01-01

100

Chances of Success in and Engagement with Mathematics for Students Who Enter University with a Weak Mathematics Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An increasing number of Australian students elect not to undertake studies in mathematical methods in the final years of their secondary schooling. Some higher education providers now offer pathways for these students to pursue mathematics studies up to a major specialization within the bachelor of science programme. This article analyses the…

Varsavsky, Cristina

2010-01-01

101

Entering an academic discourse community: A case study of the coping strategies of eleven English as a Second Language students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study follows eleven non-English speaking students as they adapt to community college, content courses. The three classes examined are required freshman classes--Humanities, Social Environment, and Individual in Transition. In order to cope with the demands of these classes, students must penetrate the academic discourse community and have effective relationships with their instructors and their peers. The results of

Cheryl Benz

1996-01-01

102

Information Literacy in Students Entering Higher Education in the French Speaking Community of Belgium: lessons learned from an evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although universities are providing more and more information literacy training for their undergraduate students, the students' real level of information literacy at the beginning of their studies has never been assessed. Hence EduDOC has decided to team up with the CIUF `Library' Commission in order to organize a wide study aiming at objectively describing this initial level of information literacy,

Paul Thirion; Bernard Pochet

2009-01-01

103

Radiation enteritis  

SciTech Connect

Acute radiation enteritis is almost inevitable in the curative treatment of malignant tumors of the abdomen and pelvic area. It is frequently a self-limiting disorder of intestinal function associated with reversible mucosal changes of the intestine. The prevalence of chronic radiation enteritis has been underestimated in most surgical series and the majority of patients with symptoms probably do not seek medical advice until a serious complication occurs. Although associated with specific histologic features, the mechanism of chronic radiation injury is poorly understood. The prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis and approaches to the treatment and prevention of acute and chronic radiation enteritis are discussed herein. Recent investigative techniques should lead to a better understanding of the physiopathologic characteristics of radiation enteritis and, thereby, provide a more rational basis for treatment which, at the present time, is unsatisfactory. Attempts to reduce the prevalence of radiation enteritis should be directed toward careful patient selection for radiation treatment of the pelvis and to minimize injury to the small intestine, by reducing the volume of small intestine in the radiation area and providing more individualized dosimetry. 71 references.

Yeoh, E.K.; Horowitz, M.

1987-10-01

104

Radiation enteritis  

SciTech Connect

As the population receiving radiation therapy grows, so does the incidence of chronic radiation enteritis. A review of the pathology of chronic radiation enteritis reveals fibrosis, endarteritis, edema, fragility, perforation, and partial obstruction. Conservative management of patients with this disease is common. Because the obstruction is only partial, decompression is easily achieved with nasogastric suction and parenteral support. The patient is then often discharged on a liquid-to-soft diet. This therapeutic strategy does nothing for the underlying pathology. The problem, sooner or later, will return with the patient further depleted by the chronic radiation enteritis. We think surgical intervention is appropriate when the diagnosis of chronic radiation enteritis is assumed. The surgery in relation to this disease is high risk with a 30% mortality and 100% expensive morbidity. Early intervention seems to decrease these figures. All anastomoses, if possible, should be outside the irradiated area. Trapped pelvic loops of intestine should be left in place and a bypass procedure with decompressing enterostomies accomplished. The surgery should be performed by a surgeon with extensive experience with all kinds of bowel obstruction as well as experience in performing surgery in radiated tissue.

O'Brien, P.H.; Jenrette, J.M. III; Garvin, A.J.

1987-09-01

105

First-Time Homeowners in 1989: A Comparative Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the issues of first-time ownership. The first section, Comparison of Recent Mover First-Time Owners with Recent Mover Repeat Owners in 1989, targets the differences between recent mover first-time owners and recent movers who previo...

E. Wilson

1993-01-01

106

Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among medical students entering clinical training: a three year prospective questionnaire and interview-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i) and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale) were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI), Burnout (OLBI), Depression (MDI) at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI) were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. Results 98 (77%) responded on both occasions, 80 (63%) of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27%) had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities should be available.

Dahlin, Marie E; Runeson, Bo

2007-01-01

107

The Application and Evaluation of a Two-Concept Diagnostic Instrument with Students Entering College General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Instrument (Othman J., Treagust D. F. and Chandrasegaran A. L., (2008), "Int. J. Sci. Educ.," 30(11), 1531-1550) is used to investigate college students' understanding of two chemistry concepts: particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding. The instrument, originally developed…

Heredia, Keily; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

2012-01-01

108

Design and Implementation of an Assessment Model for Students Entering Vocational Education Programs in the State of Colorado. Food Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This basic vocational related skills assessment module in food preparation is one of sixteen modules designed to help teachers assess and identify some of the areas in which special needs students may encounter learning difficulties. The materials in the module allow for informal assessment in three basic areas: academic skills, motor skills, and…

University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

109

Assessing the Quality of Student Thinking Directly: An Exploratory Study of Two Cohorts Entering Engineering Education in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of an exploratory investigation involving the direct assessment of the quality of abstract thinking of two cohorts of South African university entrants who had very good school leaving qualifications. The investigation was prompted by the observation of difficulties these students seemed to have had in a first…

Woollacott, L.; Snell, D.

2012-01-01

110

Campylobacter enteritis.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni/coli has recently become recognized as a common bacterial cause of diarrhea. Infection can occur at any age. The usual incubation period of campylobacter enteritis is 2 to 5 days. Fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain are the most common clinical features. The stools frequently contain mucus and, a few days after the onset of symptoms, frank blood. Significant vomiting and dehydration are uncommon. A rapid presumptive laboratory diagnosis may be made during the acute phase of the illness by direct phase-contrast microscopy of stools. Isolation of the organism from stools requires culture in a selective medium containing antibiotics and incubation under reduced oxygen tension at 42 degrees C. The organism persists in the stools of untreated patients for up to 7 weeks following the onset of symptoms. Erythromycin may produce a rapid clinical and bacteriologic cure, and should be used to treat moderately to severely ill patients as well as patients with compromised host defences. The emergence of erythromycin-resistant strains requires close monitoring. The epidemiologic aspects of campylobacter enteritis will be fully understood only when methods become available for differentiating strains of C. jejuni/coli. The historical background and current knowledge of campylobacter enteritis are reviewed in this paper. Images FIG. 1

Karmali, M A; Fleming, P C

1979-01-01

111

First-Time International and Domestic Freshmen: Enrollment Trends and Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected comparisons of first-time international and domestic freshmen at the University of Southern California (USC) were undertaken, using data from the annual Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) and the American Council on Education Freshman Survey. On-campus enrollment data for these two student groups are presented by sex for…

Overall, J. U.

112

Migration of Undergraduate First-Time Transfers: Snapshot Analysis 2006-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Commission on Higher Education had a student intern from USC-Columbia initiate an analysis of data on the migration of undergraduate first-time transfers to compare trends, growth, and proportions of transfers to and from various sectors and institution types over a three-year period, from 2006-2008. Staff have refined the analysis and…

South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2010

2010-01-01

113

Undergraduate Persistence and Rates of Graduation: A Cohort Analysis of First-Time in College Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report summarizes a study of the six-year graduation rates of first-time college-degree-seeking undergraduates at Nova Southeastern University (NSU) (Florida). The purpose of the study was to (1) develop research methods that would be in compliance with the Student Right-to-Know Act (SRK), and to further investigate the composition of…

Atherton, Blair

114

First-Time Generic Drug Approvals - July 2013  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... First-Time Generic Drug Approvals - July 2013. Generic Drug Name, Generic Manufacturer, Brand Name, Approval Date. ... AZILECT TABLETS, 7/1/2013 ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

115

First-Time Generic Drug Approvals - August 2012  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... First-Time Generic Drug Approvals - August 2012. Generic Drug Name, ... INC. SINGULAIR TABLETS, 8/3/2012. 2, MONTELUKAST ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

116

Donations to Colleges Decline for the First Time since 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses findings from a survey on voluntary giving to higher education, which found that a sharp drop in alumni giving in 2002 spurred a dip in colleges' overall donations for the first time in 14 years. (EV)|

Blumenstyk, Goldie

2003-01-01

117

First-Time Generic Drug Approvals - March 2013  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... First-Time Generic Drug Approvals - March 2013. Generic Drug ... INC. TRAVATAN OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION, 3/1/2013. 2, ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

118

XMM telescope goes on show for the first time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After years of little-publicized effort in various parts of Europe, one of the finished XMM telescopes is presented for the first time to the press and other visitors during a press briefing on 22 May at the Centre Spatial de LiŠge (CSL) in Belgium. As the telescope is a flight model due to go into space, the inspection is hands-off, through a clean-room window. But visitors can see the multi-mirror module looking like a log of wood 70 centimetres wide and 60 centimetres long. In cross-section the nesting mirrors make concentric rings resembling the rings of annual growth in a tree --except that there are narrow gaps between the mirrors, to let in the X- rays. Galileo and Newton would not recognize the XMM module as a telescope, but they never had to focus X-rays, which ignore lenses and ordinary mirrors. The German physicist Hans Wolter invented a near-cylindrical mirror that narrows in a geometric fashion, first along a parabola and then a hyperbola. Some of the X-rays entering through the wider end are twice reflected from the interior wall at grazing angles, and go to a focus. When Wolter's concept went into telescopes for X-ray astronomy, most of the X-rays simply missed the mirror, so that any signal was weak. The remedy was to fill the interior with smaller concentric mirrors, to catch more of the X-rays. In practice, that meant either a few mirrors, fashioned and aligned with care to achieve a high resolving power, or many cruder mirrors which sacrificed optical sharpness for the sake of sensitivity. The XMM telescopes are the first to achieve both sharpness and sensitivity, thanks to innovations by European industry made possible by XMM's status as a Cornerstone Mission in ESA's science programme. Carl Zeiss in Germany provided mandrels (moulds) of 58 sizes, all carefully polished to the required paraboloidal-hyperboloidal shape. Media Lario in Italy made the reflective surface by depositing gold on the mandrel under vacuum, and then backed it with nickel formed in an electrochemical bath. As each finished mirror was only about a millimetre thick, the Medio Lario team had to handle it with great care to avoid flexing, until it was glued into position among all the other mirrors, between wheel-like "spiders" fabricated by APCO in Switzerland. If the telescope is correctly made, all X-rays coming from a certain direction, and entering any part of any of the mirrors, should go to the same focus. The specification requires that any spread at the focus should be less than a millimetre. The optical quality is tested first in a special apparatus at LiŠge called FOCAL X, and then at the Panter X-ray facility at Neuried in Germany. "We take pride and satisfaction in helping to develop such remarkable telescopes," says Claude Jamar, director of CSL. "While others pioneered the methods of fabrication, here in LiŠge we had to invent novel ways of checking the performance. We use a wide beam of very short ultraviolet wavelengths to simulate X-rays, and verify the focus of each part of each XMM telescope." About the Centre Spatial de Liège As a laboratory unique in western Europe, CSL is run by the Université de Liège as one of ESA's coordinated test facilities.Optical instruments for space missions can be checked with high accuracy, under a high vacuum that simulates the airless conditions in space. ESA relies upon CSL for testing important optical components for many spacecraft. The long list includes the radiometer of the Meteosat weather satellite, the camera for Giotto which obtained unique pictures of Halley's Comet, and the telescopes of the Hipparcos star-fixing mission and the Infrared Space Observatory ISO. CSL was an early recruit to the Europe-wide teams of scientists and engineers who are creating the XMM spacecraft and its instruments. Other optical devices currently under evaluation by CSL include the experimental laser system SILEX for communication between satellites, and the ozone-monitoring GOMOS instrument for ESA's environmental satellite Envisat. Media representatives

1997-05-01

119

Wrist injuries in guarded versus unguarded first time snowboarders.  

PubMed

In 1999, a study was done examining the injury risk and pattern in first time snowboarders versus first time skiers. Although these rates were similar, snowboarders sustained a higher percentage of injuries to the upper extremity, particularly wrist sprains and fractures. As an extension of this previous study, the protective value during snowboarding of an off-the-shelf wrist guard originally designed for inline skating was tested. Two thousand three hundred fifty-five first time snowboarders were evaluated at one northeastern ski resort. Five hundred fifty-one snowboarders wore wrist guards and a control group of more than 1800 snowboarders did not wear wrist guards. Forty wrist injuries were sustained in the control group (2.2%), compared with no injuries (0%) in the snowboarders who wore wrist guards. Importantly, there was no increase in more proximal or distal upper extremity injuries in the group of snowboarders who wore wrist guards. PMID:12671490

O'Neill, Daniel Fulham

2003-04-01

120

Patients' experiences of interpersonal relationships during first time acute hospitalisation.  

PubMed

This article examines the role of interpersonal relationships on patients' experiences during first time acute hospitalisation. It is developed from a wider study undertaken in 2000 in which patients' overall experiences were explored. A qualitative methodology was used with data collected by means of semi-structured interviews and personal stories. Twelve participants were involved, seven females and five males of varying ages, all first time acute medical and surgical admissions. Findings suggest that supportive interpersonal relationships reduce patient vulnerability and that nurses play a key role in the development and maintenance of these relationships. PMID:18810901

Blockley, Colette; Alterio, Maxine

2008-07-01

121

Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical…

Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

2011-01-01

122

Motherhood Experiences from the Perspective of First-Time Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the early motherhood experiences of 79 first-time mothers. AU women reported normal pregnancies and deliveries, delivered healthy infants at term and were surveyed at 6 weeks postpartum using the inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth Mothers' written comments were subjected to a content analysis, and much of their commentary revolved around the \\

Carol Mcveigh

1997-01-01

123

FDI location choices: Evidence from French first-time movers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies location choice determinants of French first-time investors in Europe, North Africa\\u000a and North America. The sample includes 356 location choices of French firms in 27 countries in 2004. Market\\u000a demand and cultural proximity to France have a strong influence on national and regional location strategies.\\u000a The tendency of investing firms to cluster in specific locations in the host

Vivien Procher

2009-01-01

124

Factors Influencing Positive Birth Experiences of First-Time Mothers  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe first-time mothers' experiences and reflections of their first birth. Study Design. This study is a part of a larger study which was carried out in southwestern Sweden in 2008. A qualitative method with content analysis was chosen for this study. The unit of data was 14 written narratives from the first-time mothers. Results. The theme “To be empowered increases first-time mothers' chances for a positive birth experience” crossed over into all the three categories: “To trust the body and to face the pain,” “Interaction between body and mind in giving birth,” and “Consistency of support.” Conclusion. In order to feel confident in their first childbirth, the women wanted to be confirmed and seen as unique individuals by the professionals and their partner. If professionals responded to the individual woman's needs of support, the woman more often had a positive birth experience, even if the birth was protracted or with medical complications.

Nilsson, Lena; Thorsell, Tina; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Ekstrom, Anette

2013-01-01

125

Suggestions for Implementing Cooperative Learning for the First Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that group activities in the classroom can be beneficial both socially and academically for students. Presents a six-step plan for helping students develop social skills while working in cooperative groups. Discusses classroom management, grading, and lesson structure issues related to cooperative learning. (CFR)|

Colman, Patricia M.

1994-01-01

126

Metabolic evaluation of first-time and recurrent stone formers.  

PubMed

Evaluation of stone formers should include careful attention to medications, past medical history, social history, family history, dietary evaluation, occupation, and laboratory evaluation. Laboratory evaluation requires at least serum chemistries and urinalysis. Twenty-four-hour urine collections are most appropriate for patients with recurrent stones or complex medical histories. However, these collections may be appropriate for some first-time stone formers, including those with comorbidities or large stones. Although twin studies demonstrate that heritability accounts for at least 50% of the kidney stone phenotype, the responsible genes are not clearly identified, and so genetic testing is rarely indicated. PMID:23177631

Goldfarb, David S; Arowojolu, Omotayo

2012-10-27

127

Using Your iPhone for the First Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Once your iPhone (or iPod touch) is activated and has been synced to iTunes for the first time, you’re ready to actually get\\u000a started using it. In this chapter, I’ll introduce you to the basic features and interface of the iPhone and iPod touch. Then\\u000a we’ll take a look at how to configure some of the basic settings and how

Ryan J. Faas

128

Machining automation: Doing it right the first time  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of a machining automation program and of the Allied-Signal efforts to Do it Right the First Time'' is presented. The automation program is a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for the machining and on-line inspection of a family of aluminum and stainless steel prismatic parts. The critical management and technical aspects found necessary to assure success in implementing large and risky automation programs are presented. The process being used is team based and has concentrated on involving the end users from the beginning.

Setter, D.L.

1990-08-01

129

First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman.

Modh, Carin; Lundgren, Ingela; Bergbom, Ingegerd

2011-01-01

130

43% of Male Basketball Players Earned Degrees within 6 Years; Fact File: Graduation Rates for Athletes and Other Students Who Entered College in 1985-86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from a National Collegiate Athletic Association survey indicate trends in graduation rates, length of time in school, and student financial aid for men, women, minority groups, and all colleges students. Graduation rates at 298 Division I institutions for all students and for men and women athletes are presented. (MSE)|

Lederman, Douglas

1993-01-01

131

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTION IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS IN ARKANSAS WHO ENTER NON-FARMING OCCUPATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW PROGRAM, A STUDY WAS MADE TO DETERMINE -- (1) OCCUPATIONS ENTERED, (2) EFFECT OF NUMBER OF YEARS IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE ON OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE, (3) MECHANICAL SKILLS USEFUL IN THE OCCUPATION, (4) ADDITIONAL SKILLS NEEDED, AND (5) CHANGES NEEDED IN THE COURSE OF STUDY. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED 802 FORMER…

ROBERTS, ROY W.

132

Measuring problem drinking in first time offenders Development and validation of the College Alcohol Problem Scale (CAPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on college drinking continues to justify serious concerns for the psychological, social, and physical well-being of young persons who abuse alcohol. However, despite considerable interest and research in this regard, there are few valid, reliable and clinically useful brief screening instruments available to measure youthful drinking problems. The current study of 315 college students cited their first time for

Thomas O'Hare

1997-01-01

133

The Effects of Mentoring on the Retention of Non-Cognitive-at-Risk, First-Time, Full-Time Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between mentoring, the mitigation of non-cognitive risk factors, and first-time, full-time college students' first-to-second semester rates at a medium-sized, public, higher education institution in the southeast. An enrollment management professional, the researcher facilitated and implemented this action…

Forsythe, Ryan G.

2011-01-01

134

Profile of Degree/Certificate-Seeking Entering Undergraduate Students, by Control and Level of Institution. Web Tables. NCES 2011-252  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Student Right to Know Act requires institutions that participate in any student financial assistance program under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (as amended) to disclose graduation rates. To assist institutions in meeting this requirement, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) collects these rates as part of the…

Ginder, Scott; Mason, Marcinda

2011-01-01

135

Methodology and Implications of Statewide Success Rates of Community College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1991, the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges developed the "success rate," a reporting index which combined graduation, transfer, and persistence rates. Success rate matrices were produced by tracking first-time, full-time students representing seven cohorts (1980 to 1986) over a 4-year period, and matching entering enrollment files…

McConochie, Daniel D.; Rajasekhara, Koosappa

136

Jordanian women: perceptions and practices of first-time pregnancy.  

PubMed

A woman's child-bearing encounter is an experience that reflects the cultural beliefs and practices of the society. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions and practices of urban, low socioeconomic, Jordanian women (aged 18-30 years) in relation to their pregnancy career. An opportunistic sample consisting of 67 Muslim first-time pregnant women who followed up antenatal care at two maternity-care centres in East Amman was selected. A qualitative approach, including ethnographic semistructured interview, participant observation data from the households and clinics and oblique interviewing in random conversations initiated by the primigravidae, was conducted over 18 months. Women gave elaborative accounts of their pregnancy and childbirth expectations in narrative, phenomenological forms. Qualitative data analysis was performed concurrently with data collection, revealing the essential themes of immediacy of pregnancy; familial support and changing networks, especially for the after-birth period; fear of pain and medical interventions, all emphasizing the traditional and religious perceptions and practices in a familial context. PMID:16255738

Safadi, Reema

2005-12-01

137

Learning and Teaching: Where Does Einstein's Concept of Learning about "Service of Our Fellow Man" Enter into Our Discussions about Student Achievement?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author of this paper discusses the significance of Albert Einstein's concept of learning about "service of our fellow man" into the discussions about student achievement. Albert Einstein wrote in 1954 of what he considered an evil of modern life--that the "individual feels more than ever dependent on society, but it is not felt in the…

Manthey, George

2005-01-01

138

Inviting Confidence in School: Invitations as a Critical Source of the Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Entering Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether constructs drawn from invitational theory serve as additional sources of self-efficacy beliefs of students in Grade 6 (N = 468). The hypothesized sources and the invitational constructs each correlated with academic self-efficacy. Invitations, mastery experience, and physiological state predicted…

Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

2006-01-01

139

Chronic Radiation Enteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic radiation enteritis is an increasing problem, as more patients receive radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy and as the long-term survival of these patients improves. This review addresses the causes, investigation, treatment and prevention of this disease. A review of published studies was carried out using a variety of search terms, including radiation enteritis, investigation, treatment and prevention.

V. S. Theis; R. Sripadam; V. Ramani; S. Lal

2010-01-01

140

Out-Migration of New Jersey Full-Time First-Time Freshmen, 1979: Analysis and Recommendations. New Jersey Research Note Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data collected by the National Center for Education Statistics are the basis for these analyses of student migration patterns in New Jersey. The distribution of out-migrating full-time, first-time freshmen in 1979 is examined by collegiate sector and institutional control. The states and institutions to which these students migrate are also…

Simmons, Fran C.

1981-01-01

141

Transformative Learning and First-Time Managers: How Can HRD Practitioners Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition to management is one of the most difficult challenges first-time managers face--almost half fail. First-time managers may experience disorienting dilemmas that trigger transformative learning. HRD (human resource development) practitioners can assist in reducing the failure rate of first-time managers when they better understand the…

Roberts, Nella A.; Rocco, Tonette S.

2008-01-01

142

The Value of Multi-Dimensional Retention Programs for First-Time Students at Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Metropolitan Campus of Cuyahoga Community College (CCC) in Ohio conducted a survey of 239 institutions belonging to the University of South Carolina's National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience (FYE) to identify elements of a model program that could be established at other institutions. The summary revealed five key…

Johnson, Alex B.; McFadden, Gloria

143

The Value of Multi-Dimensional Retention Programs for First-Time Students at Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Metropolitan Campus of Cuyahoga Community College (CCC) in Ohio conducted a survey of 239 institutions belonging to the University of South Carolina's National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience (FYE) to identify elements of a model program that could be established at other institutions. The summary revealed five key ingredients…

Johnson, Alex B.; McFadden, Gloria

144

Avian enteric nerve plexuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enteric nerve plexuses of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) were investigated in sections and stretch preparations by means of the cholinesterase and glyoxylic acid fluorescence histochemical techniques. Cholinesterase-positive and varicose and non-varicose fluorescent nerve fibres were distributed at all levels of the gut in myenteric, submucosal, muscle and mucosal plexuses, and in a perivascular plexus. The density of the

H. A. Ali; J. McLelland

1978-01-01

145

Early enteral feeding versus \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth) after gastrointestinal surgery is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta›analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing any type of enteral feeding started within 24 hours after surgery with nil by mouth management in elective gastrointestinal surgery. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane controlled

Stephen J Lewis; Matthias Egger; Paul A Sylvester; Steven Thomas

2001-01-01

146

Chronic Radiation Enteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify foods that commonly affect bowel activity after abdominal radiotherapy.Chronic Radiation Enteritis (CRE) can occur in patients who receive abdominal radiotherapy (ART). The literature suggests low residue, low fat, and low lactose diets in the management of CRE symptoms but does not provide definitive guidelines. Twenty-six women with documented CRE and 21 with no documentation of CRE

S. K. Sekhon

1997-01-01

147

Complications of enteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

Complications may arise during enteral feeding that are usually related to the diameter and rigidity of the tube or the delivery, composition, and sterility of the feed uses. By using a soft, fine bore tube to deliver a sterile feed of known composition, by continuous infusion rather than as a bolus, most of these complications can be avoided.

Bastow, M D

1986-01-01

148

Fibre and enteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely possible that many of the potential applications of these diets will be realised in the near future.

Silk, D B

1989-01-01

149

Perceived stress and physio-psycho-social status of nursing students during their initial period of clinical practice: the effect of coping behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial clinical practice is stressful. Nursing students entering clinical practice for the first time in a five-year associate degree program in Taiwan are young and have questionable coping skills, all of which can affect their own health. This study examined the following: (1) the degree of stress perceived and types of stressful events; (2) the physio-psycho-social status of nursing students

Sheila Sheu; Huey-Shyan Lin; Shiow-Li Hwang

2002-01-01

150

Democracy for Students: The Constitution Enters Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent court litigation in the civil rights areas of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, personal appearance, freedom from racial and sexual discrimination, and due process have served notice that the end result of education ("the democratic way of life") must be accomplished by democratic means. (MB)|

Fischer, Louis

1976-01-01

151

Risk factors for first-time homelessness in low-income women.  

PubMed

Determinants of first-time homelessness were evaluated in Sacramento, California and Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania. First-time homeless women had more cumulative risks for homelessness than low-income never-homeless women, even with the putative advantage of higher levels of education. Solutions to homelessness should address more than one dimension of risk. PMID:17352581

Lehmann, Erika R; Kass, Philip H; Drake, Christiana M; Nichols, Sara B

2007-01-01

152

“The right way of doing it all”: First-time Australian mothers' decisions about paid employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents five case studies from a recent longitudinal and qualitative study involving first-time heterosexual parents in Sydney. It examines issues around the ways in which women make choices about their engagement in paid work after becoming mothers for the first time, including the role played by their partners in their decisions. It is concluded that among this largely

deborah lupton; virginia schmied

2002-01-01

153

Preventing First-Time DWI Offenses: First-Time DWI Offenders in California, New York, and Florida. An Analysis of Past Criminality and Associated Criminal Justice Interventions. .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research suggests that there are far more people driving impaired than arrested each year. Additional data supports that a person arrested for the first time for driving under the influence (DUI) or driving while impaired (DWI) may have driven many times ...

L. Caldwell-Aden M. Kacowka N. Balis

2009-01-01

154

[Morbus Crohn (enteritis regionalis)].  

PubMed

Crohn's disease (regional enteritis) is a chronic non-specific inflammatory intestinal disorder of unknown etiology. Most commonly the terminal ileum in involved, a segmentary involvement of the bowel wall is rather characteristic. Main symptoms are recurrent abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea and weight loss. Radiological and endoscopic examination confirms the diagnosis, granulomas in the biopsy specimen are pathognomonic. In differential diagnosis ulcerative and ischaemic colitis have to be ruled out. Conservative therapy with prednisolone and salazopyrin is the method of choice, however, complications like small bowel obstruction, toxic megacolon and fistulae ask for surgical intervention. PMID:5346

Phillip, J

1975-08-28

155

Absorption of enteric and non-enteric coated prednisolone tablets.  

PubMed Central

1. Relative rates of absorption of enteric and non-enteric preparations of prednisolone were measured in five renal transplant recipients. 2. The absorption of the enteric coated preparation is delayed and the peak plasma concentration is much lower than that attained using the same dose of the uncoated material. 3. The therapeutic implications of these observations are discussed.

Hulme, B; James, V H; Rault, R

1975-01-01

156

Maternal Coping during Early Motherhood among First-time Chinese Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study explored the coping strategies used by first-time Hong Kong Chinese mothers in adjusting to the demands of early motherhood. A purposive sample of 26 first-time Chinese mothers who had participated in a childbirth psycho-education program was interviewed in-depth at six weeks postpartum in respect to their coping strategies. Two main categories emerged: making personalized and achievable decisions

Fei-Wan Ngai; Sally Wai-Chi Chan; Eleanor Holroyd

2012-01-01

157

First-time home-ownership in the family life course: a West German - Dutch comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to first-time home-ownership is made at increasingly younger ages in both West Germany and the Netherlands. This trend is stronger in the Netherlands than in Germany, however. There are also marked differences between the two countries in the extent to which first-time home-ownership is connected with events in the family life course (marriage and childbirth) and the availability

Clara Mulder; Michael Wagner

1998-01-01

158

Racial gaps in the transition to first-time homeownership: The role of residential location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that African Americans wait longer to transition into first-time homeownership than white households with similar endowments. This paper relies on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to examine the contribution of residential location toward the black–white gap in first-time homeownership transitions. For a sample of young renters who first left their parents' home during the

Casey J. Dawkins

2005-01-01

159

First-Time Parents Are Not Well Enough Prepared for the Safety of Their Infant  

PubMed Central

Background Unintentional falls and poisonings are major causes of death and disability among infants. Although guidelines are available to prevent these injuries, safety behaviours are not performed by parents, causing unnecessary risks. Little is known about safety behaviours of first-time parents and whether they behave according to these guidelines. Aims/Objectives/Purpose The objective of this study was to compare safety behaviours of first-time parents with those of non-first-time parents and to determine correlates of unsafe behaviour of parents of infants. We used self-report questionnaires to assess safety behaviours in a cross-sectional study sample. Methods A total of 1439 parents visiting a preventive youth healthcare centre in the Netherlands were invited to complete a questionnaire with regard to the prevention of falls and poisonings. Parents were categorized into first-time parents and non-first-time parents. Correlates of parents' child safety behaviours were determined using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results/Outcome Most respondents were mothers (93.2%); 48.2% of families were first-time parents. The mean age of the infants was 7.2 months (SD 1.1; range 4–12), 51.8% were boys, and 34.5% of infants could crawl. First-time parents were more likely not to have a stair gate installed (OR 16.46; 95% CI 12.36–21.93); were more likely to store cleaning products unsafely (OR 4.55; 95% CI 3.59–5.76); and were more likely to store medicines unsafely (OR 2.90; 95% CI 2.31–3.63) than non-first-time parents. First-time parents were more likely to not have a window guard installed (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08–2.15) (all P<0.05). Discussion/Conclusion First-time parents are not well prepared for the safety of their infant, causing unnecessary risks. The various parents' safety behaviours were influenced by different variables, for example, age of the infant, crawling of the infant, mother's educational level, mother's ethnicity, self-efficacy, vulnerability, severity.

van Beelen, Mirjam E. J.; Beirens, Tinneke M. J.; den Hertog, Paul; van Beeck, Eduard F.; Raat, Hein

2013-01-01

160

Promotion Rates for First-time Assistant and Associate Professors Appointed from 1967 to 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To provide benchmark information against which medical schools can compare their own promotion data, this Analysis in Brief examines the 10-year promotion outcomes of full-time faculty who were first-time assistant professors or first-time associate professors at any time from 1967 to 1997. We suspect that the changing landscape of academic medicine in recent decades provides important context for our findings, such as changes in the demographics of faculty, the meaning of tenure, faculty productivity, the importance of work-life balance, and the growth of Ph.D. faculty in clinical departments. We tracked every first-time assistant professor or first-time associate professor appointed during the academic years 1967 to 1997 for 10 years in the AAMCÃÂs Faculty Roster, the only national database on the employment, training, and demographic backgrounds of individual U.S. medical school faculty. The results indicated generally declining promotion rates and increasing average times to promotion for medical school faculty. For all first-time assistant professors, the average 10-year promotion rates declined from 43.5 to 32.8 percent, and the average time to promotion for these respective groups of cohorts lengthened from 5.2 to 6.2 years for the group cohorts in the study period. For all first-time associate professors, the average promotion rate to full professor declined from 41.7 percent to 38.6 percent, and the average time to promotion increased from 5.7 to 6.1 years for the group cohorts in the study period. Different promotion rates with regard to tenure status, gender, and race/ethnicity were also recorded.

PhD Christine Qi Liu (AAMC)

2010-05-01

161

Maternal coping during early motherhood among first-time Chinese mothers.  

PubMed

This qualitative study explored the coping strategies used by first-time Hong Kong Chinese mothers in adjusting to the demands of early motherhood. A purposive sample of 26 first-time Chinese mothers who had participated in a childbirth psycho-education program was interviewed in-depth at six weeks postpartum in respect to their coping strategies. Two main categories emerged: making personalized and achievable decisions and seeking emotional and spiritual solace. Implications for health professionals are discussed, including the need to support individual women's personal resources and foster social networks to optimize maternal and infant health. PMID:21784776

Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Holroyd, Eleanor

2011-07-22

162

Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

2009-01-01

163

An 18Year Follow-Up of Patients Admitted to Methadone Treatment for the First Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 18-year addiction career, 1985-2003, for 157 heroin dependent subjects (73% men; 49% human immunodeficiency virus seropositive) admitted for the first time to Stockholm's Methadone Maintenance Treatment program during 1989 to 1991 was analyzed with data from seven official registers and patient records. Regression analyses and incidence rates for various outcomes were calculated for subjects in first methadone maintenance treatment

Ingrid Davstad; Marlene Stenbacka; Anders Leifman; Anders Romelsjö

2009-01-01

164

For the First Time in 3 Years, Faculty Salaries Beat Inflation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This year faculty salaries outpaced inflation for the first time in three years, but the American Association of University Professors is still warning of growing financial inequalities within higher education. "One year cannot reverse discouraging trends that have been developing over decades," writes Saranna R. Thornton, a professor of…

Millman, Sierra

2007-01-01

165

SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING: EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR AND RECIDIVISM WITH FIRST-TIME ADJUDICATED YOUTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of social skills training on a group of first-time adjudicated male offenders from the juvenile justice system. Three types of groups were used to evaluate the effects of such programs on behavioral change. These groups included youth who received: 1) social skills training with parents or guardians; 2) social skills training without parents or guardians;

Kathleen A. Bailey

166

The search for space in the process of becoming a first-time mother  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Senegalese first-time mother living in UK and describes ways in which her identity developed. The impact on the mother and baby of an unexpectedly early and difficult birth is explored. Additionally the mother's migration to the UK had a continued effect on the mother's identity, especially in relation to separation and individuation issues with her own

Judith Thorp

2007-01-01

167

Getting a Helping Hand: Parental Transfers and First-Time Homebuyers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model that allows for inter vivos intergenerational transfers in a booming housing market is developed. The model is used to explain how transfers effect the first-time homebuyer’s consumption and housing decisions by alleviating borrowing constraints. The general implications of the model are tested using data from the leading Irish mortgage provider. We find that private transfers are targeted towards

Maurice J. Roche; David Duffy

2007-01-01

168

Preventive Effects of Lamaze Training for First-Time Parents: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate whether Lamaze Childbirth Preparation prevents negative effects on the marital relationship typically experienced by first-time parents, 39 couples who participated in Lamaze training and 37 couples who did not completed questionnaires 3 months before birth, 1 week after birth, and 9–10 weeks after birth. Results indicated that the Lamaze group reported approximately the same levels of marital satisfaction,

Howard J. Markman; Frederick S. Kadushin

1986-01-01

169

Representations of Marriage and Expectations of Parenthood: Predictors of Supportive Coparenting for First-Time Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. We examine how spouses' representations of marriage and expectations about first-time parenthood predict support of the other spouse's parenting in postpartum triadic family interactions. Design. Prenatally, spouses' representations of marriage were assessed based on the content and insightfulness of memories from their parents' marriage, and spouses also rated their expectations about parenthood. At 24 months postpartum, partners were each

Melissa A. Curran; Nancy L. Hazen; Tanya Mann

2009-01-01

170

Preventive Effects of Lamaze Training for First-Time Parents: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First-time parents completed questionnaires 3 months before childbirth and 1 and 9-10 weeks after birth. Found that 39 Lamaze-trained couples reported similar levels of marital satisfaction, state anxiety, and birth-related problems at all testings, while 37 non-Lamaze trained couples showed decreases in marital satisfaction and increases in…

Markman, Howard J.; Kadushin, Frederick S.

1986-01-01

171

First-Time Parents' Expectations About the Division of Childcare and Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines violated expectations regarding the division of childcare and play in first-time parents during the initial transition to parenthood. The study's goal was threefold: (a) to compare prenatal expectations with the reported postpartum division of childcare and play, (b) to compare the influence of the reported division versus violated expectations on postpartum relationship satisfaction and depression, and

Susanne N. Biehle; Kristin D. Mickelson

2012-01-01

172

Getting a Helping Hand: Parental Transfers and First-Time Homebuyers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some first-time buyers difficulty in accessing the required funding is overcome by parental transfer. Much of the analysis has focused on the utility decision of the parent, the motives for and the conditions under which such a transfer might take place. This paper develops a theoretical model that includes the impact of transfers on housing consumption and the level

David Duffy; Maurice J. Roche

2006-01-01

173

Chemicals Registered for the First Time as Pesticidal Active Ingredients under FIFRA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of chemicals registered for the first time as pesticidal active ingredients under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended in 1988. Data have been assembled on registration of n...

1994-01-01

174

Agglomeration Effects and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment – Evidence from French First-time Movers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the location choice determinants of French first-time investments in Europe, North America and North Africa. Firm locations are examined on two geographical scales, the national and regional level. The final sample comprises 307 location decisions in 27 countries and across 45 regions. Both, location- and firm-specific variables are used for analysing the investment strategy of French firms.

Vivien Procher

2009-01-01

175

Keratoconus: A Report of a First-Time Rigid Lens Fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratoconus, a non-inflammatory thinning disorder of the cornea, poses challenges to both patients who have to overcome the visual disorders that accompany the disease, as well as practitioners as correction of keratoconus remains one of the greatest fitting challenges in the art of contact lens fitting. This paper presents a first-time fit of a newly diagnosed bilateral keratoconus patient beginning

Lisa Y. Lin; B. Optom; Santos S. Tseng

2006-01-01

176

Does Home Visiting Benefit Only First-Time Mothers?: Evidence from Healthy Families Virginia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is a common assumption that mothers who have had previous births would participate less fully and have poorer outcomes from early home visitation programs than would first-time mothers. The authors conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to test that assumption by measuring three aspects of participation: time in the program, the number…

Huntington, Lee; Galano, Joseph

2013-01-01

177

Mixed signals: why investors may misjudge first time high technology venture founders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to explain an unexpected result of a previous quantitative study which suggested suboptimal evaluation by investors of the human capital of first time high tech venture founders. A literature review revealed two possible reasons for this finding: biases\\/heuristics and signalling. Six investors across three countries (one venture capitalist and one business angel each from the US, UK

Jonathan Levie; Eli Gimmon

2008-01-01

178

Understanding Parenting Stress among Young, Low-Income, African-American, First-Time Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model that examined the extent to which cognitive readiness to parent, perceived difficult child temperament, observed parenting behaviors, and positive coping styles predicted parenting stress among young, low-income, first-time, African-American mothers. One hundred and twenty African-American,…

Chang, Yiting; Fine, Mark A.; Ispa, Jean; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth; Wolfenstein, Miriam

2004-01-01

179

Longitudinal experiences of children remaining at home after a first-time investigation for suspected maltreatment  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe longitudinal change in risk for children remaining at home following a first-time investigation for suspected maltreatment. Study design A retrospective cohort study of children remaining at home following first-time investigation for maltreatment using a nationally representative sample of households involved with Child Protective Services (CPS). Outcomes include poverty, social support, caregiver depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), drug/alcohol dependence, corporal punishment, and child behavior problems at baseline, 18, and 36 months following first-time CPS investigation. We present longitudinal models to 1) estimate prevalence of risk factors at each timepoint and 2) examine associations between risk-specific service referrals and longitudinal change in risk factor prevalence. Results Our sample represented 1,057,056 U.S. children remaining at home following first-time investigation for maltreatment. Almost 100,000 (9.2%) children experienced out-of-home placement within 36 months. The prevalence of poverty (44.3%), poor social support (36.3%), caregiver depression (24.4%), IPV (22.1%), and internalizing (30.0%) and externalizing (35.8%) child behavior problems was above general population prevalence at baseline and remained high over the next 36 months. Referral to risk-specific services occurred in a minority of cases, but was associated with significant longitudinal reductions in IPV, drug/alcohol dependence, and externalizing child behavior problems. Conclusions Children remaining at home following a first-time investigation for maltreatment live with persistent risk factors for repeat maltreatment. Appropriate service referrals are uncommon, but may be associated with meaningful reduction in risk over time. Pediatricians and policy makers may be able to improve outcomes in these families with appropriate service provision and referrals.

Campbell, Kristine A.; Thomas, Andrea M.; Cook, Lawrence J.; Keenan, Heather T.

2012-01-01

180

Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

2009-01-01

181

Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

2009-01-01

182

Technical aspects of enteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

Advances in technical aspects of enteral feeding such as the manufacture of tubes from polyurethane or silicone have helped promote the science of enteral nutrition. Nasoenteral tubes have few complications, apart from a high unwanted extubation rate and some reluctance from patients because of cosmetic unacceptability. Needle jejunostomy has low morbidity but can only be placed at laparotomy. Percutaneous gastrotomy (in all its different guises) has been established as a low risk procedure and is the access route of choice for longterm enteral feeding, in particular for cancer, geriatric, and neurological patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Keymling, M

1994-01-01

183

Temporal alcohol availability predicts first-time drunk driving, but not repeat offending.  

PubMed

Alcohol availability has been linked to drunk driving, but research has not examined whether this relationship is the same for first-time and repeat offenses. We examined the relationship between the business hours of alcohol outlets licensed to serve alcohol for on-premises consumption and misdemeanor-level (first offense) and felony-level drunk driving (repeat offense) charges in New York State in 2009. Longer outlet business hours were associated with more misdemeanor drunk driving charges, but were not associated with felony drunk driving charges. The per capita density of on-premises alcohol outlets did not affect misdemeanor or felony drunk driving charges. The results suggest that temporal alcohol availability may be an impelling factor for first-time drunk driving, but other factors likely influence repeat drunk driving behaviors. PMID:23940711

Schofield, Timothy P; Denson, Thomas F

2013-08-07

184

A survey of post-operative management for patients following first time lumbar discectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify current NHS physiotherapy practice following first time lumbar discectomy in the United Kingdom\\u000a (UK) in order to inform future research priorities and design. Descriptive survey methodology was utilised employing a postal\\u000a questionnaire. A total population sample was identified and questionnaires were posted to 87 NHS physiotherapy departments\\u000a throughout the UK. Participants were senior physiotherapists working

Esther Williamson; Louise White; Alison Rushton

2007-01-01

185

Transitional Group Therapy to Promote Resiliency in First-Time Foster Children: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foster care places children at high risk for immediate and long-term psycho-social-educational problems. A therapeutic “cocktail”—transitional group therapy (TGT)—has been developed as an inoculation for first-time foster children in order to inhibit these undesirable effects. TGT combines best practices culled from diverse therapeutic approaches to foster children. Psychoeducational and play therapeutic interventions are included in a group therapy context. This

Patricia A. Craven; Robert E. Lee

2010-01-01

186

The Meaning of Family Health Among Mexican American First-Time Mothers and Fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnographic approach was used to obtain knowledge from the perspective of Mexican American first-time parents about the meaning of family health stated in their own words. The study was conducted in the Sullivan Division of Hidalgo County, Texas. Twenty-six families were followed longitudinally with a mean of eight (SD = 1.8) home visits per family. Audio-taped conversations with mothers

Kathleen Niska; Mariah Snyder; Betty Lia-Hoagberg

1999-01-01

187

Quality of the intimate and sexual relationship in first-time parents – A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe experienced relationship quality, and in particular sensuality and sexuality, in first-time parents over time from when the firstborn is six months (T1), four years (T2) and eight years (T3) of age, to describe gender differences and the factors which may affect experienced relationship quality.Method: A longitudinal design with repeated measures using the self-reporting questionnaire Quality of Dyadic

Malin Hansson; Tone Ahlborg

188

Predicting negative attributions in first-time mothers who are teens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine if Cognitive Readiness to Parent and History of Maltreatment predicted Negative Attribution in first-time mothers who are teens (aged 14-19) as well as adult low education (aged 21-36 with less than two years of post-secondary education) and adult high education mothers (aged 21-36 with two or more years of post-secondary education). The mothers were measured

Sheri Parsons

2011-01-01

189

First-time parents' postpartum changes in employment, childcare, and housework responsibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate postpartum changes in first-time parents' work responsibilities, and to identify predictors of parents' satisfaction with housework sharing.Methods. Two hundred and sixty one fathers and mothers (128 couples) expecting their first child completed surveys about their work responsibilities during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum.Results. Time devoted to work responsibilities increased by 64% for mothers and 37% for

Dwenda K. Gjerdingen

2005-01-01

190

First-time home-ownership of couples: the effect of inter-generational transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the effects of inter-generational transmission of resources and of the pooling of resources within families on the transition into first-time home-ownership of couples, using detailed life-course data from the 1992\\/3 Netherlands Family Survey. Strong relationships are found between the socioeconomic characteristics and wealth - particularly self-employment and home-ownership - of the parents of both members of the

C. H. Mulder; J. Smits

1999-01-01

191

The relationship between prenatal expectations and postnatal attitudes among first-time mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one predominantly middle-class primiparous women attending Lamaze classes participated in this study. The purpose of the investigation was twofold. The primary objective involved exploration of the relationship between prenatal expectations of the maternal experience and postnatal attitudes among first-time mothers; while the secondary objective was to examine The Psychometric Qualities Of The Newly Constructed Prenatal Maternal Expectations Scale (Pmes). The

P. Coleman; E. S. Nelson; D. L. Sundre

1999-01-01

192

Agglomeration effects and the location of FDI: evidence from French first-time movers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the location choice determinants of French first-time investments in Europe, North America and North Africa.\\u000a Firm locations are examined on two geographical scales, the national and regional level. The final sample comprises 307 location\\u000a choices in 27 countries and across 45 regions. Both, location- and firm-specific variables are used for analyzing investment\\u000a strategies. The results show that

Vivien Procher

2011-01-01

193

Reduced Recidivism Among First-Time DWI Offenders as a Correlate of PreTrial Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined recidivism rates for 3994 first-time DWI offenders who either (1) elected a pre-trial intervention (PTI) program or (2) were convicted of DWI and sentenced to DWI education classes and probation. Data were collected from ten randomly selected cohorts of 400 subjects per year from 1981 to 1990. A logistic regression analysis was used to conduct a discrete-time

G. William Lucker; James R. Osti

1997-01-01

194

Enteric neuroplasticity evoked by inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroplastic changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) may be observed in physiological states, such as development and aging, or occur as a consequence of different pathological conditions, ranging from enteric neuropathies (e.g., Hirschsprung's disease) to intestinal (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease) or extra-intestinal diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease). Studying ENS plasticity may help to elucidate the pathophysiology of several diseases and

Valentina Vasina; Giovanni Barbara; Luigia Talamonti; Vincenzo Stanghellini; Roberto Corinaldesi; Marcello Tonini; Fabrizio De Ponti; Roberto De Giorgio

2006-01-01

195

The enter-educate approach.  

PubMed

This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery. PMID:12284960

Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

1992-03-01

196

[Serious pulmonary barotrauma in a child after first-time scuba dive].  

PubMed

Scuba diving is increasingly popular for children. However, this activity, including in shallow water, can be responsible for severe accidents. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who dove for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea and suffered pulmonary barotraumas, complicated by arterial gas embolism with pneumomediastinum, cerebral, and coronary injuries. Any symptoms occurring after a dive, even in shallow water, must be considered a diving accident. Emergency medical personnel should contact a hyperbaric center for advice. In case of coronary or cerebral gaseous embolism, specific management requiring therapeutic recompression is urgently required. PMID:22682518

Le Guen, H; Halbert, C; Gras Le Guen, C; Coulange, M

2012-06-06

197

Oral health literacy and knowledge among patients who are pregnant for the first time  

PubMed Central

Background The authors conducted an observational cohort study to determine the levels of and examine the associations of oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health knowledge in low-income patients who were pregnant for the first time. Methods An analytic sample of 119 low-income patients who were pregnant for the first time completed a structured 30-minute, in-person interview conducted by two trained interviewers in seven counties in North Carolina. The authors measured OHL by means of a dental word recognition test and assessed oral health knowledge by administering a six-item knowledge survey. Results The authors found that OHL scores were distributed normally (mean [standard deviation], 16.4 [5.0]). The percentage of correct responses for each oral health knowledge item ranged from 45 to 98 percent. The results of bivariate analyses showed that there was a positive correlation between OHL and oral health knowledge (P < .01). Higher OHL levels were associated with correct responses to two of the knowledge items (P < .01). Conclusions OHL was low in the study sample. There was a significant association between OHL and oral health knowledge. Clinical Implications Low OHL levels and, thereby, low levels of oral health knowledge, might affect health outcomes for both the mother and child. Tailoring messages to appropriate OHL levels might improve knowledge.

Hom, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Jessica Y.; Divaris, Kimon; Diane Baker, A.; Vann, William F.

2013-01-01

198

Ego-Dystonic Pregnancy and Prenatal Consumption of Alcohol Among First-Time Mothers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines predictors of drinking during pregnancy among first-time mothers, in order to distinguish those in need of targeted screening and intervention. Methods Data from the prenatal panel of the Parenting for the First Time study were used in hierarchical linear regressions to determine likelihood of prenatal alcohol consumption among a sample of 645 women. Results African-American women and those of race/ethnicities other than White were less likely to drink, regardless of age or level of education. Among all women, being in school was associated with abstention (p = 0.05). Among teens, endorsing a perception of feeling “pushed around” was a significant indicator of prenatal alcohol consumption (p = 0.05), as was not having plans for infant feeding shortly before delivery (p = 0.05). Among adults with some level of college education, having a first prenatal visit after the fourth month of pregnancy was a significant predictor of drinking (p = 0.01). Conclusions This study indicates that women who evidence behaviors or attitudes indicating an ego-dystonic pregnancy (one that is psychologically or emotionally uncomfortable), may be more likely to self-medicate and cope via avoidance through drinking. These behaviors and attitudes may be indicators of the need for targeted screening and intervention, as well as indicators of underlying problems to be targeted in treatment. Further, among all women for whom continued education is a possibility, retaining the ability to attend school during the pregnancy can be protective.

O'Brien, Peggy L.

2012-01-01

199

Ego-dystonic pregnancy and prenatal consumption of alcohol among first-time mothers.  

PubMed

This study examines predictors of drinking during pregnancy among first-time mothers, in order to distinguish those in need of targeted screening and intervention. Data from the prenatal panel of the Parenting for the First Time study were used in hierarchical linear regressions to determine likelihood of prenatal alcohol consumption among a sample of 645 women. African-American women and those of race/ethnicities other than White were less likely to drink, regardless of age or level of education. Among all women, being in school was associated with abstention (P = 0.05). Among teens, endorsing a perception of feeling "pushed around" was a significant indicator of prenatal alcohol consumption (P = 0.05), as was not having plans for infant feeding shortly before delivery (P = 0.05). Among adults with some level of college education, having a first prenatal visit after the fourth month of pregnancy was a significant predictor of drinking (P = 0.01). This study indicates that women who evidence behaviors or attitudes indicating an ego-dystonic pregnancy (one that is psychologically or emotionally uncomfortable), may be more likely to self-medicate and cope via avoidance through drinking. These behaviors and attitudes may be indicators of the need for targeted screening and intervention, as well as indicators of underlying problems to be targeted in treatment. Further, among all women for whom continued education is a possibility, retaining the ability to attend school during the pregnancy can be protective. PMID:22045021

O'Brien, Peggy L

2012-10-01

200

[Enteral feeding of critical patients].  

PubMed

Artificial nutrition support forms part of the basic care of critical patients. Enteral feeding has been shown to be better than total parenteral nutrition at improving morbidity (infectious complications) and reducing the length of hospital stays, number of days with mechanical ventilation, and costs. As with any other treatment, enteral feeding has associated complications and side effects which should be understood and treated in order to obtain the greatest benefit from it and reduce possible adverse effects. In this review, we attempt to provide a practical summary of the use of enteral feeding in critical patients. We cover the management of the most frequent associated complications, based on new studies and current scientific evidence. The review is intended to serve as a practice guide for the routine care of severely ill patients. PMID:19284126

Gómez-Garrido, M; Martínez González, E; Botella Romero, F; Gómez-Garrido, J

2009-01-01

201

Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational consumerism continues to be the major focus of litigation involving students. Disputes over admissions practices, grades, academic terminations, and financial aid comprised the largest proportion of cases reported this year. The section on academic affairs is the largest single section. As the job market gets tighter and the cost of…

Gehring, Donald D.; Young, D. Parker

202

Coliform Enteritis of Cottontail Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Yuill, Thomas M. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and Robert P. Hanson. Coliform enteritis of cottontail rabbits. J. Bacteriol. 89:1–8. 1965.—Mortality from enteritis occurred among 78 penned adult cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) during severe winter weather, and in 9 juvenile rabbits held in captivity during the summer. This mortality was associated with high numbers of Escherichia coli throughout the intestinal tract. Grossly normal cottontails from the laboratory, from the outdoor penned colony, and from the wild had few E. coli, and these were usually restricted to the lower gut. It was possible to induce mortality of adult rabbits by holding them at ?20 C for 2 to 14 days. The animals that died during exposure to low temperatures had signs of enteritis and high numbers of E. coli throughout the intestinal tract. It was possible to prolong the life of cottontails held at ?20 C by antibiotic suppression of their intestinal E. coli. A marked slowing in the rate of passage of materials through the intestine ensued after exposure at ?20 C. This phenomenon may have been important in the alteration of the distribution of the intestinal microflora. Limited infection by E. coli occurs in rabbits in the wild. Of 47 serum samples from grossly normal cottontails collected in the wild, 42 contained E. coli agglutinins. The rabbit's defenses are apparently sufficient to control this organism under all but extremely unfavorable circumstances. The age of the rabbit appeared to influence its susceptibility to enteritis. Juvenile rabbits experienced enteritis, tissue invasion, and death under conditions which did not produce any enteric changes in adults.

Yuill, Thomas M.; Hanson, Robert P.

1965-01-01

203

Enteric parasitology. Interpreting laboratory reports.  

PubMed Central

Intestinal parasites are common in the stools of human beings. With care and due attention to the techniques of testing, they are relatively easy to find. Unfortunately, deciding on the clinical importance of stool findings is often difficult. This article is an introduction and guide to interpreting enteric parasitology laboratory reports.

MacPherson, D. W.

1995-01-01

204

Colleges Enter the Information Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The implications for higher education of the U.S. transformation from an industrial to an information society are discussed in six papers. Russell Edgerton provides an overview in "Entering the Information Society: An Introduction." In "The Computer: An Enabling Instrument," Louis Robinson considers the current era of the personalization of the…

Current Issues in Higher Education, 1983

1983-01-01

205

Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

2006-01-01

206

Pneumonyssoides caninum, the canine nasal mite, reported for the first time in a fox (Vulpes vulpes).  

PubMed

This is the first report describing the finding of the canine nasal mite, Pneumonyssoides caninum, in a silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). It is also the first time P. caninum has been found in a species other than the dog (Canis familiaris). A severely debilitated 10-month-old, male silver fox was euthanised due to suspected renal failure. During autopsy, a female mite matching the description of P. caninum was found in the nasal cavity of the fox. The finding of P. caninum in the fox suggests the existence of a new host, or at the very least a transient host. The fox's role in maintaining and/or propagating canine nasal mite infection needs to be explored. PMID:9477515

Bredal, W P; Gjerde, B K; Kippenes, H

1997-12-31

207

Designing and interpreting the results of first-time-to-man studies  

PubMed Central

First human administration of a new chemical entity (NCE) constitutes a critical step in drug development. The primary objective of such a study is the assessment of the shortterm safety and tolerability of single and multiple doses of the NCE in healthy volunteers. Secondary objectives are to obtain preliminary data on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics using surrogate or biornarkers of the beneficial as well as the adverse effects of the drug. Interpretation of safety data should be cautious and mainly based on comparisons with placebo. A special focus should be made on the assessment of adverse events, liver enzymes, and cardiac repolarization. Well-designed, first-time-to-man studies should determine the safety of the NCE in humans and predict the dose range that may be used to safely and accurately conduct further clinical trials in the target patient population based on safety data (maximum tolerated dose), pharmacodynamics (minimum active dose, duration of action, and dosage regimen), and pharmacokinetics (dosage regimen).

Patat, Alain A.

2000-01-01

208

Depressive Symptoms, Drinking Consequences, and Motivation to Change in First Time DWI Offenders  

PubMed Central

The current study assessed the extent to which mild to moderate pretreatment depressive symptoms could predict intervention outcomes in 284 first-time driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders. After a 10-week intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, all participants reported declines in depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, and negative drinking consequences and higher self-efficacy to avoid high-risk drinking. It was notable, however, that offenders with depressive symptoms reported more drinking-related consequences and lower self-efficacy at all time points, but greater motivation to change their drinking behavior. The findings suggest that offenders with depressive symptoms have more severe symptomatology than non-depressed offenders but may be more amenable to changing their drinking.

Holt, Laura J.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

2013-01-01

209

Characteristics of DUI recidivists: a 12-year follow-up study of first time DUI offenders.  

PubMed

77 individuals convicted of a drinking and driving (DUI) offense were screened for recidivism approximately 12 years following their first offense. At the time of the initial DUI conviction, participants were administered the MAST and the MMPI-2. Participants' drinking history and driving history and arrest at the time of screening and at a 12-year follow-up were also reviewed. The results indicate that, among DUI recidivists, on average 6 years elapsed between their first and second DUI offenses. Driving history prior to the first DUI offense was predictive of later recidivism. The only significant finding from the MAST and MMPI results was that repeat offenders tended to have higher scores on the L and K validity scales of the MMPI. These results are discussed in the context of Jessor's Problem-Behavior Theory and as well their clinical implications for screening and treatment decisions involving first time DUI offenders. PMID:16876960

Cavaiola, Alan A; Strohmetz, David B; Abreo, Sandra D

2006-07-28

210

Discovery and study of Leishmania turanica for the first time in China.  

PubMed Central

Reported are the results of multidisciplinary studies on Leishmania turanica, which was isolated from the auricular tissues of naturally infected great gerbils in Xinjiang, China. Discussed are the biology of the parasite, its molecular biology, its pathogenicity in rodents and humans and its vectors. This was the first time that L. turanica had been reported in China. L. turanica is highly pathogenic in BALB/c mice, with the resulting systemic infection being lethal, and it causes dermal lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. L. turanica parasitizes the macrophages in the interstitium of the testes of Cricetulus barabensis, and entirely destroys the Leydig's cells of severely infected animals. Inoculation of L. turanica can induce simian and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. The cell membrane and flagella of the promastigotes of L. turanica have rather active ACPase. The major vectors of L. turanica were Phlebotomus mongolensis and P. andrejevi.

Guan, L. R.; Yang, Y. Q.; Qu, J. Q.; Shen, W. X.

1995-01-01

211

Discovery and study of Leishmania turanica for the first time in China.  

PubMed

Reported are the results of multidisciplinary studies on Leishmania turanica, which was isolated from the auricular tissues of naturally infected great gerbils in Xinjiang, China. Discussed are the biology of the parasite, its molecular biology, its pathogenicity in rodents and humans and its vectors. This was the first time that L. turanica had been reported in China. L. turanica is highly pathogenic in BALB/c mice, with the resulting systemic infection being lethal, and it causes dermal lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. L. turanica parasitizes the macrophages in the interstitium of the testes of Cricetulus barabensis, and entirely destroys the Leydig's cells of severely infected animals. Inoculation of L. turanica can induce simian and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. The cell membrane and flagella of the promastigotes of L. turanica have rather active ACPase. The major vectors of L. turanica were Phlebotomus mongolensis and P. andrejevi. PMID:8846493

Guan, L R; Yang, Y Q; Qu, J Q; Shen, W X

1995-01-01

212

Fear-avoidance beliefs and cardiac rehabilitation in patients with first-time myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine fear-avoidance beliefs in patients after first-time myocardial infarction and to determine how such beliefs change over time. A futher aim was to analyse fear-avoidance beliefs and physical activity levels in patients attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation led by a registered physiotherapist, compared with a control group. Design: Prospective cohort study. Patients: A total of 62 patients after first-time myocardial infarction were consecutively included in the study, mean age 61 years (range 42-73). Thirty-four patients chose exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and 28 carried out the exercise regime on their own (controls). At follow-up, 57 patients (n?=?30 and n?=?27, respectively) responded. Methods: The Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and the Exercise and Physical Activity questionnaires were completed at 1 and 4 months post-infarction. Results: Clinically relevant fear-avoidance beliefs were seen in 48% of all patients at baseline, compared with 21% at follow-up (p?=?0.01). Corresponding baseline values were 62% for the cardiac rehabilitation group and 29% for controls (p?=?0.02). At follow-up, 4 months post-infarction, the difference between the groups was no longer seen. The total amount of physical activity increased over time for the cardiac rehabilitation group (p?=?0.03), and this was also significant compared with the control group (p?=?0.02). Conclusion: Compared with controls, patients attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation led by a registered physiotherapist, demonstrated higher levels of fear-avoidance beliefs at baseline, which decreased over time. Furthermore, attendees increased their level of physical activity and exercise over time. Participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is therefore strongly recommended for patients with myocardial infarction, especially for those with increased fear of movement. PMID:24002454

Ahlund, Kristina; Bäck, Maria; Sernert, Ninni

2013-10-23

213

Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of developing first-time acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Aims Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with serotonin depletion in platelets, potentially leading to abnormal aggregation and prolonged bleeding time. In view of the importance of serotonin in coronary thrombosis, and decreased platelet serotonin concentrations associated with SSRIs, the present study was performed to test the hypothesis of a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with SSRIs. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control analysis using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). A total of 3319 patients aged 75 years or younger free of clinical conditions predisposing to ischaemic heart disease, with a first-time diagnosis of AMI between 1992 and 1997, and 13 139 controls without AMI matched to cases for age, sex, general practice attended, and calendar time were included. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks. Results Adjusted odds ratios (with 95% CI) for current use of SSRIs, non-SSRIs, or other antidepressants, compared to the group of nonusers of antidepressants were 0.9 (95% CI 0.5,1.8), 0.9 (95% CI 0.7,1.2), and 1.3 (95% CI 0.6,2.8), respectively. As compared with nonuse of SSRIs, current use (regardless of any other antidepressants used) resulted in an adjusted OR of 1.1 (95% CI 0.7,1.6). Conclusions The current analysis provides evidence that SSRI exposure does not substantially decrease the risk of developing first-time AMI in patients free of factors predisposing to ischaemic heart disease. However, due to relatively small numbers of exposed subjects and the resulting wide confidence intervals, further studies may be needed to document a lack of effect of SSRIs in subjects without pre-existing diseases predisposing to AMI.

Meier, Christoph R; Schlienger, Raymond G; Jick, Hershel

2001-01-01

214

First-time primary caregivers' experience of caring for young adults with first-episode psychosis.  

PubMed

Becoming a career is associated with physical, emotional, and financial hardship, with caregivers often experiencing a maelstrom of emotions as they struggle to understand what has happened to their loved one. While the burden of caring for young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) has been well documented, much less is known about how carers develop the strength and resilience to continue caring. This qualitative study aimed to understand the experience of 20 first-time primary caregivers of young adults with FEP. Most caregivers were female (85%, n = 17) and parents (85%, n = 17). The average length of involvement as a caregiver at an FEP service was 14.5 months. Six main themes were identified in the data, highlighting the carers' experience in supporting young adults with FEP. Caregiving is a burdensome responsibility and is characterized as a roller coaster and unpredictable experience. Caregivers often feel responsible for the young person's illness; however, eventually most come to terms with the changes that have occurred in the young person with FEP. As a consequence of the illness, the relationship between caregiver and care recipient frequently becomes closer and deeper, although it is important that they both maintain hope for the future. These findings provide important insights into the experiences of first-time caregivers of young people with FEP, with direct implications for improving the information and support given to caregivers by FEP services, as well as the development of interventions that effectively address the unique challenges caregivers face following the onset of FEP. PMID:19679716

McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I; Clark, Eileen

2009-08-13

215

Awareness, Intention, and Needs Regarding Breastfeeding: Findings from First-Time Mothers in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and Objectives Despite efforts, a decline in breastfeeding rates has been documented in China recently. This study explored the awareness of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for breastfeeding and intention to breastfeed among first-time mothers and identified the gap between mothers' needs and perinatal care provision regarding breastfeeding promotion. Subjects and Methods In total, 653 women at 5–22 gestational weeks were recruited from four community health centers in Shanghai, China. They completed a self-administered questionnaire at recruitment. Two focus group discussions were held among third-trimester pregnant women who had received prenatal education. Twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted among postpartum mothers. Results During early pregnancy, a substantial proportion of mothers were not aware of the nutritional value of breastmilk (40%) or the value of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (80%) or any breastfeeding for 24 months (98%). The awareness of the WHO guidelines for breastfeeding was associated with intention to breastfeed (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88, 3.78) or intention to breastfeed exclusively (adjusted OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.81, 6.06). In late pregnancy and postpartum, most mothers were still not fully aware of the breastfeeding recommendations and nutritional value of breastmilk. Limited communications with healthcare providers and lack of support for dealing with breastfeeding difficulties were reported. Conclusions Low awareness of the WHO breastfeeding guidelines was found among first-time mothers in Shanghai. Awareness of breastfeeding guidelines was independently associated with mothers' intention to breastfeed and intention to breastfeed exclusively. The health benefits of breastfeeding and the recommended duration of breastfeeding should be emphasized in prenatal education programs.

Jiang, Hong; Li, Mu; Yang, Dongling; Wen, Li Ming; Hunter, Cynthia; He, Gengsheng

2012-01-01

216

Predictors of and reasons for pacifier use in first-time mothers: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of pacifiers is commonplace in Australia and has been shown to be negatively associated with breastfeeding duration. In order to influence behaviour related to the use of pacifiers it is important to understand the reasons for their use. The primary aim of this observational study was to investigate who (if anyone) advises first-time mothers to give a pacifier and the reasons for which they first give (or try to give) a pacifier to their infant. Additionally, this study investigated the predictors of pacifier use and the relationship between pacifier use and breastfeeding duration. Methods In total, 670 Australian first-time mothers recruited as part of the NOURISH trial completed a questionnaire regarding infant feeding and pacifier use. Results Pacifiers were introduced by 79% of mothers, of whom 28.7% were advised to use a pacifier by their mother/mother-in-law with a further 22.7% being advised by a midwife. The majority of mothers used a pacifier in order to soothe their infant (78.3%), to help put them to sleep (57.4%) and to keep them comforted and quiet (40.4%). Pacifiers given to infants before four weeks (adjHR 3.67; 95%CI 2.14-6.28) and used most days (adjHR 3.28; 95%CI 1.92-5.61) were significantly associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding. Conclusions This study identifies an opportunity for educating new mothers and their support network, particularly their infant's grandmothers, with regards to potential risks associated with the early and frequent use of a pacifier, and alternative methods for soothing their infant, in order to reduce the use of pacifiers and their potentially negative effect on breastfeeding duration.

2012-01-01

217

Externalizing psychopathology and persistence of offending in childhood first-time arrestees.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the predictive validity of externalizing psychopathology for persistence in delinquent behavior when controlling for socio-demographic and first arrest characteristics in childhood first-time arrestees. A sample of first-time arrestees aged under 12 (n = 192) was assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) parent-version on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Based on child and parent reports of offending as obtained at arrest and at 2-year follow-up, three groups of offenders were differentiated: (1) persistent high (n = 48), (2) occasional (n = 62), and (3) persistent low offenders (n = 82). Over one-third of the sample (33.9%) was diagnosed with an externalizing disorder, and 13.5% with both ADHD and ODD or CD. Higher levels of externalizing psychopathology distinguished persistent high offenders from occasional (comorbid ADHD and ODD/CD: OR 8.2, CI 2.6-25.5) and persistent low offenders (comorbid ADHD and ODD/CD: OR 18.2, CI 4.6-72.3; ADHD: OR 4.1, CI 1.3-13.0), over and above socio-demographic and first offense characteristics. Living with both biological parents distinguished the persistent low offenders from the occasional offenders (OR 2.5, CI 1.2-5.0). Since the prevalence of externalizing disorders was high and predicted re-offending, mental health screening and intervention initiatives, aiming at these conditions, should be investigated for this high-risk sample. PMID:22362128

Cohn, Moran; van Domburgh, Lieke; Vermeiren, Robert; Geluk, Charlotte; Doreleijers, Theo

2012-02-24

218

From the employment office to the social welfare office: Social assistance recipiency among first-time unemployed in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social assistance receipt among first-time unemployed in Sweden is investigated by analysing data files obtained by merging register data from the city of Goteborg. First-time unemployed males were observed during 1993 and 1994 and were followed in the register of social assistance recipients for 18 months after the debut. Many of the newly unemployed had no access to unemployment compensation.

BjÖRn Gustafsson

1998-01-01

219

22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...States applying for a passport for the first time. 51.42 Section 51.42 Foreign...States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth...date of birth, the full name of the parent(s), and must be signed by...

2013-04-01

220

Effects of Mothers against Drunk Driving's (MADD's) Victim Impact Panels on First-Time DWI Offenders: Some Initial Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study assessed the effects of victim impact panels (VIP) on first-time DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) offenders in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The VIP is an emotional presentation by the victim or their parents about how they were injured or their child was killed by a drunk driver. Subjects, 350 first-time offenders participated in a Mothers…

Rao, Nagesh; And Others

221

Suicidal Behavior Among Low-Income African American Women: A Comparison of First-Time and Repeat Suicide Attempters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation ascertained dimensions of a suicide attempt and psychological and historical risk factors that differentiate low-income, female, African American suicide attempters as a function of having made a single, first-time attempt versus multiple attempts. Two groups were compared: first time attempters (n= 135) and repeat attempters (n= 139). Participants were recruited from a large, urban hospital following a suicide

Nadine J. Kaslow; Carli H. Jacobs; Sharon L. Young; Sarah Cook

2006-01-01

222

A Multiple Family Group Intervention for First-Time Juvenile Offenders: Comparisons with Probation and Dropouts on Recidivism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated a multiple-family group-intervention program (MFGI) for first-time juvenile offenders. The recidivism rate for subjects who completed the MFGI (the Family Solutions Program) was compared to recidivism rates of two other groups of first-time juvenile offenders. Using logistic regression analysis predicting who will recidivate,…

Quinn, William H.; Van Dyke, David J.

2004-01-01

223

Effects of Mothers against Drunk Driving's (MADD's) Victim Impact Panels on First-Time DWI Offenders: Some Initial Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed the effects of victim impact panels (VIP) on first-time DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) offenders in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The VIP is an emotional presentation by the victim or their parents about how they were injured or their child was killed by a drunk driver. Subjects, 350 first-time offenders participated in a Mothers…

Rao, Nagesh; And Others

224

Cross-cultural comparison of the information sources used by first-time and repeat travelers and its marketing implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is to investigate first-time and repeat German, French, and British travelers’ use of information sources. Three research questions are proposed to explore the differences in the use of information between repeat and first-time travelers and delineate the information usage pattern among the above three groups of travelers. Accordingly, this study analyzed the data collected from a series of

Joseph S. Chen; Dogan Gursoy

2000-01-01

225

Some Observations on Attrition of Students from Canadian Medical Schools  

PubMed Central

Students who entered their freshman year for the first time in 1958 and in 1959, from all medical schools in Canada, and those entering the four Western schools in 1960 were studied from the time they matriculated until they either graduated or withdrew from medical school. The rate of attrition is about 15% of matriculants each year, with the lowest rate at the University of Western Ontario (1.7%) and the highest at the University of Ottawa (33.6%) over the time period studied. Attrition was classified as academic and non-academic. Significantly higher rates were found in the case of non-academic attrition for women and in the case of academic attrition for Commonwealth students. Significantly higher rates for both types of attrition were found for older students and students who had attended undergraduate colleges different from their medical school colleges. It would appear from available statistics that the factors which combine to produce attrition are the intellectual and personality characteristics of the student, school promotional policies and evaluation methods.

Anderson, Donald O.; Riches, Eleanor

1967-01-01

226

Creating a Virtual World Mindset: A Guide for First Time Second Life Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education technology proponents argue that tech-savvy students want active learning opportunities that enable them to produce, as well as consume, content. Some educators have responded to this rhetoric by appropriating virtual worlds such as Second Life (SL) for teaching and learning. While SL rewards exploration and experimentation, the…

Stoerger, Sharon

2010-01-01

227

Clostridium difficile enteritis after colectomy.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile infection of the colon is, unfortunately, a relatively common occurrence that typically follows treatment with antibiotics; however, C. difficile infection of the small bowel is a much more rare phenomenon with only 19 cases reported to date. We present three cases of isolated C. difficile enteritis after colectomy. Although all three patients were identified early and successfully treated with medical management without the need for surgical intervention, previous authors have suggested a much higher morbidity and mortality rate with this infection. This article reviews the current available literature on C. difficile enteritis to highlight this potentially serious condition in postoperative colectomy patients who present with low-grade fevers, abdominal or pelvic pain, and increased ileostomy output. PMID:19999913

Causey, M Wayne; Spencer, Michael P; Steele, Scott R

2009-12-01

228

Chronic radiation enteritis and malnutrition.  

PubMed

Radiation enteritis is defined as the loss of absorptive capacity of the intestine following irradiation, which is most commonly seen after radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal malignancies. It is divided into acute and chronic forms and usually presents with diarrhea and malabsorption. Malnutrition is a common complication of chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). We reviewed the etiology, prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of CRE and CRE with malnutrition in this article. Functional short bowel syndrome as a cause of malnutrition in CRE is also considered. The diagnostic work-up includes serum markers, endoscopy, cross-sectional imaging and the exclusion of alternative diagnoses such as recurrent malignancy. Management options of CRE include dietary manipulation, anti-motility agents, electrolyte correction, probiotics, parenteral nutrition, surgical resection and small bowel transplantation. Treatment may also be required for coexisting conditions including vitamin B12 deficiency, bile acid malabsorption and depression. PMID:23560564

Webb, Gwilym James; Brooke, Rachael; De Silva, Aminda Niroshan

2013-07-01

229

Dietary behaviours during pregnancy: findings from first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Limited prevalence data are available for nutrition related health behaviours during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess dietary behaviours during pregnancy among first-time mothers, and to investigate the relationships between these behaviours and demographic characteristics, so that appropriate dietary intervention strategies for pregnant women can be developed. Method An analysis of cross-sectional survey was conducted using data from 409 first-time mothers at 26-36 weeks of pregnancy, who participated in the Healthy Beginnings Trial conducted in southwestern Sydney, Australia. Dietary behaviours, including consumption of vegetables, fruit, water, milk, soft drinks, processed meat products, fast foods/take away and chips, were assessed using the New South Wales Health Survey questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Factors associated with dietary behaviours were determined by logistic regression modeling. Log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (ARR). Results Only 7% of mothers reported meeting the recommended vegetable consumption and 13% reported meeting the recommended fruit consumption. Mean and median intakes per day were 2.3 (SD 1.3) and 2 serves of vegetables, and 2.1 (SD 1.4) and 2 serves of fruit respectively. About one fifth of mothers (21%) reported drinking 2 cups (500 ml) or more of soft drink per day and 12% reported consuming more than 2 meals or snacks from fast-food or takeaway outlets per week. A small percentage of mothers (5%) had experienced food insecurity over the past 12 months. There were significant inverse associations between water and soft drink consumption (Spearman's ? -0.20, P < 0.001), and between fruit and fast food/takeaway consumption (Spearman's ? -0.16, P = 0.001). The dietary behaviours were associated with a variety of socio-demographic characteristics, but no single factor was associated with all the dietary behaviours. Conclusions There were low reported levels of vegetable and fruit consumption and high reported levels of soft drink and takeaway/fast food consumption among pregnant women. Dietary interventions to prevent adverse health consequences need to be tailored to meet the needs of pregnant women of low socio-economic status in order to improve their own healthy eating behaviors. Increasing water and fruit consumption could lead to reduced consumption of soft drink and takeaway/fast food among pregnant women. Trial Registration HBT is registered with the Australian Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRNO12607000168459)

2010-01-01

230

Rheumatoid arthritis and enteric bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors in the etiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include the genetic back-ground, environmental factors and perpetuation\\u000a of the inflammatory process. This review focuses on enteric bacteria as initiating or perpetuating factors in the etiopathogenesis\\u000a of RA. Based on the hypothesis that entrobacterial antigens that originated from intestinal flora induce rheumatoid inflammation\\u000a in the joints, animal models of arthritis due toEnterobacteriaceae,

Shigehisa Aoki

1999-01-01

231

Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis  

SciTech Connect

Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting.

Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C. (Department of General Surgery, Scott and White Memorial Hospital, Temple TX (United States))

1992-02-01

232

Enteric pathogens through life stages  

PubMed Central

Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”).

Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

2012-01-01

233

Warfarin resistance and enteral feedings.  

PubMed

Nutritional support via enteral feeding tubes may interfere with the response to medications by a number of mechanisms. A 31-year-old, white man was admitted after sustaining a gunshot wound to the chest and mandible. Subsequently, the patient developed pulmonary emboli documented by angiography. Attempts at anticoagulation with oral warfarin were unsuccessful while the patient was receiving 50-100 ml/hr of Osmolite through an Entriflex feeding tube and intermittent oral Ensure Plus supplements. Discontinuation of the Osmolite resulted in a prompt prolongation of the prothrombin time. The Ensure Plus was continued and adequate prothrombin times were achieved on 7.5 to 10 mg of warfarin daily. The total amount of vitamin K received from the enteral feedings ranged from 50 to 115 micrograms/day, which is less than the normal daily intake of 300 to 500 micrograms. Previous reports of warfarin resistance implicated older enteral feeding products with a much higher vitamin K content. Difficulty with anticoagulation may still be experienced with the newer formulations. It is unknown whether the vitamin K content or malabsorption of warfarin is the mechanism of resistance. PMID:2496251

Martin, J E; Lutomski, D M

234

Student Support Services for the Underprepared Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The needs of students who enter college underprepared transcend academic preparation. These students require an array of student services that will support them in their quest to achieve the academic and personal skills necessary for college-level coursework and academic success. The model the author proposes in this article is not unique, but it…

Wilmer, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

235

Astronomy and Space Camp Competition: Who Enters? Who Nominates? Who Wins?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dudley Observatory sponsors an annual competition that enables local high school students to win all-expense-paid trips to national astronomy or space camps. The entrants are nominated by their science or mathematics teachers. This paper addresses three questions: Who enters the competition? Who nominates the entrants? Who wins? In the first decade of the competition, more males than females entered

G. Wise; M. C. Gino

2003-01-01

236

First-time observation of Mastro Giorgio masterpieces by means of non-destructive techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time some excellent pieces belonging to the majolica production of the great master Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio (Central Italy) have been characterized from a chemical and structural point of view with the aim to identify the composition of both pigments and lustres. A series of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Raman analyses have been performed on some plates coming from Museo del Palazzo dei Consoli (Gubbio) and several French museums (Louvre, Musée National de la Céramique, Musée National de la Renaissance) lustred by Giorgio Andreoli and decorated by famous majolica painters such as Francesco Xanto Avelli. The three techniques are complementary and useful in the investigation of art objects since they are non-destructive. Furthermore, the low detection limits allow the identification of all elements and compounds present, and RBS allows concentration profiling, too. It is worth noticing that the examined objects are characterized by the presence of both gold and ruby-red lustres, a peculiarity of Mastro Giorgio’s technique. The measurements by PIXE and RBS have been carried out on the AGLAE accelerator at C2RMF, Louvre Palace.

Padeletti, G.; Ingo, G. M.; Bouquillon, A.; Pages-Camagna, S.; Aucouturier, M.; Roehrs, S.; Fermo, P.

2006-06-01

237

Depression Among a Sample of First Time Adolescent and Adult Mothers  

PubMed Central

PROBLEM Little is known about the rates, correlates, and consequences of depression among a sample of first time mothers. METHODS 4-site prospective study of the first 3 years of life among first children born to teen (n = 396), low resource (n = 169) and high resource adult (n = 117). Mothers were administered the Beck Depression Inventory prenatally and 6 months postpartum. Measures of maternal and child behaviors were taken at 8 months. FINDINGS Teen mothers displayed higher prenatal and 6-month rates of depression than low resource and high resource adult mothers, with significantly more teen mothers “consistently” depressed at the 2 time points than low resource and high resource adult mothers. Further, teen mothers were significantly more likely to become depressed after their babies were born than low resource or high resource adult mothers. Depression was negatively related to parenting practices and children’s behavior. As depression increased, mothers scored less favorably in maternal warmth and sensitivity, contingent responsiveness, and general verbalness; children scored less favorably in warmth seeking toward their mothers. CONCLUSION Findings signify the need for counseling and nurse-based intervention and prevention services geared at preparing pregnant teens for motherhood.

Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Bert, Shannon Carothers; Jacobs, Bette Keltner

2011-01-01

238

Organic carbon in topsoil - first time fully harmonised at a European scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organic fraction of soils often accounts for an only small but variable proportion of the total soil mass. Nevertheless the organic fraction profoundly influences e.g., soil properties, ecosystem functioning, and the magnitude of various ecosystem processes. In the cooperative project of Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil (GEMAS) a total of 2018 samples of agricultural (ploughed land, 0-20 cm) and 2023 samples of grazing land (0-10 cm) soil were collected at a density of 1 site per 2500 km2 each from 33 European countries, covering an area of 5,600,000 km2. All soil samples were sampled following a jointly agreed field protocol. The contents of TOC show large local differences with the highest concentrations of TOC in Finland, Ireland and Norway but also in other countries like e.g., Sweden, United Kingdom, and Germany distinctively high concentrations were measured. The distribution of TOC can be related to other measured soil properties like CEC, pH (CaCl2) and e.g., 52 chemical elements following an agua regia extraction. The GEMAS project has provided for the first time a fully harmonised data on TOC (and many other parameters) at a European scale.

Ernstsen, Vibeke; Baritz, Reiner; Reiman, Clemens; Gemas Project Team

2013-04-01

239

Influence of First-Time Mothers' Early Employment on Severe Early Childhood Caries in Their Child  

PubMed Central

Aim. To examine whether mothers' early employment status is related to the development of severe early childhood caries in their child. Methods. Questionnaire survey of 429 first-time mothers in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, and dental examinations of their child at 20 months of age. Results. At 20 ± 2.5 months of age, 5.6% of children exhibited caries defined as one or more demineralized or cavitated lesions on the upper incisors. Of the mothers, 52.2% had no paid employment, 39.6% were part-time and 8.2% full-time employed. Overall, mothers' participation in the workforce had no influence on the frequency of severe early childhood caries in their child, but there was a significant interaction with family structure. For mothers without employment there was no difference between single, and two-parent families, but children with an employed single mother more frequently had caries than those with a working mother in a two-parent family (P < 0.04). However, there were no significant differences in children's reported general health. Conclusions. The data indicate a need to explore strategies that may assist single mothers and especially those in the workforce to prevent severe early childhood caries in their child.

Plutzer, Kamila; Keirse, Marc J. N. C.

2012-01-01

240

Multicultural web-based motivational interviewing for clients with a first-time DUI offense.  

PubMed

Culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions are needed to reduce the risk of driving under the influence (DUI) recidivism among diverse populations. Using core elements of Motivational Interviewing, we developed a culturally relevant web-MI intervention (web-MI) in English and Spanish to serve as a standalone or adjunctive program in DUI educational settings and evaluated its feasibility and acceptability among clients with first-time DUI offenses. We conducted an iterative formative assessment using focus groups with staff (n = 8) and clients (n = 27), and usability interviews with clients (n = 21). Adapting MI for the web was widely accepted by staff and clients. Clients stated the web-MI was engaging, interactive and personal, and felt more comfortable than past classes and programs. Spanish-speaking clients felt less shame, embarrassment, and discomfort with the web-MI compared to other in-person groups. Results support the viability of web-MI for DUI clients at risk for recidivism and highlight the importance of adapting the intervention for diverse populations. Key decisions used to develop the web-MI are discussed. PMID:22506822

Osilla, Karen Chan; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Díaz-Fuentes, Claudia M; Lara, Marielena; Watkins, Katherine E

2012-04-01

241

Impressions of breastfeeding information and support among first-time mothers within a multiethnic community.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to document mothers' perceptions of breastfeeding information and support received from hospital- and community-based health professionals within a multiethnic community. A telephone survey was conducted to assess: mothers' impressions of professional support for breastfeeding, whether recommended breastfeeding practices were followed by health professionals, and the nature and sources of breastfeeding information received. An ethnically diverse sample of 108 first-time breastfeeding mothers was surveyed at 3 weeks postpartum. Overall, the mothers' evaluations of professional support for breastfeeding were positive, even though they reported breastfeeding practices that fell short of recommended standards. Immigrant mothers were found more likely to experience hospital practices detrimental to breastfeeding success than Canadian-born mothers, but were also found more likely to receive professional breastfeeding support in the community. Significant differences were also found between immigrant and Canadian-born mothers in the sources of their breastfeeding information. The findings underscore the key role of nurses in ensuring the promotion and optimal support of breastfeeding. PMID:11845621

Loiselle, C G; Semenic, S E; Côté, B; Lapointe, M; Gendron, R

2001-12-01

242

An 18-year follow-up of patients admitted to methadone treatment for the first time.  

PubMed

An 18-year addiction career, 1985-2003, for 157 heroin dependent subjects (73% men; 49% human immunodeficiency virus seropositive) admitted for the first time to Stockholm's Methadone Maintenance Treatment program during 1989 to 1991 was analyzed with data from seven official registers and patient records. Regression analyses and incidence rates for various outcomes were calculated for subjects in first methadone maintenance treatment at the end of the observation period, discharged from first methadone maintenance treatment, in second methadone maintenance treatment, and discharged from second methadone maintenance treatment. Being human immunodeficiency virus positive (HR = 3.8), lodging (HR = 1.9) and prison sentence (HR = 1.7) predicted mortality for the 45% deceased. Approximately 70% of living subjects participated in methadone maintenance treatment at some period each year. Subjects in first or second methadone maintenance treatment had less criminality and had spent more time in methadone maintenance treatment (70% to 100%) than those discharged from first or from second methadone maintenance treatment (50%). Efforts and interventions should be intensified to increase time in treatment also for those with high problem severity. PMID:19197594

Davstad, Ingrid; Stenbacka, Marlene; Leifman, Anders; Romelsjö, Anders

2009-01-01

243

[Cocaine-triggered ischaemic enteritis].  

PubMed

A 25-year-old woman was hospitalized repeatedly during a 5-year period due to abdominal pain, change in stool pattern, high CRP and leucocytosis. Ultrasound and small bowel examination showed oedema of terminal ileum, and morbus Crohn was initially suspected. A later ileocolonoscopy with biopsy and a pill cam capsule endoscopy were normal. In all cases the condition normalized spontaneously. A thorough interview revealed a recreational use of cocaine, and diary recordings confirmed the association between her abdominal pain and cocaine use. Ischaemic enteritis has previously been described in cocaine users. PMID:19758501

Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming

2009-09-14

244

Enteral Nutrition in Surgical Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Abstract.  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose:   Malnutrition is well-recognized as a potential cause of increased morbidity and mortality in surgical patients; however,\\u000a enteral and parenteral nutritional support given pre- and postoperatively have been shown to decrease these rates. We conducted\\u000a a prospective study to assess the short-term efficacy of oral dietary supplementation in malnourished patients undergoing\\u000a major abdominal surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   Sixty patients undergoing

Sundeep Singh Saluja; Navneet Kaur; Upendra Kumar Shrivastava

2002-01-01

245

Prenatal Parent Education for First-Time Expectant Parents: “Making It Through Labor Is Just the Beginning…”  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe purpose of this pilot project was to determine first-time expectant parents’ perceptions of a parent education intervention, their education needs, and preferred sources and modes of such education.

Christine A. Ateah

246

The Correctional Custody Facility: Rehabilitation of the First-Time Offender in the U.S. Army.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Army's Correctional Custody Facility, a rehabilitation method for first-time offenders that is intended to recreate and strengthen the original resocialization process. The small number of return offenders suggests the facility's success as a rehabilitation concept. (JAC)

Thomas, Robert Evan

1983-01-01

247

The effect of two different housing conditions on the welfare of young horses stabled for the first time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of stabling for the first time on the behaviour and welfare of young and naïve horses has not yet been studied in detail. In this study we examined the effect of two typical housing systems on their subsequent behavioural and physiological responses upon first time stabling. Thirty-six 2-year-old Dutch warmbloods, 18 geldings and 18 mares were included in

E. Kathalijne Visser; Andrea D. Ellis; Cornelis G. Van Reenen

2008-01-01

248

Pregnancy Intentions During the Transition to Parenthood and Links to Coparenting for First-Time Fathers of Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objectives of this study were to identify associations and pathways through which first-time resident fathers' pregnancy intentions (reported retrospectively) influence their later coparenting and to examine whether these associations varied based on the child's gender. Design. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) 9- and 24-month surveys, we examined a sample of first-time resident biological

Jacinta Bronte-Tinkew; Mindy E. Scott; Allison Horowitz; Emily Lilja

2009-01-01

249

Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm-1 Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm-1 in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south [1]. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 cm-1 emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it had been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004 [2]. Our far-infrared observations were performed with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini [3]. Although it had been expected that the 220 cm-1 emission would eventually appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm-1feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm-1 ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini images [4]. The 220 cm-1 feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager 1 [5, 6] and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS [7-10]. Until now the 220 cm-1 emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm-1 emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes. References: [1] Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 761, L15, 2012. [2] Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 754, L3, 2012. [3] Flasar, F. M., et al., Space Sci. Rev., 115, 169, 2004. [4] West, R. A., et al., DPS, paper 300.04, 2012. [5] Kunde et al. 1981, [6] Coustenis et al., 1999. [7] de Kok et al., Icarus, 191, 223, 2007. [8] de Kok et al., Icarus, 197, 572, 2008. [9] Samuelson et al., Icarus, 189, 63, 2007. [10] Anderson, et al., presented at workshop "Titan Through Time 2", 2012.

Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; de Kok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

2013-04-01

250

Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40 years and above. Conclusions Men who expect their first baby at an advanced or very advanced age constitute a socioeconomically heterogeneous group with more health problems and more risky health behaviour than younger men. Since older men often have their first child with a woman of advanced age, in whom similar characteristics have been reported, their combined risk of adverse perinatal outcomes needs further attention by clinicians and researchers.

2013-01-01

251

Displays: Entering a New Dimension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a…

Starkman, Neal

2007-01-01

252

Campylobacter enteritis in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed Central

A 12-month survey on the incidence of campylobacter infection in 1217 patients with diarrhoea was carried out in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Campylobacters were isolated from 55 (4.5%) patients, second in prevalence to salmonellas (6.2%). Shigellas were isolated from 4.2% of patients. Campylobacter isolation rates were high in children of all ages, as well as in young adults (36.5% of all isolates were from adults aged 20-39 years). Isolation rates peaked in September and November. Analysis of the results showed that 69% were Campylobacter jejuni (mostly biotype IV) and 31% C. coli. Serogroups 5 and 23 (Penner scheme) and phage type 125 (Preston scheme) were most frequently isolated. Resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 7.3 and 32.7% of the isolates. Campylobacters are an important cause of bacterial enteritis in Saudi Arabia, both in adults and in children, and should be sought routinely.

Zaman, R.

1992-01-01

253

Pregnant Field Students' Guilt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…

Baum, Nehami

2006-01-01

254

Motives for entering nursing in Iran: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Context: Choosing a career is an important decision for each individual, which is affected by many different factors. The process of entering nursing, as one of the pivotal healthcare discipline, certainly affects quality of care, and retention of nurses in the profession. Aims: Exploring factors affecting the students’ decision to enter nursing. Setting and Design: This qualitative content analysis was carried at the school of Nursing and Midwifery of Tehran University of medical sciences. Materials and Methods: The semi structured interview method was used to conduct this qualitative study on 11 nursing freshmen in 2010. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analyzed them using the conventional content analysis approach. Results: Four main categories, reflecting the factors affecting the participants’ decision to enter nursing emerged in this study: Capabilities of the profession, coercion, having an interest in the medical and allied health fields, and receiving positive feedbacks. The participants had tried to gather information about nursing through different sources, including nurses and other health care professionals, counselors and Internet, which almost all the time, yielded to no useful information and sometimes with negative feedback. Conclusions: Findings revealed that, unlike other countries, few participants had entered nursing with a real interest in helping and caring for others, and other factors such as having an interest in the medical and allied health fields, coercion, and good employment opportunities were the most important motives. Students’ lack of knowledge about the profession deserves special attention. Nursing managers’ should try to introduce the reality of nursing to the public and as a result, attract more competent students to the profession.

Tayebi, Zahra; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Negarandeh, Reza; Shahbazi, Shirin

2013-01-01

255

On the Learning Behaviours of English Additional-Language Speakers Entering Engineering Education in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports the findings of an inductive study on the learning behaviours and language difficulties of a small group of English additional-language students entering a school of chemical and metallurgical engineering in South Africa. Students were interviewed in their home language. While they appeared to have had a reasonable grounding…

Woollacott, L.; Simelane, Z.; Inglis, J.

2011-01-01

256

Father for the first time - development and validation of a questionnaire to assess fathers' experiences of first childbirth (FTFQ)  

PubMed Central

Background A father’s experience of the birth of his first child is important not only for his birth-giving partner but also for the father himself, his relationship with the mother and the newborn. No validated questionnaire assessing first-time fathers' experiences during childbirth is currently available. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess first-time fathers’ experiences of childbirth. Method Domains and items were initially derived from interviews with first-time fathers, and supplemented by a literature search and a focus group interview with midwives. The comprehensibility, comprehension and relevance of the items were evaluated by four paternity research experts and a preliminary questionnaire was pilot tested in eight first-time fathers. A revised questionnaire was completed by 200 first-time fathers (response rate?=?81%) Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed and multitrait scaling analysis was used to test scaling assumptions. External validity was assessed by means of known-groups analysis. Results Factor analysis yielded four factors comprising 22 items and accounting 48% of the variance. The domains found were Worry, Information, Emotional support and Acceptance. Multitrait analysis confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the domains; however, Cronbach’s alpha did not meet conventional reliability standards in two domains. The questionnaire was sensitive to differences between groups of fathers hypothesized to differ on important socio demographic or clinical variables. Conclusions The questionnaire adequately measures important dimensions of first-time fathers’ childbirth experience and may be used to assess aspects of fathers’ experiences during childbirth. To obtain the FTFQ and permission for its use, please contact the corresponding author.

2012-01-01

257

Clinical use of enteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Enteral Nutrition is among the most developed disciplines in modern Medicine. Technological advances, a better knowledge of malnutrition physiopathology and its involvement in the evolution of several clinical entities have made it possible to improve the nutritional attention paid to our patients. The use of EN has expanded as a first choice practice in patients with undernutrition or at risk of undernutrition that have a minimally functional intestine and are unable to cover their total calorie and protein requirements with natural or supplemented diets. Terms like "medical food" or "organ- or system-specific nutrition" or "pathology-specific nutrition" have revolutionized the EN field in the last 20 years with the emergence of specifically defined formulations. EN has been shown to be cost-effective in patients with malnutrition when the indication is established early. Home and Ambulatory Artificial Nutrition techniques are administratively regulated and, as they are widespread in our country, they allow some cost reductions in certain processes. Occasionally, the introduction, use or withdrawal of EN may constitute a situation of ethical dilema that should be avoided by making use of respect, companionship and shared information between the health team, patients and their substitutes. PMID:16771076

Alvarez Hernández, J; Peláez Torres, N; Muñoz Jiménez, A

2006-05-01

258

Entering China: an unconventional approach.  

PubMed

Conventional wisdom has it that the best way to do business in China is through an equity joint venture (EJV) with a well-connected Chinese partner. But pioneering companies are starting a trend toward a new way to enter that market: as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, or WFOE. Increasingly, says the author, joint ventures do not offer foreign companies what they need to succeed in China. For example, many companies want to do business nationally, but the prospects for finding a Chinese partner with national scope are poor. Moreover, there are often conflicting perceptions between partners about how to operate an EJV: Chinese companies, for example, typically have a more immediate interest in profits than foreign investors do. By contrast, the author asserts, WFOEs are faster to set up and easier to manage; and they allow managers to expand operations more rapidly. That makes them the perfect solution, right? The answer is a qualified yes. First, foreign companies will still need sources of guanxi, or social and political connections. Second, managers must take steps to avoid trampling on China's cultural or economic sovereignty. Third and perhaps most important, foreign companies must be prepared to bring something of value to China-usually in the form of jobs or new technology that can help the country develop. Companies willing to make the effort, says the author, can reap the rewards of China's burgeoning marketplace. PMID:10165447

Vanhonacker, W

259

LACK OF OPTIMISM AMONG MARKETING STUDENTS VS. OTHER STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time in American history, the current generation of college-age students may be destined for diminished financial opportunities than their parents. However, they may not realize that and may continue to have expectations higher than reality. Marketing students appear to be the least optimistic about their futures than students with other majors. This study utilizes a sample of

Gregory S. BLACK; Angelica BAHL

2010-01-01

260

Depression in Freshmen College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjustment to college life and attending a university for the first time can be a stressful experience for college students. Because of the challenges faced when adapting to these life changes, college students are at risk of developing depressive symptomology. The development of depressive symptoms can lead to negative life events in the lives of college students, the most significant

Julie Marie Brandy

2011-01-01

261

Out of the Mouth of Babes: First-Time Disadvantaged Mothers and Their Perceptions of Infant Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing emphasis is being placed on the importance of speech, language and communication (SLC) development during the first two years of life, since this contributes to cognitive ability and to later educational outcomes. This article explores what disadvantaged, first-time mothers know and understand about three key contributors to positive…

Whitmarsh, Judith

2011-01-01

262

The effect of individual and group educational interventions on first time breastfeeding mothers with implications for nursing education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if educational interventions would make a difference in the feeding choices of first time breastfeeding mothers. If more mothers chose to breastfeed their infants following an educational intervention, then medical professionals would be more inclined to provide this education prenatally for their clients. Before the program could be taught to the medical

Cynthia Ann Kujawa Roman

1992-01-01

263

Assessing the Quality of the Dyadic Relationship in First-Time Parents: Development of a New Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to psychometrically evaluate the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), modified for use with new, first-time parents by extending the items of communication, sensuality, and sexuality. A total of 820 Swedish respondents, 6 months after the birth of their first child, participated in the study. Psychometric evaluation was conducted with factor analysis. The obtained factor structure

Tone Ahlborg; Lars-Olof Persson; Lillemor R.-M. Hallberg

2005-01-01

264

Emotional and Behavioral Problems of 13-to-18YearOld Incarcerated Female First-Time Offenders and Recidivists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study in Pierce County, Washington, compared emotional and behavioral problems of 13- to 18-year-old incarcerated female first-time offenders (n = 38) and recidivists (n = 78) using the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory, Version Two (MAYSI-2) and demographic data. The study found that adolescent female recidivists had more emotional and behavioral problems, more unstable lifestyles, and less stable family

James Eugene Tille; J. C. Rose

2007-01-01

265

First-Time Mothers' Expectations of Parenthood: What Happens When Optimistic Expectations Are Not Matched by Later Experiences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Becoming a parent is a major developmental transition of adulthood. Individuals often have optimistic expectations about parenthood, yet this transition also presents a number of challenges. The authors investigated whether new parents have overly optimistic expectations about parenthood and, if they do, how this influences their adjustment to this role. The sample consisted of 71 first-time mothers who completed questionnaires

Kate Harwood; Neil McLean; Kevin Durkin

2007-01-01

266

Adolescent and adult first time mothers' health seeking practices during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, central Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Maternal health services have a potentially critical role in the improvement of reproductive health. In order to get a better understanding of adolescent mothers'needs we compared health seeking practices of first time adolescent and adult mothers during pregnancy and early motherhood in Wakiso district, Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and August, 2007 in Wakiso

Lynn Atuyambe; Florence Mirembe; Nazarius M Tumwesigye; Johansson Annika; Edward K Kirumira; Elisabeth Faxelid

2008-01-01

267

The Connections between Family Formation and First-time Home Ownership in the Context of West Germany and the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from retrospective life course surveys held in West Germany and the Netherlands in the 1980s and early 1990s, we investigate the interconnections between first partnership, first marriage, and first childbirth, on the one hand, and first-time home ownership, on the other. We consider the temporal connection between events in the family life course and home ownership from various

Clara H. Mulder; Michael Wagner

2001-01-01

268

Stability and change in parenting beliefs in first-time mothers from the pre- to postnatal period  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 103 prospective first-time mothers completed measures of parenting beliefs, depressive symptomatology, personality, social support and attachment style at 20 weeks prepartum (T1), and were asked to complete various measures again at 6 months postnatally (T2). There were significant changes in parenting beliefs in an adaptive direction, with mean scores for 'nurturance' and 'knowledge of social learning theory'

D. A. Scott; J. Hill

2001-01-01

269

Out of the Mouth of Babes: First-Time Disadvantaged Mothers and Their Perceptions of Infant Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An increasing emphasis is being placed on the importance of speech, language and communication (SLC) development during the first two years of life, since this contributes to cognitive ability and to later educational outcomes. This article explores what disadvantaged, first-time mothers know and understand about three key contributors to…

Whitmarsh, Judith

2011-01-01

270

Secular trends and seasonality in first-time hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction—a Danish population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction has declined in several Western countries during the last decades. The incidence and mortality of acute myocardial infarction follow a seasonal pattern. We examined if changes in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction were associated with any changes in seasonality. Methods: The study was based on 17,989 patients hospitalized with first-time acute myocardial

Thomas Fischer; Søren Lundbye-Christensen; Søren Paaske Johnsen; Henrik Carl Schønheyder; Henrik Toft Sørensen

2004-01-01

271

From entertainment to citizenship: A comparative study of the political uses of popular culture by first-time voters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the extent to which young people use different forms of popular culture to express and make sense of their relationship to politics. We look closely at young people's interpretation of popular culture in order to find out whether, and if so how, it plays a political role, using focus groups and interviews with first-time voters in the

Martin Scott; Sanna Inthorn

2011-01-01

272

Risk Perceptions of a Mixed Image Destination: The Case of Turkey's First Time vs. Repeat Leisure visitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to investigate tourists' perception of risk about Turkey as a mix image destination and second, to examine if perceived risk of Turkey as a tourism destination differs between first-time and repeat visitors.The findings of the study indicated six risk dimensions as perceived by tourists visited Turkey: (1) time and social risk, (2)

Kurtulus Karamustafa; Galia Fuchs; Arie Reichel

2012-01-01

273

Residence and Migration of First-Time Freshmen Enrolled in Degree-Granting Institutions: Fall 1996. E.D. Tabs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents detailed tabulations of data on the residence and migration of first-time freshmen enrolled in degree-granting institutions in the Fall of 1996 based on data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System's Fall Enrollment survey. Tables are presented by state, control (public/private), and level of institution, for…

Barbett, Samuel

274

Enteric pathogens and soil: a short review.  

PubMed

It is known that soil is a recipient of solid wastes able to contain enteric pathogens in high concentrations. Although the role of soil as a reservoir of certain bacterial pathogens is not in question, recent findings show that soil may have a larger role in the transmission of enteric diseases than previously thought. Many of the diseases caused by agents from soil have been well characterized, although enteric diseases and their link to soil have not been so well studied. Gastrointestinal infections are the most common diseases caused by enteric bacteria. Some examples are salmonellosis ( Salmonella sp.), cholera ( Vibrio cholerae), dysentery ( Shigella sp.) and other infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia sp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and many other strains. Viruses are the most hazardous and have some of the lowest infectious doses of any of the enteric pathogens. Hepatitis A, hepatitis E, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus types 1 and 2, multiple strains of echoviruses and coxsackievirus are enteric viruses associated with human wastewater. Among the most commonly detected protozoa in sewage are Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This article reviews the existing literature of more than two decades on waste disposal practices that favor the entry of enteric pathogens to soil and the possible consequent role of the soil as a vector and reservoir of enteric pathogens. PMID:12730707

Santamaría, Johanna; Toranzos, Gary A

2003-03-06

275

Sexual Abuse Among Women Entering Methadone Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who enter drug abuse treatment programs are likely to report histories of sexual abuse that may impact psychosocial functioning, retention, and outcomes. This study investigates differences at admission between women with and without sexual abuse histories who entered an outpatient methadone treatment program in Texas. In a sample of 137 women, 39% reported prior sexual abuse. Findings show that

Norma G. Bartholomew; Grace A. Rowan-Szal; Lois R. Chatham; Diane C. Nucatola; D. Dwayne Simpson

2002-01-01

276

Enteral nutrition in patients with respiratory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition in patients with respiratory disease. S.K. Pingleton. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1996. ABSTRACT: Nutritional assessment and management is an important therapeutic modality in patients with respiratory disease. Malnutrition adversely affects res- piratory function. Nutritional therapy for the spontaneously breathing patient should include an appropriate diet plus the consideration of nutritional supplements. Complete nutritional support should be undertaken with enteral

S. K. Pingleton

1996-01-01

277

Enteral feed obstructing its own way  

PubMed Central

Esophageal obstruction due to solidified enteral feeds is a rare but distressful complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux, very low gastric pH, decreased pepsin and pancreatic enzyme secretions may be responsible for the solidification of casein containing enteral formulas. Recognition and avoidance of these factors will prevent such complication.

Kesarwani, Vikas; Ghelani, Dhaval R.; Reece, Graham

2010-01-01

278

[Value of prokinetics in enteral nutrition intolerance].  

PubMed

Malnutrition is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality and therefore a raise in hospitalization's costs. Nevertheless, an early nutritional support can reverse this trend. Gastrointestinal dysfunctions (gastroparesis, abdominal distension, high gastric residues) in patient on enteral nutrition, may appear and very likely generate an increasing risk of regurgitations, pulmonary aspiration and infection. These symptoms represent the main factors limiting dosage in administering enteral nutrition. Prokinectics agents (metoclopramid, cisaprid and erythromycin) which improve gastric motility are often used in order to maintain enteral nutrition and to cover the energetic needs of patients. This revenue shows some way of using prokinectics in case of enteral nutrition intolerance and propose a step-by-step guideline on how to start and increase progressively enteral nutrition. PMID:11723704

Maisonneuve, N; Karsegard, V L; Genton, L; Pichard, C

2001-09-01

279

Using Goffman's theories of social interaction to reflect first-time mothers' experiences with the social norms of infant feeding.  

PubMed

Infant feeding, particularly breastfeeding, is an important public health issue because early feeding methods have been shown to influence health throughout childhood. We investigated how social norms influence first-time mothers' decisions around feeding methods. We conducted two in-depth interviews with 11 first-time mothers, the first 3 weeks after birth and the second 3 months following birth. We analyzed interview data using a third-level, thematic analysis, using Goffman's theories of social interaction to guide our analysis. Our results highlighted several issues surrounding breastfeeding in modern society. We propose that nursing mothers are conscious of adhering to social norms of being a good mother, but must also cope with societal views about presenting normal appearances when they need to feed their babies in public. PMID:22785628

Brouwer, Marissa A; Drummond, Claire; Willis, Eileen

2012-07-11

280

The Yield of First-Time Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Screening Individuals at a High Risk of Developing Pancreatic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Approximately 10–15% of all pancreatic cancers (PCs) may be hereditary in origin. We investigated the use of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the screening of individuals at high risk for developing PC. In this paper the results of first-time screening with EUS are presented.METHODS:Those eligible for screening in this study were first-degree family members of affected individuals from familial pancreatic cancer

J. W. Poley; I. Kluijt; D. J. Gouma; F. Harinck; A. Wagner; C. Aalfs; C H J van Eijck; A. Cats; E. J. Kuipers; Y. Nio; P. Fockens; M. J. Bruno

2009-01-01

281

Smart1: The First Time Of Europe To The Moon; Wandering in the Earth-Moon Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 40 years from the first lunar missions, Europe has started for the first time the development of a mission which has the Moon as a target. SMART-1 will be the first Western-European mission to the Earth's satellite. The primary objective of the mission is to flight test technology innovation for the future scientific deep-space missions. This paper describes the

Giuseppe D. Racca; Bernard H. Foing; Marcello Coradini

2001-01-01

282

Smart1: The First Time Of Europe To The Moon; Wandering in the Earth–Moon Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 40 years from the first lunar missions, Europe has startedfor the first time the development of a mission which has the Moonas a target. SMART-1 will be the first Western-European mission tothe Earth's satellite. The primary objective of the mission is toflight test technology innovation for the future scientificdeep-space missions. This paper describes the mission concept, thetechnology and the

Giuseppe D. Racca; Bernard H. Foing; Marcello Coradini

1999-01-01

283

Perceived and observed parenting behavior in American and Italian first-time mothers across the first 3 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short-term longitudinal study investigated cross-cultural universality (similarities) and cultural specificity (differences) in American and Italian first-time mothers’ perceived parenting efficacy and observed parenting behavior in early infancy. Thirty-two mother–infant dyads from the United States (n=16) and Italy (n=16) participated in this study at 1 and 3 months across the first developmental transition. Maternal self-efficacy in parenting was assessed by

Hui-Chin Hsu; Manuela Lavelli

2005-01-01

284

Death Awareness, Maternal Separation Anxiety, and Attachment Style Among First-Time Mothers—A Terror Management Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies explored the interplay between death awareness, attachment style, and maternal separation anxiety among first-time mothers of infants aged 3–12 months. In Study 1 (N = 60), a higher accessibility of death-related thoughts was found following induction of thoughts about separation from the infant. In Study 2 (N = 100), a mortality salience induction led to higher maternal separation anxiety. Contrary to expectations,

2008-01-01

285

Separation anxiety in first-time mothers: Infant behavioral reactivity and maternal parenting self-efficacy as contributors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short-term longitudinal study examined the contribution of infant behavioral reactivity and maternal parenting self-efficacy to first-time mothers’ (total n=32) separation anxiety. Infants’ behavioral reactivity indexed by gaze and facial affect were observed in the conditions of routine play and maternal still face at 3 months. Mothers reported their self-perceived parenting efficacy at 3 months and separation anxiety at 6

Hui-Chin Hsu; Jihyun Sung

2008-01-01

286

Nature and Prediction of Changes in Marital Quality for First-Time Parent and Nonparent Husbands and Wives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared changes in dimensions of marital quality for first-time parents and nonparents and examined differences in the extent to which individual-differences variables and discrepancies between spouses on these individual-differences variables predicted change in marital satisfaction for parents and nonparents. Participants were 49 couples who were assessed over a 4-year period that included the year preceding pregnancy, pregnancy, the

Lawrence A. Kurdek

1993-01-01

287

First time mothers’ attachment styles and their experience and management of emotional distress in themselves and their infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between mothers’ self?reports of early attachment experiences and adult attachment styles and how these may relate to the management of negative emotional states in mother?infant relationships and to overall levels of maternal and infant distress. 140 first time mothers took part in the study. Hazen and Shaver's #op1987#cp Parental Style Descriptions were adopted to assess

M. D. Glachan; J. Ney

1995-01-01

288

Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions and Alcohol Use in First Time DWI Offenders: Indirect Effects Through Coping Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using cross-sectional data and structural equation modeling, we evaluated whether coping self-efficacy to abstain from drinking in various situations accounted for the relationship between internalizing (depression, anxiety) and externalizing (aggression, low socialization) dimensions with problematic alcohol use in 292 first-time DWI offenders. Results indicated that an internalizing dimension indirectly predicted problematic alcohol use through coping self-efficacy in negative situations only,

Robert C. Schlauch; Stephanie S. OMalley; Bruce J. Rounsaville; Samuel A. Ball

2012-01-01

289

Out of the mouth of babes: first-time disadvantaged mothers and their perceptions of infant communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing emphasis is being placed on the importance of speech, language and communication (SLC) development during the first two years of life, since this contributes to cognitive ability and to later educational outcomes. This article explores what disadvantaged, first-time mothers know and understand about three key contributors to positive infant SLC development: child-directed speech, book-sharing and mother–child interaction. Fifty

Judith Whitmarsh

2011-01-01

290

Features of Enteric Infections in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Enteric infections are very important diseases in most Asian countries. Four features of enteric infections in Asia that the\\u000a author has learned through collaborative studies with the Asian scientists are explained.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Prevalence of enteric infections in developing countries in Asia: This is common to the developing countries in the world\\u000a where economic situation is not very good and thus

Mitsuaki Nishibuchi

291

Enteral nutrition: better navigation, yet unknown destination?  

PubMed Central

The nutrition dose truly absorbed by a patient is crucial information in the management or the investigation of nutrition during critical illness. In the present issue of Critical Care, assessment of nutritional losses in stools was studied. These losses together with enteral nutrition lost in gastric fluids and enteral nutrition prescribed but never infused make up the difference between the dose supposedly given to a patient and the amount effectively taken up. Additionally, the optimal dosing and timing of nutrition during critical illness are still debated. When enteral nutrition is insufficient, the options are limited.

2011-01-01

292

"Enter-educate." Reaching youth with messages of sexual responsibility.  

PubMed

Messages about sexual relationships, the prevention of pregnancy and disease, education, the empowerment of women, and concern for the environment are increasingly being disseminated to audiences of all ages through the use of entertainment. Ideas are presented in this Enter-Educate approach through popular, enjoyable entertainment in the form of songs, dramas, soap operas, variety shows, and other folk media. This approach can be adapted to be acceptable and effective in all cultures. Yafaman is one such example. It is a drama written and acted by high school students in Cote d'Ivoire which depicts the story of a school girl who learns that her older, married boyfriend is no longer interested in her when she becomes pregnant. After winning the annual national drama contest, Yafaman was televised and broadcast widely in schools and on national networks in francophone Africa. The video has also been dubbed in English for wider use. Popular music has delivered effective messages of sexual responsibility to young adults in Latin America and the Philippines. The US Agency for International Development-funded Population Communication Services project at the Johns Hopkins University supports 36 major Enter-Educate television series and specials, nine radio dramas, three songs, and nine music videos. Other organizations are expanding or experimenting with work in this area. The authors discuss the theoretical basis for Enter-Educate projects and explain that the approach works because it is pervasive, popular, personal, passionate, persuasive, practical, profitable, and proven effective. PMID:12319369

Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G

1995-01-01

293

The Academic Majors and Baccalaureate Origins of Biochemistry Graduate Students--A Viewpoint from the USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a national survey designed to determine some of the ways in which students enter biochemistry programs. Results indicated that the majority of students entering graduate biochemistry programs have an undergraduate biology degree. (TW)

Boyer, Rodney F.

1988-01-01

294

Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes  

PubMed Central

Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feeding tubes has evolved due to development of new feeding tubes and endoscopic technology. Enteral feeding can be divided into methods that provide short-term and long-term access to the GIT. This review article focuses on the current range of methods of gaining access to the GIT to provide enteral feed.

Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony CK

2010-01-01

295

First ARTEMIS Spacecraft Successfully Enters Lunar Orbit  

NASA Website

The first of the two ARTEMIS spacecraft entered lunar orbit this morning. ARTEMIS was the first mission to orbit the moon's Lagrangian points and this is the first ever attempt to move from the Lagrangian into lunar orbit.

296

Oral Vaccine for Immunization against Enteric Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A living, attenuated, oral vaccine system is described for the immunization against enteric disease. This oral vaccine is a genetic hybrid derivative of an attenuated galactose epimeraseless strain of S. typhi which carries at least one protective antigen...

S. B. Formal

1981-01-01

297

OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

298

Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of first-time acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Aims Aspirin decreases the risk of clinical manifestations of atherothrombosis. This effect is mainly due to inhibition of platelet aggregation and potentially due to anti-inflammatory properties of aspirin. To evaluate whether use of non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also be associated with a decreased risk of first-time acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we performed a population-based case-control analysis using the United Kingdom-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) Methods We identified first-time AMI-patients free of preexisting diagnosed cardiovascular or metabolic diseases. We compared use of NSAIDs prior to the index date between cases and control patients who were matched to cases on age, gender, practice and calendar time. Results A total of 3319 cases (?75 years) with a diagnosis of first-time AMI between 1992 and 1997 and 13139 controls (matched to cases on age, sex, general practice attended, calendar time, years of prior history in the GPRD) were included. Overall, the relative risk estimate of AMI (adjusted for smoking, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy and aspirin) in current NSAID users was 1.17 (95% CI 0.99, 1.37). Long-term current NSAID use (?30 prescriptions) yielded an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.20 (95% CI 0.94, 1.55). Stratification by age (<65 years vs?65 years) and sex did not materially change the results. Conclusions Our findings indicate that current NSAID exposure in patients free of diagnosed cardiovascular or metabolic conditions predisposing to cardiovascular diseases does not decrease the risk of AMI.

Schlienger, Raymond G; Jick, Hershel; Meier, Christoph R

2002-01-01

299

Exploring the concept of positive deviance related to breastfeeding initiation in black and white WIC enrolled first time mothers.  

PubMed

Positive deviance inquiry is effective in identifying advantageous health behaviors and improving health outcomes among disadvantaged resource-poor populations. The objective of this study was to apply the positive deviance concept to explore the characteristics of positive deviants for breastfeeding among WIC-enrolled first-time mothers in Louisiana. The cross sectional study included data on 2,036 WIC-enrolled first time mothers (52.6% black) from the LaPRAMs, 2000-2004. Chi-square test was used to compare groups. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to calculate adjusted OR and 95% CI by breastfeeding initiation status. The average age was 21.3 years, 31.5% had less than 12 years of education, and 44.6% of the sample reported having initiated breastfeeding. Black mothers were less likely to initiate breastfeeding than their white counterparts (OR 0.39 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.48)). Among 641 WIC-enrolled first time mothers with less than 12 years of education, 28.4% were identified as positive deviants for breastfeeding initiation. Among the black mothers 19.8% were positive deviants compared to 40.3% of the white mothers. Breastfeeding in the hospital after delivery (P < 0.0001) and having received help on how to breastfeed in the hospital (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with breastfeeding initiation in white and black mothers. In addition, the black positive deviants were more likely, OR 2.80 (95% CI: 1.20, 6.56) to have initiated breastfeeding if their baby was low birth weight. Breastfeeding practices shortly after delivery including assistance and education from staff in the hospital, are related to breastfeeding initiation among less educated WIC-enrolled mothers. PMID:21822964

Ma, Ping; Magnus, Jeanette H

2012-11-01

300

HI STAR Student Astronomy Research Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HI STAR program promotes pre-college students conducting authentic research. Projects entered in science fairs will be highlighted. Does research experience influence students to select STEM college majors?

Kadooka, M. M.; Armstrong, J. D.

2010-04-01

301

HI STAR Student Astronomy Research Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

HI STAR program promotes pre-college students conducting authentic research. Projects entered in science fairs will be highlighted. Does research experience influence students to select STEM college majors?

M. M. Kadooka; J. D. Armstrong

2010-01-01

302

University students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A questionnaire of 19 questions given to 76 students entering an `Introduction to astronomy' course at university showed that the students held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, Ricardo

2005-11-28

303

ATTENTION OF STUDENTS WEANED ON COMPUTER GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Oblingers' survey of the Net Generation makes clear (15), the cohort of students now entering higher education are always connected and immersed in computing and communication technology. Engaging these students in a computer science course requires more than \\

Brian C. Ladd

304

Gastric and postpyloric total enteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The provision and maintenance of good nutrition in patients with acute and chronic illness is a fundamental part of standard\\u000a medical and surgical care. Recently, there is great interest in using enteral nutritional support to reverse the morbidity\\u000a and mortality associated with malnutrition. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition because it is more physiologic,\\u000a maintains intestinal structure and

Souheil G. Abou-Assi; Vikash Khurana; Mitchell L. Schubert

2005-01-01

305

Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology  

PubMed Central

Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

2012-01-01

306

The enteric toxins of Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive pathogenClostridium perfringens is a major cause of human and veterinary enteric disease largely because this bacterium can produce several toxins when present\\u000a inside the gastrointestinal tract. The enteric toxins of C. perfringens share two common features: (1) they are all single polypeptides of modest (~25—35 kDa) size, although lacking in sequence\\u000a homology, and (2) they generally act by

J. G. Smedley; D. J. Fisher; S. Sayeed; G. Chakrabarti; B. A. McClane

307

The enteric toxins of Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of human and veterinary enteric disease largely because this bacterium can produce several toxins when present inside the gastrointestinal tract. The enteric toxins of C. perfringens share two common features: (1) they are all single polypeptides of modest (~25–35 kDa) size, although lacking in sequence homology, and (2) they generally act by

J. G. Smedley III; D. J. Fisher; S. Sayeed; G. Chakrabarti; B. A. McClane

2004-01-01

308

Enteric pathogens and soil: a short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a It is known that soil is a recipient of solid wastes able to contain enteric pathogens in high concentrations. Although the\\u000a role of soil as a reservoir of certain bacterial pathogens is not in question, recent findings show that soil may have a larger\\u000a role in the transmission of enteric diseases than previously thought. Many of the diseases caused

Johanna Santamaría; Gary A. Toranzos

2003-01-01

309

The Premedical Student: His Identity  

PubMed Central

A prospective study is currently being conducted of students who were freshmen at the University of British Columbia in 1961-1962. Three cohorts are being followed: 136 premedical students, 107 science students, and 136 persons comprising a sample of general arts students. At registration in 1961, the only demographic difference was that the Premedical cohort had a greater proportion of catholics and persons from upper occupational classes. Premedical students generally performed as well in high school as science students and better than general arts students, though the academic potential of science students as measured by achievement and aptitude tests was superior. Premedical students performed better on freshman examinations than the other cohorts, though a significantly larger proportion of science students (84.4%) actually passed into second year than of premedical students (75.0%). A disturbing observation was that by second year the Science cohort had recruited more than enough students to balance its losses, while the Premedical cohort had lost three times as many students as it recruited. The net effect was not much reduced by students who entered directly from senior matriculation or other universities, since these students were about twice as likely to enter the Science cohort as they were to enter the Premedical cohort.

Anderson, Donald O.; Riches, Eleanor; Levson, Bryan

1964-01-01

310

Early parenting program as intervention strategy for emotional distress in first-time mothers: a propensity score analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a single session intervention designed to reduce emotional distress in first-time mothers. We held a parenting class for first-time mothers who had given birth at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The program of the class consists of lectures on infant care and group discussion, which is a common form of intervention in Japan. The effectiveness of intervention is assessed according to differences in emotional distress experienced by class participants and nonparticipants, and analyzed by the use of a propensity score method to avoid self-selection bias. In order to be more confident about our results, we employ several variations of this method. Results from statistical analysis show that although the effectiveness of the intervention was limited, it was able to alleviate subjects' loss of self-confidence as mothers. Because this outcome shows a good degree of consistency across methods, it can be considered robust. Moreover, it is roughly consistent with previous studies. Effectiveness can probably be increased by developing a program that improves upon the intervention. PMID:22865390

Okamoto, Miwako; Ishigami, Hideaki; Tokimoto, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Tango, Ryoko

2013-08-01

311

The provision of a percutaneously placed enteral tube feeding service  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is overwhelming evidence that the maintenance of enteral feeding is beneficial in patients in whom oral access has been diminished or lost. Short-term enteral access is usually achieved via naso-enteral tube placement. For longer term tube feeding there are recognised advantages for enteral feeding tubes placed percutaneously. The provision of a percutaneous enteral tube feeding service should be within

David Westaby; Alison Young; Paul OToole; Geoff Smith; David S Sanders

2010-01-01

312

The Foreign Language Requirement: Advising the Anxious Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With renewed emphasis on core curricula, many students are for the first time confronting a foreign language requirement. Some misconceptions about foreign language study, sources of student anxiety, and practical suggestions to advisors are discussed. (MLW)|

Lippmann, Jane N.; Lagowski, Jeanne M.

1985-01-01

313

Compatibility of medications with enteral feedings.  

PubMed

Administration of medications to patients with nasogastric tubes has traditionally been done in a bolus fashion. An alternative to this would be to mix the medications in the continuous drip enteral feeding with subsequent continuous administration. The purpose of this study was to determine the compatibility of select medications with Ensure, Ensure Plus, and Osmolite. We observed neither visible abnormalities in the mixtures nor change in pH of the enteral products after the addition of digoxin, theophylline, phenytoin, methyldopa, or furosemide. The addition of theophylline to all three enteral products caused a substantial increase in the osmolality. We also examined the concentrations of the mixtures to detect any changes occurring over the 12-hr infusion time. A wide variation in concentrations after the addition of phenytoin suspension was corrected by adding the injectable form to the enteral products. Digoxin and furosemide concentrations were essentially unchanged; however, the methyldopa concentration decreased up to 23% over the 12-hr study period. We, therefore, cannot recommend the addition of theophylline, phenytoin suspension, or methyldopa to the three enteral products tested. PMID:3108541

Holtz, L; Milton, J; Sturek, J K

314

The Relationship among Wellness, Psychological Distress, and Social Desirability of Entering Master's-Level Counselor Trainees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two-hundred and four entering master's-level counseling students from 9 programs in 5 states participated in a study testing the only counseling-based wellness assessment measure, the Five Factor Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (J. E. Myers, R. M. Luecht, & T. J. Sweeney, 2004), for its relationship to 2 other constructs: psychological distress…

Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, E. H. "Mike", III; Young, Mark E.

2007-01-01

315

New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Testing. Fall 1987. Entering Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New Jersey Basic Skills Assessment Program was created to determine the status of basic skills preparedness of freshmen entering public colleges and universities and to offer data to help colleges place freshman students in appropriate courses. The New Jersey College Basic Skills Placement Test (NJCBSPT) is a 3-hour-and-20-minute examination…

New Jersey State Dept. of Higher Education, Trenton. New Jersey Basic Skills Council.

316

Young adults who re?enter Australian high schools and drop out again  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 1233 Australian school dropouts who re?entered high school examined the characteristics associated with their subsequent continuation or departure from school. A suite of socioeducational factors was found to correlate with students who were unsuccessful in their reentry attempts. These repeat dropouts exhibited disproportionately as ‘homeless’, as having experienced unemployment, and as being less educationally and occupationally ambitious

Juliette D. G. Goldman; Graham L. Bradley

1996-01-01

317

Social support during childbirth as a catalyst for early breastfeeding initiation for first-time Nigerian mothers  

PubMed Central

Background Initiation of breastfeeding can be difficult in a busy maternity centre with inadequate manpower and social support. This study aims to explore the role of psychosocial support offered by companions on breastfeeding initiation among first-time mothers. Methods This is a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial conducted among women attending the antenatal clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2007. Those in the experimental group were asked to bring someone of their choice to the labour room to act as a companion; the comparison group received standard care. The results of 209 HIV negative women who had vaginal births were analysed. The main outcome measure was time to initiation of breastfeeding after childbirth. Results Of the total, 94 had companions during labour while 115 did not have a companion. The median time to breastfeeding initiation was significantly shorter in those with companions compared to controls (16 vs. 54 minutes; p < 0.01). The cumulative survival analysis indicated that all in the treatment group had initiated breastfeeding by 26 minutes, while among the control group none had commenced at 30 minutes post-delivery with some as late as 12 hours. After Cox regression analysis was used to adjust for possible confounders, the outcome still showed a significant hazard ratio of 207.8 (95%CI 49.2, 878.0; p < 0.01) among women who were supported by a companion. Conclusion Use of companions during labour is associated with earlier time to breastfeeding initiation among first-time mothers in Nigeria. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000994280.

2009-01-01

318

Molecular survey of enteric viruses in commercial chicken farms in Korea with a history of enteritis.  

PubMed

Several enteric viruses have increasingly received attention as potential causative agents of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in chickens. A molecular survey was performed to determine the presence of a broad range of enteric viruses, namely chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken parvovirus (ChPV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian rotavirus (AvRV), avian reovirus (ARV), and fowl adenovirus (FAdV), in intestinal samples derived from 34 commercial chicken flocks that experienced enteritis outbreaks between 2010 and 2012. Using techniques such as PCR and reverse-transcription PCR, enteric viruses were identified in a total of 85.3% of investigated commercial chicken flocks in Korea. Furthermore, diverse combinations of 2 or more enteric viruses were simultaneously identified in 51.7% of chicken farms positive for enteric viruses. The rank order of positivity for enteric viruses was as follows: ANV (44.1%), CAstV (38.2%), ChPV (26.5%), IBV (20.6%), ARV (8.8%), AvRV (5.9%), and FAdV (2.9%). Additionally, other pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Eimeria spp., and FAdV were detected in 79% of chicken flocks positive for enteric viruses using PCR, bacterial isolation, and microscopic examination. The results of our study indicate the presence of several enteric viruses with various combinations in commercial chicken farms that experienced enteritis outbreaks. Experimental studies are required to further understand the roles of enteric viruses in RSS in commercial chickens. PMID:24135590

Koo, B S; Lee, H R; Jeon, E O; Han, M S; Min, K C; Lee, S B; Mo, I P

2013-11-01

319

"Entering Research": A Course that Creates Community and Structure for Beginning Undergraduate Researchers in the STEM Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called "Entering Research" that…

Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn; Branchaw, Janet

2010-01-01

320

Shattuck Lecture - Biomedical Research Enters the Steady State  

Cancer.gov

Shattuck Lecture - Biomedical Research Enters the Steady State Shattuck Lecture - Biomedical Research Enters the Steady State (PDF) Director's Page Biography Research Comments & Commentary Video Archive Messages

321

Enteric Bacteriophages in Saint Louis Bay, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples from four stations in Saint Louis Bay, Mississippi were examined monthly for the presence of enteric bacteriophages over the period from July 1971 to March 1972. The samples were of surface and bottom water, bottom sediment, and surface and gut of...

J. O. Graves

1972-01-01

322

Designer probiotics for prevention of enteric infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many microbial pathogens, including those responsible for major enteric infections, exploit oligosaccharides that are displayed on the surface of host cells as receptors for toxins and adhesins. Blocking crucial ligand–receptor interactions is therefore a promising therapeutic strategy. One approach is to express molecular mimics of host receptors on the surface of harmless recombinant bacteria that can survive in the gut.

Adrienne W. Paton; Renato Morona; James C. Paton

2006-01-01

323

Attachment of Enteric Viruses to Bottles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of water that was deliberately contaminated with enteric viruses in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles led to a rapid decrease of the apparent viral load, thereby hampering the development of samples for a collaborative evaluation of viral detection methods for bottled water. To determine if this decrease was due to spontaneous inactivation or to adhesion, an elution protocol was developed

S. Butot; T. Putallaz; C. Croquet; G. Lamothe; R. Meyer; H. Joosten; G. Sanchez

2007-01-01

324

Enteric neuropathy in horses with grass sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degeneration of enteric neurones has been recorded in grass sickness, but the distribution of the lesions in the gut and their possible relationship with the severity of the clinical signs has not been established. Samples obtained from 11 anatomically defined sites along the gastrointestinal tract of eight control horses without gastrointestinal disease, five horses with acute grass sickness and

SF Scholes; C Vaillant; P Peacock; GB Edwards; DF Kelly

1993-01-01

325

Enteral versus parenteral nutrition: a pragmatic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy persists as to the optimal means of providing adjuvant nutritional support. The aim of this study was to compare enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (TPN) in terms of adequacy of nutritional intake, septic and nonseptic morbidity, and mortality. This was a prospective pragmatic study, whereby the route of delivery of nutritional support was determined by the attending clinician’s

Nicholas P Woodcock; Dietmar Zeigler; M. Diane Palmer; Paul Buckley; Charles J Mitchell; John MacFie

2001-01-01

326

Nation Online: Entering the Broadband Age.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Nation Online: Entering the Broadband Age is the sixth report released by the U.S. Department of Commerce examining the use of computers, the Internet, and other information technology tools by the American people. Based on the U.S. Census Bureaus Curre...

2004-01-01

327

Introducing enteral nutrition support: ethical considerations.  

PubMed

This article explores the potential benefits of, or problems associated with, the insertion of a feeding tube to commence enteral nutrition. Some of the issues that may arise when a patient is no longer able to meet their nutritional needs orally are discussed. PMID:20533668

Best, Carolyn

328

Determining Minimum Cognitive Scores for the First-Time Academic Achievement Success on the Education Doctoral Comprehensive Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of the present study was to estimate minimum admission requirements using cognitive measures that will maximize candidate success on the doctoral comprehensive examination. Moreover, the present study established minimum scores on the Graduate Record Examinations (verbal and quantitative components) that will maximize doctoral student

Cavil, Jafus Kenyatta

2009-01-01

329

The Newborn Behavioral Observations system as a nursing intervention to enhance engagement in first-time mothers: feasibility and desirability.  

PubMed

Engagement is the social process of maternal transition that enables growth and transformation and is linked to attachment and bonding. The feasibility and desirability of the Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) system as a nursing intervention to enhance engagement in first-time mothers were examined. The NBO is an exploration of the newborn conducted with parents to increase their understanding of their infant's behavioral cues as well as how to respond. Perceptions of the NBO were obtained from mothers who participated in NBO sessions in the postpartum period and from unit nurses who had been given information on the NBO. Mothers (n= 10) rated the NBO high for increasing their knowledge of what their infants can do (m=3.7/4.0, SD=0.48), and how to interact with them (m=3.8/4.0, SD=0.63). Two of the activities of engagement, experiencing the infant and active participation in care, emerged as themes from the mothers' qualitative responses. Nurses (n=20) believed the NBO would be an effective intervention. Participants believed the NBO to be an effective nursing intervention for enhancing maternal engagement in the early postpartum period. PMID:17100077

Sanders, Leslie Wesley; Buckner, Ellen B

330

Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HIV among first time attenders of voluntary counseling and testing services in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background This study assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing and counseling services and the predictor characteristics of these outcomes among individuals who presented for the first time to Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) public services. Methods A sample of 244 subjects in the geographic area of Naples (Italy) received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes relating to HIV infection, and practices relating to access to VCT service. Results Only 25% correctly identified the main modes of transmission and the main preventative measures of HIV and this knowledge was significantly higher in who had had more than one sexual partner and have not always used a condom during the intercourse in the last year, in those who have received information about HIV/AIDS through physician, and in those who have received middle school or lower educational level. The perceived risk of contracting HIV/AIDS was significantly higher in respondents of lower age, in those who perceived a better personal health status, and in those unmarried. Only 20.9% reported that they had received the HIV test and males and those who visited a physician or participated in preventive activities about HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to have had an HIV test. Conclusions This study supports the need to disseminate information and interventions to this population.

2013-01-01

331

Determinants of pre-procedural state anxiety and negative affect in first-time colposcopy patients: implications for intervention.  

PubMed

Women experience significant emotional distress in relation to further diagnostic evaluation of pre-cancerous cell changes of the cervix. However, less is known about the specific variables that contribute to elevated state anxiety and negative affect prior to colposcopy. The study aims to identify psychosocial factors that predict distress in this patient group, which can help in the development of more sophisticated interventions to reduce psychological distress. Socio-demographic variables, scores for state anxiety, negative affect, trait anxiety, fear of pain, coping style, pain-related expectancy and knowledge were assessed in 164 first-time colposcopy patients immediately before the colposcopy examination. Twenty-six per cent of variance in pre-colposcopy state anxiety was significantly explained by marital status, parity, trait anxiety, fear of minor pain and expectations of discomfort. Twenty-nine per cent of variance in pre-colposcopy negative affect was significantly explained by trait anxiety and expectations of pain. Women who are single, have children, are high trait anxious, and anticipate pain and discomfort appear to be at risk for pre-colposcopy distress. Interventions aimed at reducing pre-colposcopy psychological distress should include situation-specific variables that are amenable to change, and trait anxious women are likely to benefit from interventions to reduce distress. PMID:22129200

Kola, S; Walsh, J C

2011-11-30

332

Making use of expertise: a qualitative analysis of the experience of breastfeeding support for first-time mothers.  

PubMed

There is now a body of research evaluating breastfeeding interventions and exploring mothers' and health professionals' views on effective and ineffective breastfeeding support. However, this literature leaves relatively unexplored a number of questions about how breastfeeding women experience and make sense of their relationships with those trained to provide breastfeeding support. The present study collected qualitative data from 22 breastfeeding first-time mothers in the United Kingdom on their experiences of, and orientation towards, relationships with maternity care professionals and other breastfeeding advisors. The data were obtained from interviews and audio-diaries at two time points during the first 5 weeks post-partum. We discuss a key theme within the data of 'Making use of expertise' and three subthemes that capture the way in which the women's orientation towards those assumed to have breastfeeding expertise varied according to whether the women (1) adopted a position of consulting experts vs. one of deferring to feeding authorities; (2) experienced difficulty interpreting their own and their baby's bodies; and (3) experienced the expertise of health workers as empowering or disempowering. Although sometimes mothers felt empowered by aligning themselves with the scientific approach and 'normalising gaze' of health care professionals, at other times this gaze could be experienced as objectifying and diminishing. The merits and limitations of a person-centred approach to breastfeeding support are discussed in relation to using breastfeeding expertise in an empowering rather than disempowering way. PMID:23557351

Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Johnson, Sally; Lyttle, Steven

2013-04-01

333

Target organ toxicities in studies conducted to support first time in man dosing: an analysis across species and therapy areas.  

PubMed

An analysis of target organ toxicities in first time in man (FTiM) toxicity studies for 77 AstraZeneca candidate drugs (CDs) was conducted across a range of therapy areas. In the rodent, the most frequently affected organ was the liver followed by adrenal glands, kidney, spleen, bone marrow and thymus. In non-rodent, liver and thymus were the most frequently affected organs, followed closely by the testis and GI tract. The profile of affected organs was largely similar across the therapy areas of respiratory and inflammation, cardiovascular/gastrointestinal and CNS/pain. The oncology/infection therapy area differed with a larger range of organs affected. For the 75 CDs for which both rodent and non-rodent studies were conducted, new target organs were identified in non-rodents for 43 of the CDs. Notably, the changes seen only in non-rodents included organ systems of high relevance for human risk assessment such as the liver, male reproductive tissues and CNS. Additionally, profiles were similar for those CDs that progressed into human trials and those that did not. Overall, our data provide new insights into drug toxicity profiles in pre-clinical species and additionally confirm the value of using non-rodents as a second species in toxicity testing to support human safety. PMID:23422911

Horner, Steve; Ryan, David; Robinson, Sally; Callander, Richard; Stamp, Katie; Roberts, Ruth A

2013-02-17

334

Environmental toxins trigger PD-like progression via increased alpha-synuclein release from enteric neurons in mice  

PubMed Central

Pathological studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suggest that PD pathology progresses from the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the olfactory bulb into the central nervous system. We have previously shown that environmental toxins acting locally on the ENS mimic this PD-like pathology progression pattern in mice. Here, we show for the first time that the resection of the autonomic nerves stops this progression. Moreover, our results show that an environmental toxin (i.e. rotenone) promotes the release of alpha-synuclein by enteric neurons and that released enteric alpha-synuclein is up-taken by presynaptic sympathetic neurites and retrogradely transported to the soma, where it accumulates. These results strongly suggest that pesticides can initiate the progression of PD pathology and that this progression is based on the transneuronal and retrograde axonal transport of alpha-synuclein. If confirmed in patients, this study would have crucial implications in the strategies used to prevent and treat PD.

Pan-Montojo, Francisco; Schwarz, Mathias; Winkler, Clemens; Arnhold, Mike; O'Sullivan, Gregory A.; Pal, Arun; Said, Jonas; Marsico, Giovanni; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Gille, Gabriele; Funk, Richard H. W.; Reichmann, Heinz

2012-01-01

335

Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis  

SciTech Connect

The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

1985-01-01

336

Orbits of neutral atoms entering the heliosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trajectories of neutral hydrogen atoms of interstellar origin entering the heliosphere were computed for a velocity-dependent radiation pressure force resulting from a double-peaked (self-reversed) solar Lyman-alpha emission line. Graphs of orbits with different impact parameters are shown both for double-peaked and rectangular Lyman-alpha profiles for several values of the solar Lyman-alpha flux. In the case of velocity dependent radiation pressure

S. Grzedzielski; G. Sitarski

1975-01-01

337

Pathogenesis of feline enteric coronavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-one specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats 10 weeks to 13 years of age were infected with a cat-to-cat fecal–oral passed strain of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Clinical signs ranged from unapparent to a mild and self-limiting diarrhea. Twenty-nine of these cats were FECV naïve before infection and followed sequentially for fecal virus shedding and antibody responses over a period of 8–48

Niels C. Pedersen; Claire E. Allen; Leslie A. Lyons

2008-01-01

338

Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study  

PubMed Central

Background Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for the newborn infant. However, since all infants cannot be breast-fed, there is a need for background data for setting adequate daily intakes. Previously, concentration data on major essential elements and some toxic elements in breast milk, based on different analytical techniques, have been published. There is no recent study on a large number of metals and trace elements in breast milk, using a sensitive analytical method for determination of low element concentrations. Methods Breast milk concentrations of 32 metals and elements in early lactation (days 14-21) were determined in a random sample of first time Swedish mothers (n?=?60) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Results There were small inter-individual concentration variations in the macroelements Ca, K, Mg, P and S, and striking similarities across studies and over time, supporting a tight regulation of these elements in breast milk. Large inter-individual and over time differences were detected for Na concentrations, which may reflect an increase in salt consumption in Swedish women. Large inter-individual differences were also detected for the microelements Co, Cr, Mn and Mo, and the toxic metals As, Cd, Pb, Sb and V. Arsenic and B were positively correlated with fish consumption, indicating influence of maternal intake on breast milk concentrations. Observed differences in breast milk element concentrations across studies and over time could be attributed to the timing of sampling and a general decline over time of lactation (Cu, Fe, Mo, Zn), a possible lack of regulation of certain elements in breast milk (As, B, Co, Mn, Se) and time trends in environmental exposure (Pb), or in some cases to differences in analytical performance (Cr, Fe). Conclusions This study provides reliable updated information on a number of metals and elements in breast milk, of which some have not previously been reported.

2012-01-01

339

Experience of childbirth in first-time mothers of advanced age - a Norwegian population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Delaying the first childbirth to an advanced age has increased significantly during the last decades, but little is known about older first time mothers’ experience of childbirth. This study investigates the associations between advanced maternal age in primiparous women and the postnatal assessment of childbirth. Methods The study was based on the National Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data on 30 065 nulliparous women recruited in the second trimester 1999–2008 were used. Three questionnaires were completed: around gestational week 17 and 30, and at 6 months postpartum. Medical data were retrieved from the national Medical Birth Register. Advanced age was defined as ?32 years and the reference group as 25–31 years. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Primiparous women aged 32 years and above expressed more worry about the upcoming birth than the younger women (adjusted OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.06-1.21), and 6 months after the birth they had a slightly higher risk of having experienced childbirth as ‘worse than expected’ (adjusted OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.02-1.16). The difference in birth experience was explained by mode of delivery. Comparisons within subgroups defined by the same mode of delivery showed that the risk of a more negative birth experience in the older women only applied to those with a spontaneous vaginal birth (adjusted OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.02-1.22). In women delivered by cesarean section, the older more often than younger women rated childbirth as ‘better than expected’ (elective cesarean delivery: adjusted OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.01-1.85, emergency cesarean delivery: adjusted OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.03-1.84). Conclusion Postponing childbirth to ?32 years of age only marginally affected the experience of childbirth. Older women seemed to manage better than younger with having an operative delivery.

2013-01-01

340

[ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition--summary].  

PubMed

Under the auspices of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) clinical practice guidelines were systematically developed by 88 experts from 20 different countries between spring 2004 and winter 2005 in a predefined evidence and consensus based process. Evidence was gathered by a structured literature search, and the quality and strength of the evidence was graded according to published standards. On this basis recommendations were formulated which were then finalised in a consensus conference. The recommendations and their grades were summarized in table form. The German translation of these tables is now published for the following chapters: Intensive care, surgery including organ transplantation, non-surgical oncology, gastroenterology, pancreas, liver disease, adult renal failure, cardiology and pulmonology, wasting in HIV and chronic infectious diseases, geriatrics. The full text and the comments are available in ,,Clinical Nutrition" as well as on the internet under www.espen.org and www.dgem.de. The ESPEN guidelines enteral nutrition reflect the current medical knowledge in the field of enteral nutrition therapy and may help to decide when enteral nutrition is indicated and which therapeutic goals can be reached. PMID:16995289

Schütz, T; Valentini, L; Herbst, B; Lochs, H

2006-08-01

341

A Smooth Transition? Education and Social Expectations of Direct Entry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While the most common type of student entering higher education falls within the 17-19-year-old age group, universities in the UK are keen to accept other categories of students onto programmes as a means of increasing diversity and maintaining student numbers in the latter portion of a programme. One such category is those students who enter a…

Barron, Paul; D'Annunzio-Green, Norma

2009-01-01

342

Chemistry Crosswords: Learning Activities to Support Non-Taditional Students in Third Level Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity of students entering third level science education has been widely discussed and attributed to the government policy on widening of participation in education. This has led to an enhanced number of “non traditional” students entering third level courses in Ireland. The diversity of the current third level student body may be attributed to the raised awareness of students with

Christine OConnor; Claire Mc Donnell; Michael Seery

2010-01-01

343

Evaluation of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented childbirth education programme for Chinese first-time childbearing women: A randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study investigated the effects of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented childbirth psychoeducation programme on postnatal depression, psychological well-being and satisfaction with interpersonal relationships in Chinese first-time childbearing women.

Ling-ling Gao; Sally Wai-chi Chan; Xiaomao Li; Shaoxian Chen; Yuantao Hao

2010-01-01

344

Developing a Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention for First-Time Adolescent Offenders At-Risk for an Alcohol or Drug Use Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how teens who had committed a first-time alcohol or other drug (AOD) offense responded to a motivational interviewing (MI) group intervention. Participants were 101 first-time AOD adolescent offenders (M = 15.88; 63% male, 54% Hispanic). The authors developed and tested a six-session curriculum called Free Talk and solicited feedback from different teens after each session. Groups were

Elizabeth J. DAmico; Karen Chan Osilla; Sarah B. Hunter

2010-01-01

345

Development Review Integrative Literature Review: Increasing Retention and Success of First-Time Managers: A Model of Three Integral Processes for the Transition to Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making the transition to management is one of the most difficult challenges first-time managers face. Organizations pay for the failure of first-time managers and benefit from their success. The purpose of this article is to challenge Hill’s (1992) argument that the transition to management involves two processes: “a process of learning from experience” and “a transformation of professional identity” (p.

Maria S. Plakhotnik; Tonette S. Rocco; Nella Ann Roberts

2011-01-01

346

First-Time Inversion Ankle Ligament TraumaThe Effects of Sex, Level of Competition, and Sport on the Incidence of Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inversion ankle trauma is disabling, yet little is known regarding the incidence rate of first-time ankle sprains and how it is influenced by factors including sex, level of competition, and sport.Hypothesis: The incidence rates of first-time ankle ligament sprains are influenced by sex, level of competition (high school vs college), and type of sports participation (basketball, soccer, lacrosse, and

Bruce D. Beynnon; Pamela M. Vacek; Darlene Murphy; Denise Alosa; David Paller

2005-01-01

347

African swine fever virus uses macropinocytosis to enter host cells.  

PubMed

African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved. PMID:22719252

Sánchez, Elena G; Quintas, Ana; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Nogal, Marisa; Barroso, Susana; Carrascosa, Ángel L; Revilla, Yolanda

2012-06-14

348

Graduate student success in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied all graduate students who entered the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1965 through 1970 with respect to their success as graduate students. The predictors were the standard admission variables (e.g., Graduate Record Examination scores, undergraduate grades). The criteria included obtaining the doctorate, time taken to obtain the degree, and type and number of

Nancy Hirschberg; Stuart Itkin

1978-01-01

349

Astrobiology Student Science Fair Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrasolar Planet Transit and The Light Curve of a Variable Star are some titles of high school student projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. These students were mentored by teachers who participated in the UH Institute for Astronomy Toward Other Planetary Systems summer program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech. After attending several 3-week TOPS NSF

M. Kadooka; K. J. Meech

2004-01-01

350

'Inconvenient biology:' advantages and disadvantages of first-time parenting after age 40 using in vitro fertilization  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND As ages at first birth have steadily risen in the industrial west over the last several decades, the phenomenon of ‘delayed childbearing’ has come under research scrutiny by demographers, medical specialists and social scientists. In this study, we specifically explore the perceived advantages and disadvantages of postponed conception as well as participants’ retrospective opinions on the ‘optimal age’ for parenting. METHODS To this end, we examined a cohort purposely chosen to epitomize delayed childbearing, i.e. men and women who used IVF to conceive at the very end of their reproductive capability. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 with 46 couples and 15 individual self-selected US women and men who had used IVF to conceive their first child when the woman was aged 40 or older at the time of delivery. Although the demographics of this cohort were consistent with others who use IVF in the USA, their median income was 3–4 times higher than that of the average US family, which may bias their largely positive parenting experiences. RESULTS Most women and men believed that childbearing later in life resulted in advantages for themselves and their families. These included having established careers with financial security and career-time flexibility, enhanced emotional preparedness, committed co-parenting relationships and a positive overall family experience. The main disadvantage was the unexpected difficulty in conceiving that culminated in the use of IVF and resulted in a smaller family than desired, although many expressed feeling ‘lucky’ to have children at all. Other disadvantages were lack of energy for parenting, less available lifetime to spend with children and anticipated stigma as older parents. CONCLUSIONS These disadvantages appear to have influenced conception and parenting experiences so that in hindsight the majority of participants identified the optimal age for first-time parenting as 5–10 years earlier than they had conceived. This age range was imagined to maximize the financial and emotional advantages of later parenting while minimizing the impact of age-related infertility, diminished energy, anticipated health issues and the social stigma of appearing too old to parent.

Mac Dougall, K.; Beyene, Y.; Nachtigall, R.D.

2012-01-01

351

Students and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

352

Student Attitude Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A ten item questionnaire dealing with parental family income, the legalization of marijuana, pollution, and a volunteer army was administered to the entering freshman class on September 6, 1970. The results indicate that the freshmen tend to underestimate the actual earning power of their fellow students' families by approximately $1,800.…

Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

353

Student Attitude Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A ten item questionnaire dealing with parental family income, the legalization of marijuana, pollution, and a volunteer army was administered to the entering freshman class on September 6, 1970. The results indicate that the freshmen tend to underestimate the actual earning power of their fellow students' families by approximately $1,800. However,…

Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

354

Eosinophilic enteritis: a rare cause of diarrhoea.  

PubMed

We report a case of a healthy young man presenting with 1-week history of diarrhoea, acute abdominal pain and weight loss. Laboratory investigation showed very high peripheral eosinophils levels. After exclusion of the other causes of eosinophilia, a histological bowel sample analysis revealed marked eosinophilic infiltration of a small bowel mucosal layer which confirmed the suspicion of eosinophilic enteritis. Unlike most of the described cases, this patient did not require any specific treatment. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare and heterogeneous disease that is probably underdiagnosed in clinical practice because it requires a high degree of suspicion and an endoscopic biopsy for definite diagnosis. PMID:24081600

Lladó, Ana; Oliveira, João; Silva, Pedro; Pinheiro, Sofia

2013-09-30

355

Early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients.  

PubMed

Malnutrition in the critically ill patient is associated with adverse outcomes such as increased morbidity, infectious processes, and length of stay. Alterations to the gastrointestinal system during critical illness can be devastating. Current evidence suggests that, in the presence of a functioning gut, initiating early enteral nutrition therapy (within 24-48 hours of intensive care unit admission) results in enhanced tissue repair, preservation of immune competence, and conservation of the integrity of gut flora. Recommendations for practice include development of a national nutrition support protocol for widespread use in the intensive care unit. PMID:22874539

Rubinsky, Melissa D; Clark, Angela P

356

Generalized entering coefficients: A criterion for foam stability against oil in porous media  

SciTech Connect

The unique mobility-control properties of foam in porous media make it an attractive choice as an injection fluid for enhanced oil recovery. Unfortunately, in many cases oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important to understand how oil destabilizes foam and what surfactant properties lead to increased stability against oil. To explain the stability of foam in porous media in the presence of oil, we generalize the ideas of spreading and entering behavior using Frumkin-Deryaguin wetting theory. This formulation overcomes the inherent deficiencies in the classical spreading and entering coefficients used to explain foam stability against oil. We find that oil-tolerant foam can be produced by making the oil surface ``water wet``. To test our theoretical ideas, we measure foam-flow resistance through 45--70 {mu}m glass beadpacks, surface and interfacial tensions, and disjoining pressure isotherms for foam and pseudoemulsion films for a variety of surfactant/oil systems. Most notably, we measure pseudoemulsion-film disjoining pressure isotherms for the first time and directly establish that pseudoemulsion film stability controls the stability of the foam in the systems we tested. Moreover, we demonstrate the correspondence between stable pseudoemulsion films, negative entering behavior, and oil-tolerant foams.

Bergeron, V.; Fagan, M.E.; Radke, C.J.

1993-09-01

357

Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Adjustment of Accelerated Students, Students in Gifted Classes, and Regular Students in Eighth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study found that accelerated students (n=365) and students (n=334) in gifted classes had better perceptions of their social relationships and emotional development and fewer behavior problems than did regular students (n=323). The accelerated eighth graders who entered school early or skipped elementary grades did not report social…

Sayler, Micheal F.; Brookshire, William K.

1993-01-01

358

Attachment of enteric viruses to bottles.  

PubMed

Storage of water that was deliberately contaminated with enteric viruses in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles led to a rapid decrease of the apparent viral load, thereby hampering the development of samples for a collaborative evaluation of viral detection methods for bottled water. To determine if this decrease was due to spontaneous inactivation or to adhesion, an elution protocol was developed and combined with a rapid and sensitive real-time reverse transcription-PCR-based method to quantify adsorbed norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and rotavirus (RV) on bottle walls. The NV retention on PET bottle walls after 20 and 62 days reached an average level of 85% and 95% of the recovered inoculum, respectively. HAV and RV also showed adsorption onto PET bottles, reaching 90% and 80%, respectively, after 20 days of storage. NV and RV attachment was demonstrated to be dependent on the presence of autochthonous flora, whereas HAV adsorption was independent of it. Application of the elution and viral detection protocol to 294 commercially available water bottles obtained from 25 different countries did not give any positive result, thereby providing further evidence that the sources used for this product are free from enteric viruses and support for the theory that bottled water is not a vehicle for viral diseases. PMID:17586668

Butot, S; Putallaz, T; Croquet, C; Lamothe, G; Meyer, R; Joosten, H; Sánchez, G

2007-06-22

359

Cost effectiveness of an enteral products formulary.  

PubMed

The development, implementation, and resultant cost savings of a revised enteral products formulary at a 430-bed, community teaching hospital are described. In 1982, a review of the available enteral nutrition products (ENPs) was performed by the pharmacy and food service departments in conjunction with the pharmacy and therapeutics committee. Three broad categories of products were identified--intact-protein, chemically defined, and modular formulas--with 11 subgroups. Products were then evaluated for inclusion on the restricted formulary on the basis of osmolality; source, quality, and proportions of protein, carbohydrate, and fat; electrolyte, mineral, and vitamin content; and cost. Fourteen products were admitted to the restricted 1983 formulary. Previously, 20 products had been stocked by the pharmacy. Products from two subgroups, blenderized and mild-base diets, were deleted from the formulary because of cost, infrequent use, and availability of suitable alternatives. To decrease inventory carrying costs, products are stocked in vanilla or unflavored form, with flavoring packets available. Educational efforts were undertaken to increase the medical staff's awareness of the revised formulary. Within three months of implementation of the revised formulary, purchase of nonformulary items had ceased. A considerable cost savings was achieved because of the formulary. PMID:6439034

Durfee, D D; Skinner-Domet, V M

1984-11-01

360

Central and local (enteric) action of orexins.  

PubMed

Orexin-A (OXA, hypocretin-1) and orexin-B (OXB, hypocretin-2) are peptides derived from the same 130 amino acid long precursor (prepro-orexin) that bind and activate two closely related orphan G protein-coupled receptors. Orexins and their receptors were first discovered in the rat brain, and soon after that in peripheral neural structures, including the vagal nerve and enteric nervous system, and in other structures involving the gastrointestinal tract diffuse neuroendocrine system, pancreas tissue, stomach and intestinal mucosa. Orexins and their receptors were also demonstrated in the testes, adrenals, kidneys, and placenta. This review is focused on central and enteric actions. Originally, orexins were considered to be neurotransmitters that centrally stimulate food intake in animals and humans, but it soon became evident that their action is broader due to activation of a large number of neuronal pathways involved in energy homeostasis, sleep-awake behavior, nociception reward seeking, food and drug addiction, as well as reproduction, cardiovascular and adrenal function. In the gastrointestinal tract, orexins have been found so far to affect gastrointestinal motility and gastric, intestinal and pancreatic secretions. The effects were observed following central (intraventricular) or local (intraluminal, intraarterial), but not peripheral (intravenous), administrations of orexins. Since the expression of orexins in the gastrointestinal tract is enhanced during fasting, and fasting reveals many of the orexin gastrointestinal effects, it seems probable that on the local level, orexins keep the gastrointestinal tract functions ready during fasting and play role in brain-gut axis control. PMID:17228085

Korczynski, W; Ceregrzyn, M; Matyjek, R; Kato, I; Kuwahara, A; Wolinski, J; Zabielski, R

2006-11-01

361

Direct exposure to animal enteric pathogens.  

PubMed

Humans have very close interactions with working, food-producing, and companion animals. According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, there are more than one hundred million cat and dog pets in the United States. Furthermore, non-traditional pets like reptiles and exotic birds are not unusual companion animals in households. In addition to sharing with animals our living and/or working space and time, we also share, unfortunately, many disease causing microorganisms. In the past few years, we have become aware that several enteric pathogens that were thought to be mostly restricted to animals are a major cause of human disease. Examples of such pathogens include the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum and bacteria such as Campylobacter spp. This review will examine the characteristics of zoonotic enteric pathogens including bacterial (Helicobacter spp., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli); parasitic (Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp.); and viral (rotavirus, norwalk-like virus, hepatitis E virus), and the status of our knowledge with regard to the impact of such pathogens on human health. PMID:11512628

Enriquez, C; Nwachuku, N; Gerba, C P

362

Nontraditional, Female, Commuter Students: Coping with College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unique needs of nontraditional, female, commuter students at Northern Kentucky University were examined as a result of active recruitment of nontraditional students in the dwindling market for traditional college students. Women over the age of 25 are entering Northern Kentucky University, bringing unique personal and career problems. Problem…

Rogers, George W., Jr.

363

The legal ramifications of student internships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the criminal justice field, as in all others, student internships, or field experience, provide students with hands?on, practical experience in an area of interest to them. Such arrangements also provide the law enforcement agency with additional temporary manpower and an ability to monitor the quality and substance of those about to enter the workforce. Student internships are important also

Sherry L. Biddinger Gregg; Jeffrey L. Schrink

1997-01-01

364

Racial stereotypes of one hundred college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of agreement among the students in assigning characteristics from a list of 84 adjectives to different races seemed too great to be the result solely of the students' contacts with members of those races. Individual experience may have entered into a student's judgment, but it probably did so to confirm the original stereotype which he had learned. Because

D. Katz; K. Braly

1933-01-01

365

Online Options for Math-Advanced Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Once upon a time, a student well advanced past grade level in math would have had few choices. Advanced students would invariably outpace the skills of their elementary teachers, and due to age wouldn't have options such as going to the middle school or community college for classes. Soon thereafter, students would enter middle school only to…

Wessling, Suki

2012-01-01

366

Inactivation of Enteric Pathogens during Aerobic Digestion of Wastewater Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion ...

S. R. Farrah G. Bitton S. G. Zam

1986-01-01

367

INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

368

Maximize Student Time On Task  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student time on task is the most influential factor in student achievement. To maximize time on task, teachers need to make decisions about the systems they install in their classroom well before any students enter the room. Beginning the school year by explicitly teaching process skills and having classroom operating systems that reinforce process skills are two strategies that lay the foundation for logical thinking throughout the year, which are discussed in this article.

Peters, Erin

2004-09-01

369

Enteral nutrition in patients with acute renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition in patients with acute renal failure.BackgroundSystematic studies on safety and efficacy of enteral nutrition in patients with acute renal failure (ARF) are lacking.MethodsWe studied enteral nutrition–related complications and adequacy of nutrient administration during 2525 days of artificial nutrition in 247 consecutive patients fed exclusively by the enteral route: 65 had normal renal function, 68 had ARF not requiring

ENRICO FIACCADORI; UMBERTO MAGGIORE; ROBERTO GIACOSA; CARLO ROTELLI; EDOARDO PICETTI; SIBILLA SAGRIPANTI; LUIGI MELFA; TIZIANA MESCHI; LORIS BORGHI; ADERVILLE CABASSI

2004-01-01

370

An Exploratory Study of First-Semester Student Attrition in a Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if student background variables (age, gender, race, academic preparation); student status (part/full-time student), and student circumstances (commuting distance, independent/dependent financial student status) could predict fall-to-spring attrition (2006-2007) in a sample of 542 first-time,…

Scott, Ophelia Turner

2010-01-01

371

46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154.1850 ...154.1850 Entering cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that...person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo pumps,...

2012-10-01

372

46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154.1850 ...154.1850 Entering cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that...person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo pumps,...

2011-10-01

373

Great Books for Entering Black Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a list of books considered by scholars to be important for African American college freshmen to read. The recommendations are accompanied by reasons as to why these books may have a profound effect on the lives of these students. (GLR)|

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.; And Others

1994-01-01

374

Adult Jewish Learners: Entering the Conversation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the past decade, the author has conducted research about the learning journeys of contemporary Jewish adults enriched by insights of adult education scholars and practitioners. While the author has benefited from the perspectives of colleagues, it is the burgeoning population of adult students that has most profoundly influenced her…

Schuster, Diane Tickton

2005-01-01

375

Home enteral nutrition and organizing models. Organization and risks of pediatric home enteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is the only possible alternative to staying in hospital for patients with malnutrition due to several diseases. In pediatric patients HEN is usually request- ed by the specialty medical team or by the general pediatrician. The nutritional team, pediatrician, home care staff, and hospital specialists collaborate to give the patient effective treatment. When dealing with malnourished

G. L. NANNETTI; B. ABBATE

376

Rhetorical Analysis as Introductory Speech: Jumpstarting Student Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When students enter the basic public speaking classroom,When students enter the basic public speaking classroom, they are asked to develop an introductory speech. This assignment typically focuses on a speech of self-introduction for which there are several pedagogical underpinnings: it provides an immediate and relatively stress-free speaking…

Malone, Marc P.

2012-01-01

377

Student Retention and Graduation at North Carolina State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Student retention and attrition patterns of entering freshmen at North Carolina State University and a description of transfer student retention and attrition are presented. The status of freshmen entering the college from 1971-1976 is given in terms of: total freshmen, black freshmen, white freshmen, freshmen females, freshmen males, graduation…

Gracie, Larry W.

378

Student Retention and Graduation at North Carolina State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student retention and attrition patterns of entering freshmen at North Carolina State University and a description of transfer student retention and attrition are presented. The status of freshmen entering the college from 1971-1976 is given in terms of: total freshmen, black freshmen, white freshmen, freshmen females, freshmen males, graduation…

Gracie, Larry W.

379

[Endoscopic and surgical procedures for enteral nutrition].  

PubMed

Standardized management of oncology patients necessarily includes screening for nutritional risk. Weight loss of >?5 kg within 3 months and diminished food intake are warning signals even in overweight patients. In case oral nutrition is neither adequate nor feasible even by fortification or oral nutritional supplements, the implantation of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or fine needle catheter jejunostomy (FNCJ) offers enteral access for long-term nutritional support. Although the indications derive from fulfilling caloric needs, endoscopic or operative measures are not considered to be an urgent or even emergency measure. The endoscopist or surgeon should be fully aware and informed of the indications and make a personal assessment of the situation. The implantation of a feeding tube requires informed consent of the patient or legal surrogates. The review summarizes recent indications, technical problems and complications. PMID:23719727

Wallstabe, I; Tiedemann, A; Schiefke, I; Weimann, A

2013-07-01

380

Vaccines for enteric diseases: a meeting summary.  

PubMed

The 6th Vaccines for Enteric Diseases Symposium was held in Cannes, France, on 14-16 September 2011, drawing approximately 200 vaccine developers, academics and public health experts globally. Infectious diarrhea is a worldwide problem with high mortality and morbidity, particularly among children in the developing world. The WHO estimated approximately 8.8 million deaths in 2008 in young children aged 1-59 months, of which almost 2 million could be attributed to diarrheal illnesses--more than malaria, HIV/AIDS and TB combined. New breakthroughs in vaccine development, early clinical trials for the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, noroviruses and conjugate typhoid vaccines, and updates on the implementation of rotavirus, cholera and typhoid vaccines were reported. PMID:22551024

Steele, Duncan; Riddle, Mark; van de Verg, Lillian; Bourgeois, Louis

2012-04-01

381

Needs assessment of enteral nutrition support products.  

PubMed

An opinion survey of San Diego hospital health care professionals who use enteral nutrition products for patient care identified cost as an important factor but indicated that quality control, special nutrition features, and wide application of use were even more important product characteristics considered prior to purchase. There was general agreement that customer service, along with volume discounts, was a crucial aspect of successful marketing. The need for local availability of products was also stressed repeatedly. The importance of high-cost product promotions by vendors was downplayed. Health professionals want more nutrition products with specialized compositional profiles (e.g., low or high protein, low sodium, and gluten- and lactose-free), improved flavor, and convenient single-serving packaging. PMID:3932503

Josephson, R V; Rupp, J W; Chambers, J F

1985-11-01

382

Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

1984-03-01

383

Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production.  

PubMed

The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Our work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, we integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes. Recently, the ability to produce and secrete high levels of endoglucanase has also been added to strain P2, further reducing the requirement for fungal cellulase. The general approach for the genetic engineering of new biocatalysts using the PET operon has been most successful with Enteric bacteria but was also extended to Gram positive bacteria, which have other useful traits for lignocellulose conversion. Many opportunities remain for further improvements in these biocatalysts as we proceed toward the development of single organisms that can be used for the efficient fermentation of both hemicellulosic and cellulosic substrates. PMID:10514255

Ingram, L O; Aldrich, H C; Borges, A C; Causey, T B; Martinez, A; Morales, F; Saleh, A; Underwood, S A; Yomano, L P; York, S W; Zaldivar, J; Zhou, S

384

Parenteral and enteral nutrition in the management of neurosurgical patients in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

The iatrogenic malnutrition of neurosurgical patients in intensive care units (ICU) is an underestimated problem. It may cause a decrease in plasma albumin and oncotic pressure, leading to an increase in the amount of water entering the brain and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that combined high-protein parenteral and enteral nutrition is beneficial for neurosurgical patients in ICU. A total of 202 neurosurgical patients in ICU (mean age+/-standard deviation, 56 years+/-16 years; male:female=1.2:1) were studied. Two consecutive 1-year time periods were compared, during which two different nutritional regimens were followed. In the first time period (Y1) patients were given a low-protein/high-fat formulation parenterally, followed by a standard enteral regimen. In the second time period (Y2) a protein-rich, combined parenteral and enteral diet was prospectively administered. The Glasgow Outcome Score was measured at 3-6 months after discharge. The following clinical parameters were recorded during the first 2 weeks after admission: ICP; albumin; cholinesterase (CHE); daily hours of ICP > 20 mmHg and cerebral perfusion pressure<70 mmHg; and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. It was found that overall albumin (32.4 g/L+/-4.1g/L vs. 27.5 g/L+/-3.6g/L) and CHE was higher during Y2, although the total energy supply, glucose and fat intake was lower. Higher GOS scores were seen when patients had lower APACHE II scores and received the Y2 nutritional regimen. During Y2, the total hours of ICP > 20 mmHg were fewer. With the Y2 nutrition, maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion required less catecholamine medication and colloidal fluid replacement. Therefore, adequate nutrition is an important parameter in the management of neurosurgical patients in ICU. PMID:19570684

Oertel, Matthias F; Hauenschild, Annette; Gruenschlaeger, Jessica; Mueller, Bjoern; Scharbrodt, Wolfram; Boeker, Dieter-Karten

2009-06-30

385

Success and Interactive Learning: Sailing Toward Student Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Success and Interactive Learning's (SAIL) front-loaded retention activities and unique financial incentives have combined to improve retention, persistence, and success of first-time college students. Its effectiveness has been validated through a comparison of retention rates and aggregate quality-point averages of SAIL cohorts with those rates for overall first-time freshman cohorts.

Richard Midcap; Joan Seitzer; Randy Holliday; Amy Childs; Dana Bowser

2008-01-01

386

Returning to work? Preferences and decisions of first-time mothers about engagement in paid work and care of their child  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective longitudinal study investigates the preferences and decisions of first-time mothers about engagement in paid work and care of their child. The study tracks 124 mothers as they negotiate their preferred options through to their actual decisions about paid work and care in the first year of their child’s life. Such evidence provides better understanding of the influences on

Wendy Anne Boyd; Karen J Thorpe; Collette Patria Tayler

2009-01-01

387

Perceptions of Motivators and Barriers to Public Prenatal Care Among First-Time and Follow-Up Adolescent Patients and Their Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare perceptions of the motivators and barriers to obtaining public prenatal care from the perspectives of pregnant adolescents coming for first-time and follow-up appointments, as well as among those of their prenatal care providers. Method: The patient sample consisted of 250 consecutive, adolescent, public prenatal patients coming to one of the 5 prenatal clinics in one county in

Sarah E. Teagle; Claire D. Brindis

1998-01-01

388

Identifying Gendered Trajectories of Offending for a Panel of First Time Youth Offenders: Exploring the Influence of Time-Stable Covariates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gendered trajectories of juvenile offending over an eight year observation period are specified for a retrospective longitudinal sample of 15,959 female and male first time offenders up to age 18 in a southeastern state. Semiparametric group modeling is u...

C. Weaver

2010-01-01

389

Low-income first time mothers: Effects on advanced practice nurse (APN) follow up telephone calls on maternal and infant health and health care charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has over 4 million births annually. Currently healthy women with non-complicated deliveries receive little to no routine postpartum support when discharged from the hospital. This is especially problematic if mothers are first time mothers, poor, have language barriers and little to no social support after giving birth. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to compare

Jean L Hannan

2010-01-01

390

1What do first-time mothers worry about? A study of usage patterns and content of calls made to a postpartum support telephone hotline  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Telephone hotlines designed to address common concerns in the early postpartum could be a useful resource for parents. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using a telephone as an intervention in a randomized controlled trial. We also aimed to test to use of algorithms to address parental concerns through a telephone hotline. METHODS: Healthy first-time mothers were

Hibah Osman; Monique Chaaya; Lama El Zein; Georges Naassan; Livia Wick

2010-01-01

391

Reducing the Rate of Recidivism for First-Time Juvenile Offenders with the Parent Monitoring Program, PMP: A Family Counseling Intervention Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effectiveness of a family counseling intervention program called the Parent Monitoring Program (PMP) on reducing the rate of recidivism with first-time juvenile offenders in New Orleans, Louisiana. The PMP is a multimodal treatment intervention that combines individual, family, and group, counseling services to juvenile offenders and their families. Pugh, Force, Rault, and Triche (2000) reported that

Rhonda C. Vappie-Aydin

2007-01-01

392

'I wouldn’t leave them somewhere that made me feel insecure': Preferences of expectant first-time mothers for care of their child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia, like other developed economies, has witnessed continual increase in maternal employment over the past two decades – 40% in 1983 to 53% in 2007. This trend has placed focus on both supply of child care1 and demand for quality care. This study examined preferences for care of the child among 124 Australian women expecting their first child. Expectant first-time

Wendy Anne Boyd; Collette Patria Tayler; Karen J Thorpe

2008-01-01

393

Contribution of Infants' Sleep and Crying to Marital Relationship of First-Time Parent Couples in the 1st Year After Childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the influence of infants' sleep and crying on marital relationship in first-time parent couples (N = 107) during the 1st year after birth. Control variables are parents' insomnia and parental self-efficacy in handling the baby. Questionnaires were administered to both parents before birth, at 2 and 7 weeks after birth, and at 1 year after birth. Results

Anne Marie Meijer; Godfried L. H. van den Wittenboer

2007-01-01

394

First-Time Parents' Prenatal to Postpartum Changes in Health, and the Relation of Postpartum Health to Work and Partner Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate prenatal to postnatal changes in first-time par- ents' physical and mental health, and to describe social and health predictors of parents' postpartum health. Methods: This prospective study surveyed 261 expectant fathers and mothers during pregnancy and again at 6 months' postpartum regarding their health, partner, and work characteristics. Postpartum changes in

Dwenda K. Gjerdingen

395

Parental Development in First-Time Mothers of Handicapped, At-Risk and Normal Children. Final Report, July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The two studies reported in this paper explored parental development in first-time mothers of handicapped, at-risk, and normal children. Measures of personality, motivation, belief system, knowledge of infant development, and anticipatory socialization (knowledge, beliefs or expectations of parenting) were used to examine differences between the…

Busch, Nancy Ann; Peters, Donald L.

396

Entering First-Year Residents' Experiences and Knowledge of Infection Control of Hepatitis B and HIV, at Five University-Affiliated Hospitals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of 149 entering first-year medical residents concerning experiences with and knowledge of infection control investigated occurrence and patterns of accidental needle-sticking and reporting, student immunization for Hepatitis B, and instruction in universal precautions. It is concluded that students are at risk for needle-sticking, but…

Goetz, Angella; And Others

1992-01-01

397

Entering First-Year Residents' Experiences and Knowledge of Infection Control of Hepatitis B and HIV, at Five University-Affiliated Hospitals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 149 entering first-year medical residents concerning experiences with and knowledge of infection control investigated occurrence and patterns of accidental needle-sticking and reporting, student immunization for Hepatitis B, and instruction in universal precautions. It is concluded that students are at risk for needle-sticking, but…

Goetz, Angella; And Others

1992-01-01

398

Attraction and Retention of Students at the University of Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reasons that students enter or leave the University of Montana (UM) were studied in fall 1983. Consideration was given to first-term freshmen of traditional age, slightly older students (under age 25), transfer students, dropouts, and students who persisted at the university for 1 academic year. In study phase 1, attention was directed to…

Corak, Kitty

399

Personal Factors that Influence Deaf College Students' Academic Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research tells us that academic preparation is key to deaf students' success at college. Yet, that is not the whole story. Many academically prepared students drop out during their first year. This study identified entering deaf college students' personal factors as assessed by their individual responses to both the "Noel-Levitz College Student

Albertini, John A.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Matchett, Mary Karol

2012-01-01

400

International Students' Experiences of Integrating into the Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the integration experiences of 16 international students entering the Canadian workforce using a semistructured interview and constant comparison method. The international students were pursuing immigration to Canada, despite unmet job prospects. Students recommended that employers refrain from discriminating against students

Nunes, Sarah; Arthur, Nancy

2013-01-01

401

College Students' Preinstructional Ideas about Stars and Star Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study (Note 1) investigated the beliefs about stars that students hold when they enter an undergraduate introductory astronomy course for nonscience majors. Students' preinstructional ideas were investigated through the use of several student-supplied-response (SSR) surveys, which asked students to describe their ideas about topics such as…

Bailey, Janelle M.; Prather, Edward E.; Johnson, Bruce; Slater, Timothy F.

2009-01-01

402

Hypothetical Biotechnology Companies: A Role-Playing Student Centered Activity for Undergraduate Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science students leaving undergraduate programs are entering the biotechnology industry where they are presented with issues which require integration of science content. Students find this difficult as through-out their studies, most content is limited to a single subdiscipline (e.g., biochemistry, immunology). In addition, students need…

Chuck, Jo-Anne

2011-01-01

403

The Career Planning, Athletic Identity, and Student Role Identity of Intercollegiate Student Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent…

Lally, Patricia S.; Kerr, Gretchen A.

2005-01-01

404

A STUDY OF FACTORS OPERATIVE IN THE SELECTIVE RETENTION OF STUDENTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION, PART I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DISCOVER THE PERSONALITY AND EXPERIENCE FACTORS WHICH DISTINGUISH STUDENTS WHO ARE SUCCESSFUL IN PROFESSIONAL TEACHER TRAINING COURSES AND ACTUALLY ENTER TEACHING, FROM THE PERSONALITY AND EXPERIENCE FACTORS OF STUDENTS WHO DROP OUT ALONG THE WAY. INFORMATION WAS GATHERED FROM ALL STUDENTS WHO ENTER THE JUNIOR…

COOK, WALTER W.; AND OTHERS

405

Assessing for a History of Serious Depression Among First-Year College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

College student survey data collected from first-year students entering a relatively small and highly selective, private university in the northeastern United States were examined in order to assess for a history of depression. The data indicated that a substantial percentage of first-year students had experienced at least one period of serious depression prior to entering college.

Eric H. Affspmng

1998-01-01

406

Trajectories of Adjustment of International Students: U-Curve, Learning Curve, or Third Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|International students may need to adapt their approaches to learning and their views of themselves as learners in their new situation. The research reported on in this paper concerns a pre-sessional English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course for international students entering Higher Education in the UK--mostly Masters students entering a…

Burnapp, Dave

2006-01-01

407

Addressing the Needs of Under-Prepared Students in Higher Education: Does College Remediation Work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, thousands of students graduate high school academically unprepared for college. As a result, approximately one-third of entering postsecondary students require remedial or developmental work before entering college-level courses. However, little is known about the causal impact of remediation on student outcomes. At an annual cost of over $1 billion at public colleges alone, there is a growing debate

Eric P. Bettinger; Bridget Terry Long

2005-01-01

408

University Student Perceptions of Seasonal and Local Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how university students conceptualize “seasonal” and “local” in relation to food. Because starting college often represents the first time many people assume primary responsibility for their meals, food beliefs of students are particularly relevant. A one-page written questionnaire was developed, pretested, and used to survey 166 undergraduate students from a nutrition and an economics class at one

Jennifer L. Wilkins; Elizabeth Bowdish; Jeffery Sobal

2000-01-01

409

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli: an emerging enteric pathogen.  

PubMed

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) represents an emerging pathogen that causes enteric and food-borne infectious diseases. Subgroups in many populations throughout the world are susceptible to EAEC infection. EAEC pathogenesis involves adherence to the intestinal mucosa; increased production and deposition of a mucus biofilm; and mucosal toxicity due to inflammation and cytokine release. Due to the heterogeneity of EAEC strains and differing host immune responses, not all EAEC infections are symptomatic. Recent data suggest that individuals with a homozygous genotype -251 AA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), in the IL-8 promoter region, are more susceptible to EAEC diarrhea. The HEp-2 cell adherent assay allows identification of EAEC's characteristic aggregative or "stacked brick" adherence pattern. Antimicrobial treatment of individuals who develop EAEC diarrhea should be individually based. Ciprofloxacin and rifaximin, compared to placebo, have been shown to significantly shorten the course of diarrhea in patients who developed EAEC infection. The objective of this review is to increase awareness of this important emerging pathogen and to discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and host-pathogen factors associated with EAEC infection. PMID:15046233

Huang, David B; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; DuPont, Herbert L

2004-02-01

410

ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Geriatrics.  

PubMed

Nutritional intake is often compromised in elderly, multimorbid patients. Enteral nutrition (EN) by means of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and tube feeding (TF) offers the possibility to increase or to insure nutrient intake in case of insufficient oral food intake. The present guideline is intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of ONS and TF in geriatric patients. It was developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with officially accepted standards and is based on all relevant publications since 1985. The guideline was discussed and accepted in a consensus conference. EN by means of ONS is recommended for geriatric patients at nutritional risk, in case of multimorbidity and frailty, and following orthopaedic-surgical procedures. In elderly people at risk of undernutrition ONS improve nutritional status and reduce mortality. After orthopaedic-surgery ONS reduce unfavourable outcome. TF is clearly indicated in patients with neurologic dysphagia. In contrast, TF is not indicated in final disease states, including final dementia, and in order to facilitate patient care. Altogether, it is strongly recommended not to wait until severe undernutrition has developed, but to start EN therapy early, as soon as a nutritional risk becomes apparent. PMID:16735082

Volkert, D; Berner, Y N; Berry, E; Cederholm, T; Coti Bertrand, P; Milne, A; Palmblad, J; Schneider, St; Sobotka, L; Stanga, Z; Lenzen-Grossimlinghaus, R; Krys, U; Pirlich, M; Herbst, B; Schütz, T; Schröer, W; Weinrebe, W; Ockenga, J; Lochs, H

2006-04-01

411

Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C. [and others

1999-10-01

412

Students and Their Presenting Concerns at a Student Counselling Service at a South African University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a summary of the concerns and the demographic data collected from clients at the Student Counselling Service (SCS) at the University of Cape Town (UCT), South Africa, during the period of March 2001 to April 2003. First-time presenting clients who are enrolled students, were asked to ill out an anonymous questionnaire, of…

Schreiber, B. M.

2007-01-01

413

The 'new' medical student: another view.  

PubMed

In this paper the authors examine some evidence concerning admission of a "new" type of student to medical school. Such students have been described as more socially concerned and committed to reform of the health care system than students of the 1950s. The hypothesis was that the new type of student was a temporary phenomenon, influenced by transitory sociopolitical events which had little impact on the institutionalized processes of medical education. Data consisted of responses to selected attitude statements by successive entering classes of medical students in one school of medicine from 1970 to 1975. Data were collected a second time from graduating seniors in 1974 and 1975 (entering classes of 1970 and 1971). The same information was collected from physician preceptors in 1975. Results suggest partial support for the hypothesis of decreasing liberalism among entering freshman after 1973, increasing conservatism among graduating seniors, and a high level of conservatism among physicians. Some exceptions to these trends are noted. PMID:833843

Coe, R M; Pepper, M; Mattis, M

1977-02-01

414

Student input, student motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has examined the extent that attitudes and beliefs regarding student-centered learning and motivation were affected by students involved in a six-week collaborative language learning activity where they were allowed to use their own materials. The participants of the study were Japanese EFL university students. All participating students completed a questionnaire before and after the learning activity quantifying and

Mami Ueda

415

Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome  

PubMed Central

Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission autosomique récessive. La forme typique associe 5 signes cliniques: une diarrhée grave rebelle nécessitant dans la majorité des cas une nutrition parentérale du fait de la malnutrition, une dysmorphie avec un front large et bombé, une racine du nez large et un hypertélorisme, des anomalies des cheveux qui sont fragiles, cassants, incoiffables et qualifiés de « laineux », un retard de croissance intra utérine et des anomalies de l’immunité à type de déficit en immunoglobuline ou d’absence de réponse aux antigènes vaccinaux. Des anomalies de deux protéines peuvent être à l’origine du syndrome SD/THE: TTC37, une protéine à motif TPR et SKIV2L, une hélicase à ARN, toutes 2 étant des constituants du complexe SKI humain. Le complexe SKI est un co-facteur de l’exosome cytoplasmique qui assure la dégradation des ARN aberrants ou exogènes. Le diagnostic est d’abord clinique puis confirmé par le séquençage des gènes TTC37 et SKIV2L. Le diagnostic différentiel avec les autres formes de diarrhées intraitables est fait grâce aux analyses anatomopathologiques qui montrent dans les autres formes, des lésions spécifiques. La prise en charge clinique repose sur la nutrition parentérale et la supplémentation en immunoglobuline si nécessaire. Un certain nombre d’enfants peuvent être sevrés de la nutrition parentérale et des supplémentations en immunoglobulines. En cas d’atteinte hépatique, celle-ci peut être sévère et conduire au décès. Même avec une prise en charge optimale, les enfants présentent une petite taille et, dans la moitié des cas, un retard mental modéré. Disease name/synonyms – Syndromic diarrhea – Phenotypic diarrhea – Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome – Intractable diarrhea of infancy with facial dysmorphism &#x

2013-01-01

416

Acute anterior uveitis, arthritides and enteric antigens.  

PubMed

One hundred and fourteen patients with acute anterior uveitis were studied for the presence of the HLA-B27 tissue type, the prevalence of spondylitis and arthritis and the occurrence of gastro-intestinal and urogenital infections or diarrhoeal illness in the history. Eighty-seven (76%) were B27+ and 27 (24%) B27-. Forty-two (48%) of the B27+ group had ankylosing spondylitis (AS); 13 (30%) of them were females. Sacroilitis (SI) with no spinal involvement was present in 21 patients (24%), 13 (61%) males and 8 (38%) females. Peripheral arthritis occurred in 6 patients. Thus, 68 (78%) of the HLA-B27+ positive patients had inflammatory spinal and/or joint disease, compared with 1 (4%) of the HLA-B27- group (p less than 0.001). The AS diagnosis was unknown previous to our examination in 31% of the males and 54% of the females, and SI was undiscovered in 61% of the males and 62% of the females. The occurrence of acute enteric infections was significantly increased in the B27+ AAU group, compared with the B27- patients and the patients reported exacerbation of AAU in connection with episodes of diarrhoea. An increased occurrence of urogenital infections was shown only in co-comparison with the males of the B-27+ AAU group. Thirty-three out of 47 AAU patients assayed by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) for the quantification of IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies against Klebsiella pneumoniae, E coli, and Proteus mirabilis had significantly raised antibody titres against one or more of the antibodies studied, as compared to 62 healthy controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1802494

Szanto, E; Granfors, K; Wretlind, B

1991-12-01

417

Genetics of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in enteric bacteria.  

PubMed Central

From a historical perspective, the study of both the biochemistry and the genetics of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis began with the enteric bacteria. These organisms have again come to the forefront as the blocks of genes involved in LPS synthesis have been sequenced and analyzed. A number of new and unanticipated genes were found in these clusters, indicating a complexity of the biochemical pathways which was not predicted from the older studies. One of the most dramatic areas of LPS research has been the elucidation of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway. Four of the genes in this pathway have now been identified and sequenced, and three of them are located in a complex operon which also contains genes involved in DNA and phospholipid synthesis. The rfa gene cluster, which contains many of the genes for LPS core synthesis, includes at least 17 genes. One of the remarkable findings in this cluster is a group of several genes which appear to be involved in the synthesis of alternate rough core species which are modified so that they cannot be acceptors for O-specific polysaccharides. The rfb gene clusters which encode O-antigen synthesis have been sequenced from a number of serotypes and exhibit the genetic polymorphism anticipated on the basis of the chemical complexity of the O antigens. These clusters appear to have originated by the exchange of blocks of genes among ancestral organisms. Among the large number of LPS genes which have now been sequenced from these rfa and rfb clusters, there are none which encode proteins that appear to be secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane and surprisingly few which encode integral membrane proteins or proteins with extensive hydrophobic domains. These data, together with sequence comparison and complementation experiments across strain and species lines, suggest that the LPS biosynthetic enzymes may be organized into clusters on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane which are organized around a few key membrane proteins.

Schnaitman, C A; Klena, J D

1993-01-01

418

Married men's first time experiences of early childbearing and their role in sexual and reproductive decision making: a qualitative study from rural Vietnam.  

PubMed

Male partners' involvement in women's sexual and reproductive health has been increasingly emphasised in international health. A qualitative approach with open-ended qualitative interviews was used to explore young, married men's first time experiences of early childbearing, their sexual and reproductive decision making and the meanings they make of their role as husbands and fathers. The results offer a nuanced picture of the men's vulnerability in becoming young fathers and having to assume their role as family decision-makers, while still being inexperienced in matters related to the health of their wives and newborn child. Constraints to gender equality and traditional norms and values continue to pose barriers to both young men and women making independent decisions in relation to marriage and childbearing. Men's involvement is necessary in healthcare programmes designed to improve women's sexual and reproductive health and the health of the newborn. Young, first-time fathers, in particular, need support and empowerment. PMID:22413843

Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Berggren, Vanja; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Bijay, Bharati; Johansson, Annika

2012-01-01

419

Nursing students with latex allergy.  

PubMed

Latex allergy affects millions of people in the general population and a higher percentage of health care workers. Nursing students with a latex sensitivity pose a unique challenge for the nurse educator. Students may enter the program with pre-existing latex allergy or develop the allergy during the educational process. This manuscript explores the implications of latex allergies exhibited by the nursing student. It addresses the responsibilities of the educator in the skills or simulation laboratory and during clinical learning experiences. It also offers suggestions for ensuring the safety of the student while reducing the legal liabilities of the educational program. The article addresses possible policy ramifications for nursing schools. PMID:22622110

Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Harshberger, Lorri A

2012-05-22

420

Treatment strategies for first time traumatic anterior traumatic dislocation of the shoulder. Plea for a multi-stop concept of preventive initial management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a The purpose of this paper is to outline the treatment protocol for the first time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocator,\\u000a with options including conservative, arthroscopic and open surgical treatment. Regarding the subclassification of the first\\u000a time traumatic anterior dislocater, it is imparitive to differentiate between the unidirectional dislocator with and without\\u000a hyperlaxity. This subclassification takes into account the structural quality

P. Habermeyer; H. Gramlich; T. Ebert

1998-01-01

421

Religiosity, Relationship Quality, and Other Determinants of Living Arrangements Among Cohabitating and Other Unmarried First-Time Mothers One Year After Childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of unmarried first-time mothers and their children's fathers (n= 600) was based on data from the Fragile Families Study. Greater religiosity among unmarried fathers was found to increase the odds of marrying vis-à-vis cohabitating with their children's mothers one year after childbirth. Fathers who cited “spending time together” often as a source of conflict were more likely to

Richard K. Caputo

2006-01-01

422

Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the effect of proton pump inhibitors on adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction.Design Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched study based on administrative data.Setting All hospitals in Denmark.Participants All aspirin treated patients surviving 30 days after a first myocardial infarction from 1997 to 2006, with follow-up for one year. Patients treated with

Mette Charlot; Erik L Grove; Peter Riis Hansen; Jonas B Olesen; Ole Ahlehoff; Christian Selmer; Jesper Lindhardsen; Jan Kyst Madsen; Lars Køber; Christian Torp-Pedersen; Gunnar H Gislason

2011-01-01

423

Soluble CD163 does not predict first-time myocardial infarction in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive biomarker of myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We conducted a nested case–control study of 55 cases with first-time MI and 182 controls matched for age, duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), gender, smoking, and no known cardiovascular disease. All patients had four available plasma samples, 1: Before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), 2: Three months after ART, 3: One year before the case’s MI, and 4: The last sample available before the case’s MI. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the association of sCD163 with first-time MI. Results The two groups had similar HIV-parameters and cardiovascular risk factors were equally distributed. There was no significant association between sCD163 and MI neither in samples obtained one year before (OR 1.05, CI 95% 0.85 – 1.29, p?=?0.66) nor two months before (OR 1.20, CI 95% 0.98-1.47 p?=?0.08). Conclusion sCD163 did not prove to be a useful biomarker for prediction of first-time MI in a HIV-infected population.

2013-01-01

424

Mechanosensitive Enteric Neurons in the Myenteric Plexus of the Mouse Intestine  

PubMed Central

Background Within the gut the autonomous enteric nervous system (ENS) is able to sense mechanical stimuli and to trigger gut reflex behaviour. We previously proposed a novel sensory circuit in the ENS which consists of multifunctional rapidly adapting mechanosensitive enteric neurons (RAMEN) in the guinea pig. The aim of this study was to validate this concept by studying its applicability to other species or gut regions. Methodology/Principal Findings We deformed myenteric ganglia in the mouse small and large intestine and recorded spike discharge using voltage sensitive dye imaging. We also analysed expression of markers hitherto proposed to label mouse sensory myenteric neurons in the ileum (NF145kD) or colon (calretinin). RAMEN constituted 22% and 15% of myenteric neurons per ganglion in the ileum and colon, respectively. They encoded dynamic rather than sustained deformation. In the colon, 7% of mechanosensitive neurons fired throughout the sustained deformation, a behaviour typical for slowly adapting echanosensitive neurons (SAMEN). RAMEN and SAMEN responded directly to mechanical deformation as their response remained unchanged after synaptic blockade in low Ca++/high Mg++. Activity levels of RAMEN increased with the degree of ganglion deformation. Recruitment of more RAMEN with stronger stimuli may suggest low and high threshold RAMEN. The majority of RAMEN were cholinergic but most lacked expression of NF145kD or calretinin. Conclusions/Significance We showed for the first time that fundamental properties of mechanosensitive enteric neurons, such as firing pattern, encoding of dynamic deformation, cholinergic phenotype and their proportion, are conserved across species and regions. We conclude that RAMEN are important for mechanotransduction in the ENS. They directly encode dynamic changes in force as their firing frequency is proportional to the degree of deformation of the ganglion they reside in. The additional existence of SAMEN in the colon is likely an adaptation to colonic motor patterns which consist of phasic and tonic contractions.

Mazzuoli, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

2012-01-01

425

Teacher Licensing and Student Achievement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

States use licensing to ensure that only qualified teachers can be hired, but loopholes often allow teachers to enter the classroom via alternate routes. Comparing the performance of students whose teachers hold standard certificates with students whose teachers have non-standard credentials is one way to gauge the efficacy of licensing. Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study finds that students whose teachers possess a B.A. or M.A. in math outperform other students in math. Students whose teachers have any kind of certification (standard, emergency, alternative, etc.) outperform students whose teachers have no certification or are certified in a different subject. The authors also report that math and science students whose teachers have emergency credentials do no worse than those whose teachers hold standard teaching credentials.

Goldhaber, Dan; Brewer, Dominic

2010-11-02

426

Public-Private Partnerships Benefit Students and Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's highly competitive job market, it takes more than just having the right training or degree to get hired. Many companies require previous work experience to even be considered for an interview. For young adults looking to enter the workforce for the first time, or older adults making a career change, this can be a frustrating situation.…

Nichols, Tiffani

2012-01-01

427

Early enteral immunonutrition in patients with severe sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To compare the mortality of critically ill patients given either enteral feeding with an immune-enhancing formula or parenteral nutrition (PN). We report the results of a planned interim analysis on patients with severe sepsis which was undertaken earlier than planned once a meta-analysis suggested excess mortality in patients with severe sepsis given enteral immunonutrition. Design. Randomised multicentre unblinded controlled

Guido Bertolini; Gaetano Iapichino; Danilo Radrizzani; Rebecca Facchini; Bruno Simini; Paola Bruzzone; Giancarlo Zanforlin; Gianni Tognoni

2003-01-01

428

Imaging neuron-glia interactions in the enteric nervous system.  

PubMed

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract that is able to control many aspects of digestive function independently from the central nervous system. Enteric glial cells share several features with astrocytes and are closely associated with enteric neurons and their processes both within enteric ganglia, and along interconnecting fiber bundles. Similar to other parts of the nervous system, there is communication between enteric neurons and glia; enteric glial cells can detect neuronal activity and have the machinery to intermediate neurotransmission. However, due to the close contact between these two cell types and the particular characteristics of the gut wall, the recording of enteric glial cell activity in live imaging experiments, especially in the context of their interaction with neurons, is not straightforward. Most studies have used calcium imaging approaches to examine enteric glial cell activity but in many cases, it is difficult to distinguish whether observed transients arise from glial cells, or neuronal processes or varicosities in their vicinity. In this technical report, we describe a number of approaches to unravel the complex neuron-glia crosstalk in the ENS, focusing on the challenges and possibilities of live microscopic imaging in both animal models and human tissue samples. PMID:24155689

Boesmans, Werend; Martens, Michiel A; Weltens, Nathalie; Hao, Marlene M; Tack, Jan; Cirillo, Carla; Vanden Berghe, Pieter

2013-10-21

429

Enteral nutrition discontinuation and outcomes in general critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between enteral nutrition discontinuation and outcome in general critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients admitted to a mixed intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital from May-August 2009 were screened for an indication for enteral nutrition. Patients were followed up until leaving the intensive care unit or a maximum of 28 days. The gastrointestinal failure score was calculated daily by adding values of 0 if the enteral nutrition received was identical to the nutrition prescribed, 1 if the enteral nutrition received was at least 75% of that prescribed, 2 if the enteral nutrition received was between 50-75% of that prescribed, 3 if the enteral nutrition received was between 50-25% of that prescribed, and 4 if the enteral nutrition received was less than 25% of that prescribed. RESULTS: The mean, worst, and categorical gastrointestinal failure scores were associated with lower survival in these patients. Age, categorical gastrointestinal failure score, type of admission, need for mechanical ventilation, sequential organ failure assessment, and Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were selected for analysis with binary regression. In both models, the categorical gastrointestinal failure score was related to mortality. CONCLUSION: The determination of the difference between prescribed and received enteral nutrition seemed to be a useful prognostic marker and is feasible to be incorporated into a gastrointestinal failure score.

Silva, Marco Antonio; da Graca Freitas dos Santos, Saionara; Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; da Luz, Gabrielle; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques; Pizzol, Felipe Dal; Ritter, Cristiane

2013-01-01

430

Enteric Salmonella Infection Inhibits Paneth Cell Antimicrobial Peptide Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paneth cells, highly secretory epithelial cells found at the bases of small intestinal crypts, release a variety of microbicidal molecules, including -defensins and lysozyme. The secretion of antimicrobials by Paneth cells is thought to be important in mucosal host defense against invasion by enteric pathogens. We explored whether enteric pathogens can interfere with this arm of defense. We found that

Nita H. Salzman; Margaret M. Chou; Hendrik de Jong; Lide Liu; Edith M. Porter; Yvonne Paterson

2003-01-01

431

ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA GULCH. ENTERING ORE BUCKETS ROLLED OF SUSPENSION CABLE ONTO UPPER STEEL RAIL, WHERE THEY WERE DISCONNECTED FROM TRACTION (LOWER) CABLE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

432

Imaging neuron-glia interactions in the enteric nervous system  

PubMed Central

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract that is able to control many aspects of digestive function independently from the central nervous system. Enteric glial cells share several features with astrocytes and are closely associated with enteric neurons and their processes both within enteric ganglia, and along interconnecting fiber bundles. Similar to other parts of the nervous system, there is communication between enteric neurons and glia; enteric glial cells can detect neuronal activity and have the machinery to intermediate neurotransmission. However, due to the close contact between these two cell types and the particular characteristics of the gut wall, the recording of enteric glial cell activity in live imaging experiments, especially in the context of their interaction with neurons, is not straightforward. Most studies have used calcium imaging approaches to examine enteric glial cell activity but in many cases, it is difficult to distinguish whether observed transients arise from glial cells, or neuronal processes or varicosities in their vicinity. In this technical report, we describe a number of approaches to unravel the complex neuron-glia crosstalk in the ENS, focusing on the challenges and possibilities of live microscopic imaging in both animal models and human tissue samples.

Boesmans, Werend; Martens, Michiel A.; Weltens, Nathalie; Hao, Marlene M.; Tack, Jan; Cirillo, Carla; Vanden Berghe, Pieter

2013-01-01

433

Identification of alternative movement techniques during the car entering movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to develop a digital human model able to quantify the discomfort during the car entering\\/exiting movement. Simulating human motions for ergonomics analyses implies to consider alternative movement techniques. The aim of this paper is to identify alternative movement techniques during the car entering movement. A quantitative index called joint contribution vector (JCV) is used.

Mathieu Lempereur; Philippe Pudlo; Philippe Gorce; François-Xavier Lepoutre

2005-01-01

434

Animal models of Salmonella infections: enteritis versus typhoid fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common disease syndromes caused by Salmonella serotypes in humans, typhoid fever and enteritis, can be modeled using Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections in mice and calves, respectively. This article reviews murine typhoid and bovine enteritis and discusses strengths, limitations and distinctive features of these animal models.

Renato L. Santos; Shuping Zhang; Renée M. Tsolis; Robert A. Kingsley; L. Garry Adams; Andreas J. Bäumler

2001-01-01

435

Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Year Long Engineering School Acclimation Model for Enhancing Student Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The College of Engineering at NC State University attracts some of the most talented high school students in the country. Each year, an entering freshman class of 1100 new engineering students includes 20% women and 20% under-represented minority students. The entire College of Engineering undergraduate and graduate enrollment of 7300 students comprises 22% women and 20% minority students. While our

Tony L. Mitchell; Alisa Hunt-Lowery; Laura J. Bottomley; Mary Clare Robbins

436

Why Community College Students Make Successful Transfer Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents two stories that represent a common paradigm shift at the community college level. The life journeys of Tony and Mary Ann are very different. Tony, a traditional-aged student, reluctantly entered his local community college because he was unable to prove, scholastically, that he was capable of handling the coursework at his…

Urso, David; Sygielski, John J.

2007-01-01

437

Create learning communities to enhance success for students with diverse academic preparation background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning communities have been demonstrated to improve student success, particularly for first-time, first-year students making the transition from high school to college. At Western Michigan University (WMU) College of Engineering and Applied Sciences (CEAS), the challenge to creating learning communities is the diverse academic preparation background of the first-time, first-year students, as indicated in the first-semester mathematics placement. Another challenge

Edmund Tsang; Cynthia Halderson

2008-01-01

438

Student financial aid and degree attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the relationships of student aid with degree attainment using a sample of aid recipients, nonrecipients who applied for aid but were not eligible, and a representative group of controls selected from the 1970–1971 entering freshman class at Washington State University. When the other independent variables are statistically controlled, student aid is found to have a very small

Eric L. Jensen

1984-01-01

439

Epistemological Beliefs of Underprepared College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the epistemological beliefs of 100 underprepared college freshmen by asking these students what their beliefs are when they enter college, if these beliefs change after the initial exposure to college, and what structures underlie their beliefs. Claims the beliefs of underprepared students are best represented by two belief dimensions,…

Cole, Rebecca Pollard; Goetz, Ernest T.; Willson, Victor

2000-01-01

440

Identifying Students with Dyslexia in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An increasing number of students with dyslexia enter higher education. As a result, there is a growing need for standardized diagnosis. Previous research has suggested that a small number of tests may suffice to reliably assess students with dyslexia, but these studies were based on post hoc discriminant analysis, which tends to overestimate the…

Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Lammertyn, Jan; Van Hees, Valerie; Brysbaert, Marc

2012-01-01

441

Changing the Minds of New College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the unprecedented expansion of access to higher education internationally, today’s students enter university with a broader range of expectations, motivations and support networks than their predecessors. One of the primary determinants of student success is their ability to assimilate into the academic culture, which includes aligning their expectations and motivations closely with the prevalent norms of the academic community.

Victor M. H. Borden; Scott E. Evenbeck

2007-01-01

442

Student Teaching in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nearly three years ago, in an effort to understand just how to get student teaching "right," the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) entered into a comprehensive review of the student teaching experience. For this work, the authors focused on its delivery at the undergraduate level for future elementary teachers, but they can identify no…

Greenberg, Julie; Pomerance, Laura; Walsh, Kate

2011-01-01

443

Adapting K12 for Students with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Enter "teaching students with autism" in Google, and more than 8 million results pop up instantly. Educators are learning, however, that there are scientifically proven treatments and protocols that can help them meet federal and state requirements, stretch budgets, avoid litigation and assist families who must continue educating students long…

Whitmer, Regina

2013-01-01

444

Partnerships for Employing Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In October 1992, the Disabled Student Programs and Services and Student Placement Offices of Palomar College initiated a partnership program with existing service agencies and employers to enable individuals with disabilities to enter the employment mainstream and to establish a safety-net support system within the work environment. The program…

Palomar Coll., San Marcos, CA.

445

Epistemological Beliefs of Underprepared College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the epistemological beliefs of 100 underprepared college freshmen by asking these students what their beliefs are when they enter college, if these beliefs change after the initial exposure to college, and what structures underlie their beliefs. Claims the beliefs of underprepared students are best represented by two belief dimensions,…

Cole, Rebecca Pollard; Goetz, Ernest T.; Willson, Victor

2000-01-01

446

College Football and Student Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercollegiate sports are said to generate positive advertising that produces many benefits to the host school. Donations, applications, and the academic quality of the student body are some of the mission outcomes thought to rise with the fortunes of the football team. The present study tests these claims for three measures of the academic quality of the entering classes on

D. Randall Smith

2009-01-01

447

Reality versus Expectations: Do the Expectations of New Students Correspond with Their Actual Experience. AIR 1990 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five hundred incoming students attending Mount Saint Vincent University (Nova Scotia) were selected to participate in a study designed to compare the expectations and experiences of traditional students (who entered immediately after high school or transferred from another university or college) and nontraditional students (who entered part-time…

Murray, Judith A.; And Others

448

Temporal trends in the initiation of glucose-lowering medications after a first-time myocardial infarction - a nationwide study between 1997 and 2006  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is common among patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The extent to which patients with first-time MI develop diabetes requiring glucose-lowering medications (GLM) is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate temporal trends in the initiation of GLM among patients discharged after first-time MI. Methods All Danish residents aged ? 30 years without prior diabetes hospitalized with first-time MI between 1997 and 2006 were identified by individual-level-linkage of nationwide registers. Initiation of GLM during follow-up was assessed by claimed prescriptions from pharmacies. Temporal trends in initiation of GLM were assessed by incidence rate calculations in the MI population as in the general population. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models were used to investigate the likelihood of initiating GLM within a year post-MI. Results The population comprised 66,788 patients. Among these patients 3962 patients initiated GLM, of whom 1567 started within one year post-MI. An increase in incidence rates of GLM initiation in the MI population from 19.6 per 1000 person years in 1997 to approximately 27.6 in 2001 was demonstrated. After 2001 the incidence rates stabilized. A similar trend was observed in the general population where the incidence rates increased from 2.8 in 1997 to 4.0 in 2004 and then stabilized. Conclusion Our study demonstrated an increase in incidence rates of GLM initiation within the first year post- MI. A similar trend was observed in the general population suggesting that the increase in GLM among MI patients was primarily the effect of a general increased awareness of diabetes. From a public heath perspective, this study underscores a continuous need for diagnostic and therapeutic improvement in the care of MI patients that develop diabetes.

2011-01-01

449

Anomalous mitral arcade variant with accessory mitral leaflet and chordae presenting for the first time with acute decompensated heart failure in an adult.  

PubMed

The anomalous mitral arcade is a rare congenital malformation of the mitral valve and its tensor apparatus. It is characterized by enlarged papillary muscles connected to each other and to the free edge of the anterior mitral leaflet by a bridge of fibrous tissue. We report a rare variant of anomalous mitral arcade that was associated with accessory mitral leaflet in subaortic area and accessory chordae. Our patient was asymptomatic till the age of 18 years, when he presented for the first time in acute decompensated heart failure secondary to severe mitral regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction. The patient had rapid deterioration with fatal outcome. PMID:23663062

Singh, Bhupinder; Srinivasa, K H; Surangi, Manohar J; Rangan, Kapil; Manjunath, C Nanjappa

2013-05-12

450

Continuation rates of oral hormonal contraceptives in a cohort of first-time users: a population-based registry study, Sweden 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate if continuation rates in first-time users of oral hormonal contraceptives differed between different formulations and to measure if the rates were related to the prescribing categories, that is, physicians and midwives. Design A longitudinal national population-based registry study. Setting The Swedish prescribed drug register. Participants All women born between 1977 and 1994 defined as first-time users of hormonal contraceptives from 2007 to 2009 (n=226?211). Main outcome measures A tendency to switch the type of hormonal contraceptive within 6?months use and repeated dispensation identical to the first were estimated as percentages and relative risks (RRs). Physicians’ and midwives’ prescription patterns concerning the women's continuation rates of oral hormonal contraceptive type. Results In Sweden, there were 782?375 women born between 1977 and 1994 at the time of the study. Of these, 226?211 women were identified as first-time users of hormonal contraceptives. Ethinylestradiol+levonorgestrel, desogestrel-only and ethinylestradiol+drospirenone were the hormonal contraceptives most commonly dispensed to first-time users at rates of 43.3%, 24.4% and 11.1%, respectively. The overall rate of switching contraceptive types in the first 6?months was 11.3%, which was highest for desogestrel-only (14.3%) and lowest for ethinylestradiol+drospirenone (6.6%). The switching rate for all three products was highest in the 16-year to 19-year age group. Having a repeated dispensation identical to the initial dispensation was highest for users of ethinylestradiol either combined with levonorgestrel or drospirenone, 81.4% and 81.2%, respectively, whereas this rate for the initial desogestrel-only users was 71.5%. The RR of switching of contraceptive type within the first 6?months was 1.35 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.39) for desogestrel-only and 0.63 (0.59 to 0.66) for ethinylestradiol+drospirenone compared with ethinylestradiol+levonorgestrel as the reference category. There were no differences in the women's continuation rates depending on the prescriber categories. Conclusions Desogestrel-only users conferred the highest switcher rate to another hormonal contraceptive within a 6-month period. Users of ethinylestradiol+levonorgestrel were more prone to switch to another product within 6?months than women using ethinylestradiol+drospirenone. These findings may be of clinical importance when tailoring hormonal contraceptives on an individual basis.

Josefsson, Ann; Wirehn, Ann-Britt; Lindberg, Malou; Foldemo, Anniqa; Brynhildsen, Jan

2013-01-01

451

Cellular changes in the enteric nervous system during ageing.  

PubMed

The intrinsic neurons of the gut, enteric neurons, have an essential role in gastrointestinal functions. The enteric nervous system is plastic and continues to undergo changes throughout life, as the gut grows and responds to dietary and other environmental changes. Detailed analysis of changes in the ENS during ageing suggests that enteric neurons are more vulnerable to age-related degeneration and cell death than neurons in other parts of the nervous system, although there is considerable variation in the extent and time course of age-related enteric neuronal loss reported in different studies. Specific neuronal subpopulations, particularly cholinergic myenteric neurons, may be more vulnerable than others to age-associated loss or damage. Enteric degeneration and other age-related neuronal changes may contribute to gastrointestinal dysfunction that is common in the elderly population. Evidence suggests that caloric restriction protects against age-associated loss of enteric neurons, but recent advances in the understanding of the effects of the microbiota and the complex interactions between enteric ganglion cells, mucosal immune system and intestinal epithelium indicate that other factors may well influence ageing of enteric neurons. Much remains to be understood about the mechanisms of neuronal loss and damage in the gut, although there is evidence that reactive oxygen species, neurotrophic factor dysregulation and/or activation of a senescence associated phenotype may be involved. To date, there is no evidence for ongoing neurogenesis that might replace dying neurons in the ageing gut, although small local sites of neurogenesis would be difficult to detect. Finally, despite the considerable evidence for enteric neurodegeneration during ageing, and evidence for some physiological changes in animal models, the ageing gut appears to maintain its function remarkably well in animals that exhibit major neuronal loss, indicating that the ENS has considerable functional reserve. PMID:23537898

Saffrey, M Jill

2013-03-26

452

Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems  

SciTech Connect

Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

Nijs, Els L. F., E-mail: nijs@email.chop.ed [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Clinical Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Cahill, Anne Marie, E-mail: cahill@email.chop.ed [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States)

2010-12-15

453

Differential trajectory of functional recovery and determinants for first time stroke survivors by using a LCGA approach: a hospital based analysis over a 1-year period.  

PubMed

Background: Functional outcome and the risk factors for stroke survivors have explored in previous study. However, a comprehensive understanding of the patterns and critical risk factors of functional recovery is limited. Aim: To explore the trajectory groups and determinants of functional recovery for ischemic stroke patients during 1 year after stroke. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Inpatient. Population: First-time stroke patients. Method: A total of 367 first-time ischemic stroke patients from the Stroke Registry in the Chang Gung Hospital (SRICH) database were analyzed in this study. Study variables comprised demographic and disease characteristics, laboratory data, and functional outcome. The Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) was used to identify various trajectory clusters and multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of functional recovery. Result: Five trajectory clusters of functional recovery were identified using the Barthel Index. Among five clusters of functional recovery, nearly 18% of first-ever ischemic stroke patients maintained functional dependence, whereas 82% of stroke patients demonstrated functional recovery; and the significant recovery time totaled three months after the stroke. Determinants for various trajectory clusters of functional recovery were body mass index and serum albumin level, especially a higher serum albumin concentration predicted a more favorable functional recovery. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that diverse functional recovery clusters persisted and serum albumin concentration at admission was a critical assessment factor. Clinical rehabilitation: Such information could be useful for identifying the different rehabilitation needs of varying trajectory groups and for effectively improving functional ability among the ischemic stroke population. PMID:23172406

Huang, H C; Chang, C H; Lee, T H; Chang, Y J; Ryu, S J; Chang, T Y; Huang, K L; Liu, C H; Chang, H J

2012-11-21

454

Promising prospects: students choosing therapy as a career.  

PubMed

Careers in health fields are becoming increasingly popular among college students, and therapy (occupational, physical, and speech) is one of the fastest growing of these fields. To identify the characteristics of potential therapists, a group of subjects who had entered college as first-time, full-time freshmen in 1966 and who indicated in 1970 that they planned on a career in therapy were compared with aspirants to other health careers with respect to demographic characteristics, sources of college financing, academic achievement, and education/employment status as of 1970. In addition, their attitudes and values--as revealed by self-ratings, life goals, and reasons for choosing the career of therapy--were examined. Prospective therapists were found to have outstanding academic records, high rates of baccalaureate completion, and specific skills that seemed to qualify them for success in the career. They were stongly oriented toward working with people, had altruistic goals and values, and were highly confident of their interpersonal skills. PMID:1181936

Holmstrom, E I

455

Student Teacher Efficacy in Inner-City Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined student teachers' conflict resolution and growth toward efficacy while interning in inner city schools. Interviews, written reflections, and group discussions indicated a sense of culture shock upon entering schools. Students were concerned about children's home lives, relationships with cooperating teachers and students, and teaching…

Rushton, Stephen P.

2000-01-01

456

Using Narrative Career Counseling with the Underprepared College Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An increasing number of students enter college underprepared. These students do not have the academic skills to take college-level courses and are placed in remedial classes. Career counseling can help underprepared college students make educated career decisions based on their current situations. This article explores the characteristics of…

Hughes, Amber N.; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Mynatt, Blair

2013-01-01

457

Computer Skills Workshop for Incoming Community College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colleges today are requiring students to conduct more and more administrative business as well as academic tasks using computers and the Internet. Despite this, research shows there are still students entering college without these computer skills. This is particularly true at the community college level. This study examines the effects of a pre- semester basic computer skills workshop for students

Leanne Urasaki

2009-01-01

458

A Perilous Path: Undocumented Immigrant Students and the College Pipeline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Undocumented immigrant students are a growing population in our nation's urban high schools, colleges and universities. Prior to and upon entering institutions of higher education, these students require college preparatory information, support, and guidance. Accordingly, this article discusses the challenges undocumented students encounter as…

Oliverez, Paz M.

2007-01-01

459

BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS \\/ PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS: MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE STUDENT INVOLVEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student business organizations or professional associations sponsored through business schools provide an avenue for students to prepare and gain leadership experience before entering the professional business world. These organizations provide students with opportunities to apply leadership skills, as well as other management related skills that will serve them well in their preparation to succeed in the highly competitive business arena.

Michael C. Shurden

460

Discovering the Determinants of Chemistry Course Perceptions in Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary goals of this project were to develop a reliable instrument to measure the chemistry course perceptions (CCP) of undergraduate chemistry students and to determine the predictors of CCP of undergraduate students as they enter their first college chemistry class. In a pilot study, 250 undergraduate students were solicited with 57…

Reardon, Robert F.; Traverse, Maria A.; Feakes, Debra A.; Gibbs, Karen A.; Rohde, Rodney E.

2010-01-01

461

Understanding and Working with Attention Deficit Disorder Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From a holistic perspective the term attention refers to a student's capacity to focus, direct and sustain their attention on a particular stimulus within their environment for a significant period of time. The development of students' attention spans develops progressively from the time they enter school. From the beginning some students have…

Buttery, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

462

Making Connections: Dimensions of Student Engagement. 2009 Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students arrive at college expecting to succeed and believing that they are motivated to do so. Too often, though, there is an evident difference between being motivated and being prepared to succeed. Still, community college students often come to recognize one factor that plays a pivotal role in their success: connections. Entering students

Community College Survey of Student Engagement, 2009

2009-01-01

463

Making Connections: Dimensions of Student Engagement. 2009 Findings. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students arrive at college expecting to succeed and believing that they are motivated to do so. Too often, though, there is an evident difference between being motivated and being prepared to succeed. Still, community college students often come to recognize one factor that plays a pivotal role in their success: connections. Entering students

Community College Survey of Student Engagement, 2009

2009-01-01

464

Course-related family andfinancial problems of mature nursing students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been a significant change in the type of student entering nurse education.There has been a move towards widening access, and as a result, more mature students have gained entry to courses. What seems less clear is the types of course-related problems experienced by mature students. The study reported in this paper investigated the financial and

William Lauder; Philip Cuthbertson

1998-01-01

465

Facilitating Experiential Learning of Study Skills in Sports Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years the student population in the UK has grown considerably, and students are entering higher education with a more diverse range of qualifications and skills. This is particularly the case in post-1992 universities with a widening participation agenda, as these institutions have a larger share of students from non-traditional…

Groves, Mark; Bowd, Belinda; Smith, Julian

2010-01-01

466

Two Behavior Management Systems, One Classroom: Can Elementary Students Adapt?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After going through Assertive Discipline training, a student teacher entered her new first-grade class. The mentor classroom teacher did not use Assertive Discipline, but gave permission for the student teacher to use this management system. After teaching students her rules, rewards, and negative consequences--and appropriately implementing…

Desiderio, Mike F.; Mullennix, Cathy

2005-01-01

467

Assessment of Critical Thinking Skills in Associate Degree Nursing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the change in the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students as they progressed through their educational process at the Reedsburg campus of Madison Area Technical College (MATC) in Wisconsin. The study sample consisted of two cohorts of 24 students each (students entering MATC's associate degree nursing program…

Soukup, Frances

468

Pre-Enrollment Contacts and Characteristics of Students Who Enroll.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis was made of characteristics of students participating in the various types and numbers of institutional contacts before enrolling in college. The purpose was to examine the relationship of student pre-enrollment contacts with the university to student enrollment and retention. Records identifying potential 1980 entering freshmen having…

Gamache, LeAnn M.

469

Facilitating Experiential Learning of Study Skills in Sports Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years the student population in the UK has grown considerably, and students are entering higher education with a more diverse range of qualifications and skills. This is particularly the case in post-1992 universities with a widening participation agenda, as these institutions have a larger share of students from non-traditional…

Groves, Mark; Bowd, Belinda; Smith, Julian

2010-01-01

470

Reflections on Teaching Physics to Science and Engineering Foundation Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Science and Engineering Foundation Programme at Loughborough University has been running since October 1991. It has a heterogeneous intake of approximately 100 students. The author is responsible for the physics input to the Programme. This provides 25% of the Programme for almost all the students. The varied educational profile of students entering this course necessitated a radical rethink of

Mary Stewart

1996-01-01

471

Derrida Meets IBM: Using Deconstruction To Teach Business Communication Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The business communications teacher helps the student learn to write the proposal that wins a promotion or the sales letter that wins new customers. Students poised to enter the business world need language theories as much as students studying literature, for the corporate language culture is as unpredictable and ambiguous as any literary text.…

Rice, H. William

472

Involving College Students in Social Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract: To explore early-undergraduate exposure to hands-on research opportunities, we invited students enrolled in three second-year social science courses at a community college to participate in a cross-cultural fear of crime project. Thirty-three students participated, conducting community interviews, or coding and entering data. The students completed a ten-item questionnaire to assess their experience, indicating that participation increased their understanding

William McConnell; Roger G. Albert; John P. Marton

473

Development of reference antisera to enteric-origin avian viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent molecular surveys have revealed geographically distinct lineages of avian reovirus, rotavirus and astrovirus circulating in commercial poultry. To improve our understanding of enteric virus pathogenesis, specific immunological reagents are needed to detect viruses in histological samples. To ...

474

Mass Enteric Live Adenovirus Vaccination During Epidemic Ard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During an epidemic of acute adenovirus respiratory disease (ARD) in a naval recruit population, mass immunization with an enteric live adenovirus type 4 vaccine resulted in an early dramatic reduction in illness. The decrease of disease in immunized men o...

R. O. Peckinpaugh W. E. Pierce M. J. Rosenbaum E. A. Edwards G. G. Jackson

1968-01-01

475

15. FIRST FLOOR HALL, LOOKING NORTH (entered from south entry ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. FIRST FLOOR HALL, LOOKING NORTH (entered from south entry door). Glazed arch partition taken from second floor center hall room (see Photo SC-101-32) - Governor Thomas Bennett House, 1 Lucas Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

476

VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, BUMPER ROLLERS IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

477

9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink...

2013-01-01

478

Enter a Certificate to Foreign Government (CFG) Application ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Enter a Certificate to Foreign Government (CFG) Application Step-by-Step Instructions. CFG Application Step-by-Step Instructions. September, 2013. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/complianceactivities

479

Planar cell polarity genes control the connectivity of enteric neurons  

PubMed Central

A highly complex network of intrinsic enteric neurons is required for the digestive and homeostatic functions of the gut. Nevertheless, the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate their assembly into functional neuronal circuits are currently unknown. Here we report that the planar cell polarity (PCP) genes Celsr3 and Fzd3 are required during murine embryogenesis to specifically control the guidance and growth of enteric neuronal projections relative to the longitudinal and radial gut axes. Ablation of these genes disrupts the normal organization of nascent neuronal projections, leading to subtle changes of axonal tract configuration in the mature enteric nervous system (ENS), but profound abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility. Our data argue that PCP-dependent modules of connectivity established at early stages of enteric neurogenesis control gastrointestinal function in adult animals and provide the first evidence that developmental deficits in ENS wiring may contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic bowel disorders.

Sasselli, Valentina; Boesmans, Werend; Vanden Berghe, Pieter; Tissir, Fadel; Goffinet, Andre M.; Pachnis, Vassilis

2013-01-01

480

129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

481

[Molecular identification of bovine enteric calciviruses in Venezuela].  

PubMed

Caliciviruses are a well-established cause of respiratory, vesicular and hemorrhagic diseases in animals. In addition, these viruses are an important cause of enteric diseases in humans. Recently, molecular analysis of several bovine enteric calicivirus isolates indicated that they are genetically close to human enteric calicivirus. To investigate if bovine enteric caliciviruses circulate in Venezuela, 129 stool samples collected between 1994 and 2000 were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification. The presence of calicivirus was confirmed in one of the samples analyzed, collected in the Lara State from a healthy calf, 2 months old. Phylogenetic studies based on partial RNA polymerase sequences indicated that the Venezuelan isolate (Bo/NV/Lara/2000/VE) is most closely related to the genogroup III, genus Noroviruses. PMID:14976786

Alcalá, Ana C; Hidalgo, Mayra A; Obando, César; Vizzi, Esmeralda; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E

2003-01-01

482

View facing north (30°) of Transmission Line entering Teton River ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View facing north (30°) of Transmission Line entering Teton River Valley, near Structure 40-7 - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

483

Preparation and characterization of enteric microparticles by coacervation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to produce cinnarizine loaded Eudragit(®) L100-55 microparticles by coacervation technique in order to achieve pH responsive drug release using hydroxypropyl methycellulose (HPMC) as stabilizer. The effect of enteric polymer: HPMC ratio on properties of microparticles was investigated with regard to particle size distribution, morphology, yield, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release profiles and interaction between cinnarizine and Eudragit(®) L100-55. High drug encapsulation efficiency was seen in all microparticles. Particle diameter increased when the enteric polymer content was higher relative to HPMC. In vitro dissolution studies demonstrated that the drug release from the microparticles was dependent upon enteric polymer: HPMC ratio and particle size distribution. At the ratio of at least 3.75:1 of enteric polymer: HPMC, drug release was suppressed most significantly in low pH (hydrochloric acid as medium) while rapid drug release was observed in pH 7.4. PMID:23003201

Thomas, Steffi; Chong, Yin Ning; Chaw, Cheng Shu

2012-09-25

484

Effect of enteral nutrition on human pancreatic secretions.  

PubMed

The influence on pancreatic secretion of four enteral feeding products was evaluated in a unique patient with an isolated duodenal fistula for whom enteral feeding access was obtained via a gastrostomy with a small Silastic catheter passed through the gastrostomy and through a surgically created gastrojejunostomy. The patient was totally supported by intravenous nutrition during the study. Each enteral feeding solution was administered at full strength at 50 ml/hr for 2 days with a 24-hr collection of pancreatic secretions by the duodenal cutaneous fistula taken on the second day. Infusion of the enteral feeding solutions did not alter volume of fistula drainage. All solutions decreased bicarbonate and amylase secretion but increased lipase and total nitrogen excretion. From this study, it would appear reasonable to administer Vivonex HN and Criticare HN via the jejunum in patients with pancreatic disease, whereas Osmolite would appear less satisfactory, due to its much stronger stimulation of lipase secretion. PMID:3110448

Grant, J P; Davey-McCrae, J; Snyder, P J

485

Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable\\u000a to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and\\u000a chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In\\u000a this article, the

Els L. F. Nijs; Anne Marie Cahill

2010-01-01

486

Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Pathogens in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacterial enteric infections exact a heavy toll on human populations, particularly among children and immunosuppressed individuals\\u000a in developing countries, where malnutrition, HIV\\/AIDS and poor sanitation abound. Despite the explosion of knowledge on the\\u000a pathogenesis of enteric diseases during the past two decades, the number of diarrhoeal episodes and human deaths reported\\u000a especially among the poor populations in developing countries remain

Samuel Kariuki

487

Exacerbation of B27 positive spondyloarthropathy by enteric infections.  

PubMed

Two patients developed reactive arthritis after enteritis secondary to Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella Group B, respectively. Each patient had an established spondyloarthropathy and was HLA-B27 positive. While enteric pathogens are widely reported to cause reactive arthritis, these patients illustrate that exacerbations of arthritic syndromes may also be precipitated. Our findings support the concept that abnormalities of bowel flora may affect the course of B27 associated arthropathies PMID:6607996

Rynes, R I; Volastro, P S; Bartholomew, L E

1984-02-01

488

The provision of a percutaneously placed enteral tube feeding service.  

PubMed

There is overwhelming evidence that the maintenance of enteral feeding is beneficial in patients in whom oral access has been diminished or lost. Short-term enteral access is usually achieved via naso-enteral tube placement. For longer term tube feeding there are recognised advantages for enteral feeding tubes placed percutaneously. The provision of a percutaneous enteral tube feeding service should be within the remit of the hospital nutrition support team (NST). This designated team should provide a framework for patient selection, pre-assessment and post-procedural care. Close working relations with community-based services should be established. An accredited therapeutic endoscopist should be a member of the NST and direct the technical aspects of the service. Every endoscopy unit in an acute hospital setting should provide a basic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) service. This should include provision for fitting a PEG jejunal extension (PEGJ) if required. Specialist units should be identified where a more comprehensive service is provided, including direct jejunal placement (DPEJ), as well as radiological and laparoscopically placed tubes. Good understanding of the indications for percutaneous enteral tube feeding will prevent inappropriate procedures and ensure that the correct feeding route is selected at the appropriate time. Each unit should adopt and become familiar with a limited range of PEG tube equipment. Careful adherence to the important technical details of tube insertion will reduce peri-procedural complications. Post-procedural complications remain relatively common, however, and an awareness of the correct approach to managing them is essential for all clinicians involved in providing a percutaneous enteral tube feeding service. Finally, ethical considerations should always be taken into account when considering long-term enteral feeding, especially for patients with a poor quality of life. PMID:21071581

Westaby, David; Young, Alison; O'Toole, Paul; Smith, Geoff; Sanders, David S

2010-12-01

489

Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant  

SciTech Connect

Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech [University of Michigan Hospital, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)], E-mail: cwikiel@umich.edu

2007-04-15

490

Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis after an outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight patients suffered Campylobacter jejuni enteritis after eating raw chicken. Among them, only one patient developed Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, who carried anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. In contrast, none of the others did the autoantibodies. C. jejuni was cultured from all stool samples from five patients with enteritis alone. All the isolates had the same genotype, cst-II (Asn51), which are characteristic of

Masahiro Mori; Michiaki Koga; Nobuhiro Yuki; Takamichi Hattori; Satoshi Kuwabara

2008-01-01

491

Pathogenic characteristics of persistent feline enteric coronavirus infection in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) comprise two biotypes: feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV) and\\u000afeline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV). FECV is associated with asymptomatic persistent enteric\\u000ainfections, while FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a usually fatal systemic disease in domestic\\u000acats and some wild Felidae. FIPV arises from FECV by mutation. FCoV also occur in two serotypes, I and\\u000aII, of which

Liesbeth Vogel; Mariken van der Lubben; Eddie G. te Lintelo; Cornelis P. J. Bekker; Tamara Geerts; Leontine S. Schuijff; Guy C. M. Grinwis; Herman F. Egberink; Peter J. M. Rottier

2010-01-01

492

Transplanted progenitors generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal colon.  

PubMed

Cell therapy has the potential to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by diseases of the enteric nervous system. Many studies have demonstrated that various stem/progenitor cells can give rise to functional neurons in the embryonic gut; however, it is not yet known whether transplanted neural progenitor cells can migrate, proliferate, and generate functional neurons in the postnatal bowel in vivo. We transplanted neurospheres generated from fetal and postnatal intestinal neural crest-derived cells into the colon of postnatal mice. The neurosphere-derived cells migrated, proliferated, and generated neurons and glial cells that formed ganglion-like clusters within the recipient colon. Graft-derived neurons exhibited morphological, neurochemical, and electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of enteric neurons; they received synaptic inputs; and their neurites projected to muscle layers and the enteric ganglia of the recipient mice. These findings show that transplanted enteric neural progenitor cells can generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal bowel and advances the notion that cell therapy is a promising strategy for enteric neuropathies. PMID:23454768

Hotta, Ryo; Stamp, Lincon A; Foong, Jaime P P; McConnell, Sophie N; Bergner, Annette J; Anderson, Richard B; Enomoto, Hideki; Newgreen, Donald F; Obermayr, Florian; Furness, John B; Young, Heather M

2013-02-01

493

Transplanted progenitors generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal colon  

PubMed Central

Cell therapy has the potential to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by diseases of the enteric nervous system. Many studies have demonstrated that various stem/progenitor cells can give rise to functional neurons in the embryonic gut; however, it is not yet known whether transplanted neural progenitor cells can migrate, proliferate, and generate functional neurons in the postnatal bowel in vivo. We transplanted neurospheres generated from fetal and postnatal intestinal neural crest–derived cells into the colon of postnatal mice. The neurosphere-derived cells migrated, proliferated, and generated neurons and glial cells that formed ganglion-like clusters within the recipient colon. Graft-derived neurons exhibited morphological, neurochemical, and electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of enteric neurons; they received synaptic inputs; and their neurites projected to muscle layers and the enteric ganglia of the recipient mice. These findings show that transplanted enteric neural progenitor cells can generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal bowel and advances the notion that cell therapy is a promising strategy for enteric neuropathies.

Hotta, Ryo; Stamp, Lincon A.; Foong, Jaime P.P.; McConnell, Sophie N.; Bergner, Annette J.; Anderson, Richard B.; Enomoto, Hideki; Newgreen, Donald F.; Obermayr, Florian; Furness, John B.; Young, Heather M.

2013-01-01

494

Student Assessment System. Student Performance Record. Task Detailing. Cosmetology. Georgia Vocational Education Program Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet lists tasks and functions the cosmetology student should be able to do upon entering an employment situation or a postsecondary school. (Listings are also available for the areas of allied health occupations/practical nursing and transportation/automotive mechanics.) Tasks are coded to correspond to those on the Student Performance…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

495

Student Assessment System. Student Performance Record. Task Detailing. Cosmetology. Georgia Vocational Education Program Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet lists tasks and functions the cosmetology student should be able to do upon entering an employment situation or a postsecondary school. (Listings are also available for the areas of allied health occupations/practical nursing and transportation/automotive mechanics.) Tasks are coded to correspond to those on the Student Performance…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

496

The views of five participating undergraduate students of the Student Associates Scheme in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports findings from a study which explored undergraduate perceptions of the Student Associates Scheme in England (SAS). The scheme was established by the Training and Development Agency for Schools in an attempt to increase the number of graduates entering the teaching profession, particularly in shortage subjects such as the physical sciences and mathematics. The scheme places undergraduate students

Stuart Bevins; Marilyn Brodie; Eleanor Brodie

2010-01-01

497

Evaluating Student Outcomes at For-Profit Colleges. NBER Working Paper No. 18201  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using the Beginning Postsecondary Student Survey, we examine the effect on earnings of obtaining certificates/degrees from for-profit, not-for-profit, and public institutions. Students who enter certificate programs at any type of institution do not gain from earning a certificate. However, among those entering associates degree programs, there…

Lang, Kevin; Weinstein, Russell

2012-01-01

498

The attitudes of male student teachers towards a career in special education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the reasons why so few male student teachers are entering the special education sector. This comes as recent statistics reveal that the percentage of male teaching staff in special education in Northern Ireland is much lower than in England. The article first critically considers the international literature on male students’ perceptions of entering the teaching profession. The

Noel Purdy

2009-01-01

499

Choosing teaching as a career: perspectives of male and female Malaysian student teachers in training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is motivated by concern about the decline in the numbers of males entering the teaching profession in Malaysia. It seeks to explore first year student teachers’ views of teaching as a career choice and to determine the factors that influenced their decision to enter the teaching profession. A total of 425 student teachers completed a questionnaire in which

Norzaini Azman

2012-01-01