Science.gov

Sample records for first-time entering students

  1. CYCC's Entering First-time Freshmen, and Transfer Students, Fall, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, E. B.

    In order to obtain a profile of Central YMCA Community College (CYCC) entering students, CYCC participated in the 1975 American Council on Education and UCLA survey of incoming freshman students. At CYCC, the survey was administered in class to 322 students (187 first-time, full-time freshmen, 133 transfers-in, and 12 part-time freshmen). The…

  2. Steady Stream of High School Graduates Enter B.C. Public Post-Secondary Education for the First Time Each Year. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Transitions Project, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Student Transition project (STP) has collected eleven years of grade 12 and post-secondary enrollment data, since it's inception in 2003. This information is used to track student transitions from grade 12 graduation into post-secondary education, student mobility between post-secondary institutions and post-secondary credential completions.…

  3. The Impact of Study Abroad on Academic Success: An Analysis of First-Time Students Entering Old Dominion University, Virginia, 2000-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Min; de Silva, Chandra R.; Neufeldt, Ellen; Dane, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a widespread assumption that study abroad develops skills that are marketable in an increasingly global market. Students at many institutions, including Old Dominion University (ODU), have undertaken study abroad mostly after their sophomore year, well after they have chosen a major. The profile of U.S. students studying abroad compiled…

  4. Student Follow-Up Study: First-Time Students, 1970. Research Report 75-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschechtelin, James D.

    As part of a statewide survey, a questionnaire was mailed in April 1974, to the 940 students who had entered Harford Community College (HCC) for the first time in fall 1970; 257 (27 percent) responded. The survey was designed to ascertain the respondents' educational goals, their employment history, their transfer experiences, and their general…

  5. Fall 1986 First-Time Community College Student Transfer Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    In 1992, 27 Illinois community college districts (38 colleges) participated in a national transfer study conducted by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC). The purpose of the study was to test a model for calculating transfer rates which used as its cohort group those students entering a community college in fall 1986 with no…

  6. Annual Report on Admission Standards for First-Time Entering Freshmen, Fall 2006: South Carolina Public Senior Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document reviews the results of five different reports related to admission standards and measures of achievement for first-time entering freshmen at South Carolina public senior colleges and universities. This document summarizes the results of five different reports related to admission standards and to measures of achievement of first-time…

  7. Your Child Goes to School: A Handbook for Parents of Children Entering School for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    The five chapters in this handbook, intended for parents of children entering kindergarten for the first time, offer suggestions about how parents can make starting kindergarten a successful and happy event for their child, and how parents can help their child get ready for school. The first chapter contains sections that describe when learning…

  8. Analysis of the Enrollment Loss among First-Time-in-College Students Attending Miami-Dade Community College. Research Report No. 95-07R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brann, Herman I.

    From fall 1990 to fall 1994, Florida's Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) experienced a decline in enrollment among first-time-in-college students. To determine reasons for the decline, M-DCC examined characteristics and high school of origin of first-time students in the period, categorizing students as direct-entry (i.e., entering within 1…

  9. First-Time Student Questionnaire: An Attempt to Identify Those Applicants Most Likely Not to Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spahr, Anthony E.

    A study was conducted at Morton College (Illinois) to develop a profile of students who applied to the college, but did not register for classes. A sample of 445 potential students who participated in the college's placement testing program for the fall 1984 semester completed the First-Time Student Questionnaire, which asked for information…

  10. Perceptions of First-Time in College Community College Students Regarding Factors and Barriers for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Deana K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of first-generation first-time in college (FTIC) students who have completed a student success course (Learning Frameworks: First-Year Experience-EDUC 1300) at the community college level regarding (a) factors that enable them to succeed and (b) factors that are barriers to their success. A

  11. Perceptions of First-Time in College Community College Students Regarding Factors and Barriers for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Deana K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of first-generation first-time in college (FTIC) students who have completed a student success course (Learning Frameworks: First-Year Experience-EDUC 1300) at the community college level regarding (a) factors that enable them to succeed and (b) factors that are barriers to their success. A…

  12. Small Business Planning and Management for the First-Time Entrepreneur. Instructor's Resource Manual. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William H.; Connelly, Donald F.

    This instructor's resource manual and student workbook accompany the textbook of the same name. The manual is intended to help the teacher working with the small business manager and first-time entrepreneur. Each chapter contains these sections: instructional goals; resource people; tips for follow-up activities at the end of each chapter;…

  13. Rites of Pedagogical Passage: How Graduate Student Instructors Negotiate the Challenges of First-Time Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smollin, Leandra M.; Arluke, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of the first-time teaching experience of graduate instructors, drawing on interview and focus group data from 35 sociology students in a doctoral program at a large university in the United States. Results indicate the majority of graduate instructors felt a great deal of anxiety due to challenges they faced when

  14. Rites of Pedagogical Passage: How Graduate Student Instructors Negotiate the Challenges of First-Time Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smollin, Leandra M.; Arluke, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of the first-time teaching experience of graduate instructors, drawing on interview and focus group data from 35 sociology students in a doctoral program at a large university in the United States. Results indicate the majority of graduate instructors felt a great deal of anxiety due to challenges they faced when…

  15. Persistence and Attainment of 2011-12 First-Time Postsecondary Students after 3 Years. First Look. NCES 2016-401

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole; Radford, Alexandria Walton; Wu, Joanna; Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Wilson, David; Hill, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a "first look" at selected findings from the 2012/14 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12/14). It is based on final data describing a nationally representative sample of undergraduates who entered postsecondary education for the first time during the 2011-12 academic year. BPS:12/14 covers the…

  16. Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) 2000 Survey Results: First-Time, Full-Time Students Institutional Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Barbara; Richardson, Odette Marie

    This document is a report on the 2000 Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) survey results from first-time, full-time students at Mt. San Antonio College (SAC) (California). The survey gathered data on student demographics, background experiences, college expectations, attitudes, and opinions. It was administered to 1,000 students, 867…

  17. Ethical considerations surrounding first time procedures: a study and analysis of patient attitudes toward spinal taps by students.

    PubMed

    Williams, C T; Fost, N

    1992-09-01

    A patient is not always told when a student is performing a procedure for the first time. Withholding this information is a form of deception. It is justified on paternalistic grounds (it is in the patient's interest not to know), or on public policy grounds (given the choice, patients would refuse, thus compromising the training of future physicians). Using the spinal tap procedure (lumbar puncture) as a paradigm, 173 patients were surveyed to determine how they felt about first time procedures by medical students, interns, and residents. The patients indicated that they would be willing to be the subject for a student's (52%), intern's (62%), or resident's (66%) first spinal tap. This paper reassesses the ethics of consent for first time procedures based on responses to this survey. PMID:10121088

  18. The Influence of a Career Exploration Course on New First-Time Student Retention at a Public Midwest Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brenda F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between new first- time students enrolled in a career exploration course and retention during the academic years of 2009 to 2011 at a public Midwest community college. Change of major after the first semester was also investigated. The study utilized quantitative, archival data…

  19. Perceived Quality of Service and Behavioral Intentions of First-Time Students Enrolled at The University of North Carolina Asheville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Patrice Black

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the SERVQUAL (Service Quality Instrument) to examine the perceptions of first-time enrolled students at University of North Carolina Asheville regarding the services they receive from a selected group of departments in the university's One Stop area. In addition, the study examined whether a relationship…

  20. Perceived Quality of Service and Behavioral Intentions of First-Time Students Enrolled at The University of North Carolina Asheville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Patrice Black

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the SERVQUAL (Service Quality Instrument) to examine the perceptions of first-time enrolled students at University of North Carolina Asheville regarding the services they receive from a selected group of departments in the university's One Stop area. In addition, the study examined whether a relationship

  1. Predictors of Persistence for First-Time, Full-Time Community and Technical College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Although significant research exists on the causes of student attrition, minimal research has examined how combinations of student variables and institutional practices interact to predict student persistence. The purpose of this research was to identify the extent to which course registration time, low-income status, and transfer-oriented goals…

  2. Evaluation of an Online Alcohol Education Program for First-Time-in-College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Elayne R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has maintained its place as a major issue in American higher education since its inception. Although dangerous drinking has always proliferated among college students, institutions have only provided alcohol and other drug (AOD) education and interventions encouraging students to adapt less harmful habits for a…

  3. Evaluation of an Online Alcohol Education Program for First-Time-in-College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Elayne R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has maintained its place as a major issue in American higher education since its inception. Although dangerous drinking has always proliferated among college students, institutions have only provided alcohol and other drug (AOD) education and interventions encouraging students to adapt less harmful habits for a

  4. Comparison of Spatial Skills of Students Entering Different Engineering Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veurink, N.; Sorby, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown to be important to success in an engineering curriculum, and some question if poor spatial skills prevent students from entering STEM fields or if students with weak spatial skills avoid engineering disciplines believed to highly spatially-oriented. Veurink and Hamlin (2011) found that freshmen students entering

  5. The Influence of the Freshman Academy Model on the English End of Course Test Scores and Promotion Rates of First Time Ninth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Claretta M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of high school transition strategies for ninth grade students in comparison to the traditional high school experience of first time ninth grade students. This study compared the English End-of-Course (EOC) test scores of first time ninth grade students in a traditional high school setting…

  6. Spring 1981 Non-Continuing Student Survey; Fall 1980 Entering Students. Student Flow Program, Report 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Kapiolani Community Coll.

    As part of a student flow project designed to monitor the progress of students who entered Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Fall 1980 for five consecutive semesters, a survey was conducted of the 753 Fall 1980 entering students who did not re-enroll in Spring 1981. The survey instrument asked respondents to: (1) indicate their main reason for…

  7. Comparison of Spatial Skills of Students Entering Different Engineering Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veurink, N.; Sorby, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown to be important to success in an engineering curriculum, and some question if poor spatial skills prevent students from entering STEM fields or if students with weak spatial skills avoid engineering disciplines believed to highly spatially-oriented. Veurink and Hamlin (2011) found that freshmen students entering…

  8. The First Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Beth

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates her experience of meeting a Montessori kid for the first time and shares the characteristics she observed in Montessori students. The author was working as director of academic resources in university housing at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and met Jason, a pre-med sophomore who was the resident…

  9. Benefits & Incentives for Students Entering Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes available benefits and work incentives affecting supported employment placement for students with severe disabilities, including payment for necessary supports (state programs and the Department of Labor), protection of benefits (Social Security programs), and incentives to employers (the Targeted Job Tax Credits program and…

  10. Overconfidence of Vocational Education Students When Entering Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Mark P.; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Bahtsevanoglou, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is evidence that students who attend Technical and Further Education (TAFE) prior to entering higher education underperform in their first year of study. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-efficacy in understanding the performance of students who completed TAFE in the previous year in a first year subject of…

  11. The Influence of Student Demographics and Internal Characteristics on GPA, Persistence, and Academic Success of First-Time College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Employing a non-experimental, ex-post facto design, the study examined the relationship of student demographic information and internal characteristics identified from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) to student persistence, grade point average, and academic success. Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT), which focuses on the internal…

  12. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142. Giannella Ra. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  13. Experiences and Engagement Levels of Entering Community College Students and Returning Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De los Reyes, Maria Oralia

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore the differences in engagement levels between entering and returning community college students, the researcher analyzed 13,300 surveys from the 2007 Survey of Entering Student Engagement (SENSE) pilot data set utilizing a quantitative methodology. This study focused on analyzing engagement levels of entering and returning…

  14. Ecologia: The Assumptions, Expectations, and Strategies of Modern Language Students Working in a Self-Access Learning Environment for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Alison

    1994-01-01

    This study examined 29 second-year undergraduate students of Spanish using a self-access learning environment for the first time, focusing on their language attitudes and learning strategies. The results show that, even as modern languages majors, the students possessed a model of language and strategies for learning that were significantly…

  15. Substance use by surgical residents and students entering surgery.

    PubMed

    Bunch, W H; Storr, C L; Hughes, P H; Baldwin, D C

    1996-02-15

    We studied the use of alcohol, tobacco, and nine unprescribed or illegal substances by surgical residents and medical students accepted into surgical programs. With the exception of alcohol, surgical residents had less lifetime experience and used less than other residents or nonmedical college graduates. Students entering surgery had used these substances more frequently and were more likely to be using them regularly than were residents. Residency directors need to be aware of the change in attitude and use patterns of present residents as compared with those of the past. PMID:8769951

  16. Differences in Student Engagement of Entering Texas Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Trevena B.

    2013-01-01

    Improving the academic achievement of students for success in college in ways that lead to college degree attainment is a growing concern for our nation. Educators are exploring the topic of student engagement to better understand critical issues surrounding college degree attainment. Through analysis of data collected from the Survey of Entering…

  17. "So You Are from England": Categorization and Cultural Reduction in First-Time Conversation Lounge Encounters between Foreign Teachers and Japanese Students of EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nao, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The article explores "culture talk" at the outset of first-time encounters between teachers and students of English as a foreign language in the conversation lounge of a Japanese university. It analyses the interactional procedures by which the foreign place of origin of the teacher becomes the topic of conversation following his or her…

  18. The Bird's Eye View of Community Colleges: A Behavioral Typology of First-Time Students Based on Cluster Analytic Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2010-01-01

    The development of a typology of community college students is a topic of long-standing and growing interest among educational researchers, policy-makers, administrators, and other stakeholders, but prior work on this topic has been limited in a number of important ways. In this paper, I develop a behavioral typology based on students'…

  19. The Bird's Eye View of Community Colleges: A Behavioral Typology of First-Time Students Based on Cluster Analytic Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2010-01-01

    The development of a typology of community college students is a topic of long-standing and growing interest among educational researchers, policy-makers, administrators, and other stakeholders, but prior work on this topic has been limited in a number of important ways. In this paper, I develop a behavioral typology based on students'

  20. First Time International College Students' Level of Anxiety in Relationship to Awareness of Their Learning-Style Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Arlene Shorter

    2011-01-01

    Given the receptivity of American colleges to international students, administrators and professors must recognize the diversity such registrants bring to campus in the form of achievement, age, gender, language, and national differences. The purpose of this study was to compare learning style preferences of international first year college

  1. A Comparative Study on First-Time and Experienced Project-Based Learning Students in an Engineering Design Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to compare and evaluate the learning ability and performance differences between two groups of students undergoing project-based learning (PjBL), with one group having prior PjBL experience, while the other group is being freshly exposed to PjBL. More specifically, it examines if there are significant differences in knowledge…

  2. Characteristics and Opinions of Entering Undergraduate Students at Montana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulniak, Dennis J.

    Montana State University's (MSU) use of the Student-Outcomes Information Services (SOIS), developed jointly by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) and the College Board for surveying the characteristics and opinions of entering undergraduate students, is examined. The Entering-Student Questionnaire, one of five…

  3. Knowledge Structures of Entering Computer Networking Students and Their Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Students bring prior knowledge to their learning experiences. This prior knowledge is known to affect how students encode and later retrieve new information learned. Teachers and content developers can use information about students' prior knowledge to create more effective lessons and materials. In many content areas, particularly the sciences,…

  4. Are STEM High School Students Entering the STEM Pipeline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, M. Suzanne; Patel, Nimisha H.; Lindsey, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the career skills and interests for students in two STEM schools to national data. Students completed the KUDER skills assessment and career planning online tools. Results were compared across school, grade level, and sex. The results provided evidence that STEM high school students expressed career intents in predominately…

  5. Flourishing, Substance Use, and Engagement in Students Entering College: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Kathryn Graff

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the association between positive mental health or flourishing, depression, and engaged learning in undergraduates. Participants: Entering first year students (N = 428) at a liberal arts college. Methods: Students completed measures of depression, flourishing, substance use, and student engagement. Results:…

  6. Implementation of a Study Skills Program for Entering At-Risk Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia J.

    2014-01-01

    While the first year of medical school is challenging for all students, there may be specific issues for students from rural areas, economically disadvantaged backgrounds, ethnic minorities, or nontraditional age groups. A Summer Prematriculation Program (SPP) was created to prepare entering at-risk students for the demands of medical school. For…

  7. Developing an Empirically Based Typology of Attitudes of Entering Students toward Participation in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter R.; Laufgraben, Jodi Levine; Morris, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Learning communities (LC) seek to strengthen and enrich students' connections to each other, their teachers, and the subject matter they are studying. Their success depends on the nature of the learning community program, the learning styles of the students who participate and the reasons why students entered the program. This study uses a…

  8. Flourishing, Substance Use, and Engagement in Students Entering College: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Kathryn Graff

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the association between positive mental health or flourishing, depression, and engaged learning in undergraduates. Participants: Entering first year students (N = 428) at a liberal arts college. Methods: Students completed measures of depression, flourishing, substance use, and student engagement. Results:

  9. Recruiting and retaining geoscience students at a large public university: Balancing the needs of first-time freshman and upper-division transfer students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. D.; Clemens-Knott, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Geological Sciences at California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) is one of the largest geology programs in the state. Approximately 4,000 students at CSUF take general education geology classes; this provides a large pool from which to recruit undergraduate students for either the Geology B.S. or Earth Sciences B.A. offered by the department. The department has seen a dramatic increase in majors over the last decade, from a low of 28 majors in 2002 to more than 110 in 2012. This increase does not appear to be driven by growth in the oil industry; in a recent survey of CSUF geoscience (BS or BA) students, 15% of respondents indicated an interest in a career in petroleum. The department has engaged in aggressive recruitment and outreach efforts over the last decade, with activities ranging from earthquake preparedness rallies in conjunction with the annual California ShakeOut, to an emerging high school and community college intern program at the department's paleontology curation facility. Despite these efforts, the majority of CSUF geoscience students declared the geology major after taking an introductory physical geology course either at CSUF or a local community college. Over the last ten years, approximately 50% of the geoscience majors at CSUF transferred from a community college. Among the geoscience students who began their career at CSUF, only one third had declared a geoscience major in their freshman year. Over two thirds of geoscience majors at CSUF declared their major after completing more than 60 units. The strong tendency for students to declare a geoscience major late in their career poses significant challenges to students' ability to graduate in a timely manner. To mitigate this problem, the department has an aggressive advising program, wherein students attend mandatory advising with a faculty member every semester. The department is also working closely with community college partners to improve the preparation of transfer students through advising partnerships facilitated by the NSF-sponsored STEM2 program, and through active collaboration in implementing a geology "Associate's Degree-for-Transfer" at community colleges under the framework of California's Student Transfer Achievement Reform Act (SB 1440).

  10. Enter AGU student contest to win free Fall Meeting registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-07-01

    AGU is excited to announce its first Student Video and Student T-shirt Design competitions. This is an opportunity for students to display their artistic sides and share their creativity and love of science with the world. Entries could highlight an aspect of Earth or space science in an educational and/or entertaining way or showcase a career path in geophysical sciences. Winners of these student-only competitions will be awarded free registration to the 2012 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

  11. Challenges Facing Students Entering Higher Education in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    States that institutions of higher education in South Africa are in a process of redressing apartheid inequalities. Discusses how the University of Port Elizabeth in particular has addressed post-apartheid issues such as student under-preparedness, widening access, instability on campus, high student debt levels, declining enrollments, and…

  12. Entering Student Affairs: A Comparative Study of Graduate School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma; Eckman, Ellen; Strayhorn, Terrell

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the college choice process of graduate students in College Student Personnel programs at a public university and a private religiously affiliated university. Despite differences in size, mission, and location of the two institutions studied, the research findings show that respondent populations were similar demographically…

  13. Entering Student Affairs: A Comparative Study of Graduate School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma; Eckman, Ellen; Strayhorn, Terrell

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the college choice process of graduate students in College Student Personnel programs at a public university and a private religiously affiliated university. Despite differences in size, mission, and location of the two institutions studied, the research findings show that respondent populations were similar demographically

  14. A Measure of Student Success: First-Time Full-Time Students Four Years After Entry. Report RB91-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Accountability mandates from accrediting agencies and state government require community colleges to report student graduation and transfer rates. State reporting systems maintained by the Maryland Higher Education Commission (MHEC) provide one means of computing these measures. MHEC used fall enrollment and degree data to determine graduation and…

  15. A Statistical Comparison of First Time Praxis II Pass Rates between Homegrown 4 Year Students and Transfer Students of a Medium Size Suburban University: A Six Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jason Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the federal mandate specified by the No Child Left Behind Act to demonstrate content competency for teaching certification, students must pass a written examination. Missouri and 37 other states chose the Praxis II to satisfy requirements. Presently, schools of education advertise the passing rate of the Praxis II as 100%, since

  16. Individual and Combined Impact of Institutional Student Support Strategies on First-Time, Full-Time, Degree-Seeking Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckert, Kimberly Marrone

    2011-01-01

    Although U.S. rates of college enrollment among 18-24 year olds have reached historic highs, rates of degree completion have not kept pace. This is especially evident at community colleges, where a disproportionate number of students from groups who, historically, have had low college-completion rates enroll. One way community colleges are…

  17. A Quantitative Analysis of a Mandatory Student Success Course on First-Time Full-Time Student College Academic Progress and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenberg, Laurel Beth

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, community colleges have come into the spotlight nationally in terms of their potential to assist in the revitalization of the economy. This has resulted in an increased need for community colleges to understand more fully the factors that influence student persistence. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to…

  18. Diagnostic Tests for Entering and Departing Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, Chris; Kotlicki, A.

    2006-12-01

    A diagnostic test administered at the start of a class should test basic concepts which are recognized as course prerequisites. The questions should not be over-packaged: e.g. students should be required to create models, rather than this being done for them each time. Students should be allowed great latitude in their answers, so we can discover what they are thinking. When administered at the end of a class the goals should be similar: testing concepts taught in the class itself and the retention of necessary concepts from previous classes. Great care has to be taken to avoid teaching to the test. In assessing an entire program, for example an undergraduate majors degree in physics, then one looks for very general skills and knowledge not specific to any one course. The purpose of an undergraduate degree in physics (or indeed any science) is to equip the students with a set of problem-solving skills and basic knowledge which can be applied in a large variety of workplace settings and to allow that student to contribute to civic society as a science-literate person. The creator of any diagnostic test should always have these big goals in mind. We have developed a set of questions which we think fulfill these criteria, yet are not specific to any particular level of science education. They have been administered to students in secondary schools across Canada, incoming first-year science students and final-year physics students at the University of British Columbia. The results will be presented.

  19. Diagnostic Examination for Students Entering Graduate Study in Soil Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loynachan, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    Reports that students with soil science background performed better on a diagnostic examination; no relationship existed between exam performance and country of origin, degree sought, or undergraduate class quartile. Concludes that exam results, the grade received in a beginning graduate-level course and the cumulative graduate grade-point average…

  20. Student Retention-Attrition Entering Freshmen--Fall 1968. Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Coll. Association, Murfreesboro. Center for Higher Education.

    This document presents a report of a study that was designed to determine the rate of retention of students enrolled in colleges and universities in Tennessee that physical facility needs of institutions in the state might be determined. The first year of study, 1968, was spent in compiling information on students entering Tennessee colleges and…

  1. Student Retention-Attrition Entering Freshmen--Fall 1968. Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Coll. Association, Murfreesboro. Center for Higher Education.

    This document presents a report of a study that was designed to determine the rate of retention of students enrolled in colleges and universities in Tennessee that physical facility needs of institutions in the state might be determined. The first year of the study, 1968, was spent in compiling information on students entering Tennessee colleges…

  2. Importance of Computer Competencies for Entering JCCC Students: A Survey of Faculty and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weglarz, Shirley

    Johnson County Community College (JCCC) conducted a survey in response to faculty comments regarding entering students' lack of rudimentary computer skills. Faculty were spending time in non-computer related classes teaching students basic computer skills. The aim of the survey was to determine what the basic computer competencies for entering…

  3. Statement on Competencies in Mathematics Expected of Entering College Students. April 2010. Revised May 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this" Statement on Competencies in Mathematics Expected of Entering College Students" is to provide a clear and coherent message about the mathematics that students need to know and to be able to do to be successful in college. While parts of this Statement were written with certain audiences in mind, the document as a whole…

  4. Who Are the Future Teachers in Turkey? Characteristics of Entering Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksu, Meral; Demir, Cennet Engin; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner; Kiraz, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the background characteristics, socio-cultural values and pedagogical beliefs that entering student teachers bring with them into the faculties of education and explores their possible implications for teacher education in the Turkish context. The study comprised 18,226 first-year student teachers from 51 faculties…

  5. Factors Influencing Senior Athletic Training Students' Preparedness to Enter the Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Benes, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Athletic training education programs must provide the student with opportunities to learn the roles and responsibilities of the athletic trainer. Objective: Investigate factors that help prepare the athletic training student (ATS) to successfully enter the workplace upon graduation from her undergraduate program. Design: Exploratory…

  6. Meeting the Needs of Entering Students through Appropriate Placement in Entry-Level Writing Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Pearl I.

    In summer 2000, an extended-time project was initiated at Saint Louis Community College at Forest Park (SLCC-FP) to conduct a retrospective analysis of a sample of 482 entering students enrolled in entry-level writing courses at SLCC-FP during fall 1999. The purpose of the study was to examine the correspondence among students' academic success,…

  7. The Relationship of Undergraduate First-Time-in-College Students' Expectations of Interactions with Faculty and Four-Year College Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Craig N.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty are the academic heart of colleges and universities. They guide learning and facilitate student academic and social integration in the campus community. As described by Tinto, student integration is an important component to success in college. Out-of-class and in-class faculty-student interaction supports student integration and may lead…

  8. Where the Sun Breezes Don't Stop Shining. Teachers' Journals and Students' Writings on First-Time Homebuying from the New American Homeowners Project, February-June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Catherine, Ed.

    The writings of both teachers and students participating in the New Americans Homeowners Project, a project combining English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and information on first-time home-buying for immigrants in language minority groups are presented. The project provided training and technical assistance to ESL teachers, and reached…

  9. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Six-Year Study of the First-Time and Ultimate Bar Exam Results of Students According to Law School Admission Council (LSAC) Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Beard, J.

    2011-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics addresses the matriculating class of 2001-2007 according to their Law School Admission Council (LSAC) index. Generally, this report will offer information on the first time bar and ultimate performance on the Bar Exam of TMSL students. In addition, graduating GPA according to the LSAC index will also…

  10. Burnout among Entering MSW Students: Exploring the Role of Personal Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Meekyung; Lee, Sang E.; Lee, Peter Allan

    2012-01-01

    Although individual susceptibility to burnout within a similar structural context is well-documented in other helping professions, little is known about the relationship between personal attributes and burnout in social work. Furthermore, despite a large number of entering MSW students with prior work experience, there is a paucity of research…

  11. Burnout among Entering MSW Students: Exploring the Role of Personal Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Meekyung; Lee, Sang E.; Lee, Peter Allan

    2012-01-01

    Although individual susceptibility to burnout within a similar structural context is well-documented in other helping professions, little is known about the relationship between personal attributes and burnout in social work. Furthermore, despite a large number of entering MSW students with prior work experience, there is a paucity of research

  12. Predicting Graduation Status of Nursing Students Using Entering GPA and Grades in Algebra, Biology, and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spahr, Anthony E.

    A study was undertaken at Morton College, in Illinois, to examine the relationship of entering grade point average (GPA) and grades in prerequisite support courses in algebra, biology, and chemistry to graduation in the college's nursing program. A sample was developed of 255 students admitted to the nursing program in 1990, 1991, and 1992 and…

  13. A National Survey of Education Students: Some Data on Background, Habits, and Reasons for Entering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violato, Claudio; Travis, LeRoy D.

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 583 education students (217 males and 366 females) from 10 Canadian universities responded to a questionnaire on their backgrounds, habits, and outlooks. This study investigates variability associated with socioeconomic status, gender, parental background, rationale for entering education, and reading and mass media use habits. (TJH)

  14. Sex Differences in Cooperative Education: A Study of First-Time Cooperative Education Students in Traditional and Non-Traditional Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Barbara R.; And Others

    The data collected in a 1978-79 study of 742 students enrolled in cooperative education (co-op) programs in forty-seven participating colleges and universities describes by sex what students in various fields of study do on their job, what they perceive their work conditions and responsibilities to be, how they view their abilities, and how their…

  15. The Preparation of Students Entering Kentucky's Public Colleges and Universities in 2002 and 2004. Developmental Education Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This update presents information on students entering Kentucky's public postsecondary institutions in 2004, with comparisons to the entering class of 2002. This information updates Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education's 2005 report entitled, "Underprepared Students in Kentucky: A First Look at the 2001 Mandatory Placement Policy." In…

  16. Implementing Process-Oriented, Guided-Inquiry Learning for the First Time: Adaptations and Short-Term Impacts on Students' Attitude and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Anthony; Pakhira, Deblina; Stains, Marilyne

    2013-01-01

    Innovative, research-based instructional practices are critical to transforming the conventional undergraduate instructional landscape into a student-centered learning environment. Research on dissemination of innovation indicates that instructors often adapt rather than adopt these practices. These adaptations can lead to the loss of critical…

  17. A Descriptive Study Comparing GPA, Retention and Graduation of First-Time, Full-Time, Provisionally Admitted First-Generation College Students and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodhavia, Rajalakshmi

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative research study used ex post facto data to analyze possible relationships between a discrete set of independent variables and academic achievement among provisionally admitted students at a public, four-year historically black university located in the mid-Atlantic United States. The independent variables were first-generation…

  18. Predicting Persistence for First-Time Undergraduate Adult Students at Four-Year Institutions Using First-Term Academic Behaviors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody; Holbrook, Wesley T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reported that, in the 24 to 54 age range, the United States ranked thirty-fourth among all for individuals with a postsecondary credential. For the United States to increase in rank, adult students, who are projected to increase by 1.9 million in postsecondary enrollment by…

  19. The Impact of a Freshman Academy on Science Performance of First-Time Ninth-Grade Students at One Georgia High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Vivian Summerour

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this within-group experimental study was to find out to what extent ninth-grade students improved their science performance beyond their middle school science performance at one Georgia high school utilizing a freshman academy model. Freshman academies have been recognized as a useful tool for increasing academic performance among…

  20. Stress and cardiometabolic manifestations among Saudi students entering universities: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. Methods A total of 1878 apparently healthy Saudi students of the Preparatory Year, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (1112 men and 766 women) spanning 2 academic years were included. They were divided into 2 groups based on the validated perceived stress test (PST). Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of fasting blood glucose and a lipid profile. Results PST score (>27) considered indicative of stress was noted in 44.4% of students. The prevalence of this score was higher in women than in men (49.7% versus 40.7%). The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia was significantly higher in men than women (p < 0.01), and this was even more apparent among stressed men, who had a significantly higher prevalence of all the above cardiometabolic factors than the non-stressed ones (p < 0.01). Conclusion Perceived stress is alarmingly high among Saudi students entering universities. This study sheds light on the social responsibility of universities in promoting a healthy lifestyle, particularly in this age group, when exposure to different kinds of stressors may result in body weight and metabolic changes. PMID:24755010

  1. Tapping Trumps Typing: How Users Enter Data in an Electronic Student Encounter Log

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John; DeFer, Tom; Sumner, Walton

    2006-01-01

    Handheld encounter logs that accurately record patient diagnoses could facilitate several educational tasks. Unfortunately, data entry on hand-held computers is notoriously difficult, requiring either tapping buttons or entering text, for instance by typing. In most medical reference software, long lists of inputs adjust to match typed data, reducing the burden of data entry. Tapping is faster if the user can locate the correct target quickly, but designing and maintaining screens with many fixed targets is tedious, and the program grows large. We developed an Electronic Student Encounter Log, ESEL, allowing students to tap or type to record problems observed in ambulatory patients. The tapping interface comprises collections of related disease checkboxes organized in a shallow, broad tree structure, making 983 diagnoses visible with 2 taps. The typing interface mimics typical reference software, scrolling and searching a list of 1332 common problems to match user-entered text. ESEL records how students look for diagnoses to record. Analysis of 62 ambulatory care students ESEL records showed that they used the tapping interface much more often than the typing interface, and recorded data more quickly by tapping than by typing. If accuracy is acceptable, more robust tapping interfaces deserve wider consideration for data capture on handheld computers. PMID:17238313

  2. Tapping trumps typing:how users enter data in an electronic student encounter log.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John; DeFer, Thomas; Sumner, Walton

    2006-01-01

    Handheld encounter logs that accurately record patient diagnoses could facilitate several educational tasks. Unfortunately, data entry on handheld computers is notoriously difficult, requiring either tapping buttons or entering text, for instance by typing. In most medical reference software, long lists of inputs adjust to match typed data, reducing the burden of data entry. Tapping is faster if the user can locate the correct target quickly, but designing and maintaining screens with many fixed targets is tedious, and the program grows large. We developed an Electronic Student Encounter Log, ESEL, allowing students to tap or type to record problems observed in ambulatory patients. The tapping interface comprises collections of related disease checkboxes organized in a shallow, broad tree structure, making 983 diagnoses visible with 2 taps. The typing interface mimics typical reference software, scrolling and searching a list of 1332 common problems in response to user-entered text. ESEL records the paths that students take through the program while trying to record diagnoses. Analysis of 62 students' ESEL records from ambulatory care settings demonstrates that they used the tapping interface much more often than the typing interface, and could record data more quickly by tapping than by typing. If accuracy proves to be acceptable, more robust tapping interfaces deserve wider consideration for data capture on handheld computers. PMID:17238313

  3. Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. PMID:24093735

  4. They Do Not Buy It: Exploring the Extent to Which Entering First-Year Students View Themselves as Customers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of scholars have discussed the pervasiveness of the conceptualization of students as customers, to date there has been limited reliable research examining the extent to which students actually view themselves as customers. Using a survey that was administered to a census of entering first-year students at a large public research…

  5. The Influence of Religion and High School Biology Courses on Students' Knowledge of Evolution When They Enter College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Cotner, Sehoya; Bates, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Students whose high school biology course included evolution but not creationism knew more about evolution when they entered college than did students whose courses included evolution plus creationism or whose courses included neither evolution nor creationism. Similarly, students who believed that their high school biology classes were the…

  6. Perceived marijuana norms and social expectancies among entering college student marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Clayton; Geisner, Irene M; Lee, Christine M

    2008-09-01

    This research examined the relationships among perceived social norms, social outcome expectancies, and marijuana use and related consequences among entering college freshman marijuana users. Students (N = 312, 55% female) completed online assessments of their marijuana use, related consequences, perceived norms, and social expectancies related to marijuana use. Results suggested that perceptions of friends' marijuana use were most strongly associated with marijuana use (d = 0.68), in comparison with perceived injunctive norms (d = 0.30) or expectancies (d = 0.19), and that the perception that other students used marijuana more frequently was more strongly associated with use among students who also perceived other students as more approving of marijuana. In addition, the relationships between perceived descriptive and injunctive norms and marijuana use were stronger among students who reported more positive social marijuana expectancies. Descriptive norms and expectancies were both positively associated with marijuana-related consequences, but, at high levels of both of these variables, injunctive norms were negatively associated with consequences. Results highlight the importance of distinguishing between descriptive and injunctive norms and between marijuana use and related consequences. PMID:18778137

  7. Cognitive Profile of Students Who Enter Higher Education with an Indication of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-01-01

    For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d = 1 and d = 2), arithmetic (d≈1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864

  8. [Meaning of the death/dying process for entering nursing students].

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Gabriella Michel dos Santos; de Oliveira, Kézia; de Oliveira, William Tiago; Sales, Catarina Aparecida; Ferreira, Patrícia Chatalov

    2013-03-01

    This is a qualitative study, based on Heidegger's existential phenomenology, with the purpose of revealing the meaning of death/dying for freshmen students of the nursing program. The study was developed in a public university in the northwest of Paraná, Brazil between August and October 2010, and 33 entering students from a Nursing program were interviewed. The following existential themes emerged from the phenomenological analysis: "Understanding death as a difficult process to be understood"; "Understanding death as a natural process"; and "Perceiving death as a passage to another life". The present study allowed to understand that knowledge and death are entangled in the temporality and the historicity of every being, which requires a scientific, ethical and philosophical understanding of the death/dying phenomenon so that the scholar may prepare for the humanized care of the patient and his/her family. PMID:23781739

  9. Commentary: criminal background checks for entering medical students: history, current issues, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Kleshinski, James; Case, Steven T; Davis, Dwight; Heinrich, George F; Witzburg, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    In this commentary, the authors aim to contextualize the history and rationale for what has become the Association of American Medical Colleges-facilitated criminal background check process for entering medical students. As the process was being considered, many issues with a standardized process were identified. There were concerns that demographic or socioeconomic factors might unfairly burden certain applicants or discourage them from applying to medical school. On the other hand, a unified, national program would minimize cost and enhance quality assurance. The authors discuss these issues. Lessons learned in the first three years of the program are also addressed, including some unexpected and favorable consequences such as the identification of accepted applicants with at-risk behaviors (e.g., substance abuse), who would have otherwise gone undetected. Several challenges remain, including the fact that the criminal background check process creates an enhanced role for prehealth advisors and encourages undergraduate institutions to establish standards and processes relating to professionalism. While this is, no doubt, an evolving program which needs continued oversight and ongoing reevaluation, the authors support the continued advancement of the criminal background check process for entering medical students. PMID:21715989

  10. Entering Freshman Transfer and Career Students: A Comparison of Selected Educational Objectives with Recommendations for Transfer and Academic Advisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Mary S.

    The descriptive study investigated the extent to which entering freshman students and transfer students at Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) are enrolled in degree programs that are compatible with their stated educational objectives, transfer intents, and degree intents. Subjects (N=376) enrolled in a mandatory orientation course were…

  11. THE ENTERING STUDENT, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, A STUDY OF THE BACKGROUNDS, MOTIVATIONS, AND GOALS OF ENTERING STUDENTS IN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AT DAVIS IN 1963 AND 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REGAN, MARY C.; THOMPSON, O. E.

    BIOGRAPHICAL, ATTITUDE, AND PERSONALITY INVENTORIES WERE ADMINISTERED TO FRESHMEN COLLEGE STUDENTS IN ALL FIELDS IN THE FALL OF 1963 AND 1964 TO IDENTIFY BACKGROUND, PRESENT ATTITUDES, AND PERSONALITY FACTORS OF THE AGRICULTURAL STUDENT. IN ADDITION, THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN COLLEGE HAD BEEN FOLLOWED. THE STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE WERE GROUPED…

  12. Student Enrollment Patterns, 1972-77: A Report Presenting the Enrollment Patterns of Full- and Part-time Students by Entering Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.

    To understand patterns of student enrollment, particularly with regard to student attrition, Mercer County Community College developed a computerized information tracking system which monitors enrollment for each semester's entering class, both full- and part-time, for a period of six semesters. This report details enrollment patterns for fall…

  13. Socioeconomic Characteristics and Motivations for Entering a Medical College--Differences between Graduate and Undergraduate Saudi Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Alqarni, Turki; AL-Jahdali, Sarah; Baharoon, Salim A.; AL-Harbi, Abdullah S.; Binsalih, Salih A.; Alshimemeri, Abdulah; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons for and the factors associated with deciding to enter a medical school in our graduate and undergraduate medical students and whether differ between the two groups. Method: This is a cross-sectional study. The survey we developed to investigate demographic and socioeconomic data and…

  14. Validating a Pre-Formed Identity or Unsettling Prior Experience? Experiences of Working Students Entering Studies in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Contextual studies of learning experiences as recalled by working, adult learners entering post-graduate studies in higher education are not widely reported in higher education research. The purpose of this study was to explore the recalled learning experiences of adult students with work experience, but no prior completed academic qualifications,…

  15. The Emotional Experience of First-time Teaching: Reflections from Graduate Instructors, 1997-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meanwell, Emily; Kleiner, Sibyl

    2014-01-01

    Teaching for the first time can be a challenging but rewarding experience. For first-time graduate student instructors, however, it also officially marks the transition from student to teacher--a process that can be both transformational and emotion-laden. In this article, we use content analysis of 86 first-time sociology graduate student…

  16. An Examination of Assessment Scores between Students Who Attend Public Schools and Students Who Were Homeschooled Prior to Entering a Virtual Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Virtual charter schools, emerging in the 1990s, are a recent development in the education field and reflect today's technology-oriented society. This study examined existing data to evaluate what, if any, difference existed between students who attended public school and those who were homeschooled prior to entering the virtual charter school. …

  17. Get Your First-Time Singers to Sing Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packwood, Gary

    2005-01-01

    First-time singers present excellent opportunities for choral directors to fine-tune their teaching by truly working with beginners. In this article, the author discusses how beginning singers learn to sing well. Despite the unique challenges and various musical backgrounds of these students, if choral directors can teach them the basics of…

  18. Entering the University: The Differentiated Experience of Two Chinese International Students in a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skyrme, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on findings from a longitudinal study of Chinese international students beginning study in a New Zealand university, and focuses on the very different experience of two students in relation to a single course and its assessment requirements, as they sought ways to negotiate identities as university students in their new setting.…

  19. Developing Peer Mentoring Support for TAFE Students Entering 1st-Year University Early Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heirdsfield, Ann; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann

    2005-01-01

    At Queensland University of Technology (QUT, Australia), in the Bachelor of Education (BEd) (Early Childhood) (EC), Technical and Further Education (TAFE) students with a diploma enroll with advanced standing (1 year's credit). These students share many challenges faced by 1st-year university students--workload, technology, academic orientation,…

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening and Treating Foreign-Born Students for Tuberculosis before Entering the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wingate, La’Marcus T.; Posey, Drew L.; Zhou, Weigong; Olson, Christine K.; Maskery, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is considering implementation of overseas medical screening of student-visa applicants to reduce the numbers of active tuberculosis cases entering the United States. Objective To evaluate the costs, cases averted, and cost-effectiveness of screening for, and treating, tuberculosis in United States-bound students from countries with varying tuberculosis prevalence. Methods Costs and benefits were evaluated from two perspectives, combined and United States only. The combined perspective totaled overseas and United States costs and benefits from a societal perspective. The United States only perspective was a domestic measure of costs and benefits. A decision tree was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis screening and treatment from the combined perspective. Results From the United States only perspective, overseas screening programs of Chinese and Indian students would prevent the importation of 157 tuberculosis cases annually, and result in $2.7 million in savings. From the combined perspective, screening programs for Chinese students would cost more than $2.8 million annually and screening programs for Indian students nearly $440,000 annually. From the combined perspective, the incremental cost for each tuberculosis case averted by screening Chinese and Indian students was $22,187 and $15,063, respectively. Implementing screening programs for German students would prevent no cases in most years, and would result in increased costs both overseas and in the United States. The domestic costs would occur because public health departments would need to follow up on students identified overseas as having an elevated risk of tuberculosis. Conclusions Tuberculosis screening and treatment programs for students seeking long term visas to attend United States schools would reduce the number of tuberculosis cases imported. Implementing screening in high-incidence countries could save the United States millions of dollars annually; however there would be increased costs incurred overseas for students and their families. PMID:25924009

  1. Gender and students' vocational choices in entering the field of nursing.

    PubMed

    Zysberg, Leehu; Berry, Devon M

    2005-01-01

    As the demand increases for nursing professionals, existing theories borrowed from the field of industrial psychology may help employers and recruiters to identify appropriate candidates, train, hire and promote nurses in a more effective manner. An important component of these theories is understanding an individual's motivation to choose a certain profession. This preliminary study examined gender differences in motivations to enter the field of nursing. Two theoretical points of view were offered to account for the differences: Holland and Row's models of person-job congruence and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. One hundred and sixty (24 men and 136 women) freshmen from 3 nursing programs were asked to report their motivations to enter nursing. A new instrument based on the models mentioned above and representing 2 basic motivations, self-actualization and survival needs, was developed for the purposes of this study. While both genders mentioned self-actualization as their main motivation for entering nursing, men tended to give survival needs more weight than women did. The motivation patterns as well as the gender differences are discussed in light of recent trends in nursing and within the framework of personnel selection and training. PMID:16115512

  2. A Statistical Profile of the Entering Class at Broome Community College, Fall 1983: Student Characteristics, Needs and Goals. Working Paper Series No. 1-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Richard M., Comp.

    Broome Community College (BCC) is developing a series of questionnaires to assess the impact of college on its students, and to measure the college's role, if any, in promoting social mobility. The first study in this series focused on the backgrounds, needs, and goals of students who entered BCC during June, July, and August of 1983. Students who…

  3. Students' Reasons for Entering Nigerian Primary Teacher Education Programme and Their Career Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejieh, Michael U. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out what motivated the students in a college of primary teacher education in Nigeria to seek admission into the college, and to identify their career plans. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire administered on 117 final year students of the college towards the end of their programme of…

  4. Musical Identities in Transition: Solo-Piano Students' Accounts of Entering the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Sini; Littleton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the identity work of adult instrumental students negotiating their entry to a prestigious music academy and the professional field of music. Ten classical solo-piano students' accounts of their musical histories and experiences were collected through research interviews. The thematic analyses presented

  5. Musical Identities in Transition: Solo-Piano Students' Accounts of Entering the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Sini; Littleton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the identity work of adult instrumental students negotiating their entry to a prestigious music academy and the professional field of music. Ten classical solo-piano students' accounts of their musical histories and experiences were collected through research interviews. The thematic analyses presented…

  6. How to Motivate Students to Study before They Enter the Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogacnik, Lea; Cigic, Blaz

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises constitute an important part of chemical and biochemical courses at the university level. Nevertheless, students frequently are insufficiently prepared for the practical work, which often reduces their work to the level of a technician. A system designed to motivate students to study prior to the laboratory exercise was…

  7. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Skills of Students upon Entering and Exiting a Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, P. Elizabeth; Lane, Dorothy S.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the breast cancer screening knowledge of 27 medical students in first and fourth years. In the fourth year additional questions were asked about training and training needs. Although students performed significantly better on knowledge-based questions in the fourth year, considerable room for improvement remained. Most students…

  8. Teaching Physics for the First Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Jan; Winn, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to be a quick and easy resource for anyone teaching physics for the first time. Written after extensive research, this book is filled with reliable labs, demos and activities that work well in the classroom. Also included are lesson plans, diagrams, and teacher notes for every activity. The book is not the end--it is just a

  9. Teaching Physics for the First Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Jan; Winn, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to be a quick and easy resource for anyone teaching physics for the first time. Written after extensive research, this book is filled with reliable labs, demos and activities that work well in the classroom. Also included are lesson plans, diagrams, and teacher notes for every activity. The book is not the end--it is just a…

  10. Self-Efficacy, Motivation Constructs, and Mathematics Performance of Entering Middle School Students.

    PubMed

    Pajares; Graham

    1999-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of various motivation variables on task-specific mathematics performance and to explore whether these variables change during the first year of middle school (N = 273). Students' task-specific self-efficacy was the only motivation variable to predict performance and did so both at start and end of year. There were no differences in anxiety, self-concept, or self-efficacy for self-regulation between start and end of year, but, by end of year, students described mathematics as less valuable and reported lower effort and persistence. Gifted students had stronger mathematics self-concept beliefs, and they had more accurate and less overconfident self-efficacy beliefs than did regular education students. There were no gender differences in any of the motivation constructs. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10072312

  11. Enter the Madcap Prince of Wales: Students Directing "Henry IV, Part I."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Elise Ann

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "Henry IV, Part I" is an appropriate and useful text for secondary English classrooms. Shows how the play lends itself to performance-based instruction. Outlines ways of accomplishing student engagement, using film versions, and assigning written work. (HB)

  12. Abdullah's Blogging: A Generation 1.5 Student Enters the Blogosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Blogging has emerged as one of the most popular forms of online discourse. The ease and lack of expense in setting up blogs has raised intriguing possibilities for language learning classrooms. The unique nature of their architecture and their low cost have not only affected how students can publish and distribute their work to a wider audience…

  13. Measuring What Students Entering School Know and Can Do: PIPS Australia 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildy, Helen; Styles, Irene

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports analysis of 2006-2007 on-entry assessment data from the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools Baseline Assessment (PIPS-BLA) of random samples of students in England, Scotland, New Zealand and Australia. The analysis aimed, first, to investigate the validity and reliability of that instrument across countries and sexes, and,…

  14. Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility for Students Entering Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Lisa; Nguyen, Binh; Auten, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The "NCAA Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility" provides specific criteria to be used as a guide in reviewing the initial eligibility (graduation, core curriculum, grade-point average and ACT/SAT test scores) of students who have completed any portion of their secondary education in a non-United States educational…

  15. Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Priscilla J.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate students need to understand the role of technical articles in research and to become familiar with the journal submission process. Although this knowledge is important to their careers, it is rarely included in coursework. To correct this, class discussion on the role of technical articles in research as well as the submission process has…

  16. Entering the World of Work: A Curriculum for Two-Year Technical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Xavier V.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that students in two-year technical programs need courses that train them in job and job-hunting skills. The transition from school to work can be difficult, and a job-skills class can prepare them for some of the changes inherent in the process. Itemizes job search strategies. (NB)

  17. An Evaluation of the Right Choices Program to Determine Effectiveness in Delivering Constructive Interventions and Providing an Early Support Program in Order to Modify Behavior of First-Time Student Offenders Who Commit Drug and Violent Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to perform a program evaluation of the Right Choices Program to determine the program's effectiveness in delivering constructive interventions that modify student behavior once students have left the program and have returned to their regular learning environment. This mixed-method evaluation consisted of an

  18. Detainees arrested for the first time in French police stations.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Renaud; Beaufrère, Aurélie; Chariot, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The psychological impact of incarceration vary from individual to individual and most people first entering prison experience severe stress. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of detainees arrested for the first time and who had medical examination during custody. The study sample included 200 detainees arrested for the first time in 2012 and examined for the second time before May 31, 2013, 200 detainees arrested for the first time in 2012 and who had not a second examination by May 31, 2013, and a control group of 200 individuals who had been arrested before. Collected data related to persons' characteristics, the course of detention, alleged assaults and traumatic injuries. In our sample, victimization was the most frequent motivation for requesting a medical examination and affected 31-46% of patients who requested the examination. The medical examination was less frequently requested by the detainee at the first detention than at subsequent detentions (35% and 31% vs. 51%, P < 0.001). Unremarkable psychic states were found in most cases in all groups. Detainees expressed a good or very good opinion on custody in 40-51% of cases. In 75-89% of cases, detainees were considered to be unconditionally fit for detention. The present findings suggest only minor differences between clinical features of individuals arrested for the first time and their clinical status when they were arrested for the second time. The systematic collection of more detailed description of the detainees' psychic state could be relevant at the time of medical examinations in police cells. PMID:25735776

  19. First time description of dismantling phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Barrer, Laurence; Gimenez, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Dismantling is a complex psychic phenomenon, which is not easy to define, and little interest has been shown in the subject. The authors of this paper want to demonstrate that dismantling is the main defense mechanism in autism, bringing about de-consensus of senses. The effects perceived in a child with autistic disorder are passivity and lack of thought. The authors’ purpose here is to define the dismantled state and reveal its underlying process. This paper will therefore describe for the first time in literature, the dismantling phenomenon and will submit a metapsychological approach of this defense mechanism. PMID:25999871

  20. Injury risk in first-time snowboarders versus first-time skiers.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D F; McGlone, M R

    1999-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1996 we studied injury patterns in more than 22,000 first-time snowboarders and first-time skiers to determine the comparative injury risk of these two popular sports coexisting in winter resort areas. The first-time participants included in this study had no previous experience in their activity of choice and enrolled in Learn to Snowboard and Learn to Ski programs in two major northeastern ski resorts. Data were gathered from physician evaluations at the medical clinics at each mountain. Two hundred seventy-three (4%) of the first-time snowboarders (N = 6585), and 641 (4%) of the first-time skiers (N = 15,795) sustained an injury. Injuries were further evaluated by location (upper extremity, lower extremity, head, and trunk area) and severity (emergent versus nonemergent). Snowboarders had a higher percentage of upper extremity injuries (53%), while skiers had a higher percentage of lower extremity injuries (63%). Snowboarders, however, sustained a significantly higher incidence of emergent injuries (such as fracture, concussion, dislocation, lost teeth) necessitating immediate intervention. While there have been other reports describing injuries in these activities, no previous study attempted to look at the first-time participants with similar age, experience, and equipment to determine comparative risk. We conclude that for the first-time participant, snowboarding does show a higher incidence of emergent injuries. PMID:9934425

  1. Emporiatric enteritis: lessons learned from U.S. students in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dupont, H L; Ericsson, C D; Dupont, M W

    1986-01-01

    In the studies reported, evidence has been presented that U.S. students traveling to Mexico represent a model for the study of travelers' diarrhea. The incidence of illness acquisition approximates that published in other studies of travelers. Natural immunity was shown to develop as students remained in Mexico presumably through repeated exposure to prevalent agents, particularly ETEC. ETEC, shigella strains and no detectable agent represented the largest groups when etiologic assessment was made. Food probably served as the important source of diarrhea particularly that due to ETEC and shigella strains. The level of bacteria isolated from food suggested that organism replication occurred due to improper temperature storage rather than to heavy initial contamination. The location of food consumption was related to degree of risk: self preparation was the safest, eating in Mexican homes the least safe and consumption of food in public restaurants was intermediate in risk. Water probably played a role in the transmission of viral infection. The risk of water contamination appeared to be highest during the rainy seasons. Finally, the antimicrobial agents TMP/SMX and TMP alone were shown to effectively prevent and treat this form of travelers' diarrhea. PMID:3837965

  2. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebekah; Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, "The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner," "I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship," and "I think all students should participate in a similar experience." When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for pediatric-related residencies was well received and led to improved performance of targeted skills and increased self-reported preparedness in many targeted domains. PMID:27014522

  3. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for pediatric-related residencies was well received and led to improved performance of targeted skills and increased self-reported preparedness in many targeted domains. PMID:27014522

  4. The Academic and Remedial Placement of Students Entering B. C. C. in September 1975 by Curriculum Group. Research Report BCC-9-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    This report describes the Bronx Community College (B.C.C.) freshmen class entering in September 1975, in terms of high school grade average and scores on reading-English and mathematics placement tests. As of the fall of 1974, B.C.C. enrolled a markedly higher proportion of students with high school averages below 70 percent than any other college…

  5. The Academic and Remedial Placement Profile of Students Entering B.C.C. [Bronx Community College] in September 1974 by Curriculum Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    The Bronx Community College entering class in September 1974 is described in terms of high school averages (general, English, mathematics, foreign language) and of placements into precollege-level English, reading, and mathematics courses. The actual programs of the students placed, but not registered, in these remedial courses are examined. A…

  6. Risky Business I. Entering Capital Markets for the First Time. Panel I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five panelists discuss how small businesses can acquire seed capital by considering venture; capital's role in the financing of business start-ups, using local banks as sources of advice and community support as well as funds for new entrepreneurs in rural areas, and investigating states' roles in supporting new ventures. (NEC)

  7. Radiation enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  8. Weaving a Bridge of Sense: Students' Narrative Constructions as a Lens for Understanding Students' Coping with the Gap between Expectancies and Experiences When Entering Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulriksen, Lars; Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Moller, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how the application of narrative methodology brings new insights into understanding students' choices and their experiences upon entering a higher education programme. The point of departure is a study of a cohort of 38 students followed over a three-year period from when they were about to finish upper-secondary school in…

  9. Speed of Gravity Measured for First Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Taking advantage of a rare cosmic alignment, scientists have made the first measurement of the speed at which the force of gravity propagates, giving a numerical value to one of the last unmeasured fundamental constants of physics. "Newton thought that gravity's force was instantaneous. Einstein assumed that it moved at the speed of light, but until now, no one had measured it," said Sergei Kopeikin, a physicist at the University of Missouri-Columbia. VLA Image of Jupiter VLA Image of Jupiter CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF "We have determined that gravity's propagation speed is equal to the speed of light within an accuracy of 20 percent," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, VA. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, WA. The landmark measurement is important to physicists working on unified field theories that attempt to combine particle physics with Einstein's general theory of relativity and electromagnetic theory. "Our measurement puts some strong limits on the theories that propose extra dimensions, such as superstring theory and brane theories," Kopeikin said. "Knowing the speed of gravity can provide an important test of the existence and compactness of these extra dimensions," he added. Superstring theory proposes that the fundamental particles of nature are not pointlike, but rather incredibly small loops or strings, whose properties are determined by different modes of vibration. Branes (a word derived from membranes) are multidimensional surfaces, and some current physical theories propose space-time branes embedded to five dimensions. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a continent-wide radio-telescope system, along with the 100-meter radio telescope in Effelsberg, Germany, to make an extremely precise observation when the planet Jupiter passed nearly in front of a bright quasar on September 8, 2002. The observation recorded a very slight "bending" of the radio waves coming from the background quasar by the gravitational effect of Jupiter. The bending resulted in a small change in the quasar's apparent position in the sky. "Because Jupiter is moving around the Sun, the precise amount of the bending depends slightly on the speed at which gravity propagates from Jupiter," Kopeikin said. Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, only passes closely enough to the path of radio waves from a suitably bright quasar about once a decade for such a measurement to be made, the scientists said. The once-in-a-decade celestial alignment was the last in a chain of events that made measuring the speed of gravity possible. The others included a chance meeting of the two scientists in 1996, a breakthrough in theoretical physics and the development of specialized techniques that enabled the extremely precise measurement to be made. Quasar J0842+1835 Quasar J0842+1835, VLBA Image CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF "No one had tried to measure the speed of gravity before because most physicists had assumed that the only way to do so was to detect gravitational waves," Kopeikin recalled. However, in 1999, Kopeikin extended Einstein's theory to include the gravitational effects of a moving body on light and radio waves. The effects depended on the speed of gravity. He realized that if Jupiter moved nearly in front of a star or radio source, he could test his theory. Kopeikin studied the predicted orbit of Jupiter for the next 30 years and discovered that the giant planet would pass closely enough in front of the quasar J0842+1835 in 2002. However, he quickly realized that the effect on the quasar's apparent position in the sky attributable to the speed of gravity would be so small that the only observational technique capable of measuring it was Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), the technique embodied in the VLBA. Kopeikin then contacted Fomalont, a leading expert in VLBI and an experienced VLBA observer. "I immediately realized the importance of an experiment that could make the first measurement of a fundamental constant of nature," Fomalont said. "I decided that we had to give this our best shot," he added. To get the required level of precision, the two scientists added the Effelsberg telescope to their observation. The wider the separation between two radio-telescope antennas, the greater is the resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, achievable. The VLBA includes antennas on Hawaii, the continental United States, and St. Croix in the Caribbean. An antenna on the other side of the Atlantic added even more resolving power. "We had to make a measurement with about three times more accuracy than anyone had ever done, but we knew, in principle, that it could be done," Fomalont said. The scientists tested and refined their techniques in "dry runs," then waited for Jupiter to make its pass in front of the quasar. The wait included considerable nail-biting. Equipment failure, bad weather, or an electromagnetic storm on Jupiter itself could have sabotaged the observation. However, luck held out and the scientists' observations at a radio frequency of 8 GigaHertz produced enough good data to make their measurement. They achieved a precision equal to the width of a human hair seen from 250 miles away. "Our main goal was to rule out an infinite speed for gravity, and we did even better. We now know that the speed of gravity is probably equal to the speed of light, and we can confidently exclude any speed for gravity that is over twice that of light," Fomalont said. Most scientists, Kopeikin said, will be relieved that the speed of gravity is consistent with the speed of light. "I believe this experiment sheds new light on fundamentals of general relativity and represents the first of many more studies and observations of gravitation which are currently possible because of the enormously high precision of VLBI. We have a lot more to learn about this intriguing cosmic force and its relationship to the other forces in nature," Kopeikin said. This is not the first time that Jupiter has played a part in producing a measurement of a fundamental physical constant. In 1675, Olaf Roemer, a Danish astronomer working at the Paris Observatory, made the first reasonably accurate determination of the speed of light by observing eclipses of one of Jupiter's moons. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. Factors Influencing College Persistence for First-Time Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sheilynda; Lim, Doo Hun; Kim, JoHyun

    2015-01-01

    Using Tinto's (1993) longitudinal model of institutional departure, this study examined demographic variables, family characteristics, precollege and college academic performance factors, and extent to which mandatory placement in remedial courses predict persistence at a public research institution. This study also examined the relationship…

  11. Radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, P.H.; Jenrette, J.M. III; Garvin, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    As the population receiving radiation therapy grows, so does the incidence of chronic radiation enteritis. A review of the pathology of chronic radiation enteritis reveals fibrosis, endarteritis, edema, fragility, perforation, and partial obstruction. Conservative management of patients with this disease is common. Because the obstruction is only partial, decompression is easily achieved with nasogastric suction and parenteral support. The patient is then often discharged on a liquid-to-soft diet. This therapeutic strategy does nothing for the underlying pathology. The problem, sooner or later, will return with the patient further depleted by the chronic radiation enteritis. We think surgical intervention is appropriate when the diagnosis of chronic radiation enteritis is assumed. The surgery in relation to this disease is high risk with a 30% mortality and 100% expensive morbidity. Early intervention seems to decrease these figures. All anastomoses, if possible, should be outside the irradiated area. Trapped pelvic loops of intestine should be left in place and a bypass procedure with decompressing enterostomies accomplished. The surgery should be performed by a surgeon with extensive experience with all kinds of bowel obstruction as well as experience in performing surgery in radiated tissue.

  12. Core personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school: what are they and how could they be assessed early in the admission process?

    PubMed

    Koenig, Thomas W; Parrish, Samuel K; Terregino, Carol A; Williams, Joy P; Dunleavy, Dana M; Volsch, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    Assessing applicants' personal competencies in the admission process has proven difficult because there is not an agreed-on set of personal competencies for entering medical students. In addition, there are questions about the measurement properties and costs of currently available assessment tools. The Association of American Medical College's Innovation Lab Working Group (ILWG) and Admissions Initiative therefore engaged in a multistep, multiyear process to identify personal competencies important to entering students' success in medical school as well as ways to measure them early in the admission process. To identify core personal competencies, they conducted literature reviews, surveyed U.S and Canadian medical school admission officers, and solicited input from the admission community. To identify tools with the potential to provide data in time for pre-interview screening, they reviewed the higher education and employment literature and evaluated tools' psychometric properties, group differences, risk of coaching/faking, likely applicant and admission officer reactions, costs, and scalability. This process resulted in a list of nine core personal competencies rated by stakeholders as very or extremely important for entering medical students: ethical responsibility to self and others; reliability and dependability; service orientation; social skills; capacity for improvement; resilience and adaptability; cultural competence; oral communication; and teamwork. The ILWG's research suggests that some tools hold promise for assessing personal competencies, but the authors caution that none are perfect for all situations. They recommend that multiple tools be used to evaluate information about applicants' personal competencies in deciding whom to interview. PMID:23524928

  13. Campylobacter enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, M A; Fleming, P C

    1979-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni/coli has recently become recognized as a common bacterial cause of diarrhea. Infection can occur at any age. The usual incubation period of campylobacter enteritis is 2 to 5 days. Fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain are the most common clinical features. The stools frequently contain mucus and, a few days after the onset of symptoms, frank blood. Significant vomiting and dehydration are uncommon. A rapid presumptive laboratory diagnosis may be made during the acute phase of the illness by direct phase-contrast microscopy of stools. Isolation of the organism from stools requires culture in a selective medium containing antibiotics and incubation under reduced oxygen tension at 42 degrees C. The organism persists in the stools of untreated patients for up to 7 weeks following the onset of symptoms. Erythromycin may produce a rapid clinical and bacteriologic cure, and should be used to treat moderately to severely ill patients as well as patients with compromised host defences. The emergence of erythromycin-resistant strains requires close monitoring. The epidemiologic aspects of campylobacter enteritis will be fully understood only when methods become available for differentiating strains of C. jejuni/coli. The historical background and current knowledge of campylobacter enteritis are reviewed in this paper. Images FIG. 1 PMID:455209

  14. Speaking with an Accent: Some Practical Advice for Foreign First-Time Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berardo, Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Ph.D. programs in political science in the United States provide some kind of teaching training for graduate students, which ranges from assisting other instructors to designing and teaching new courses. In most cases, departments make an effort to guide these students in their new role as instructors; however, first-time teachers…

  15. [Infectious enteritis].

    PubMed

    Epple, H-J; Zeitz, M

    2011-09-01

    Infectious diarrhea belongs to the most frequent infections worldwide and can be elicited by a wide array of microbial pathogens. In developed countries transmission occurs much more frequently from contaminated food as compared to direct person-to-person contact, except for enteric viruses which can also be transmitted by aerosol formation after vomiting. In Germany, more than 90% of cases are caused by the four pathogens Norovirus, Rotavirus, Campylobacter and Salmonella. Therapy of infectious diarrhea is mainly supportive. In cases with a severe or prolonged course, signs of inflammation, bloody stool, immunosuppression, comorbidity and in suspected outbreaks, fecal microbial analysis should be performed and a specific therapy should be considered if indicated. PMID:21847579

  16. GeoFORCE Texas: An Outreach Program that is Increasing the Number and Diversity of Students Completing STEM Degrees and Entering the Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, E.; Moore, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    GeoFORCE Texas is an outreach program of the Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin. Established in 2005 with the goal of increasing the number and diversity of students studying geosciences and engineering and entering the high-tech workforce, GeoFORCE has been highly successful. Key elements to that success will be presented here. GeoFORCE targets bright students in rural and inner-city schools where they are generally not academically challenged. Every summer throughout high school we take them on geologic field trips all over the country. In 2014, GeoFORCE led 15 field academies for about 600 students. The program is rigorous and academic. We emphasize college-level thinking skills. Because it is a 4-year program, they have a pretty good grounding in physical geology by the time they graduate. More importantly, they develop confidence in their ability to handle college, and a strong motivation to earn a college degree. GeoFORCE students are mostly minority (85%) and more than half will be the first in their family to graduate from college. GeoFORCE students exceed national averages in rates of going to college (97%), majoring in STEM fields (66%), majoring in geosciences (15%) and engineering (13%), and graduating from college (~85%). GeoFORCE is a public/private partnership and a workforce-focused program. The Jackson School funds staff and operating expenses (37%). Money for student programs comes from private industry (44%), state and federal grants (14%), and foundations and individual donors (5%). Our corporate partners are in the energy sector. In addition to funding, corporate sponsors attend the summer field programs, mentor GeoFORCE students, and provide opportunities for the students to visit the companies. As our students move toward college graduation, our industry and government partners have begun to hire them as interns. GeoFORCE graduates are now entering the workforce. Our first two cohorts are 4 and 5 years past high school graduation. That group of 155 students boasts 70 college graduates and another 60 still pursuing degrees. There are 19 geoscience majors and 9 engineers. They are also contributing to the body of science with a growing list of publications, including at least one at this meeting.

  17. The Spiritual Engagement of Students Entering Institutions That Belong to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fereira, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Religion has been connected to higher education throughout its history in the United States and recent research suggests that the development of spirituality, as a part of the pursuit of higher education, is important to today's college student. In an effort to understand twenty-first century college students' perspectives on spirituality in…

  18. First-time urinary tract infection and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Foxman, B; Geiger, A M; Palin, K; Gillespie, B; Koopman, J S

    1995-03-01

    We studied the relation between sexual and health behaviors of women and first-time urinary tract infection (UTI). The study population was women using a university health service who were unmarried, had no UTI history, and who had engaged in sexual activity at least once. We found 86 cases of UTI, defined as one or more urinary symptoms and > or = 1,000 colony-forming units per ml urine of a known pathogen. We randomly sampled 288 controls from the student body. Vaginal intercourse increased the risk of UTI; this risk was further increased with condom use. After adjusting for vaginal intercourse with other birth control methods and recentness of current sexual partnership, a single sex act with a condom in the past 2 weeks increased UTI risk by 43%. Having a sex partner for less than 1 year vs 1 year or more, after adjustment for frequency of vaginal intercourse and birth control method, was associated with about twice the risk of UTI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-3.74]. After adjusting for frequency of vaginal intercourse, regular drinking of cranberry juice was protective against UTI (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.19-1.02), whereas drinking carbonated soft drinks appeared to be associated with increased risk (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 0.75-7.81). Using deodorant sanitary napkins or tampons was associated with a slight increase in risk of UTI (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 0.74-3.06). Blacks had five times greater risk of UTI than whites after adjusting for frequency of vaginal intercourse (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.89-24.63). We observed only modest differences in health behavior between racial groups. PMID:7742403

  19. Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among medical students entering clinical training: a three year prospective questionnaire and interview-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Marie E; Runeson, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Background Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i) and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale) were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI), Burnout (OLBI), Depression (MDI) at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI) were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. Results 98 (77%) responded on both occasions, 80 (63%) of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27%) had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities should be available. PMID:17430583

  20. The Application and Evaluation of a Two-Concept Diagnostic Instrument with Students Entering College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Keily; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Instrument (Othman J., Treagust D. F. and Chandrasegaran A. L., (2008), "Int. J. Sci. Educ.," 30(11), 1531-1550) is used to investigate college students' understanding of two chemistry concepts: particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding. The instrument, originally developed…

  1. Entering the (Postgraduate) Field: Underrepresented Students' Acquisition of Cultural and Social Capital in Graduate School Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle; McCoy, Dorian L.

    2016-01-01

    Examining the role of humanities graduate preparation programs in facilitating underrepresented undergraduate students' socialization to the field (social context) of graduate education, this critical multisite case study finds that these programs are crucial to bidirectional anticipatory socialization for graduate education, where one gains new…

  2. The Effects of Race and Gender on the Satisfaction Levels of Entering and Advanced Level Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labon, Tiffany Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral education is an aspect of higher education that can be both rewarding and challenging for anyone who attempts the journey. Thelin (2004) stated many graduate students obtain the necessary skills that their individual fields of study require in their master's and doctoral programs of study. Levine (2005), however, has found that the…

  3. The Application and Evaluation of a Two-Concept Diagnostic Instrument with Students Entering College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Keily; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Instrument (Othman J., Treagust D. F. and Chandrasegaran A. L., (2008), "Int. J. Sci. Educ.," 30(11), 1531-1550) is used to investigate college students' understanding of two chemistry concepts: particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding. The instrument, originally developed

  4. Assessing the Quality of Student Thinking Directly: An Exploratory Study of Two Cohorts Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollacott, L.; Snell, D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an exploratory investigation involving the direct assessment of the quality of abstract thinking of two cohorts of South African university entrants who had very good school leaving qualifications. The investigation was prompted by the observation of difficulties these students seemed to have had in a first…

  5. Donations to Colleges Decline for the First Time since 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2003-01-01

    Discusses findings from a survey on voluntary giving to higher education, which found that a sharp drop in alumni giving in 2002 spurred a dip in colleges' overall donations for the first time in 14 years. (EV)

  6. Migration of Undergraduate First-Time Transfers: Snapshot Analysis 2006-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Commission on Higher Education had a student intern from USC-Columbia initiate an analysis of data on the migration of undergraduate first-time transfers to compare trends, growth, and proportions of transfers to and from various sectors and institution types over a three-year period, from 2006-2008. Staff have refined the analysis and…

  7. First-time viewers' comprehension of films: bridging shot transitions.

    PubMed

    Ildirar, Sermin; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Which perceptual and cognitive prerequisites must be met in order to be able to comprehend a film is still unresolved and a controversial issue. In order to gain some insights into this issue, our field experiment investigates how first-time adult viewers extract and integrate meaningful information across film cuts. Three major types of commonalities between adjacent shots were differentiated, which may help first-time viewers with bridging the shots: pictorial, causal, and conceptual. Twenty first-time, 20 low-experienced and 20 high-experienced viewers from Turkey were shown a set of short film clips containing these three kinds of commonalities. Film clips conformed also to the principles of continuity editing. Analyses of viewers' spontaneous interpretations show that first-time viewers indeed are able to notice basic pictorial (object identity), causal (chains of activity), as well as conceptual (links between gaze direction and object attention) commonalities between shots due to their close relationship with everyday perception and cognition. However, first-time viewers' comprehension of the commonalities is to a large degree fragile, indicating the lack of a basic notion of what constitutes a film. PMID:24654735

  8. XMM telescope goes on show for the first time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    After years of little-publicized effort in various parts of Europe, one of the finished XMM telescopes is presented for the first time to the press and other visitors during a press briefing on 22 May at the Centre Spatial de LiŠge (CSL) in Belgium. As the telescope is a flight model due to go into space, the inspection is hands-off, through a clean-room window. But visitors can see the multi-mirror module looking like a log of wood 70 centimetres wide and 60 centimetres long. In cross-section the nesting mirrors make concentric rings resembling the rings of annual growth in a tree --except that there are narrow gaps between the mirrors, to let in the X- rays. Galileo and Newton would not recognize the XMM module as a telescope, but they never had to focus X-rays, which ignore lenses and ordinary mirrors. The German physicist Hans Wolter invented a near-cylindrical mirror that narrows in a geometric fashion, first along a parabola and then a hyperbola. Some of the X-rays entering through the wider end are twice reflected from the interior wall at grazing angles, and go to a focus. When Wolter's concept went into telescopes for X-ray astronomy, most of the X-rays simply missed the mirror, so that any signal was weak. The remedy was to fill the interior with smaller concentric mirrors, to catch more of the X-rays. In practice, that meant either a few mirrors, fashioned and aligned with care to achieve a high resolving power, or many cruder mirrors which sacrificed optical sharpness for the sake of sensitivity. The XMM telescopes are the first to achieve both sharpness and sensitivity, thanks to innovations by European industry made possible by XMM's status as a Cornerstone Mission in ESA's science programme. Carl Zeiss in Germany provided mandrels (moulds) of 58 sizes, all carefully polished to the required paraboloidal-hyperboloidal shape. Media Lario in Italy made the reflective surface by depositing gold on the mandrel under vacuum, and then backed it with nickel formed in an electrochemical bath. As each finished mirror was only about a millimetre thick, the Medio Lario team had to handle it with great care to avoid flexing, until it was glued into position among all the other mirrors, between wheel-like "spiders" fabricated by APCO in Switzerland. If the telescope is correctly made, all X-rays coming from a certain direction, and entering any part of any of the mirrors, should go to the same focus. The specification requires that any spread at the focus should be less than a millimetre. The optical quality is tested first in a special apparatus at LiŠge called FOCAL X, and then at the Panter X-ray facility at Neuried in Germany. "We take pride and satisfaction in helping to develop such remarkable telescopes," says Claude Jamar, director of CSL. "While others pioneered the methods of fabrication, here in LiŠge we had to invent novel ways of checking the performance. We use a wide beam of very short ultraviolet wavelengths to simulate X-rays, and verify the focus of each part of each XMM telescope." About the Centre Spatial de Liège As a laboratory unique in western Europe, CSL is run by the Université de Liège as one of ESA's coordinated test facilities.Optical instruments for space missions can be checked with high accuracy, under a high vacuum that simulates the airless conditions in space. ESA relies upon CSL for testing important optical components for many spacecraft. The long list includes the radiometer of the Meteosat weather satellite, the camera for Giotto which obtained unique pictures of Halley's Comet, and the telescopes of the Hipparcos star-fixing mission and the Infrared Space Observatory ISO. CSL was an early recruit to the Europe-wide teams of scientists and engineers who are creating the XMM spacecraft and its instruments. Other optical devices currently under evaluation by CSL include the experimental laser system SILEX for communication between satellites, and the ozone-monitoring GOMOS instrument for ESA's environmental satellite Envisat. Media representatives wishing to attend this press briefing are kindly requested to complete the attached form and return it to the ESA Public Relations Division in Paris (Fax:+33.(0).1.53.69.76.90).ESA will make available limited transport possibilities for those wishing to travel from Paris to Liège.

  9. Charting Pathways to Completion for Low-Income Community College Students. CCRC Working Paper No. 34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Weiss, Madeline Joy

    2011-01-01

    This study uses administrative data from Washington State to chart the educational pathways of first-time community college students over seven years, with a focus on young, socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Of particular interest are the rates at which students enter a course of study (by passing multiple college-level courses within a…

  10. Can College Actions Improve the Academic Achievement of At-Risk Minority Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    This study examined factors affecting academic achievement of at-risk minority students to evaluate intervention strategies designed to assist such students. Data were obtained on 2,386 first-time college students entering Prince George's Community College (Maryland) in fall 1990. Factor analysis identified 10 variables that explained a…

  11. Health and Safety Intervention with First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Anne McDonald; Culp, R. E.; Anderson, J. W.; Carter, S.

    2007-01-01

    A health education program was evaluated which used child development specialists as home visitors and served a population of first-time mothers living in rural communities. The evaluation compared health and safety outcomes between intervention and control groups. The research staff, separate from the intervention staff, collected data in the…

  12. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  13. Lived Experiences of At-Risk Adult Students Attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Januwoina R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the phenomenological inquiry was to uncover the lived experiences of at-risk adult students in historically black colleges and universities. The intent was to provide an in-depth understanding of what these at-risk students face as they enter and matriculate at college, either for the first time or as returning students. The ten…

  14. College Preparatory Instruction and Student Persistence at Broward Community College. Institutional Research Report Abstract RR89-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabe, LiAnne C.

    A study was conducted at Broward Community College (BCC) to determine whether student performance on placement tests and enrollment in college preparatory courses have any bearing on graduation and persistence rates. Using data on first-time students entering BCC in fall 1985 and fall 1986, the study revealed: (1) of the 758 fall 1986 students who…

  15. The Academic and Remedial Placement Profile of Students Entering B.C.C. in September, 1976 [and September 1977] by Curriculum Group. Research Report BCC 4-76 [and] 4-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Norman

    Profiles of freshmen students entering Bronx Community College (BCC) in September, 1976 and September, 1977 are presented in terms of their academic and remedial placement. For both years, nearly 70% of those who took placement tests in the reading/English area and subsequently enrolled were recommended for at least one remedial course; 75% of…

  16. Initial Educational Goals of First-Time Full-Time Community College Freshmen and Subsequent Retention Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Brian; Secolsky, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Retention and graduation rates have been topics of concern for undergraduate institutions. These indicators are not as applicable for two-year institutions where students' goals are more varied. This study examined the retention over four semesters of 678 first-time, full-time community college students with respect to their initial educational…

  17. Cohort Analysis, Fall 1993 New Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In October 1996, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a longitudinal study of the characteristics of and outcomes experienced by students who entered the college for the first time in fall 1993, gathering data on retention rates, average attempted and earned cumulative hours, and graduation rates over 3 years. Of the 3,146…

  18. Aquamarine waters recorded for first time in Eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, T. C.; Schumacher, J. D.; Stabeno, P. J.; Baier, C. T.; Wyllie-Echeverria, T.; Tynan, C. T.; Brodeur, R. D.; Napp, J. M.; Coyle, K. O.; Decker, M. B.; Hunt, G. L., Jr.; Stockwell, D.; Whitledge, T. E.; Jump, M.; Zeeman, S.

    During the late summer of 1997, for the first time ever recorded, most of the continental shelf of the eastern Bering Sea was covered by aquamarine waters (Figure 1), resulting from a massive bloom of coccolithophores (Figure 2). Light reflecting off the calcium carbonate plates of the flagellated coccolithophores gave the water its anomalous color, which was first observed in July. The bloom was also clearly visible from space, as shown by some of the first images from the multispectral sea-viewing wide-field-of- view sensor (SeaWiFS) scanner in September.Light penetration into the water column, essential for primary production by diatoms and other phytoplankton, was markedly reduced. This shift potentially altered the trophic dynamics throughout the food web of one of world's most productive ecosystems.

  19. Characteristics of Adult Students Transitioning to a Traditional University and Perceptions of Student Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dani J.

    2012-01-01

    Limited research is devoted to the transitional process of adult students to the traditional university environment. Considering the incredible numbers of adults projected to return to higher education and/or entering a college or university program for the first time, it behooves institutions of higher learning to invest in the success of adult…

  20. First time comet observations from National Observatory of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2014-04-01

    We performed first time scientific comet observations from Tübitak National Observatory (TUG), Turkey using two telescopes of that facility. In order to test the capabilities of the instruments we performed a long comet monitoring campaign from October 2013 to January 2014. We observed many comets, including but not limited to C/2012 S1 ISON, 154P Brewington, and C/2013 R1 Lovejoy. All comets were monitored for several nights with the Bessel R, V, B filters from the 1 meter (T100) and 1.5 meters (RTT150) telescopes. Additionally, we acquired the first spectroscopic observations of a comet from TUG, using TUG Faint Object Spectrograph (TFOSC with grism between 3230-9120 Å) mounted on RTT150. With these observations, we could assess the quality of TUG instruments for cometary science, and identified a few limitations. We propose some technical improvements for future comet observations. These will open new observational opportunities to Turkish astronomers and a participation to international campaigns on cometary science.

  1. Technology Usage among Community College Faculty in First-Time-in-College Classes: A Call to Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology in higher education has played an increasingly dramatic role, particularly on community college campuses, with emphasis on how to provide better services to students via the use of technology. This report examines the challenge for faculty teaching first-time-in-college (FTIC) classes at El Centro College of the Dallas County Community…

  2. Residence Life and the New Student Experience, 3rd Edition. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, William J., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Residence life programs play a key role in recruiting students, helping them make a successful transition to a new institution, and in retaining them, whether students are enrolling for the first time, transferring from another institution, or entering graduate school. Chapters in this book address theories of learning and development, new…

  3. Comparative Study of Freshmen College Student Beliefs and Values between Representative Private and Public Institutions of Higher Education in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Students entering college for the first time are embarking on a life-changing journey like none they have experienced. The potential impact the college experience will have on their lives is extreme. Students will be engaged in class and co-curricular settings in ways that will challenge them to produce developmental growth that will carry them…

  4. Responding Globally to the Online Learning Needs of Military Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Suzane L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of my proposal is to present a comprehensive look at the specific needs of military students who are actively deployed globally, and who are entering the "virtual classroom" for the first time. Additionally, I have drawn upon my own experiences as an educator of more than 15 years, as well as someone who has developed course curriculum…

  5. Enteric viruses of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of the poultry gut, very little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in ...

  6. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTION IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS IN ARKANSAS WHO ENTER NON-FARMING OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTS, ROY W.

    TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW PROGRAM, A STUDY WAS MADE TO DETERMINE -- (1) OCCUPATIONS ENTERED, (2) EFFECT OF NUMBER OF YEARS IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE ON OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE, (3) MECHANICAL SKILLS USEFUL IN THE OCCUPATION, (4) ADDITIONAL SKILLS NEEDED, AND (5) CHANGES NEEDED IN THE COURSE OF STUDY. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED 802 FORMER…

  7. Reluctant Colossus: America Enters the Age of Imperialism. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. Student and Teacher's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Don

    This packet contains student materials and a teacher's guide. The materials are designed to make complex international issues understandable and meaningful for students. The unit probes the political, moral, and racial issues raised by the Spanish-American War and the acquisition of an overseas empire. Students compare the values and concerns at…

  8. Chandra "Hears" A Black Hole For The First Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory detected sound waves, for the first time, from a super-massive black hole. The "note" is the deepest ever detected from an object in the universe. The tremendous amounts of energy carried by these sound waves may solve a longstanding problem in astrophysics. The black hole resides in the Perseus cluster, located 250 million light years from Earth. In 2002, astronomers obtained a deep Chandra observation that shows ripples in the gas filling the cluster. These ripples are evidence for sound waves that have traveled hundreds of thousands of light years away from the cluster's central black hole. perseus animation Illustration of Ripples in Perseus "We have observed the prodigious amounts of light and heat created by black holes, now we have detected the sound," said Andrew Fabian of the Institute of Astronomy (IoA) in Cambridge, England, and leader of the study. In musical terms, the pitch of the sound generated by the black hole translates into the note of B flat. But, a human would have no chance of hearing this cosmic performance, because the note is 57 octaves lower than middle-C (by comparison a typical piano contains only about seven octaves). At a frequency over a million, billion times deeper than the limits of human hearing, this is the deepest note ever detected from an object in the universe. "The Perseus sound waves are much more than just an interesting form of black hole acoustics," said Steve Allen, also of the IoA and a co-investigator in the research. "These sound waves may be the key in figuring out how galaxy clusters, the largest structures in the universe, grow," Allen said. For years astronomers have tried to understand why there is so much hot gas in galaxy clusters and so little cool gas. Hot gas glowing with X-rays should cool, and the dense central gas should cool the fastest. The pressure in this cool central gas should then fall, causing gas further out to sink in towards the galaxy, forming trillions of stars along the way. Scant evidence has been found for such a flow of cool gas or star formation. This forced astronomers to invent several different ways to explain why the gas contained in clusters remained hot, and, until now, none of them was satisfactory. perseus animation Animation of Sound Waves Generated in Perseus Cluster of Ripples in Perseus Heating caused by a central black hole has long been considered a good way to prevent cluster gas from cooling. Although jets have been observed at radio wavelengths, their effect on cluster gas was unclear since this gas is only detectable in X-rays, and early X-ray observations did not have Chandra's ability to find detailed structure. Previous Chandra observations of the Perseus cluster showed two vast, bubble-shaped cavities in the cluster gas extending away from the central black hole. Jets of material pushing back the cluster gas have formed these X-ray cavities, which are bright sources of radio waves. They have long been suspected of heating the surrounding gas, but the mechanism was unknown. The sound waves, seen spreading out from the cavities in the recent Chandra observation, could provide this heating mechanism. A tremendous amount of energy is needed to generate the cavities, as much as the combined energy from 100 million supernovae. Much of this energy is carried by the sound waves and should dissipate in the cluster gas, keeping the gas warm and possibly preventing a cooling flow. If so, the B-flat pitch of the sound wave, 57 octaves below middle-C, would have remained roughly constant for about 2.5 billion years. Perseus is the brightest cluster of galaxies in X-rays, and therefore was a perfect Chandra target for finding sound waves rippling through the hot cluster gas. Other clusters show X-ray cavities, and future Chandra observations may yet detect sound waves in these objects.

  9. Spillway Entering Missouri River

    The water from the spillway enter the Missouri River. The spillway water is the darker water, which is sediment and the Missouri River is the more clear water. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  10. Summer Melt" and the Entering First-Year College Student: Insights from the College Match Pilot Program. College Match Issue Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Many students fail to enroll in college even after they have made a formal commitment to attend. Research has shown that nationally, between 10 percent and 40 percent of high school graduates who intend to go to college don't enroll the following fall. Among low-income students, these "summer melt" rates are even higher. The College…

  11. Entering Adulthood: Understanding Depression and Suicide. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series. [Teacher's Guide and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Nanette D.

    This curriculum guide for high school students sensitively and expertly addresses the escalating social problem of suicide. This guide is part of a series designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility for their health. With seven structured lessons, this teaching unit…

  12. Profile of Degree/Certificate-Seeking Entering Undergraduate Students, by Control and Level of Institution. Web Tables. NCES 2011-252

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott; Mason, Marcinda

    2011-01-01

    The Student Right to Know Act requires institutions that participate in any student financial assistance program under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (as amended) to disclose graduation rates. To assist institutions in meeting this requirement, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) collects these rates as part of the…

  13. Much Ado about €500: Do Tuition Fees Keep German Students from Entering University? Evidence from a Natural Experiment Using DiD Matching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Tina; Helbig, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of tuition fees on enrolment behaviour among prospective students in Germany. According to the rational choice theory (RCT), we argue that due to the higher costs brought on by such fees tuition fees should have a negative effect on student's enrolment. This should be even more pronounced among prospective…

  14. Much Ado about 500: Do Tuition Fees Keep German Students from Entering University? Evidence from a Natural Experiment Using DiD Matching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Tina; Helbig, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of tuition fees on enrolment behaviour among prospective students in Germany. According to the rational choice theory (RCT), we argue that due to the higher costs brought on by such fees tuition fees should have a negative effect on student's enrolment. This should be even more pronounced among prospective

  15. Entering Adulthood: Examining Drugs and Risks. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series. [Teacher's Guide and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarratano, Susan; Evans, Dale

    This curriculum guide for high-school students presents in-depth coverage of the full range of content related to drugs, including tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, narcotics, and hallucinogens. It is part of a series designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility for…

  16. Translating Success: How Careful Planning within a Problems-Based Curriculum Can Prepare Students to Enter College-Level Math Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmore, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Amy Biehl High School (ABHS) is a charter high school located in downtown Albuquerque that serves students from Albuquerque and the surrounding communities. Despite its population's differences in skills, special needs, socioeconomic class, race, culture, and English proficiency, it has one common goal for all its students: that they are able to…

  17. An exploration of the perceptions of caring held by students entering nursing programmes in the United Kingdom: A longitudinal qualitative study phase 1.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jill; Cooper, Karen; Rosser, Elizabeth; Scammell, Janet; Heaslip, Vanessa; White, Sara; Donaldson, Ian; Jack, Eleanor; Hemingway, Ann; Harding, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    In a climate of intense international scrutiny of healthcare and nursing in particular, there is an urgent need to identify, foster and support a caring disposition in student nurses worldwide. Yet relatively little is known about how core nursing values are shaped during education programmes and this warrants further investigation. This longitudinal study commencing in February 2013 examines the impact of an innovative nursing curriculum based on a humanising framework (Todres etal. 2009) and seeks to establish to what extent professional and core values are shaped over the duration of a three year nursing programme. This paper reports on Phase One which explores student nurses' personal values and beliefs around caring and nursing at the start of their programme. Undergraduate pre-registration nursing students from two discrete programmes (Advanced Diploma and BSc (Honours) Nursing with professional registration) were recruited to this study. Utilising individual semi-structured interviews, data collection commenced with February 2013 cohort (n=12) and was repeated with February 2014 (n=24) cohort. Findings from Phase One show that neophyte student nurses are enthusiastic about wanting to care and aspire to making a difference to patients and their families. This research promises to offer contributions to the debate around what caring means and in particular how it is understood by student nurses. Findings will benefit educators and students which will ultimately impact positively on those in receipt of healthcare. PMID:26049787

  18. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First-time application procedures for... Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval. (a) Agencies or persons seeking accreditation or approval for the first time may submit...

  19. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false First-time application procedures for... Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval. (a) Agencies or persons seeking accreditation or approval for the first time may submit...

  20. Navigating College: A Handbook on Self Advocacy Written for Autistic Students from Autistic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inclusion Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Leaving high school and going to college is complicated for everyone. But if you're a student on the autism spectrum who is about to enter higher education for the first time, it might be a little bit more complicated for you. Maybe you're worried about getting accommodations, getting places on time, or dealing with sensory issues in a new…

  1. Formulation of enteral diets.

    PubMed

    Silk, D B

    1999-01-01

    The number of enteral diets has increased from a handful in the 1970s to over 100 at present. These can be classified as polymeric, chemically defined, disease-specific, and specialized diets, as well as oral dietary supplements. The properties, indications, pros and cons for the use of these diets are outlined in an effort to assist clinicians in their selection. PMID:10422100

  2. Entering a community dialogue.

    PubMed

    Britt, Teri; Player, Kathy; Parsons, Kathleen; Stover, Deanna

    2004-01-01

    Entering a new, unstructured community is facilitated when existing members embrace the thoughts, ideas, and experiences of new members. Watson's Caring Healing Model, including the caritas conscious and transpersonal caring components, provides a framework for understanding the experience of being a new community member (e.g., a "newbie") in the Global Nursing Exchange. PMID:14986502

  3. Enteral approaches in malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Avitzur, Yaron; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-04-01

    Enteral autonomy and freedom from parenteral nutrition dependency is the ultimate therapeutic goal in children with intestinal failure. This can be achieved following attainment of bowel adaptation in conditions such as short bowel syndrome. Enteral nutrition is a major therapeutic cornerstone in the management of children with intestinal failure. It promotes physiological development, bowel adaptation and enhances weaning from parenteral nutrition. The optimal method of delivery, type of nutrients, timing of initiation, promotion of feeds and transition to solid food in children with short bowel syndrome are debated. Lack of high quality human data hampers evidence based conclusions and impacts daily practices in the field. Clinical approaches and therapeutic decisions are regularly influenced by expert opinion and center practices. This review summarizes the physiological principles, medical evidence and practice recommendations on enteral nutrition approaches in short bowel syndrome and provides a practical framework for daily treatment of this unique group of patients. Oral and tube feeding, bolus and continuous feeding, type of nutrients, formulas, trace elements and solid food options are reviewed. Future collaborative multicenter, high quality clinical trials are needed to support enteral nutrition approaches in intestinal failure. PMID:27086892

  4. Fibre and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, D B

    1989-01-01

    The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely possible that many of the potential applications of these diets will be realised in the near future. PMID:2539312

  5. ROLES OF PROFESSIONAL SCIENTISTS AND RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS IN THE EDUCATION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES PREPARING TO ENTER THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS WORKFORCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL have developed considerable experience in organizing and carrying out science education outreach activities for minority and disabled students. The author was invited to participate in a symposium on the ...

  6. Learning and Teaching: Where Does Einstein's Concept of Learning about "Service of Our Fellow Man" Enter into Our Discussions about Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthey, George

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper discusses the significance of Albert Einstein's concept of learning about "service of our fellow man" into the discussions about student achievement. Albert Einstein wrote in 1954 of what he considered an evil of modern life--that the "individual feels more than ever dependent on society, but it is not felt in the positive

  7. Learning and Teaching: Where Does Einstein's Concept of Learning about "Service of Our Fellow Man" Enter into Our Discussions about Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthey, George

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper discusses the significance of Albert Einstein's concept of learning about "service of our fellow man" into the discussions about student achievement. Albert Einstein wrote in 1954 of what he considered an evil of modern life--that the "individual feels more than ever dependent on society, but it is not felt in the positive…

  8. Mediastinal enteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Niaz; Wahab, Sana; Javed, Anum; Mehmood, Ahmar

    2014-09-01

    A 20-year-old female presented with complaints of right-sided chest pain, cough, fever and shortness of breath for the preceding one-and-a-half year. Air entry was decreased over the middle and lower chest. Computed tomography scan of the chest revealed a cystic lesion with thick margins present in the right hemi-thorax. The cyst was excised by posterolateral thoracotomy. Histopathology revealed it to be mediastinal enteric cyst with intestinal and pancreatic tissue. PMID:25823194

  9. Zoonotic enteric protozoa.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A; Smith, A

    2011-11-24

    A growing number of enteric protozoan species are considered to have zoonotic potential. Their clinical impact varies and in many cases is poorly defined. Similarly, the epidemiology of infections, particularly the role of non-human hosts, requires further study. In this review, new information on the life cycles and transmission of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba, Blastocystis and Balantidium are examined in the context of zoonotic potential, as well as polyparasitism and clinical significance. PMID:21798668

  10. Evaluation of an Online Alcohol Education Program for First-Time-in-College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Elayne

    2011-01-01

    This study was guided by a research question regarding the efficacy of the AlcoholEdu program in increasing the use of protective behaviors among incoming college freshman of different drinking risk groups. Specifically, the researcher sought to determine which drinker risk groups, if any, showed the greatest degree of willingness to change…

  11. Sing, Soothe and Sleep: A Lullaby Education Programme for First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Felicity; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an education programme conducted with first-time mothers. The study aimed to establish whether mothers found an education session on lullaby singing beneficial for them and their babies as well as reporting what lullabies were sung and why. Twenty first-time mothers were provided with examples of lullabies and asked to sing…

  12. Personality Differences of First-Time and Repeat Offenders Arrested for Driving while Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, James R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined personality characteristics of first-time (n=174) and repeat (n=64) driving while intoxicated offenders. Found that repeat offenders differed significantly from first-time offenders on 12 of 24 personality characteristics, were less expressive emotionally, and were less flexible in ways of finding stimulation; however, self-reported

  13. Biotechnology Enters Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that the agriculture industry is changing and that vocational agriculture students must learn more science than before to be prepared. Iowa formed groups of educators and business representatives to advise on which curricula should be funded. (JOW)

  14. Canine viral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L E

    1983-08-01

    Canine viral enteritis should be suspected in dogs with an acute onset of vomiting and diarrhea, especially in puppies and where several animals are affected simultaneously. Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation, most often detection of viral particles in the stool. No diagnostic test is entirely specific or absolutely sensitive, however, and laboratory findings should be weighed accordingly. Immunization is the key to successful control. Effective vaccines for canine parvovirus are available. Maternal antibody suppresses response to vaccination in young pups and is the major problem in the control of infection. Vaccines against canine rotavirus and coronavirus are not available. The need for such vaccines and the feasibility of their effective use have not yet been clearly demonstrated. PMID:6316616

  15. Some Characteristics and Opinions of LACC Entering Students Fall, 1979: A Report on Responses to the A.C.E. 1979 Student Information Form. Research Study Number 80-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    As part of a nationwide study coordinated by the American Council on Education, Los Angeles City College (LACC) conducted a survey of incoming Fall 1979 students to determine their characteristics and opinions. Data collected from 788 students were compared with nationwide findings and with results of similar surveys conducted annually since 1970.…

  16. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Engelhard, Chalee; Landry, Michel D.; McCallum, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs. PMID:26395081

  17. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  18. Democracy for Students: The Constitution Enters Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis

    1976-01-01

    Recent court litigation in the civil rights areas of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, personal appearance, freedom from racial and sexual discrimination, and due process have served notice that the end result of education ("the democratic way of life") must be accomplished by democratic means. (MB)

  19. Outcomes of Various Interventions for First-Time Perianal Abscesses in Children

    PubMed Central

    Juth Karlsson, Alexander; Salö, Martin; Stenström, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In children treated surgically for first-time perianal abscesses, discovery and excision of concomitant fistulas may also be warranted. Aim. To evaluate children of varying age after incision and drainage of first-time perianal abscesses, examining recurrences rates with and without search for a fistula. Method. A retrospective review was conducted, analyzing children (ages 0–15 years) treated for first-time perianal abscesses at a tertiary pediatric surgical center, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Results. A total of 104 patients subjected to 112 treatments for first-time perianal abscesses were eligible. Surgical procedures constituted 84 (75%) of treatments, searching for fistulas in 49 (58%). In 34 (69%), fistulas were confirmed and treated. In the surgically treated subset, the recurrence rate was higher if no attempt was made to exclude a fistula (46%), as opposed to confirmed absence of a fistula (27%) or concurrent fistulotomy (9%; p = 0.02). Younger patients showed a higher recurrence rate (12/26; 46%), compared with older counterparts (11/58; 19%) (p = 0.002). Conclusion. In children surgically treated for first-time perianal abscess, recurrence rates appear to be lowered by locating and treating coexisting fistulas. PMID:26881235

  20. Viral enteric infections of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric diseases cause great economic losses to the poultry industry mostly from depressed weight gains, impaired feed efficiency, and decreased flock uniformity. Enteric syndromes have been described in both young turkeys and chickens and likely result from infection by a mixture of pathogenic age...

  1. Use of Music Intervention for Reducing Anxiety and Promoting Satisfaction in First-Time Filipino Fathers.

    PubMed

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M

    2016-03-01

    Childbirth is an anxiety-provoking event in a man's life. Therefore, strategies to decrease paternal anxiety during childbirth are necessary. This study determined the effects of music and satisfaction of first-time Filipino fathers during childbirth. In the study, a prospective quasi-experimental design was utilized. Ninety-eight purposive samples of first-time fathers were included in the study, 50 were allocated in the experimental group (music group) and 48 in the control group (nonmusic group) during the months of August to October 2013. Paternal anxiety and satisfaction were measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Visual Analogue Scale for Satisfaction, respectively. Results revealed that the first-time fathers in the experimental group had lower State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores (p < .05) and higher Visual Analogue Scale for Satisfaction scores (p < .05) than those in the control group. Findings of the study provide substantial evidence to support the use of music in reducing anxiety and promoting satisfaction among first-time fathers during childbirth. PMID:25432465

  2. Does Home Visiting Benefit Only First-Time Mothers?: Evidence from Healthy Families Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Lee; Galano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    It is a common assumption that mothers who have had previous births would participate less fully and have poorer outcomes from early home visitation programs than would first-time mothers. The authors conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to test that assumption by measuring three aspects of participation: time in the program, the number

  3. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who

  4. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53

  5. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accreditation and approval. 96.20 Section 96.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Application Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation...

  6. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accreditation and approval. 96.20 Section 96.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Application Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation...

  7. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accreditation and approval. 96.20 Section 96.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Application Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation...

  8. Changes in Depressive Symptoms in First Time Mothers in Home Visitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Putnam, Frank W.; Altaye, Mekibib; Chen, Liang; Holleb, Lauren J.; Stevens, Jack; Short, Jodie A.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The expansion of Home Visitation Programs for at-risk, first-time mothers and their young children has drawn attention to the potential impact of depression on program outcomes, yet little research has examined depression in the context of home visitation. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and changes in…

  9. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53…

  10. [Clinical trial requests of indigenous diagnostic imaging ultrasound devices in first-time registration application].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojun; Cao, Guofang; Tao, Kan

    2012-11-01

    This article introduces the clinical requests of indigenous diagnostic imaging ultrasound devices in first-time registration application and the clinical trial requests in Technical Review Guidance of Ultrasound Imaging Diagnostic Devices (category III) Registration and puts forward some questions of the guidance's implementation. It is hoped to help concerned people. PMID:23461122

  11. A Study of Supervisory Priorities of First-Time High School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lance V.

    The supervisory tasks that a novice principal emphasizes upon school entry make a major difference in developing the principal's professional identity as one who leads the improvement of instruction. Over the course of 2 years (1987-89), 12 first-time high school principals (7 male and 5 female, 10 white and 2 black) were studied. To ensure…

  12. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  13. Does Home Visiting Benefit Only First-Time Mothers?: Evidence from Healthy Families Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Lee; Galano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    It is a common assumption that mothers who have had previous births would participate less fully and have poorer outcomes from early home visitation programs than would first-time mothers. The authors conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to test that assumption by measuring three aspects of participation: time in the program, the number…

  14. Small Business Planning and Management for the First-Time Entrepreneur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doster, D. Howard; And Others

    Written with the small business manager and first-time entrepreneur in mind, this book provides the adult learner, in a class or alone, with activities and questions to increase understanding. These are intended to aid decision making as plans are made for the chosen enterprise. The book is divided into five parts: Looking at Entrepreneurship,…

  15. A qualitative study on the breastfeeding experiences of first-time mothers in Vientiane, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of breastfeeding are well-recognised. The majority of first-time mothers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic however do not follow WHO guidelines of exclusively breastfeeding for the first six months, and less than half breastfeed for two years. UNICEF identified lack of exclusive breastfeeding as the second highest risk factor for under 5 mortality in Lao PDR, closely following lack of skilled delivery care. This study explored the reasons and influences behind first-time mothers' breastfeeding practices, as well as the role of attitudes, beliefs and experiences in influencing those practices. Methods A qualitative research design was chosen for this exploratory study. Two districts in Vientiane were selected, and in each district four focus group discussions, two with six first-time mothers and two with health staff were undertaken. In addition, sixteen in-depth interviews with first-time mothers and seven individual key informants were conducted. Results Participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards breastfeeding and recognised its importance. Despite this, breastfeeding practices were suboptimal. Few exclusively breastfed for the first six months of the baby’s life and most of the first-time mothers included in the sample had stopped or planned to stop breastfeeding by the time the infant was 18 months of age. Work was named as one of the main reasons for less than ideal breastfeeding practices. Traditional beliefs and advice from health staff and the first-time mothers' own mothers, were important influences on breastfeeding practices. First-time mothers also cited experiencing tension when there were differences in advice they received from different people. Conclusion Overall, the mothers were well-informed on the benefits of breastfeeding, and displayed positive attitudes towards it. Nevertheless, few maintained optimal breastfeeding practices in the first two years of the infant’s life. Further effort needs to be directed at addressing knowledge and non-knowledge barriers to optimal breastfeeding practices. Of particular importance is working with employers, developing supportive employment policies, providing postnatal support and working with lay people and health professionals. Research is also needed to identify the optimal combination of interventions to promote good breastfeeding practices. PMID:24304510

  16. Advances in enteral nutrition techniques.

    PubMed

    Baskin, W N

    1992-11-01

    The increasing use of enteral nutrition in hospitals has led to an expanded role for the gastroenterologist and surgeon in providing enteral access. New concepts in immunonutrition and gut support in critically ill patients have popularized early postoperative feeding. There is an ongoing need to update physicians on the diverse enteral access techniques now available. In addition to standard percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) techniques, this review focuses on reflux prevention through double-lumen feeding-suction tubes, and describes the use of steerable catheters for rapid insertion of nasojejunal and PEJ tubes without endoscopy. Low-profile "button"-type devices, one-step button placement, replacement gastrostomy devices, and special enteral techniques for patients with cancer are also reviewed. PMID:1442672

  17. Temporal Alcohol Availability Predicts First-Time Drunk Driving, but Not Repeat Offending

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Denson, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol availability has been linked to drunk driving, but research has not examined whether this relationship is the same for first-time and repeat offenses. We examined the relationship between the business hours of alcohol outlets licensed to serve alcohol for on-premises consumption and misdemeanor-level (first offense) and felony-level drunk driving (repeat offense) charges in New York State in 2009. Longer outlet business hours were associated with more misdemeanor drunk driving charges, but were not associated with felony drunk driving charges. The per capita density of on-premises alcohol outlets did not affect misdemeanor or felony drunk driving charges. The results suggest that temporal alcohol availability may be an impelling factor for first-time drunk driving, but other factors likely influence repeat drunk driving behaviors. PMID:23940711

  18. Development and evaluation of an infant-care training program with first-time fathers.

    PubMed

    Dachman, R S; Alessi, G J; Vrazo, G J; Fuqua, R W; Kerr, R H

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a multicomponent package in training infant-care skills to first-time fathers. After developing and socially validating a set of infant-care skills, we assessed the effects of training in a hospital-based program with expectant fathers (Experiment 1) and in a home-based program with fathers having varied degrees of experience with their infants (Experiment 2). In both experiments, a multiple probe design demonstrated that the training package was responsible for producing criterion performance by the expectant and first-time fathers. A 1-month generalization probe in Experiment 1 showed that the effects transferred across training conditions (training doll to human infant) and settings (hospital to home). An increase in the number of infant-stimulation activities performed by fathers was also observed in both experiments. PMID:3771415

  19. Sensitivity of the breastfeeding motivational measurement scale: a known group analysis of first time mothers.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups. PMID:24391731

  20. The Perspectives of First-Time Teachers Concerning Their Assimilation into the New School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Megan

    2012-01-01

    New teachers entering the profession are leaving within their first few years, with half exiting the profession in the first five years. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the experiences of new elementary school teachers regarding their assimilation into a new school environment. The primary research question involved…

  1. Residence and Migration of First-Time Freshmen for the State of Hawai'i, Fall 1996. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu.

    This report presents information on the residence and migration of first-time freshmen for the State of Hawaii for the Fall 1996 semester. The information presented is for first-time freshmen only. The first-time freshmen population discussed in this report is divided into three groups: (1) those residents of Hawaii who chose to main in the State…

  2. Do first-time breeding females imprint on their own eggs?

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Carra, Laura G.; Ontanilla, Juan; Martín-Galvez, David

    2013-01-01

    The egg-recognition processes underlying egg rejection are assumed to be based on an imprinting-like process (a female learning the aspect of her own eggs during her first breeding attempt). The imprinting-like process and the misimprinting costs have been the objective of many theoretical models and frequently have a leading role in papers published on brood parasitism; however, an experiment has never been undertaken to test the existence of this imprinting-like process by manipulating egg appearance in first-time breeding females. Here, we present the first such experimental study using the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), which is a conspecific brood parasite and which has a good ability to reject conspecific eggs, as a model species. We found that contrary to what the hypothesis predicts first-time breeding females did not reject their own eggs in their second breeding attempt. This lack of response against unmanipulated eggs could indicate that females have an innate preference for their own eggs. However, in a second experimental group in which first-time breeding females were allowed to learn the aspect of their (unmanipulated) own eggs, none ejected manipulated eggs during their second clutch either—a finding that does not support the idea of recognition templates being inherited, but instead suggests that recognition templates could be acquired again at each new breeding attempt. Our results demonstrate that it is likely that egg discrimination is not influenced by egg appearance in the first breeding attempt. PMID:23235707

  3. Enteric viruses of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enteric disease in commercial poultry operations is common, and often unofficially reported and discussed by field veterinarians as “non-specific enteric disease”, three recognized enteric syndromes do exist in poultry: poult enteritis complex (PEC) and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (P...

  4. Attributes of curriculum athletic training programs related to the passing rate of first-time certification examinees.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard B; Hadfield, O D

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify attributes of athletic training programs that have been accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) as they relate to outcomes of their students on the National Athletic Training Association Board of Certification (NATABOC) examination and (2) to determine the most effective curriculum in preparing candidates for the examination. For all subjects, the following survey information was assessed: the seven domains (competencies), number of clinical rotation sites, grade point average requirement, faculty responsibilities, faculty terminal degrees, faculty K-12 experience, association with allied health schools, capstone course availability, and course examination similarities. Fifty-four subjects, representing 60% of all of the program directors of CAAHEP accredited athletic training programs, responded in this study. Data were analyzed using a general linear model procedure and regression analyses. Even domains of athletic training, variety of rotation sites, clinical responsibility of faculty, faculty terminal degrees, and faculty K-12 school experience significantly affected the passing rate of first time certification examinees. Grade point average requirement, allied health school association, course examination format, and capstone course were not related significantly to the passing rate of first-time certification examinees. The most effective curricular model included the seven domains of athletic training, faculty clinical responsibilities, and faculty K-12 work experience as related to the passing rate. Emphasizing the domains of athletic training (competencies), having a variety of rotation sites, separating clinical and academic responsibilities for faculty, and having faculty with terminal degrees and less public school experience increase the passing rate of first-time NATABOC examinees. The most effective curricular model in affecting passing rate, according to this study, includes emphasizing the seven domains of athletic training (competencies), separating clinical and academic responsibilities of faculty, and not focusing on hiring faculty with K-12 work experience. Although this article focuses primarily on athletic training education, we believe that this study can be used as a model to evaluate educational programs in other allied health, competency-based educational programs. PMID:14714596

  5. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding. PMID:23477413

  6. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.

  7. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  8. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J.; Grebe, Stefan K.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca) kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined. Methods In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls. Results Serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001). Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008). Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82). In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH)2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05). Conclusions Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk. PMID:26332888

  9. Age of inhalant first time use and its association to the use of other drugs.

    PubMed

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who also used at least one of 14 other drugs. Findings indicated that only 4.2% multiple drug users who used inhalants prior to other drugs, especially alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Thus, the theory that inhalants are gateway drugs was not supported. PMID:20196331

  10. A qualitative exploration of first-time fathers' experiences of becoming a father.

    PubMed

    Chin, Rachel; Daiches, Anna; Hall, Pauline

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to explore first-time fathers' experiences of becoming a father, focusing on their expectations, experiences, and how they are coping with this transition. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) epistemology and methodology were adopted as the study was focused on understanding the meaning and experiences of this transition for fathers. Nine participants were recruited from seven NCT antenatal classes. The mean age of participants was 38 years (range=30 to 46 years). Participants completed a semi-structured interview between four and eleven weeks post birth. One overarching superordinate theme was derived: 'searching for a place'. This theme consisted of three sub-themes--'the separation connection struggle', 'a sense of utility, agency and control' and 'changing focus of affection'. The findings expand on our understanding of new fathers' experiences, and suggest that first-time fathers experienced an array of psychological responses during each stage of their transition as they searched for their place as father in relation to their partner, child and work. Professionals working in antenatal and postnatal services should discuss with men the possible emotional and psychological changes they may go through to enable more realistic expectations to be considered. PMID:21941706

  11. First-time DWI offenders are at risk of recidivating regardless of sanctions imposed

    PubMed Central

    Ahlin, Eileen M.; Zador, Paul L.; Rauch, William J.; Howard, Jan M.; Duncan, G. Doug

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research demonstrates that punitive approaches to DWI employed by the judiciary have failed to significantly reduce recidivism. However, little is known about the deterrent effects of administrative and diversion sanctions. We examine whether such sanctions deter first-time DWI offenders. Methods We grouped combinations of administrative, judicial, and diversion sanctions routinely employed in the state of Maryland for processing drivers arrested for DWI into one of eight mutually exclusive disposition sequences. We applied this classification to Maryland drivers who had been licensed in the state and had precisely one DWI on their record prior to January 1, 1999. We then used a proportional hazards model to estimate the probability of remaining free of a new DWI during a 6-year period (January 1, 1999 – December 31, 2004) as a function of the disposition of the index violation, and of selected factors that could affect that probability. Results Drivers with a prior DWI were at relatively high risk of recidivating regardless of how they were sanctioned. Those who received administrative and alternative sanctions had a risk of recidivating similar to that of drivers who were convicted. Conclusion All dispositions sequences, not just convictions, indicate that first-time DWI offenders are at high risk of recidivating. PMID:21603059

  12. Ego-Dystonic Pregnancy and Prenatal Consumption of Alcohol Among First-Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines predictors of drinking during pregnancy among first-time mothers, in order to distinguish those in need of targeted screening and intervention. Methods Data from the prenatal panel of the Parenting for the First Time study were used in hierarchical linear regressions to determine likelihood of prenatal alcohol consumption among a sample of 645 women. Results African-American women and those of race/ethnicities other than White were less likely to drink, regardless of age or level of education. Among all women, being in school was associated with abstention (p = 0.05). Among teens, endorsing a perception of feeling “pushed around” was a significant indicator of prenatal alcohol consumption (p = 0.05), as was not having plans for infant feeding shortly before delivery (p = 0.05). Among adults with some level of college education, having a first prenatal visit after the fourth month of pregnancy was a significant predictor of drinking (p = 0.01). Conclusions This study indicates that women who evidence behaviors or attitudes indicating an ego-dystonic pregnancy (one that is psychologically or emotionally uncomfortable), may be more likely to self-medicate and cope via avoidance through drinking. These behaviors and attitudes may be indicators of the need for targeted screening and intervention, as well as indicators of underlying problems to be targeted in treatment. Further, among all women for whom continued education is a possibility, retaining the ability to attend school during the pregnancy can be protective. PMID:22045021

  13. Medical complications experienced by first-time ischemic stroke patients during inpatient, tertiary level stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Civelek, Gul Mete; Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the medical complications in first-time ischemic stroke patients, to identify the factors related to occurrence of complications. [Subjects and Methods] First-time ischemic stroke patients (n=81) admitted to a tertiary level inpatient rehabilitation center during a 5 year period were included in the study. The attending physiatrist noted the presence of specific medical complications and complications that required transfer to the acute care facility from patient records. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification was used to define the clinical subtypes of the ischemic stroke patients. The Charlson comorbidity index was used to evaluate co-morbid conditions. Functional disability was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure at admission and discharge. [Results] We found that 88.9% of the patients had at least one complication. The five most common complications were urinary tract infection (48.1%), shoulder pain (37.0%), insomnia (37.0%), depression (32.1%), and musculoskeletal pain other than shoulder pain (32.1%) and 11.1% of patients were transferred to acute care facility during rehabilitation period. Functional Independence Measure scores both at admission and discharge were significantly lower in patients with at least one complication than in patients with no complications. [Conclusion] Medical complications are common among patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation. Close interdisciplinary collaboration between physiatrists and other medical specialities is necessary for optimal management. PMID:27065523

  14. Pregnancy Experiences of First-Time Fathers in Iran: A Qualitative Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Golian Tehrani, Shahnaz; Bazzazian, Shahin; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, is an important role and responsibility. For accepting this role, one needs to be well-prepared. Awareness of father’s experiences of pregnancy can help us to develop plans for the promotion of the role of fatherhood. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore how first time fathers describe their experiences of pregnancy. Patients and Methods: The data in this qualitative study were collected by individual open-ended interviews in five public health prenatal care clinics in Tehran, Iran, during 2010 ‒ 2011. Participants were 26 Iranian and Moslem first-time fathers living in Tehran, whose partner was in the 32th to 40th week of her normal pregnancy. Qualitative content text analysis was used for analyzing interviews. Results: Through analysis of fathers’ experiences of their wives’ pregnancy, four categories, as well as associated subcategories, emerged. The categories include: “Emotional responses to pregnancy, Feeling of change, Accepting the reality and satisfaction, Developing identity as a father.” These categories describe the phenomenon of “Transition to fatherhood”. Conclusions: Transition to fatherhood extends beyond only moderate mental and social changes, and may be influenced by cultural background and beliefs. Therefore, caregivers should be aware of fathers' changes and needs during pregnancy, and support them while taking into consideration their culture and beliefs. PMID:25838928

  15. Medical complications experienced by first-time ischemic stroke patients during inpatient, tertiary level stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Civelek, Gul Mete; Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the medical complications in first-time ischemic stroke patients, to identify the factors related to occurrence of complications. [Subjects and Methods] First-time ischemic stroke patients (n=81) admitted to a tertiary level inpatient rehabilitation center during a 5 year period were included in the study. The attending physiatrist noted the presence of specific medical complications and complications that required transfer to the acute care facility from patient records. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification was used to define the clinical subtypes of the ischemic stroke patients. The Charlson comorbidity index was used to evaluate co-morbid conditions. Functional disability was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure at admission and discharge. [Results] We found that 88.9% of the patients had at least one complication. The five most common complications were urinary tract infection (48.1%), shoulder pain (37.0%), insomnia (37.0%), depression (32.1%), and musculoskeletal pain other than shoulder pain (32.1%) and 11.1% of patients were transferred to acute care facility during rehabilitation period. Functional Independence Measure scores both at admission and discharge were significantly lower in patients with at least one complication than in patients with no complications. [Conclusion] Medical complications are common among patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation. Close interdisciplinary collaboration between physiatrists and other medical specialities is necessary for optimal management. PMID:27065523

  16. Temporal associations between substance use and delinquency among youth with a first time offense

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sarah B.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Ewing, Brett A.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Substance use and delinquency among adolescents has been shown to be positively associated; however, the temporal relationship is not well understood. Examining the association between delinquency and substance use is especially relevant among adolescents with a first-time substance use related offense as they are at-risk for future problems. METHOD Data from 193 adolescents at time of diversion program entry and six months later was examined using cross-lagged path analysis to determine whether substance use and related consequences were associated with other types of delinquency across time. RESULTS Results demonstrated that delinquency at program entry was related to subsequent reports of heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, but not marijuana use or its consequences. In contrast, alcohol and marijuana use at program entry was not related to future reports of delinquency. CONCLUSIONS Findings emphasize the need to build in comprehensive assessments and interventions for youth with a first time offense in order to prevent further escalation of substance use and criminal behaviors. PMID:24656642

  17. Computer Literacy of Entering Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellep, Andrew

    In an effort to improve college program planning using data on the computer skills of entering freshmen, a survey was conducted to obtain information about computer science programs in Pennsylvania's public schools. The study investigated the material being taught, the background of computer science teachers, program plans, tendencies in the…

  18. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy

  19. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  20. Qualitative Analysis of the Lived Experience of First-Time Nurse Responders in Disaster.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Sallie J; Stanton, Marietta P; Tomlinson, Stephen; Olivet, Linda; Graves, Ann; McKnight, Douglas; Speck, Patricia M

    2016-02-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Qualitative Analysis of the Lived Experience of First-Time Nurse Responders in Disaster," found on pages 61-71, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until January 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe the experiences of first-time nurse responders to actual disasters in community shelters or temporary medical clinics. Identify themes the first-time nurse responders suggest for a practical disaster curriculum for the generalist nurse. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The study purpose was to examine the reflections of the lived experiences of nurses in shelters or temporary community medical clinics responding for the first time to a civilian disaster. The disaster-nursing literature echoes the need for development of disaster content in the nursing curriculum. However, little thematic analysis-supporting curriculum from the lived experience of first-time responders exists in the literature. This study's purpose is to identify the essential thematic knowledge and skills necessary to provide care to disaster survivors in communities and for determining the themes necessary to formulate education in emergency preparedness curricula. A narrative inquiry, with a phenomenological analysis, to explore the lived experiences of nurses who responded once to a community disaster was the methodology used to identify themes. Thematic findings demonstrated a lack of prior knowledge about volunteering during a disaster response, that previous mass casualty exercises did not help with their actual responses, and that the participant RNs identified specific and assessment skills necessary for disasters. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(2):61-71. PMID:26840238

  1. The Socialization of First-Time Athletic Training Education Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viesselman, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Starting in 2004 athletic training students had to graduate from accredited athletic training education programs to become certified. Institutions had to accredit their athletic training education programs to continue offering students the opportunity to become certified. These institutions needed to transition current employees or hire new…

  2. Social Support for First-Time Chinese Mothers in Contexts of Provider-Recipient Relationships.

    PubMed

    An, Zheng; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of social support on perceived stress and online support activities in two relationship contexts. In 2013, we surveyed 366 first-time mothers between the ages of 26 and 30 years from mainland China about their social support experiences with their mothers and mothers-in-law in regard to child rearing. Women who received higher levels of support from their mothers reported lower levels of perceived stress and higher levels of online support activities. Receiving support from mothers-in-law was not associated with either perceived stress or online support activities. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering relationship contexts when examining social support outcomes. Implications for future research on social support and interpersonal relationships are discussed. PMID:26422372

  3. First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  4. Obtaining confirmation through social relationships: Norwegian first-time mothers' experiences while on maternity leave.

    PubMed

    Alstveit, Marit; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2010-03-01

    The social relationships of employed women on maternity leave undergo significant changes. The aim of the study was to illuminate first-time mothers' experiences of social relationships while on maternity leave. Nine mothers were interviewed at both 3-5 months and 11-14 months post-partum and the data were analyzed by means of interpretative analysis. The main theme of obtaining confirmation through social relationships was based on two themes (being confirmed by other mothers and balancing between being a mother and an employee) and on four subthemes (seeking company, sharing experiences, feeling ineffective and in a state of stagnation, and trying to handle contact with the workplace). In order to strengthen the social relationships of mothers, the mother-child health service should offer all mothers the opportunity to join a peer support group, while employers could keep in regular contact with staff members on maternity leave. PMID:20487334

  5. Discovery and study of Leishmania turanica for the first time in China.

    PubMed

    Guan, L R; Yang, Y Q; Qu, J Q; Shen, W X

    1995-01-01

    Reported are the results of multidisciplinary studies on Leishmania turanica, which was isolated from the auricular tissues of naturally infected great gerbils in Xinjiang, China. Discussed are the biology of the parasite, its molecular biology, its pathogenicity in rodents and humans and its vectors. This was the first time that L. turanica had been reported in China. L. turanica is highly pathogenic in BALB/c mice, with the resulting systemic infection being lethal, and it causes dermal lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. L. turanica parasitizes the macrophages in the interstitium of the testes of Cricetulus barabensis, and entirely destroys the Leydig's cells of severely infected animals. Inoculation of L. turanica can induce simian and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. The cell membrane and flagella of the promastigotes of L. turanica have rather active ACPase. The major vectors of L. turanica were Phlebotomus mongolensis and P. andrejevi. PMID:8846493

  6. Awareness, Intention, and Needs Regarding Breastfeeding: Findings from First-Time Mothers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Li, Mu; Yang, Dongling; Wen, Li Ming; Hunter, Cynthia; He, Gengsheng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objectives Despite efforts, a decline in breastfeeding rates has been documented in China recently. This study explored the awareness of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for breastfeeding and intention to breastfeed among first-time mothers and identified the gap between mothers' needs and perinatal care provision regarding breastfeeding promotion. Subjects and Methods In total, 653 women at 5–22 gestational weeks were recruited from four community health centers in Shanghai, China. They completed a self-administered questionnaire at recruitment. Two focus group discussions were held among third-trimester pregnant women who had received prenatal education. Twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted among postpartum mothers. Results During early pregnancy, a substantial proportion of mothers were not aware of the nutritional value of breastmilk (40%) or the value of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (80%) or any breastfeeding for 24 months (98%). The awareness of the WHO guidelines for breastfeeding was associated with intention to breastfeed (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88, 3.78) or intention to breastfeed exclusively (adjusted OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.81, 6.06). In late pregnancy and postpartum, most mothers were still not fully aware of the breastfeeding recommendations and nutritional value of breastmilk. Limited communications with healthcare providers and lack of support for dealing with breastfeeding difficulties were reported. Conclusions Low awareness of the WHO breastfeeding guidelines was found among first-time mothers in Shanghai. Awareness of breastfeeding guidelines was independently associated with mothers' intention to breastfeed and intention to breastfeed exclusively. The health benefits of breastfeeding and the recommended duration of breastfeeding should be emphasized in prenatal education programs. PMID:22424469

  7. Predictors of and reasons for pacifier use in first-time mothers: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of pacifiers is commonplace in Australia and has been shown to be negatively associated with breastfeeding duration. In order to influence behaviour related to the use of pacifiers it is important to understand the reasons for their use. The primary aim of this observational study was to investigate who (if anyone) advises first-time mothers to give a pacifier and the reasons for which they first give (or try to give) a pacifier to their infant. Additionally, this study investigated the predictors of pacifier use and the relationship between pacifier use and breastfeeding duration. Methods In total, 670 Australian first-time mothers recruited as part of the NOURISH trial completed a questionnaire regarding infant feeding and pacifier use. Results Pacifiers were introduced by 79% of mothers, of whom 28.7% were advised to use a pacifier by their mother/mother-in-law with a further 22.7% being advised by a midwife. The majority of mothers used a pacifier in order to soothe their infant (78.3%), to help put them to sleep (57.4%) and to keep them comforted and quiet (40.4%). Pacifiers given to infants before four weeks (adjHR 3.67; 95%CI 2.14-6.28) and used most days (adjHR 3.28; 95%CI 1.92-5.61) were significantly associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding. Conclusions This study identifies an opportunity for educating new mothers and their support network, particularly their infant's grandmothers, with regards to potential risks associated with the early and frequent use of a pacifier, and alternative methods for soothing their infant, in order to reduce the use of pacifiers and their potentially negative effect on breastfeeding duration. PMID:22257532

  8. A change in life as experienced by first-time fathers.

    PubMed

    Fägerskiöld, Astrid

    2008-03-01

    Research suggests that the attitude of men towards pregnancy, childbirth and child-caring is different from that of women. Up to now, research has focused mainly on motherhood. The aim of this study was to explore first-time fathers' experiences during early infancy of their children. Grounded theory and constant comparative method were used and 20 fathers aged 20-48 participated. Interviews were carried out in 2002-2003. 'Changing life' emerged as the core category consisting of the categories: becoming a father, alternating between work and home, changing relationship towards partner and developing relationship with their child. Changing life implied that they have left bachelor life and become responsible for a child. Becoming a father was much more fantastic than they could have imagined and they suggested that they performed childcare to the same extent as the mother when both parents were at home. Still fathers viewed the mother as the main parent, partly because of their alternating between work and home and because the mothers breast-feed the infants. Fathers' attitude towards breast-feeding seemed to be ambiguous; it was a matter of necessity, but made them feel insignificant. Changing relationship towards partner was common but it was not necessarily for the worst and often resulted in a more closely united relationship. However, tiredness because of lack of sleep could result in increased irritability towards problems. Developing relationship with their child implied increasing possibilities to learn to know the infant's signals. Fathers are one of two parents, and hence are important for their child's growth and development, emotional health and cognitive development. Knowledge about first-time fathers' experiences during the early infancy of their children may bring about increased support from midwives and child health nurses. PMID:18269424

  9. Research update on the poultry enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry enteric disease is an ongoing economic problem for the poultry industry in the United States and abroad. The etiologies of the recognized enteric disease syndromes—Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) and Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) in young turkeys, and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS...

  10. Mucin dynamics and enteric pathogens.

    PubMed

    McGuckin, Michael A; Lindén, Sara K; Sutton, Philip; Florin, Timothy H

    2011-04-01

    The extracellular secreted mucus and the cell surface glycocalyx prevent infection by the vast numbers of microorganisms that live in the healthy gut. Mucin glycoproteins are the major component of these barriers. In this Review, we describe the components of the secreted and cell surface mucosal barriers and the evidence that they form an effective barricade against potential pathogens. However, successful enteric pathogens have evolved strategies to circumvent these barriers. We discuss the interactions between enteric pathogens and mucins, and the mechanisms that these pathogens use to disrupt and avoid mucosal barriers. In addition, we describe dynamic alterations in the mucin barrier that are driven by host innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. PMID:21407243

  11. Enteral Nutrition in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469

  12. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  13. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C. )

    1992-02-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting.

  14. Enteric pathogens through life stages

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”). PMID:22937528

  15. A Multiple Family Group Intervention for First-Time Juvenile Offenders: Comparisons with Probation and Dropouts on Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William H.; Van Dyke, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated a multiple-family group-intervention program (MFGI) for first-time juvenile offenders. The recidivism rate for subjects who completed the MFGI (the Family Solutions Program) was compared to recidivism rates of two other groups of first-time juvenile offenders. Using logistic regression analysis predicting who will recidivate,

  16. Effects of Mothers against Drunk Driving's (MADD's) Victim Impact Panels on First-Time DWI Offenders: Some Initial Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nagesh; And Others

    A study assessed the effects of victim impact panels (VIP) on first-time DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) offenders in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The VIP is an emotional presentation by the victim or their parents about how they were injured or their child was killed by a drunk driver. Subjects, 350 first-time offenders participated in a Mothers…

  17. Effect of Maternal–Child Home Visitation on Pregnancy Spacing for First-Time Latina Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Chesnokova, Arina; Matone, Meredith; Luan, Xianqun; Localio, A. Russell; Rubin, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of a maternal–child home visitation program on birth spacing for first-time Latina mothers, focusing on adolescents and women who identified as Mexican or Puerto Rican. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. One thousand Latina women enrolled in the Pennsylvania Nurse–Family Partnership between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were matched to nonenrolled Latina women using propensity scores. The primary outcome was the time to second pregnancy that resulted in a live birth (interpregnancy interval). Proportional hazards models and bootstrap methods compared the time to event. Results. Home visitation was associated with a small decrease in the risk of a short interpregnancy interval (≤ 18 months) among Latina women (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75, 0.99). This effect was driven by outcomes among younger adolescent women (HR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.65, 0.96). There was also a trend toward significance for women of Mexican heritage (HR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.49, 1.07), although this effect might be attributed to individual agency performance. Conclusions. Home visitation using the Nurse–Family Partnership model had measurable effects on birth spacing in Latina women. PMID:24354820

  18. First-time observation of Mastro Giorgio masterpieces by means of non-destructive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Ingo, G. M.; Bouquillon, A.; Pages-Camagna, S.; Aucouturier, M.; Roehrs, S.; Fermo, P.

    2006-06-01

    For the first time some excellent pieces belonging to the majolica production of the great master Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio (Central Italy) have been characterized from a chemical and structural point of view with the aim to identify the composition of both pigments and lustres. A series of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Raman analyses have been performed on some plates coming from Museo del Palazzo dei Consoli (Gubbio) and several French museums (Louvre, Musée National de la Céramique, Musée National de la Renaissance) lustred by Giorgio Andreoli and decorated by famous majolica painters such as Francesco Xanto Avelli. The three techniques are complementary and useful in the investigation of art objects since they are non-destructive. Furthermore, the low detection limits allow the identification of all elements and compounds present, and RBS allows concentration profiling, too. It is worth noticing that the examined objects are characterized by the presence of both gold and ruby-red lustres, a peculiarity of Mastro Giorgio’s technique. The measurements by PIXE and RBS have been carried out on the AGLAE accelerator at C2RMF, Louvre Palace.

  19. Organic carbon in topsoil - first time fully harmonised at a European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Baritz, Reiner; Reiman, Clemens; Gemas Project Team

    2013-04-01

    The organic fraction of soils often accounts for an only small but variable proportion of the total soil mass. Nevertheless the organic fraction profoundly influences e.g., soil properties, ecosystem functioning, and the magnitude of various ecosystem processes. In the cooperative project of Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil (GEMAS) a total of 2018 samples of agricultural (ploughed land, 0-20 cm) and 2023 samples of grazing land (0-10 cm) soil were collected at a density of 1 site per 2500 km2 each from 33 European countries, covering an area of 5,600,000 km2. All soil samples were sampled following a jointly agreed field protocol. The contents of TOC show large local differences with the highest concentrations of TOC in Finland, Ireland and Norway but also in other countries like e.g., Sweden, United Kingdom, and Germany distinctively high concentrations were measured. The distribution of TOC can be related to other measured soil properties like CEC, pH (CaCl2) and e.g., 52 chemical elements following an agua regia extraction. The GEMAS project has provided for the first time a fully harmonised data on TOC (and many other parameters) at a European scale.

  20. Breastfeeding and Social Media among First-Time African American Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V.; Waters, Catherine M.; Dailey, Dawn E.; Lee, Kathryn A.; Lyndon, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of social media during the antepartum and postpartum periods among first-time African American mothers and their support persons. Design A qualitative critical ethnographic research design within the contexts of Family Life Course Development Theory and Black Feminist Theory. Setting Participants were recruited from community-based, public health, and home visiting programs. Participants A purposive sample was recruited, consisting of 14 pregnant African American women and eight support persons. Methods Pregnant and postpartum African American women and their support persons were interviewed separately during the antepartum and postpartum periods. Data were analyzed thematically. Results Participants frequently used social media for educational and social support and searched the internet for perinatal and parenting information. Most participants reported using at least one mobile application during their pregnancies and after giving birth. Social media were typically accessed through smartphones and/or computers using different websites and applications. While participants gleaned considerable information about infant development from these applications, they had difficulty finding and recalling information about infant feeding. Conclusion Social media are an important vehicle to disseminate infant feeding information; however, they are not currently being used to full potential. Our findings suggest that future interventions geared towards African American mothers and their support persons should include social media approaches. The way individuals gather, receive, and interpret information is dynamic. The increasing popularity and use of social media platforms offers the opportunity to create more innovative, targeted mobile health interventions for infant feeding and breastfeeding promotion. PMID:25712127

  1. Men, maternity and moral residue: negotiating the moral demands of the transition to first time fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses men's transition to first time fatherhood, with a focus on the way they recognise various in-tension moral demands and negotiate an appropriate role for themselves. The findings are taken from a longitudinal study, drawing on elements of grounded theory, comprising a series of face-to-face and telephone interviews with 11 men over a 9-month period from the 12th week of pregnancy to 8 weeks after the birth. The analysis focuses on men's feelings and experience of exclusion and participation, and their response and reaction to that experience. The findings present two descriptive themes, ‘on the inside looking in’ and ‘present but not participating’, followed by third theme ‘deference and support: a moral response’ that exposes the dilemmatic nature of men's experience and explains the participants’ apparent acceptance of being less involved. The discussion explores the concept of moral residue, arguing that while deference and support may be an appropriate role for fathers in the perinatal period it may also be a compromise that leads to feelings of uncertainty and frustration, which is a consequence of being in a genuinely dilemmatic situation. PMID:25091825

  2. Freedom Star tows a barge with an SLWT into Port Canaveral for the first time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, tows a barge containing the third Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT will be used to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October. This first-time towing arrangement, part of a cost savings plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks are manufactured. The barge will now be transported up the Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tugboat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allows NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service directly to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies show a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications should be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, has also undergone deck strengthening enhancements and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed.

  3. Freedom Star tows a barge with an SLWT into Port Canaveral for the first time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, tows a barge containing the third Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT will be used to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October. This first-time towing arrangement, part of a cost savings plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks are manufactured. The barge will now be transported up the Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tugboat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allows NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service directly to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies show a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications should be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, has also undergone deck strengthening enhancements and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed. The other recovery vessel, Liberty Star, has undergone deck strengthening enhancements along with Freedom Star and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed.

  4. Lower Cortisol Activity is Associated with First-Time Driving while Impaired.

    PubMed

    Couture, Sophie; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Gianoulakis, Christina; Tremblay, Jacques; Ng Ying Kin, Nmk; Brochu, Serge; Pruessner, Jens; Dedovic, Katarina; Brown, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Driving while impaired (DWI) is a grave and persistent high-risk behavior. Previous work demonstrated that DWI recidivists had attenuated cortisol reactivity compared to non-DWI drivers. This suggests that cortisol is a neurobiological marker of high-risk driving. The present study tested the hypothesis that this initial finding would extend to first-time DWI (fDWI) offenders compared to non-DWI drivers. Male fDWI offenders (n = 139) and non-DWI drivers (n = 31) were exposed to a stress task, and their salivary cortisol activity (total output and reactivity) was measured. Participants also completed questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsivity, substance use, and engagement in risky and criminal behaviors. As hypothesized, fDWI offenders, compared to non-DWI drivers, had lower cortisol reactivity; fDWI offenders also showed lower total output. In addition, cortisol activity was the most important predictor of group membership, after accounting for alcohol misuse patterns and consequences and other personality and problem behavior characteristics. The findings indicate that attenuated cortisol activity is an independent factor associated with DWI offending risk at an earlier stage in the DWI trajectory than previously detected. PMID:25922575

  5. Complete genome sequence of a Chuzan virus strain isolated for the first time in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heng; Xiao, Lei; Meng, Jinxing; Xiong, Heli; Gao, Lin; Liao, Defang; Li, Huachun

    2016-04-01

    Chuzan virus (CHUV) belongs to the Palyam serogroup, causes bovine congenital disease, and is prevalent in Asia. To date, only one full Palyam virus (PALV) genome sequence, that of Japanese CHUV strain K47, has been reported. Sequence analysis indicates that PALV strains isolated from different geographical regions show significant diversity, which is mainly shaped by geographically independent evolution and genetic reassortment. Our understanding of the genetic characteristics of PALV is hampered by a very limited genomic sequence database. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of CHUV strain SZ187, which was isolated for the first time in 2012 in mainland China. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate that SZ187 is closely related to other CHUV strains isolated in Taiwan and Japan, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. This new full-length CHUV genome sequence could help in the design of broader assays for epidemiological studies and facilitate the identification of new CHUV isolates in the future. PMID:26733292

  6. An 18-year follow-up of patients admitted to methadone treatment for the first time.

    PubMed

    Davstad, Ingrid; Stenbacka, Marlene; Leifman, Anders; Romelsjö, Anders

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year addiction career, 1985-2003, for 157 heroin dependent subjects (73% men; 49% human immunodeficiency virus seropositive) admitted for the first time to Stockholm's Methadone Maintenance Treatment program during 1989 to 1991 was analyzed with data from seven official registers and patient records. Regression analyses and incidence rates for various outcomes were calculated for subjects in first methadone maintenance treatment at the end of the observation period, discharged from first methadone maintenance treatment, in second methadone maintenance treatment, and discharged from second methadone maintenance treatment. Being human immunodeficiency virus positive (HR = 3.8), lodging (HR = 1.9) and prison sentence (HR = 1.7) predicted mortality for the 45% deceased. Approximately 70% of living subjects participated in methadone maintenance treatment at some period each year. Subjects in first or second methadone maintenance treatment had less criminality and had spent more time in methadone maintenance treatment (70% to 100%) than those discharged from first or from second methadone maintenance treatment (50%). Efforts and interventions should be intensified to increase time in treatment also for those with high problem severity. PMID:19197594

  7. Lower Cortisol Activity is Associated with First-Time Driving while Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Sophie; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Gianoulakis, Christina; Tremblay, Jacques; Ng Ying Kin, NMK; Brochu, Serge; Pruessner, Jens; Dedovic, Katarina; Brown, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Driving while impaired (DWI) is a grave and persistent high-risk behavior. Previous work demonstrated that DWI recidivists had attenuated cortisol reactivity compared to non-DWI drivers. This suggests that cortisol is a neurobiological marker of high-risk driving. The present study tested the hypothesis that this initial finding would extend to first-time DWI (fDWI) offenders compared to non-DWI drivers. Male fDWI offenders (n = 139) and non-DWI drivers (n = 31) were exposed to a stress task, and their salivary cortisol activity (total output and reactivity) was measured. Participants also completed questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsivity, substance use, and engagement in risky and criminal behaviors. As hypothesized, fDWI offenders, compared to non-DWI drivers, had lower cortisol reactivity; fDWI offenders also showed lower total output. In addition, cortisol activity was the most important predictor of group membership, after accounting for alcohol misuse patterns and consequences and other personality and problem behavior characteristics. The findings indicate that attenuated cortisol activity is an independent factor associated with DWI offending risk at an earlier stage in the DWI trajectory than previously detected. PMID:25922575

  8. Transition to parenthood and mental health in first-time parents.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, Ylva; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the transition to parenthood and mental health in first-time parents in detail and explore any differences in this transition in the context of parental gender and postpartum mental health. Semistructured clinical interviews (Birmingham Interview for Maternal Mental Health) were carried out with 46 women and 40 men, 5 months after birth. Parents were assessed on pre- and postpartum anxiety, depression, and postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and a range of adjustment and relationship variables. One fourth of the men and women reported anxiety in pregnancy, reducing to 21% of women and 8% of men after birth. Pregnancy and postpartum depression rates were roughly equal, with 11% of women and 8% of men reporting depression. Postpartum PTSD was experienced by 5% of parents. Postpartum mental health problems were significantly associated with postpartum sleep deprivation (odds ratio [OR] = 7.5), complications in labor (OR = 5.1), lack of postpartum partner support (OR = 8.0), feelings of parental unworthiness (OR = 8.3), and anger toward the infant (OR = 4.4). Few gender differences were found for these variables. This study thus highlights the importance of focusing interventions on strengthening the couple's relationship and avoiding postnatal sleep deprivation, and to address parents' feelings of parental unworthiness and feelings of anger toward their baby. PMID:25798480

  9. The "Turning Point" for Minority Pre-Meds: The Effect of Early Undergraduate Experience in the Sciences on Aspirations to Enter Medical School of Minority Students at UC Berkeley and Stanford University. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.20.08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Donald A.; Matsui, John

    2008-01-01

    The University of California faces the challenge of increasing the diversity of students graduating from its medical schools while also adhering to mandated restrictions on the use of race or ethnicity in the admissions process. Students from diverse backgrounds who gain admission as undergraduates to UC Berkeley and express an early interest in a…

  10. Characterization of the duck enteritis virus UL55 protein

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Characteration of the newly identified duck enteritis virus UL55 gene product has not been reported yet. Knowledge of the protein UL55 can provide useful insights about its function. Results The newly identified duck enteritis virus UL55 gene was about 561 bp, it was amplified and digested for construction of a recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)/UL55 for expression in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the recombinant protein UL55(pUL55) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 host cells after induction by 0.2 mM IPTG at 37°C for 4 h and aggregated as inclusion bodies. The denatured protein about 40 KDa named pUL55 was purified by washing five times, and used to immune rabbits for preparation of polyclonal antibody. The prepared polyclonal antibody against pUL55 was detected and determined by Agar immundiffusion and Neutralization test. The results of Wstern blotting assay and intracellular analysis revealed that pUL55 was expressed most abundantly during the late phase of replication and mainly distributed in cytoplasm in duck enteritis virus infected cells. Conclusions In this study, the duck enteritis virus UL55 protein was successfully expressed in prokaryotic expression system. Besides, we have prepared the polyclonal antibody against recombinant prtein UL55, and characterized some properties of the duck enteritis virus UL55 protein for the first time. The research will be useful for further functional analysis of this gene. PMID:21609474

  11. Creating a Virtual World Mindset: A Guide for First Time Second Life Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoerger, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Education technology proponents argue that tech-savvy students want active learning opportunities that enable them to produce, as well as consume, content. Some educators have responded to this rhetoric by appropriating virtual worlds such as Second Life (SL) for teaching and learning. While SL rewards exploration and experimentation, the

  12. Teaching to Learn: Analyzing the Experiences of First-Time Physics Learning Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kara Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Assistant (LA) Model has demonstrated that it is successful in helping to meet multiple goals including enhancing student learning in LA-supported courses, increasing conceptual understanding of physics among LAs, and improving the teaching practices of former LAs in K-12 schools. The research reported here investigated the

  13. Teaching to Learn: Analyzing the Experiences of First-Time Physics Learning Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kara Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Assistant (LA) Model has demonstrated that it is successful in helping to meet multiple goals including enhancing student learning in LA-supported courses, increasing conceptual understanding of physics among LAs, and improving the teaching practices of former LAs in K-12 schools. The research reported here investigated the…

  14. Teaching English for the First Time: Anxiety among Japanese Elementary-School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machida, Tomohisa

    2011-01-01

    English language education officially started in Japanese elementary schools in 2009. Homeroom teachers, whether experienced or not, are responsible for teaching the subject to students. Additionally, teachers are often required to team-teach with a native English speaker. It is plausible that Japanese teachers are anxious about teaching English.…

  15. Our First Time: Two Higher Education Tutors Reflect on Becoming a "Virtual Teacher"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Vince; Davey, Ronnie

    2005-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet as a means of both information distribution and social communication seems to be carrying with it a growing imperative for tertiary institutions to put teacher education, like many other things, "online". Often this is done in the name of offering teacher training to distant students who would otherwise not be…

  16. The First-Time Online Learner: Readiness and Successful Course Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyon, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Many community colleges consider online learning central to the mission of providing adults with access to academic, professional, and personal enrichment opportunities; however, the issue of student success in the online learning environment remains an area of concern. The low rate of online course completion in community colleges may be…

  17. Creating a Virtual World Mindset: A Guide for First Time Second Life Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoerger, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Education technology proponents argue that tech-savvy students want active learning opportunities that enable them to produce, as well as consume, content. Some educators have responded to this rhetoric by appropriating virtual worlds such as Second Life (SL) for teaching and learning. While SL rewards exploration and experimentation, the…

  18. First time isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus in Persian Gulf, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Yashgin; Bahador, Nima; Baseri-Salehi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is a marine pathogenic bacterium which causes disease in marine animals and human. This bacterium mostly found in coastal shallow seawater. So, the aim of this study was isolation and characterization of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from edible fish of Persian Gulf, Bandar Abbas. Material and Methods: Totally 100 fish from different species were evaluated and out of that 5 different types of fish with external symptoms including: Caranx sexfasciatus, Lethrinus olivaceus, Scomberoid tol, Auxis thazard and Liza macrolepis, were collected from Bandar Abbas local fish market in September 2013. The samples were cultured on Marin Agar 2216 and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile salts Sucrose Agar media and incubated at 25°C for 48 hrs. Then the isolates were characterized using biochemical (API 20 NE system) and molecular techniques. In addition, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of poly β hydroxy butyrate and hemolysis activity of isolates were evaluated. Results and Conclusion: Entirely, 30 Gram negative bacterial colonies were isolated from the selected fish. Among the isolates, two suspected colonies were identified as Photobacterium damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus with API 20NE biochemical test. This results confirmed by 16s rRNA sequencing method. Both isolates showed α hemolytic with existence of β hydroxyl butyrate. Furthermore, the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Conclusion: Overall, the study indicated first time isolation of this bacterium from one type of fish caught from Persian Gulf, which warns us to pay more attention to fishery in this geographical area. PMID:26668707

  19. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  20. Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40 years and above. Conclusions Men who expect their first baby at an advanced or very advanced age constitute a socioeconomically heterogeneous group with more health problems and more risky health behaviour than younger men. Since older men often have their first child with a woman of advanced age, in whom similar characteristics have been reported, their combined risk of adverse perinatal outcomes needs further attention by clinicians and researchers. PMID:23363654

  1. Effects of Ramadan on physical capacities of North African boys fasting for the first time

    PubMed Central

    Fenneni, Mohamed A.; Latiri, Imed; Aloui, Asma; Rouatbi, Sonia; Saafi, Mohamed A.; Bougmiza, Iheb; Chamari, Karim; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most of the literature related to the effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance has focused on adults, and only three studies have examined its impact on children’s physical performance. Aims To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on first-time fasting boys’ performance in short-term explosive exercises [vertical and horizontal jump tests (VJT and HJT), 20-m and 30-m sprints and medicine-ball throw (MBT)], as well as in sub-maximal endurance [6-min walking distance (6MWD) measured during the 6-min walk test (6MWT)]. Methods Eighteen Tunisian boys [mean±standard deviation (SD) of age and body mass (BM): 11.9±0.8 y and 55.4±18.2 kg, respectively] were included. The experimental design comprised four testing phases: 2-weeks before Ramadan (BR), the end of the second week (R2) and the fourth week (R4) of Ramadan, and 10–12 days after the end of Ramadan (AR). At each phase, boys performed two test sessions in the afternoon (15:00–17:00 h) interrupted by 48 h of recovery (first test session: BM, VJT, HJT, and 20-m and 30-m sprint tests; second session: MBT and 6MWT). The study was conducted during the summer of 2012 from July 5 to August 29. Results 6MWDs (m) were significantly shorter during R2 (652±101) and R4 (595±123) compared to BR (697±86) and came back to baseline values AR. BM (kg) mean±SD did not significantly change during R2 (52±15) and during R4 (53±15) compared to BR (55±17), and short-term explosive performances were unchanged throughout the study. Conclusion In non-athletic children, first-ever Ramadan fasting impairs sub-maximal aerobic capacity but has no effect on BM or short-term explosive performance. PMID:25261691

  2. How Can We Improve Retention of the First-Time Donor? A Systematic Review of the Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Murray, Andrea L; Masser, Barbara M

    2016-04-01

    Blood products are critical to health systems and donations by voluntary nonremunerated donors are recommended. Worldwide, however, only around 5% of those eligible to donate do so and around half of those never return to donate again. This review focuses on what deters first-time donors, what predicts their retention, and what interventions may promote retention of this group. A comprehensive search of relevant databases identified 9 studies investigating motives and deterrents of first-time donors, 14 studies investigating predictors for first-time donors (13 whole blood [WB] and 2 plasmapheresis), and 15 studies (in 14 published articles) detailing interventions conducted on first-time donors. Drawing on an established blood donation taxonomy, studies were classified by 2 independent raters. Interventions were also classified into traditional, behavioral, or social science interventions. With only 2 eligible studies among first-time plasmapheresis donors, analyses focused on WB donors. First-time WB donors reported benevolent and collectivistic motivations, as well as personal benefits to commence WB donation. Self-reported deterrents have typically not been examined. Intention predicted first-time donor retention with intention determined by attitudes and a sense of (perceived behavioral) control. However, anxiety, adverse events, and deferrals all deterred retention. Traditional interventions, such as reminders and incentives, are widespread yet had only a small effect on return of first-time donors. Although behavioral science interventions such as fluid loading are effective, the strongest effect for the return of first-time donors was found when individual psychological support was provided. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the factors associated with the commencement and continuation of first WB donations. The current review revealed that self-reported motivators are typically not effective, and most successful predictive factors identified have not been translated into interventions. Future work would do well to identify, manage, and meet donors' expectations along with developing more individualized donation experiences. Blood donor research should delineate donor career stages; addressing first-time donor retention will support stable panels for blood collection agencies. PMID:26971186

  3. Preparing to Enter Dental School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shailer

    A guide for students who are seeking admission to dental school is presented. The comprehensive coverage includes basic facts about dentistry as well as specific requirements about the following areas: facts about health care providers, treating patients in dentistry, and nonpatient-oriented dentistry; historical landmarks in dentistry; the

  4. Skills for Children Entering Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Slater, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Assessing kindergarten entry skills is complex, requiring attention to skill proficiency and interactive behaviors deemed critical for learning to occur. In our analysis of a state initiative, pilot data were collected on early literacy and numeracy and 2 aspects of important student interactions in the classroom (social and task behaviors) within…

  5. Displays: Entering a New Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

  6. First-time comet observations at the National Observatory of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: We performed first-time scientific comet observations from Tübitak National Observatory (TUG), Turkey using two telescopes of that facility. In order to test the capabilities of the instruments, we performed a long comet-monitoring campaign from October 2013 to January 2014. We observed many comets, including but not limited to C/2012 S1 ISON, 154P Brewington, and C/2013 R1 Lovejoy. All comets were monitored for several nights with the Bessel R, V, and B filters from the 1-m (T100) and 1.5-m (RTT150) telescopes. Additionally, we acquired the first spectroscopic observations of a comet from TUG, using the TUG Faint Object Spectrograph (TFOSC with grism between 3230-9120 Å) mounted on RTT150. With these observations, we could assess the quality of the TUG instruments for cometary science, and identified a few limitations. We propose some technical improvements for future comet observations. These will open new observational opportunities for Turkish astronomers and a participation in international campaigns on cometary science. Observations and simulations: Apart from testing the instruments, our observations were also driven by the scientific questions regarding comet ISON around its perihelion passage. We intended to follow the formation and evolution of dust coma structures, and use well-tested models to simulate and understand this activity (Vincent et al. 2010, 2013, Lin et al. 2012). Additionally, we wanted to acquire spectra and derive the composition of the tail before and after perihelion. Unfortunately, the comet was not very active before perihelion and completely disintegrated at the end of November 2013. Nonetheless, we had acquired many images in the previous weeks, and we used the remaining nights to monitor other comets, mainly C/2013 R1 Lovejoy. Since the observatory is not equipped with the comet gas filters, we concentrated on dust structures and monitored comet ISON during October 2013 in Bessel R, B, and V filters. The cometary activity structures are investigated and simulations of dust tail are performed. On December 2013, we performed the first comet spectroscopy, targeting comet 154P and, additionally, observed comet C/2013 R1 in the Bessell R, B, and V filters. Results: Some additional gas filters for comet observations would be very useful for further observations. Fortunately, the budget for them is approved for 2014, and they are in the selection process. This will significantly improve future comet observations at TUG. T100: Imaging of fast-moving bright comets (like ISON) can be achieved by using short exposure times on the remotely operable T100 telescope, but non-sidereal tracking has to be improved for the observation of fast-moving small bodies of the solar system. Studies on the improvement of T100's tracking have already started at TUG. RTT150: Non-sidereal tracking is excellent and allowed us to take spectra of comet 154P. For future, we have established collaboration with the Rosetta mission and will monitor comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko starting from spring 2015. We are also ready for Gaia follow-up observations of solar-system objects with RTT150 (max. 5 nights/yr), T100 (max. 80 h/yr), and T60 (10--15 % of the total observing time).

  7. Cardiometabolic Risk of Second-Generation Antipsychotics During First-Time Use in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Christoph U.; Manu, Peter; Olshanskiy, Vladimir; Napolitano, Barbara; Kane, John M.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    Context Cardiometabolic effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are concerning, but have been insufficiently studied in antipsychotic-nave and pediatric patients. Objectives To study SGAs effects on body composition and metabolic parameters, unconfounded by prior antipsychotic exposure. Design Three-month, non-randomized Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment Indications, Effectiveness and Tolerability in Youth (SATIETY) cohort study, conducted 12.200109.2007. Setting Semi-urban, tertiary care, academic inpatient and outpatient services in Queens, New York, with a 4.5 million people catchment area. Patients Of 505 youth, aged 419 (mean age: 13.93.6) years with ?1 week antipsychotic exposure, 338 (66.9%) were enrolled. Of these, 272 (80.5%) had ?1 post-baseline assessment forming the final sample, and 205 (61.7%) completed the study. Patients had mood spectrum (n=130, 47.8%), schizophrenia spectrum (n=82, 30.1%) and disruptive/aggressive behavior spectrum disorders (n=60, 22.1%). Fifteen refusing/non-adherent patients served as a comparison group. Interventions 12-week treatment with aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone. Main Outcome Measures Body composition (weight, Body Mass Index percentile/z-score, fat mass, waist circumference), and fasting glucose and lipid parameters. Results Weight increased by 19.0(95% Confidence Interval:16.4, 21.5)lbs=15.2(13.2, 17.2)% with olanzapine (N=45), 13.5(10.9, 16.0)lbs=10.4(8.5, 12.3)% with quetiapine (N=36), 11.9(10.7, 13.1)bs=10.4(9.4, 11.3)% with risperidone (N=135), and 9.9(8.2, 11.5)lbs=8.1(7.0, 9.5)% with aripiprazole (N=41). Comparison subjects (N=15) changed weight minimally: 0.4(?2.3, 3.2)lbs=0.7(?1.3, 2.6)%. Weight gain ?7% occurred in 84.4% (n=38) of patients on olanzapine, 64.4% (n=87) on risperidone, 58.4% (n=24) on aripiprazole, 55.6% (n=20) on quetiapine, and 0% of comparison subjects. With olanzapine, cholesterol (p<.001), triglycerides (p=0.002), non-HDL-cholesterol (p<.001), triglyceride/HDL ratio (p=0.002), glucose (p=0.02), insulin (p=0.02), and HOMA-IR (p=0.03) increased significantly. With quetiapine, cholesterol (p<0.05), triglycerides (p=0.01), non-HDL-cholesterol (p=0.03), and triglyceride/HDL ratio (p=0.004) increased significantly. With risperidone, triglycerides (p=0.04) increased significantly. Metabolic baseline-to-endpoint changes were non-significant with aripiprazole and comparison subjects. Dyslipidemia developed in 28.9% (n=13), 19.4% (n=26), 8.8% (n=3), and 7.3% (n=3) of youth on olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and aripiprazole, and 6.7% (n=1) of comparison subjects (p=0.03), while acquired insulin resistance (HOMA-IR>4.39: 2.9%17.8%) and metabolic syndrome (0%6.5%) were relatively rare in this short-term study. Conclusions First time SGA use was associated with significant weight gain with each medication. Metabolic changes varied among the 4 antipsychotics. PMID:19861668

  8. START! The Successful Transitions and Retention Track Program: A Comprehensive Approach to Supporting GED Holders Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, J. Vincent; Michalak, Megan B.

    2012-01-01

    Students entering college face many obstacles to success. Students who received a General Education Development (GED) face additional barriers that must be addressed in order for success in higher education. The Successful Transitions and Retention Track Program employs a holistic approach to addressing the needs of GED holders entering college.

  9. Entering China: an unconventional approach.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, W

    1997-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has it that the best way to do business in China is through an equity joint venture (EJV) with a well-connected Chinese partner. But pioneering companies are starting a trend toward a new way to enter that market: as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, or WFOE. Increasingly, says the author, joint ventures do not offer foreign companies what they need to succeed in China. For example, many companies want to do business nationally, but the prospects for finding a Chinese partner with national scope are poor. Moreover, there are often conflicting perceptions between partners about how to operate an EJV: Chinese companies, for example, typically have a more immediate interest in profits than foreign investors do. By contrast, the author asserts, WFOEs are faster to set up and easier to manage; and they allow managers to expand operations more rapidly. That makes them the perfect solution, right? The answer is a qualified yes. First, foreign companies will still need sources of guanxi, or social and political connections. Second, managers must take steps to avoid trampling on China's cultural or economic sovereignty. Third and perhaps most important, foreign companies must be prepared to bring something of value to China-usually in the form of jobs or new technology that can help the country develop. Companies willing to make the effort, says the author, can reap the rewards of China's burgeoning marketplace. PMID:10165447

  10. Comparison of enteric identification systems.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, K A; Gibson, J

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of methods for identification of Enterobacteriaceae was made employing the new commercial Micro-Media Enteric System (MMES) with that of the Analytab Products Incorporated (API) and the Conventional tube media schema as suggested by the Center for Disease Control (CDS). The MMES system employed 20 biochemical tests, the API 21, and the CDC procedure 25. Sixteen of these were identical biochemical tests. Two hundred clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were tested employing procedures recommended by the manufacturers of MMES and API, and methods suggested by CDC. Among the sixteen identical biochemical tests the agreement was 98.0% (Conventional), 98.2% (API), and 97.98% (MMES). Bacteria misidentified by the API system totaled 5 (2.5%), 12 (6%) for the Conventional, and 13 (6.5%) for the MMES. Five of the bacteria misidentified with the MMES procedure were due to false positive citrate tests. This problem was subsequently eliminated. The results of this study indicated that the new MMES method for identification of Enterobacteriaceae compared favorably with both the API and Conventional procedures. However, significant advantages of the MMES method were evident in initial purchase price, utilization of technology time, and less tedium performing the test. PMID:319082

  11. Ischemic enteritis with intestinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Koshikawa, Yorimitsu; Matsuura, Minoru; Yoshino, Takuya; Honzawa, Yusuke; Minami, Naoki; Yamada, Satoshi; Yasuhara, Yumiko; Fujii, Shigehiko; Kusaka, Toshihiro; Manaka, Dai; Kokuryu, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset of vomiting and abdominal distension. The patient was taking medication for arrhythmia. Computed tomography showed stenosis of the ileum and a small bowel dilatation on the oral side from the region of stenosis. A transnasal ileus tube was placed. Enteroclysis using contrast medium revealed an approximately 6-cm afferent tubular stenosis 10 cm from the terminal ileum and thumbprinting in the proximal bowel. Transanal double-balloon enteroscopy showed a circumferential shallow ulcer with a smooth margin and edema of the surrounding mucosa. The stenosis was so extensive that we could not perform endoscopic balloon dilation therapy. During hospitalization, the patient's nutritional status deteriorated. In response, we surgically resected the region of stenosis. Histologic examination revealed disappearance of the mucosal layer and transmural ulceration with marked fibrosis, especially in the submucosal layer. Hemosiderin staining revealed sideroferous cells in the submucosal layers. Based on the pathologic findings, the patient was diagnosed with ischemic enteritis. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:26884740

  12. Environmental enteric dysfunction: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Rosie J.; Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to an incompletely defined syndrome of inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity, and reduced barrier function in the small intestine. It is widespread among children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding of EED and its possible consequences for health is currently limited. Objective A narrative review of the current understanding of EED: epidemiology, pathogenesis, therapies, and relevance to child health. Methods Searches for key papers and ongoing trials were conducted using PUBMED 1966–June 2014; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO Clinical Trials Registry; the Cochrane Library; hand searches of the references of retrieved literature; discussions with experts; and personal experience from the field. Results EED is established during infancy and is associated with poor sanitation, certain gut infections, and micronutrient deficiencies. Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), abnormal gut microbiota, undernutrition, and toxins may all play a role. EED is usually asymptomatic, but it is important due to its association with stunting. Diagnosis is frequently by the dual sugar absorption test, although other biomarkers are emerging. EED may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in low- and middle-income countries and the increased risk of serious infection seen in children with undernutrition. Conclusions Despite its potentially significant impacts, it is currently unclear exactly what causes EED and how it can be treated or prevented. Ongoing trials involve nutritional supplements, water and sanitation interventions, and immunomodulators. Further research is needed to better understand this condition, which is of likely crucial importance for child health and development in low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25902619

  13. Diagnosing clostridial enteric disease in poultry.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kerry K; Songer, J Glenn; Uzal, Francisco A

    2013-05-01

    The world's poultry industry has grown into a multibillion-dollar business, the success of which hinges on healthy intestinal tracts, which result in effective feed conversion. Enteric disease in poultry can have devastating economic effects on producers, due to high mortality rates and poor feed efficiency. Clostridia are considered to be among the most important agents of enteric disease in poultry. Diagnosis of enteric diseases produced by clostridia is usually challenging, mainly because many clostridial species can be normal inhabitants of the gut, making it difficult to determine their role in virulence. The most common clostridial enteric disease in poultry is necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens, which typically occurs in broiler chickens but has also been diagnosed in various avian species including turkeys, waterfowl, and ostriches. Diagnosis is based on clinical and pathological findings. Negative culture and toxin detection results may be used to rule out this disease, but isolation of C. perfringens and/or detection of its alpha toxin are of little value to confirm the disease because both are often found in the intestine of healthy birds. Ulcerative enteritis, caused by Clostridium colinum, is the other major clostridial enteric disease of poultry. Diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis is by documentation of typical pathological findings, coupled with isolation of C. colinum from the intestine of affected birds. Other clostridial enteric diseases include infections produced by Clostridium difficile, Clostridium fallax, and Clostridium baratii. PMID:23572451

  14. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  15. Effects of Video-Modeling on the Interaction Skills of First-Time Fathers of Late Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen Marie; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Kurilova, Jana; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Blahitka, Laurie; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an innovative educational--behavioral intervention for first-time fathers of late preterm (34-36 weeks' gestation) infants, with the aim of enhancing the infant's environment through strengthening fathers' skills in interaction with their young infant. Using a randomized controlled trial, fathers of 111 late…

  16. Testing Age-Paced Parenting Newsletters up to Age 3: Greater Impact on First-Time Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.

    2012-01-01

    An age-paced newsletter for parents of toddlers was evaluated. Mothers reported the newsletters were as useful as information from doctors or nurses and more useful than other sources of information. We hypothesized and found that first-time mothers reported the newsletters more useful than experienced mothers--reading more of the newsletters and…

  17. First-Time Mothers' Use of Music and Movement with Their Young Infants: The Impact of a Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlismas, Wendy; Bowes, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examined impact of a 5-week music/movement program involving relaxation, kinesics, singing, visual contact, and tactile stimulation on first-time mothers' use of music and movement with their infants. Found that the program extended mothers' use of relaxation to music and rhythmical movement with their infants but not the use of song and massage…

  18. Death Awareness, Maternal Separation Anxiety, and Attachment Style among First-Time Mothers--A Terror Management Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the interplay between death awareness, attachment style, and maternal separation anxiety among first-time mothers of infants aged 3-12 months. In Study 1 (N = 60), a higher accessibility of death-related thoughts was found following induction of thoughts about separation from the infant. In Study 2 (N = 100), a mortality…

  19. First-Time Mothers' Use of Music and Movement with Their Young Infants: The Impact of a Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlismas, Wendy; Bowes, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examined impact of a 5-week music/movement program involving relaxation, kinesics, singing, visual contact, and tactile stimulation on first-time mothers' use of music and movement with their infants. Found that the program extended mothers' use of relaxation to music and rhythmical movement with their infants but not the use of song and massage

  20. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  1. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  2. Vaccination against enteric septicaemia of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicemia (ESC) of catfish, is one of the most economically important diseases of cultured channel catfish. In 2002, Wagner and coworkers reported that enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris (Flavobacterium columnaris) were the two m...

  3. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators. PMID:23438312

  4. Enteral nutrition and the critically ill.

    PubMed Central

    Shikora, S. A.; Ogawa, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    Critically ill patients invariably require nutritional intervention. Traditionally, enteral nutrition has not been widely employed in this patient population. This is due in part to the success of present-day parenteral nutrition, and to difficulties encountered with enteral feeding. Recent evidence has demonstrated that enteral is preferable to parenteral nutrition in terms of cost, complications, gut mucosal maintenance, and metabolic and immune function. Enterally administered nutritional support can and should be utilised as the preferred route of nourishment for the critically ill. The appropriate choice of access and formula, as well as a rational strategy for implementation, should improve the likelihood of success. This article describes the unique features of critical illness as they pertain to nutritional support, the benefits of enteral nutrition, and the obstacles to success, and offers suggestions which may improve the ability to provide nutrients adequately via the intestinal tract. PMID:8935598

  5. Predictability of First-Year University of Washington Performance for Foreign Undergraduates Entering Autumn 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    Presented are background and academic performance data for one cohort of foreign undergraduates who entered the University of Washington (UW) as new students, those 336 entrants in fall 1978. Initially, the total group was subdivided on the basis of whether English was the "mother tongue" of the student's home country (26 percent came from…

  6. [Relationship between first-time drug use and first offense among adolescents in conflict with the law].

    PubMed

    Martins, Mayra Costa; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze a possible relationship between first experience with drugs and delinquency among adolescents in conflict with the law. In 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted in facilities of the State Foundation for the Well-being of Minors (FEBEM), with a total occupancy of 312. The sample consisted of 150 male adolescents (48% of the total population) aged 12 to 21, confined for the first time in FEBEM detention centers for socio-educational rehabilitation in Sertãozinho and Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. An individual questionnaire with closed questions was used. Results showed high rates of first-time alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, occurring concomitantly around 12 years. The most common offenses were robbery (44.7%), followed by drug traffic (29.4%), and theft (9.3%), occurring around 13. The data show that drug use occurs prior to offenses. PMID:18461240

  7. Effects of Ration Levels on Growth and Reproduction from Larvae to First-Time Spawning in the Female Gambusia affinis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhiming; Zeng, Xiangling; Lin, Xiaotao; Xu, Zhongneng; Sun, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Somatic growth and reproduction were examined in individual laboratory-grown female Gambusia affinis fed with high (H), medium (M) and low (L) ration levels from birth to the first-time spawning. Results showed that the body length and weight, condition factor (CF), wet weight gain (WGw), specific growth rate in wet weight (SGRw) and ration levels in terms of energy (RLe) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time spawning. On the contrary, the food conversion efficiency in terms of energy (FCEe) increased significantly (p < 0.05) with the decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time sexual maturity. Furthermore, higher percentages of energy intake from food were allocated to somatic and gonad growth in M and L groups compared to the H group before sexual maturity; In addition, the time for first-time spawning in groups M and L was longer than that of the H group. As a result, the gonad-somatic index (GSI) and oocytes/embryos weight in M and L groups were similar to that of the H group, although the ovary weight and oocytes/embryos numbers were all lower than that of the H group. Also, similar growth performances were observed in second-generation offspring, which were produced by female parents fed with different ration levels. These findings suggest that the female G. affinis could produce a number of healthy offspring under conditions of food restriction, and that this could be achieved by increasing the energy allocated to gonad development, reducing fecundity and delaying spawning time. These life strategies ensured that G. affinis could survive and thrive in adverse environmental conditions and exhibit characteristics of invasive fish species. PMID:25768343

  8. Coordination and symmetry patterns during the drop vertical jump, 6-months after first-time lateral ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Patterson, Matthew R; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the adaptive movement and motor control patterns of a group with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task. Fifty-one participants with a 6-month history of first-time acute LAS injury and twenty controls performed a DVJ task. 3D kinematic and sagittal plane kinetic profiles were plotted for the lower extremity joints of both limbs for the drop jump (phase 1) and drop landing (phase 2) phases of the DVJ. Inter-limb symmetry and the rate of impact modulation (RIM) relative to bodyweight (BW) during both phases of the DVJ were also determined. LAS participants displayed bilateral increases in knee flexion and an increase in ankle inversion during phases 1 and 2, respectively. They also displayed reduced ankle plantar flexion on their injured limb during both phases of the DVJ (p < 0.05); increased inter-limb asymmetry of RIM was noted for both phases of the DVJ, while the moment-of-force profile exhibited bilaterally greater hip extensor dominance during phase 1. Participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS display some movement patterns consistent with those observed in chronic ankle instability populations during similar tasks. PMID:25940807

  9. The experience of childbrith in first-time mothers who received narcotic analgesics during the first stage of labour.

    PubMed

    Jantjes, L; Strümpher, J; Kotzé, W J

    2007-06-01

    This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch's method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115). Four themes with sub-themes emerged from the analysis. The participants reported on the physical experience of labour and described experiencing a lot of pain for which analgesics were given. They also described how these drugs dulled the pain but made them sleepy and unable to cooperate with the midwives. They described their emotional experiences, which included joy and happiness as well as anxiety, anger and despondence. They also reported that they were not sufficiently informed about labour and child-birth. In the last theme they described the methods they used to help them cope with labour including distracting techniques, leaning on a supportive person or praying. Guidelines to help midwives overcome these problems were developed. PMID:17703826

  10. Microbiome associations of therapeutic enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rajesh; Kellermayer, Richard

    2014-11-01

    One of the most effective forms of therapeutic enteral nutrition is designated as "exclusive enteral nutrition" (EEN). EEN constitutes the monotonous enteral delivery of complete liquid nutrition and has been most explored in the treatment Crohn's disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease. While EEN's mechanisms of action are not clearly understood, it has been shown to modify the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an important component of CD pathogenesis. The current literature on the intestinal microbiome in healthy individuals and CD patients is reviewed with respect to EEN therapy. Further investigations in this field are needed to better understand the role and potential for EEN in chronic human disorders. PMID:25421531

  11. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony CK

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feeding tubes has evolved due to development of new feeding tubes and endoscopic technology. Enteral feeding can be divided into methods that provide short-term and long-term access to the GIT. This review article focuses on the current range of methods of gaining access to the GIT to provide enteral feed. PMID:21160743

  12. Characteristics of the enteral hyperalimentation literature.

    PubMed

    Worthen, D B

    1979-01-01

    There is a bias in secondary literature sources, such as MEDLINE, that results in an information gap on enteral hyperalimentation. This gap accentuates the problem of locating papers on enteral hyperalimentation with medical foods, a problem shared by physicians, dietitians, pharmacists, and information scientists. A complete information package on enteral hyperalimentation with chemically defined elemental diets was identified and collected for use in determining the characteristics of that literature. Less than 20 journal titles contain over half of the published papers which are predominantly published in English from research done in the United States. As the medical community's interest in the enteral route for hyperalimentation escalates, so does its need for information in this vital patient support area. Any possible hindrance to obtaining access to published information should be recognized and challenged. PMID:119067

  13. Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that allow enteric E. coli to colonize and cause disease in the human host are examined and for two of the pathotypes that express a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) we discuss the complex interplay between translocated effectors and manipulation of host cell signaling pathways that occurs during infection. PMID:22555463

  14. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  15. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

  16. The enteric toxins of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Smedley, J G; Fisher, D J; Sayeed, S; Chakrabarti, G; McClane, B A

    2004-01-01

    The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of human and veterinary enteric disease largely because this bacterium can produce several toxins when present inside the gastrointestinal tract. The enteric toxins of C. perfringens share two common features: (1) they are all single polypeptides of modest (approximately 25-35 kDa) size, although lacking in sequence homology, and (2) they generally act by forming pores or channels in plasma membranes of host cells. These enteric toxins include C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which is responsible for the symptoms of a common human food poisoning and acts by forming pores after interacting with intestinal tight junction proteins. Two other C. perfringens enteric toxins, epsilon-toxin (a bioterrorism select agent) and beta-toxin, cause veterinary enterotoxemias when absorbed from the intestines; beta- and epsilon-toxins then apparently act by forming oligomeric pores in intestinal or extra-intestinal target tissues. The action of a newly discovered C. perfringens enteric toxin, beta2 toxin, has not yet been defined but precedent suggests it might also be a pore-former. Experience with other clostridial toxins certainly warrants continued research on these C. perfringens enteric toxins to develop their potential as therapeutic agents and tools for cellular biology. PMID:15517462

  17. Factors associated with the success of first-time African American freshmen taking introductory science lecture courses at a private HBCU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kendra Leigh

    This study had four purposes: (1) to investigate the relationship between performance in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses and their accompanying laboratory courses, (2) to investigate the relationship between performance in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses and a student's gender, (3) to investigate the relationship between performance in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses and a student's major, and (4) to investigate the relationship between performance in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses and a student's ACT scores. The sample consisted of 195 first--time freshmen who enrolled in and completed an introductory biology or an introductory chemistry lecture and laboratory courses during the fall semesters of 2007-2012. Of the 195 students, 61 were enrolled in introductory chemistry and 134 were enrolled in introductory biology courses. Logistic regression, via the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), was utilized to analyze several variables as they related to success in the lecture courses. Data were extracted from the university's student information system (BANNER), and analyses were conducted on biology and chemistry separately. The dependent variable for this study was a dichotomous variable for success and nonsuccess in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture course. The independent variables analyzed were student's gender, major, final grade in an accompanying biology or chemistry laboratory course, and ACT test scores (composite, mathematics, and science). Results indicate that concurrent enrollment in a biology laboratory course increased the likelihood of success by 15.64 times in the lecture course. Gender was found to not be a significant predictor of success for either introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses. STEM majors were 9.6 times more likely to be successful than non-STEM majors in introductory chemistry lecture course. It was also found that the higher the given ACT score (composite, science, mathematics), the higher the rate of success (between a 1.19-1.44 odds increase for every one point increase in ACT score) in both introductory biology and introductory chemistry lecture courses.

  18. "Enter-educate." Reaching youth with messages of sexual responsibility.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G

    1995-01-01

    Messages about sexual relationships, the prevention of pregnancy and disease, education, the empowerment of women, and concern for the environment are increasingly being disseminated to audiences of all ages through the use of entertainment. Ideas are presented in this Enter-Educate approach through popular, enjoyable entertainment in the form of songs, dramas, soap operas, variety shows, and other folk media. This approach can be adapted to be acceptable and effective in all cultures. Yafaman is one such example. It is a drama written and acted by high school students in Cote d'Ivoire which depicts the story of a school girl who learns that her older, married boyfriend is no longer interested in her when she becomes pregnant. After winning the annual national drama contest, Yafaman was televised and broadcast widely in schools and on national networks in francophone Africa. The video has also been dubbed in English for wider use. Popular music has delivered effective messages of sexual responsibility to young adults in Latin America and the Philippines. The US Agency for International Development-funded Population Communication Services project at the Johns Hopkins University supports 36 major Enter-Educate television series and specials, nine radio dramas, three songs, and nine music videos. Other organizations are expanding or experimenting with work in this area. The authors discuss the theoretical basis for Enter-Educate projects and explain that the approach works because it is pervasive, popular, personal, passionate, persuasive, practical, profitable, and proven effective. PMID:12319369

  19. Differences in parenting stress between married and single first time mothers at six to eight weeks after birth.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Debra; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2005-01-01

    Parenting stress has been shown to affect relationships between mothers and their infants. Single mothers may experience more parenting stress due to exposure to stressors that are unique to their environment. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine the differences between married and single first-time mothers on the Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF Abidin, 1995). A convenience sample of 22 single and 52 married first-time mothers were recruited from postpartum units in two large metropolitan hospitals in the southeastern United States. During hospitalization, participants completed a demographic sheet and at six weeks postpartum, were mailed the PSI/SF. T-tests were assessed for differences between mean scores. Study findings indicate significant differences between single and married first-time mothers on the Parental Distress subscale (t = -3.468, p = .001), the Difficult Child subscale (t = -2.032, p = .046), and Defensive Responding subscale (t = -3.720, p = .000), with single mothers consistently scoring higher than married mothers; however, there was not a significant statistical difference between mothers on the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale (t = -1.290, p = .201). Overall, single mothers scored higher on the Total Parenting Stress scores of the PSI/SF than married mothers (t = -2.858, p = .005), suggesting that single women experience more stress as a new mother than married new mothers. It is important to understand the specific stressors of new, single mothers and to develop nursing interventions that decrease parenting stress in single mothers. PMID:16251160

  20. Apparent inferiority of first-time breeders in the kittiwake: The role of heterogeneity among age classes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cam, E.; Monnat, J.-Y.

    2000-01-01

    1. Many studies have provided evidence that first-time breeders have a lower survival, a lower probability of success, or of breeding, in the following year. Hypotheses based on reproductive costs have often been proposed to explain this. However, because of the intrinsic relationship between age and experience, the apparent inferiority of first-time breeders at the population level may result from selection, and experience may not influence performance within each individual. In this paper we address the question of phenotypic correlations between fitness components. This addresses differences in individual quality, a prerequisite for a selection process to occur. We also test the hypothesis of an influence of experience on these components while taking age and reproductive success into account: two factors likely to play a key role in a selection process. 2. Using data from a long-term study on the kittiwake, we found that first-time breeders have a lower probability of success, a lower survival and a lower probability of breeding in the next year than experienced breeders. However, neither experienced nor inexperienced breeders have a lower survival or a lower probability of breeding in the following year than birds that skipped a breeding opportunity. This suggests heterogeneity in quality among individuals. 3. Failed birds have a lower survival and a lower probability of breeding in the following year regardless of experience. This can be interpreted in the light of the selection hypothesis. The inferiority of inexperienced breeders may be linked to a higher proportion of lower-quality individuals in younger age classes. When age and breeding success are controlled for, there is no evidence of an influence of experience on survival or future breeding probability. 4. Using data from individuals whose reproductive life lasted the same number of years, we investigated the influence of experience on reproductive performance within individuals. There is no strong evidence that a process operating within individuals explains the improvement in performance observed at the population level.

  1. A 1-Year Study on the Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Laetitia; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Urbès, Florence; Langlet, Jérémie

    2016-03-01

    Human enteric viruses occur in high concentrations in wastewater and can contaminate receiving environmental waters. Due to the lack of data on the prevalence of enteric viruses in New Caledonia, the presence and the concentrations of enteric viruses in wastewater and seawater were determined. Untreated wastewater and seawater samples were collected monthly for 1 year from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and from the WWTP's outlet, located directly on a popular recreational beach. Samples were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II (NoV GI and GII), astroviruses (AsV), sapoviruses (SaV), enteroviruses (EV), hepatitis A viruses (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). To support these data, faecal samples from cases of gastroenteritis were tested for the first time for NoV and detected in the population. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, HAdV and HPyV were detected in all wastewaters, RoV in 75 % and AsV in 67 %. HAV were not detected in wastewater. Overall, 92 % of seawater samples were positive for at least one virus. HPyV were detected most frequently in 92 % of samples and at concentrations up to 7.7 × 10(3) genome copies/L. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, RoV and HAdV were found in 33, 66, 41, 33, 16 and 66 % of seawater samples, respectively. AsV were not detected in seawater. This study reports for the first time the presence of NoV and other enteric viruses in New Caledonia and highlights the year-round presence of enteric viruses in the seawater of a popular beach. PMID:26670603

  2. The Scope of Entering Freshman Drug Use at the University of South Carolina. A Report of the Annual Entering Freshmen Drug Survey Conducted During Summer Orientation, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Paul P.; Bucy, Eileen McGinity

    The 1975 Entering Freshmen Drug Survey was administered during alternate weeks at Summer Orientation to obtain a representative sample. A false drug (derbisol) was included in the questionnaire as a validity check. A total of 848 students (28 percent of the freshman class) was surveyed. The data indicated a stabilization of drug usage for most…

  3. Limited English Proficient Students: Exit Rates for 2008-09 Cohort. Data Trends. D&A Report No. 13.01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebeler, Amy; Lenard, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Exit rates from Limited English Proficiency (LEP) for students who enter the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) as LEP students vary by when students enter WCPSS (based on students entering in kindergarten, grade 6 or 7, or grade 9). Based on our 2008-09 cohorts, students entering in grades 6 or 7 were most likely to exit LEP status after…

  4. Arterio-enteric fistula in failed enteric-drained pancreas transplants: an impending danger.

    PubMed

    Villa, Manuel; Siskind, Eric; Jaimes, Natalia; Eckstein, Donna; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sachdeva, Mala; Jhaveri, Kenar; Calderon, Kellie; Greben, Craig; Sharan, Lauren; Coppa, Gene; Krishnasastry, Kambhampaty; Molmenti, Ernesto; Nicastro, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Enteric drainage is the preferred method of exocrine diversion in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation. Because of improvements in immunosuppression, enteric drainage has become the preferred method of pancreas transplantation in general. Although associated with less potential complications than bladder-drained pancreas, potentially lethal arterio-enteric fistulas in the setting of nonfunctioning allografts represent a constant threat. We herein present a case report, a review of the literature, and a call for caution. PMID:24627620

  5. Arterio-Enteric Fistula in Failed Enteric-Drained Pancreas Transplants: An Impending Danger

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Manuel; Siskind, Eric; Jaimes, Natalia; Eckstein, Donna; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sachdeva, Mala; Jhaveri, Kenar; Calderon, Kellie; Greben, Craig; Sharan, Lauren; Coppa, Gene; Krishnasastry, Kambhampaty; Molmenti, Ernesto; Nicastro, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Enteric drainage is the preferred method of exocrine diversion in simultaneous kidney–pancreas transplantation. Because of improvements in immunosuppression, enteric drainage has become the preferred method of pancreas transplantation in general. Although associated with less potential complications than bladder-drained pancreas, potentially lethal arterio-enteric fistulas in the setting of nonfunctioning allografts represent a constant threat. We herein present a case report, a review of the literature, and a call for caution. PMID:24627620

  6. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    PubMed

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication. PMID:23871299

  7. Positive posttraumatic stress disorder screens among first-time medical cannabis patients: prevalence and association with other substance use.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kleinberg, Felicia; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing for the use of medical cannabis for those individuals with qualifying medical conditions, which include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for a growing number of states. Little information is available regarding PTSD among medical cannabis patients. This study seeks to provide initial data on this topic by examining the prevalence and correlates of positive PTSD screens among a sample of patients seeking medical cannabis certification for the first time (n=186). Twenty-three percent (42/186; 95% confidence interval [CI] =17%-29%) of the patients in the study sample screened positive for PTSD. Moreover, the group that screened positive for PTSD had higher percentages of lifetime prescription opioid, cocaine, prescription sedative, and street opioid use, as well as a higher percentage of recent prescription sedative use, than the group that screened negative for PTSD. These findings highlight the relatively common use of other substances among medical cannabis patients with significant PTSD symptoms, even when compared with other patients seeking medical cannabis for the first time. As a growing number of states include PTSD among the list of qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis, additional research is needed to better characterize the longitudinal relationship between medical cannabis use and PTSD symptoms. PMID:24930048

  8. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers. PMID:26441808

  9. Single-leg drop landing movement strategies 6 months following first-time acute lateral ankle sprain injury.

    PubMed

    Doherty, C; Bleakley, C; Hertel, J; Caulfield, B; Ryan, J; Delahunt, E

    2015-12-01

    No research exists predicating a link between acute ankle sprain injury-affiliated movement patterns and those of chronic ankle instability (CAI) populations. The aim of the current study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of participants, 6 months after they sustained a first-time acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury to establish this link. Fifty-seven participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS and 20 noninjured participants completed a single-leg drop landing task on both limbs. Three-dimensional kinematic (angular displacement) and sagittal plane kinetic (moment of force) data were acquired for the joints of the lower extremity, from 200 ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200 ms post-IC. Individual joint stiffnesses and the peak magnitude of the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) were also computed. LAS participants displayed increases in hip flexion and ankle inversion on their injured limb (P < 0.05); this coincided with a reduction in the net flexion-extension moment at the hip joint, with an increase in its stiffness (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the magnitude of the peak vertical GRF for either limb compared with controls. These results demonstrate that altered movement strategies persist in participants, 6 months following acute LAS, which may precipitate the onset of CAI. PMID:25545409

  10. First-time electrical characterization of nanotubular ZrO2 films for micro-solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Birss, Viola I

    2015-05-14

    In this work, anodically grown ZrO2 nanotubes (NTs) are examined for the first time for use in micro solid oxide fuel cell (μ-SOFC) applications. This is due to their high surface area to volume ratio and useful nanoscale morphological features (e.g., 5-100 nm thick NT bases that could serve as the electrolyte layer). To understand their full potential for these applications, the determination of their electrical properties is necessary. Therefore, ZrO2 NTs, in the form of a uniform and crack-free film, were obtained by the two-step anodization of Zr foil in aqueous solutions. The films exhibited excellent adhesion to the Zr substrate, which facilitated impedance spectroscopy analyses, used for the first time to obtain the resistivity of the nanotubular array separately from the contact resistances. This gave a conductivity of the ZrO2 NTs of 1.6 × 10(-6) S cm(-1) at 600 °C in N2, approximately twice that reported for dense ZrO2 films measured at the same temperature in air, and also a very reasonable activation energy of 0.90 eV in the 400-600 °C temperature range. PMID:25877824

  11. First-time electrical characterization of nanotubular ZrO2 films for micro-solid oxide fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Birss, Viola I.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, anodically grown ZrO2 nanotubes (NTs) are examined for the first time for use in micro solid oxide fuel cell (μ-SOFC) applications. This is due to their high surface area to volume ratio and useful nanoscale morphological features (e.g., 5-100 nm thick NT bases that could serve as the electrolyte layer). To understand their full potential for these applications, the determination of their electrical properties is necessary. Therefore, ZrO2 NTs, in the form of a uniform and crack-free film, were obtained by the two-step anodization of Zr foil in aqueous solutions. The films exhibited excellent adhesion to the Zr substrate, which facilitated impedance spectroscopy analyses, used for the first time to obtain the resistivity of the nanotubular array separately from the contact resistances. This gave a conductivity of the ZrO2 NTs of 1.6 × 10-6 S cm-1 at 600 °C in N2, approximately twice that reported for dense ZrO2 films measured at the same temperature in air, and also a very reasonable activation energy of 0.90 eV in the 400-600 °C temperature range.

  12. Identification of functional parameters for the classification of older female fallers and prediction of 'first-time' fallers.

    PubMed

    König, N; Taylor, W R; Armbrecht, G; Dietzel, R; Singh, N B

    2014-08-01

    Falls remain a challenge for ageing societies. Strong evidence indicates that a previous fall is the strongest single screening indicator for a subsequent fall and the need for assessing fall risk without accounting for fall history is therefore imperative. Testing in three functional domains (using a total 92 measures) were completed in 84 older women (60-85 years of age), including muscular control, standing balance, and mean and variability of gait. Participants were retrospectively classified as fallers (n = 38) or non-fallers (n = 42) and additionally in a prospective manner to identify first-time fallers (FTFs) (n = 6) within a 12-month follow-up period. Principal component analysis revealed that seven components derived from the 92 functional measures are sufficient to depict the spectrum of functional performance. Inclusion of only three components, related to mean and temporal variability of walking, allowed classification of fallers and non-fallers with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate that FTFs show a tendency towards the performance of fallers, even before their first fall occurs. This study suggests that temporal variability and mean spatial parameters of gait are the only functional components among the 92 measures tested that differentiate fallers from non-fallers, and could therefore show efficacy in clinical screening programmes for assessing risk of first-time falling. PMID:24898021

  13. Skin blood flow as the first time derivative of the temperature: spectral approach to the blood flow estimation in hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagaidachnyi, A. A.; Usanov, D. A.; Skripal, A. V.; Fomin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Application of thermometry as a method of blood flow estimation in hands is limited by the differences in waveform of the skin temperature and blood flow oscillations. In addition, there is the delay time between simultaneously registered blood flow and temperature signals. We offer the method of blood flow estimation in hands based on the analysis of skin temperature dynamics. Simplification of the Shitzer's temperature dynamics model in hands allowed us to express the relation between the temperature and blood flow oscillations. As it turns out, within using model the skin blood flow is proportionally to the first time derivative of the skin temperature, in other words, the blood flow oscillations determine the rate of skin temperature alterations. We also derived relation between spectral components of the blood flow and temperature oscillations. To extract spectrum of the blood flow oscillations from temperature spectrum it is necessary using frequency dependent multiplication factor and time shift of each of temperature spectral component. In this study the skin temperature was registered by infrared camera and blood flow was estimated by photoplethysmography. First time derivation of the temperature increases correlation between processed signal and blood flow oscillations from ~0.3 to ~0.7 on average. Thus, derived relations between temperature and blood flow in fingertips provide the basis for the application of thermometry in the field of analysis of low-frequency peripheral blood flow oscillations.

  14. Psychological ill-being experienced by first-time mothers and their partners in pregnancy after abortion: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Holmlund, Susanna; Kaljonen, Anne; Junttila, Niina; Räihä, Hannele; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi

    2014-12-01

    The psychological effects of abortion have been much discussed lately, with recently published studies indicating that induced abortion (IA) may, contrary to the general consensus, be contributing to psychological symptoms post-abortion. Using a cohort of first-time mothers, we assessed the likelihood of them experiencing psychological ill-being at the midpoint of their pregnancy, depending on their IA history. We also examined the psychological symptoms of their partners, the hypothesis being that ill-being in IA-experienced mothers might reflect onto their partners. Altogether 680 future first-time mothers (9.8% of whom had an IA history) and their partners were selected. Most mothers attended their 16 check-ups at maternity health clinics (MHC), where the family's physical and emotional well-being were checked. Several internationally validated questionnaires, which gauged psychological ill-being, were filled in at the 20th week of pregnancy. There were no significant differences between the study and the control group in terms of psychological ill-being during the pregnancy. The contribution of prior IA to psychological ill-being during the next pregnancy seems to be minimal. The availability of IA procedures, intensive MHC services in Finland, as well as this society's neutral attitude towards IA, may be among the reasons why the results are so positive for mothers who have previously undergone one or more IAs. PMID:25403546

  15. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for the Treatment of First-Time Spontaneous Pneumothorax versus Conservative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mourgi, Majed; Alshehri, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim of the work Recent studies have shown that video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) is safe and beneficial as first time treatment for patients presenting with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). In this study we will compare the outcome of patients presenting with first time PSP treated by VATS with those treated conservatively. Material and methods This was a prospective double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted at our hospital, Forty one patients, presented to the hospital with first attack PSP from January 2010 to January 2013, were randomized to be treated by chest tube drainage (conservative group, group 1) or by primary video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS group, group 2). Outcomes were; duration of intercostal tube drainage, mean hospital stay, and recurrence rates of pneumothorax during the period of follow up. Results There was no significant difference in both groups regarding demographic data. The mean durations of removal of intercostal tube and hospital stay were significantly higher in conservative group than in VATS group. The recurrence rate in conservative group was 40.9% versus 0% in VATS group (highly significant). Conclusions Initial VATS is considered an efficient treatment modality for PSP as it has a shorter hospital stay and lower recurrence than conservative treatment, which if occurs, requires re-hospitalization with needs for VATS or surgery. PMID:26715922

  16. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent–child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers. PMID:26441808

  17. The Development and Validation of an Actuarial Risk Assessment Tool for the Prediction of First-Time Offending.

    PubMed

    Assink, Mark; van der Put, Claudia E; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-05-01

    For prevention purposes, it is important that police officers can estimate the risk for delinquency among juveniles who were involved in a criminal offense, but not in the role of a suspect. In the present study, the Youth Actuarial Risk Assessment Tool for First-Time Offending (Y-ARAT-FO) was developed based solely on police records with the aim to enable Dutch police officers to predict the risk for first-time offending. For the construction of this initial screening instrument, an Exhaustive Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (Exhaustive CHAID) analysis was performed on a data set that was retrieved from the Dutch police system. The Y-ARAT-FO was developed on a sample of 1,368 juveniles and validated on a different sample of 886 juveniles showing moderate predictive accuracy in the validation sample (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = .728). The predictive accuracy of the Y-ARAT-FO was considered sufficient to justify its use as an initial screening instrument by the Dutch police. PMID:25395478

  18. The Impact of the Proposed Changes for the DSM-5 on Diagnoses of First-time DUI/DWI Offenders.

    PubMed

    Baley, John W; Hoffman, Norman G

    2015-01-01

    Driving while impaired (DWI) is a frequently committed crime with enormous individual and social costs. The type of disposition and/or treatment appropriate for an individual offender is often determined, in part, by diagnostic criteria based on the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistics Manual. The DSM-5 significantly modified these criteria by eliminating legal problems as a criterion and dropping the categories of abuse and dependence. A brief substance abuse focused interview was conducted with 658 consecutive first-time DUI offenders who were arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol. Most were white, well-educated males. Contingency analyses were utilized to compare the current with the new diagnostic criteria based on algorithms for both diagnostic formulations. The major change observed when moving from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 criteria was that, approximately 54% of first-time DUI/DWI offenders would no longer meet diagnostic criteria based on the DSM-5. Of the nearly 17% who met dependence criteria, the majority were in the severe designation of the DSM-5. PMID:26646360

  19. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others’ judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

  20. Early parenting program as intervention strategy for emotional distress in first-time mothers: a propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Miwako; Ishigami, Hideaki; Tokimoto, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Tango, Ryoko

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a single session intervention designed to reduce emotional distress in first-time mothers. We held a parenting class for first-time mothers who had given birth at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The program of the class consists of lectures on infant care and group discussion, which is a common form of intervention in Japan. The effectiveness of intervention is assessed according to differences in emotional distress experienced by class participants and nonparticipants, and analyzed by the use of a propensity score method to avoid self-selection bias. In order to be more confident about our results, we employ several variations of this method. Results from statistical analysis show that although the effectiveness of the intervention was limited, it was able to alleviate subjects' loss of self-confidence as mothers. Because this outcome shows a good degree of consistency across methods, it can be considered robust. Moreover, it is roughly consistent with previous studies. Effectiveness can probably be increased by developing a program that improves upon the intervention. PMID:22865390

  1. Effects of Remediation on Academic Success of First-Time-in-College Female African Americans in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Francois, Francisse

    2013-01-01

    For decades, remedial education has been extensively used in higher education and studied as an effective tool to help overcome the challenge of student unpreparedness. While previous studies on remedial education addressed the academic failure of students, this study focuses on academic success of African American females. This causal-comparative

  2. Effects of Remediation on Academic Success of First-Time-in-College Female African Americans in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Francois, Francisse

    2013-01-01

    For decades, remedial education has been extensively used in higher education and studied as an effective tool to help overcome the challenge of student unpreparedness. While previous studies on remedial education addressed the academic failure of students, this study focuses on academic success of African American females. This causal-comparative…

  3. Microbiome Associations of Therapeutic Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rajesh; Kellermayer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    One of the most effective forms of therapeutic enteral nutrition is designated as “exclusive enteral nutrition” (EEN). EEN constitutes the monotonous enteral delivery of complete liquid nutrition and has been most explored in the treatment Crohn’s disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease. While EEN’s mechanisms of action are not clearly understood, it has been shown to modify the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an important component of CD pathogenesis. The current literature on the intestinal microbiome in healthy individuals and CD patients is reviewed with respect to EEN therapy. Further investigations in this field are needed to better understand the role and potential for EEN in chronic human disorders. PMID:25421531

  4. Quinolone and Cephalosporin Resistance in Enteric Fever

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini Rajinder; Nair, Deepthi

    2010-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ciprofloxacin resistance has now become a norm in the Indian subcontinent. Novel molecular substitutions may become frequent in future owing to selective pressures exerted by the irrational use of ciprofloxacin in human and veterinary therapeutics, in a population endemic with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, tigecycline and penems. The first-line antimicrobials ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole need to be rolled back. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns for therapeutic reappraisal and for novel-drug targets. This review explores the antimicrobial resistance and its molecular mechanisms, as well as novel drugs in the therapy of enteric fever. PMID:20927288

  5. The spectrum of radiation enteritis: surgical considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, G.K.; Grodsinsky, C.; Allen, H.

    1983-09-01

    Radiation therapy, often used to treat gynecologic and urologic pelvic malignancies, has varying, adverse effects on the bowel. Radiation enteritis may occur from one month to 20 years after irradiation, and disabling symptoms may require surgery in 10 to 20 per cent of patients. From our experience with 20 patients who required surgery for radiation enteritis and who were followed for up to 20 years, we were able to identify three clinical groups. Patients in the first group need only medical treatment for their symptoms, and observation, whereas patients in the second group may present with acute, debilitating, life-threatening symptoms that may require emergency surgery. Patients in the third group have a long-standing history of intermittent bowel obstruction and/or enteric fistulas that are best treated with adequate nutritional support followed by timely surgical intervention.

  6. Enteric glial cells have specific immunosuppressive properties.

    PubMed

    Kermarrec, Laetitia; Durand, Tony; Neunlist, Michel; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle

    2016-06-15

    Enteric glial cells (EGC) have trophic and neuroregulatory functions in the enteric nervous system, but whether they exert a direct effect on immune cells is unknown. Here, we used co-cultures to show that human EGC can inhibit the proliferation of activated T lymphocytes. Interestingly, EGC from Crohn's patients were effective at one EGC for two T cells whereas EGC from control patients required a ratio of 1:1. These data suggest that EGC contribute to local immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal wall. They also raise the possibility that EGC have particular immunosuppressive properties in inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease. PMID:27235353

  7. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach; many of them responded to one stimulus modality only. Their proportions and the basic properties were similar to MEN previously identified by us in other intestinal region and species. Unlike in the intestine, the responsiveness of some gastric MEN is enhanced by extrinsic TRPV1 expressing visceral afferents. PMID:26578888

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs were shown to be beneficial to first-time hearing aid users across a range of quantitative and qualitative measures. This study provides evidence to suggest that the RLOs may provide valuable learning and educational support for first-time hearing aid users and could be used to supplement clinical rehabilitation practice. PMID:26565785

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of First-Time Methadone Maintenance Therapy Across Northern, Rural, and Urban Regions of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Eibl, Joseph K.; Gomes, Tara; Martins, Diana; Camacho, Ximena; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Dhalla, Irfan A.; Marsh, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective was to determine the impact that a patient's geographic status has on the efficacy of first-time methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) retention. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study using administrative health care databases for patients who commenced methadone therapy between 2003 and 2012. Patients were stratified on the basis of their location of residence into 1 of 4 groups—Southern Urban, Southern Rural, Northern Urban, or Northern Rural. The primary outcome was continuous retention in treatment, defined as 1 year of uninterrupted therapy on the basis of prescription refill data. Mortality was measured as a secondary outcome. Results: We identified 17,211 patients initiating first-time MMT during this 10-year period. Nearly half of patients initiating therapy in northern regions completed 1 year of treatment (48.9%; N = 258 and 47.0%; N = 761 in Northern Rural and Urban regions, respectively), whereas lower rates of 40.6% (N = 410) and 39.3% (N = 5,518) occurred in Southern Rural and Urban regions, respectively. Patients residing in Northern Rural and Northern Urban regions were 31% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09%–1.58%] and 14% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02%–1.27%] more likely to be retained in treatment compared with those residing in Southern Urban regions. There was no significant difference in treatment retention between those residing in Southern Rural and Southern Urban regions. A mortality rate of 3% was observed within 1 year of patients initiating treatment, with patients in the Southern Rural region having the highest rate (4.85%). Conclusions: Our study identified regional differences in retention rates and mortality of first-time MMT. These findings may relate to geographic isolation and limited methadone program availability experienced in northern regions. We interpret the data to suggest that patients who have reduced access to treatment experience higher retention rates when they are able to access therapy. PMID:26484843

  10. Investigating turkey enteric picornavirus and its association with enteric disease in poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous research into the dynamic viral community in the turkey gastrointestinal tract revealed a number of novel enteric viruses. Of particular note in this previous metagenomic investigation was the observation of a number of novel avian enteric picornaviruses, in addition to numerous other ...

  11. AZW-LA-II White Paint on Swift: Lessons Learned from First Time Flying on Spacecraft Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint was previously flown as a flight experiment, and is being flown as a calorimeter. However it has never been flown as a thermal coating of radiators on an operational spacecraft before. This paint has the lowest solar absorptance among all white paints, and a very small degradation. Its cost is many times more expensive than white paints that have a higher solar absorptance. To meet the thermal requirements of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) focal plane camera assembly (FPCA) charged coupled device (CCD), AZW-LA-II is used as the thermal coating for the BAT and XRT radiators. This paper presents the lessons learned from flying this low solar absorptance white paint as a thermal coating of radiators on an operational spacecraft for the first time.

  12. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  13. Does Donating Blood for the First Time During a National Emergency Create a Better Commitment to Donating Again?

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Sheri; Lewalski, Eva A.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Hagar, Yolanda; Beckett, Laurel; Janatpour, Kim A.; Holland, Paul V.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives Emergency situations often elicit a generous response from the public. This occurred after attacks on the US on September 11, 2001 when many new blood donors lined up to donate. This study was performed to compare return rates for first time donors (FTD) after September 11th, 2001 to FTD during a comparable period in 2000. Materials and Methods 3315 allogeneic whole blood donations from FTD at a regional blood center were collected between September 11th and 30th, 2001. Subsequent donations by the FTD before March 31, 2002 were reviewed. This (test) group was compared to 1279 FTD(control group) donating during the same time period in September 2000 and to their return rate in the subsequent six months. Results Following September 11, 2001, 1087/3315 (32.8%) FTD returned by March 31, 2002. This return rate was similar to the control group (427/1279 (33.4%)). The deferral rate during the donor screening process for the control group was significantly higher than the deferral rate for the September 1130, 2001 group (p < 0.01). The odds of an individual FTD returning increased with age, and the chance of a female donor returning was 1.13 times higher than a male (p = 0.06). There was a carryover effect after Sept. 11, 2001 too. Conclusion A national emergency, September 11, 2001, inspired people to donate blood for the first time. However, the proportion of return donations amongst them was not increased. Females and males in certain age groups were more likely to become repeat donors due to the residual effect of September 11, 2001. Additional efforts are needed to retain eligible FTD in donor pools. PMID:20002621

  14. Social Network Formation of Entering College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Harold I.

    The examination of the functioning of social networks has been used to understand how individual and environmental characteristics can mediate the availability of social support. To examine the relationship between personal attributes, psychosocial environmental attributes, and the interaction between these variables, 92 entering college freshmen…

  15. Enteric Bacterial Growth Rates in River Water

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Charles W.

    1972-01-01

    Enteric bacteria, including stocked strains of pathogenic species and organisms naturally present in the stream, were capable of growth in a chemostat with autoclaved river water taken 750 m below a sewage outfall. Maximal specific growth rates for all organisms occurred at 30 C, whereas culture generation times ranged between 33.3 and 116 hr. Of the six laboratory strains of enteric species used, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes grew at generation times of 34.5 and 33.3 hr, respectively, while the remaining Proteus, Arizona, Salmonella, and Shigella spp. reproduced at a rate two to three times slower than the coliforms. Little or no growth occurred in the water at incubation temperatures of 20 and 5 C, and death was observed for Salmonella senftenberg at 20 and 5 C and for E. aerogenes and Proteus rettgeri at 5 C. When enteric bacteria naturally present in the river water were employed in similar experiments, coliform bacteria demonstrated a generation time of approximately 116 hr, whereas fecal coliforms failed to grow. Growth of the bacteria from the river demonstrated a periodicity of approximately 100 hr, which suggests that much of the growth of these organisms in the chemostat may be on the glass surfaces. This phenomenon, however, was not observed with any of the stocked enteric species. Neither the stock cultures nor the aquatic strains were capable of growth in autoclaved river water taken above the sewage outfall at the three temperatures tested. PMID:4561100

  16. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.

  17. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  18. Early treatment of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M D; Schorling, J B; Barrett, L J; Dudley, S M; Orgel, I; Koch, W C; Shields, D S; Thorson, S M; Lohr, J A; Guerrant, R L

    1989-01-01

    The bacteriologic and clinical effects of early antibiotic treatment of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis were studied. Erythromycin rapidly eliminated C. jejuni from stools, whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole did not. Despite its bacteriologic effectiveness, erythromycin did not reduce the duration or severity of diarrhea, abdominal pain, or other symptoms. PMID:2818711

  19. Student Support Services for the Underprepared Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmer, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The needs of students who enter college underprepared transcend academic preparation. These students require an array of student services that will support them in their quest to achieve the academic and personal skills necessary for college-level coursework and academic success. The model the author proposes in this article is not unique, but it…

  20. Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A elaborate distinct systemic metabolite signatures during enteric fever

    PubMed Central

    Näsström, Elin; Vu Thieu, Nga Tran; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Voong Vinh, Phat; Ha Thanh, Tuyen; Johansson, Anders; Arjyal, Amit; Thwaites, Guy; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen; Antti, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The host–pathogen interactions induced by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A during enteric fever are poorly understood. This knowledge gap, and the human restricted nature of these bacteria, limit our understanding of the disease and impede the development of new diagnostic approaches. To investigate metabolite signals associated with enteric fever we performed two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) on plasma from patients with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections and asymptomatic controls, identifying 695 individual metabolite peaks. Applying supervised pattern recognition, we found highly significant and reproducible metabolite profiles separating S. Typhi cases, S. Paratyphi A cases, and controls, calculating that a combination of six metabolites could accurately define the etiological agent. For the first time we show that reproducible and serovar specific systemic biomarkers can be detected during enteric fever. Our work defines several biologically plausible metabolites that can be used to detect enteric fever, and unlocks the potential of this method in diagnosing other systemic bacterial infections. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03100.001 PMID:24902583

  1. The Relationship among Wellness, Psychological Distress, and Social Desirability of Entering Master's-Level Counselor Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, E. H. "Mike", III; Young, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Two-hundred and four entering master's-level counseling students from 9 programs in 5 states participated in a study testing the only counseling-based wellness assessment measure, the Five Factor Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (J. E. Myers, R. M. Luecht, & T. J. Sweeney, 2004), for its relationship to 2 other constructs: psychological distress…

  2. The Difficult Transition? Teaching, Research, Service: Examining the Preparedness of Communication Faculty Entering the Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Toni Selena; Hickerson, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a survey of graduate students seeking employment, examines the categories and levels of preparedness of new professors/instructors as they enter academe. Preparedness was examined in several ways--specifically knowledge about higher education requirements and their preparation for teaching, advising, and service in the field…

  3. Women on Their Way Survival Kit: A Guide for the Woman Entering College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Patricia A.; Valente, Patricia L.

    Information and suggestions are presented in this guide to assist the re-entering female student in her adjustment to college. First, the guide looks at reasons for attending college and provides an overview of some of the barriers and problems to be overcome by a woman with a family who has been away from school for some time. Some of the…

  4. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting....

  5. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting....

  6. [Enteral feeding. Principles and techniques, nutritive solutions].

    PubMed

    Gaconnet, N; Bastien, C; Chopin, A; Debry, G

    1991-03-11

    A great number of nutritional solutions can be found owing to the technical progress of enteral nutrition and the diversity of available nutritive solutions. In this paper are described the various materials, their advantages and disadvantages together with the available nutritive solutions. The interests of new methods of gastrostomy by endoscopy and the progress due to the use of nutritive pumps are pointed out. Physicians can now choose the type of feeding adapted to specific nutrients requirements of the patients. They can also vary it in relation to its tolerance and the evolution of nutritional situation. Practice of enteral nutrition needs a very accurate knowledge of material, nutritive solutions and technical uses. They also have to be in agreement with the strict obligations of food hygiene. PMID:1902973

  7. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  8. Spectrum of Surgical Presentation of Eosinophilic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Spoorthy Sudhakar; Shetty, Charan Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder presenting mostly with diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, weight loss, and hypersensitivity. Surgical manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders depends on the site and extent of involvement. In our case series of four patients two of them had ileocaecal masses with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction with past history of intake of antitubercular drugs for 9 months. On histopathological examination both of them proved to have eosinophilic enterocolitis. Thus it is a clinical dilemma to differentiate between these two conditions. The other two patients presented as acute abdomen with perforation and intussusception. All four patients were treated surgically. Postoperatively they recovered well with no symptoms on one year follow-up. In Indian setup tuberculosis being rampant there may be under reporting or wrongly diagnosed cases of eosinophilic enteritis. Thus a strong clinical suspicion and awareness of this clinical entity are essential among surgical community. PMID:25960910

  9. Proceedings: Telephone lines entering power substations

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, G.; Mankoff, L.

    1988-08-01

    The EPRI workshop on ''Telephone Circuits Entering Substations'' was designed for technology interchange. It also served to evaluate the need for possible joint research by the telephone companies and the electric utilities related to requirements and methods for protection of telephone circuits entering power substations. Attendance at the meeting totalled 57, with a ratio of electric utility to telephone personnel about two to one. Papers were presented on typical applications and practices, modeling and measurement of ground potential rise, a review of the IEEE tutorial on substation grounding design practices, and new, available protective equipments. The ensuing discussions involved disagreements, in some cases, between measured ground potential differences and values derived by modeling. The application of probabilistic and risk analysis techniques, and new technology including semiconducting and non-linear devices for isolating or reducing overvoltages on telephone circuits resulting from ground faults, switching surges or lightning strikes were also included.

  10. [Enteral nutrition: drug administration via feeding tube].

    PubMed

    Behnken, I; Gaschott, T; Stein, J

    2005-11-01

    Enteral nutrition support via a feeding tube is a preferred and broadly applied way of artificial nutrition in patients who cannot take up orally an adequate amount of nutrients. These patients often need simultaneous drug therapy as well. Thus, there is a high risk of drug-nutrient interactions. Although enteral nutrition is commonly used there is a lack of awareness and knowledge about the appropriate handling and drug administration via the feeding tube. On the one hand, drug-nutrient interactions can lead to clogging of the tube, on the other hand, the change in bioavailability of the drug can have a direct effect on the therapeutic effort. To optimise safety and efficacy of drug therapy in patients with feeding tubes, some basic rules have been set up. PMID:16267709

  11. Spectrum of surgical presentation of eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Spoorthy Sudhakar; Shetty, Charan Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder presenting mostly with diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, weight loss, and hypersensitivity. Surgical manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders depends on the site and extent of involvement. In our case series of four patients two of them had ileocaecal masses with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction with past history of intake of antitubercular drugs for 9 months. On histopathological examination both of them proved to have eosinophilic enterocolitis. Thus it is a clinical dilemma to differentiate between these two conditions. The other two patients presented as acute abdomen with perforation and intussusception. All four patients were treated surgically. Postoperatively they recovered well with no symptoms on one year follow-up. In Indian setup tuberculosis being rampant there may be under reporting or wrongly diagnosed cases of eosinophilic enteritis. Thus a strong clinical suspicion and awareness of this clinical entity are essential among surgical community. PMID:25960910

  12. Enteric viral infections in lambs or kids.

    PubMed

    Martella, V; Decaro, N; Buonavoglia, C

    2015-12-14

    Diarrhoea in lambs and kids is often a complex, multi-factorial syndrome. Common infectious causes of diarrhoea in lambs and kids during the first month of life are of bacterial or parasite nature. However, despite appreciable improvements in management practices and prevention and treatment strategies over the last decades, diarrhoea is still a common and costly syndrome affecting newborn small ruminants. Recent advances in the diagnostics and metagenomic investigations of the enteric environment have allowed discovering a number of novel viruses, although their pathobiological properties remain largely unknown. Assessing more in depth the impact of these viruses on the health and productions of these livestock animals is necessary and requires the development of accurate diagnostic tools and updating of the diagnostic algorithms of enteric pathological conditions. PMID:26321129

  13. Design, Development and Operation of a Laboratory Pulsed Plasma Thruster for the First Time in West Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeiha, Abdolrahim; Anbarloui, Mehdi; Farshchi, Mohammad

    Although the pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) was first utilized on a space mission in 1964, after more than four decades, it is still a space-rated technology which has performed various propulsion tasks, from station-keeping to three-axis attitude control for a variety of former missions. With respect to the rapid growth in the small satellite community and the growing interest for smaller satellites in recent years, the PPT is one of the promising electric propulsion devices for small satellites (e.g., CubeSats) due to the following advantages: simplicity, lightweight, robustness, low power consumption, low production cost and small dimensions. Therefore, a laboratory benchmark rectangular breech-fed pulsed plasma thruster using a self-inductor as a coupling element was designed, developed and successfully tested in a bell-type vacuum chamber at 10-4 Pa for the first time in west Asia (Iran). The PPT has been tested using a 35 μF, 2.5 kV oil-filled capacitor, producing an impulse bit varying from 300 μN-s to 1.3 mN-s at a maximum specific impulse of 1100 s. As a result a research program in Iran was initiated for working on PPTs and the miniaturization of PPTs while increasing the performance parameters. The present paper briefly reviews the PPT design and development.

  14. Male clients' behaviours with and perspectives about their last male escort encounter: comparing repeat versus first-time hires.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Margaret M; Grov, Christian; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Research on men who have sex with men suggests that condomless anal intercourse occurs more frequently in established sexual relationships. While comparable data regarding male-for-male escorting is unavailable, research implies that many clients seek emotional as well as physical connections with the men they hire. In 2012, 495 male clients, recruited via daddysreviews.com completed an online survey about their last hiring experience. Most participants were from the USA (85.7%), the UK and Canada (3.2% each). In total, 75% of encounters involved an escort hired for the first time; 25% were with a previously hired escort ('repeat encounter'). The client's age, lifetime number of escorts hired and number hired in the past year were positively associated with the last encounter being a repeat encounter. Cuddling, sharing a meal, drinking alcohol, taking a walk, watching a show and shopping were also positively associated with repeat encounters. Conversely, none of the sexual behaviours were significantly associated with repeat encounters. Repeat encounters were significantly more likely to include non-sexual behaviours alongside sexual activities, but no more likely to involve condomless anal intercourse. Moreover, clients' knowledge of escorts' HIV status was not significantly associated with engaging in condomless anal intercourse with repeat encounters. PMID:24915753

  15. Making use of expertise: a qualitative analysis of the experience of breastfeeding support for first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Johnson, Sally; Lyttle, Steven

    2015-10-01

    There is now a body of research evaluating breastfeeding interventions and exploring mothers' and health professionals' views on effective and ineffective breastfeeding support. However, this literature leaves relatively unexplored a number of questions about how breastfeeding women experience and make sense of their relationships with those trained to provide breastfeeding support. The present study collected qualitative data from 22 breastfeeding first-time mothers in the United Kingdom on their experiences of, and orientation towards, relationships with maternity care professionals and other breastfeeding advisors. The data were obtained from interviews and audio-diaries at two time points during the first 5 weeks post-partum. We discuss a key theme within the data of 'Making use of expertise' and three subthemes that capture the way in which the women's orientation towards those assumed to have breastfeeding expertise varied according to whether the women (1) adopted a position of consulting experts vs. one of deferring to feeding authorities; (2) experienced difficulty interpreting their own and their baby's bodies; and (3) experienced the expertise of health workers as empowering or disempowering. Although sometimes mothers felt empowered by aligning themselves with the scientific approach and 'normalising gaze' of health care professionals, at other times this gaze could be experienced as objectifying and diminishing. The merits and limitations of a person-centred approach to breastfeeding support are discussed in relation to using breastfeeding expertise in an empowering rather than disempowering way. PMID:23557351

  16. Pathological Changes in Virus Enteritis of Mink

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, H. A.

    1970-01-01

    The lesions which characterize viral enteritis of mink (VEM) were studied in twenty-six, ten-week-old mink which had been infected by force feeding a tissue suspension containing a Wisconsin strain of mink enteritis virus. The pathogenesis of the lesions was reconstructed from gross and histopathological changes observed in animals which were selected randomly from the group each day for necropsy during the course of the disease. Alterations were observed in the tissues of all mink examined from post-inoculation day (PID) 4 through 13. The principal macroscopic lesions which consisted of fibrinous enteritis, enlargement and hemorrhage of the spleen and edema of mesenteric and hepatic lymph nodes were most conspicuous on PID 7 and 8. Histopathological changes including necrosis and desquamation of intestinal epithelium, depletion of mature lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thymus and spleen and loss of partly differentiated myeloid and erythroid cells from spleen and bone marrow also reached full development on PID 7 and 8. However, nuclear inclusion bodies which were presumed to be a product of the causative agent and, therefore, of diagnostic significance were most prevalent on PID 3, 4 and 5. The inclusions were observed in mucosal epithelial cells of the intestine, parenchymal cells of the liver and in lymphocyte precursor cells of the spleen, intestinal lymph nodules and masenteric and hepatic lymph nodes. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11. PMID:4246838

  17. Pathological changes in virus enteritis of mink.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, H A

    1970-04-01

    The lesions which characterize viral enteritis of mink (VEM) were studied in twenty-six, ten-week-old mink which had been infected by force feeding a tissue suspension containing a Wisconsin strain of mink enteritis virus. The pathogenesis of the lesions was reconstructed from gross and histopathological changes observed in animals which were selected randomly from the group each day for necropsy during the course of the disease. Alterations were observed in the tissues of all mink examined from post-inoculation day (PID) 4 through 13. The principal macroscopic lesions which consisted of fibrinous enteritis, enlargement and hemorrhage of the spleen and edema of mesenteric and hepatic lymph nodes were most conspicuous on PID 7 and 8. Histopathological changes including necrosis and desquamation of intestinal epithelium, depletion of mature lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thymus and spleen and loss of partly differentiated myeloid and erythroid cells from spleen and bone marrow also reached full development on PID 7 and 8. However, nuclear inclusion bodies which were presumed to be a product of the causative agent and, therefore, of diagnostic significance were most prevalent on PID 3, 4 and 5. The inclusions were observed in mucosal epithelial cells of the intestine, parenchymal cells of the liver and in lymphocyte precursor cells of the spleen, intestinal lymph nodules and masenteric and hepatic lymph nodes. PMID:4246838

  18. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  19. Enteral nutrition in dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  20. Current problems in antimicrobial therapy for bacterial enteric infection.

    PubMed

    DuPont, H L; Ericsson, C D; Robinson, A; Johnson, P C

    1987-04-27

    Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is currently considered the treatment of choice for shigellosis and severe travelers' diarrhea. The problem with this combination regimen is inactivity against Campylobacter jejuni strains and other bacterial enteropathogens showing in vitro resistance to the drug. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole among enteric pathogens has occurred frequently in certain areas of the world. A study of the in vitro susceptibility of enteric bacterial pathogens isolated from multiple countries was recently performed. The minimal inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin required to inhibit 90 percent of the 210 bacterial enteropathogens ranged from 0.25 micrograms/ml for C. jejuni to 0.016 micrograms/ml for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Shigella. In a clinical trial carried out in a United States student population that acquired diarrhea while in Mexico, it was shown that ciprofloxacin was as effective as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and both were significantly (p less than 0.001) more effective than placebo. The average duration of diarrhea was 29 or 20 hours after initiation of treatment with ciprofloxacin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, respectively, compared with 81 hours in the placebo group. The antimicrobial agents were more efficacious than placebo in treating diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli, invasive enteropathogens, and unknown pathogens. Ciprofloxacin and the quinolone derivatives are uniquely suited to the therapy of acute bacterial diarrhea in areas where C. jejuni is commonly found and where trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant strains regularly occur. PMID:3555056

  1. An Autoethnography of a First-Time School District Superintendent: Experiences in Governance, Fiscal Stress, and Community Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stanley, III.

    2011-01-01

    There are just over 1,000 sitting superintendents and like number of local educational agencies (LEA's) in California, serving 6.2 million students. Superintendents' ability to share knowledge and learn from each other is limited; this is especially true the further one's work is removed from concentrated urban populations. This study addresses…

  2. Why are enteric ganglia so small? Role of differential adhesion of enteric neurons and enteric neural crest cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Benjamin N.; Zhang, Dongcheng; Simkin, Johanna E.; Menheniott, Trevelyan R.; Newgreen, Donald F.

    2015-01-01

    The avian enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of a vast number of unusually small ganglia compared to other peripheral ganglia. Each ENS ganglion at mid-gestation has a core of neurons and a shell of mesenchymal precursor/glia-like enteric neural crest (ENC) cells. To study ENS cell ganglionation we isolated midgut ENS cells by HNK-1 fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from E5 and E8 quail embryos, and from E9 chick embryos. We performed cell-cell aggregation assays which revealed a developmentally regulated functional increase in ENS cell adhesive function, requiring both Ca 2+ -dependent and independent adhesion. This was consistent with N-cadherin and NCAM labelling. Neurons sorted to the core of aggregates, surrounded by outer ENC cells, showing that neurons had higher adhesion than ENC cells. The outer surface of aggregates became relatively non-adhesive, correlating with low levels of NCAM and N-cadherin on this surface of the outer non-neuronal ENC cells. Aggregation assays showed that ENS cells FACS selected for NCAM-high and enriched for enteric neurons formed larger and more coherent aggregates than unsorted ENS cells. In contrast, ENS cells of the NCAM-low FACS fraction formed small, disorganised aggregates.  This suggests a novel mechanism for control of ENS ganglion morphogenesis where i) differential adhesion of ENS neurons and ENC cells controls the core/shell ganglionic structure and ii) the ratio of neurons to ENC cells dictates the equilibrium ganglion size by generation of an outer non-adhesive surface. PMID:26064478

  3. Computed tomography perfusion imaging may predict cognitive impairment in patients with first-time anterior circulation transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yunming; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Dan; Li, Yuxia; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI)-derived parameters are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients with first-time anterior circulation TIA (diagnosed within 24 h of onset) and normal cognition, treated between August 2009 and August 2014 at the Department of Neurology of Chengdu Military General Hospital, China, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent whole-brain CTPI within 1 week of TIA to detect cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) in the ischemic region. Based on cognitive function assessment 4 weeks after TIA, using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examination, the patients were divided into control and VCI groups. CTPI parameters and other clinical data were compared between groups, and Spearman's correlation analysis used to identify associations between cognitive scores and CTPI parameters in the VCI group. 50 patients (25 per group; aged 55-72 years) were included. Patient age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, time from TIA onset to admission, time from TIA onset to CTPI, and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and hyperhomocysteinemia did not differ between groups. Both groups showed TTP and MTT prolongation, CBF reduction, but no change in CBV in the ischemic region; these changes were significantly larger in the VCI group (P < 0.05). MTT correlated negatively with MoCA score (r = -0.51, P = 0.009). CTPI could facilitate early diagnosis of VCI in patients with anterior circulation TIA. PMID:26721459

  4. In-Hospital Formula Use Increases Early Breastfeeding Cessation Among First-Time Mothers Intending to Exclusively Breastfeed

    PubMed Central

    Chantry, Caroline J.; Dewey, Kathryn G.; Peerson, Janet M.; Wagner, Erin A; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in-hospital formula supplementation among first time mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed and determined if in-hospital formula supplementation shortens breastfeeding duration after adjusting for breastfeeding intention. Study design We assessed strength of breastfeeding intentions prenatally in a diverse cohort of expectant primiparae and followed infant feeding practices through day 60. Among mothers planning to exclusively breastfed their healthy term infants for ?1 week, we determined predictors, reasons, and characteristics of in-hospital formula supplementation; and calculated the intention-adjusted relative risk (ARR) of not fully breastfeeding days 3060 and breastfeeding cessation by day 60 with in-hospital formula supplementation (n=393). Results 210 (53%) infants exclusively breastfed during the maternity stay and 183 (47%) received in-hospital formula supplementation. The most prevalent reasons mothers cited for inhospital formula supplementation were: perceived insufficient milk supply (18%), signs of inadequate intake (16%), and poor latch or breastfeeding (14%). Prevalence of not fully breastfeeding days 3060 was 67.8% vs 36.7%, ARR 1.8 [95% CI, 1.42.3], in-hospital formula supplementation vs exclusively breastfed groups respectively, and breastfeeding cessation by day 60 was 32.8% vs 10.5%, ARR 2.7 [95% CI,1.74.5]. Odds of both adverse outcomes increased with more in-hospital formula supplementation feeds (not fully breastfeeding days 3060, P=.003 and breastfeeding cessation, P=.011). Conclusions Among women intending exclusively breastfed, in-hospital formula supplementation was associated with nearly 2-fold greater risk of not fully breastfeeding days 3060 and nearly 3-fold risk of breastfeeding cessation by day 60, even after adjusting for strength of breastfeeding intentions. Strategies should be sought to avoid unnecessary in-hospital formula supplementation and to support breastfeeding when in-hospital formula supplementation is unavoidable. PMID:24529621

  5. Informed Choice in the German Mammography Screening Program by Education and Migrant Status: Survey among First-Time Invitees.

    PubMed

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Reder, Maren; Razum, Oliver; Kolip, Petra; Spallek, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women and mammography screening programs are seen as a key strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality. In Germany, women are invited to the population-based mammography screening program between ages 50 to 69. It is still discussed whether the benefits of mammography screening outweigh its harms. Therefore, the concept of informed choice comprising knowledge, attitude and intention has gained importance. The objective of this observational study was to assess the proportion of informed choices among women invited to the German mammography screening program for the first time. A representative sample of 17,349 women aged 50 years from a sub-region of North Rhine Westphalia was invited to participate in a postal survey. Turkish immigrant women were oversampled. The effects of education level and migration status on informed choice and its components were assessed. 5,847 (33.7%) women responded to the postal questionnaire of which 4,113 were used for analyses. 31.5% of the women had sufficient knowledge. The proportion of sufficient knowledge was lower among immigrants and among women with low education levels. The proportion of women making informed choices was low (27.1%), with similar associations with education level and migration status. Women of low (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.18-3.46) and medium education level (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.27-1.75) were more likely to make an uninformed choice than women of high education level. Turkish immigrant women had the greatest odds for making an uninformed choice (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.92-14.66) compared to non-immigrant women. Other immigrant women only had slightly greater odds for making an uninformed choice than non-immigrant women. As immigrant populations and women with low education level have been shown to have poor knowledge, they need special attention in measures to increase knowledge and thus informed choices. PMID:26529513

  6. African Swine Fever Virus Uses Macropinocytosis to Enter Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elena G.; Quintas, Ana; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Nogal, Marisa; Barroso, Susana; Carrascosa, Ángel L.; Revilla, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved. PMID:22719252

  7. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors associated with prediction of methane and allow a better examination and representation of policies regulating emissions from cattle. PMID:24259373

  8. Role of triamcinolone in radiation enteritis management

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Eren; Ozturk, Aysen Sevgi; Orhun, Haluk; Ulger, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of triamcinolone in the management of acute and chronic enteritis caused by pelvic radiotherapy. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with rectum adenocarcinoma or endometrium adenocarcinoma were studied. We compared the results of 14 patients treated with injected triamcinolone acetonide (TA) with those of 14 patients who were not treated with TA. For the TA group, 40 mg of TA was injected intramuscularly on the 1st, 11th and 21st d of radiotherapy; the control group received no injections. All of the study participants had a median age of 65 years, had undergone postoperative radiotherapy and were evaluated weekly using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Acute Morbidity Score Criteria, and complete blood counts for every 10 d. RESULTS: Triamcinolone was found to effectively prevent and treat radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal (enteritis) and genitourinary (cystitis) side effects (P = 0.022 and P = 0.023). For the lower GI side effect follow up, 11 patients in the control group had Grade 2 toxicity and 3 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. In the TA group, 5 patients had Grade 2 toxicity and 9 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. For the genitourinary system side effect follow up, 4 patients had Grade 2 toxicity and 6 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. Additionally, 2 patients had Grade 2 toxicity and 2 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. The neutrophil counts did not differ between the TA group and the control group. There was no meaningful difference between age groups and primary cancers. At the 12th mo of follow up, there were no differences between groups for chronic side effects. CONCLUSION: Triamcinolone is a moderately potent steroid, that is inexpensive and has a good safety profile. It would be beneficial for reducing medical expenses related to treatment of radiation induced enteritis. PMID:24764671

  9. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5% w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1% acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5%, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7% w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses. PMID:26162243

  10. Nonculture diagnostic tests for enteric diseases.

    PubMed

    Jones, Timothy F; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has traditionally been based on culture results of feces from patients with diarrhea. Virtually everything we know about disease and the epidemiology of enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), e.g., O157, and Campylobacter spp., has been generated from the study of patients with culture-confirmed infections. However, this pattern may be changing because AGE diagnostics are moving away from culture toward rapid nonculture methods. These infections are mainly foodborne and therefore preventable, and it is of paramount importance that public health surveillance for these infections is consistent and reliable. PMID:22377326

  11. Eosinophilic enteritis: a rare cause of diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Lladó, Ana; Oliveira, João; Silva, Pedro; Pinheiro, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a healthy young man presenting with 1-week history of diarrhoea, acute abdominal pain and weight loss. Laboratory investigation showed very high peripheral eosinophils levels. After exclusion of the other causes of eosinophilia, a histological bowel sample analysis revealed marked eosinophilic infiltration of a small bowel mucosal layer which confirmed the suspicion of eosinophilic enteritis. Unlike most of the described cases, this patient did not require any specific treatment. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare and heterogeneous disease that is probably underdiagnosed in clinical practice because it requires a high degree of suspicion and an endoscopic biopsy for definite diagnosis. PMID:24081600

  12. More Top Students Answer the Ministry's Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to help reverse a decades-long decline in the number of top students entering seminaries, the Lilly Endowment invited colleges to compete for grants to be used for three related purposes: (1) to help students explore the relationship between faith and work; (2) to encourage talented students to consider entering Christian ministry;…

  13. A First-Time-In-Human Phase I Clinical Trial of Bispecific Antibody-Targeted, Paclitaxel-Packaged Bacterial Minicells

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Mark; McArthur, Grant A.; Pattison, Scott T.; Pattison, Stacey L.; MacDiarmid, Jennifer; Brahmbhatt, Himanshu; Scott, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We have harnessed a novel biological system, the bacterial minicell, to deliver cancer therapeutics to cancer cells. Preclinical studies showed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted, paclitaxel-loaded minicells (EGFRminicellsPac) have antitumor effects in xenograft models. To examine the safety of the minicell delivery system, we initiated a first-time-in-human, open-label, phase I clinical study of EGFRminicellsPac in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methodology Patients received 5 weekly infusions followed by a treatment free week. Seven dose levels (1x108, 1x109, 3x109, 1x1010, 1.5x1010, 2x1010, 5x1010) were evaluated using a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Primary objectives were safety, tolerability and determination of the maximum tolerated dose. Secondary objectives were assessment of immune/inflammatory responses and antitumor activity. Principal Findings Twenty eight patients were enrolled, 22 patients completed at least one cycle of EGFRminicellsPac; 6 patients did not complete a cycle due to rapidly progressive disease. A total of 236 doses was delivered over 42 cycles, with a maximum of 45 doses administered to a single patient. Most common treatment-related adverse events were rigors and pyrexia. No deaths resulted from treatment-related adverse events and the maximum tolerated dose was defined as 1x1010 EGFRminicellsPac. Surprisingly, only a mild self-limiting elevation in the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was observed. Anti-LPS antibody titers peaked by dose 3 and were maintained at that level despite repeat dosing with the bacterially derived minicells. Ten patients (45%; n = 22) achieved stable disease as their best response. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study in humans of a novel biological system that can provide targeted delivery of a range of chemotherapeutic drugs to solid tumor cells. Bispecific antibody-targeted minicells, packaged with the chemotherapeutic paclitaxel, were shown to be safe in patients with advanced solid tumors with modest clinical efficacy observed. Further study in Phase II trials is planned. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000672257 PMID:26659127

  14. Informed Choice in the German Mammography Screening Program by Education and Migrant Status: Survey among First-Time Invitees

    PubMed Central

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Reder, Maren; Razum, Oliver; Kolip, Petra; Spallek, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women and mammography screening programs are seen as a key strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality. In Germany, women are invited to the population-based mammography screening program between ages 50 to 69. It is still discussed whether the benefits of mammography screening outweigh its harms. Therefore, the concept of informed choice comprising knowledge, attitude and intention has gained importance. The objective of this observational study was to assess the proportion of informed choices among women invited to the German mammography screening program for the first time. A representative sample of 17,349 women aged 50 years from a sub-region of North Rhine Westphalia was invited to participate in a postal survey. Turkish immigrant women were oversampled. The effects of education level and migration status on informed choice and its components were assessed. 5,847 (33.7%) women responded to the postal questionnaire of which 4,113 were used for analyses. 31.5% of the women had sufficient knowledge. The proportion of sufficient knowledge was lower among immigrants and among women with low education levels. The proportion of women making informed choices was low (27.1%), with similar associations with education level and migration status. Women of low (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.18–3.46) and medium education level (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.27–1.75) were more likely to make an uninformed choice than women of high education level. Turkish immigrant women had the greatest odds for making an uninformed choice (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.92–14.66) compared to non-immigrant women. Other immigrant women only had slightly greater odds for making an uninformed choice than non-immigrant women. As immigrant populations and women with low education level have been shown to have poor knowledge, they need special attention in measures to increase knowledge and thus informed choices. PMID:26529513

  15. Psychotic Illness in First-Time Mothers with No Previous Psychiatric Hospitalizations: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Hultman, Christina M; Harlow, Bernard; Cnattingius, Sven; Sparén, Pär

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychotic illness following childbirth is a relatively rare but severe condition with unexplained etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal background characteristics and obstetric factors on the risk of postpartum psychosis, specifically among mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations. Methods and Findings We investigated incidence rates and potential maternal and obstetric risk factors of psychoses after childbirth in a national cohort of women who were first-time mothers from 1983 through 2000 (n = 745,596). Proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks of psychoses during and after the first 90 d postpartum, among mothers without any previous psychiatric hospitalization and among all mothers. Within 90 d after delivery, 892 women (1.2 per 1,000 births; 4.84 per 1,000 person-years) were hospitalized due to psychoses and 436 of these (0.6 per 1,000 births; 2.38 per 1,000 person-years) had not previously been hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder. During follow-up after the 90 d postpartum period, the corresponding incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were reduced to 0.65 for all women and 0.49 for women not previously hospitalized. During (but not after) the first 90 d postpartum the risk of psychoses among women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization was independently affected by: maternal age (35 y or older versus 19 y or younger; hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.7); high birth weight (≥ 4,500 g; hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0); and diabetes (hazard ratio 0). Conclusions The incidence of psychotic illness peaks immediately following a first childbirth, and almost 50% of the cases are women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization. High maternal age increases the risk while diabetes and high birth weight are associated with reduced risk of first-onset psychoses, distinctly during the postpartum period. PMID:19209952

  16. Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm(exp -1) Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; deKok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm(exp -1) in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 (exp -1) emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it bad been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004. Our far-infrared observations were performed With the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Caasini. Although it bad been expected that the 220 cm(exp -1) emission would eventnal1y appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm(exp -1) feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm(exp -1) ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini image. The 220 cm(exp -1) feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager I and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS. Until now the 220 cm(exp -1) emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm(exp -1) emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes.

  17. First-time Sliding Failure in Weak Sandstones and Subsequent Evolution in a Fast-moving Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoni, A.; Berti, M.; Bayer, B.; Bertello, L.; Franceschini, S.; Morandi, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Following intense rainfalls, during spring 2013 a first-time sliding failure developed over a gentle cultivated slope in Northern Apennines. The slope is made of weakly cemented layered sandstones and subordinate siltstones and mudstones of Eocene age. The morphology is fairly regular with an average angle of 15° that increases up to 25° in the lower part of the slope where the pelitic fraction is no longer present in the bedrock succession. Bedding generally dips into the slope though the presence of faults locally complicate the setting. The sliding interested the upper, more gentle part of the slope with a maximum depth of 10 to 15 meters. Morphological evidences indicate a rotational component of movement and rocks outcropping along the scarp show a moderate degree of weathering. The main landslide body maintained its coherence and only a minor part of the toe mobilized as a fast-moving flow. No building nor infrastructure was affected by the movement but a railway viaduct is present in the lower part of the slope. Following the 2013 failure, movements and pore pressures were monitored in the landslide deposit to control the evolution of the phenomena. During the following winter, the abundant precipitation caused a reactivation of the movement that led to a much larger fast-moving flow. In this work, we document the sequence of events that has interested the slope during the years 2013-2014. Subsequent ground-based and aerial topographic surveys allow to estimate the volumes involved in the different phases of movement. Field evidences and investigations are used to interpret the geotechnical model of the slope and constrain the range of resistances mobilized at failure. The deformations preceding the 2014 reactivation are analyzed together with post-failure landslide deceleration. It is shown that displacements proceeded maintaining sustained moderate velocities for days before the catastrophic reactivation, making difficult to anticipate the acceleration. It took months, and the arrive of the dry season, to return displacement to slow to very slow rates.

  18. Infectious bursal disease and hemorrhagic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Saif, Y M

    1998-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) of chickens and hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) of turkeys are caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), respectively. Both diseases have common features, including an acute stage followed by immunosuppression, resulting in lowered resistance to a variety of infectious agents and poor response to commonly used vaccines. The IBDV and HEV infections are widespread in commercial chicken and turkey flocks, respectively. The acute stage of the disease, the immunosuppression that follows, and the widespread distribution of both diseases, are major factors contributing to the economic significance of both diseases. The mechanism of immunosuppression for both infections has similarities, both affect lymphocytes and macrophages, and both are lymphocidal. In this report, an overview of both diseases with emphasis on some of the recent findings will be presented. There has been greater research activity on IBD than on HE, reflecting the relative economic importance of the species affected and the recent changes in the antigenic make up and pathogenicity of the IBDV. PMID:9706087

  19. Effect of lactoferrin on enteric pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Theresa J.; Cleary, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    Much has been learned in recent years about the mechanisms by which breastfeeding improves child health and survival. However, there has been little progress in using these insights to improve pediatric care. Factors that are important for protecting the breast fed infant might be expected to decrease the adverse effects of weaning on diarrhea, growth, and development. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein with multiple physiological functions (anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory), is one of the most important proteins present in mammalian milk. Protection against gastroenteritis is the most likely biologically relevant activity of lactoferrin. Multiple in vitro and animal studies have shown a protective effect of lactoferrin on infections with enteric microorganisms, including rotavirus, Giardia, Shigella, Salmonella and the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Lactoferrin has two major effects on enteric pathogens: it inhibits growth and it impairs function of surface expressed virulence factors thereby decreasing their ability to adhere or to invade mammalian cells. Thus, lactoferrin may protect infants from gastrointestinal infection by preventing the attachment by enteropathogens in the gut. Recently several clinical trials in children have started to address this issue. Whether lactoferrin can prevent a significant portion of diarrheal disease remains to be determined. PMID:18472012

  20. [Drug administration through enteral feeding catheters].

    PubMed

    Goñi Viguria, R; Sánchez Sanz, L; Asiain Erro, M; Baztán Indave, A

    2001-01-01

    Because of easiness and accessibility, the oral route of administration is usually the route of choice for medication delivery, as long as the oral drug form is available and the patients' circumstances allow it.In patients admitted to the intensive care unit this route is frequently altered. This provokes difficulties in swallowing and consequently an enteral feeding catheter must be inserted to supply the patient's nutritional requirements. This catheter is also used for the drug administration, which necessitates opening capsules or crushing pills before dilution. When added to drug-nutrient interactions, this process alters the drug's properties and modifies its pharmacokinetic profile, its pharmacological effect and the intensity of side effects. It can also provoke catheter obstruction. The aim of this study was to establish guidelines for drug administration through enteral feeding catheters. We provide a thorough review of the literature, describe oral drug forms, present a protocol for correct drug administration and provide a guide to the most commonly used drugs in our unit. For each of these drugs we include recommendations on administration and possible alternatives. PMID:11459545

  1. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Samuel P; Gibran, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support. Recent Advances: Further evidence is demonstrating long-term benefits from pharmacologic immunomodulation given the prolonged metabolic response to injury that may last for over a year following the initial insult. Critical Issues: The majority of evidence regarding early enteral feeding comes from mixed populations and smaller studies. However, on balance, available evidence favors early feeding. Data regarding immunonutrition does not support the routine use of these products. Limited data regarding use of antioxidants and trace elements support their use. Future Directions: Further evaluation of anti-inflammatory mediators of the immune response, such as statins, will likely play a role in the future. Further data are needed on the dosing and route of micronutrients as well as the utility of immunonutrition. Finally, little is known about nutrition in the obese burn patient making this an important area for investigation. PMID:24761346

  2. Campylobacter enteritis in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Senok, Abiola C; Botta, Giuseppe A

    2009-01-01

    Diarrhoea illnesses constitute a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, Campylobacter spp. has been recognized as the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in both developed and developing countries. The biology of Campylobacters as well as the mechanism by which they cause disease is yet to be fully explained. In addition, non-availability of fast and reliable diagnostic methodology and the growing trend of antibiotic resistance continue to pose significant challenges. The absence of national surveillance programs for campylobacteriosis, particularly in developing countries, makes it difficult to give an accurate picture of the true infection prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of isolates circulating in the populations, a situation which had hitherto existed in the Arabian Gulf region. However, in recent years, emerging data from studies in the Arabian Gulf region has not only enhanced our understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter both in humans and poultry in the region, but has also contributed to the overall understanding of the mechanism of Campylobacter enteritis, antibiotic resistance, and improved diagnostic approaches. In this review, we examine these emerging data from the Arabian Gulf region. PMID:19755734

  3. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support. Recent Advances: Further evidence is demonstrating long-term benefits from pharmacologic immunomodulation given the prolonged metabolic response to injury that may last for over a year following the initial insult. Critical Issues: The majority of evidence regarding early enteral feeding comes from mixed populations and smaller studies. However, on balance, available evidence favors early feeding. Data regarding immunonutrition does not support the routine use of these products. Limited data regarding use of antioxidants and trace elements support their use. Future Directions: Further evaluation of anti-inflammatory mediators of the immune response, such as statins, will likely play a role in the future. Further data are needed on the dosing and route of micronutrients as well as the utility of immunonutrition. Finally, little is known about nutrition in the obese burn patient making this an important area for investigation. PMID:24761346

  4. INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

  5. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  6. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  7. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  8. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health...

  10. Understanding the Impact of Academic Support Programs on First-Time Bar Passage for Students at the University of Idaho College of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Helen

    2013-01-01

    As racial and ethnic population changes occur in the United States these same changes should be reflected in the legal community of lawyers and judges. Although Black and Hispanic populations have been increasing over the past 30 years in the United States, this same proportionate increase has not occurred in the American Bar Association (ABA)…

  11. A Qualitative Case Study on the Retention and Persistence of Second Generation First Time Degree-Seeking Latino Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquibel, Denise H.

    2013-01-01

    As the Latino population progresses from minority to majority status in the United States, there still remains the typical and historical pattern of failure in higher education associated with this minority status. According to the 2010 Census, approximately 16% of the total U.S. population or 50.5 million people have self-identified themselves as…

  12. Needs assessment of enteral nutrition support products.

    PubMed

    Josephson, R V; Rupp, J W; Chambers, J F

    1985-11-01

    An opinion survey of San Diego hospital health care professionals who use enteral nutrition products for patient care identified cost as an important factor but indicated that quality control, special nutrition features, and wide application of use were even more important product characteristics considered prior to purchase. There was general agreement that customer service, along with volume discounts, was a crucial aspect of successful marketing. The need for local availability of products was also stressed repeatedly. The importance of high-cost product promotions by vendors was downplayed. Health professionals want more nutrition products with specialized compositional profiles (e.g., low or high protein, low sodium, and gluten- and lactose-free), improved flavor, and convenient single-serving packaging. PMID:3932503

  13. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Salvatore; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo D.; Spinelli, Gabriele; Ficarella, Silvia; Lo Monte, Giulia; Marrazzo, Antonio; Lo Monte, Attilio I.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN) and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE), postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH), length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. PMID:25942488

  14. Vaccines for enteric diseases: a meeting summary.

    PubMed

    Steele, Duncan; Riddle, Mark; van de Verg, Lillian; Bourgeois, Louis

    2012-04-01

    The 6th Vaccines for Enteric Diseases Symposium was held in Cannes, France, on 14-16 September 2011, drawing approximately 200 vaccine developers, academics and public health experts globally. Infectious diarrhea is a worldwide problem with high mortality and morbidity, particularly among children in the developing world. The WHO estimated approximately 8.8 million deaths in 2008 in young children aged 1-59 months, of which almost 2 million could be attributed to diarrheal illnesses--more than malaria, HIV/AIDS and TB combined. New breakthroughs in vaccine development, early clinical trials for the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, noroviruses and conjugate typhoid vaccines, and updates on the implementation of rotavirus, cholera and typhoid vaccines were reported. PMID:22551024

  15. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  16. Lymphocytic enteritis and systemic vasculitis in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Rae, C A

    1994-01-01

    Lymphocytic enteritis and systemic lymphocytic vasculitis may be a new or previously unrecognized syndrome in sheep suffering from chronic wasting. Seven cases in three separate flocks were seen over an eight-year period at Veterinary Laboratory Services in Brighton, Ontario. Most of the animals were between five and twelve months of age and exhibited weight loss and inappetance, with or without diarrhea. All were Suffolks or crossbred Suffolks. In one of the flocks, there were also several sheep with lymphoma. Postmortem examination of carcasses and ancillary testing did not reveal an etiology; however, the intestinal and vascular lesions resembled those described in certain viral diseases, such as malignant catarrhal fever and Border disease, and immune-mediated diseases, such as polyarteritis nodosa. Submission for necropsy of sheep that exhibit signs of chronic wasting is encouraged, to help establish the etiology of the disease and its significance to the industry. Images Figure 1. PMID:7994703

  17. New vaccines against bacterial enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A M

    1990-01-01

    During the last 10 years, rapid progress in basic research and biotechnology related to enteric infection has now begun to have a substantial impact on vaccine development against these infections. Two new typhoid vaccines, one for oral administration and the other for injection, which have much fewer and milder side effects than previous whole-cell parenteral vaccines, have become available. An oral cholera vaccine has been developed which, without any adverse reactions at all, confers long-lasting protection against cholera. The new cholera vaccine also, through antitoxic immunologic cross-reactivity, protects significantly against diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Notable progress has also been made towards the development of an oral killed vaccine against ETEC diarrhoea as well as live attenuated vaccines against rotaviruses, cholera and shigellosis. PMID:2287897

  18. Prucalopride exerts neuroprotection in human enteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Francesca; Bonora, Elena; Natarajan, Dipa; Vargiolu, Manuela; Thapar, Nikhil; Torresan, Francesco; Giancola, Fiorella; Boschetti, Elisa; Volta, Umberto; Bazzoli, Franco; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Seri, Marco; Clavenzani, Paolo; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Sternini, Catia; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2016-05-15

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its transporters and receptors are involved in a wide array of digestive functions. In particular, 5-HT4 receptors are known to mediate intestinal peristalsis and recent data in experimental animals have shown their role in neuronal maintenance and neurogenesis. This study has been designed to test whether prucalopride, a well-known full 5-HT4 agonist, exerts protective effects on neurons, including enteric neurons, exposed to oxidative stress challenge. Sulforhodamine B assay was used to determine the survival of SH-SY5Y cells, human enteric neurospheres, and ex vivo submucosal neurons following H2O2 exposure in the presence or absence of prucalopride (1 nM). Specificity of 5-HT4-mediated neuroprotection was established by experiments performed in the presence of GR113808, a 5-HT4 antagonist. Prucalopride exhibited a significant neuroprotective effect. SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with prucalopride were protected from the injury elicited by H2O2 as shown by increased survival (73.5 ± 0.1% of neuronal survival vs. 33.3 ± 0.1%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and a significant reduction of proapoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in all neurons tested. The protective effect of prucalopride was reversed by the specific 5-HT4 antagonist GR113808. Prucalopride promotes a significant neuroprotection against oxidative-mediated proapoptotic mechanisms. Our data pave the way for novel therapeutic implications of full 5-HT4 agonists in gut dysmotility characterized by neuronal degeneration, which go beyond the well-known enterokinetic effect. PMID:26893157

  19. Mechanosensitivity in the enteric nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) autonomously controls gut muscle activity. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) initiate reflex activity by responding to mechanical deformation of the gastrointestinal wall. MEN throughout the gut primarily respond to compression or stretch rather than to shear force. Some MEN are multimodal as they respond to compression and stretch. Depending on the region up to 60% of the entire ENS population responds to mechanical stress. MEN fire action potentials after mechanical stimulation of processes or soma although they are more sensitive to process deformation. There are at least two populations of MEN based on their sensitivity to different modalities of mechanical stress and on their firing pattern. (1) Rapidly, slowly and ultra-slowly adapting neurons which encode compressive forces. (2) Ultra-slowly adapting stretch-sensitive neurons encoding tensile forces. Rapid adaptation of firing is typically observed after compressive force while slow adaptation or ongoing spike discharge occurs often during tensile stress (stretch). All MEN have some common properties: they receive synaptic input, are low fidelity mechanoreceptors and are multifunctional in that some serve interneuronal others even motor functions. Consequently, MEN possess processes with mechanosensitive as well as efferent functions. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that MEN sense and control muscle activity at the same time as servo-feedback loop. The mechanosensitive channel(s) or receptor(s) expressed by the different MEN populations are unknown. Future concepts have to incorporate compressive and tensile-sensitive MEN into neural circuits that controls muscle activity. They may interact to control various forms of a particular motor pattern or regulate different motor patterns independently from each other. PMID:26528136

  20. STEM Professionals Entering Teaching: Navigating Multiple Identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Jeanne M.; Johnston, Carol C.

    2012-02-01

    In this qualitative study, we identify the complexity of the transitioning identities of four STEM career changers to better inform teacher education programs on how to be more mindful of the needs of this population as they return to the life of a student again on their path toward a new career in teaching. Findings suggest the career changers relied upon their identities from their previous careers to engage students in science; however, support is needed, both in terms of the coursework and returning to be a student again. Additionally, support is necessary for intervening in difficult placements and work situations as these STEM career changers make the transition to their newly chosen career of teaching science.

  1. Early College Students' Perceptions Regarding Factors and Obstacles for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twardowski, Charlotte K.

    2012-01-01

    This study had two purposes. The first purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions of first-time in college high school students, specifically early college students, in regards to factors that enabled them to be successful. Secondly, the perceptions of first-time in college high school students, specifically early college students, were…

  2. The influence of diet on necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Riddell, C; Kong, X M

    1992-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis was reproduced in broiler chickens by mixing cultures of Clostridium perfringens in the feed. Mortality due to necrotic enteritis was higher among chickens fed rations based on wheat, rye, barley, and oat groats than among chickens fed corn-based rations. Addition of pentosanase to a wheat-based diet did not affect the level of mortality due to necrotic enteritis. Addition of pectin and guar gum to different rations severely reduced growth rate and eliminated necrotic enteritis from test birds. Addition of glucose to a corn-based diet caused a small increase in mortality due to necrotic enteritis. PMID:1417581

  3. Risk factors for a first-time drink-driving conviction among young men: a birth cohort study of all men born in Denmark in 1966.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian

    2008-06-01

    Using a complete birth cohort of all young men born in 1966 in Denmark (N = 43,403), the prevalence of a first-time drink-driving conviction among young men is estimated. More than 7% of the total male birth cohort was so convicted before the age of 27 years. In an examination of risk factors for a first-time drink-driving conviction, young adults coming from potentially vulnerable groups have an increased risk. Earlier criminal convictions of various types were also significant predictors of drink driving. Situational pressures also play a part and are controlled for, with the risk of a drink-driving conviction increased substantially in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas. The study concludes that disadvantages during adolescence, including parental substance abuse, having a teenage mother, and domestic violence, are associated with a first-time drink-driving conviction. PMID:18329224

  4. Enter Here: Personal Narrative and Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajder, Sara B.

    2004-01-01

    A step-by-step plan for creating a digital story grounded in sound theory and research about how adolescents expand their literacy is presented. Students were found to be selective about effects while putting the story first, choosing those that drove the story farther as opposed to those that mimicked what might be seen in films or television.

  5. Men Who Enter Nursing: A Sociological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auster, Donald; Auster, Nancy R.

    Little is known about the relationship between the choice of a sex discrepant occupation and the selection of a nursing career, attitudes toward training, and professional socialization. The research design included a cross-sectional attitude survey of both beginning and advanced nursing school students. Data were obtained from a…

  6. HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours among MSM repeat and first-time testers in China: implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Xu, Jie; Yang, Jie; Yang, Bo; Yu, Maohe; Gao, Yongjun; Dong, Willa M; Wu, Zunyou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about HIV testing, HIV infection and sexual behaviour among bathhouse patrons in China. This study aims to assess differences in HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending bathhouse in Tianjin, China. Methods Between March 2011 and September 2012, a HIV voluntary counselling and testing station was established in a gay bathhouse, which provided HIV testing and conducted a survey among participants recruited through snowball sampling. Differences in demographic and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers were assessed using the chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors for HIV infection. Results Of the 1642 respondents, 699 (42.6%) were repeat testers and 943 (57.4%) were first-time testers. Among repeat testers, a higher proportion were men aged 18 to 25, single, better educated, had a history of STIs and worked as male sex workers or “money boys” (MBs). Repeat testers were less likely to report having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months. The overall HIV prevalence was 12.4% (203/1642). There was no difference in HIV prevalence between repeat (11.2%, 78/699) and first-time (13.3%, 125/943) testers. The HIV prevalence increased with age among first-time testers (χtrend2=9.816, p=0.002). First-time MB testers had the highest HIV prevalence of 34.5%. Conclusions MSM attending bathhouse had an alarmingly high HIV infection rate, particularly in MB. Targeted interventions are urgently needed especially focusing on older MSM and MBs. PMID:24993457

  7. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which animals are managed vary greatly by country, CH4 emissions reduction strategies must be tailored to country-specific circumstances. Strategies that are cost effective, improve productivity, and have limited potential negative effects on livestock production hold a greater chance of being adopted by producers. It is also important to evaluate CH4 mitigation strategies in terms of the total GHG budget and to consider the economics of various strategies. Although reductions in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises.

  8. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO(2), CH(4) is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH(4) emissions. Emission of CH(4) in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH(4) emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH(4) prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH(4) emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH(4) emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH(4) emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH(4) more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which animals are managed vary greatly by country, CH(4) emissions reduction strategies must be tailored to country-specific circumstances. Strategies that are cost effective, improve productivity, and have limited potential negative effects on livestock production hold a greater chance of being adopted by producers. It is also important to evaluate CH(4) mitigation strategies in terms of the total GHG budget and to consider the economics of various strategies. Although reductions in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises. PMID:20809221

  9. Enteric fever in Scotland, 1967-1974.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, J. C.; Heymann, C. S.

    1976-01-01

    A review of 194 cases of enteric infection in Scotland during 1967-74, is reported. Diagnosis was confirmed by the laboratory isolation of Salmonella typhi (64 cases), S. paratyphi A (3) and S. paratyphi B (127), from blood or faeces; 174 persons were clinically ill and 20 were symptomless infections. Most patients (81-0%) were under 35 years of age, with the highest incidence occurring among young adults of 15-24 years, many of whom had been travelling overseas. One-third of all cases (65) were imported infections; the remaining 129 patients had not been outside the United Kingdom. A significantly greater proportion of typhoid infection (54-7%) was contracted overseas, in contrast to paratyphoid B with only one-fifth of cases (21-2%) being imported; all three cases of paratyphoid A were imported. The geographic distribution of origin of imported infections is discussed, along with the frequency of organisms belonging to different phage types. Two deaths occurred, one of which was the result of complications of paratyphoid fever. All other patients responded well to treatment, although two persons continued to excrete and became chronic carriers. A few examples are given of episodes of particular epidemiological interest. It is expected that in future years there will be a continued increase in the proportion of imported infections as more persons travel overseas, concurrent with the continuing decline in the number of chronic carriers resident in the British Isles. PMID:812902

  10. Enteric Bacteria and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria can contribute to cell proliferation and cancer development, particularly in chronic infectious diseases in which bacteria and/or bacterial components might interfere with cell function. The number of microbial cells within the gut lumen is estimated to be 100 trillion, which is about 10-times larger than the number of eukaryotic cells in the human body. Because of the complexity of the gut flora, identifying the specific microbial agents related to human diseases remains challenging. Recent studies have demonstrated that the stemness of colon cancer cells is, in part, orchestrated by the microenvironment and is defined by high Wnt activity. In this review article, we will discuss recent progress with respect to intestinal stem cells, cancer stem cells, and the molecular mechanisms of enteric bacteria in the activation of the Wnt pathway. We will also discuss the roles of other pathways, including JAK-STAT, JNK, and Notch, in regulating stem cell niches during bacterial infections using Drosophila models. Insights gained from understanding how host-bacterial interaction during inflammation and cancer may serve as a paradigm for understanding the nature of self-renewal signals. PMID:21297903

  11. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C.

    1999-10-01

    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

  12. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Guillou, P J

    1999-07-01

    Conventional wisdom has previously dictated that, in order to avoid stimulation of pancreatic secretion during acute pancreatitis, and thus avoid the perpetuation of the enzymatic activation from which the pancreatitis originated, enteral feeding should be avoided. With greater understanding of the potential role of the gastrointestinal tract in the development of a systemic inflammatory response within a number of scenarios, this dogma has recently been challenged. Moreover, there is some evidence to suggest that starving the gastrointestinal tract and providing nutritional support via the parenteral route may be associated with an increased incidence of septic complications. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that feeding the gut may diminish intestinal permeability to endotoxin and diminish bacterial translocation, thus reducing the cytokine drive to the generalized inflammatory response and preventing organ dysfunction. Preliminary experience suggests that the institution of jejunal (but not gastric or duodenal) nutrition within 48 hours of the onset of severe acute pancreatitis diminishes endotoxic exposure, diminishes the cytokine and systemic inflammatory responses, avoids antioxidant consumption and does not cause the radiological appearances of the pancreas to deteriorate. These observations are paralleled by improvements in clinical outcome measures such as intensive care unit stay, septic complications and mortality. Whist parenteral nutrition continues to have a role in the management of acute pancreatitis particularly when complicated by fistulae or prolonged ileus, the early introduction of jejunal nutrition merits further investigation in acute pancreatitis. PMID:11030611

  13. The NEON School Enters a New Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennefeld, M.

    2004-12-01

    THE NEON SCHOOL, a school on astronomical observations organised by a collaboration of observatories (Asiago, Calar Alto, ESO, La Palma and OHP) is well known by PhD students in astronomy all over Europe. It runs tutorial observations directly at the telescope for students in small groups, under the supervision of an experienced astronomer. This way, the participants can execute a real scientific program with all the steps needed in professional life: preparation of the program with selection of targets and feasibility estimates; set-up of the instrument and calibrations; running of the observations, in general both imaging/photometry and spectroscopy; data reductions; and, finally, the presentation of the results at the end of the school.

  14. Surviving the First Time Through: A New Instructor's Views on Designing and Teaching Economic Geography and How Mentoring Early-Career Faculty Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocoy, Christine L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the reflections of a new instructor of economic geography in the USA. The author offers practical advice for designing and delivering a course for the first time. Suggestions are given in support of the view that sharing knowledge of effective teaching practices is an important component of mentoring early-career faculty. By…

  15. Sustaining Retention of Nontraditional Students in the Geosciences in 2YC; Practices and Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, J. I.; Doser, D. I.

    2012-12-01

    As the role of 2YC (two-year colleges/community colleges) changes in the academic pipeline of higher education new practices and ideas to engage and retain students in the geosciences at the 2YC level need to be explored. 2YC typically have a student body composed of non-traditional students ranging from second career students, single parents, students with disabilities, seniors, and minorities. Currently, 2YCs serve 44% of all undergraduate students and 45% of all of all first time freshmen in the US. These statistics show the potential community colleges hold to encourage entering students to the STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math) fields as a possible career choice. But the reality is the number of STEM degrees awarded at community colleges has not followed the same trends in student enrollment. Over the past four years El Paso Community College (EPCC) in conjunction with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has implemented several initiatives in our effort to increase the number of Geological Science majors at EPCC and to ensure a successful transition to UTEP. These efforts are aimed to decrease attrition rates of science majors by; articulating degree plans between institutions, introduce field-based research projects to allow hands on experience for students, develop a working relationship between students and university faculty, diversify geology courses offered at EPCC, and strengthening the educational-bridge between the geological science departments of EPCC and UTEP through the aid of federally funded programs. The success of the these efforts have been seen by; the increase in geology majors in our A.S. degree program, the number of degrees conferred at EPCC, the successful transition of students to UTEP, and graduation of students from UTEP with advanced degrees.

  16. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies. PMID:25917772

  17. Enteral access for nutritional support: rationale for utilization.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A; Marsano, Luis S; Lukan, James K

    2002-09-01

    Acquisition of enteral access and provision of a sufficient volume of enteral nutrients early in the hospital course of a critically ill patient afford an opportunity to improve the outcome of that patient through the progression of his or her disease process. Failure to use the enteral route of feeding not only squanders this opportunity, but may, in addition, promote a pro-inflammatory state, which exacerbates disease severity and worsens morbidity. Enteral feeding provides a conduit for the delivery of immune stimulants and serves as effective prophylaxis against stress-induced gastropathy and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Tube placement beyond the stomach into the small bowel in hypermetabolic, severely ill patients prone to ileus and disordered gut motility aids delivery of enteral nutrients while reducing risk of aspiration. Endoscopic skills and expertise in gastrointestinal physiology are vital to the success of a nutrition support service and the provision of enteral tube feeding. PMID:12192194

  18. Emerging roles for enteric glia in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Enteric glia are important components of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and also form an extensive network in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Initially regarded as passive support cells, it is now clear that they are actively involved as cellular integrators in the control of motility and epithelial barrier function. Enteric glia form a cellular and molecular bridge between enteric nerves, enteroendocrine cells, immune cells, and epithelial cells, depending on their location. This Review highlights the role of enteric glia in GI motility disorders and in barrier and defense functions of the gut, notably in states of inflammation. It also discusses the involvement of enteric glia in neurological diseases that involve the GI tract. PMID:25689252

  19. Demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elders using home enteral nutritional therapy in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salomon Zaban, Ana Lcia Ribeiro; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    According to statistical projections of the World Health Organization, during the period between 1950 and 2025, the group of elderly in Brazil will have increased 15 times. Chronic-degenerative diseases are the illnesses that most affect the elderly population, directly related to the growing demand for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elderly patients assisted at the public hospitals in the Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy Program, of the State Health Department of Distrito Federal. This is a retroprospective, cross-sectional and analytical study, based on primary data, which enrolled 141 elderly patients who were prescribed home enteral nutrition. The collected variables corresponded to age, gender, clinical diagnosis, enteral route and nutritional status at the beginning of Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The association between variables was analyzed through the t-Student and chi-square tests, with a significance level of 0.05 and a Confidence Interval (CI) of 95%. There was a higher number of female patients (53.9%) when compared to male (46.1%), average age 75.82 years old for both groups. The most prevalent diseases were cerebro-vascular accident sequels and cancer (42.6% and 22.7% respectively). It was observed a prevalence of malnutrition equal to 69.7%, independent of age and gender. The most used enteral route was the nasal. Though Brazilian policies concerning assistance to the elderly have advanced during the last few years, the need for public policies for nutritional recovery of such patients persists, to promote a better quality of life for them. PMID:19961057

  20. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  1. Comparison of the Contraceptive Use and Its Related Factors Among Women Seeking Repeat and First-Time Induced Abortions in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bayrami, Roghieh; Javadnoori, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abortion in Iran, like other Islamic countries is severely restricted except in a few exceptions. However, some women who have an unwanted or mistimed pregnancy are seeking abortion. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the contraceptive use and its related factors among repeat and first- time induced abortion seekers in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 417 married women (age range, 15-49 years) seeking abortion services at either a hospital or private office in Maku City, the northwest of Iran, were selected through convenience sampling between December 2010 and March 2011. All the subjects were asked about the contraceptive methods used during the three months before the current pregnancy and the use of any emergency contraception and forced sex. Women who mentioned reasons except than completing family size for their applying for abortion were excluded from the analysis. Characteristics of women were examined using chi-square and t test. T test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare contraceptive methods and the regularity of contraceptive use between repeat and first-time abortion seekers, respectively. Results: About 33.8% of the repeat abortion-seekers and 76.8% of first-time abortion seekers were using male methods (withdrawal and condom). Utilization of an intrauterine device for birth control was higher among women seeking repeat abortion than in first-time abortion seekers (P = 0.003). All of 31 pill users in the repeat abortion-seeking group missed three or more pills per month for three times during the three months before contraception. The repeat abortion seekers had used condom more regularly than those in the first-time abortion seekers. Forced sex was more prevalent in the abortion seekers who had used male method. Conclusions: Using male methods are prevalent in abortion-seeker women. An increased focus is needed on training the regular use of pills and using the emergency contraception for all of the couples who are first-time abortion-seekers. Moreover, information about the role of forced sex might be efficacious in decreasing illegally induced repeat abortion in couples who use condom or withdrawal methods. PMID:25830153

  2. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission autosomique récessive. La forme typique associe 5 signes cliniques: une diarrhée grave rebelle nécessitant dans la majorité des cas une nutrition parentérale du fait de la malnutrition, une dysmorphie avec un front large et bombé, une racine du nez large et un hypertélorisme, des anomalies des cheveux qui sont fragiles, cassants, incoiffables et qualifiés de « laineux », un retard de croissance intra utérine et des anomalies de l’immunité à type de déficit en immunoglobuline ou d’absence de réponse aux antigènes vaccinaux. Des anomalies de deux protéines peuvent être à l’origine du syndrome SD/THE: TTC37, une protéine à motif TPR et SKIV2L, une hélicase à ARN, toutes 2 étant des constituants du complexe SKI humain. Le complexe SKI est un co-facteur de l’exosome cytoplasmique qui assure la dégradation des ARN aberrants ou exogènes. Le diagnostic est d’abord clinique puis confirmé par le séquençage des gènes TTC37 et SKIV2L. Le diagnostic différentiel avec les autres formes de diarrhées intraitables est fait grâce aux analyses anatomopathologiques qui montrent dans les autres formes, des lésions spécifiques. La prise en charge clinique repose sur la nutrition parentérale et la supplémentation en immunoglobuline si nécessaire. Un certain nombre d’enfants peuvent être sevrés de la nutrition parentérale et des supplémentations en immunoglobulines. En cas d’atteinte hépatique, celle-ci peut être sévère et conduire au décès. Même avec une prise en charge optimale, les enfants présentent une petite taille et, dans la moitié des cas, un retard mental modéré. Disease name/synonyms – Syndromic diarrhea – Phenotypic diarrhea – Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome – Intractable diarrhea of infancy with facial dysmorphism – Trichorrhexis nodosa and cirrhosis – Neonatal hemochromatosis phenotype with intractable diarrhea and hair abnormalities – Intractable infant diarrhea associated with phenotypic abnormalities and immune deficiency- Syndromatic diarrhea. [ORPHA84064 MIM 222470 and MIM614602]. Possibly chronic diarrhea and skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:23302111

  3. Spatial Segregation of Virulence Gene Expression during Acute Enteric Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Richard C.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Barhoumi, Roula; Payne, H. Ross; Wu, Jing; Gomez, Gabriel; Pugh, Roberta; Lawhon, Sara D.; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Adams, L. Garry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To establish a replicative niche during its infectious cycle between the intestinal lumen and tissue, the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires numerous virulence genes, including genes for two type III secretion systems (T3SS) and their cognate effectors. To better understand the host-pathogen relationship, including early infection dynamics and induction kinetics of the bacterial virulence program in the context of a natural host, we monitored the subcellular localization and temporal expression of T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 using fluorescent single-cell reporters in a bovine, ligated ileal loop model of infection. We observed that the majority of bacteria at 2 h postinfection are flagellated, express T3SS-1 but not T3SS-2, and are associated with the epithelium or with extruding enterocytes. In epithelial cells, S. Typhimurium cells were surrounded by intact vacuolar membranes or present within membrane-compromised vacuoles that typically contained numerous vesicular structures. By 8 h postinfection, T3SS-2-expressing bacteria were detected in the lamina propria and in the underlying mucosa, while T3SS-1-expressing bacteria were in the lumen. Our work identifies for the first time the temporal and spatial regulation of T3SS-1 and -2 expression during an enteric infection in a natural host and provides further support for the concept of cytosolic S. Typhimurium in extruding epithelium as a mechanism for reseeding the lumen. PMID:24496791

  4. Diet and Environment Shape Fecal Bacterial Microbiota Composition and Enteric Pathogen Load of Grizzly Bears

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Northrup, Joseph M.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic clostridia in wild and captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and relates these to food resources consumed by bears. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces were obtained from animals of two wild populations and from two captive animals during an active bear season. Wild animals consumed a diverse diet composed of plant material, animal prey and insects. Captive animals were fed a regular granulated diet with a supplement of fruits and vegetables. Bacterial populations were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Fecal microbiota composition fluctuated in wild and in captive animals. The abundance of Clostridium clusters I and XI, and of C. perfringens correlated to regular diet protein intake. Enteroaggregative E. coli were consistently present in all populations. The C. sordellii phospholipase C was identified in three samples of wild animals and for the first time in Ursids. Conclusion This is the first longitudinal study monitoring the fecal microbiota of wild carnivores and comparing it to that of captive individuals of the same species. Location and diet affected fecal bacterial populations as well as the presence of enteric pathogens. PMID:22194798

  5. Ticket to Nowhere: The Gap between Leaving High School and Entering College and High-Performance Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Kati, Ed.; Barth, Patte, Ed.; Mitchell, Ruth, Ed.; Wilkins, Amy, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue discusses changes in standards, assessments, and graduation requirements needed in K-12 and higher education, examining whether high school graduates are adequately prepared to enter college without remediation. Currently, about three-quarters of high school graduates will attend college. Among students who take the recommended number…

  6. Married men's first time experiences of early childbearing and their role in sexual and reproductive decision making: a qualitative study from rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Berggren, Vanja; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Bijay, Bharati; Johansson, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Male partners' involvement in women's sexual and reproductive health has been increasingly emphasised in international health. A qualitative approach with open-ended qualitative interviews was used to explore young, married men's first time experiences of early childbearing, their sexual and reproductive decision making and the meanings they make of their role as husbands and fathers. The results offer a nuanced picture of the men's vulnerability in becoming young fathers and having to assume their role as family decision-makers, while still being inexperienced in matters related to the health of their wives and newborn child. Constraints to gender equality and traditional norms and values continue to pose barriers to both young men and women making independent decisions in relation to marriage and childbearing. Men's involvement is necessary in healthcare programmes designed to improve women's sexual and reproductive health and the health of the newborn. Young, first-time fathers, in particular, need support and empowerment. PMID:22413843

  7. Are People More Inclined to Vote at 16 than at 18? Evidence for the First-Time Voting Boost Among 16- to 25-Year-Olds in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Zeglovits, Eva; Aichholzer, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Potential consequences of lowering voting age to 16 have been discussed in recent scientific and public debates. This article examines turnout of young voters aged 16 to 17 in Austria, the first European country that lowered the general voting age to 16. For this purpose we use unique data taken from electoral lists of two recent Austrian regional elections. The results support the idea that the so-called “first-time voting boost” is even stronger among the youngest voters as turnout was (a) higher compared to 18- to 20-year-old first-time voters and (b) not substantially lower than the average turnout rate. We conclude that our findings are encouraging for the idea of lowering voting age as a means to establish higher turnout rates in the future.

  8. Necrotic enteritis in chickens: a paradigm of enteric infection by Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kerry K; Songer, J Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Withdrawal of antimicrobial growth promoters and ionophore coccidiostats has been accompanied by a resurgence in incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE), a severe Clostridium perfringens-induced disease which some consider the most clinically dramatic bacterial enteric disease of poultry. Lesions, in jejunum and ileum, are focal-to-confluent, often with a tightly adhered pseudomembrane, and hemorrhage is uncommon. The key risk factor for development of NE is an intestinal environment that favors growth of the organism. Birds on high energy, protein-rich, wheat- or barley-based diets experience NE at a rate up to ten times greater than do birds on maize-based diets. Specific strains of type A cause NE, although only a few specific virulence attributes are known. The role of alpha toxin (CPA) has been called into question by the finding that an engineered CPA mutant retained full virulence in vivo, although the counterpoint to this is the finding that immunization with CPA toxoids provides substantial protection against NE. A recently described toxin, NetB, seems likely to be involved in pathogenesis of infection by most NE strains. Immunization with CPA, NetB, or other proteins, delivered by conventional means or vectored by recombinant attenuated Salmonella vectors may help the industry deal with NE. Future progress may be based in large part on genomic and proteomic analyses. PMID:19186215

  9. Necrotic enteritis in chickens: a paradigm of enteric infection by Clostridium perfringens type A.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Cooper KK; Songer JG

    2009-02-01

    Withdrawal of antimicrobial growth promoters and ionophore coccidiostats has been accompanied by a resurgence in incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE), a severe Clostridium perfringens-induced disease which some consider the most clinically dramatic bacterial enteric disease of poultry. Lesions, in jejunum and ileum, are focal-to-confluent, often with a tightly adhered pseudomembrane, and hemorrhage is uncommon. The key risk factor for development of NE is an intestinal environment that favors growth of the organism. Birds on high energy, protein-rich, wheat- or barley-based diets experience NE at a rate up to ten times greater than do birds on maize-based diets. Specific strains of type A cause NE, although only a few specific virulence attributes are known. The role of alpha toxin (CPA) has been called into question by the finding that an engineered CPA mutant retained full virulence in vivo, although the counterpoint to this is the finding that immunization with CPA toxoids provides substantial protection against NE. A recently described toxin, NetB, seems likely to be involved in pathogenesis of infection by most NE strains. Immunization with CPA, NetB, or other proteins, delivered by conventional means or vectored by recombinant attenuated Salmonella vectors may help the industry deal with NE. Future progress may be based in large part on genomic and proteomic analyses.

  10. Do They Enter the Workforce? Career Choices after an Undergrad Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, S.; Wissel, S.; Zwicker, A.; Ortiz, D.; Dominguez, A.

    2015-11-01

    Students in undergrad research internships go on to grad school at rates of 50-75% (Lopatto, 2007;Russell, 2005). NSF studied its undergrad program and found that 74% of physics interns (67% for engineering) go to grad school. PPPL undergrad interns were tracked for 10 years. Only 3% of physics PhD candidates are studying plasma physics, but 23% of our alumni that entered grad school did so in plasma. AIP reports that 60% of physics majors go to grad school (AIP, 2012), but 95% of PPPL interns have gone on to grad schools. Several programs track enrollment in grad school. AIP compiles statistics of undergrads who enter grad school and PhD students who work in the field. There has been no study of interns that follows the path from undergrad to grad school and then on to employment. Our tracking shows that most not only complete their advanced degrees but also stay in STEM fields following their academic careers. 88% of them become part of the STEM workforce, higher than the 82% of all physics PhDs employed in physics after obtaining their degree (AIP, 2014). PPPL puts more students in grad school in physics, and specifically plasma physics, and a higher percentage of those grad students stay in the STEM workforce.

  11. Enteral Nutrition in Crohn's Disease: An Underused Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, S.; Wagner, J.; Kirkwood, C. D.; Catto-Smith, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile. PMID:24382954

  12. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  13. Sequence analysis of parvoviruses associated with enteric disease of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) are significant viral enteric diseases of poultry. The etiology of these diseases is not completely understood. Here, we report the application of a molecular screening method that was designed to detect novel viruses from...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  17. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  18. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  19. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  20. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  1. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  4. Recent progress in the characterization of avian enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of the poultry gut, remarkably little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in the laboratory....

  5. ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA GULCH. ENTERING ORE BUCKETS ROLLED OF SUSPENSION CABLE ONTO UPPER STEEL RAIL, WHERE THEY WERE DISCONNECTED FROM TRACTION (LOWER) CABLE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. Columbia flies for first time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Columbia flies. Just seconds past the scheduled launch time of 7 a.m. on April 12, America's Space Transportation System becomes a fact with the liftoff of the first Space Shuttle from Launch Pad 39A. The successful maiden flight of the new concept in space vehicles took astronauts John Young and Robert Crippen into an Earth-orbital mission scheduled to last for 54 hours, concluding with upowered landing at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.

  7. Intestinal microbiota promote enteric virus replication and systemic pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Sharon K; Best, Gavin T; Etheredge, Chris A; Pruijssers, Andrea J; Frierson, Johnna M; Hooper, Lora V; Dermody, Terence S; Pfeiffer, Julie K

    2011-10-14

    Intestinal bacteria aid host health and limit bacterial pathogen colonization. However, the influence of bacteria on enteric viruses is largely unknown. We depleted the intestinal microbiota of mice with antibiotics before inoculation with poliovirus, an enteric virus. Antibiotic-treated mice were less susceptible to poliovirus disease and supported minimal viral replication in the intestine. Exposure to bacteria or their N-acetylglucosamine-containing surface polysaccharides, including lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, enhanced poliovirus infectivity. We found that poliovirus binds lipopolysaccharide, and exposure of poliovirus to bacteria enhanced host cell association and infection. The pathogenesis of reovirus, an unrelated enteric virus, also was more severe in the presence of intestinal microbes. These results suggest that antibiotic-mediated microbiota depletion diminishes enteric virus infection and that enteric viruses exploit intestinal microbes for replication and transmission. PMID:21998395

  8. Entering First-Year Residents' Experiences and Knowledge of Infection Control of Hepatitis B and HIV, at Five University-Affiliated Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Angella; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 149 entering first-year medical residents concerning experiences with and knowledge of infection control investigated occurrence and patterns of accidental needle-sticking and reporting, student immunization for Hepatitis B, and instruction in universal precautions. It is concluded that students are at risk for needle-sticking, but

  9. Entering First-Year Residents' Experiences and Knowledge of Infection Control of Hepatitis B and HIV, at Five University-Affiliated Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Angella; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 149 entering first-year medical residents concerning experiences with and knowledge of infection control investigated occurrence and patterns of accidental needle-sticking and reporting, student immunization for Hepatitis B, and instruction in universal precautions. It is concluded that students are at risk for needle-sticking, but…

  10. Student Equity Policy: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Gus

    Following the introduction of first-time student fees in the California Community Colleges (CCC) in 1984, minority student enrollments decreased markedly. A special statewide symposium was convened by the Board of Governors (BOG) of the CCC, and in 1986 a major policy statement was adopted to improve minority student access and achievement. In…

  11. Enteric microbiota leads to new therapeutic strategies for ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Xu; Ren, Li-Hua; Shi, Rui-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a leading form of inflammatory bowel disease that involves chronic relapsing or progressive inflammation. As a significant proportion of UC patients treated with conventional therapies do not achieve remission, there is a pressing need for the development of more effective therapies. The human gut contains a large, diverse, and dynamic population of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the enteric microbiota. There is a symbiotic relationship between the human host and the enteric microbiota, which provides nutrition, protection against pathogenic organisms, and promotes immune homeostasis. An imbalance of the normal enteric microbiota composition (termed dysbiosis) underlies the pathogenesis of UC. A reduction of enteric microbiota diversity has been observed in UC patients, mainly affecting the butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which can repress pro-inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that enteric microbiota plays an important role in anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities, which can benefit UC patients. Therefore, manipulation of the dysbiosis is an attractive approach for UC therapy. Various therapies targeting a restoration of the enteric microbiota have shown efficacy in treating patients with active and chronic forms of UC. Such therapies include fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, helminth therapy, and dietary polyphenols, all of which can alter the abundance and composition of the enteric microbiota. Although there have been many large, randomized controlled clinical trials assessing these treatments, the effectiveness and safety of these bacteria-driven therapies need further evaluation. This review focuses on the important role that the enteric microbiota plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and discusses new therapeutic strategies targeting the enteric microbiota for UC. PMID:25400449

  12. Enteric microbiota leads to new therapeutic strategies for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Xu; Ren, Li-Hua; Shi, Rui-Hua

    2014-11-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a leading form of inflammatory bowel disease that involves chronic relapsing or progressive inflammation. As a significant proportion of UC patients treated with conventional therapies do not achieve remission, there is a pressing need for the development of more effective therapies. The human gut contains a large, diverse, and dynamic population of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the enteric microbiota. There is a symbiotic relationship between the human host and the enteric microbiota, which provides nutrition, protection against pathogenic organisms, and promotes immune homeostasis. An imbalance of the normal enteric microbiota composition (termed dysbiosis) underlies the pathogenesis of UC. A reduction of enteric microbiota diversity has been observed in UC patients, mainly affecting the butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which can repress pro-inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that enteric microbiota plays an important role in anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities, which can benefit UC patients. Therefore, manipulation of the dysbiosis is an attractive approach for UC therapy. Various therapies targeting a restoration of the enteric microbiota have shown efficacy in treating patients with active and chronic forms of UC. Such therapies include fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, helminth therapy, and dietary polyphenols, all of which can alter the abundance and composition of the enteric microbiota. Although there have been many large, randomized controlled clinical trials assessing these treatments, the effectiveness and safety of these bacteria-driven therapies need further evaluation. This review focuses on the important role that the enteric microbiota plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and discusses new therapeutic strategies targeting the enteric microbiota for UC. PMID:25400449

  13. Adaptation and growth kinetics study of an Indian isolate of virulent duck enteritis virus in Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S; Kamble, Nitin M; Gaikwad, Satish S; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2015-01-01

    Duck virus enteritis, also known as duck plague, is a viral infection of ducks caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV). The control of the disease is mainly done by vaccination with chicken embryo adapted live virus that is known to be poorly immunogenic and elicits only partial protection. Further, the embryo propagated vaccine virus pose a threat of harboring other infectious agents. Seeing these limitations, the present study reports for the first time regarding propagation and adaptation of a virulent Indian isolate of duck enteritis virus in Vero cell line. In this study isolation of an outbreak virus from Kerala state was done in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEF). Then adapted the DEV isolate in the Vero cell line. The characteristic cytopathic effects (CPE) of clumping and fusion of Vero cells were observed starting from the 7th passage onwards. The presence of the virus and its multiplication in Vero cells was confirmed by detection of viral specific DNA and antigen by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immuno fluorescent assay (IIFA), respectively. PCR detection of DEV using self designed primers for US4 (gD) and UL30 (DNA Polymerase) gene has been reported for the in the present study. The kinetics of DEV in Vero cells revealed a maximum infectivity titer of 10(5.6) TCID 50/ml after 48hr of viral infection. Compared to chicken embryo adapted DVE vaccine virus, the Vero cell culture system is free from other infectious agents. So it will be a good candidate for cultivation and propagation of duck enteritis virus vaccine strain. Further research studies are suggested to explore the feasibility of utilizing this Vero cell culture adapted DEV isolate for developing an attenuated vaccine virus against duck virus enteritis. PMID:25450886

  14. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-12-15

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  15. Enteric infections, diarrhea, and their impact on function and development

    PubMed Central

    Petri, William A.; Miller, Mark; Binder, Henry J.; Levine, Myron M.; Dillingham, Rebecca; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Enteric infections, with or without overt diarrhea, have profound effects on intestinal absorption, nutrition, and childhood development as well as on global mortality. Oral rehydration therapy has reduced the number of deaths from dehydration caused by infection with an enteric pathogen, but it has not changed the morbidity caused by such infections. This Review focuses on the interactions between enteric pathogens and human genetic determinants that alter intestinal function and inflammation and profoundly impair human health and development. We also discuss specific implications for novel approaches to interventions that are now opened by our rapidly growing molecular understanding. PMID:18382740

  16. Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Predict First-Time Coronary Heart Disease: An 8-Year Follow-Up of a Community-Based Middle Aged Population

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Peter; Jonasson, Lena; Nilsson, Lennart; Falk, Magnus; Kristenson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Background The enzyme in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been suggested to be an important determinant of plaque degradation. While several studies have shown elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease, results in prospective population based studies evaluating MMP-9 in relation to first time coronary events have been inconclusive. As of today, there are four published studies which have measured MMP-9 in serum and none using plasma. Measures of MMP-9 in serum have been suggested to have more flaws than measures in plasma. Aim To investigate the independent association between plasma levels of MMP-9 and first-time incidence of coronary events in an 8-year follow-up. Material and Methods 428 men and 438 women, aged 45–69 years, free of previous coronary events and stroke at baseline, were followed-up. Adjustments were made for sex, age, socioeconomic position, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease at baseline, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Results 53 events were identified during a risk-time of 6 607 person years. Hazard ratio (HR) for MMP-9 after adjustment for all covariates were HR = 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02, p = 0.033). Overall, the effect of adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors was low. Conclusion Levels of plasma MMP-9 are independently associated with risk of first-time CHD events, regardless of adjustments. These results are in contrast to previous prospective population-based studies based on MMP-9 in serum. It is essential that more studies look at MMP-9 levels in plasma to further evaluate the association with first coronary events. PMID:26389803

  17. Continuation rates of oral hormonal contraceptives in a cohort of first-time users: a population-based registry study, Sweden 20052010

    PubMed Central

    Josefsson, Ann; Wirhn, Ann-Britt; Lindberg, Malou; Foldemo, Anniqa; Brynhildsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate if continuation rates in first-time users of oral hormonal contraceptives differed between different formulations and to measure if the rates were related to the prescribing categories, that is, physicians and midwives. Design A longitudinal national population-based registry study. Setting The Swedish prescribed drug register. Participants All women born between 1977 and 1994 defined as first-time users of hormonal contraceptives from 2007 to 2009 (n=226?211). Main outcome measures A tendency to switch the type of hormonal contraceptive within 6?months use and repeated dispensation identical to the first were estimated as percentages and relative risks (RRs). Physicians and midwives prescription patterns concerning the women's continuation rates of oral hormonal contraceptive type. Results In Sweden, there were 782?375 women born between 1977 and 1994 at the time of the study. Of these, 226?211 women were identified as first-time users of hormonal contraceptives. Ethinylestradiol+levonorgestrel, desogestrel-only and ethinylestradiol+drospirenone were the hormonal contraceptives most commonly dispensed to first-time users at rates of 43.3%, 24.4% and 11.1%, respectively. The overall rate of switching contraceptive types in the first 6?months was 11.3%, which was highest for desogestrel-only (14.3%) and lowest for ethinylestradiol+drospirenone (6.6%). The switching rate for all three products was highest in the 16-year to 19-year age group. Having a repeated dispensation identical to the initial dispensation was highest for users of ethinylestradiol either combined with levonorgestrel or drospirenone, 81.4% and 81.2%, respectively, whereas this rate for the initial desogestrel-only users was 71.5%. The RR of switching of contraceptive type within the first 6?months was 1.35 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.39) for desogestrel-only and 0.63 (0.59 to 0.66) for ethinylestradiol+drospirenone compared with ethinylestradiol+levonorgestrel as the reference category. There were no differences in the women's continuation rates depending on the prescriber categories. Conclusions Desogestrel-only users conferred the highest switcher rate to another hormonal contraceptive within a 6-month period. Users of ethinylestradiol+levonorgestrel were more prone to switch to another product within 6?months than women using ethinylestradiol+drospirenone. These findings may be of clinical importance when tailoring hormonal contraceptives on an individual basis. PMID:24141970

  18. An Outbreak of Food-Borne Typhoid Fever Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in Japan Reported for the First Time in 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Uryu, Hideko; Yamada, Ritsuko; Kashiwa, Naoyuki; Nei, Takahito; Ehara, Akihito; Takei, Reiko; Mori, Nobuaki; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hayasaka, Tomomi; Kagawa, Narito; Sugawara, Momoko; Suzaki, Ai; Takahashi, Yuno; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in 16 years, a food-borne outbreak of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was reported in Japan. Seven patients consumed food in an Indian buffet at a restaurant in the center of Tokyo, while one was a Nepali chef in the restaurant, an asymptomatic carrier and the implicated source of this outbreak. The multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed 100% consistency in the genomic sequence for five of the eight cases. PMID:26621565

  19. An Outbreak of Food-Borne Typhoid Fever Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in Japan Reported for the First Time in 16 Years.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Uryu, Hideko; Yamada, Ritsuko; Kashiwa, Naoyuki; Nei, Takahito; Ehara, Akihito; Takei, Reiko; Mori, Nobuaki; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hayasaka, Tomomi; Kagawa, Narito; Sugawara, Momoko; Suzaki, Ai; Takahashi, Yuno; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    For the first time in 16 years, a food-borne outbreak of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was reported in Japan. Seven patients consumed food in an Indian buffet at a restaurant in the center of Tokyo, while one was a Nepali chef in the restaurant, an asymptomatic carrier and the implicated source of this outbreak. The multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed 100% consistency in the genomic sequence for five of the eight cases. PMID:26621565

  20. A Smooth Transition? Education and Social Expectations of Direct Entry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Paul; D'Annunzio-Green, Norma

    2009-01-01

    While the most common type of student entering higher education falls within the 17-19-year-old age group, universities in the UK are keen to accept other categories of students onto programmes as a means of increasing diversity and maintaining student numbers in the latter portion of a programme. One such category is those students who enter a…

  1. Inactivation of Geminin in neural crest cells affects the generation and maintenance of enteric progenitor cells, leading to enteric aganglionosis.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulou, Athanasia; Natarajan, Dipa; Nikolopoulou, Pinelopi; Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Lygerou, Zoi; Pachnis, Vassilis; Taraviras, Stavros

    2016-01-15

    Neural crest cells comprise a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates a diverse array of cell and tissue types, during vertebrate development. Enteric Nervous System controls the function of the gastrointestinal tract and is mainly derived from the vagal and sacral neural crest cells. Deregulation on self-renewal and differentiation of the enteric neural crest cells is evident in enteric nervous system disorders, such as Hirschsprung disease, characterized by the absence of ganglia in a variable length of the distal bowel. Here we show that Geminin is essential for Enteric Nervous System generation as mice that lacked Geminin expression specifically in neural crest cells revealed decreased generation of vagal neural crest cells, and enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs). Geminin-deficient ENCCs showed increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation during the early stages of gut colonization. Furthermore, decreased number of committed ENCCs in vivo and the decreased self-renewal capacity of enteric progenitor cells in vitro, resulted in almost total aganglionosis resembling a severe case of Hirschsprung disease. Our results suggest that Geminin is an important regulator of self-renewal and survival of enteric nervous system progenitor cells. PMID:26658318

  2. Enteral nutrition support to treat malnutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Altomare, Roberta; Damiano, Giuseppe; Abruzzo, Alida; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Tomasello, Giovanni; Buscemi, Salvatore; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Diet has an important role in the management of IBD, as it prevents and corrects malnutrition. It is well known that diet may be implicated in the aetiology of IBD and that it plays a central role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal-tract disease. Often oral nutrition alone is not sufficient in the management of IBD patients, especially in children or the elderly, and must be combined with oral supplementation or replaced with tube enteral nutrition. In this review, we describe several different approaches to enteral nutrition-total parenteral, oral supplementation and enteral tube feeding-in terms of results, patients compliance, risks and and benefits. We also focus on the home enteral nutrition strategy as the future goal for treating IBD while focusing on patient wellness. PMID:25816159

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of Enteric Neurotransmission by Gut Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Savidge, Tor C

    2015-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on bacterial metabolite regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine. PMID:26778967

  4. Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Roth, James A; Saif, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viral infections in domestic animals cause significant economic losses. The recent emergence of virulent enteric coronaviruses [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)] in North America and Asia, for which no vaccines are available, remains a challenge for the global swine industry. Vaccination strategies against rotavirus and coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infections are reviewed. These vaccination principles are applicable against emerging enteric infections such as PEDV. Maternal vaccines to induce lactogenic immunity, and their transmission to suckling neonates via colostrum and milk, are critical for early passive protection. Subsequently, in weaned animals, oral vaccines incorporating novel mucosal adjuvants (e.g., vitamin A, probiotics) may provide active protection when maternal immunity wanes. Understanding intestinal and systemic immune responses to experimental rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccines and infection in pigs provides a basis and model for the development of safe and effective vaccines for young animals and children against established and emerging enteric infections. PMID:25387111

  5. Enteric virus and vibrio contamination of shellfish: intervention strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION. Molluscan shellfish include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles, which can cause illnesses from a variety of human pathogens. Enteric viruses, like norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are generally transmitted to shellfish through fecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas, alth...

  6. Mitigating enteric methane emissions: Where are the biggest opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. These include alterations in feeding management and nutrition, addition of compounds to modify rumen function, genetic improvements to increase animal lifetime productivity (including health and...

  7. LRO Enters Lunar Orbit (Highlights) - Duration: 2 minutes, 33 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    After a four and a half day journey from the Earth, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, successfully entered orbit around the moon. Engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbel...

  8. 221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail fence. The pond was a manipulated landscape element. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  9. Avian necrotic enteritis: Experimental models, climate change, and vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes recent developments in disease models, pathogenesis, host immunity, risk factors, and vaccine development for Clostridium perfringens infection of poultry and necrotic enteritis (NE). The increasing trends of legislative restrictions and voluntary removal of antibiotic growth...

  10. Crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons regulates gastrointestinal motility.

    PubMed

    Muller, Paul Andrew; Koscsó, Balázs; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; Stevanovic, Korey; Berres, Marie-Luise; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Leboeuf, Marylene; Li, Xiu-Min; Mucida, Daniel; Stanley, E Richard; Dahan, Stephanie; Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Merad, Miriam; Bogunovic, Milena

    2014-07-17

    Intestinal peristalsis is a dynamic physiologic process influenced by dietary and microbial changes. It is tightly regulated by complex cellular interactions; however, our understanding of these controls is incomplete. A distinct population of macrophages is distributed in the intestinal muscularis externa. We demonstrate that, in the steady state, muscularis macrophages regulate peristaltic activity of the colon. They change the pattern of smooth muscle contractions by secreting bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which activates BMP receptor (BMPR) expressed by enteric neurons. Enteric neurons, in turn, secrete colony stimulatory factor 1 (CSF1), a growth factor required for macrophage development. Finally, stimuli from microbial commensals regulate BMP2 expression by macrophages and CSF1 expression by enteric neurons. Our findings identify a plastic, microbiota-driven crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons that controls gastrointestinal motility. PAPERFLICK: PMID:25036630

  11. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  12. Epigenetic Regulation of Enteric Neurotransmission by Gut Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Savidge, Tor C.

    2016-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on bacterial metabolite regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine. PMID:26778967

  13. Is enteral nutrition a primary therapy in cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Bozzetti, F

    1994-01-01

    At present, there is limited evidence for the role of enteral nutrition as a primary therapy in cancer patients. Cachexia commonly occurs in patients with advanced cancer. A consensus view from a large number of studies suggests that cachexia cannot be fully reversed by vigorous enteral nutritional support. A review is included of the available data on the effects of enteral nutritional support on the common indices of nutritional state and on the final outcome of patients receiving enteral nutrition in conjunction with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or both. The 'nutritional' effects are probably limited because the duration of the nutritional support in most studies consists of a few weeks while malnutrition in the cancer patients often occurs over many months. PMID:8125395

  14. 31. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AS THE TRAM ENTERED THE GRAVITY TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AS THE TRAM ENTERED THE GRAVITY TRAM LINE, IT CROSSED THIS CUT-STONE BRIDGE AND WAS CONTROLLED BY THE SWITCHING PLATFORM IN THE BACKGROUND - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  15. Development of reference antisera to enteric-origin avian viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent molecular surveys have revealed geographically distinct lineages of avian reovirus, rotavirus and astrovirus circulating in commercial poultry. To improve our understanding of enteric virus pathogenesis, specific immunological reagents are needed to detect viruses in histological samples. To ...

  16. [The use experience of enteral nutrition pump (Applix Smart)].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Shirai, Atsushi; Uryu, Shinichi; Kikuchi, Shiro; Momozono, Shinobu; Shimizu, Haruyuki

    2006-12-01

    Nutritional management by using enteral feeding method of nutrition is required for patients of gastroenterological disease with functional disorder in digestion-absorption, and for cases where the patients have difficulty in taking food orally. There are many cases where enteral nutrition pumps are used for administration of nutritious medicines. Approximately 150 enteral nutrition pumps (including house use and home rental) have currently been utilized at our facility. The department of ME Center takes care of enteral nutrition pumps for maintenance and control. On the other hand, we needed to conduct a study for a new pump in replacing Frenta System IV due to the pump was no longer available. At this presentation, we are introducing a new pump manufactured by Fresenius as a replacement of the Frenta System IV. In the meantime, we would like to report a comparison examination of the pump based on its functionality, performance and user friendliness from the view from a clinical technologist as well. PMID:17469365

  17. NORTHERN END OF VIADUCT WHERE IT ENTERS BATTERY STREET TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHERN END OF VIADUCT WHERE IT ENTERS BATTERY STREET TUNNEL. LAKE UNION VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. TUNNEL PROCEEDS IN CUT AND COVER FASHION DIRECTLY BENEATH BATTERY STREET. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  18. Crosstalk between Muscularis Macrophages and Enteric Neurons Regulates Gastrointestinal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Paul Andrew; Koscsó, Balázs; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; Stevanovic, Korey; Berres, Marie-Luise; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Leboeuf, Marylene; Li, Xiu-Min; Mucida, Daniel; Stanley, E. Richard; Dahan, Stephanie; Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Merad, Miriam; Bogunovic, Milena

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal peristalsis is a dynamic physiologic process influenced by dietary and microbial changes. It is tightly regulated by complex cellular interactions; however, our understanding of these controls is incomplete. A distinct population of macrophages is distributed in the intestinal muscularis externa. We demonstrate that in the steady state muscularis macrophages regulate peristaltic activity of the colon. They change the pattern of smooth muscle contractions by secreting bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which activates BMP receptor (BMPR) expressed by enteric neurons. Enteric neurons, in turn, secrete colony stimulatory factor 1 (CSF1), a growth factor required for macrophage development. Finally, stimuli from microbial commensals regulate BMP2 expression by macrophages and CSF1 expression by enteric neurons. Our findings identify a plastic, microbiota-driven, crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons, which controls gastrointestinal motility. PMID:25036630

  19. 6. DOUBLE METAL DOORS ON WEST SIDE WITH CABLES ENTERING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DOUBLE METAL DOORS ON WEST SIDE WITH CABLES ENTERING GROUND AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  20. Payload Commander Janice E. Voss prepares to enter Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-83 Payload Commander Janice E. Voss prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Columbia at Launch Pad 39A after getting assistance from the white room closeout crew that included Bob Saulnier (right).