Science.gov

Sample records for first-time entering students

  1. CYCC's Entering First-time Freshmen, and Transfer Students, Fall, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, E. B.

    In order to obtain a profile of Central YMCA Community College (CYCC) entering students, CYCC participated in the 1975 American Council on Education and UCLA survey of incoming freshman students. At CYCC, the survey was administered in class to 322 students (187 first-time, full-time freshmen, 133 transfers-in, and 12 part-time freshmen). The…

  2. Steady Stream of High School Graduates Enter B.C. Public Post-Secondary Education for the First Time Each Year. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Transitions Project, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Student Transition project (STP) has collected eleven years of grade 12 and post-secondary enrollment data, since it's inception in 2003. This information is used to track student transitions from grade 12 graduation into post-secondary education, student mobility between post-secondary institutions and post-secondary credential completions.…

  3. The Impact of Study Abroad on Academic Success: An Analysis of First-Time Students Entering Old Dominion University, Virginia, 2000-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Min; de Silva, Chandra R.; Neufeldt, Ellen; Dane, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a widespread assumption that study abroad develops skills that are marketable in an increasingly global market. Students at many institutions, including Old Dominion University (ODU), have undertaken study abroad mostly after their sophomore year, well after they have chosen a major. The profile of U.S. students studying abroad compiled…

  4. Fall 1986 First-Time Community College Student Transfer Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    In 1992, 27 Illinois community college districts (38 colleges) participated in a national transfer study conducted by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC). The purpose of the study was to test a model for calculating transfer rates which used as its cohort group those students entering a community college in fall 1986 with no…

  5. Your Child Goes to School: A Handbook for Parents of Children Entering School for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    The five chapters in this handbook, intended for parents of children entering kindergarten for the first time, offer suggestions about how parents can help their child get ready for school and make starting kindergarten a successful and happy event. Chapter 1 describes when learning begins and offers tips for helping children who are starting…

  6. Your Child Goes to School: A Handbook for Parents of Children Entering School for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    The five chapters in this handbook, intended for parents of children entering kindergarten for the first time, offer suggestions about how parents can make starting kindergarten a successful and happy event for their child, and how parents can help their child get ready for school. The first chapter contains sections that describe when learning…

  7. Analysis of the Enrollment Loss among First-Time-in-College Students Attending Miami-Dade Community College. Research Report No. 95-07R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brann, Herman I.

    From fall 1990 to fall 1994, Florida's Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) experienced a decline in enrollment among first-time-in-college students. To determine reasons for the decline, M-DCC examined characteristics and high school of origin of first-time students in the period, categorizing students as direct-entry (i.e., entering within 1…

  8. Perceptions of First-Time in College Community College Students Regarding Factors and Barriers for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Deana K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of first-generation first-time in college (FTIC) students who have completed a student success course (Learning Frameworks: First-Year Experience-EDUC 1300) at the community college level regarding (a) factors that enable them to succeed and (b) factors that are barriers to their success. A…

  9. Small Business Planning and Management for the First-Time Entrepreneur. Instructor's Resource Manual. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William H.; Connelly, Donald F.

    This instructor's resource manual and student workbook accompany the textbook of the same name. The manual is intended to help the teacher working with the small business manager and first-time entrepreneur. Each chapter contains these sections: instructional goals; resource people; tips for follow-up activities at the end of each chapter;…

  10. Small Business Planning and Management for the First-Time Entrepreneur. Instructor's Resource Manual. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, William H.; Connelly, Donald F.

    This instructor's resource manual and student workbook accompany the textbook of the same name. The manual is intended to help the teacher working with the small business manager and first-time entrepreneur. Each chapter contains these sections: instructional goals; resource people; tips for follow-up activities at the end of each chapter;…

  11. Rites of Pedagogical Passage: How Graduate Student Instructors Negotiate the Challenges of First-Time Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smollin, Leandra M.; Arluke, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of the first-time teaching experience of graduate instructors, drawing on interview and focus group data from 35 sociology students in a doctoral program at a large university in the United States. Results indicate the majority of graduate instructors felt a great deal of anxiety due to challenges they faced when…

  12. Persistence and Attainment of 2011-12 First-Time Postsecondary Students after 3 Years. First Look. NCES 2016-401

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole; Radford, Alexandria Walton; Wu, Joanna; Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Wilson, David; Hill, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a "first look" at selected findings from the 2012/14 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12/14). It is based on final data describing a nationally representative sample of undergraduates who entered postsecondary education for the first time during the 2011-12 academic year. BPS:12/14 covers the…

  13. Students' Reasons for Entering the Educational Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Sandra

    This study examined why students decide to enter teaching as a profession through a survey of college students majoring in education at Northwestern Oklahoma State University. The study used triangulation with a data search, an anonymous survey, and an open-ended questionnaire. The 100 surveys were distributed randomly to junior and senior…

  14. Benchmarking & Benchmarks: Effective Practice with Entering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If it takes a village to raise a child, it takes a strong network of committed colleagues to launch an initiative like "SENSE." From its conception in fall 2006 to the first national administration in fall 2009, the Survey of Entering Student Engagement ("SENSE") has been supported by key individuals and groups, without whom there would have been…

  15. Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) 2000 Survey Results: First-Time, Full-Time Students Institutional Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Barbara; Richardson, Odette Marie

    This document is a report on the 2000 Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) survey results from first-time, full-time students at Mt. San Antonio College (SAC) (California). The survey gathered data on student demographics, background experiences, college expectations, attitudes, and opinions. It was administered to 1,000 students, 867…

  16. Perceived Quality of Service and Behavioral Intentions of First-Time Students Enrolled at The University of North Carolina Asheville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Patrice Black

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the SERVQUAL (Service Quality Instrument) to examine the perceptions of first-time enrolled students at University of North Carolina Asheville regarding the services they receive from a selected group of departments in the university's One Stop area. In addition, the study examined whether a relationship…

  17. The Influence of a Career Exploration Course on New First-Time Student Retention at a Public Midwest Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brenda F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between new first- time students enrolled in a career exploration course and retention during the academic years of 2009 to 2011 at a public Midwest community college. Change of major after the first semester was also investigated. The study utilized quantitative, archival data…

  18. Evaluation of an Online Alcohol Education Program for First-Time-in-College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Elayne R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has maintained its place as a major issue in American higher education since its inception. Although dangerous drinking has always proliferated among college students, institutions have only provided alcohol and other drug (AOD) education and interventions encouraging students to adapt less harmful habits for a…

  19. Evaluation of an Online Alcohol Education Program for First-Time-in-College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Elayne R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has maintained its place as a major issue in American higher education since its inception. Although dangerous drinking has always proliferated among college students, institutions have only provided alcohol and other drug (AOD) education and interventions encouraging students to adapt less harmful habits for a…

  20. Predictors of Persistence for First-Time, Full-Time Community and Technical College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Although significant research exists on the causes of student attrition, minimal research has examined how combinations of student variables and institutional practices interact to predict student persistence. The purpose of this research was to identify the extent to which course registration time, low-income status, and transfer-oriented goals…

  1. Comparison of Spatial Skills of Students Entering Different Engineering Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veurink, N.; Sorby, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown to be important to success in an engineering curriculum, and some question if poor spatial skills prevent students from entering STEM fields or if students with weak spatial skills avoid engineering disciplines believed to highly spatially-oriented. Veurink and Hamlin (2011) found that freshmen students entering…

  2. Spring 1981 Non-Continuing Student Survey; Fall 1980 Entering Students. Student Flow Program, Report 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Kapiolani Community Coll.

    As part of a student flow project designed to monitor the progress of students who entered Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Fall 1980 for five consecutive semesters, a survey was conducted of the 753 Fall 1980 entering students who did not re-enroll in Spring 1981. The survey instrument asked respondents to: (1) indicate their main reason for…

  3. Decision to Enter the Profession of Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Deborah J.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider factors that graduate students in master's degree programs in student affairs identify as influential to their decisions to enter the student affairs profession. A total of 300 master's students from 24 randomly selected graduate programs participated in the study. Relatively few differences were found…

  4. The First Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Beth

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates her experience of meeting a Montessori kid for the first time and shares the characteristics she observed in Montessori students. The author was working as director of academic resources in university housing at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and met Jason, a pre-med sophomore who was the resident…

  5. Comparison of Spatial Skills of Students Entering Different Engineering Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veurink, N.; Sorby, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown to be important to success in an engineering curriculum, and some question if poor spatial skills prevent students from entering STEM fields or if students with weak spatial skills avoid engineering disciplines believed to highly spatially-oriented. Veurink and Hamlin (2011) found that freshmen students entering…

  6. Overconfidence of Vocational Education Students When Entering Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Mark P.; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Bahtsevanoglou, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is evidence that students who attend Technical and Further Education (TAFE) prior to entering higher education underperform in their first year of study. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-efficacy in understanding the performance of students who completed TAFE in the previous year in a first year subject of…

  7. Experiences and Engagement Levels of Entering Community College Students and Returning Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De los Reyes, Maria Oralia

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore the differences in engagement levels between entering and returning community college students, the researcher analyzed 13,300 surveys from the 2007 Survey of Entering Student Engagement (SENSE) pilot data set utilizing a quantitative methodology. This study focused on analyzing engagement levels of entering and returning…

  8. Enteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  9. Ecologia: The Assumptions, Expectations, and Strategies of Modern Language Students Working in a Self-Access Learning Environment for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Alison

    1994-01-01

    This study examined 29 second-year undergraduate students of Spanish using a self-access learning environment for the first time, focusing on their language attitudes and learning strategies. The results show that, even as modern languages majors, the students possessed a model of language and strategies for learning that were significantly…

  10. Substance use by surgical residents and students entering surgery.

    PubMed

    Bunch, W H; Storr, C L; Hughes, P H; Baldwin, D C

    1996-02-15

    We studied the use of alcohol, tobacco, and nine unprescribed or illegal substances by surgical residents and medical students accepted into surgical programs. With the exception of alcohol, surgical residents had less lifetime experience and used less than other residents or nonmedical college graduates. Students entering surgery had used these substances more frequently and were more likely to be using them regularly than were residents. Residency directors need to be aware of the change in attitude and use patterns of present residents as compared with those of the past. PMID:8769951

  11. The Bird's Eye View of Community Colleges: A Behavioral Typology of First-Time Students Based on Cluster Analytic Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2010-01-01

    The development of a typology of community college students is a topic of long-standing and growing interest among educational researchers, policy-makers, administrators, and other stakeholders, but prior work on this topic has been limited in a number of important ways. In this paper, I develop a behavioral typology based on students

  12. The Bird's Eye View of Community Colleges: A Behavioral Typology of First-Time Students Based on Cluster Analytic Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2010-01-01

    The development of a typology of community college students is a topic of long-standing and growing interest among educational researchers, policy-makers, administrators, and other stakeholders, but prior work on this topic has been limited in a number of important ways. In this paper, I develop a behavioral typology based on students'…

  13. First Time International College Students' Level of Anxiety in Relationship to Awareness of Their Learning-Style Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Arlene Shorter

    2011-01-01

    Given the receptivity of American colleges to international students, administrators and professors must recognize the diversity such registrants bring to campus in the form of achievement, age, gender, language, and national differences. The purpose of this study was to compare learning style preferences of international first year college…

  14. A Study to Determine the Career Development Needs of All Entering College Students, Not Just the Open Major Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, William Dale

    The career development needs of students entering college with declared majors were investigated. The Goodson Career Development Survey was administered to 2,153 students entering 11 colleges on the campus of Brigham Young University. Approximately three-fourths of the students were new freshmen and one-fourth were lower division transfer students…

  15. Characteristics and Opinions of Entering Undergraduate Students at Montana State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulniak, Dennis J.

    Montana State University's (MSU) use of the Student-Outcomes Information Services (SOIS), developed jointly by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) and the College Board for surveying the characteristics and opinions of entering undergraduate students, is examined. The Entering-Student Questionnaire, one of five…

  16. Species of Entering Freshmen: A Typological Study of an Entering Class. Student Orientation Survey III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Robert E.

    Since new student orientation programs are planned to help the college assimilate large numbers of incoming students into its community with a minimum of agitation and to help the student to effectively adapt to unfamiliar surroundings quickly and effectively, orientation planners must clearly understand the manner in which students interact with…

  17. Importance of Computer Competencies for Entering JCCC Students: A Survey of Faculty and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weglarz, Shirley

    Johnson County Community College (JCCC) conducted a survey in response to faculty comments regarding entering students' lack of rudimentary computer skills. Faculty were spending time in non-computer related classes teaching students basic computer skills. The aim of the survey was to determine what the basic computer competencies for entering…

  18. Recruiting and retaining geoscience students at a large public university: Balancing the needs of first-time freshman and upper-division transfer students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. D.; Clemens-Knott, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Geological Sciences at California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) is one of the largest geology programs in the state. Approximately 4,000 students at CSUF take general education geology classes; this provides a large pool from which to recruit undergraduate students for either the Geology B.S. or Earth Sciences B.A. offered by the department. The department has seen a dramatic increase in majors over the last decade, from a low of 28 majors in 2002 to more than 110 in 2012. This increase does not appear to be driven by growth in the oil industry; in a recent survey of CSUF geoscience (BS or BA) students, 15% of respondents indicated an interest in a career in petroleum. The department has engaged in aggressive recruitment and outreach efforts over the last decade, with activities ranging from earthquake preparedness rallies in conjunction with the annual California ShakeOut, to an emerging high school and community college intern program at the department's paleontology curation facility. Despite these efforts, the majority of CSUF geoscience students declared the geology major after taking an introductory physical geology course either at CSUF or a local community college. Over the last ten years, approximately 50% of the geoscience majors at CSUF transferred from a community college. Among the geoscience students who began their career at CSUF, only one third had declared a geoscience major in their freshman year. Over two thirds of geoscience majors at CSUF declared their major after completing more than 60 units. The strong tendency for students to declare a geoscience major late in their career poses significant challenges to students' ability to graduate in a timely manner. To mitigate this problem, the department has an aggressive advising program, wherein students attend mandatory advising with a faculty member every semester. The department is also working closely with community college partners to improve the preparation of transfer students through advising partnerships facilitated by the NSF-sponsored STEM2 program, and through active collaboration in implementing a geology "Associate's Degree-for-Transfer" at community colleges under the framework of California's Student Transfer Achievement Reform Act (SB 1440).

  19. Knowledge Structures of Entering Computer Networking Students and Their Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Students bring prior knowledge to their learning experiences. This prior knowledge is known to affect how students encode and later retrieve new information learned. Teachers and content developers can use information about students' prior knowledge to create more effective lessons and materials. In many content areas, particularly the sciences,…

  20. Are STEM High School Students Entering the STEM Pipeline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, M. Suzanne; Patel, Nimisha H.; Lindsey, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the career skills and interests for students in two STEM schools to national data. Students completed the KUDER skills assessment and career planning online tools. Results were compared across school, grade level, and sex. The results provided evidence that STEM high school students expressed career intents in predominately…

  1. A Statistical Comparison of First Time Praxis II Pass Rates between Homegrown 4 Year Students and Transfer Students of a Medium Size Suburban University: A Six Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jason Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the federal mandate specified by the No Child Left Behind Act to demonstrate content competency for teaching certification, students must pass a written examination. Missouri and 37 other states chose the Praxis II to satisfy requirements. Presently, schools of education advertise the passing rate of the Praxis II as 100%, since…

  2. A Measure of Student Success: First-Time Full-Time Students Four Years After Entry. Report RB91-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Accountability mandates from accrediting agencies and state government require community colleges to report student graduation and transfer rates. State reporting systems maintained by the Maryland Higher Education Commission (MHEC) provide one means of computing these measures. MHEC used fall enrollment and degree data to determine graduation and…

  3. Implementation of a Study Skills Program for Entering At-Risk Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia J.

    2014-01-01

    While the first year of medical school is challenging for all students, there may be specific issues for students from rural areas, economically disadvantaged backgrounds, ethnic minorities, or nontraditional age groups. A Summer Prematriculation Program (SPP) was created to prepare entering at-risk students for the demands of medical school. For…

  4. Developing an Empirically Based Typology of Attitudes of Entering Students toward Participation in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter R.; Laufgraben, Jodi Levine; Morris, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Learning communities (LC) seek to strengthen and enrich students' connections to each other, their teachers, and the subject matter they are studying. Their success depends on the nature of the learning community program, the learning styles of the students who participate and the reasons why students entered the program. This study uses a…

  5. Flourishing, Substance Use, and Engagement in Students Entering College: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Kathryn Graff

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the association between positive mental health or flourishing, depression, and engaged learning in undergraduates. Participants: Entering first year students (N = 428) at a liberal arts college. Methods: Students completed measures of depression, flourishing, substance use, and student engagement. Results:…

  6. Flourishing, Substance Use, and Engagement in Students Entering College: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Kathryn Graff

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the association between positive mental health or flourishing, depression, and engaged learning in undergraduates. Participants: Entering first year students (N = 428) at a liberal arts college. Methods: Students completed measures of depression, flourishing, substance use, and student engagement. Results:…

  7. Implementation of a Study Skills Program for Entering At-Risk Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia J.

    2014-01-01

    While the first year of medical school is challenging for all students, there may be specific issues for students from rural areas, economically disadvantaged backgrounds, ethnic minorities, or nontraditional age groups. A Summer Prematriculation Program (SPP) was created to prepare entering at-risk students for the demands of medical school. For…

  8. Enter AGU student contest to win free Fall Meeting registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-07-01

    AGU is excited to announce its first Student Video and Student T-shirt Design competitions. This is an opportunity for students to display their artistic sides and share their creativity and love of science with the world. Entries could highlight an aspect of Earth or space science in an educational and/or entertaining way or showcase a career path in geophysical sciences. Winners of these student-only competitions will be awarded free registration to the 2012 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

  9. Entering Student Affairs: A Comparative Study of Graduate School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma; Eckman, Ellen; Strayhorn, Terrell

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the college choice process of graduate students in College Student Personnel programs at a public university and a private religiously affiliated university. Despite differences in size, mission, and location of the two institutions studied, the research findings show that respondent populations were similar demographically…

  10. Entering Student Affairs: A Comparative Study of Graduate School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma; Eckman, Ellen; Strayhorn, Terrell

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the college choice process of graduate students in College Student Personnel programs at a public university and a private religiously affiliated university. Despite differences in size, mission, and location of the two institutions studied, the research findings show that respondent populations were similar demographically…

  11. Diagnostic Tests for Entering and Departing Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, Chris; Kotlicki, A.

    2006-12-01

    A diagnostic test administered at the start of a class should test basic concepts which are recognized as course prerequisites. The questions should not be over-packaged: e.g. students should be required to create models, rather than this being done for them each time. Students should be allowed great latitude in their answers, so we can discover what they are thinking. When administered at the end of a class the goals should be similar: testing concepts taught in the class itself and the retention of necessary concepts from previous classes. Great care has to be taken to avoid teaching to the test. In assessing an entire program, for example an undergraduate majors degree in physics, then one looks for very general skills and knowledge not specific to any one course. The purpose of an undergraduate degree in physics (or indeed any science) is to equip the students with a set of problem-solving skills and basic knowledge which can be applied in a large variety of workplace settings and to allow that student to contribute to civic society as a science-literate person. The creator of any diagnostic test should always have these big goals in mind. We have developed a set of questions which we think fulfill these criteria, yet are not specific to any particular level of science education. They have been administered to students in secondary schools across Canada, incoming first-year science students and final-year physics students at the University of British Columbia. The results will be presented.

  12. Diagnostic Examination for Students Entering Graduate Study in Soil Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loynachan, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    Reports that students with soil science background performed better on a diagnostic examination; no relationship existed between exam performance and country of origin, degree sought, or undergraduate class quartile. Concludes that exam results, the grade received in a beginning graduate-level course and the cumulative graduate grade-point average…

  13. Statement on Competencies in Mathematics Expected of Entering College Students. April 2010. Revised May 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this" Statement on Competencies in Mathematics Expected of Entering College Students" is to provide a clear and coherent message about the mathematics that students need to know and to be able to do to be successful in college. While parts of this Statement were written with certain audiences in mind, the document as a whole…

  14. Who Are the Future Teachers in Turkey? Characteristics of Entering Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksu, Meral; Demir, Cennet Engin; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner; Kiraz, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the background characteristics, socio-cultural values and pedagogical beliefs that entering student teachers bring with them into the faculties of education and explores their possible implications for teacher education in the Turkish context. The study comprised 18,226 first-year student teachers from 51 faculties…

  15. Student Retention-Attrition Entering Freshmen--Fall 1968. Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Coll. Association, Murfreesboro. Center for Higher Education.

    This document presents a report of a study that was designed to determine the rate of retention of students enrolled in colleges and universities in Tennessee that physical facility needs of institutions in the state might be determined. The first year of study, 1968, was spent in compiling information on students entering Tennessee colleges and…

  16. Student Retention-Attrition Entering Freshmen--Fall 1968. Report 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Coll. Association, Murfreesboro. Center for Higher Education.

    This document presents a report of a study that was designed to determine the rate of retention of students enrolled in colleges and universities in Tennessee that physical facility needs of institutions in the state might be determined. The first year of the study, 1968, was spent in compiling information on students entering Tennessee colleges…

  17. Who Are the Future Teachers in Turkey? Characteristics of Entering Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksu, Meral; Demir, Cennet Engin; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner; Kiraz, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the background characteristics, socio-cultural values and pedagogical beliefs that entering student teachers bring with them into the faculties of education and explores their possible implications for teacher education in the Turkish context. The study comprised 18,226 first-year student teachers from 51 faculties…

  18. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Six-Year Study of the First-Time and Ultimate Bar Exam Results of Students According to Law School Admission Council (LSAC) Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Beard, J.

    2011-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics addresses the matriculating class of 2001-2007 according to their Law School Admission Council (LSAC) index. Generally, this report will offer information on the first time bar and ultimate performance on the Bar Exam of TMSL students. In addition, graduating GPA according to the LSAC index will also…

  19. Where the Sun Breezes Don't Stop Shining. Teachers' Journals and Students' Writings on First-Time Homebuying from the New American Homeowners Project, February-June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Catherine, Ed.

    The writings of both teachers and students participating in the New Americans Homeowners Project, a project combining English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and information on first-time home-buying for immigrants in language minority groups are presented. The project provided training and technical assistance to ESL teachers, and reached…

  20. Sense of Direction: The Importance of Helping Community College Students Select and Enter a Program of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) are committed to increasing the rate at which entering students persist to completion of a certificate or degree or transfer to a university. Recent research suggests that efforts to increase student success in community colleges need to focus on helping new students choose and enter a program of study. Too…

  1. The Imperial Valley College Freshman; A Demographic Study of the Full-Time Day Students Who Attended College for the First Time in the Fall Semester, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Ruth V.

    This comprehensive study incorporates as many characteristics as possible of 352 students in this agricultural region, an area much influenced by Mexican culture and by several other ethnic groups. The data came from student questionnaires, registration cards, and high school transcripts. With tables, discussion, and summary, the survey covers the…

  2. Persistence of L.A.C.C. Students Entering in Fall, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    This study of Los Angeles City College (LACC) attrition examined characteristics of 397 randomly selected students who entered in the fall of 1967. Summaries of the more important findings follow. Ninety per cent of the sample population persisted through the first semester, though only sixteen per cent returned to complete a fifth semester.…

  3. Burnout among Entering MSW Students: Exploring the Role of Personal Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Meekyung; Lee, Sang E.; Lee, Peter Allan

    2012-01-01

    Although individual susceptibility to burnout within a similar structural context is well-documented in other helping professions, little is known about the relationship between personal attributes and burnout in social work. Furthermore, despite a large number of entering MSW students with prior work experience, there is a paucity of research…

  4. A National Survey of Education Students: Some Data on Background, Habits, and Reasons for Entering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violato, Claudio; Travis, LeRoy D.

    1990-01-01

    A sample of 583 education students (217 males and 366 females) from 10 Canadian universities responded to a questionnaire on their backgrounds, habits, and outlooks. This study investigates variability associated with socioeconomic status, gender, parental background, rationale for entering education, and reading and mass media use habits. (TJH)

  5. Career influences among final year dental students who plan to enter private practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing research about the influence of educational debt on students’ decision to enter general practice immediately after graduation is conflicting. Other potential factors that could affect this decision include the influence of a spouse or other family member, the importance of a mentoring dentist, and how students perceive the burden of their debt. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of debt on career decision-making while also considering the role of other influences. Methods Responses to a self-completed questionnaire of all final (fourth) year students at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry from 2007 through 2010 were analyzed to identify the importance of educational debt and the influence of spouses, other family members, and mentoring dentists in the decision to enter private general practice immediately after graduation. Statistical analysis included bivariate tests (t-tests and Chi-square tests) and multivariable logistic regression. Results 58.9% of respondents (N?=?156) planned to immediately enter private practice after dental school. Bivariate analyses revealed women to be more likely to enter private practice than their male counterparts (69.0% vs. 51.8%, p?=?.006). Students planning to enter practice immediately did not differ significantly from those with other career plans on the basis of marital status or having a family member in dentistry. Anticipated educational debt of at least $100,000 was positively associated with plans to enter private practice immediately after graduation. Self-reported importance of educational debt was not associated with career plans. However, the influence of a spouse, other family members, and family dentists were also positively associated with the decision to enter private practice. These factors all maintained significance in the final multivariable model (p?enter private practice (OR?=?2.34; p?=?0.023). Conclusions Since the 1970s, increasing numbers of dentists in the U.S. have pursued specialty training after dental school. However, rising educational debts may counter this trend as increasing numbers of dentists choose to immediately pursue general dentistry at graduation. This project has demonstrated the significant influence of educational debt, beyond other external influences. PMID:24606674

  6. Predicting Persistence for First-Time Undergraduate Adult Students at Four-Year Institutions Using First-Term Academic Behaviors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody; Holbrook, Wesley T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reported that, in the 24 to 54 age range, the United States ranked thirty-fourth among all for individuals with a postsecondary credential. For the United States to increase in rank, adult students, who are projected to increase by 1.9 million in postsecondary enrollment by…

  7. The Impact of a Freshman Academy on Science Performance of First-Time Ninth-Grade Students at One Georgia High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Vivian Summerour

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this within-group experimental study was to find out to what extent ninth-grade students improved their science performance beyond their middle school science performance at one Georgia high school utilizing a freshman academy model. Freshman academies have been recognized as a useful tool for increasing academic performance among…

  8. Predicting Persistence for First-Time Undergraduate Adult Students at Four-Year Institutions Using First-Term Academic Behaviors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody; Holbrook, Wesley T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reported that, in the 24 to 54 age range, the United States ranked thirty-fourth among all for individuals with a postsecondary credential. For the United States to increase in rank, adult students, who are projected to increase by 1.9 million in postsecondary enrollment by…

  9. The Impact of a Freshman Academy on Science Performance of First-Time Ninth-Grade Students at One Georgia High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Vivian Summerour

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this within-group experimental study was to find out to what extent ninth-grade students improved their science performance beyond their middle school science performance at one Georgia high school utilizing a freshman academy model. Freshman academies have been recognized as a useful tool for increasing academic performance among…

  10. The Preparation of Students Entering Kentucky's Public Colleges and Universities in 2002 and 2004. Developmental Education Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This update presents information on students entering Kentucky's public postsecondary institutions in 2004, with comparisons to the entering class of 2002. This information updates Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education's 2005 report entitled, "Underprepared Students in Kentucky: A First Look at the 2001 Mandatory Placement Policy." In…

  11. Career and training patterns of students entering Canadian medical schools in 1965.

    PubMed

    Roos, N P; Fish, D G

    1975-01-11

    This paper follows the careers of the 1128 students who entered Canadian medical schools in 1965, most of whom graduated in 1969. The type of career pursued (whether general or specialty practice or some combination thereof), the type of specialty undertaken, the place of internship and residency training and the 1973 practice location of the graduates are examined. The wide variation in careers followed by the 12 schools' graduates provides the major focus of the paper. PMID:1109728

  12. Tapping Trumps Typing: How Users Enter Data in an Electronic Student Encounter Log

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John; DeFer, Tom; Sumner, Walton

    2006-01-01

    Handheld encounter logs that accurately record patient diagnoses could facilitate several educational tasks. Unfortunately, data entry on hand-held computers is notoriously difficult, requiring either tapping buttons or entering text, for instance by typing. In most medical reference software, long lists of inputs adjust to match typed data, reducing the burden of data entry. Tapping is faster if the user can locate the correct target quickly, but designing and maintaining screens with many fixed targets is tedious, and the program grows large. We developed an Electronic Student Encounter Log, ESEL, allowing students to tap or type to record problems observed in ambulatory patients. The tapping interface comprises collections of related disease checkboxes organized in a shallow, broad tree structure, making 983 diagnoses visible with 2 taps. The typing interface mimics typical reference software, scrolling and searching a list of 1332 common problems to match user-entered text. ESEL records how students look for diagnoses to record. Analysis of 62 ambulatory care students’ ESEL records showed that they used the tapping interface much more often than the typing interface, and recorded data more quickly by tapping than by typing. If accuracy is acceptable, more robust tapping interfaces deserve wider consideration for data capture on handheld computers. PMID:17238313

  13. Tapping trumps typing:how users enter data in an electronic student encounter log.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John; DeFer, Thomas; Sumner, Walton

    2006-01-01

    Handheld encounter logs that accurately record patient diagnoses could facilitate several educational tasks. Unfortunately, data entry on handheld computers is notoriously difficult, requiring either tapping buttons or entering text, for instance by typing. In most medical reference software, long lists of inputs adjust to match typed data, reducing the burden of data entry. Tapping is faster if the user can locate the correct target quickly, but designing and maintaining screens with many fixed targets is tedious, and the program grows large. We developed an Electronic Student Encounter Log, ESEL, allowing students to tap or type to record problems observed in ambulatory patients. The tapping interface comprises collections of related disease checkboxes organized in a shallow, broad tree structure, making 983 diagnoses visible with 2 taps. The typing interface mimics typical reference software, scrolling and searching a list of 1332 common problems in response to user-entered text. ESEL records the paths that students take through the program while trying to record diagnoses. Analysis of 62 students' ESEL records from ambulatory care settings demonstrates that they used the tapping interface much more often than the typing interface, and could record data more quickly by tapping than by typing. If accuracy proves to be acceptable, more robust tapping interfaces deserve wider consideration for data capture on handheld computers. PMID:17238313

  14. Stress and cardiometabolic manifestations among Saudi students entering universities: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. Methods A total of 1878 apparently healthy Saudi students of the Preparatory Year, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (1112 men and 766 women) spanning 2 academic years were included. They were divided into 2 groups based on the validated perceived stress test (PST). Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of fasting blood glucose and a lipid profile. Results PST score (>27) considered indicative of stress was noted in 44.4% of students. The prevalence of this score was higher in women than in men (49.7% versus 40.7%). The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia was significantly higher in men than women (p < 0.01), and this was even more apparent among stressed men, who had a significantly higher prevalence of all the above cardiometabolic factors than the non-stressed ones (p < 0.01). Conclusion Perceived stress is alarmingly high among Saudi students entering universities. This study sheds light on the social responsibility of universities in promoting a healthy lifestyle, particularly in this age group, when exposure to different kinds of stressors may result in body weight and metabolic changes. PMID:24755010

  15. Implementation of a study skills program for entering at-risk medical students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While the first year of medical school is challenging for all students, there may be specific issues for students from rural areas, economically disadvantaged backgrounds, ethnic minorities, or nontraditional age groups. A Summer Prematriculation Program (SPP) was created to prepare entering at-risk students for the demands of medical school. For the past 2 yr, an emphasis was placed on the development of appropriate study plans and skills. On presurveys, students predicted an increase in their number of study hours per lecture hour, from 7.6 h in undergraduate coursework to 9.1 h in medical school coursework (n = 35). These study plans were infeasible given the rigorous didactic lecture schedule in medical school. Interventions were made through lectures on study plans and modeling of appropriate study habits using engaging lectures in the SPP physiology course. At the end of the program, a postsurvey was given, and students reported a reduction in the planned hours of study to a more realistic 3.9 h of study time per hour of lecture. Furthermore, students planned to decrease their use of textbooks while increasing their use of concept mapping, videos, and peer teaching. The majority of students completing the SPP program with a study skills emphasis performed well in the Medical Physiology course, with 4 students honoring in the course, 27 students passing, and 2 students remediating the course after an initial failure. These results indicate that at-risk medical students may have inappropriate study plans that can be improved through participation in a program that emphasizes study skills development. PMID:25179612

  16. Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. PMID:24093735

  17. The Influence of Religion and High School Biology Courses on Students' Knowledge of Evolution When They Enter College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Cotner, Sehoya; Bates, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Students whose high school biology course included evolution but not creationism knew more about evolution when they entered college than did students whose courses included evolution plus creationism or whose courses included neither evolution nor creationism. Similarly, students who believed that their high school biology classes were the…

  18. They Do Not Buy It: Exploring the Extent to Which Entering First-Year Students View Themselves as Customers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of scholars have discussed the pervasiveness of the conceptualization of students as customers, to date there has been limited reliable research examining the extent to which students actually view themselves as customers. Using a survey that was administered to a census of entering first-year students at a large public research…

  19. Cognitive Profile of Students Who Enter Higher Education with an Indication of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-01-01

    For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d = 1 and d = 2), arithmetic (d≈1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864

  20. Cognitive profile of students who enter higher education with an indication of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Callens, Maaike; Tops, Wim; Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-01-01

    For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d = 1 and d = 2), arithmetic (d?1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864

  1. [Meaning of the death/dying process for entering nursing students].

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Gabriella Michel dos Santos; de Oliveira, Kézia; de Oliveira, William Tiago; Sales, Catarina Aparecida; Ferreira, Patrícia Chatalov

    2013-03-01

    This is a qualitative study, based on Heidegger's existential phenomenology, with the purpose of revealing the meaning of death/dying for freshmen students of the nursing program. The study was developed in a public university in the northwest of Paraná, Brazil between August and October 2010, and 33 entering students from a Nursing program were interviewed. The following existential themes emerged from the phenomenological analysis: "Understanding death as a difficult process to be understood"; "Understanding death as a natural process"; and "Perceiving death as a passage to another life". The present study allowed to understand that knowledge and death are entangled in the temporality and the historicity of every being, which requires a scientific, ethical and philosophical understanding of the death/dying phenomenon so that the scholar may prepare for the humanized care of the patient and his/her family. PMID:23781739

  2. Commentary: criminal background checks for entering medical students: history, current issues, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Kleshinski, James; Case, Steven T; Davis, Dwight; Heinrich, George F; Witzburg, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    In this commentary, the authors aim to contextualize the history and rationale for what has become the Association of American Medical Colleges-facilitated criminal background check process for entering medical students. As the process was being considered, many issues with a standardized process were identified. There were concerns that demographic or socioeconomic factors might unfairly burden certain applicants or discourage them from applying to medical school. On the other hand, a unified, national program would minimize cost and enhance quality assurance. The authors discuss these issues. Lessons learned in the first three years of the program are also addressed, including some unexpected and favorable consequences such as the identification of accepted applicants with at-risk behaviors (e.g., substance abuse), who would have otherwise gone undetected. Several challenges remain, including the fact that the criminal background check process creates an enhanced role for prehealth advisors and encourages undergraduate institutions to establish standards and processes relating to professionalism. While this is, no doubt, an evolving program which needs continued oversight and ongoing reevaluation, the authors support the continued advancement of the criminal background check process for entering medical students. PMID:21715989

  3. Competencies Needed by Students Entering Automobile Mechanics Programs in Texas Secondary Schools with Emphasis on Achievement Expectations for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jerry

    A study was conducted to identify the competencies needed by students entering auto mechanics programs with emphasis on competencies which handicapped students either possess or could be expected to attain. The research was divided into two parts. First, through two rounds of questionnaires (modified Delphi Technique) mailed to a panel of twelve…

  4. Career Assimilation Program for Entering Russian Students (Project CAPERS). Final Evaluation Report, 1993-94. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    The Career Assimilation Program for Entering Russian Students (Project CAPERS) was an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII project in its second year in 1993-94. The project operated at three schools in a community school district in Brooklyn (New York), and served 128 Russian-speaking students, 104 of whom were of limited English…

  5. Stability and Change: A Study of Selected Students Entering Central YMCA Community College, 1969-72. Volume 2: Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    This report contains tables pertinent to the first three chapters of Volume I of "Stability and Change: A Study of Selected Students Entering Central YMCA Community College, 1969-72." Included are tables from Central YMCA Community College records on the target population, tables from the response group questionnaires, and tables of significant…

  6. Socioeconomic Characteristics and Motivations for Entering a Medical College--Differences between Graduate and Undergraduate Saudi Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Alqarni, Turki; AL-Jahdali, Sarah; Baharoon, Salim A.; AL-Harbi, Abdullah S.; Binsalih, Salih A.; Alshimemeri, Abdulah; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons for and the factors associated with deciding to enter a medical school in our graduate and undergraduate medical students and whether differ between the two groups. Method: This is a cross-sectional study. The survey we developed to investigate demographic and socioeconomic data and…

  7. An Examination of Assessment Scores between Students Who Attend Public Schools and Students Who Were Homeschooled Prior to Entering a Virtual Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Virtual charter schools, emerging in the 1990s, are a recent development in the education field and reflect today's technology-oriented society. This study examined existing data to evaluate what, if any, difference existed between students who attended public school and those who were homeschooled prior to entering the virtual charter school. …

  8. Get Your First-Time Singers to Sing Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packwood, Gary

    2005-01-01

    First-time singers present excellent opportunities for choral directors to fine-tune their teaching by truly working with beginners. In this article, the author discusses how beginning singers learn to sing well. Despite the unique challenges and various musical backgrounds of these students, if choral directors can teach them the basics of…

  9. Engaging University Learning: The Experiences of Students Entering University Via Recognition of Prior Industrial Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Robert H.; Scevak, Jill J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the academic experiences of 33 male students from an industrial background were investigated as they completed a two-year education degree. The purpose of the study was to investigate the quality of student adjustment to an academic environment following extensive industrial training and experience. Students completed a series of…

  10. Statistical Methods for Protecting Personally Identifiable Information in the Disclosure of Graduation Rates of First-Time, Full-Time Degree- or Certificate-Seeking Undergraduate Students by 2-Year Degree-Granting Institutions of Higher Education. Technical Brief. NCES 2012-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Bersudskaya, Vera; Cubarrubi, Archie

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) requires that Title IV degree-granting institutions disclose annually the graduation rates of first-time, full-time degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students, disaggregated by gender, each major racial/ethnic subgroup, and receipt or non-receipt of a federal Pell grant or subsidized…

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening and Treating Foreign-Born Students for Tuberculosis before Entering the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wingate, La’Marcus T.; Posey, Drew L.; Zhou, Weigong; Olson, Christine K.; Maskery, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is considering implementation of overseas medical screening of student-visa applicants to reduce the numbers of active tuberculosis cases entering the United States. Objective To evaluate the costs, cases averted, and cost-effectiveness of screening for, and treating, tuberculosis in United States-bound students from countries with varying tuberculosis prevalence. Methods Costs and benefits were evaluated from two perspectives, combined and United States only. The combined perspective totaled overseas and United States costs and benefits from a societal perspective. The United States only perspective was a domestic measure of costs and benefits. A decision tree was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis screening and treatment from the combined perspective. Results From the United States only perspective, overseas screening programs of Chinese and Indian students would prevent the importation of 157 tuberculosis cases annually, and result in $2.7 million in savings. From the combined perspective, screening programs for Chinese students would cost more than $2.8 million annually and screening programs for Indian students nearly $440,000 annually. From the combined perspective, the incremental cost for each tuberculosis case averted by screening Chinese and Indian students was $22,187 and $15,063, respectively. Implementing screening programs for German students would prevent no cases in most years, and would result in increased costs both overseas and in the United States. The domestic costs would occur because public health departments would need to follow up on students identified overseas as having an elevated risk of tuberculosis. Conclusions Tuberculosis screening and treatment programs for students seeking long term visas to attend United States schools would reduce the number of tuberculosis cases imported. Implementing screening in high-incidence countries could save the United States millions of dollars annually; however there would be increased costs incurred overseas for students and their families. PMID:25924009

  12. Gender and students' vocational choices in entering the field of nursing.

    PubMed

    Zysberg, Leehu; Berry, Devon M

    2005-01-01

    As the demand increases for nursing professionals, existing theories borrowed from the field of industrial psychology may help employers and recruiters to identify appropriate candidates, train, hire and promote nurses in a more effective manner. An important component of these theories is understanding an individual's motivation to choose a certain profession. This preliminary study examined gender differences in motivations to enter the field of nursing. Two theoretical points of view were offered to account for the differences: Holland and Row's models of person-job congruence and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. One hundred and sixty (24 men and 136 women) freshmen from 3 nursing programs were asked to report their motivations to enter nursing. A new instrument based on the models mentioned above and representing 2 basic motivations, self-actualization and survival needs, was developed for the purposes of this study. While both genders mentioned self-actualization as their main motivation for entering nursing, men tended to give survival needs more weight than women did. The motivation patterns as well as the gender differences are discussed in light of recent trends in nursing and within the framework of personnel selection and training. PMID:16115512

  13. Teaching Physics for the First Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Jan; Winn, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to be a quick and easy resource for anyone teaching physics for the first time. Written after extensive research, this book is filled with reliable labs, demos and activities that work well in the classroom. Also included are lesson plans, diagrams, and teacher notes for every activity. The book is not the end--it is just a…

  14. Teaching Physics for the First Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Jan; Winn, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to be a quick and easy resource for anyone teaching physics for the first time. Written after extensive research, this book is filled with reliable labs, demos and activities that work well in the classroom. Also included are lesson plans, diagrams, and teacher notes for every activity. The book is not the end--it is just a…

  15. Musical Identities in Transition: Solo-Piano Students' Accounts of Entering the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Sini; Littleton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the identity work of adult instrumental students negotiating their entry to a prestigious music academy and the professional field of music. Ten classical solo-piano students' accounts of their musical histories and experiences were collected through research interviews. The thematic analyses presented…

  16. Inclusion Functioning as Exclusion: New Students Entering the Academy of Music in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a pioneer study addressing the first co-action between students with intellectual disabilities and an Academy of Music in Sweden. The aim of the article is to study and discuss subject positions that are constructed in rhythmic lessons related to a gathering where students with intellectual disabilities interact…

  17. Community and Diversity in Urban Community Colleges: Coursetaking among Entering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, William; Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Cypers, Scott; Moon, Hye S.; Brocato, Phillip; Wahl, Kelly; Prather, George

    2003-01-01

    Examines a sample of 15 courses in relation to four variables of student characteristics: gender, ethnicity, age, and full- or part-time status. Presents findings from the transcript analyses of 6,196 first-semester students from nine urban colleges, which reveal the strongest relations between curriculum and ethnicity. (Contains seven tables and…

  18. How to Motivate Students to Study before They Enter the Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogacnik, Lea; Cigic, Blaz

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises constitute an important part of chemical and biochemical courses at the university level. Nevertheless, students frequently are insufficiently prepared for the practical work, which often reduces their work to the level of a technician. A system designed to motivate students to study prior to the laboratory exercise was…

  19. Students' Reasons for Entering Nigerian Primary Teacher Education Programme and Their Career Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejieh, Michael U. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out what motivated the students in a college of primary teacher education in Nigeria to seek admission into the college, and to identify their career plans. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire administered on 117 final year students of the college towards the end of their programme of…

  20. An Evaluation of the Right Choices Program to Determine Effectiveness in Delivering Constructive Interventions and Providing an Early Support Program in Order to Modify Behavior of First-Time Student Offenders Who Commit Drug and Violent Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to perform a program evaluation of the Right Choices Program to determine the program's effectiveness in delivering constructive interventions that modify student behavior once students have left the program and have returned to their regular learning environment. This mixed-method evaluation consisted of an…

  1. Transition to first-time motherhood.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tina

    2011-02-01

    Becoming a mother for the first time signals a major life transition for many women. But even though age at first birth now spans a broader spectrum in the UK, women's ideas of what mothering will actually entail can remain narrowly focused. Yet everyday experiences of new mothering can feel very different from the ways in which it had been anticipated, envisaged and prepared for. In this article the experiences of a small group of women will be traced as they become mothers for the first time. This qualitative, longitudinal research approach reveals a gap between the women's expectations and their unfolding mothering experiences. In turn, the unexpected hard work and exhaustion of caring for a new baby can leave women confused and ambivalent about their early mothering experiences. These findings have implications for how antenatal preparation and postnatal care are planned and delivered. PMID:21388007

  2. Self-Efficacy, Motivation Constructs, and Mathematics Performance of Entering Middle School Students.

    PubMed

    Pajares; Graham

    1999-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of various motivation variables on task-specific mathematics performance and to explore whether these variables change during the first year of middle school (N = 273). Students' task-specific self-efficacy was the only motivation variable to predict performance and did so both at start and end of year. There were no differences in anxiety, self-concept, or self-efficacy for self-regulation between start and end of year, but, by end of year, students described mathematics as less valuable and reported lower effort and persistence. Gifted students had stronger mathematics self-concept beliefs, and they had more accurate and less overconfident self-efficacy beliefs than did regular education students. There were no gender differences in any of the motivation constructs. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10072312

  3. Does the Rising Cost of Tuition Affect the Socio-Economic Status of Students Entering University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Wayne; Shale, Doug

    2004-01-01

    As tuition fees increase, universities need to be concerned whether costs have risen to a point where students from low-income families are being disproportionately excluded. Given the rates of increases in tuition fees in recent times, this outcome seems plausible and is often the opening point of discussions on this matter (see for example, the…

  4. Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility for Students Entering Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Lisa; Nguyen, Binh; Auten, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The "NCAA Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility" provides specific criteria to be used as a guide in reviewing the initial eligibility (graduation, core curriculum, grade-point average and ACT/SAT test scores) of students who have completed any portion of their secondary education in a non-United States educational…

  5. Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Priscilla J.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate students need to understand the role of technical articles in research and to become familiar with the journal submission process. Although this knowledge is important to their careers, it is rarely included in coursework. To correct this, class discussion on the role of technical articles in research as well as the submission process has…

  6. Students Hearing Impaired from the 1963-1965 Rubella Epidemic Begin to Enter College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckless, E. Ross; Walter, Gerard G.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of the postsecondary qualifications among 8,000 or more children born hearing impaired as a result of the 1963-65 rubella epidemic revealed a favorable prognosis for postsecondary education for many rubella students graduating from secondary programs in 1983, l984, and l985. (Author/CL)

  7. Measuring What Students Entering School Know and Can Do: PIPS Australia 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildy, Helen; Styles, Irene

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports analysis of 2006-2007 on-entry assessment data from the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools Baseline Assessment (PIPS-BLA) of random samples of students in England, Scotland, New Zealand and Australia. The analysis aimed, first, to investigate the validity and reliability of that instrument across countries and sexes, and,…

  8. Why Students of Color Are Not Entering the Field of Teaching: Reflections from Minority Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, June A.

    This paper explores the issue of low interest and involvement in teaching careers by students of color. The study discussed in the paper was designed to consider the following general supposition: teacher education programs, as they have traditionally selected, trained, and supported teachers, no longer suffice for the needs of today's…

  9. Suggestions for Screening Entering Kindergarten Students To Assist in the Identification of Possibly Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Starr

    This monograph is designed for New York parents and school personnel charged with administering the screening instruments for incoming kindergarten students to determine possible giftedness. It begins by explaining Article 65 of New York's Compulsory Education and School Census Law, Section 3208, which requires that parents be notified if their…

  10. Enter the Madcap Prince of Wales: Students Directing "Henry IV, Part I."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Elise Ann

    1993-01-01

    Argues that William Shakespeare's "Henry IV, Part I" is an appropriate and useful text for secondary English classrooms. Shows how the play lends itself to performance-based instruction. Outlines ways of accomplishing student engagement, using film versions, and assigning written work. (HB)

  11. Entering the World of Work: A Curriculum for Two-Year Technical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Xavier V.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that students in two-year technical programs need courses that train them in job and job-hunting skills. The transition from school to work can be difficult, and a job-skills class can prepare them for some of the changes inherent in the process. Itemizes job search strategies. (NB)

  12. First time description of dismantling phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Barrer, Laurence; Gimenez, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Dismantling is a complex psychic phenomenon, which is not easy to define, and little interest has been shown in the subject. The authors of this paper want to demonstrate that dismantling is the main defense mechanism in autism, bringing about de-consensus of senses. The effects perceived in a child with autistic disorder are passivity and lack of thought. The authors’ purpose here is to define the dismantled state and reveal its underlying process. This paper will therefore describe for the first time in literature, the dismantling phenomenon and will submit a metapsychological approach of this defense mechanism. PMID:25999871

  13. Injury risk in first-time snowboarders versus first-time skiers.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D F; McGlone, M R

    1999-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1996 we studied injury patterns in more than 22,000 first-time snowboarders and first-time skiers to determine the comparative injury risk of these two popular sports coexisting in winter resort areas. The first-time participants included in this study had no previous experience in their activity of choice and enrolled in Learn to Snowboard and Learn to Ski programs in two major northeastern ski resorts. Data were gathered from physician evaluations at the medical clinics at each mountain. Two hundred seventy-three (4%) of the first-time snowboarders (N = 6585), and 641 (4%) of the first-time skiers (N = 15,795) sustained an injury. Injuries were further evaluated by location (upper extremity, lower extremity, head, and trunk area) and severity (emergent versus nonemergent). Snowboarders had a higher percentage of upper extremity injuries (53%), while skiers had a higher percentage of lower extremity injuries (63%). Snowboarders, however, sustained a significantly higher incidence of emergent injuries (such as fracture, concussion, dislocation, lost teeth) necessitating immediate intervention. While there have been other reports describing injuries in these activities, no previous study attempted to look at the first-time participants with similar age, experience, and equipment to determine comparative risk. We conclude that for the first-time participant, snowboarding does show a higher incidence of emergent injuries. PMID:9934425

  14. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebekah; Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, "The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner," "I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship," and "I think all students should participate in a similar experience." When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for pediatric-related residencies was well received and led to improved performance of targeted skills and increased self-reported preparedness in many targeted domains. PMID:27014522

  15. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for pediatric-related residencies was well received and led to improved performance of targeted skills and increased self-reported preparedness in many targeted domains. PMID:27014522

  16. Risky Business I. Entering Capital Markets for the First Time. Panel I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five panelists discuss how small businesses can acquire seed capital by considering venture; capital's role in the financing of business start-ups, using local banks as sources of advice and community support as well as funds for new entrepreneurs in rural areas, and investigating states' roles in supporting new ventures. (NEC)

  17. Speed of Gravity Measured for First Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Taking advantage of a rare cosmic alignment, scientists have made the first measurement of the speed at which the force of gravity propagates, giving a numerical value to one of the last unmeasured fundamental constants of physics. "Newton thought that gravity's force was instantaneous. Einstein assumed that it moved at the speed of light, but until now, no one had measured it," said Sergei Kopeikin, a physicist at the University of Missouri-Columbia. VLA Image of Jupiter VLA Image of Jupiter CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF "We have determined that gravity's propagation speed is equal to the speed of light within an accuracy of 20 percent," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, VA. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, WA. The landmark measurement is important to physicists working on unified field theories that attempt to combine particle physics with Einstein's general theory of relativity and electromagnetic theory. "Our measurement puts some strong limits on the theories that propose extra dimensions, such as superstring theory and brane theories," Kopeikin said. "Knowing the speed of gravity can provide an important test of the existence and compactness of these extra dimensions," he added. Superstring theory proposes that the fundamental particles of nature are not pointlike, but rather incredibly small loops or strings, whose properties are determined by different modes of vibration. Branes (a word derived from membranes) are multidimensional surfaces, and some current physical theories propose space-time branes embedded to five dimensions. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a continent-wide radio-telescope system, along with the 100-meter radio telescope in Effelsberg, Germany, to make an extremely precise observation when the planet Jupiter passed nearly in front of a bright quasar on September 8, 2002. The observation recorded a very slight "bending" of the radio waves coming from the background quasar by the gravitational effect of Jupiter. The bending resulted in a small change in the quasar's apparent position in the sky. "Because Jupiter is moving around the Sun, the precise amount of the bending depends slightly on the speed at which gravity propagates from Jupiter," Kopeikin said. Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, only passes closely enough to the path of radio waves from a suitably bright quasar about once a decade for such a measurement to be made, the scientists said. The once-in-a-decade celestial alignment was the last in a chain of events that made measuring the speed of gravity possible. The others included a chance meeting of the two scientists in 1996, a breakthrough in theoretical physics and the development of specialized techniques that enabled the extremely precise measurement to be made. Quasar J0842+1835 Quasar J0842+1835, VLBA Image CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF "No one had tried to measure the speed of gravity before because most physicists had assumed that the only way to do so was to detect gravitational waves," Kopeikin recalled. However, in 1999, Kopeikin extended Einstein's theory to include the gravitational effects of a moving body on light and radio waves. The effects depended on the speed of gravity. He realized that if Jupiter moved nearly in front of a star or radio source, he could test his theory. Kopeikin studied the predicted orbit of Jupiter for the next 30 years and discovered that the giant planet would pass closely enough in front of the quasar J0842+1835 in 2002. However, he quickly realized that the effect on the quasar's apparent position in the sky attributable to the speed of gravity would be so small that the only observational technique capable of measuring it was Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), the technique embodied in the VLBA. Kopeikin then contacted Fomalont, a leading expert in VLBI and an experienced VLBA observer. "I immediately realized the importance of an experiment that could make the first measurement of a fundamental constant of nature," Fomalont said. "I decided that we had to give this our best shot," he added. To get the required level of precision, the two scientists added the Effelsberg telescope to their observation. The wider the separation between two radio-telescope antennas, the greater is the resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, achievable. The VLBA includes antennas on Hawaii, the continental United States, and St. Croix in the Caribbean. An antenna on the other side of the Atlantic added even more resolving power. "We had to make a measurement with about three times more accuracy than anyone had ever done, but we knew, in principle, that it could be done," Fomalont said. The scientists tested and refined their techniques in "dry runs," then waited for Jupiter to make its pass in front of the quasar. The wait included considerable nail-biting. Equipment failure, bad weather, or an electromagnetic storm on Jupiter itself could have sabotaged the observation. However, luck held out and the scientists' observations at a radio frequency of 8 GigaHertz produced enough good data to make their measurement. They achieved a precision equal to the width of a human hair seen from 250 miles away. "Our main goal was to rule out an infinite speed for gravity, and we did even better. We now know that the speed of gravity is probably equal to the speed of light, and we can confidently exclude any speed for gravity that is over twice that of light," Fomalont said. Most scientists, Kopeikin said, will be relieved that the speed of gravity is consistent with the speed of light. "I believe this experiment sheds new light on fundamentals of general relativity and represents the first of many more studies and observations of gravitation which are currently possible because of the enormously high precision of VLBI. We have a lot more to learn about this intriguing cosmic force and its relationship to the other forces in nature," Kopeikin said. This is not the first time that Jupiter has played a part in producing a measurement of a fundamental physical constant. In 1675, Olaf Roemer, a Danish astronomer working at the Paris Observatory, made the first reasonably accurate determination of the speed of light by observing eclipses of one of Jupiter's moons. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  18. Weaving a Bridge of Sense: Students' Narrative Constructions as a Lens for Understanding Students' Coping with the Gap between Expectancies and Experiences When Entering Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulriksen, Lars; Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Moller, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how the application of narrative methodology brings new insights into understanding students' choices and their experiences upon entering a higher education programme. The point of departure is a study of a cohort of 38 students followed over a three-year period from when they were about to finish upper-secondary school in…

  19. Weaving a Bridge of Sense: Students' Narrative Constructions as a Lens for Understanding Students' Coping with the Gap between Expectancies and Experiences When Entering Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulriksen, Lars; Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Moller, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how the application of narrative methodology brings new insights into understanding students' choices and their experiences upon entering a higher education programme. The point of departure is a study of a cohort of 38 students followed over a three-year period from when they were about to finish upper-secondary school in…

  20. Radiation enteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  1. Radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, P.H.; Jenrette, J.M. III; Garvin, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    As the population receiving radiation therapy grows, so does the incidence of chronic radiation enteritis. A review of the pathology of chronic radiation enteritis reveals fibrosis, endarteritis, edema, fragility, perforation, and partial obstruction. Conservative management of patients with this disease is common. Because the obstruction is only partial, decompression is easily achieved with nasogastric suction and parenteral support. The patient is then often discharged on a liquid-to-soft diet. This therapeutic strategy does nothing for the underlying pathology. The problem, sooner or later, will return with the patient further depleted by the chronic radiation enteritis. We think surgical intervention is appropriate when the diagnosis of chronic radiation enteritis is assumed. The surgery in relation to this disease is high risk with a 30% mortality and 100% expensive morbidity. Early intervention seems to decrease these figures. All anastomoses, if possible, should be outside the irradiated area. Trapped pelvic loops of intestine should be left in place and a bypass procedure with decompressing enterostomies accomplished. The surgery should be performed by a surgeon with extensive experience with all kinds of bowel obstruction as well as experience in performing surgery in radiated tissue.

  2. Speaking with an Accent: Some Practical Advice for Foreign First-Time Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berardo, Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Ph.D. programs in political science in the United States provide some kind of teaching training for graduate students, which ranges from assisting other instructors to designing and teaching new courses. In most cases, departments make an effort to guide these students in their new role as instructors; however, first-time teachers…

  3. Campylobacter enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, M A; Fleming, P C

    1979-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni/coli has recently become recognized as a common bacterial cause of diarrhea. Infection can occur at any age. The usual incubation period of campylobacter enteritis is 2 to 5 days. Fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain are the most common clinical features. The stools frequently contain mucus and, a few days after the onset of symptoms, frank blood. Significant vomiting and dehydration are uncommon. A rapid presumptive laboratory diagnosis may be made during the acute phase of the illness by direct phase-contrast microscopy of stools. Isolation of the organism from stools requires culture in a selective medium containing antibiotics and incubation under reduced oxygen tension at 42 degrees C. The organism persists in the stools of untreated patients for up to 7 weeks following the onset of symptoms. Erythromycin may produce a rapid clinical and bacteriologic cure, and should be used to treat moderately to severely ill patients as well as patients with compromised host defences. The emergence of erythromycin-resistant strains requires close monitoring. The epidemiologic aspects of campylobacter enteritis will be fully understood only when methods become available for differentiating strains of C. jejuni/coli. The historical background and current knowledge of campylobacter enteritis are reviewed in this paper. Images FIG. 1 PMID:455209

  4. GeoFORCE Texas: An Outreach Program that is Increasing the Number and Diversity of Students Completing STEM Degrees and Entering the Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, E.; Moore, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    GeoFORCE Texas is an outreach program of the Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin. Established in 2005 with the goal of increasing the number and diversity of students studying geosciences and engineering and entering the high-tech workforce, GeoFORCE has been highly successful. Key elements to that success will be presented here. GeoFORCE targets bright students in rural and inner-city schools where they are generally not academically challenged. Every summer throughout high school we take them on geologic field trips all over the country. In 2014, GeoFORCE led 15 field academies for about 600 students. The program is rigorous and academic. We emphasize college-level thinking skills. Because it is a 4-year program, they have a pretty good grounding in physical geology by the time they graduate. More importantly, they develop confidence in their ability to handle college, and a strong motivation to earn a college degree. GeoFORCE students are mostly minority (85%) and more than half will be the first in their family to graduate from college. GeoFORCE students exceed national averages in rates of going to college (97%), majoring in STEM fields (66%), majoring in geosciences (15%) and engineering (13%), and graduating from college (~85%). GeoFORCE is a public/private partnership and a workforce-focused program. The Jackson School funds staff and operating expenses (37%). Money for student programs comes from private industry (44%), state and federal grants (14%), and foundations and individual donors (5%). Our corporate partners are in the energy sector. In addition to funding, corporate sponsors attend the summer field programs, mentor GeoFORCE students, and provide opportunities for the students to visit the companies. As our students move toward college graduation, our industry and government partners have begun to hire them as interns. GeoFORCE graduates are now entering the workforce. Our first two cohorts are 4 and 5 years past high school graduation. That group of 155 students boasts 70 college graduates and another 60 still pursuing degrees. There are 19 geoscience majors and 9 engineers. They are also contributing to the body of science with a growing list of publications, including at least one at this meeting.

  5. NCAA Divisions II and III Enrollment and Persistence Rates Report, 1997. Enrollment and Persistence Rates Data (1991-92 and 1995-96 Entering Classes). Undergraduate-Enrollment Data (Fall 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association, Overland Park, KS.

    This publication presents both aggregate and individual reports of data submitted by National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II and III institutions. A persistence rate is based on a comparison of the number of students who entered a college or university as first-time, full-time students in a given year and the number who…

  6. The Spiritual Engagement of Students Entering Institutions That Belong to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fereira, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Religion has been connected to higher education throughout its history in the United States and recent research suggests that the development of spirituality, as a part of the pursuit of higher education, is important to today's college student. In an effort to understand twenty-first century college students' perspectives on spirituality in…

  7. [Infectious enteritis].

    PubMed

    Epple, H-J; Zeitz, M

    2011-09-01

    Infectious diarrhea belongs to the most frequent infections worldwide and can be elicited by a wide array of microbial pathogens. In developed countries transmission occurs much more frequently from contaminated food as compared to direct person-to-person contact, except for enteric viruses which can also be transmitted by aerosol formation after vomiting. In Germany, more than 90% of cases are caused by the four pathogens Norovirus, Rotavirus, Campylobacter and Salmonella. Therapy of infectious diarrhea is mainly supportive. In cases with a severe or prolonged course, signs of inflammation, bloody stool, immunosuppression, comorbidity and in suspected outbreaks, fecal microbial analysis should be performed and a specific therapy should be considered if indicated. PMID:21847579

  8. First-time urinary tract infection and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Foxman, B; Geiger, A M; Palin, K; Gillespie, B; Koopman, J S

    1995-03-01

    We studied the relation between sexual and health behaviors of women and first-time urinary tract infection (UTI). The study population was women using a university health service who were unmarried, had no UTI history, and who had engaged in sexual activity at least once. We found 86 cases of UTI, defined as one or more urinary symptoms and > or = 1,000 colony-forming units per ml urine of a known pathogen. We randomly sampled 288 controls from the student body. Vaginal intercourse increased the risk of UTI; this risk was further increased with condom use. After adjusting for vaginal intercourse with other birth control methods and recentness of current sexual partnership, a single sex act with a condom in the past 2 weeks increased UTI risk by 43%. Having a sex partner for less than 1 year vs 1 year or more, after adjustment for frequency of vaginal intercourse and birth control method, was associated with about twice the risk of UTI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-3.74]. After adjusting for frequency of vaginal intercourse, regular drinking of cranberry juice was protective against UTI (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.19-1.02), whereas drinking carbonated soft drinks appeared to be associated with increased risk (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 0.75-7.81). Using deodorant sanitary napkins or tampons was associated with a slight increase in risk of UTI (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 0.74-3.06). Blacks had five times greater risk of UTI than whites after adjusting for frequency of vaginal intercourse (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.89-24.63). We observed only modest differences in health behavior between racial groups. PMID:7742403

  9. The Impact of Overassignment on Grade Point Averages of First-Time Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desler, Mary; North, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Data show that the first-time freshmen, who were overassigned in residence halls, did no worse than other students concerning grade point average. The peer pressure may have been a motivating force. There was no male/female difference. Data also show no difference in environment perception. (LPG)

  10. Migration of Undergraduate First-Time Transfers: Snapshot Analysis 2006-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Commission on Higher Education had a student intern from USC-Columbia initiate an analysis of data on the migration of undergraduate first-time transfers to compare trends, growth, and proportions of transfers to and from various sectors and institution types over a three-year period, from 2006-2008. Staff have refined the analysis and…

  11. Assessment of Library Skills and Traits of Entering and Lower Level English Students, Northern Michigan University, Olson Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Rena; And Others

    This report presents the results of a study conducted at Northern Michigan University's (NMU) Olson Library to determine the adequacy of the preparation of NMU students for library research, the soundness of the instructional objectives set for the freshman and sophomore class levels, and possible weak points in the program's coverage. The Library…

  12. Assessing the Quality of Student Thinking Directly: An Exploratory Study of Two Cohorts Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollacott, L.; Snell, D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an exploratory investigation involving the direct assessment of the quality of abstract thinking of two cohorts of South African university entrants who had very good school leaving qualifications. The investigation was prompted by the observation of difficulties these students seemed to have had in a first…

  13. The Application and Evaluation of a Two-Concept Diagnostic Instrument with Students Entering College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Keily; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Instrument (Othman J., Treagust D. F. and Chandrasegaran A. L., (2008), "Int. J. Sci. Educ.," 30(11), 1531-1550) is used to investigate college students' understanding of two chemistry concepts: particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding. The instrument, originally developed…

  14. The Application and Evaluation of a Two-Concept Diagnostic Instrument with Students Entering College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Keily; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Instrument (Othman J., Treagust D. F. and Chandrasegaran A. L., (2008), "Int. J. Sci. Educ.," 30(11), 1531-1550) is used to investigate college students' understanding of two chemistry concepts: particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding. The instrument, originally developed…

  15. The Effects of Race and Gender on the Satisfaction Levels of Entering and Advanced Level Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labon, Tiffany Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Doctoral education is an aspect of higher education that can be both rewarding and challenging for anyone who attempts the journey. Thelin (2004) stated many graduate students obtain the necessary skills that their individual fields of study require in their master's and doctoral programs of study. Levine (2005), however, has found that the…

  16. Design and Implementation of an Assessment Model for Students Entering Vocational Education Programs in the State of Colorado. Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Nancy K.; And Others

    This basic vocational related skills assessment module in agriculture is one of sixteen modules designed to help teachers assess and identify some of the areas in which special needs students may encounter learning difficulties. The materials in the module allow for informal assessment in three basic areas: academic skills, motor skills, and…

  17. First-time viewers' comprehension of films: bridging shot transitions.

    PubMed

    Ildirar, Sermin; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Which perceptual and cognitive prerequisites must be met in order to be able to comprehend a film is still unresolved and a controversial issue. In order to gain some insights into this issue, our field experiment investigates how first-time adult viewers extract and integrate meaningful information across film cuts. Three major types of commonalities between adjacent shots were differentiated, which may help first-time viewers with bridging the shots: pictorial, causal, and conceptual. Twenty first-time, 20 low-experienced and 20 high-experienced viewers from Turkey were shown a set of short film clips containing these three kinds of commonalities. Film clips conformed also to the principles of continuity editing. Analyses of viewers' spontaneous interpretations show that first-time viewers indeed are able to notice basic pictorial (object identity), causal (chains of activity), as well as conceptual (links between gaze direction and object attention) commonalities between shots due to their close relationship with everyday perception and cognition. However, first-time viewers' comprehension of the commonalities is to a large degree fragile, indicating the lack of a basic notion of what constitutes a film. PMID:24654735

  18. XMM telescope goes on show for the first time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    After years of little-publicized effort in various parts of Europe, one of the finished XMM telescopes is presented for the first time to the press and other visitors during a press briefing on 22 May at the Centre Spatial de LiŠge (CSL) in Belgium. As the telescope is a flight model due to go into space, the inspection is hands-off, through a clean-room window. But visitors can see the multi-mirror module looking like a log of wood 70 centimetres wide and 60 centimetres long. In cross-section the nesting mirrors make concentric rings resembling the rings of annual growth in a tree --except that there are narrow gaps between the mirrors, to let in the X- rays. Galileo and Newton would not recognize the XMM module as a telescope, but they never had to focus X-rays, which ignore lenses and ordinary mirrors. The German physicist Hans Wolter invented a near-cylindrical mirror that narrows in a geometric fashion, first along a parabola and then a hyperbola. Some of the X-rays entering through the wider end are twice reflected from the interior wall at grazing angles, and go to a focus. When Wolter's concept went into telescopes for X-ray astronomy, most of the X-rays simply missed the mirror, so that any signal was weak. The remedy was to fill the interior with smaller concentric mirrors, to catch more of the X-rays. In practice, that meant either a few mirrors, fashioned and aligned with care to achieve a high resolving power, or many cruder mirrors which sacrificed optical sharpness for the sake of sensitivity. The XMM telescopes are the first to achieve both sharpness and sensitivity, thanks to innovations by European industry made possible by XMM's status as a Cornerstone Mission in ESA's science programme. Carl Zeiss in Germany provided mandrels (moulds) of 58 sizes, all carefully polished to the required paraboloidal-hyperboloidal shape. Media Lario in Italy made the reflective surface by depositing gold on the mandrel under vacuum, and then backed it with nickel formed in an electrochemical bath. As each finished mirror was only about a millimetre thick, the Medio Lario team had to handle it with great care to avoid flexing, until it was glued into position among all the other mirrors, between wheel-like "spiders" fabricated by APCO in Switzerland. If the telescope is correctly made, all X-rays coming from a certain direction, and entering any part of any of the mirrors, should go to the same focus. The specification requires that any spread at the focus should be less than a millimetre. The optical quality is tested first in a special apparatus at LiŠge called FOCAL X, and then at the Panter X-ray facility at Neuried in Germany. "We take pride and satisfaction in helping to develop such remarkable telescopes," says Claude Jamar, director of CSL. "While others pioneered the methods of fabrication, here in LiŠge we had to invent novel ways of checking the performance. We use a wide beam of very short ultraviolet wavelengths to simulate X-rays, and verify the focus of each part of each XMM telescope." About the Centre Spatial de Liège As a laboratory unique in western Europe, CSL is run by the Université de Liège as one of ESA's coordinated test facilities.Optical instruments for space missions can be checked with high accuracy, under a high vacuum that simulates the airless conditions in space. ESA relies upon CSL for testing important optical components for many spacecraft. The long list includes the radiometer of the Meteosat weather satellite, the camera for Giotto which obtained unique pictures of Halley's Comet, and the telescopes of the Hipparcos star-fixing mission and the Infrared Space Observatory ISO. CSL was an early recruit to the Europe-wide teams of scientists and engineers who are creating the XMM spacecraft and its instruments. Other optical devices currently under evaluation by CSL include the experimental laser system SILEX for communication between satellites, and the ozone-monitoring GOMOS instrument for ESA's environmental satellite Envisat. Media representatives wishing to attend this press briefing are kindly requested to complete the attached form and return it to the ESA Public Relations Division in Paris (Fax:+33.(0).1.53.69.76.90).ESA will make available limited transport possibilities for those wishing to travel from Paris to Liège.

  19. Charting Pathways to Completion for Low-Income Community College Students. CCRC Working Paper No. 34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Weiss, Madeline Joy

    2011-01-01

    This study uses administrative data from Washington State to chart the educational pathways of first-time community college students over seven years, with a focus on young, socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Of particular interest are the rates at which students enter a course of study (by passing multiple college-level courses within a…

  20. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  1. Health and Safety Intervention with First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Anne McDonald; Culp, R. E.; Anderson, J. W.; Carter, S.

    2007-01-01

    A health education program was evaluated which used child development specialists as home visitors and served a population of first-time mothers living in rural communities. The evaluation compared health and safety outcomes between intervention and control groups. The research staff, separate from the intervention staff, collected data in the…

  2. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  3. An Investigation of the Relationship between Selected Demographic Variables and Dual Enrollment Participation on Postsecondary Success for First Time Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Marby S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dual enrollment participation in high school and successful transition to post-secondary institutions for first year students. The sample consisted of a random sample of first-time students enrolled at four-year, two-year, and technical colleges in North Louisiana. Participants completed the National…

  4. Initial Educational Goals of First-Time Full-Time Community College Freshmen and Subsequent Retention Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Brian; Secolsky, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Retention and graduation rates have been topics of concern for undergraduate institutions. These indicators are not as applicable for two-year institutions where students' goals are more varied. This study examined the retention over four semesters of 678 first-time, full-time community college students with respect to their initial educational…

  5. Cohort Analysis, Fall 1993 New Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In October 1996, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a longitudinal study of the characteristics of and outcomes experienced by students who entered the college for the first time in fall 1993, gathering data on retention rates, average attempted and earned cumulative hours, and graduation rates over 3 years. Of the 3,146…

  6. Outcomes after incidental durotomy during first-time lumbar discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Atman; Ball, Perry A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Lurie, Jon; Mirza, Sohail K.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Weinstein, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incidental durotomy is an infrequent but well-recognized complication during lumbar disc surgery. The effect of a durotomy on long-term outcomes is however, controversial. We sought to examine whether the occurrence of durotomy during surgery impacts long-term clinical outcome. Methods Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) cohort participants with a confirmed diagnosis of intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) undergoing standard first-time open discectomy were followed from baseline at 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months, and yearly thereafter, at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Patient data from this prospectively gathered database was reviewed. As of May 2009, the mean (SD) follow-up among all analyzed IDH patients was 41.5 (14.5) months (No durotomy: 41.4 vs. Had durotomy: 40.2, p-value<0.68). The median (range) follow-up time among all analyzed IDH patients was 47 (1 to 95) months. Results 799 patients underwent first-time lumbar discectomy. There was an incidental durotomy in 25 (3.1%) of these patients. There were no significant differences with or without durotomy in age, sex, race, body mass index, the prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, or herniation level or type. When outcome differences between the groups were analyzed, the durotomy group was found to have significantly increased operative duration, operative blood loss and inpatient stay. However, there were no differences in incidence of nerve root injury, post-op mortality, additional surgeries or SF-36 scores of bodily pain or physical function, or Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 2, 3 or 4 years. Conclusions Incidental durotomy during first time lumbar discectomy does not appear to impact long-term outcome in affected patients. PMID:21375385

  7. Machining automation: Doing it right the first time

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    The implementation of a machining automation program and of the Allied-Signal efforts to Do it Right the First Time'' is presented. The automation program is a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for the machining and on-line inspection of a family of aluminum and stainless steel prismatic parts. The critical management and technical aspects found necessary to assure success in implementing large and risky automation programs are presented. The process being used is team based and has concentrated on involving the end users from the beginning.

  8. Characteristics of Adult Students Transitioning to a Traditional University and Perceptions of Student Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dani J.

    2012-01-01

    Limited research is devoted to the transitional process of adult students to the traditional university environment. Considering the incredible numbers of adults projected to return to higher education and/or entering a college or university program for the first time, it behooves institutions of higher learning to invest in the success of adult…

  9. Thai men becoming a first-time father.

    PubMed

    Sansiriphun, Nantaporn; Kantaruksa, Kannika; Klunklin, Areewan; Baosuang, Chavee; Jordan, Pamela

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the process of Thai men becoming a first-time father. Twenty expectant fathers were voluntarily recruited from the antenatal clinics of three hospitals in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. The data were collected by in-depth interviews and analyzed on the basis of grounded theory methodology. The findings demonstrated that "protecting the unborn baby" was the basic social process that emerged as the core category. This process was divided into three phases: confirming and accepting, perceiving the unborn baby as a human being, and ensuring the health of the mother and baby. Throughout this process, the Thai expectant fathers applied many strategies to manage their concerns, needs, and emotions and to develop themselves into fathers. The process of protecting the unborn baby provides insight into the expectant fathers' experiences, which will enable nurses and midwives to assist and care for men as they become fathers. PMID:21210916

  10. Rotator Cuff Weakness Is Not a Risk Factor for First-Time Anterior Glenohumeral Instability

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Christopher J.; Cameron, Kenneth L.; Westrick, Richard B.; Posner, Matthew A.; Owens, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Shoulder instability is a common problem in young athletes and can lead to pain and decreased ability to participate in high-level activities. Little is known about the modifiable risk factors for glenohumeral joint instability. Hypothesis: Isometric shoulder strength at baseline would be a modifiable risk factor associated with subsequent first-time anterior instability events. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Study participants were freshmen entering the United States Military Academy in June 2006. All participants completed bilateral isometric strength evaluations with a hand-held dynamometer at baseline upon entry into the study. Variables measured included internal and external rotation at 0° (IR0, ER0) and internal and external rotation at 45° of abduction (IR45, ER45). All subjects were followed for subsequent glenohumeral joint instability events until graduation in May 2010. Independent t tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Baseline strength data were available for 1316 shoulders with no prior history of instability, of which 26 went on to have an acute first-time anterior shoulder instability event while the individuals were at the academy. There were no significant differences in mean strength between shoulders that did not go on to develop instability (uninjured; n = 1290) and those that did develop anterior instability (injured; n = 26). The mean strength values in pounds of force for uninjured and injured shoulders, respectively, were as follows: IR0 (49.80 vs 49.29; P = .88), ER0 (35.58 vs 33.66; P = .27), IR45 (47.38 vs 46.93; P = .88), and ER45 (40.08 vs 38.98; P = .59). Conclusion: No association was found between isometric shoulder strength measures at baseline and subsequent first-time anterior glenohumeral joint instability within the high-risk athletic population studied in this prospective cohort. PMID:26535230

  11. [Nurses in the first times of World War one].

    PubMed

    Marc, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    The First World War originated in new and huge problems for both military authorities and military health service. The modern war which begun in 1914 overflowed this Service reformed in 1912. Famous journalists and political men such as Barrès and Clémenceau took part against dramatic conditions encountered by wounded soldiers. The First World War saw the introduction of many new technologies to the art of killing one's enemy among them the machine gun and the heavy use of artillery. It resulted in massive amount of wounded and ill soldiers which overflowed the military health service and every evacuation mean to the rear front. From August 2nd, 1914 to December 31st, 1914, 798. 833 French wounded soldiers and 322.672 ill soldiers were treated by the French Army 7th direction, in charge of the military health service. In such circumstances, a voluntary, parallel and the efficient sanitary organisation took an importance unknown until yet. This organisation, the Red Cross, associated the Société française de secours aux blessés militaires (French society for help to the wounded soldiers), the Union des Femmes de France (French Women Union) and the Association des Dames françaises (French Ladies Association). These three organisations, associated to many religious ones, brought a real sanitary structure so necessary in the troubled period as the beginning of the First World War. Everywhere in France, health service structures such as the hôpital temporaire no. 103 (Temporary Hospital number 103) in Paris, model hospital from the Union des Femmes de France, associated volunteers civilian doctors and surgeons. To increase the professional value of the paramedical staffs, a very specific effort was done for the formation of nurses in number, as correctly and as quickly as possible. During the first year of the First World War, nurses will be estimated since they had been able by their action to balance the disorder of the very first time of the conflict. PMID:12607555

  12. Residence Life and the New Student Experience, 3rd Edition. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, William J., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Residence life programs play a key role in recruiting students, helping them make a successful transition to a new institution, and in retaining them, whether students are enrolling for the first time, transferring from another institution, or entering graduate school. Chapters in this book address theories of learning and development, new…

  13. Comparative Study of Freshmen College Student Beliefs and Values between Representative Private and Public Institutions of Higher Education in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Students entering college for the first time are embarking on a life-changing journey like none they have experienced. The potential impact the college experience will have on their lives is extreme. Students will be engaged in class and co-curricular settings in ways that will challenge them to produce developmental growth that will carry them…

  14. The Effects of Mentoring on the Retention of Non-Cognitive-at-Risk, First-Time, Full-Time Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsythe, Ryan G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between mentoring, the mitigation of non-cognitive risk factors, and first-time, full-time college students' first-to-second semester rates at a medium-sized, public, higher education institution in the southeast. An enrollment management professional, the researcher facilitated and implemented this action…

  15. Technology Usage among Community College Faculty in First-Time-in-College Classes: A Call to Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology in higher education has played an increasingly dramatic role, particularly on community college campuses, with emphasis on how to provide better services to students via the use of technology. This report examines the challenge for faculty teaching first-time-in-college (FTIC) classes at El Centro College of the Dallas County Community…

  16. Responding Globally to the Online Learning Needs of Military Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Suzane L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of my proposal is to present a comprehensive look at the specific needs of military students who are actively deployed globally, and who are entering the "virtual classroom" for the first time. Additionally, I have drawn upon my own experiences as an educator of more than 15 years, as well as someone who has developed course curriculum…

  17. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTION IN AGRICULTURAL MECHANICS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS IN ARKANSAS WHO ENTER NON-FARMING OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBERTS, ROY W.

    TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW PROGRAM, A STUDY WAS MADE TO DETERMINE -- (1) OCCUPATIONS ENTERED, (2) EFFECT OF NUMBER OF YEARS IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE ON OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE, (3) MECHANICAL SKILLS USEFUL IN THE OCCUPATION, (4) ADDITIONAL SKILLS NEEDED, AND (5) CHANGES NEEDED IN THE COURSE OF STUDY. THE SAMPLE INCLUDED 802 FORMER…

  18. Reluctant Colossus: America Enters the Age of Imperialism. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. Student and Teacher's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Don

    This packet contains student materials and a teacher's guide. The materials are designed to make complex international issues understandable and meaningful for students. The unit probes the political, moral, and racial issues raised by the Spanish-American War and the acquisition of an overseas empire. Students compare the values and concerns at…

  19. Entering Adulthood: Balancing Stress for Success. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series. [Teacher's Guide and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Susan J.

    This curriculum guide provides high school students with specific tools to develop insights, attitudes and life skills they need to meet life's challenges and covers critical health and family life topics. It is part of a series designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility…

  20. Entering Adulthood: Examining Drugs and Risks. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series. [Teacher's Guide and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarratano, Susan; Evans, Dale

    This curriculum guide for high-school students presents in-depth coverage of the full range of content related to drugs, including tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, narcotics, and hallucinogens. It is part of a series designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility for…

  1. Profile of Degree/Certificate-Seeking Entering Undergraduate Students, by Control and Level of Institution. Web Tables. NCES 2011-252

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott; Mason, Marcinda

    2011-01-01

    The Student Right to Know Act requires institutions that participate in any student financial assistance program under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (as amended) to disclose graduation rates. To assist institutions in meeting this requirement, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) collects these rates as part of the…

  2. Translating Success: How Careful Planning within a Problems-Based Curriculum Can Prepare Students to Enter College-Level Math Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmore, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Amy Biehl High School (ABHS) is a charter high school located in downtown Albuquerque that serves students from Albuquerque and the surrounding communities. Despite its population's differences in skills, special needs, socioeconomic class, race, culture, and English proficiency, it has one common goal for all its students: that they are able to…

  3. Much Ado about €500: Do Tuition Fees Keep German Students from Entering University? Evidence from a Natural Experiment Using DiD Matching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Tina; Helbig, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of tuition fees on enrolment behaviour among prospective students in Germany. According to the rational choice theory (RCT), we argue that due to the higher costs brought on by such fees tuition fees should have a negative effect on student's enrolment. This should be even more pronounced among prospective…

  4. Transformative Learning and First-Time Managers: How Can HRD Practitioners Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nella A.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to management is one of the most difficult challenges first-time managers face--almost half fail. First-time managers may experience disorienting dilemmas that trigger transformative learning. HRD (human resource development) practitioners can assist in reducing the failure rate of first-time managers when they better understand the…

  5. Spillway Entering Missouri River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The water from the spillway enter the Missouri River. The spillway water is the darker water, which is sediment and the Missouri River is the more clear water. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  6. Methodology and Implications of Statewide Success Rates of Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConochie, Daniel D.; Rajasekhara, Koosappa

    In 1991, the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges developed the "success rate," a reporting index which combined graduation, transfer, and persistence rates. Success rate matrices were produced by tracking first-time, full-time students representing seven cohorts (1980 to 1986) over a 4-year period, and matching entering enrollment files…

  7. Navigating College: A Handbook on Self Advocacy Written for Autistic Students from Autistic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inclusion Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Leaving high school and going to college is complicated for everyone. But if you're a student on the autism spectrum who is about to enter higher education for the first time, it might be a little bit more complicated for you. Maybe you're worried about getting accommodations, getting places on time, or dealing with sensory issues in a new…

  8. Teaching to learn: Analyzing the experiences of first-time physics learning assistants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Kara Elizabeth

    The Colorado Learning Assistant (LA) Model has demonstrated that it is successful in helping to meet multiple goals including enhancing student learning in LA-supported courses, increasing conceptual understanding of physics among LAs, and improving the teaching practices of former LAs in K-12 schools. The research reported here investigated the experiences of first-time physics LAs taking into account the goals of the program, the learning philosophies implicit in the design of the LA experience, and the learning philosophies embedded in materials used in the physics department's implementation of the LA model. Through interviews and analysis of LAs' written reflections, two generalized models were established. These models represent the views of teaching and learning that undergraduate students generated throughout their first semester serving as LAs in Physics 1110. LAs' views and experiences, and the philosophy that drives the LA model are described as they pertain to a spectrum of views of formative assessment found in the literature. Inferences are made about the importance of the participatory learning model that drives the LA program. Finally, the value of the program for science education more broadly and the dependence of formative assessment sophistication on the teachers' understanding of science will be discussed.

  9. An exploration of the perceptions of caring held by students entering nursing programmes in the United Kingdom: A longitudinal qualitative study phase 1.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jill; Cooper, Karen; Rosser, Elizabeth; Scammell, Janet; Heaslip, Vanessa; White, Sara; Donaldson, Ian; Jack, Eleanor; Hemingway, Ann; Harding, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    In a climate of intense international scrutiny of healthcare and nursing in particular, there is an urgent need to identify, foster and support a caring disposition in student nurses worldwide. Yet relatively little is known about how core nursing values are shaped during education programmes and this warrants further investigation. This longitudinal study commencing in February 2013 examines the impact of an innovative nursing curriculum based on a humanising framework (Todres et al. 2009) and seeks to establish to what extent professional and core values are shaped over the duration of a three year nursing programme. This paper reports on Phase One which explores student nurses' personal values and beliefs around caring and nursing at the start of their programme. Undergraduate pre-registration nursing students from two discrete programmes (Advanced Diploma and BSc (Honours) Nursing with professional registration) were recruited to this study. Utilising individual semi-structured interviews, data collection commenced with February 2013 cohort (n = 12) and was repeated with February 2014 (n = 24) cohort. Findings from Phase One show that neophyte student nurses are enthusiastic about wanting to care and aspire to making a difference to patients and their families. This research promises to offer contributions to the debate around what caring means and in particular how it is understood by student nurses. Findings will benefit educators and students which will ultimately impact positively on those in receipt of healthcare. PMID:26049787

  10. Out-Migration of New Jersey Full-Time First-Time Freshmen, 1979: Analysis and Recommendations. New Jersey Research Note Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Fran C.

    1981-01-01

    Data collected by the National Center for Education Statistics are the basis for these analyses of student migration patterns in New Jersey. The distribution of out-migrating full-time, first-time freshmen in 1979 is examined by collegiate sector and institutional control. The states and institutions to which these students migrate are also…

  11. Learning and Teaching: Where Does Einstein's Concept of Learning about "Service of Our Fellow Man" Enter into Our Discussions about Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthey, George

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper discusses the significance of Albert Einstein's concept of learning about "service of our fellow man" into the discussions about student achievement. Albert Einstein wrote in 1954 of what he considered an evil of modern life--that the "individual feels more than ever dependent on society, but it is not felt in the positive…

  12. ROLES OF PROFESSIONAL SCIENTISTS AND RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS IN THE EDUCATION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES PREPARING TO ENTER THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS WORKFORCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL have developed considerable experience in organizing and carrying out science education outreach activities for minority and disabled students. The author was invited to participate in a symposium on the ...

  13. Learning and Teaching: Where Does Einstein's Concept of Learning about "Service of Our Fellow Man" Enter into Our Discussions about Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthey, George

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper discusses the significance of Albert Einstein's concept of learning about "service of our fellow man" into the discussions about student achievement. Albert Einstein wrote in 1954 of what he considered an evil of modern life--that the "individual feels more than ever dependent on society, but it is not felt in the positive…

  14. Scholastic Achievement of Former L.B.C.C. [Long Beach Community College] Students Entering the University of California During the Academic Year 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, George L.

    This report examines the scholastic achievement of 132 students who transferred from Long Beach City College (LBCC) to the University of California (UC) for the 1972-73 school year. Findings show that LBCC transfers to all branches of the university compare favorably with all community college transfers at UC. Statistics also reveal steady…

  15. Evaluation of an Online Alcohol Education Program for First-Time-in-College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Elayne

    2011-01-01

    This study was guided by a research question regarding the efficacy of the AlcoholEdu program in increasing the use of protective behaviors among incoming college freshman of different drinking risk groups. Specifically, the researcher sought to determine which drinker risk groups, if any, showed the greatest degree of willingness to change…

  16. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. )

    1989-08-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  17. Fibre and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, D B

    1989-01-01

    The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely possible that many of the potential applications of these diets will be realised in the near future. PMID:2539312

  18. Personality Differences of First-Time and Repeat Offenders Arrested for Driving while Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, James R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined personality characteristics of first-time (n=174) and repeat (n=64) driving while intoxicated offenders. Found that repeat offenders differed significantly from first-time offenders on 12 of 24 personality characteristics, were less expressive emotionally, and were less flexible in ways of finding stimulation; however, self-reported…

  19. Sing, Soothe and Sleep: A Lullaby Education Programme for First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Felicity; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an education programme conducted with first-time mothers. The study aimed to establish whether mothers found an education session on lullaby singing beneficial for them and their babies as well as reporting what lullabies were sung and why. Twenty first-time mothers were provided with examples of lullabies and asked to sing…

  20. Ready to Enter 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view looking toward the northeast across 'Endurance Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region was assembled from frames taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 131st martian day, or sol, on June 6, 2004. That was two sols before Opportunity entered the crater, taking the route nearly straight ahead in this image into the 'Karatepe' area of the crater. This view is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Zoonotic enteric protozoa.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A; Smith, A

    2011-11-24

    A growing number of enteric protozoan species are considered to have zoonotic potential. Their clinical impact varies and in many cases is poorly defined. Similarly, the epidemiology of infections, particularly the role of non-human hosts, requires further study. In this review, new information on the life cycles and transmission of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba, Blastocystis and Balantidium are examined in the context of zoonotic potential, as well as polyparasitism and clinical significance. PMID:21798668

  2. New Diabetes Cases Among Americans Drop for First Time in Decades: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155980.html New Diabetes Cases Among Americans Drop for First Time ... statistics released Tuesday show that the number of new cases of diabetes has dropped for the first ...

  3. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePLUS

    Enteral feeding is a way to feed your child using a feeding tube. Enteral feedings will become ... are crushed properly to prevent clogging. If the child coughs or gags when you insert the nasogastric ...

  4. Some Characteristics and Opinions of LACC Entering Students Fall, 1979: A Report on Responses to the A.C.E. 1979 Student Information Form. Research Study Number 80-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    As part of a nationwide study coordinated by the American Council on Education, Los Angeles City College (LACC) conducted a survey of incoming Fall 1979 students to determine their characteristics and opinions. Data collected from 788 students were compared with nationwide findings and with results of similar surveys conducted annually since 1970.…

  5. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Engelhard, Chalee; Landry, Michel D.; McCallum, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs. PMID:26395081

  6. Canine viral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L E

    1983-08-01

    Canine viral enteritis should be suspected in dogs with an acute onset of vomiting and diarrhea, especially in puppies and where several animals are affected simultaneously. Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation, most often detection of viral particles in the stool. No diagnostic test is entirely specific or absolutely sensitive, however, and laboratory findings should be weighed accordingly. Immunization is the key to successful control. Effective vaccines for canine parvovirus are available. Maternal antibody suppresses response to vaccination in young pups and is the major problem in the control of infection. Vaccines against canine rotavirus and coronavirus are not available. The need for such vaccines and the feasibility of their effective use have not yet been clearly demonstrated. PMID:6316616

  7. Enteral nutrition in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, T G; Cerda, J J; Somogyi, L; Baumgartner, S L

    1999-12-01

    Enteral nutrition has, at long last, found its place in the modulation of disease. Because of its importance in terms of both anabolic and catabolic processes, today's clinician must have a working knowledge of the types of enteral formulations, their delivery and the therapeutic considerations (particularly concomitant medications) that impact on the safety and efficacy of enteral nutrition. The advantages and disadvantages of this therapeutic intervention must be carefully weighed by the clinician, in concert with sound medical principles. Despite the widespread belief that enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition in humans, data does suggest that there is little difference between the two. Also, associated costs of enteral nutrition in contrast to parenteral nutrition need to be reappraised based on more invasive enteral access and falling parenteral nutrition prices. Although the enteral route is presumed to be the best feeding modality, the clinician must be ever vigilant about the shortcomings of using the gut, especially in the setting of severe inflammation, stenosis or sepsis. The best feeding modality, then, must blend a knowledge of the patients' anatomy, physiology, and disease with considerations of enteral access, timing of delivery, complications, and a myriad of other therapeutic variables (to include concurrent medication administration) that impact on the enteral feeding regimen. This article reviews the basic principles of enteral nutrition in clinical practice. It describes nutritional assessment, routes of administration, selection of feeding formulas based on nutritional needs, interactions with medications, as well as possible complications of enteral feeding. PMID:10554354

  8. Entering the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the proper planning and upgrading of telecommunications infrastructure in schools that can support state-of-the-art data, voice, and video applications. An example of one school's efforts at installing an integrated telecommunications system for its 17,500 students is highlighted. (GR)

  9. Outcomes of Various Interventions for First-Time Perianal Abscesses in Children

    PubMed Central

    Juth Karlsson, Alexander; Salö, Martin; Stenström, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In children treated surgically for first-time perianal abscesses, discovery and excision of concomitant fistulas may also be warranted. Aim. To evaluate children of varying age after incision and drainage of first-time perianal abscesses, examining recurrences rates with and without search for a fistula. Method. A retrospective review was conducted, analyzing children (ages 0–15 years) treated for first-time perianal abscesses at a tertiary pediatric surgical center, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Results. A total of 104 patients subjected to 112 treatments for first-time perianal abscesses were eligible. Surgical procedures constituted 84 (75%) of treatments, searching for fistulas in 49 (58%). In 34 (69%), fistulas were confirmed and treated. In the surgically treated subset, the recurrence rate was higher if no attempt was made to exclude a fistula (46%), as opposed to confirmed absence of a fistula (27%) or concurrent fistulotomy (9%; p = 0.02). Younger patients showed a higher recurrence rate (12/26; 46%), compared with older counterparts (11/58; 19%) (p = 0.002). Conclusion. In children surgically treated for first-time perianal abscess, recurrence rates appear to be lowered by locating and treating coexisting fistulas. PMID:26881235

  10. Democracy for Students: The Constitution Enters Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis

    1976-01-01

    Recent court litigation in the civil rights areas of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, personal appearance, freedom from racial and sexual discrimination, and due process have served notice that the end result of education ("the democratic way of life") must be accomplished by democratic means. (MB)

  11. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  12. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  13. Does Home Visiting Benefit Only First-Time Mothers?: Evidence from Healthy Families Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Lee; Galano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    It is a common assumption that mothers who have had previous births would participate less fully and have poorer outcomes from early home visitation programs than would first-time mothers. The authors conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to test that assumption by measuring three aspects of participation: time in the program, the number…

  14. Development and Evaluation of an Infant-Care Training Program with First-Time Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dachman, Ronald S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A programed instructional manual and modeling were used to train three first-time and three expectant fathers in a set of infant-care skills. The training package produced criterion performance by both sets of fathers, and effects transferred from hospital to home setting for expectant fathers. (Author/JW)

  15. Use of Music Intervention for Reducing Anxiety and Promoting Satisfaction in First-Time Filipino Fathers.

    PubMed

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M

    2016-03-01

    Childbirth is an anxiety-provoking event in a man's life. Therefore, strategies to decrease paternal anxiety during childbirth are necessary. This study determined the effects of music and satisfaction of first-time Filipino fathers during childbirth. In the study, a prospective quasi-experimental design was utilized. Ninety-eight purposive samples of first-time fathers were included in the study, 50 were allocated in the experimental group (music group) and 48 in the control group (nonmusic group) during the months of August to October 2013. Paternal anxiety and satisfaction were measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Visual Analogue Scale for Satisfaction, respectively. Results revealed that the first-time fathers in the experimental group had lower State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores (p < .05) and higher Visual Analogue Scale for Satisfaction scores (p < .05) than those in the control group. Findings of the study provide substantial evidence to support the use of music in reducing anxiety and promoting satisfaction among first-time fathers during childbirth. PMID:25432465

  16. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53…

  17. The Number of Blacks Completing Doctoral Degrees Declines for the First Time in Seven Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    In 2001, over 1,600 African Americans earned doctoral degrees, yet for the first time in 7 years, the number of black doctoral awards declined. This paper examines differences in doctoral fields of study, the limited number of awards to African Americans in specialized scientific fields, and the gender gap in black Ph.D. awards. Most doctorates…

  18. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  19. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accreditation and approval. 96.20 Section 96.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Application Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation...

  20. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accreditation and approval. 96.20 Section 96.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Application Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation...

  1. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accreditation and approval. 96.20 Section 96.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Application Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation...

  2. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accreditation and approval. 96.20 Section 96.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Application Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation...

  3. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accreditation and approval. 96.20 Section 96.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Application Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation...

  4. Reduced Recidivism among First-Time DWI Offenders as a Correlate of Pre-Trial Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucker, G. William; Osti, James R.

    1997-01-01

    Examines recidivism rates for 3,994 first-time, driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) offenders. Results indicate that convicted DWI offenders placed on probation had a 47% greater risk of a re-arrest for DWI than did individuals who completed a pretrial intervention (PTI) program. Discusses the utility of a PTI alternative. (RJM)

  5. Using Technology-Based Strategies to Change Drug-Related Attitudes and First-Time Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Ben; Roblyer, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that a solid pre-trial drug intervention program is a vital first step in educating first-time offenders about the seriousness of drug abuse and criminal behavior, staff at the Intervention Program for Substance Abusers in Montgomery County, Maryland's Department of Correction and Rehabilitation decided that better strategies were…

  6. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53…

  7. Does Home Visiting Benefit Only First-Time Mothers?: Evidence from Healthy Families Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Lee; Galano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    It is a common assumption that mothers who have had previous births would participate less fully and have poorer outcomes from early home visitation programs than would first-time mothers. The authors conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to test that assumption by measuring three aspects of participation: time in the program, the number…

  8. The first-time adult-onset offender: findings from a community corrections cohort.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patricia M

    2011-09-01

    Preoccupation of criminologists with juvenile-onset criminal careers overshadows the fact that offenders who begin their criminal careers in adulthood comprise a substantial portion of adult offender populations. Little is known about adult-onset offenders, generally, and even less about first-time adult-onset offenders. Using a large sample of adult felons on probation supervision, this study explores differences between first and repeat offenders. With respect to risk factors at intake, timing of rearrest, and frequency and nature of supervision failures over 3 years, first-time adult-onset participants exhibited statistically significant differences in relation to both repeat adult-onset and juvenile persistent offenders, with largest differences occurring in analyses involving the latter. With respect to risk factors at intake and rearrest, events in adulthood played a more dominant role among first-time adult-onset offenders compared with other groups, where criminal lifestyle factors were in greater evidence. The article concludes with a discussion of community supervision practices to prevent the progression of the first-time adult-onset offender's criminal career, social reforms to assist this group, and avenues for relevant future research. PMID:20547732

  9. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  10. Viral enteric infections of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric diseases cause great economic losses to the poultry industry mostly from depressed weight gains, impaired feed efficiency, and decreased flock uniformity. Enteric syndromes have been described in both young turkeys and chickens and likely result from infection by a mixture of pathogenic age...

  11. Development and evaluation of an infant-care training program with first-time fathers.

    PubMed

    Dachman, R S; Alessi, G J; Vrazo, G J; Fuqua, R W; Kerr, R H

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a multicomponent package in training infant-care skills to first-time fathers. After developing and socially validating a set of infant-care skills, we assessed the effects of training in a hospital-based program with expectant fathers (Experiment 1) and in a home-based program with fathers having varied degrees of experience with their infants (Experiment 2). In both experiments, a multiple probe design demonstrated that the training package was responsible for producing criterion performance by the expectant and first-time fathers. A 1-month generalization probe in Experiment 1 showed that the effects transferred across training conditions (training doll to human infant) and settings (hospital to home). An increase in the number of infant-stimulation activities performed by fathers was also observed in both experiments. PMID:3771415

  12. Sensitivity of the breastfeeding motivational measurement scale: a known group analysis of first time mothers.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups. PMID:24391731

  13. Assessing individual risk for high-risk colorectal adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-10-01

    Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ?1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ?3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective US studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs. 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio [OR]?=?9.41), and 6.6% vs. 2.1% for women (OR?=?3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the US population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening. PMID:25820865

  14. Residence and Migration of First-Time Freshmen for the State of Hawai'i, Fall 1996. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu.

    This report presents information on the residence and migration of first-time freshmen for the State of Hawaii for the Fall 1996 semester. The information presented is for first-time freshmen only. The first-time freshmen population discussed in this report is divided into three groups: (1) those residents of Hawaii who chose to main in the State…

  15. The Perspectives of First-Time Teachers Concerning Their Assimilation into the New School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Megan

    2012-01-01

    New teachers entering the profession are leaving within their first few years, with half exiting the profession in the first five years. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the experiences of new elementary school teachers regarding their assimilation into a new school environment. The primary research question involved…

  16. Do first-time breeding females imprint on their own eggs?

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Carra, Laura G.; Ontanilla, Juan; Martín-Galvez, David

    2013-01-01

    The egg-recognition processes underlying egg rejection are assumed to be based on an imprinting-like process (a female learning the aspect of her own eggs during her first breeding attempt). The imprinting-like process and the misimprinting costs have been the objective of many theoretical models and frequently have a leading role in papers published on brood parasitism; however, an experiment has never been undertaken to test the existence of this imprinting-like process by manipulating egg appearance in first-time breeding females. Here, we present the first such experimental study using the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), which is a conspecific brood parasite and which has a good ability to reject conspecific eggs, as a model species. We found that contrary to what the hypothesis predicts first-time breeding females did not reject their own eggs in their second breeding attempt. This lack of response against unmanipulated eggs could indicate that females have an innate preference for their own eggs. However, in a second experimental group in which first-time breeding females were allowed to learn the aspect of their (unmanipulated) own eggs, none ejected manipulated eggs during their second clutch either—a finding that does not support the idea of recognition templates being inherited, but instead suggests that recognition templates could be acquired again at each new breeding attempt. Our results demonstrate that it is likely that egg discrimination is not influenced by egg appearance in the first breeding attempt. PMID:23235707

  17. Do first-time breeding females imprint on their own eggs?

    PubMed

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Carra, Laura G; Ontanilla, Juan; Martín-Galvez, David

    2013-02-01

    The egg-recognition processes underlying egg rejection are assumed to be based on an imprinting-like process (a female learning the aspect of her own eggs during her first breeding attempt). The imprinting-like process and the misimprinting costs have been the objective of many theoretical models and frequently have a leading role in papers published on brood parasitism; however, an experiment has never been undertaken to test the existence of this imprinting-like process by manipulating egg appearance in first-time breeding females. Here, we present the first such experimental study using the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), which is a conspecific brood parasite and which has a good ability to reject conspecific eggs, as a model species. We found that contrary to what the hypothesis predicts first-time breeding females did not reject their own eggs in their second breeding attempt. This lack of response against unmanipulated eggs could indicate that females have an innate preference for their own eggs. However, in a second experimental group in which first-time breeding females were allowed to learn the aspect of their (unmanipulated) own eggs, none ejected manipulated eggs during their second clutch either--a finding that does not support the idea of recognition templates being inherited, but instead suggests that recognition templates could be acquired again at each new breeding attempt. Our results demonstrate that it is likely that egg discrimination is not influenced by egg appearance in the first breeding attempt. PMID:23235707

  18. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J.; Grebe, Stefan K.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca) kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined. Methods In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls. Results Serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001). Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008). Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82). In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH)2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05). Conclusions Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk. PMID:26332888

  19. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  20. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  1. Oral health literacy and knowledge among patients who are pregnant for the first time

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Jessica Y.; Divaris, Kimon; Diane Baker, A.; Vann, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors conducted an observational cohort study to determine the levels of and examine the associations of oral health literacy (OHL) and oral health knowledge in low-income patients who were pregnant for the first time. Methods An analytic sample of 119 low-income patients who were pregnant for the first time completed a structured 30-minute, in-person interview conducted by two trained interviewers in seven counties in North Carolina. The authors measured OHL by means of a dental word recognition test and assessed oral health knowledge by administering a six-item knowledge survey. Results The authors found that OHL scores were distributed normally (mean [standard deviation], 16.4 [5.0]). The percentage of correct responses for each oral health knowledge item ranged from 45 to 98 percent. The results of bivariate analyses showed that there was a positive correlation between OHL and oral health knowledge (P < .01). Higher OHL levels were associated with correct responses to two of the knowledge items (P < .01). Conclusions OHL was low in the study sample. There was a significant association between OHL and oral health knowledge. Clinical Implications Low OHL levels and, thereby, low levels of oral health knowledge, might affect health outcomes for both the mother and child. Tailoring messages to appropriate OHL levels might improve knowledge. PMID:22942142

  2. First-time DWI offenders are at risk of recidivating regardless of sanctions imposed

    PubMed Central

    Ahlin, Eileen M.; Zador, Paul L.; Rauch, William J.; Howard, Jan M.; Duncan, G. Doug

    2011-01-01

    Objective Research demonstrates that punitive approaches to DWI employed by the judiciary have failed to significantly reduce recidivism. However, little is known about the deterrent effects of administrative and diversion sanctions. We examine whether such sanctions deter first-time DWI offenders. Methods We grouped combinations of administrative, judicial, and diversion sanctions routinely employed in the state of Maryland for processing drivers arrested for DWI into one of eight mutually exclusive disposition sequences. We applied this classification to Maryland drivers who had been licensed in the state and had precisely one DWI on their record prior to January 1, 1999. We then used a proportional hazards model to estimate the probability of remaining free of a new DWI during a 6-year period (January 1, 1999 – December 31, 2004) as a function of the disposition of the index violation, and of selected factors that could affect that probability. Results Drivers with a prior DWI were at relatively high risk of recidivating regardless of how they were sanctioned. Those who received administrative and alternative sanctions had a risk of recidivating similar to that of drivers who were convicted. Conclusion All dispositions sequences, not just convictions, indicate that first-time DWI offenders are at high risk of recidivating. PMID:21603059

  3. Ego-dystonic pregnancy and prenatal consumption of alcohol among first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Peggy L

    2012-10-01

    This study examines predictors of drinking during pregnancy among first-time mothers, in order to distinguish those in need of targeted screening and intervention. Data from the prenatal panel of the Parenting for the First Time study were used in hierarchical linear regressions to determine likelihood of prenatal alcohol consumption among a sample of 645 women. African-American women and those of race/ethnicities other than White were less likely to drink, regardless of age or level of education. Among all women, being in school was associated with abstention (P = 0.05). Among teens, endorsing a perception of feeling "pushed around" was a significant indicator of prenatal alcohol consumption (P = 0.05), as was not having plans for infant feeding shortly before delivery (P = 0.05). Among adults with some level of college education, having a first prenatal visit after the fourth month of pregnancy was a significant predictor of drinking (P = 0.01). This study indicates that women who evidence behaviors or attitudes indicating an ego-dystonic pregnancy (one that is psychologically or emotionally uncomfortable), may be more likely to self-medicate and cope via avoidance through drinking. These behaviors and attitudes may be indicators of the need for targeted screening and intervention, as well as indicators of underlying problems to be targeted in treatment. Further, among all women for whom continued education is a possibility, retaining the ability to attend school during the pregnancy can be protective. PMID:22045021

  4. Pregnancy Experiences of First-Time Fathers in Iran: A Qualitative Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Golian Tehrani, Shahnaz; Bazzazian, Shahin; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, is an important role and responsibility. For accepting this role, one needs to be well-prepared. Awareness of father’s experiences of pregnancy can help us to develop plans for the promotion of the role of fatherhood. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore how first time fathers describe their experiences of pregnancy. Patients and Methods: The data in this qualitative study were collected by individual open-ended interviews in five public health prenatal care clinics in Tehran, Iran, during 2010 ? 2011. Participants were 26 Iranian and Moslem first-time fathers living in Tehran, whose partner was in the 32th to 40th week of her normal pregnancy. Qualitative content text analysis was used for analyzing interviews. Results: Through analysis of fathers’ experiences of their wives’ pregnancy, four categories, as well as associated subcategories, emerged. The categories include: “Emotional responses to pregnancy, Feeling of change, Accepting the reality and satisfaction, Developing identity as a father.” These categories describe the phenomenon of “Transition to fatherhood”. Conclusions: Transition to fatherhood extends beyond only moderate mental and social changes, and may be influenced by cultural background and beliefs. Therefore, caregivers should be aware of fathers' changes and needs during pregnancy, and support them while taking into consideration their culture and beliefs. PMID:25838928

  5. Temporal associations between substance use and delinquency among youth with a first time offense

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sarah B.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Ewing, Brett A.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Substance use and delinquency among adolescents has been shown to be positively associated; however, the temporal relationship is not well understood. Examining the association between delinquency and substance use is especially relevant among adolescents with a first-time substance use related offense as they are at-risk for future problems. METHOD Data from 193 adolescents at time of diversion program entry and six months later was examined using cross-lagged path analysis to determine whether substance use and related consequences were associated with other types of delinquency across time. RESULTS Results demonstrated that delinquency at program entry was related to subsequent reports of heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, but not marijuana use or its consequences. In contrast, alcohol and marijuana use at program entry was not related to future reports of delinquency. CONCLUSIONS Findings emphasize the need to build in comprehensive assessments and interventions for youth with a first time offense in order to prevent further escalation of substance use and criminal behaviors. PMID:24656642

  6. Qualitative Analysis of the Lived Experience of First-Time Nurse Responders in Disaster.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Sallie J; Stanton, Marietta P; Tomlinson, Stephen; Olivet, Linda; Graves, Ann; McKnight, Douglas; Speck, Patricia M

    2016-02-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Qualitative Analysis of the Lived Experience of First-Time Nurse Responders in Disaster," found on pages 61-71, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until January 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe the experiences of first-time nurse responders to actual disasters in community shelters or temporary medical clinics. Identify themes the first-time nurse responders suggest for a practical disaster curriculum for the generalist nurse. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The study purpose was to examine the reflections of the lived experiences of nurses in shelters or temporary community medical clinics responding for the first time to a civilian disaster. The disaster-nursing literature echoes the need for development of disaster content in the nursing curriculum. However, little thematic analysis-supporting curriculum from the lived experience of first-time responders exists in the literature. This study's purpose is to identify the essential thematic knowledge and skills necessary to provide care to disaster survivors in communities and for determining the themes necessary to formulate education in emergency preparedness curricula. A narrative inquiry, with a phenomenological analysis, to explore the lived experiences of nurses who responded once to a community disaster was the methodology used to identify themes. Thematic findings demonstrated a lack of prior knowledge about volunteering during a disaster response, that previous mass casualty exercises did not help with their actual responses, and that the participant RNs identified specific and assessment skills necessary for disasters. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(2):61-71. PMID:26840238

  7. Enteric viruses of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enteric disease in commercial poultry operations is common, and often unofficially reported and discussed by field veterinarians as “non-specific enteric disease”, three recognized enteric syndromes do exist in poultry: poult enteritis complex (PEC) and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (P...

  8. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding. PMID:23477413

  9. Social Support for First-Time Chinese Mothers in Contexts of Provider-Recipient Relationships.

    PubMed

    An, Zheng; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of social support on perceived stress and online support activities in two relationship contexts. In 2013, we surveyed 366 first-time mothers between the ages of 26 and 30 years from mainland China about their social support experiences with their mothers and mothers-in-law in regard to child rearing. Women who received higher levels of support from their mothers reported lower levels of perceived stress and higher levels of online support activities. Receiving support from mothers-in-law was not associated with either perceived stress or online support activities. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering relationship contexts when examining social support outcomes. Implications for future research on social support and interpersonal relationships are discussed. PMID:26422372

  10. Discovery and study of Leishmania turanica for the first time in China.

    PubMed

    Guan, L R; Yang, Y Q; Qu, J Q; Shen, W X

    1995-01-01

    Reported are the results of multidisciplinary studies on Leishmania turanica, which was isolated from the auricular tissues of naturally infected great gerbils in Xinjiang, China. Discussed are the biology of the parasite, its molecular biology, its pathogenicity in rodents and humans and its vectors. This was the first time that L. turanica had been reported in China. L. turanica is highly pathogenic in BALB/c mice, with the resulting systemic infection being lethal, and it causes dermal lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. L. turanica parasitizes the macrophages in the interstitium of the testes of Cricetulus barabensis, and entirely destroys the Leydig's cells of severely infected animals. Inoculation of L. turanica can induce simian and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. The cell membrane and flagella of the promastigotes of L. turanica have rather active ACPase. The major vectors of L. turanica were Phlebotomus mongolensis and P. andrejevi. PMID:8846493

  11. First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  12. Awareness, Intention, and Needs Regarding Breastfeeding: Findings from First-Time Mothers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Li, Mu; Yang, Dongling; Wen, Li Ming; Hunter, Cynthia; He, Gengsheng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objectives Despite efforts, a decline in breastfeeding rates has been documented in China recently. This study explored the awareness of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for breastfeeding and intention to breastfeed among first-time mothers and identified the gap between mothers' needs and perinatal care provision regarding breastfeeding promotion. Subjects and Methods In total, 653 women at 5–22 gestational weeks were recruited from four community health centers in Shanghai, China. They completed a self-administered questionnaire at recruitment. Two focus group discussions were held among third-trimester pregnant women who had received prenatal education. Twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted among postpartum mothers. Results During early pregnancy, a substantial proportion of mothers were not aware of the nutritional value of breastmilk (40%) or the value of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (80%) or any breastfeeding for 24 months (98%). The awareness of the WHO guidelines for breastfeeding was associated with intention to breastfeed (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.88, 3.78) or intention to breastfeed exclusively (adjusted OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.81, 6.06). In late pregnancy and postpartum, most mothers were still not fully aware of the breastfeeding recommendations and nutritional value of breastmilk. Limited communications with healthcare providers and lack of support for dealing with breastfeeding difficulties were reported. Conclusions Low awareness of the WHO breastfeeding guidelines was found among first-time mothers in Shanghai. Awareness of breastfeeding guidelines was independently associated with mothers' intention to breastfeed and intention to breastfeed exclusively. The health benefits of breastfeeding and the recommended duration of breastfeeding should be emphasized in prenatal education programs. PMID:22424469

  13. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  14. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  15. Computer Literacy of Entering Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellep, Andrew

    In an effort to improve college program planning using data on the computer skills of entering freshmen, a survey was conducted to obtain information about computer science programs in Pennsylvania's public schools. The study investigated the material being taught, the background of computer science teachers, program plans, tendencies in the…

  16. Computer Literacy of Entering Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellep, Andrew

    In an effort to improve college program planning using data on the computer skills of entering freshmen, a survey was conducted to obtain information about computer science programs in Pennsylvania's public schools. The study investigated the material being taught, the background of computer science teachers, program plans, tendencies in the…

  17. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for a passport for the first time. 51.43 Section 51.43 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  18. Effects of Mothers against Drunk Driving's (MADD's) Victim Impact Panels on First-Time DWI Offenders: Some Initial Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nagesh; And Others

    A study assessed the effects of victim impact panels (VIP) on first-time DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) offenders in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The VIP is an emotional presentation by the victim or their parents about how they were injured or their child was killed by a drunk driver. Subjects, 350 first-time offenders participated in a Mothers…

  19. A Multiple Family Group Intervention for First-Time Juvenile Offenders: Comparisons with Probation and Dropouts on Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, William H.; Van Dyke, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated a multiple-family group-intervention program (MFGI) for first-time juvenile offenders. The recidivism rate for subjects who completed the MFGI (the Family Solutions Program) was compared to recidivism rates of two other groups of first-time juvenile offenders. Using logistic regression analysis predicting who will recidivate,…

  20. First-time observation of Mastro Giorgio masterpieces by means of non-destructive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Ingo, G. M.; Bouquillon, A.; Pages-Camagna, S.; Aucouturier, M.; Roehrs, S.; Fermo, P.

    2006-06-01

    For the first time some excellent pieces belonging to the majolica production of the great master Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio (Central Italy) have been characterized from a chemical and structural point of view with the aim to identify the composition of both pigments and lustres. A series of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Raman analyses have been performed on some plates coming from Museo del Palazzo dei Consoli (Gubbio) and several French museums (Louvre, Musée National de la Céramique, Musée National de la Renaissance) lustred by Giorgio Andreoli and decorated by famous majolica painters such as Francesco Xanto Avelli. The three techniques are complementary and useful in the investigation of art objects since they are non-destructive. Furthermore, the low detection limits allow the identification of all elements and compounds present, and RBS allows concentration profiling, too. It is worth noticing that the examined objects are characterized by the presence of both gold and ruby-red lustres, a peculiarity of Mastro Giorgio’s technique. The measurements by PIXE and RBS have been carried out on the AGLAE accelerator at C2RMF, Louvre Palace.

  1. Production of viable piglets for the first time using sperm derived from ectopic testicular xenografts.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Michiko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Somfai, Tamas; Maedomari, Naoki; Ozawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Junko; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2010-02-01

    Xenografting of testicular tissue into immunodeficient mice is known to be a valuable tool for facilitating the development of immature germ cells present in mammalian gonads. Spermatogenesis in xenografts and/or in vitro embryonic development to the blastocyst stage after ICSI of xenogeneic sperm has already been reported in large animals, including pigs; however, development of the embryos to term has not yet been confirmed. Therefore, in pigs, we evaluated the in vivo developmental ability of oocytes injected after ICSI of xenogeneic sperm. Testicular tissues prepared from neonatal piglets, which contain seminiferous cords consisting of only gonocytes/spermatogonia, were transplanted under the back skin of castrated nude mice. Between 133 and 280 days after xenografting, morphologically normal sperm were recovered, and a single spermatozoon was then injected into an in vitro matured porcine oocyte. After ICSI, the oocytes were electrostimulated and transferred into estrus-synchronized recipients. Two out of 23 recipient gilts gave birth to six piglets. Here, we describe for the first time that oocytes fertilized with a sperm from ectopic xenografts have the ability to develop to viable offspring in large mammals. PMID:20015869

  2. Men, maternity and moral residue: negotiating the moral demands of the transition to first time fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses men's transition to first time fatherhood, with a focus on the way they recognise various in-tension moral demands and negotiate an appropriate role for themselves. The findings are taken from a longitudinal study, drawing on elements of grounded theory, comprising a series of face-to-face and telephone interviews with 11 men over a 9-month period from the 12th week of pregnancy to 8 weeks after the birth. The analysis focuses on men's feelings and experience of exclusion and participation, and their response and reaction to that experience. The findings present two descriptive themes, ‘on the inside looking in’ and ‘present but not participating’, followed by third theme ‘deference and support: a moral response’ that exposes the dilemmatic nature of men's experience and explains the participants’ apparent acceptance of being less involved. The discussion explores the concept of moral residue, arguing that while deference and support may be an appropriate role for fathers in the perinatal period it may also be a compromise that leads to feelings of uncertainty and frustration, which is a consequence of being in a genuinely dilemmatic situation. PMID:25091825

  3. Effect of Maternal–Child Home Visitation on Pregnancy Spacing for First-Time Latina Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Chesnokova, Arina; Matone, Meredith; Luan, Xianqun; Localio, A. Russell; Rubin, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of a maternal–child home visitation program on birth spacing for first-time Latina mothers, focusing on adolescents and women who identified as Mexican or Puerto Rican. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. One thousand Latina women enrolled in the Pennsylvania Nurse–Family Partnership between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were matched to nonenrolled Latina women using propensity scores. The primary outcome was the time to second pregnancy that resulted in a live birth (interpregnancy interval). Proportional hazards models and bootstrap methods compared the time to event. Results. Home visitation was associated with a small decrease in the risk of a short interpregnancy interval (??18 months) among Latina women (hazards ratio [HR]?=?0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.75, 0.99). This effect was driven by outcomes among younger adolescent women (HR?=?0.80; 95% CI?=?0.65, 0.96). There was also a trend toward significance for women of Mexican heritage (HR?=?0.74; 95% CI?=?0.49, 1.07), although this effect might be attributed to individual agency performance. Conclusions. Home visitation using the Nurse–Family Partnership model had measurable effects on birth spacing in Latina women. PMID:24354820

  4. Breastfeeding and Social Media among First-Time African American Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V.; Waters, Catherine M.; Dailey, Dawn E.; Lee, Kathryn A.; Lyndon, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of social media during the antepartum and postpartum periods among first-time African American mothers and their support persons. Design A qualitative critical ethnographic research design within the contexts of Family Life Course Development Theory and Black Feminist Theory. Setting Participants were recruited from community-based, public health, and home visiting programs. Participants A purposive sample was recruited, consisting of 14 pregnant African American women and eight support persons. Methods Pregnant and postpartum African American women and their support persons were interviewed separately during the antepartum and postpartum periods. Data were analyzed thematically. Results Participants frequently used social media for educational and social support and searched the internet for perinatal and parenting information. Most participants reported using at least one mobile application during their pregnancies and after giving birth. Social media were typically accessed through smartphones and/or computers using different websites and applications. While participants gleaned considerable information about infant development from these applications, they had difficulty finding and recalling information about infant feeding. Conclusion Social media are an important vehicle to disseminate infant feeding information; however, they are not currently being used to full potential. Our findings suggest that future interventions geared towards African American mothers and their support persons should include social media approaches. The way individuals gather, receive, and interpret information is dynamic. The increasing popularity and use of social media platforms offers the opportunity to create more innovative, targeted mobile health interventions for infant feeding and breastfeeding promotion. PMID:25712127

  5. Lower Cortisol Activity is Associated with First-Time Driving while Impaired.

    PubMed

    Couture, Sophie; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Gianoulakis, Christina; Tremblay, Jacques; Ng Ying Kin, Nmk; Brochu, Serge; Pruessner, Jens; Dedovic, Katarina; Brown, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Driving while impaired (DWI) is a grave and persistent high-risk behavior. Previous work demonstrated that DWI recidivists had attenuated cortisol reactivity compared to non-DWI drivers. This suggests that cortisol is a neurobiological marker of high-risk driving. The present study tested the hypothesis that this initial finding would extend to first-time DWI (fDWI) offenders compared to non-DWI drivers. Male fDWI offenders (n = 139) and non-DWI drivers (n = 31) were exposed to a stress task, and their salivary cortisol activity (total output and reactivity) was measured. Participants also completed questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsivity, substance use, and engagement in risky and criminal behaviors. As hypothesized, fDWI offenders, compared to non-DWI drivers, had lower cortisol reactivity; fDWI offenders also showed lower total output. In addition, cortisol activity was the most important predictor of group membership, after accounting for alcohol misuse patterns and consequences and other personality and problem behavior characteristics. The findings indicate that attenuated cortisol activity is an independent factor associated with DWI offending risk at an earlier stage in the DWI trajectory than previously detected. PMID:25922575

  6. Lower Cortisol Activity is Associated with First-Time Driving while Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Sophie; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Gianoulakis, Christina; Tremblay, Jacques; Ng Ying Kin, NMK; Brochu, Serge; Pruessner, Jens; Dedovic, Katarina; Brown, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Driving while impaired (DWI) is a grave and persistent high-risk behavior. Previous work demonstrated that DWI recidivists had attenuated cortisol reactivity compared to non-DWI drivers. This suggests that cortisol is a neurobiological marker of high-risk driving. The present study tested the hypothesis that this initial finding would extend to first-time DWI (fDWI) offenders compared to non-DWI drivers. Male fDWI offenders (n = 139) and non-DWI drivers (n = 31) were exposed to a stress task, and their salivary cortisol activity (total output and reactivity) was measured. Participants also completed questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsivity, substance use, and engagement in risky and criminal behaviors. As hypothesized, fDWI offenders, compared to non-DWI drivers, had lower cortisol reactivity; fDWI offenders also showed lower total output. In addition, cortisol activity was the most important predictor of group membership, after accounting for alcohol misuse patterns and consequences and other personality and problem behavior characteristics. The findings indicate that attenuated cortisol activity is an independent factor associated with DWI offending risk at an earlier stage in the DWI trajectory than previously detected. PMID:25922575

  7. Organic carbon in topsoil - first time fully harmonised at a European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Baritz, Reiner; Reiman, Clemens; Gemas Project Team

    2013-04-01

    The organic fraction of soils often accounts for an only small but variable proportion of the total soil mass. Nevertheless the organic fraction profoundly influences e.g., soil properties, ecosystem functioning, and the magnitude of various ecosystem processes. In the cooperative project of Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil (GEMAS) a total of 2018 samples of agricultural (ploughed land, 0-20 cm) and 2023 samples of grazing land (0-10 cm) soil were collected at a density of 1 site per 2500 km2 each from 33 European countries, covering an area of 5,600,000 km2. All soil samples were sampled following a jointly agreed field protocol. The contents of TOC show large local differences with the highest concentrations of TOC in Finland, Ireland and Norway but also in other countries like e.g., Sweden, United Kingdom, and Germany distinctively high concentrations were measured. The distribution of TOC can be related to other measured soil properties like CEC, pH (CaCl2) and e.g., 52 chemical elements following an agua regia extraction. The GEMAS project has provided for the first time a fully harmonised data on TOC (and many other parameters) at a European scale.

  8. Freedom Star tows a barge with an SLWT into Port Canaveral for the first time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, tows a barge containing the third Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT will be used to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October. This first-time towing arrangement, part of a cost savings plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks are manufactured. The barge will now be transported up the Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tugboat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allows NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service directly to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies show a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications should be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, has also undergone deck strengthening enhancements and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed. The other recovery vessel, Liberty Star, has undergone deck strengthening enhancements along with Freedom Star and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed.

  9. Freedom Star tows a barge with an SLWT into Port Canaveral for the first time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, tows a barge containing the third Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT will be used to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October. This first-time towing arrangement, part of a cost savings plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks are manufactured. The barge will now be transported up the Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tugboat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allows NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service directly to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies show a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications should be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, has also undergone deck strengthening enhancements and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed.

  10. Research update on the poultry enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry enteric disease is an ongoing economic problem for the poultry industry in the United States and abroad. The etiologies of the recognized enteric disease syndromes—Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) and Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) in young turkeys, and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS...

  11. Creating a Virtual World Mindset: A Guide for First Time Second Life Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoerger, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Education technology proponents argue that tech-savvy students want active learning opportunities that enable them to produce, as well as consume, content. Some educators have responded to this rhetoric by appropriating virtual worlds such as Second Life (SL) for teaching and learning. While SL rewards exploration and experimentation, the…

  12. Teaching to Learn: Analyzing the Experiences of First-Time Physics Learning Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kara Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Assistant (LA) Model has demonstrated that it is successful in helping to meet multiple goals including enhancing student learning in LA-supported courses, increasing conceptual understanding of physics among LAs, and improving the teaching practices of former LAs in K-12 schools. The research reported here investigated the…

  13. The First-Time Online Learner: Readiness and Successful Course Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyon, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Many community colleges consider online learning central to the mission of providing adults with access to academic, professional, and personal enrichment opportunities; however, the issue of student success in the online learning environment remains an area of concern. The low rate of online course completion in community colleges may be…

  14. Creating a Virtual World Mindset: A Guide for First Time Second Life Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoerger, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Education technology proponents argue that tech-savvy students want active learning opportunities that enable them to produce, as well as consume, content. Some educators have responded to this rhetoric by appropriating virtual worlds such as Second Life (SL) for teaching and learning. While SL rewards exploration and experimentation, the…

  15. Teaching to Learn: Analyzing the Experiences of First-Time Physics Learning Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kara Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Assistant (LA) Model has demonstrated that it is successful in helping to meet multiple goals including enhancing student learning in LA-supported courses, increasing conceptual understanding of physics among LAs, and improving the teaching practices of former LAs in K-12 schools. The research reported here investigated the…

  16. The challenge of enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Enteric fever, a non-specific, systemic infection caused by S. Typhi or Paratyphi A, B or C, is common in resource-limited regions of the world, where poor sanitation infrastructure facilitates faeco-oral transmission. Prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics minimises illness severity, but presentation to health care facilities is often delayed because of the non-specific nature of the symptoms and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests. Disease prevention requires significant investment in provision of clean water and sanitation in the long term; vaccination offers a more realistic strategy for medium term control. However, implementation of existing vaccines and development of more efficacious vaccines has been hindered by the lack of an established correlate of protection and under appreciation of the true disease burden. Human microbial infection studies could provide a vehicle for the rapid evaluation of novel vaccines and investigation of the immunobiology of enteric infection. PMID:24119827

  17. Chronic radiation enteritis and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Webb, Gwilym James; Brooke, Rachael; De Silva, Aminda Niroshan

    2013-07-01

    Radiation enteritis is defined as the loss of absorptive capacity of the intestine following irradiation, which is most commonly seen after radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal malignancies. It is divided into acute and chronic forms and usually presents with diarrhea and malabsorption. Malnutrition is a common complication of chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). We reviewed the etiology, prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of CRE and CRE with malnutrition in this article. Functional short bowel syndrome as a cause of malnutrition in CRE is also considered. The diagnostic work-up includes serum markers, endoscopy, cross-sectional imaging and the exclusion of alternative diagnoses such as recurrent malignancy. Management options of CRE include dietary manipulation, anti-motility agents, electrolyte correction, probiotics, parenteral nutrition, surgical resection and small bowel transplantation. Treatment may also be required for coexisting conditions including vitamin B12 deficiency, bile acid malabsorption and depression. PMID:23560564

  18. Canine viral enteritis. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L

    1979-05-01

    Two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (CPV) and one by a corona-like virus (CCV). A rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. Canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. Treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. Infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these diseases makes them difficult to contain. Feces from infected dogs appear to be the primary means of transmission. Sodium hypochlorite solutions (eg, Clorox) are recommended for disinfection. The development of effective vaccines is an immediate and pressing problem. PMID:224304

  19. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  20. Enteric pathogens through life stages.

    PubMed

    Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2-3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the "second weaning" by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the "inflamm-aging" process or vice versa) through the human life "cycle" will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or "DALYs"). PMID:22937528

  1. Enteric pathogens through life stages

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”). PMID:22937528

  2. Surgical treatment of radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, M.J.; Frazee, R.C. )

    1992-02-01

    Radiation enteritis is a progressive, disease process that causes intestinal fibrosis and obliterative endarteritis, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The authors' clinical experience involving 20 patients over a 22-year period from 1967 through 1989 who underwent various surgical procedures to alleviate chronic symptoms secondary to radiation enteritis is described. Eight men and 12 women with a mean age of 52 years (24 to 81 years) underwent a total of 27 procedures for complications of radiation enteritis. Radiation therapy was delivered for treatment of gynecologic malignancies (55%), colorectal cancer (20%), prostate malignancies (10%), and others (15%). The mean average dose of radiation delivered was 5,514 rads with a range of 2,613 to 7,000 rads. The interval from radiation treatment to time of surgery averaged 9 years. Operative procedures consisted of 12 resection and primary anastomosis procedures and 15 resections with stoma creation. Formation of a stoma was used in patients with more severe disease. The 30-day operative mortality was 0% and morbidity was 55%. There were no anastomotic leaks or intra-abdominal abscesses. The authors conclude that resection and primary anastomosis can safely be performed in selected patients but that judicious use of stoma formation can avoid major mortality and morbidity associated with surgery in this setting.

  3. First time isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus in Persian Gulf, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Yashgin; Bahador, Nima; Baseri-Salehi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is a marine pathogenic bacterium which causes disease in marine animals and human. This bacterium mostly found in coastal shallow seawater. So, the aim of this study was isolation and characterization of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from edible fish of Persian Gulf, Bandar Abbas. Material and Methods: Totally 100 fish from different species were evaluated and out of that 5 different types of fish with external symptoms including: Caranx sexfasciatus, Lethrinus olivaceus, Scomberoid tol, Auxis thazard and Liza macrolepis, were collected from Bandar Abbas local fish market in September 2013. The samples were cultured on Marin Agar 2216 and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile salts Sucrose Agar media and incubated at 25°C for 48 hrs. Then the isolates were characterized using biochemical (API 20 NE system) and molecular techniques. In addition, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of poly β hydroxy butyrate and hemolysis activity of isolates were evaluated. Results and Conclusion: Entirely, 30 Gram negative bacterial colonies were isolated from the selected fish. Among the isolates, two suspected colonies were identified as Photobacterium damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus with API 20NE biochemical test. This results confirmed by 16s rRNA sequencing method. Both isolates showed α hemolytic with existence of β hydroxyl butyrate. Furthermore, the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Conclusion: Overall, the study indicated first time isolation of this bacterium from one type of fish caught from Persian Gulf, which warns us to pay more attention to fishery in this geographical area. PMID:26668707

  4. The "Turning Point" for Minority Pre-Meds: The Effect of Early Undergraduate Experience in the Sciences on Aspirations to Enter Medical School of Minority Students at UC Berkeley and Stanford University. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.20.08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Donald A.; Matsui, John

    2008-01-01

    The University of California faces the challenge of increasing the diversity of students graduating from its medical schools while also adhering to mandated restrictions on the use of race or ethnicity in the admissions process. Students from diverse backgrounds who gain admission as undergraduates to UC Berkeley and express an early interest in a…

  5. The influence of context on students' approaches to learning: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kieser, J; Herbison, P; Harland, T

    2005-11-01

    This paper gives an account of a small-scale longitudinal study that examined changes in conceptions and approaches to learning as 14 students experience a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum for the first time. The course in oral biology aimed to encourage conceptual understanding of the topic and improve student learning through its PBL curriculum and assessment method. Those who entered the course with a surface approach and fragmented conception of learning left with a deep-learning approach, cohesive conception and quality learning outcomes. There were no observable changes in the students who started the course with a deep-learning approach and cohesive conception, except for two who reported surface approaches and fragmented conceptions at the end. These two students also achieved the lowest examination scores. To help explain these findings we examine the wider context for student learning including student motivation. PMID:16194246

  6. Effects of Ramadan on physical capacities of North African boys fasting for the first time

    PubMed Central

    Fenneni, Mohamed A.; Latiri, Imed; Aloui, Asma; Rouatbi, Sonia; Saafi, Mohamed A.; Bougmiza, Iheb; Chamari, Karim; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most of the literature related to the effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance has focused on adults, and only three studies have examined its impact on children’s physical performance. Aims To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on first-time fasting boys’ performance in short-term explosive exercises [vertical and horizontal jump tests (VJT and HJT), 20-m and 30-m sprints and medicine-ball throw (MBT)], as well as in sub-maximal endurance [6-min walking distance (6MWD) measured during the 6-min walk test (6MWT)]. Methods Eighteen Tunisian boys [mean±standard deviation (SD) of age and body mass (BM): 11.9±0.8 y and 55.4±18.2 kg, respectively] were included. The experimental design comprised four testing phases: 2-weeks before Ramadan (BR), the end of the second week (R2) and the fourth week (R4) of Ramadan, and 10–12 days after the end of Ramadan (AR). At each phase, boys performed two test sessions in the afternoon (15:00–17:00 h) interrupted by 48 h of recovery (first test session: BM, VJT, HJT, and 20-m and 30-m sprint tests; second session: MBT and 6MWT). The study was conducted during the summer of 2012 from July 5 to August 29. Results 6MWDs (m) were significantly shorter during R2 (652±101) and R4 (595±123) compared to BR (697±86) and came back to baseline values AR. BM (kg) mean±SD did not significantly change during R2 (52±15) and during R4 (53±15) compared to BR (55±17), and short-term explosive performances were unchanged throughout the study. Conclusion In non-athletic children, first-ever Ramadan fasting impairs sub-maximal aerobic capacity but has no effect on BM or short-term explosive performance. PMID:25261691

  7. Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm-1 Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; de Kok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm-1 in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south [1]. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 cm-1 emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it had been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004 [2]. Our far-infrared observations were performed with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini [3]. Although it had been expected that the 220 cm-1 emission would eventually appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm-1feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm-1 ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini images [4]. The 220 cm-1 feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager 1 [5, 6] and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS [7-10]. Until now the 220 cm-1 emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm-1 emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes. References: [1] Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 761, L15, 2012. [2] Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 754, L3, 2012. [3] Flasar, F. M., et al., Space Sci. Rev., 115, 169, 2004. [4] West, R. A., et al., DPS, paper 300.04, 2012. [5] Kunde et al. 1981, [6] Coustenis et al., 1999. [7] de Kok et al., Icarus, 191, 223, 2007. [8] de Kok et al., Icarus, 197, 572, 2008. [9] Samuelson et al., Icarus, 189, 63, 2007. [10] Anderson, et al., presented at workshop "Titan Through Time 2", 2012.

  8. First-time comet observations at the National Observatory of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: We performed first-time scientific comet observations from Tübitak National Observatory (TUG), Turkey using two telescopes of that facility. In order to test the capabilities of the instruments, we performed a long comet-monitoring campaign from October 2013 to January 2014. We observed many comets, including but not limited to C/2012 S1 ISON, 154P Brewington, and C/2013 R1 Lovejoy. All comets were monitored for several nights with the Bessel R, V, and B filters from the 1-m (T100) and 1.5-m (RTT150) telescopes. Additionally, we acquired the first spectroscopic observations of a comet from TUG, using the TUG Faint Object Spectrograph (TFOSC with grism between 3230-9120 Å) mounted on RTT150. With these observations, we could assess the quality of the TUG instruments for cometary science, and identified a few limitations. We propose some technical improvements for future comet observations. These will open new observational opportunities for Turkish astronomers and a participation in international campaigns on cometary science. Observations and simulations: Apart from testing the instruments, our observations were also driven by the scientific questions regarding comet ISON around its perihelion passage. We intended to follow the formation and evolution of dust coma structures, and use well-tested models to simulate and understand this activity (Vincent et al. 2010, 2013, Lin et al. 2012). Additionally, we wanted to acquire spectra and derive the composition of the tail before and after perihelion. Unfortunately, the comet was not very active before perihelion and completely disintegrated at the end of November 2013. Nonetheless, we had acquired many images in the previous weeks, and we used the remaining nights to monitor other comets, mainly C/2013 R1 Lovejoy. Since the observatory is not equipped with the comet gas filters, we concentrated on dust structures and monitored comet ISON during October 2013 in Bessel R, B, and V filters. The cometary activity structures are investigated and simulations of dust tail are performed. On December 2013, we performed the first comet spectroscopy, targeting comet 154P and, additionally, observed comet C/2013 R1 in the Bessell R, B, and V filters. Results: Some additional gas filters for comet observations would be very useful for further observations. Fortunately, the budget for them is approved for 2014, and they are in the selection process. This will significantly improve future comet observations at TUG. T100: Imaging of fast-moving bright comets (like ISON) can be achieved by using short exposure times on the remotely operable T100 telescope, but non-sidereal tracking has to be improved for the observation of fast-moving small bodies of the solar system. Studies on the improvement of T100's tracking have already started at TUG. RTT150: Non-sidereal tracking is excellent and allowed us to take spectra of comet 154P. For future, we have established collaboration with the Rosetta mission and will monitor comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko starting from spring 2015. We are also ready for Gaia follow-up observations of solar-system objects with RTT150 (max. 5 nights/yr), T100 (max. 80 h/yr), and T60 (10--15 % of the total observing time).

  9. Cardiometabolic Risk of Second-Generation Antipsychotics During First-Time Use in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Christoph U.; Manu, Peter; Olshanskiy, Vladimir; Napolitano, Barbara; Kane, John M.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2009-01-01

    Context Cardiometabolic effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are concerning, but have been insufficiently studied in antipsychotic-naïve and pediatric patients. Objectives To study SGAs effects on body composition and metabolic parameters, unconfounded by prior antipsychotic exposure. Design Three-month, non-randomized Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment Indications, Effectiveness and Tolerability in Youth (SATIETY) cohort study, conducted 12.2001–09.2007. Setting Semi-urban, tertiary care, academic inpatient and outpatient services in Queens, New York, with a 4.5 million people catchment area. Patients Of 505 youth, aged 4–19 (mean age: 13.9±3.6) years with ?1 week antipsychotic exposure, 338 (66.9%) were enrolled. Of these, 272 (80.5%) had ?1 post-baseline assessment forming the final sample, and 205 (61.7%) completed the study. Patients had mood spectrum (n=130, 47.8%), schizophrenia spectrum (n=82, 30.1%) and disruptive/aggressive behavior spectrum disorders (n=60, 22.1%). Fifteen refusing/non-adherent patients served as a comparison group. Interventions 12-week treatment with aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone. Main Outcome Measures Body composition (weight, Body Mass Index percentile/z-score, fat mass, waist circumference), and fasting glucose and lipid parameters. Results Weight increased by 19.0(95% Confidence Interval:16.4, 21.5)lbs=15.2(13.2, 17.2)% with olanzapine (N=45), 13.5(10.9, 16.0)lbs=10.4(8.5, 12.3)% with quetiapine (N=36), 11.9(10.7, 13.1)bs=10.4(9.4, 11.3)% with risperidone (N=135), and 9.9(8.2, 11.5)lbs=8.1(7.0, 9.5)% with aripiprazole (N=41). Comparison subjects (N=15) changed weight minimally: 0.4(?2.3, 3.2)lbs=0.7(?1.3, 2.6)%. Weight gain ?7% occurred in 84.4% (n=38) of patients on olanzapine, 64.4% (n=87) on risperidone, 58.4% (n=24) on aripiprazole, 55.6% (n=20) on quetiapine, and 0% of comparison subjects. With olanzapine, cholesterol (p<.001), triglycerides (p=0.002), non-HDL-cholesterol (p<.001), triglyceride/HDL ratio (p=0.002), glucose (p=0.02), insulin (p=0.02), and HOMA-IR (p=0.03) increased significantly. With quetiapine, cholesterol (p<0.05), triglycerides (p=0.01), non-HDL-cholesterol (p=0.03), and triglyceride/HDL ratio (p=0.004) increased significantly. With risperidone, triglycerides (p=0.04) increased significantly. Metabolic baseline-to-endpoint changes were non-significant with aripiprazole and comparison subjects. Dyslipidemia developed in 28.9% (n=13), 19.4% (n=26), 8.8% (n=3), and 7.3% (n=3) of youth on olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and aripiprazole, and 6.7% (n=1) of comparison subjects (p=0.03), while acquired insulin resistance (HOMA-IR>4.39: 2.9%–17.8%) and metabolic syndrome (0%–6.5%) were relatively rare in this short-term study. Conclusions First time SGA use was associated with significant weight gain with each medication. Metabolic changes varied among the 4 antipsychotics. PMID:19861668

  10. Primary aorto-enteric fistula

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Andrew C.; Agarwal, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary aorto-enteric fistula (PAEF) is a life threatening, spontaneous erosion and communication of the aorta and intestinal tract. Unlike secondary AEF, which occur following aortic surgery, they are extremely rare. The low clinical suspicion and difficulty in obtaining a definitive diagnosis make for a dismal prognosis. Case presentation A literature review highlighted aetiology which included gallstone erosion, carcinoma of the pancreas and duodenal diverticulum. With written consent, we present the case of a 59 year old female, brought to the hospital following an episode of haematemesis and later found to have an AEF, secondary to metastatic retroperitoneal carcinoma - an extremely rare aetiology. Discussion There is far less literature on primary AEF when compared to secondary AEF. Furthermore, there is a variation in aetiology. Identifying the presence of a ‘herald' bleed appears to be significant. Conclusion Aorto-enteric fistulae must always be considered as a potential diagnosis in the setting of an acute upper GI haemorrhage with no apparent cause. PMID:26719995

  11. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  12. START! The Successful Transitions and Retention Track Program: A Comprehensive Approach to Supporting GED Holders Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, J. Vincent; Michalak, Megan B.

    2012-01-01

    Students entering college face many obstacles to success. Students who received a General Education Development (GED) face additional barriers that must be addressed in order for success in higher education. The Successful Transitions and Retention Track Program employs a holistic approach to addressing the needs of GED holders entering college.

  13. Skills for Children Entering Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Slater, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Assessing kindergarten entry skills is complex, requiring attention to skill proficiency and interactive behaviors deemed critical for learning to occur. In our analysis of a state initiative, pilot data were collected on early literacy and numeracy and 2 aspects of important student interactions in the classroom (social and task behaviors) within…

  14. Preparing to Enter Dental School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shailer

    A guide for students who are seeking admission to dental school is presented. The comprehensive coverage includes basic facts about dentistry as well as specific requirements about the following areas: facts about health care providers, treating patients in dentistry, and nonpatient-oriented dentistry; historical landmarks in dentistry; the…

  15. Displays: Entering a New Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

  16. Displays: Entering a New Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

  17. Skills for Children Entering Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Slater, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Assessing kindergarten entry skills is complex, requiring attention to skill proficiency and interactive behaviors deemed critical for learning to occur. In our analysis of a state initiative, pilot data were collected on early literacy and numeracy and 2 aspects of important student interactions in the classroom (social and task behaviors) within…

  18. Residence and Migration of First-Time Freshmen Enrolled in Degree-Granting Institutions: Fall 1996. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbett, Samuel

    This report presents detailed tabulations of data on the residence and migration of first-time freshmen enrolled in degree-granting institutions in the Fall of 1996 based on data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System's Fall Enrollment survey. Tables are presented by state, control (public/private), and level of institution, for…

  19. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  20. First-Time Mothers' Use of Music and Movement with Their Young Infants: The Impact of a Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlismas, Wendy; Bowes, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examined impact of a 5-week music/movement program involving relaxation, kinesics, singing, visual contact, and tactile stimulation on first-time mothers' use of music and movement with their infants. Found that the program extended mothers' use of relaxation to music and rhythmical movement with their infants but not the use of song and massage…

  1. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  2. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  3. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  4. Out of the Mouth of Babes: First-Time Disadvantaged Mothers and Their Perceptions of Infant Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Judith

    2011-01-01

    An increasing emphasis is being placed on the importance of speech, language and communication (SLC) development during the first two years of life, since this contributes to cognitive ability and to later educational outcomes. This article explores what disadvantaged, first-time mothers know and understand about three key contributors to positive…

  5. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  6. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  7. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  8. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  9. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  10. Effects of Video-Modeling on the Interaction Skills of First-Time Fathers of Late Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen Marie; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Kurilova, Jana; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Blahitka, Laurie; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an innovative educational--behavioral intervention for first-time fathers of late preterm (34-36 weeks' gestation) infants, with the aim of enhancing the infant's environment through strengthening fathers' skills in interaction with their young infant. Using a randomized controlled trial, fathers of 111 late…

  11. An Autoethnography of a First-Time School District Superintendent: Complicated by Issues of Race, Gender, and Persistent Fiscal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Ardella Jones

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry used autoethnography methodology in a self-narrative format that places the self within the position of a first time Superintendent as an African American woman. The design of this research will allow the reader to travel with me through my experiences to obtain information about the challenges and obstacles of the superintendent…

  12. Testing Age-Paced Parenting Newsletters up to Age 3: Greater Impact on First-Time Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.

    2012-01-01

    An age-paced newsletter for parents of toddlers was evaluated. Mothers reported the newsletters were as useful as information from doctors or nurses and more useful than other sources of information. We hypothesized and found that first-time mothers reported the newsletters more useful than experienced mothers--reading more of the newsletters and…

  13. Effects of Video-Modeling on the Interaction Skills of First-Time Fathers of Late Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen Marie; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Kurilova, Jana; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Blahitka, Laurie; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an innovative educational--behavioral intervention for first-time fathers of late preterm (34-36 weeks' gestation) infants, with the aim of enhancing the infant's environment through strengthening fathers' skills in interaction with their young infant. Using a randomized controlled trial, fathers of 111 late…

  14. Death Awareness, Maternal Separation Anxiety, and Attachment Style among First-Time Mothers--A Terror Management Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the interplay between death awareness, attachment style, and maternal separation anxiety among first-time mothers of infants aged 3-12 months. In Study 1 (N = 60), a higher accessibility of death-related thoughts was found following induction of thoughts about separation from the infant. In Study 2 (N = 100), a mortality…

  15. What kinds of leaders are entering optometry schools?

    PubMed

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the parameters of leadership of students entering one optometry school, assess the relation between personality types and leadership during optometry school, and forecast potential for leadership beyond school. Personality inventories of 269 students entering University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) from 1988 through 1990 were analyzed for personality type according to Gough's two-vector system (V1 = extroversion/introversion; V2 = norm-favoring/norm-doubting) which results in four types or life styles: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta. Although some sex and ethnic differences were found, most (71%) optometry students were Alphas (extroverted/norm-favoring), accepted leaders who strive to maintain and advance consensual values. Alphas achieved well in classroom and clinic and were student leaders. A lesser number (10%), mostly women, were Gammas; extroverted but norm-questioning, Gammas can provide creative and progressive leadership. Remaining types were Betas (15%) and Deltas (4%), both introverted types who avoid leadership positions. In sum, traditional and, to a lesser degree, innovative leadership potential appears strong among optometry students; they should serve the profession well. PMID:1300525

  16. Comparison of enteric identification systems.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, K A; Gibson, J

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of methods for identification of Enterobacteriaceae was made employing the new commercial Micro-Media Enteric System (MMES) with that of the Analytab Products Incorporated (API) and the Conventional tube media schema as suggested by the Center for Disease Control (CDS). The MMES system employed 20 biochemical tests, the API 21, and the CDC procedure 25. Sixteen of these were identical biochemical tests. Two hundred clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were tested employing procedures recommended by the manufacturers of MMES and API, and methods suggested by CDC. Among the sixteen identical biochemical tests the agreement was 98.0% (Conventional), 98.2% (API), and 97.98% (MMES). Bacteria misidentified by the API system totaled 5 (2.5%), 12 (6%) for the Conventional, and 13 (6.5%) for the MMES. Five of the bacteria misidentified with the MMES procedure were due to false positive citrate tests. This problem was subsequently eliminated. The results of this study indicated that the new MMES method for identification of Enterobacteriaceae compared favorably with both the API and Conventional procedures. However, significant advantages of the MMES method were evident in initial purchase price, utilization of technology time, and less tedium performing the test. PMID:319082

  17. Ischemic enteritis with intestinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Koshikawa, Yorimitsu; Matsuura, Minoru; Yoshino, Takuya; Honzawa, Yusuke; Minami, Naoki; Yamada, Satoshi; Yasuhara, Yumiko; Fujii, Shigehiko; Kusaka, Toshihiro; Manaka, Dai; Kokuryu, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset of vomiting and abdominal distension. The patient was taking medication for arrhythmia. Computed tomography showed stenosis of the ileum and a small bowel dilatation on the oral side from the region of stenosis. A transnasal ileus tube was placed. Enteroclysis using contrast medium revealed an approximately 6-cm afferent tubular stenosis 10 cm from the terminal ileum and thumbprinting in the proximal bowel. Transanal double-balloon enteroscopy showed a circumferential shallow ulcer with a smooth margin and edema of the surrounding mucosa. The stenosis was so extensive that we could not perform endoscopic balloon dilation therapy. During hospitalization, the patient's nutritional status deteriorated. In response, we surgically resected the region of stenosis. Histologic examination revealed disappearance of the mucosal layer and transmural ulceration with marked fibrosis, especially in the submucosal layer. Hemosiderin staining revealed sideroferous cells in the submucosal layers. Based on the pathologic findings, the patient was diagnosed with ischemic enteritis. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:26884740

  18. Entering China: an unconventional approach.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, W

    1997-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has it that the best way to do business in China is through an equity joint venture (EJV) with a well-connected Chinese partner. But pioneering companies are starting a trend toward a new way to enter that market: as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, or WFOE. Increasingly, says the author, joint ventures do not offer foreign companies what they need to succeed in China. For example, many companies want to do business nationally, but the prospects for finding a Chinese partner with national scope are poor. Moreover, there are often conflicting perceptions between partners about how to operate an EJV: Chinese companies, for example, typically have a more immediate interest in profits than foreign investors do. By contrast, the author asserts, WFOEs are faster to set up and easier to manage; and they allow managers to expand operations more rapidly. That makes them the perfect solution, right? The answer is a qualified yes. First, foreign companies will still need sources of guanxi, or social and political connections. Second, managers must take steps to avoid trampling on China's cultural or economic sovereignty. Third and perhaps most important, foreign companies must be prepared to bring something of value to China-usually in the form of jobs or new technology that can help the country develop. Companies willing to make the effort, says the author, can reap the rewards of China's burgeoning marketplace. PMID:10165447

  19. Environmental enteric dysfunction: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Rosie J.; Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to an incompletely defined syndrome of inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity, and reduced barrier function in the small intestine. It is widespread among children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding of EED and its possible consequences for health is currently limited. Objective A narrative review of the current understanding of EED: epidemiology, pathogenesis, therapies, and relevance to child health. Methods Searches for key papers and ongoing trials were conducted using PUBMED 1966–June 2014; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO Clinical Trials Registry; the Cochrane Library; hand searches of the references of retrieved literature; discussions with experts; and personal experience from the field. Results EED is established during infancy and is associated with poor sanitation, certain gut infections, and micronutrient deficiencies. Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), abnormal gut microbiota, undernutrition, and toxins may all play a role. EED is usually asymptomatic, but it is important due to its association with stunting. Diagnosis is frequently by the dual sugar absorption test, although other biomarkers are emerging. EED may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in low- and middle-income countries and the increased risk of serious infection seen in children with undernutrition. Conclusions Despite its potentially significant impacts, it is currently unclear exactly what causes EED and how it can be treated or prevented. Ongoing trials involve nutritional supplements, water and sanitation interventions, and immunomodulators. Further research is needed to better understand this condition, which is of likely crucial importance for child health and development in low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25902619

  20. Effects of Ration Levels on Growth and Reproduction from Larvae to First-Time Spawning in the Female Gambusia affinis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhiming; Zeng, Xiangling; Lin, Xiaotao; Xu, Zhongneng; Sun, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Somatic growth and reproduction were examined in individual laboratory-grown female Gambusia affinis fed with high (H), medium (M) and low (L) ration levels from birth to the first-time spawning. Results showed that the body length and weight, condition factor (CF), wet weight gain (WGw), specific growth rate in wet weight (SGRw) and ration levels in terms of energy (RLe) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time spawning. On the contrary, the food conversion efficiency in terms of energy (FCEe) increased significantly (p < 0.05) with the decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time sexual maturity. Furthermore, higher percentages of energy intake from food were allocated to somatic and gonad growth in M and L groups compared to the H group before sexual maturity; In addition, the time for first-time spawning in groups M and L was longer than that of the H group. As a result, the gonad-somatic index (GSI) and oocytes/embryos weight in M and L groups were similar to that of the H group, although the ovary weight and oocytes/embryos numbers were all lower than that of the H group. Also, similar growth performances were observed in second-generation offspring, which were produced by female parents fed with different ration levels. These findings suggest that the female G. affinis could produce a number of healthy offspring under conditions of food restriction, and that this could be achieved by increasing the energy allocated to gonad development, reducing fecundity and delaying spawning time. These life strategies ensured that G. affinis could survive and thrive in adverse environmental conditions and exhibit characteristics of invasive fish species. PMID:25768343

  1. Effects of ration levels on growth and reproduction from larvae to first-time spawning in the female Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiming; Zeng, Xiangling; Lin, Xiaotao; Xu, Zhongneng; Sun, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Somatic growth and reproduction were examined in individual laboratory-grown female Gambusia affinis fed with high (H), medium (M) and low (L) ration levels from birth to the first-time spawning. Results showed that the body length and weight, condition factor (CF), wet weight gain (WG(w)), specific growth rate in wet weight (SGR(w)) and ration levels in terms of energy (RL(e)) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time spawning. On the contrary, the food conversion efficiency in terms of energy (FCE(e)) increased significantly (p < 0.05) with the decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time sexual maturity. Furthermore, higher percentages of energy intake from food were allocated to somatic and gonad growth in M and L groups compared to the H group before sexual maturity; In addition, the time for first-time spawning in groups M and L was longer than that of the H group. As a result, the gonad-somatic index (GSI) and oocytes/embryos weight in M and L groups were similar to that of the H group, although the ovary weight and oocytes/embryos numbers were all lower than that of the H group. Also, similar growth performances were observed in second-generation offspring, which were produced by female parents fed with different ration levels. These findings suggest that the female G. affinis could produce a number of healthy offspring under conditions of food restriction, and that this could be achieved by increasing the energy allocated to gonad development, reducing fecundity and delaying spawning time. These life strategies ensured that G. affinis could survive and thrive in adverse environmental conditions and exhibit characteristics of invasive fish species. PMID:25768343

  2. Educational outcomes necessary to enter pharmacy residency training.

    PubMed

    Hester, Elizabeth Kelly; McBane, Sarah E; Bottorff, Michael B; Carnes, Tristan A; Dell, Kamila; Gonyeau, Michael J; Greco, Angelo J; McConnell, Karen J; Skaar, Debra J; Splinter, Michele Y; Trujillo, Toby C

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) that formal postgraduate residency training, or equivalent experience, is required to enter direct patient care practice. Therefore, it is important to align professional degree educational outcomes with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to enter residency training. This position statement addresses the outcomes necessary in the professional degree program curriculum to ensure the ability of pharmacy graduates to transition effectively into postgraduate year one residency training. Five key outcome areas are identified: communication, direct patient care, professionalism, research, and practice management. The position statement examines how performance in each of the five outcome areas should be addressed by professional degree programs. The ACCP believes that for the student to achieve the clinical proficiency necessary to enter residency training, the professional degree program should emphasize, assess, and provide adequate opportunities for students to practice: communication with patients, caregivers, and members of the health care team in direct patient care environments; provision of direct patient care in a wide variety of practice settings, especially those involving patient-centered, team-based care; professionalism under the supervision and guidance of faculty and preceptors who model and teach the traits of a health care professional; application of principles of research that engender an appreciation for the role of research and scholarship in one's professional development; and application of practice management, including documentation of direct patient care activities that affect drug-related outcomes. PMID:24753155

  3. Coordination and symmetry patterns during the drop vertical jump, 6-months after first-time lateral ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Patterson, Matthew R; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the adaptive movement and motor control patterns of a group with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task. Fifty-one participants with a 6-month history of first-time acute LAS injury and twenty controls performed a DVJ task. 3D kinematic and sagittal plane kinetic profiles were plotted for the lower extremity joints of both limbs for the drop jump (phase 1) and drop landing (phase 2) phases of the DVJ. Inter-limb symmetry and the rate of impact modulation (RIM) relative to bodyweight (BW) during both phases of the DVJ were also determined. LAS participants displayed bilateral increases in knee flexion and an increase in ankle inversion during phases 1 and 2, respectively. They also displayed reduced ankle plantar flexion on their injured limb during both phases of the DVJ (p < 0.05); increased inter-limb asymmetry of RIM was noted for both phases of the DVJ, while the moment-of-force profile exhibited bilaterally greater hip extensor dominance during phase 1. Participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS display some movement patterns consistent with those observed in chronic ankle instability populations during similar tasks. PMID:25940807

  4. On the Learning Behaviours of English Additional-Language Speakers Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollacott, L.; Simelane, Z.; Inglis, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an inductive study on the learning behaviours and language difficulties of a small group of English additional-language students entering a school of chemical and metallurgical engineering in South Africa. Students were interviewed in their home language. While they appeared to have had a reasonable grounding…

  5. Vaccination against enteric septicaemia of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicemia (ESC) of catfish, is one of the most economically important diseases of cultured channel catfish. In 2002, Wagner and coworkers reported that enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris (Flavobacterium columnaris) were the two m...

  6. Enteral feed obstructing its own way

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Vikas; Ghelani, Dhaval R.; Reece, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal obstruction due to solidified enteral feeds is a rare but distressful complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux, very low gastric pH, decreased pepsin and pancreatic enzyme secretions may be responsible for the solidification of casein containing enteral formulas. Recognition and avoidance of these factors will prevent such complication. PMID:21253347

  7. Abdominal abscesses with enteric communications: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chintapalli, K.; Thorsen, M.K.; Foley, W.D.; Unger, G.F.

    1983-07-01

    CT examinations of four proven abdominal abscesses with enteric communications are reported. All the patients received oral contrast (3% Gastrografin solution). Three patients recieved rectal contrast. The patient who did not receive rectal contrast had a prior abdominoperineal resection. Contrast material was administered intravenously unless there was a contraindication or a suspected enteric vesical fistula. A representative case is described.

  8. Enteral nutrition and the critically ill.

    PubMed Central

    Shikora, S. A.; Ogawa, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    Critically ill patients invariably require nutritional intervention. Traditionally, enteral nutrition has not been widely employed in this patient population. This is due in part to the success of present-day parenteral nutrition, and to difficulties encountered with enteral feeding. Recent evidence has demonstrated that enteral is preferable to parenteral nutrition in terms of cost, complications, gut mucosal maintenance, and metabolic and immune function. Enterally administered nutritional support can and should be utilised as the preferred route of nourishment for the critically ill. The appropriate choice of access and formula, as well as a rational strategy for implementation, should improve the likelihood of success. This article describes the unique features of critical illness as they pertain to nutritional support, the benefits of enteral nutrition, and the obstacles to success, and offers suggestions which may improve the ability to provide nutrients adequately via the intestinal tract. PMID:8935598

  9. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators. PMID:23438312

  10. Limited English Proficient Students: Exit Rates for 2008-09 Cohort. Data Trends. D&A Report No. 13.01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebeler, Amy; Lenard, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Exit rates from Limited English Proficiency (LEP) for students who enter the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) as LEP students vary by when students enter WCPSS (based on students entering in kindergarten, grade 6 or 7, or grade 9). Based on our 2008-09 cohorts, students entering in grades 6 or 7 were most likely to exit LEP status after…

  11. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    PubMed

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication. PMID:23871299

  12. Enteral fluid therapy in large animals.

    PubMed

    Rainger, J E; Dart, A J

    2006-12-01

    Enteral fluids administered alone, or in conjunction with intravenous fluids, are reported to be useful for the treatment of dehydration and electrolyte loss associated with diarrhoea in a number of species, following exercise in horses and for feed impaction of the large intestine of horses. Enteral fluids are suitable for treatment of mild to moderately dehydrated patients with some intact intestinal epithelium and motile small intestine. In patients that will drink voluntarily or tolerate nasal intubation the use of enteral fluids may avoid the complications associated with intravenous fluid administration. However the labour costs associated with repeated nasal intubation in intensively managed patients requiring large volumes of fluids may make the use of enteral fluids less economical than intravenous fluid administration. Enteral fluid use alone is contraindicated in patients that are severely dehydrated and/or in hypovolaemic shock, however, if used in conjunction with intravenous fluids, the effects of villous atrophy and malnutrition may be ameliorated and the duration of hospitalisation shortened. There is a variety of commercially available enteral fluids available to veterinary practitioners. While the key components of these fluids are sodium, chloride and carbohydrates, the amounts of ions and other ingredients such as potassium, alkalising agents, amino acids and shortchain fatty acids may vary. The species of the animal, the underlying condition, and the constituents of the fluid, should influence the choice of an enteral fluid. PMID:17156332

  13. Apparent inferiority of first-time breeders in the kittiwake: The role of heterogeneity among age classes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cam, E.; Monnat, J.-Y.

    2000-01-01

    1. Many studies have provided evidence that first-time breeders have a lower survival, a lower probability of success, or of breeding, in the following year. Hypotheses based on reproductive costs have often been proposed to explain this. However, because of the intrinsic relationship between age and experience, the apparent inferiority of first-time breeders at the population level may result from selection, and experience may not influence performance within each individual. In this paper we address the question of phenotypic correlations between fitness components. This addresses differences in individual quality, a prerequisite for a selection process to occur. We also test the hypothesis of an influence of experience on these components while taking age and reproductive success into account: two factors likely to play a key role in a selection process. 2. Using data from a long-term study on the kittiwake, we found that first-time breeders have a lower probability of success, a lower survival and a lower probability of breeding in the next year than experienced breeders. However, neither experienced nor inexperienced breeders have a lower survival or a lower probability of breeding in the following year than birds that skipped a breeding opportunity. This suggests heterogeneity in quality among individuals. 3. Failed birds have a lower survival and a lower probability of breeding in the following year regardless of experience. This can be interpreted in the light of the selection hypothesis. The inferiority of inexperienced breeders may be linked to a higher proportion of lower-quality individuals in younger age classes. When age and breeding success are controlled for, there is no evidence of an influence of experience on survival or future breeding probability. 4. Using data from individuals whose reproductive life lasted the same number of years, we investigated the influence of experience on reproductive performance within individuals. There is no strong evidence that a process operating within individuals explains the improvement in performance observed at the population level.

  14. Differences in parenting stress between married and single first time mothers at six to eight weeks after birth.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Debra; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2005-01-01

    Parenting stress has been shown to affect relationships between mothers and their infants. Single mothers may experience more parenting stress due to exposure to stressors that are unique to their environment. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine the differences between married and single first-time mothers on the Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF Abidin, 1995). A convenience sample of 22 single and 52 married first-time mothers were recruited from postpartum units in two large metropolitan hospitals in the southeastern United States. During hospitalization, participants completed a demographic sheet and at six weeks postpartum, were mailed the PSI/SF. T-tests were assessed for differences between mean scores. Study findings indicate significant differences between single and married first-time mothers on the Parental Distress subscale (t = -3.468, p = .001), the Difficult Child subscale (t = -2.032, p = .046), and Defensive Responding subscale (t = -3.720, p = .000), with single mothers consistently scoring higher than married mothers; however, there was not a significant statistical difference between mothers on the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale (t = -1.290, p = .201). Overall, single mothers scored higher on the Total Parenting Stress scores of the PSI/SF than married mothers (t = -2.858, p = .005), suggesting that single women experience more stress as a new mother than married new mothers. It is important to understand the specific stressors of new, single mothers and to develop nursing interventions that decrease parenting stress in single mothers. PMID:16251160

  15. Microbiome associations of therapeutic enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rajesh; Kellermayer, Richard

    2014-11-01

    One of the most effective forms of therapeutic enteral nutrition is designated as "exclusive enteral nutrition" (EEN). EEN constitutes the monotonous enteral delivery of complete liquid nutrition and has been most explored in the treatment Crohn's disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease. While EEN's mechanisms of action are not clearly understood, it has been shown to modify the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an important component of CD pathogenesis. The current literature on the intestinal microbiome in healthy individuals and CD patients is reviewed with respect to EEN therapy. Further investigations in this field are needed to better understand the role and potential for EEN in chronic human disorders. PMID:25421531

  16. Student Persistence Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, David; And Others

    In 1992, a study was undertaken to measure student persistence at Los Angeles City College (LACC) over a 3-year period. A total of 462 new, entering students were selected from a larger, random sample of 1,250 full- and part-time students who had enrolled in credit courses in spring 1989. Descriptive items, such as student characteristics and…

  17. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others’ judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

  18. Psychological ill-being experienced by first-time mothers and their partners in pregnancy after abortion: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Holmlund, Susanna; Kaljonen, Anne; Junttila, Niina; Räihä, Hannele; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi

    2014-12-01

    The psychological effects of abortion have been much discussed lately, with recently published studies indicating that induced abortion (IA) may, contrary to the general consensus, be contributing to psychological symptoms post-abortion. Using a cohort of first-time mothers, we assessed the likelihood of them experiencing psychological ill-being at the midpoint of their pregnancy, depending on their IA history. We also examined the psychological symptoms of their partners, the hypothesis being that ill-being in IA-experienced mothers might reflect onto their partners. Altogether 680 future first-time mothers (9.8% of whom had an IA history) and their partners were selected. Most mothers attended their 16 check-ups at maternity health clinics (MHC), where the family's physical and emotional well-being were checked. Several internationally validated questionnaires, which gauged psychological ill-being, were filled in at the 20th week of pregnancy. There were no significant differences between the study and the control group in terms of psychological ill-being during the pregnancy. The contribution of prior IA to psychological ill-being during the next pregnancy seems to be minimal. The availability of IA procedures, intensive MHC services in Finland, as well as this society's neutral attitude towards IA, may be among the reasons why the results are so positive for mothers who have previously undergone one or more IAs. PMID:25403546

  19. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for the Treatment of First-Time Spontaneous Pneumothorax versus Conservative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mourgi, Majed; Alshehri, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim of the work Recent studies have shown that video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) is safe and beneficial as first time treatment for patients presenting with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). In this study we will compare the outcome of patients presenting with first time PSP treated by VATS with those treated conservatively. Material and methods This was a prospective double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted at our hospital, Forty one patients, presented to the hospital with first attack PSP from January 2010 to January 2013, were randomized to be treated by chest tube drainage (conservative group, group 1) or by primary video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS group, group 2). Outcomes were; duration of intercostal tube drainage, mean hospital stay, and recurrence rates of pneumothorax during the period of follow up. Results There was no significant difference in both groups regarding demographic data. The mean durations of removal of intercostal tube and hospital stay were significantly higher in conservative group than in VATS group. The recurrence rate in conservative group was 40.9% versus 0% in VATS group (highly significant). Conclusions Initial VATS is considered an efficient treatment modality for PSP as it has a shorter hospital stay and lower recurrence than conservative treatment, which if occurs, requires re-hospitalization with needs for VATS or surgery. PMID:26715922

  20. Sleep and Sleepiness among First-Time Postpartum Parents: A Field- and Laboratory-Based Multimethod Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N=42) and seven childless control dyads (N=14). Within their natural environment, participants completed one week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers’ sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness associated impairments. Study results inform social policy, postpartum sleep interventions, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  1. Early parenting program as intervention strategy for emotional distress in first-time mothers: a propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Miwako; Ishigami, Hideaki; Tokimoto, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Tango, Ryoko

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a single session intervention designed to reduce emotional distress in first-time mothers. We held a parenting class for first-time mothers who had given birth at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The program of the class consists of lectures on infant care and group discussion, which is a common form of intervention in Japan. The effectiveness of intervention is assessed according to differences in emotional distress experienced by class participants and nonparticipants, and analyzed by the use of a propensity score method to avoid self-selection bias. In order to be more confident about our results, we employ several variations of this method. Results from statistical analysis show that although the effectiveness of the intervention was limited, it was able to alleviate subjects' loss of self-confidence as mothers. Because this outcome shows a good degree of consistency across methods, it can be considered robust. Moreover, it is roughly consistent with previous studies. Effectiveness can probably be increased by developing a program that improves upon the intervention. PMID:22865390

  2. Skin blood flow as the first time derivative of the temperature: spectral approach to the blood flow estimation in hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagaidachnyi, A. A.; Usanov, D. A.; Skripal, A. V.; Fomin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Application of thermometry as a method of blood flow estimation in hands is limited by the differences in waveform of the skin temperature and blood flow oscillations. In addition, there is the delay time between simultaneously registered blood flow and temperature signals. We offer the method of blood flow estimation in hands based on the analysis of skin temperature dynamics. Simplification of the Shitzer's temperature dynamics model in hands allowed us to express the relation between the temperature and blood flow oscillations. As it turns out, within using model the skin blood flow is proportionally to the first time derivative of the skin temperature, in other words, the blood flow oscillations determine the rate of skin temperature alterations. We also derived relation between spectral components of the blood flow and temperature oscillations. To extract spectrum of the blood flow oscillations from temperature spectrum it is necessary using frequency dependent multiplication factor and time shift of each of temperature spectral component. In this study the skin temperature was registered by infrared camera and blood flow was estimated by photoplethysmography. First time derivation of the temperature increases correlation between processed signal and blood flow oscillations from ~0.3 to ~0.7 on average. Thus, derived relations between temperature and blood flow in fingertips provide the basis for the application of thermometry in the field of analysis of low-frequency peripheral blood flow oscillations.

  3. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers. PMID:26441808

  4. Single-leg drop landing movement strategies 6 months following first-time acute lateral ankle sprain injury.

    PubMed

    Doherty, C; Bleakley, C; Hertel, J; Caulfield, B; Ryan, J; Delahunt, E

    2015-12-01

    No research exists predicating a link between acute ankle sprain injury-affiliated movement patterns and those of chronic ankle instability (CAI) populations. The aim of the current study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of participants, 6 months after they sustained a first-time acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury to establish this link. Fifty-seven participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS and 20 noninjured participants completed a single-leg drop landing task on both limbs. Three-dimensional kinematic (angular displacement) and sagittal plane kinetic (moment of force) data were acquired for the joints of the lower extremity, from 200 ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200 ms post-IC. Individual joint stiffnesses and the peak magnitude of the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) were also computed. LAS participants displayed increases in hip flexion and ankle inversion on their injured limb (P < 0.05); this coincided with a reduction in the net flexion-extension moment at the hip joint, with an increase in its stiffness (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the magnitude of the peak vertical GRF for either limb compared with controls. These results demonstrate that altered movement strategies persist in participants, 6 months following acute LAS, which may precipitate the onset of CAI. PMID:25545409

  5. Positive posttraumatic stress disorder screens among first-time medical cannabis patients: Prevalence and association with other substance use

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Kipling M.; Perron, Brian E.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kleinberg, Felicia; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing for the use of medical cannabis for those individuals with qualifying medical conditions, which include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for a growing number of states. Little information is available regarding PTSD among medical cannabis patients. This study seeks to provide initial data on this topic by examining the prevalence and correlates of positive PTSD screens among a sample of patients seeking medical cannabis certification for the first time (n=186). Twenty-three percent (42/186; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 17%–29%) of the patients in the study sample screened positive for PTSD. Moreover, the group that screened positive for PTSD had higher percentages of lifetime prescription opioid, cocaine, prescription sedative, and street opioid use, as well as a higher percentage of recent prescription sedative use, than the group that screened negative for PTSD. These findings highlight the relatively common use of other substances among medical cannabis patients with significant PTSD symptoms, even when compared with other patients seeking medical cannabis for the first time. As a growing number of states include PTSD among the list of qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis, additional research is needed to better characterize the longitudinal relationship between medical cannabis use and PTSD symptoms. PMID:24930048

  6. First-time electrical characterization of nanotubular ZrO2 films for micro-solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Birss, Viola I

    2015-05-14

    In this work, anodically grown ZrO2 nanotubes (NTs) are examined for the first time for use in micro solid oxide fuel cell (?-SOFC) applications. This is due to their high surface area to volume ratio and useful nanoscale morphological features (e.g., 5-100 nm thick NT bases that could serve as the electrolyte layer). To understand their full potential for these applications, the determination of their electrical properties is necessary. Therefore, ZrO2 NTs, in the form of a uniform and crack-free film, were obtained by the two-step anodization of Zr foil in aqueous solutions. The films exhibited excellent adhesion to the Zr substrate, which facilitated impedance spectroscopy analyses, used for the first time to obtain the resistivity of the nanotubular array separately from the contact resistances. This gave a conductivity of the ZrO2 NTs of 1.6 × 10(-6) S cm(-1) at 600 °C in N2, approximately twice that reported for dense ZrO2 films measured at the same temperature in air, and also a very reasonable activation energy of 0.90 eV in the 400-600 °C temperature range. PMID:25877824

  7. Positive posttraumatic stress disorder screens among first-time medical cannabis patients: prevalence and association with other substance use.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kleinberg, Felicia; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing for the use of medical cannabis for those individuals with qualifying medical conditions, which include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for a growing number of states. Little information is available regarding PTSD among medical cannabis patients. This study seeks to provide initial data on this topic by examining the prevalence and correlates of positive PTSD screens among a sample of patients seeking medical cannabis certification for the first time (n=186). Twenty-three percent (42/186; 95% confidence interval [CI] =17%-29%) of the patients in the study sample screened positive for PTSD. Moreover, the group that screened positive for PTSD had higher percentages of lifetime prescription opioid, cocaine, prescription sedative, and street opioid use, as well as a higher percentage of recent prescription sedative use, than the group that screened negative for PTSD. These findings highlight the relatively common use of other substances among medical cannabis patients with significant PTSD symptoms, even when compared with other patients seeking medical cannabis for the first time. As a growing number of states include PTSD among the list of qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis, additional research is needed to better characterize the longitudinal relationship between medical cannabis use and PTSD symptoms. PMID:24930048

  8. First-time electrical characterization of nanotubular ZrO2 films for micro-solid oxide fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Birss, Viola I.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, anodically grown ZrO2 nanotubes (NTs) are examined for the first time for use in micro solid oxide fuel cell (?-SOFC) applications. This is due to their high surface area to volume ratio and useful nanoscale morphological features (e.g., 5-100 nm thick NT bases that could serve as the electrolyte layer). To understand their full potential for these applications, the determination of their electrical properties is necessary. Therefore, ZrO2 NTs, in the form of a uniform and crack-free film, were obtained by the two-step anodization of Zr foil in aqueous solutions. The films exhibited excellent adhesion to the Zr substrate, which facilitated impedance spectroscopy analyses, used for the first time to obtain the resistivity of the nanotubular array separately from the contact resistances. This gave a conductivity of the ZrO2 NTs of 1.6 × 10-6 S cm-1 at 600 °C in N2, approximately twice that reported for dense ZrO2 films measured at the same temperature in air, and also a very reasonable activation energy of 0.90 eV in the 400-600 °C temperature range.

  9. Identification of functional parameters for the classification of older female fallers and prediction of ‘first-time’ fallers

    PubMed Central

    König, N.; Taylor, W. R.; Armbrecht, G.; Dietzel, R.; Singh, N. B.

    2014-01-01

    Falls remain a challenge for ageing societies. Strong evidence indicates that a previous fall is the strongest single screening indicator for a subsequent fall and the need for assessing fall risk without accounting for fall history is therefore imperative. Testing in three functional domains (using a total 92 measures) were completed in 84 older women (60–85 years of age), including muscular control, standing balance, and mean and variability of gait. Participants were retrospectively classified as fallers (n = 38) or non-fallers (n = 42) and additionally in a prospective manner to identify first-time fallers (FTFs) (n = 6) within a 12-month follow-up period. Principal component analysis revealed that seven components derived from the 92 functional measures are sufficient to depict the spectrum of functional performance. Inclusion of only three components, related to mean and temporal variability of walking, allowed classification of fallers and non-fallers with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate that FTFs show a tendency towards the performance of fallers, even before their first fall occurs. This study suggests that temporal variability and mean spatial parameters of gait are the only functional components among the 92 measures tested that differentiate fallers from non-fallers, and could therefore show efficacy in clinical screening programmes for assessing risk of first-time falling. PMID:24898021

  10. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent–child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers. PMID:26441808

  11. Characteristics of the enteral hyperalimentation literature.

    PubMed

    Worthen, D B

    1979-01-01

    There is a bias in secondary literature sources, such as MEDLINE, that results in an information gap on enteral hyperalimentation. This gap accentuates the problem of locating papers on enteral hyperalimentation with medical foods, a problem shared by physicians, dietitians, pharmacists, and information scientists. A complete information package on enteral hyperalimentation with chemically defined elemental diets was identified and collected for use in determining the characteristics of that literature. Less than 20 journal titles contain over half of the published papers which are predominantly published in English from research done in the United States. As the medical community's interest in the enteral route for hyperalimentation escalates, so does its need for information in this vital patient support area. Any possible hindrance to obtaining access to published information should be recognized and challenged. PMID:119067

  12. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  13. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

  14. Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that allow enteric E. coli to colonize and cause disease in the human host are examined and for two of the pathotypes that express a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) we discuss the complex interplay between translocated effectors and manipulation of host cell signaling pathways that occurs during infection. PMID:22555463

  15. Effects of Remediation on Academic Success of First-Time-in-College Female African Americans in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Francois, Francisse

    2013-01-01

    For decades, remedial education has been extensively used in higher education and studied as an effective tool to help overcome the challenge of student unpreparedness. While previous studies on remedial education addressed the academic failure of students, this study focuses on academic success of African American females. This causal-comparative…

  16. The Scope of Entering Freshman Drug Use at the University of South Carolina. A Report of the Annual Entering Freshmen Drug Survey Conducted During Summer Orientation, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Paul P.; Bucy, Eileen McGinity

    The 1975 Entering Freshmen Drug Survey was administered during alternate weeks at Summer Orientation to obtain a representative sample. A false drug (derbisol) was included in the questionnaire as a validity check. A total of 848 students (28 percent of the freshman class) was surveyed. The data indicated a stabilization of drug usage for most…

  17. A 1-Year Study on the Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Laetitia; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Urbès, Florence; Langlet, Jérémie

    2016-03-01

    Human enteric viruses occur in high concentrations in wastewater and can contaminate receiving environmental waters. Due to the lack of data on the prevalence of enteric viruses in New Caledonia, the presence and the concentrations of enteric viruses in wastewater and seawater were determined. Untreated wastewater and seawater samples were collected monthly for 1 year from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and from the WWTP's outlet, located directly on a popular recreational beach. Samples were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II (NoV GI and GII), astroviruses (AsV), sapoviruses (SaV), enteroviruses (EV), hepatitis A viruses (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). To support these data, faecal samples from cases of gastroenteritis were tested for the first time for NoV and detected in the population. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, HAdV and HPyV were detected in all wastewaters, RoV in 75 % and AsV in 67 %. HAV were not detected in wastewater. Overall, 92 % of seawater samples were positive for at least one virus. HPyV were detected most frequently in 92 % of samples and at concentrations up to 7.7 × 10(3) genome copies/L. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, RoV and HAdV were found in 33, 66, 41, 33, 16 and 66 % of seawater samples, respectively. AsV were not detected in seawater. This study reports for the first time the presence of NoV and other enteric viruses in New Caledonia and highlights the year-round presence of enteric viruses in the seawater of a popular beach. PMID:26670603

  18. "Enter-educate." Reaching youth with messages of sexual responsibility.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G

    1995-01-01

    Messages about sexual relationships, the prevention of pregnancy and disease, education, the empowerment of women, and concern for the environment are increasingly being disseminated to audiences of all ages through the use of entertainment. Ideas are presented in this Enter-Educate approach through popular, enjoyable entertainment in the form of songs, dramas, soap operas, variety shows, and other folk media. This approach can be adapted to be acceptable and effective in all cultures. Yafaman is one such example. It is a drama written and acted by high school students in Cote d'Ivoire which depicts the story of a school girl who learns that her older, married boyfriend is no longer interested in her when she becomes pregnant. After winning the annual national drama contest, Yafaman was televised and broadcast widely in schools and on national networks in francophone Africa. The video has also been dubbed in English for wider use. Popular music has delivered effective messages of sexual responsibility to young adults in Latin America and the Philippines. The US Agency for International Development-funded Population Communication Services project at the Johns Hopkins University supports 36 major Enter-Educate television series and specials, nine radio dramas, three songs, and nine music videos. Other organizations are expanding or experimenting with work in this area. The authors discuss the theoretical basis for Enter-Educate projects and explain that the approach works because it is pervasive, popular, personal, passionate, persuasive, practical, profitable, and proven effective. PMID:12319369

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of First-Time Methadone Maintenance Therapy Across Northern, Rural, and Urban Regions of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Eibl, Joseph K.; Gomes, Tara; Martins, Diana; Camacho, Ximena; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Dhalla, Irfan A.; Marsh, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective was to determine the impact that a patient's geographic status has on the efficacy of first-time methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) retention. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study using administrative health care databases for patients who commenced methadone therapy between 2003 and 2012. Patients were stratified on the basis of their location of residence into 1 of 4 groups—Southern Urban, Southern Rural, Northern Urban, or Northern Rural. The primary outcome was continuous retention in treatment, defined as 1 year of uninterrupted therapy on the basis of prescription refill data. Mortality was measured as a secondary outcome. Results: We identified 17,211 patients initiating first-time MMT during this 10-year period. Nearly half of patients initiating therapy in northern regions completed 1 year of treatment (48.9%; N = 258 and 47.0%; N = 761 in Northern Rural and Urban regions, respectively), whereas lower rates of 40.6% (N = 410) and 39.3% (N = 5,518) occurred in Southern Rural and Urban regions, respectively. Patients residing in Northern Rural and Northern Urban regions were 31% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09%–1.58%] and 14% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02%–1.27%] more likely to be retained in treatment compared with those residing in Southern Urban regions. There was no significant difference in treatment retention between those residing in Southern Rural and Southern Urban regions. A mortality rate of 3% was observed within 1 year of patients initiating treatment, with patients in the Southern Rural region having the highest rate (4.85%). Conclusions: Our study identified regional differences in retention rates and mortality of first-time MMT. These findings may relate to geographic isolation and limited methadone program availability experienced in northern regions. We interpret the data to suggest that patients who have reduced access to treatment experience higher retention rates when they are able to access therapy. PMID:26484843

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs were shown to be beneficial to first-time hearing aid users across a range of quantitative and qualitative measures. This study provides evidence to suggest that the RLOs may provide valuable learning and educational support for first-time hearing aid users and could be used to supplement clinical rehabilitation practice. PMID:26565785

  1. AZW-LA-II White Paint on Swift: Lessons Learned from First Time Flying on Spacecraft Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint was previously flown as a flight experiment, and is being flown as a calorimeter. However it has never been flown as a thermal coating of radiators on an operational spacecraft before. This paint has the lowest solar absorptance among all white paints, and a very small degradation. Its cost is many times more expensive than white paints that have a higher solar absorptance. To meet the thermal requirements of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) focal plane camera assembly (FPCA) charged coupled device (CCD), AZW-LA-II is used as the thermal coating for the BAT and XRT radiators. This paper presents the lessons learned from flying this low solar absorptance white paint as a thermal coating of radiators on an operational spacecraft for the first time.

  2. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  3. Social support during childbirth as a catalyst for early breastfeeding initiation for first-time Nigerian mothers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Initiation of breastfeeding can be difficult in a busy maternity centre with inadequate manpower and social support. This study aims to explore the role of psychosocial support offered by companions on breastfeeding initiation among first-time mothers. Methods This is a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial conducted among women attending the antenatal clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria in 2007. Those in the experimental group were asked to bring someone of their choice to the labour room to act as a companion; the comparison group received standard care. The results of 209 HIV negative women who had vaginal births were analysed. The main outcome measure was time to initiation of breastfeeding after childbirth. Results Of the total, 94 had companions during labour while 115 did not have a companion. The median time to breastfeeding initiation was significantly shorter in those with companions compared to controls (16 vs. 54 minutes; p < 0.01). The cumulative survival analysis indicated that all in the treatment group had initiated breastfeeding by 26 minutes, while among the control group none had commenced at 30 minutes post-delivery with some as late as 12 hours. After Cox regression analysis was used to adjust for possible confounders, the outcome still showed a significant hazard ratio of 207.8 (95%CI 49.2, 878.0; p < 0.01) among women who were supported by a companion. Conclusion Use of companions during labour is associated with earlier time to breastfeeding initiation among first-time mothers in Nigeria. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000994280. PMID:20003310

  4. Work activities and the onset of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Nuwayhid, I A; Stewart, W; Johnson, J V

    1993-03-01

    In a prospective study of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters, a total of 115 cases and 109 randomly selected controls were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and July 1989 to examine the role of recent work activities in the onset of first-time low back pain. After adjusting for known risk factors and off-duty activities, statistically significant high-risk work activities included operating a charged hose inside a building (odds ratio (OR) = 3.26), climbing ladders (OR = 3.18), breaking windows (OR = 4.45), cutting structures (OR = 6.47), looking for hidden fires (OR = 4.32), and lifting objects > or = 18 kg (OR = 3.07). Low-risk activities included connecting hydrants to pumpers (OR = 0.36), pulling booster hose (OR = 0.19), and participating in drills (OR = 0.09) or physical training (OR = 0.16). When further adjusted for exposure to smoke (OR = 13.59), a surrogate for severity of alarms, the ORs associated with high-risk activities were no longer significant. This, however, does not diminish the role of activities in the onset of low back pain. Instead, it suggests an inseparable role for activities and environmental hazards. To examine this, the risk of low back pain was measured within five work zones sequential in time relative to location and distance from a structural fire. The risk gradually increased as the fire fighter moved away from the firehouse (OR = 0.10) and closer to the site of fire (OR = 3.91). PMID:8465805

  5. Generation of Live Piglets from Cryopreserved Oocytes for the First Time Using a Defined System for In Vitro Embryo Production

    PubMed Central

    Somfai, Tamás; Yoshioka, Koji; Tanihara, Fuminori; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We report the successful piglet production from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time by using a simple, high capacity vitrification protocol for preservation and a defined system for in vitro embryo production. Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from prepubertal gilts were vitrified in microdrops and stored in liquid nitrogen. After warming, COCs were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF), and subsequent culture (IVC). Adjusting warmplate temperature to 42°C during warming prevented temperature drops in a medium below 34.0°C and significantly increased the percentage of oocyte survival and thus blastocyst yields obtained from total vitrified oocytes compared with that of warming at 38°C (87.1% vs 66.9% and 4.4% vs 2.7%, respectively). Nuclear maturation and fertilization of oocytes were not affected by vitrification and warming temperature. Blastocyst development on day 7 (day 0?=?IVF) of the surviving oocytes after warming at 38°C and 42°C was not different but lower (P<0.05) than those of non-vitrified control oocytes (4.6%, 5.2% and 17.9%, respectively). However, blastocyst cell numbers in the control and vitrified groups were similar irrespective of warming temperature. Omitting porcine follicular fluid (pFF) from IVM medium (POM) did not affect maturation, fertilization and embryo development of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Transfer of blastocysts obtained on day 5 from vitrified oocytes matured either with or without pFF into 4 recipients (2 for each group) resulted in 4 pregnancies and the delivery of a total of 18 piglets. In conclusion, optimization of warming temperature was a key factor for achieving high survival rates, and surviving oocytes could be utilized in vitro using defined media. Using these modifications, live piglets could be obtained from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time. PMID:24844283

  6. Does Donating Blood for the First Time During a National Emergency Create a Better Commitment to Donating Again?

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Sheri; Lewalski, Eva A.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Hagar, Yolanda; Beckett, Laurel; Janatpour, Kim A.; Holland, Paul V.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives Emergency situations often elicit a generous response from the public. This occurred after attacks on the US on September 11, 2001 when many new blood donors lined up to donate. This study was performed to compare return rates for first time donors (FTD) after September 11th, 2001 to FTD during a comparable period in 2000. Materials and Methods 3315 allogeneic whole blood donations from FTD at a regional blood center were collected between September 11th and 30th, 2001. Subsequent donations by the FTD before March 31, 2002 were reviewed. This (test) group was compared to 1279 FTD(control group) donating during the same time period in September 2000 and to their return rate in the subsequent six months. Results Following September 11, 2001, 1087/3315 (32.8%) FTD returned by March 31, 2002. This return rate was similar to the control group (427/1279 (33.4%)). The deferral rate during the donor screening process for the control group was significantly higher than the deferral rate for the September 11–30, 2001 group (p < 0.01). The odds of an individual FTD returning increased with age, and the chance of a female donor returning was 1.13 times higher than a male (p = 0.06). There was a carryover effect after Sept. 11, 2001 too. Conclusion A national emergency, September 11, 2001, inspired people to donate blood for the first time. However, the proportion of return donations amongst them was not increased. Females and males in certain age groups were more likely to become repeat donors due to the residual effect of September 11, 2001. Additional efforts are needed to retain eligible FTD in donor pools. PMID:20002621

  7. Arterio-Enteric Fistula in Failed Enteric-Drained Pancreas Transplants: An Impending Danger

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Manuel; Siskind, Eric; Jaimes, Natalia; Eckstein, Donna; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sachdeva, Mala; Jhaveri, Kenar; Calderon, Kellie; Greben, Craig; Sharan, Lauren; Coppa, Gene; Krishnasastry, Kambhampaty; Molmenti, Ernesto; Nicastro, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Enteric drainage is the preferred method of exocrine diversion in simultaneous kidney–pancreas transplantation. Because of improvements in immunosuppression, enteric drainage has become the preferred method of pancreas transplantation in general. Although associated with less potential complications than bladder-drained pancreas, potentially lethal arterio-enteric fistulas in the setting of nonfunctioning allografts represent a constant threat. We herein present a case report, a review of the literature, and a call for caution. PMID:24627620

  8. Arterio-enteric fistula in failed enteric-drained pancreas transplants: an impending danger.

    PubMed

    Villa, Manuel; Siskind, Eric; Jaimes, Natalia; Eckstein, Donna; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sachdeva, Mala; Jhaveri, Kenar; Calderon, Kellie; Greben, Craig; Sharan, Lauren; Coppa, Gene; Krishnasastry, Kambhampaty; Molmenti, Ernesto; Nicastro, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Enteric drainage is the preferred method of exocrine diversion in simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation. Because of improvements in immunosuppression, enteric drainage has become the preferred method of pancreas transplantation in general. Although associated with less potential complications than bladder-drained pancreas, potentially lethal arterio-enteric fistulas in the setting of nonfunctioning allografts represent a constant threat. We herein present a case report, a review of the literature, and a call for caution. PMID:24627620

  9. Microbiome Associations of Therapeutic Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rajesh; Kellermayer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    One of the most effective forms of therapeutic enteral nutrition is designated as “exclusive enteral nutrition” (EEN). EEN constitutes the monotonous enteral delivery of complete liquid nutrition and has been most explored in the treatment Crohn’s disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease. While EEN’s mechanisms of action are not clearly understood, it has been shown to modify the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an important component of CD pathogenesis. The current literature on the intestinal microbiome in healthy individuals and CD patients is reviewed with respect to EEN therapy. Further investigations in this field are needed to better understand the role and potential for EEN in chronic human disorders. PMID:25421531

  10. Quinolone and Cephalosporin Resistance in Enteric Fever

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini Rajinder; Nair, Deepthi

    2010-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ciprofloxacin resistance has now become a norm in the Indian subcontinent. Novel molecular substitutions may become frequent in future owing to selective pressures exerted by the irrational use of ciprofloxacin in human and veterinary therapeutics, in a population endemic with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, tigecycline and penems. The first-line antimicrobials ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole need to be rolled back. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns for therapeutic reappraisal and for novel-drug targets. This review explores the antimicrobial resistance and its molecular mechanisms, as well as novel drugs in the therapy of enteric fever. PMID:20927288

  11. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach; many of them responded to one stimulus modality only. Their proportions and the basic properties were similar to MEN previously identified by us in other intestinal region and species. Unlike in the intestine, the responsiveness of some gastric MEN is enhanced by extrinsic TRPV1 expressing visceral afferents. PMID:26578888

  12. Gastritis, Enteritis, and Colitis in Horses.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal system of horses is affected by a large variety of inflammatory infectious and noninfectious conditions. The most prevalent form of gastritis is associated with ulceration of the pars esophagea. Although the diagnostic techniques for alimentary diseases of horses have improved significantly over the past few years, difficulties still exist in establishing the causes of a significant number of enteric diseases in this species. This problem is compounded by several agents of enteric disease also being found in the intestine of clinically normal horses, which questions the validity of the mere detection of these agents in the intestine. PMID:26048413

  13. Investigating turkey enteric picornavirus and its association with enteric disease in poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous research into the dynamic viral community in the turkey gastrointestinal tract revealed a number of novel enteric viruses. Of particular note in this previous metagenomic investigation was the observation of a number of novel avian enteric picornaviruses, in addition to numerous other ...

  14. Plasma prednisolone levels from enteric and non-enteric coated tablets estimated by an original technique.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, P J; Bradbrook, I D; Rogers, H J

    1977-01-01

    1 A quantitative thin layer chromatographic technique for the estimation of plasma prednisolone levels has been devised with a minimum level of estimation of 10 ng/ml. 2 A comparative study of the absorption of 5 and 10 mg prednisolone from enteric and non-enteric coated tablets (5 mg) was carried out in healthy subjects. 3 Mean plasma half-life and peak plasma concentrations obtained from the non-enteric coated preparation agree well with previous studies in normal subjects reported by other investigators using competitive protein binding or radioimmunoassay techniques. Intersubject variability in bioavailability was noted. 4 Enteric coating increased the lag time before prednisolone appeared in the blood but did not alter the bioavailability of prednisolone compared to the equivalent dose of the non-enteric coated tablet. PMID:911606

  15. Male clients' behaviours with and perspectives about their last male escort encounter: comparing repeat versus first-time hires.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Margaret M; Grov, Christian; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Research on men who have sex with men suggests that condomless anal intercourse occurs more frequently in established sexual relationships. While comparable data regarding male-for-male escorting is unavailable, research implies that many clients seek emotional as well as physical connections with the men they hire. In 2012, 495 male clients, recruited via daddysreviews.com completed an online survey about their last hiring experience. Most participants were from the USA (85.7%), the UK and Canada (3.2% each). In total, 75% of encounters involved an escort hired for the first time; 25% were with a previously hired escort ('repeat encounter'). The client's age, lifetime number of escorts hired and number hired in the past year were positively associated with the last encounter being a repeat encounter. Cuddling, sharing a meal, drinking alcohol, taking a walk, watching a show and shopping were also positively associated with repeat encounters. Conversely, none of the sexual behaviours were significantly associated with repeat encounters. Repeat encounters were significantly more likely to include non-sexual behaviours alongside sexual activities, but no more likely to involve condomless anal intercourse. Moreover, clients' knowledge of escorts' HIV status was not significantly associated with engaging in condomless anal intercourse with repeat encounters. PMID:24915753

  16. Making use of expertise: a qualitative analysis of the experience of breastfeeding support for first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Johnson, Sally; Lyttle, Steven

    2015-10-01

    There is now a body of research evaluating breastfeeding interventions and exploring mothers' and health professionals' views on effective and ineffective breastfeeding support. However, this literature leaves relatively unexplored a number of questions about how breastfeeding women experience and make sense of their relationships with those trained to provide breastfeeding support. The present study collected qualitative data from 22 breastfeeding first-time mothers in the United Kingdom on their experiences of, and orientation towards, relationships with maternity care professionals and other breastfeeding advisors. The data were obtained from interviews and audio-diaries at two time points during the first 5 weeks post-partum. We discuss a key theme within the data of 'Making use of expertise' and three subthemes that capture the way in which the women's orientation towards those assumed to have breastfeeding expertise varied according to whether the women (1) adopted a position of consulting experts vs. one of deferring to feeding authorities; (2) experienced difficulty interpreting their own and their baby's bodies; and (3) experienced the expertise of health workers as empowering or disempowering. Although sometimes mothers felt empowered by aligning themselves with the scientific approach and 'normalising gaze' of health care professionals, at other times this gaze could be experienced as objectifying and diminishing. The merits and limitations of a person-centred approach to breastfeeding support are discussed in relation to using breastfeeding expertise in an empowering rather than disempowering way. PMID:23557351

  17. Design, Development and Operation of a Laboratory Pulsed Plasma Thruster for the First Time in West Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeiha, Abdolrahim; Anbarloui, Mehdi; Farshchi, Mohammad

    Although the pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) was first utilized on a space mission in 1964, after more than four decades, it is still a space-rated technology which has performed various propulsion tasks, from station-keeping to three-axis attitude control for a variety of former missions. With respect to the rapid growth in the small satellite community and the growing interest for smaller satellites in recent years, the PPT is one of the promising electric propulsion devices for small satellites (e.g., CubeSats) due to the following advantages: simplicity, lightweight, robustness, low power consumption, low production cost and small dimensions. Therefore, a laboratory benchmark rectangular breech-fed pulsed plasma thruster using a self-inductor as a coupling element was designed, developed and successfully tested in a bell-type vacuum chamber at 10-4 Pa for the first time in west Asia (Iran). The PPT has been tested using a 35 ?F, 2.5 kV oil-filled capacitor, producing an impulse bit varying from 300 ?N-s to 1.3 mN-s at a maximum specific impulse of 1100 s. As a result a research program in Iran was initiated for working on PPTs and the miniaturization of PPTs while increasing the performance parameters. The present paper briefly reviews the PPT design and development.

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies and genotypes in asymptomatic, first-time blood donors in Namibia.

    PubMed Central

    Vardas, E.; Sitas, F.; Seidel, K.; Casteling, A.; Sim, J.

    1999-01-01

    Reported is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Namibia as determined using a third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on samples of blood collected from all asymptomatic, first-time blood donors between 1 February and 31 July 1997 (n = 1941). The HCV seroprevalence was 0.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-1.5%) and no associations were detected between a positive HCV serostatus and the person's sex, region of residence, or previous hepatitis B exposure or hepatitis B carrier status, as determined by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The only significant association in a logistic regression model was an increase in HCV positivity with increasing age (P = 0.04). Viral RNA was amplified from 2 out of 18 (11.1%) specimens that were ELISA positive. Genotyping of these specimens, by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), showed the presence of genotypes 5 and 1a. The positive predictive value of using HBsAg positivity as a surrogate screening marker for HCV in Namibian blood donors was poor (1.6%), with low sensitivity (16.7%) and specificity (89.3%), and detecting only 3 out of 18 serologically HCV-positive specimens. The results of this first study of the prevalence and epidemiology of HCV infection in Namibia suggest that donor blood should be screened for HCV by ELISA in order to prevent the transmission of hepatitis C virus. PMID:10680243

  19. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  20. Isolated Enteric Cyst in the Neck

    PubMed Central

    Mahore, Amit; Sankhe, Shilpa; Tikeykar, Vishakha

    2014-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of isolated enteric cyst in the neck region which was diagnosed on the histopathological examination. It was suspected to be duplication cyst on radiology. We have also evaluated the differential diagnosis and management issues. PMID:24868475

  1. Early treatment of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M D; Schorling, J B; Barrett, L J; Dudley, S M; Orgel, I; Koch, W C; Shields, D S; Thorson, S M; Lohr, J A; Guerrant, R L

    1989-01-01

    The bacteriologic and clinical effects of early antibiotic treatment of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis were studied. Erythromycin rapidly eliminated C. jejuni from stools, whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole did not. Despite its bacteriologic effectiveness, erythromycin did not reduce the duration or severity of diarrhea, abdominal pain, or other symptoms. PMID:2818711

  2. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  3. Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A elaborate distinct systemic metabolite signatures during enteric fever

    PubMed Central

    Näsström, Elin; Vu Thieu, Nga Tran; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Voong Vinh, Phat; Ha Thanh, Tuyen; Johansson, Anders; Arjyal, Amit; Thwaites, Guy; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen; Antti, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The host–pathogen interactions induced by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A during enteric fever are poorly understood. This knowledge gap, and the human restricted nature of these bacteria, limit our understanding of the disease and impede the development of new diagnostic approaches. To investigate metabolite signals associated with enteric fever we performed two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) on plasma from patients with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections and asymptomatic controls, identifying 695 individual metabolite peaks. Applying supervised pattern recognition, we found highly significant and reproducible metabolite profiles separating S. Typhi cases, S. Paratyphi A cases, and controls, calculating that a combination of six metabolites could accurately define the etiological agent. For the first time we show that reproducible and serovar specific systemic biomarkers can be detected during enteric fever. Our work defines several biologically plausible metabolites that can be used to detect enteric fever, and unlocks the potential of this method in diagnosing other systemic bacterial infections. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03100.001 PMID:24902583

  4. The Difficult Transition? Teaching, Research, Service: Examining the Preparedness of Communication Faculty Entering the Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Toni Selena; Hickerson, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a survey of graduate students seeking employment, examines the categories and levels of preparedness of new professors/instructors as they enter academe. Preparedness was examined in several ways--specifically knowledge about higher education requirements and their preparation for teaching, advising, and service in the field…

  5. Perceptions of Pre-Service Educators on Entering Secondary Mathematics and Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Jennifer Robin

    2010-01-01

    Educational leaders struggle with methods for enhancing student entry into secondary mathematics and science programs. The purpose of this phenomenological study using the modified van Kaam data analysis method, was to determine perceptions of pre-service educators on entering the secondary mathematics and science classrooms. Based on the findings…

  6. Computed tomography perfusion imaging may predict cognitive impairment in patients with first-time anterior circulation transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yunming; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Dan; Li, Yuxia; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI)-derived parameters are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients with first-time anterior circulation TIA (diagnosed within 24 h of onset) and normal cognition, treated between August 2009 and August 2014 at the Department of Neurology of Chengdu Military General Hospital, China, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent whole-brain CTPI within 1 week of TIA to detect cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) in the ischemic region. Based on cognitive function assessment 4 weeks after TIA, using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examination, the patients were divided into control and VCI groups. CTPI parameters and other clinical data were compared between groups, and Spearman's correlation analysis used to identify associations between cognitive scores and CTPI parameters in the VCI group. 50 patients (25 per group; aged 55-72 years) were included. Patient age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, time from TIA onset to admission, time from TIA onset to CTPI, and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and hyperhomocysteinemia did not differ between groups. Both groups showed TTP and MTT prolongation, CBF reduction, but no change in CBV in the ischemic region; these changes were significantly larger in the VCI group (P < 0.05). MTT correlated negatively with MoCA score (r = -0.51, P = 0.009). CTPI could facilitate early diagnosis of VCI in patients with anterior circulation TIA. PMID:26721459

  7. In-Hospital Formula Use Increases Early Breastfeeding Cessation Among First-Time Mothers Intending to Exclusively Breastfeed

    PubMed Central

    Chantry, Caroline J.; Dewey, Kathryn G.; Peerson, Janet M.; Wagner, Erin A; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in-hospital formula supplementation among first time mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed and determined if in-hospital formula supplementation shortens breastfeeding duration after adjusting for breastfeeding intention. Study design We assessed strength of breastfeeding intentions prenatally in a diverse cohort of expectant primiparae and followed infant feeding practices through day 60. Among mothers planning to exclusively breastfed their healthy term infants for ?1 week, we determined predictors, reasons, and characteristics of in-hospital formula supplementation; and calculated the intention-adjusted relative risk (ARR) of not fully breastfeeding days 30–60 and breastfeeding cessation by day 60 with in-hospital formula supplementation (n=393). Results 210 (53%) infants exclusively breastfed during the maternity stay and 183 (47%) received in-hospital formula supplementation. The most prevalent reasons mothers cited for inhospital formula supplementation were: perceived insufficient milk supply (18%), signs of inadequate intake (16%), and poor latch or breastfeeding (14%). Prevalence of not fully breastfeeding days 30–60 was 67.8% vs 36.7%, ARR 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4–2.3], in-hospital formula supplementation vs exclusively breastfed groups respectively, and breastfeeding cessation by day 60 was 32.8% vs 10.5%, ARR 2.7 [95% CI,1.7–4.5]. Odds of both adverse outcomes increased with more in-hospital formula supplementation feeds (not fully breastfeeding days 30–60, P=.003 and breastfeeding cessation, P=.011). Conclusions Among women intending exclusively breastfed, in-hospital formula supplementation was associated with nearly 2-fold greater risk of not fully breastfeeding days 30–60 and nearly 3-fold risk of breastfeeding cessation by day 60, even after adjusting for strength of breastfeeding intentions. Strategies should be sought to avoid unnecessary in-hospital formula supplementation and to support breastfeeding when in-hospital formula supplementation is unavoidable. PMID:24529621

  8. Using evidence-based algorithms to improve clinical decision making: the case of a first-time anterior shoulder dislocation.

    PubMed

    Federer, Andrew E; Taylor, Dean C; Mather, Richard C

    2013-09-01

    Decision making in health care has evolved substantially over the last century. Up until the late 1970s, medical decision making was predominantly intuitive and anecdotal. It was based on trial and error and involved high levels of problem solving. The 1980s gave way to empirical medicine, which was evidence based probabilistic, and involved pattern recognition and less problem solving. Although this represented a major advance in the quality of medical decision making, limitations existed. The advantages of the gold standard of the randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) are well-known and this technique is irreplaceable in its ability to answer critical clinical questions. However, the RCT does have drawbacks. RCTs are expensive and can only capture a snapshot in time. As treatments change and new technologies emerge, new expensive clinical trials must be undertaken to reevaluate them. Furthermore, in order to best evaluate a single intervention, other factors must be controlled. In addition, the study population may not match that of another organization or provider. Although evidence-based medicine has provided powerful data for clinicians, effectively and efficiently tailoring it to the individual has not yet evolved. We are now in a period of transition from this evidence-based era to one dominated by the personalization and customization of care. It will be fueled by policy decisions to shift financial responsibility to the patient, creating a powerful and sophisticated consumer, unlike any patient we have known before. The challenge will be to apply medical evidence and personal preferences to medical decisions and deliver it efficiently in the increasingly busy clinical setting. In this article, we provide a robust review of the concepts of customized care and some of techniques to deliver it. We will illustrate this through a personalized decision model for the treatment decision after a first-time anterior shoulder dislocation. PMID:23924748

  9. One-year treatment patterns and change trajectories for adolescents participating in outpatient treatment for the first time.

    PubMed

    Godley, Susan H; Passetti, Lora L; Funk, Rodney R; Garner, Bryan R; Godley, Mark D

    2008-03-01

    The American Society on Addiction Medicine's Patient Placement criteria are commonly used in adolescent treatment. However, the use of these criteria and how they affect the course of treatment and interact with adolescent change has not been examined. Twelve-month treatment patterns were examined for 176 adolescents who entered their first ever episode in a treatment system using these criteria. Forty-one percent of the adolescents received additional treatment after their initial outpatient episode with over 30 unique treatment sequences (i.e., various combinations of outpatient, intensive outpatient, and residential treatment). Significant differences in treatment patterns were found between the change trajectory groups. For example, adolescents who participated in only one outpatient treatment episode were more likely to be in the low alcohol and drug use (AOD) group and less likely to have high rates of time in a controlled environment or to report moderate AOD use. Over one-third of the adolescents participated in additional treatment and almost one-quarter of those who only participated in outpatient treatment had problematic use. These findings suggest the need for clinical monitoring protocols that can be used to identify adolescents needing additional treatment or recovery services. PMID:18472662

  10. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting....

  11. 30 CFR 57.11038 - Entering a manway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entering a manway. 57.11038 Section 57.11038... Escapeways Travelways-Underground Only § 57.11038 Entering a manway. Before entering a manway where persons may be working or traveling, a warning shall be given by the person entering the manway...

  12. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting....

  13. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting....

  14. 30 CFR 57.11038 - Entering a manway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entering a manway. 57.11038 Section 57.11038... Escapeways Travelways-Underground Only § 57.11038 Entering a manway. Before entering a manway where persons may be working or traveling, a warning shall be given by the person entering the manway...

  15. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting....

  16. 30 CFR 57.11038 - Entering a manway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entering a manway. 57.11038 Section 57.11038... Escapeways Travelways-Underground Only § 57.11038 Entering a manway. Before entering a manway where persons may be working or traveling, a warning shall be given by the person entering the manway...

  17. 30 CFR 57.11038 - Entering a manway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entering a manway. 57.11038 Section 57.11038... Escapeways Travelways-Underground Only § 57.11038 Entering a manway. Before entering a manway where persons may be working or traveling, a warning shall be given by the person entering the manway...

  18. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting....

  19. 30 CFR 57.11038 - Entering a manway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering a manway. 57.11038 Section 57.11038... Escapeways Travelways-Underground Only § 57.11038 Entering a manway. Before entering a manway where persons may be working or traveling, a warning shall be given by the person entering the manway...

  20. Enteric viral infections in lambs or kids.

    PubMed

    Martella, V; Decaro, N; Buonavoglia, C

    2015-12-14

    Diarrhoea in lambs and kids is often a complex, multi-factorial syndrome. Common infectious causes of diarrhoea in lambs and kids during the first month of life are of bacterial or parasite nature. However, despite appreciable improvements in management practices and prevention and treatment strategies over the last decades, diarrhoea is still a common and costly syndrome affecting newborn small ruminants. Recent advances in the diagnostics and metagenomic investigations of the enteric environment have allowed discovering a number of novel viruses, although their pathobiological properties remain largely unknown. Assessing more in depth the impact of these viruses on the health and productions of these livestock animals is necessary and requires the development of accurate diagnostic tools and updating of the diagnostic algorithms of enteric pathological conditions. PMID:26321129

  1. Spectrum of Surgical Presentation of Eosinophilic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Spoorthy Sudhakar; Shetty, Charan Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder presenting mostly with diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, weight loss, and hypersensitivity. Surgical manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders depends on the site and extent of involvement. In our case series of four patients two of them had ileocaecal masses with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction with past history of intake of antitubercular drugs for 9 months. On histopathological examination both of them proved to have eosinophilic enterocolitis. Thus it is a clinical dilemma to differentiate between these two conditions. The other two patients presented as acute abdomen with perforation and intussusception. All four patients were treated surgically. Postoperatively they recovered well with no symptoms on one year follow-up. In Indian setup tuberculosis being rampant there may be under reporting or wrongly diagnosed cases of eosinophilic enteritis. Thus a strong clinical suspicion and awareness of this clinical entity are essential among surgical community. PMID:25960910

  2. [Enteral nutrition: drug administration via feeding tube].

    PubMed

    Behnken, I; Gaschott, T; Stein, J

    2005-11-01

    Enteral nutrition support via a feeding tube is a preferred and broadly applied way of artificial nutrition in patients who cannot take up orally an adequate amount of nutrients. These patients often need simultaneous drug therapy as well. Thus, there is a high risk of drug-nutrient interactions. Although enteral nutrition is commonly used there is a lack of awareness and knowledge about the appropriate handling and drug administration via the feeding tube. On the one hand, drug-nutrient interactions can lead to clogging of the tube, on the other hand, the change in bioavailability of the drug can have a direct effect on the therapeutic effort. To optimise safety and efficacy of drug therapy in patients with feeding tubes, some basic rules have been set up. PMID:16267709

  3. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  4. Proceedings: Telephone lines entering power substations

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, G.; Mankoff, L.

    1988-08-01

    The EPRI workshop on ''Telephone Circuits Entering Substations'' was designed for technology interchange. It also served to evaluate the need for possible joint research by the telephone companies and the electric utilities related to requirements and methods for protection of telephone circuits entering power substations. Attendance at the meeting totalled 57, with a ratio of electric utility to telephone personnel about two to one. Papers were presented on typical applications and practices, modeling and measurement of ground potential rise, a review of the IEEE tutorial on substation grounding design practices, and new, available protective equipments. The ensuing discussions involved disagreements, in some cases, between measured ground potential differences and values derived by modeling. The application of probabilistic and risk analysis techniques, and new technology including semiconducting and non-linear devices for isolating or reducing overvoltages on telephone circuits resulting from ground faults, switching surges or lightning strikes were also included.

  5. "Entering Research": A Course that Creates Community and Structure for Beginning Undergraduate Researchers in the STEM Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn; Branchaw, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called "Entering Research" that…

  6. First-time Sliding Failure in Weak Sandstones and Subsequent Evolution in a Fast-moving Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoni, A.; Berti, M.; Bayer, B.; Bertello, L.; Franceschini, S.; Morandi, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Following intense rainfalls, during spring 2013 a first-time sliding failure developed over a gentle cultivated slope in Northern Apennines. The slope is made of weakly cemented layered sandstones and subordinate siltstones and mudstones of Eocene age. The morphology is fairly regular with an average angle of 15° that increases up to 25° in the lower part of the slope where the pelitic fraction is no longer present in the bedrock succession. Bedding generally dips into the slope though the presence of faults locally complicate the setting. The sliding interested the upper, more gentle part of the slope with a maximum depth of 10 to 15 meters. Morphological evidences indicate a rotational component of movement and rocks outcropping along the scarp show a moderate degree of weathering. The main landslide body maintained its coherence and only a minor part of the toe mobilized as a fast-moving flow. No building nor infrastructure was affected by the movement but a railway viaduct is present in the lower part of the slope. Following the 2013 failure, movements and pore pressures were monitored in the landslide deposit to control the evolution of the phenomena. During the following winter, the abundant precipitation caused a reactivation of the movement that led to a much larger fast-moving flow. In this work, we document the sequence of events that has interested the slope during the years 2013-2014. Subsequent ground-based and aerial topographic surveys allow to estimate the volumes involved in the different phases of movement. Field evidences and investigations are used to interpret the geotechnical model of the slope and constrain the range of resistances mobilized at failure. The deformations preceding the 2014 reactivation are analyzed together with post-failure landslide deceleration. It is shown that displacements proceeded maintaining sustained moderate velocities for days before the catastrophic reactivation, making difficult to anticipate the acceleration. It took months, and the arrive of the dry season, to return displacement to slow to very slow rates.

  7. Informed Choice in the German Mammography Screening Program by Education and Migrant Status: Survey among First-Time Invitees

    PubMed Central

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Reder, Maren; Razum, Oliver; Kolip, Petra; Spallek, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women and mammography screening programs are seen as a key strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality. In Germany, women are invited to the population-based mammography screening program between ages 50 to 69. It is still discussed whether the benefits of mammography screening outweigh its harms. Therefore, the concept of informed choice comprising knowledge, attitude and intention has gained importance. The objective of this observational study was to assess the proportion of informed choices among women invited to the German mammography screening program for the first time. A representative sample of 17,349 women aged 50 years from a sub-region of North Rhine Westphalia was invited to participate in a postal survey. Turkish immigrant women were oversampled. The effects of education level and migration status on informed choice and its components were assessed. 5,847 (33.7%) women responded to the postal questionnaire of which 4,113 were used for analyses. 31.5% of the women had sufficient knowledge. The proportion of sufficient knowledge was lower among immigrants and among women with low education levels. The proportion of women making informed choices was low (27.1%), with similar associations with education level and migration status. Women of low (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.18–3.46) and medium education level (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.27–1.75) were more likely to make an uninformed choice than women of high education level. Turkish immigrant women had the greatest odds for making an uninformed choice (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.92–14.66) compared to non-immigrant women. Other immigrant women only had slightly greater odds for making an uninformed choice than non-immigrant women. As immigrant populations and women with low education level have been shown to have poor knowledge, they need special attention in measures to increase knowledge and thus informed choices. PMID:26529513

  8. A First-Time-In-Human Phase I Clinical Trial of Bispecific Antibody-Targeted, Paclitaxel-Packaged Bacterial Minicells

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Mark; McArthur, Grant A.; Pattison, Scott T.; Pattison, Stacey L.; MacDiarmid, Jennifer; Brahmbhatt, Himanshu; Scott, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We have harnessed a novel biological system, the bacterial minicell, to deliver cancer therapeutics to cancer cells. Preclinical studies showed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted, paclitaxel-loaded minicells (EGFRminicellsPac) have antitumor effects in xenograft models. To examine the safety of the minicell delivery system, we initiated a first-time-in-human, open-label, phase I clinical study of EGFRminicellsPac in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methodology Patients received 5 weekly infusions followed by a treatment free week. Seven dose levels (1x108, 1x109, 3x109, 1x1010, 1.5x1010, 2x1010, 5x1010) were evaluated using a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Primary objectives were safety, tolerability and determination of the maximum tolerated dose. Secondary objectives were assessment of immune/inflammatory responses and antitumor activity. Principal Findings Twenty eight patients were enrolled, 22 patients completed at least one cycle of EGFRminicellsPac; 6 patients did not complete a cycle due to rapidly progressive disease. A total of 236 doses was delivered over 42 cycles, with a maximum of 45 doses administered to a single patient. Most common treatment-related adverse events were rigors and pyrexia. No deaths resulted from treatment-related adverse events and the maximum tolerated dose was defined as 1x1010 EGFRminicellsPac. Surprisingly, only a mild self-limiting elevation in the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was observed. Anti-LPS antibody titers peaked by dose 3 and were maintained at that level despite repeat dosing with the bacterially derived minicells. Ten patients (45%; n = 22) achieved stable disease as their best response. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study in humans of a novel biological system that can provide targeted delivery of a range of chemotherapeutic drugs to solid tumor cells. Bispecific antibody-targeted minicells, packaged with the chemotherapeutic paclitaxel, were shown to be safe in patients with advanced solid tumors with modest clinical efficacy observed. Further study in Phase II trials is planned. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000672257 PMID:26659127

  9. Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm(exp -1) Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; deKok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm(exp -1) in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 (exp -1) emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it bad been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004. Our far-infrared observations were performed With the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Caasini. Although it bad been expected that the 220 cm(exp -1) emission would eventnal1y appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm(exp -1) feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm(exp -1) ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini image. The 220 cm(exp -1) feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager I and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS. Until now the 220 cm(exp -1) emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm(exp -1) emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes.

  10. Pathological Changes in Virus Enteritis of Mink

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, H. A.

    1970-01-01

    The lesions which characterize viral enteritis of mink (VEM) were studied in twenty-six, ten-week-old mink which had been infected by force feeding a tissue suspension containing a Wisconsin strain of mink enteritis virus. The pathogenesis of the lesions was reconstructed from gross and histopathological changes observed in animals which were selected randomly from the group each day for necropsy during the course of the disease. Alterations were observed in the tissues of all mink examined from post-inoculation day (PID) 4 through 13. The principal macroscopic lesions which consisted of fibrinous enteritis, enlargement and hemorrhage of the spleen and edema of mesenteric and hepatic lymph nodes were most conspicuous on PID 7 and 8. Histopathological changes including necrosis and desquamation of intestinal epithelium, depletion of mature lymphocytes in lymph nodes, thymus and spleen and loss of partly differentiated myeloid and erythroid cells from spleen and bone marrow also reached full development on PID 7 and 8. However, nuclear inclusion bodies which were presumed to be a product of the causative agent and, therefore, of diagnostic significance were most prevalent on PID 3, 4 and 5. The inclusions were observed in mucosal epithelial cells of the intestine, parenchymal cells of the liver and in lymphocyte precursor cells of the spleen, intestinal lymph nodules and masenteric and hepatic lymph nodes. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11. PMID:4246838

  11. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  12. African Swine Fever Virus Uses Macropinocytosis to Enter Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elena G.; Quintas, Ana; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Nogal, Marisa; Barroso, Susana; Carrascosa, Ángel L.; Revilla, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved. PMID:22719252

  13. A Qualitative Case Study on the Retention and Persistence of Second Generation First Time Degree-Seeking Latino Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquibel, Denise H.

    2013-01-01

    As the Latino population progresses from minority to majority status in the United States, there still remains the typical and historical pattern of failure in higher education associated with this minority status. According to the 2010 Census, approximately 16% of the total U.S. population or 50.5 million people have self-identified themselves as…

  14. Understanding the Impact of Academic Support Programs on First-Time Bar Passage for Students at the University of Idaho College of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Helen

    2013-01-01

    As racial and ethnic population changes occur in the United States these same changes should be reflected in the legal community of lawyers and judges. Although Black and Hispanic populations have been increasing over the past 30 years in the United States, this same proportionate increase has not occurred in the American Bar Association (ABA)…

  15. Understanding the Impact of Academic Support Programs on First-Time Bar Passage for Students at the University of Idaho College of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Helen

    2013-01-01

    As racial and ethnic population changes occur in the United States these same changes should be reflected in the legal community of lawyers and judges. Although Black and Hispanic populations have been increasing over the past 30 years in the United States, this same proportionate increase has not occurred in the American Bar Association (ABA)…

  16. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors associated with prediction of methane and allow a better examination and representation of policies regulating emissions from cattle. PMID:24259373

  17. [Enteritis caused by small intestine irradiation].

    PubMed

    Marcote Valdivieso, E; Arlandis Félix, F; Baltasar, A; Laforga Canales, J

    1993-07-01

    Two cases of small bowel postradiation enteritis after abdominoperineal resection are presented. The interval between radiation of 60 Gy to the pelvis and perineal area and the occlusive symptoms were 3 and 6 years. One patient required a massive small bowel resection, and the second an ileo-transverse colon bypass. The first case had a partial dehiscence of the anastomosis, and the second a colonic fistula 8 months after surgery that closed after total parenteral nutrition. Both patients had abdominal wall closure defects. PMID:8357647

  18. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5% w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1% acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5%, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7% w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses. PMID:26162243

  19. Parenteral and enteral nutritional support (excluding immunonutrition).

    PubMed

    Goéré, D; Cunha, A Sa

    2015-08-01

    The surgeon plays a key role in the perioperative nutritional care in patients undergoing elective major digestive surgery; therefore, he has to be able to anticipate needs and to implement corrective measures according to recommendations. Pre- and postoperative enteral feeding is preferred. In patients without obvious undernutrition, postoperative nutritional support has to be initiated if patients cannot maintain oral intake above 60% of recommended intake for more than 7 days, and it has to be programmed if it is anticipated that the patient will be unable to eat for more than 7 days. Preoperative and postoperative nutritional support has to be offer in malnourished patients (grades 3 and 4). PMID:26315578

  20. Eosinophilic enteritis: a rare cause of diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Lladó, Ana; Oliveira, João; Silva, Pedro; Pinheiro, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a healthy young man presenting with 1-week history of diarrhoea, acute abdominal pain and weight loss. Laboratory investigation showed very high peripheral eosinophils levels. After exclusion of the other causes of eosinophilia, a histological bowel sample analysis revealed marked eosinophilic infiltration of a small bowel mucosal layer which confirmed the suspicion of eosinophilic enteritis. Unlike most of the described cases, this patient did not require any specific treatment. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare and heterogeneous disease that is probably underdiagnosed in clinical practice because it requires a high degree of suspicion and an endoscopic biopsy for definite diagnosis. PMID:24081600

  1. Gibson, Solovyev, Budarin and Precourt enter Astrovan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-71 Mission Commander Robert L. 'Hoot' Gibson; Mir 19 Mission Commander Anatoly Y. Solovyev and Flight Engineer Nikolai M. Budarin; and STS-71 Pilot Charles J. Precourt get ready to enter the Astrovan parked outside the Operations and Checkout Building. The seven-member STS-71 crew is headed for the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A, destined for an historic rendezvous and docking with the Russian Space Station Mir. Atlantis is scheduled to lift off during a 10-minute window opening at 4:43:02 p.m. EDT on 6/24/95.

  2. Nonculture diagnostic tests for enteric diseases.

    PubMed

    Jones, Timothy F; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has traditionally been based on culture results of feces from patients with diarrhea. Virtually everything we know about disease and the epidemiology of enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), e.g., O157, and Campylobacter spp., has been generated from the study of patients with culture-confirmed infections. However, this pattern may be changing because AGE diagnostics are moving away from culture toward rapid nonculture methods. These infections are mainly foodborne and therefore preventable, and it is of paramount importance that public health surveillance for these infections is consistent and reliable. PMID:22377326

  3. Generalized entering coefficients: A criterion for foam stability against oil in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, V.; Fagan, M.E.; Radke, C.J. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1993-07-01

    The unique mobility-control properties of foam in porous media make it an attractive choice as an injection fluid for enhanced oil recovery. To explain the stability of foam in porous media in the presence of oil, we generalize the ideas of spreading and entering behavior using Frumkin-Deryaguin wetting theory. This formulation overcomes the inherent deficiencies in the classical spreading and entering coefficients used to explain foam stability against oil. We find that oil-tolerant foam can be produced by making the oil surface water wet. To test our theoretical ideas, we measure foam-flow resistance through 45--70 [mu]m glass beadpacks, surface and interfacial tensions, and disjoining pressure isotherms for foam and pseudoemulsion films for a variety of surfactant/oil systems. Most notably, we measure pseudoemulsion film disjoining pressure isotherms for the first time and directly establish that pseudoemulsion film stability controls the stability of the foam in the systems we tested. Moreover, we demonstrate the correspondence between stable pseudoemulsion films, negative entering behavior, and oil-tolerant foams. 48 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Generalized entering coefficients: A criterion for foam stability against oil in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, V.; Fagan, M.E.; Radke, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    The unique mobility-control properties of foam in porous media make it an attractive choice as an injection fluid for enhanced oil recovery. Unfortunately, in many cases oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important to understand how oil destabilizes foam and what surfactant properties lead to increased stability against oil. To explain the stability of foam in porous media in the presence of oil, we generalize the ideas of spreading and entering behavior using Frumkin-Deryaguin wetting theory. This formulation overcomes the inherent deficiencies in the classical spreading and entering coefficients used to explain foam stability against oil. We find that oil-tolerant foam can be produced by making the oil surface ``water wet``. To test our theoretical ideas, we measure foam-flow resistance through 45--70 {mu}m glass beadpacks, surface and interfacial tensions, and disjoining pressure isotherms for foam and pseudoemulsion films for a variety of surfactant/oil systems. Most notably, we measure pseudoemulsion-film disjoining pressure isotherms for the first time and directly establish that pseudoemulsion film stability controls the stability of the foam in the systems we tested. Moreover, we demonstrate the correspondence between stable pseudoemulsion films, negative entering behavior, and oil-tolerant foams.

  5. Effect of lactoferrin on enteric pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Theresa J.; Cleary, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    Much has been learned in recent years about the mechanisms by which breastfeeding improves child health and survival. However, there has been little progress in using these insights to improve pediatric care. Factors that are important for protecting the breast fed infant might be expected to decrease the adverse effects of weaning on diarrhea, growth, and development. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein with multiple physiological functions (anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory), is one of the most important proteins present in mammalian milk. Protection against gastroenteritis is the most likely biologically relevant activity of lactoferrin. Multiple in vitro and animal studies have shown a protective effect of lactoferrin on infections with enteric microorganisms, including rotavirus, Giardia, Shigella, Salmonella and the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Lactoferrin has two major effects on enteric pathogens: it inhibits growth and it impairs function of surface expressed virulence factors thereby decreasing their ability to adhere or to invade mammalian cells. Thus, lactoferrin may protect infants from gastrointestinal infection by preventing the attachment by enteropathogens in the gut. Recently several clinical trials in children have started to address this issue. Whether lactoferrin can prevent a significant portion of diarrheal disease remains to be determined. PMID:18472012

  6. The management of patients with enteric hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Asplin, John R

    2016-02-01

    Enteric hyperoxaluria is a common occurrence in the setting of fat malabsorption, usually due to intestinal resection or intestinal bypass surgery. Enhanced intestinal absorption of dietary oxalate leads to elevated renal oxalate excretion, frequently in excess of 100 mg/d (1.14 mmol/d). Patients are at increased risk of urolithiasis and loss of kidney function from oxalate nephropathy. Fat malabsorption causes increased binding of diet calcium by free fatty acids, reducing the calcium available to precipitate diet oxalate. Delivery of unabsorbed bile salts and fatty acids to the colon increases colonic permeability, the site of oxalate hyper-absorption in enteric hyperoxaluria. The combination of soluble oxalate in the intestinal lumen and increased permeability of the colonic mucosa leads to hyperoxaluria. Dietary therapy consists of limiting oxalate and fat intake. The primary medical intervention is the use of oral oxalate binding agents such as calcium salts to reduce free intestinal oxalate levels. Bile acid sequestrants can be useful in patients with ileal resection and bile acid malabsorption. Oxalate degrading bacteria provided as probiotics are being investigated but as of yet, no definite benefit has been shown with currently available preparations. The current state of medical therapy and potential future directions will be summarized in this article. PMID:26645872

  7. Infectious bursal disease and hemorrhagic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Saif, Y M

    1998-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) of chickens and hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) of turkeys are caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), respectively. Both diseases have common features, including an acute stage followed by immunosuppression, resulting in lowered resistance to a variety of infectious agents and poor response to commonly used vaccines. The IBDV and HEV infections are widespread in commercial chicken and turkey flocks, respectively. The acute stage of the disease, the immunosuppression that follows, and the widespread distribution of both diseases, are major factors contributing to the economic significance of both diseases. The mechanism of immunosuppression for both infections has similarities, both affect lymphocytes and macrophages, and both are lymphocidal. In this report, an overview of both diseases with emphasis on some of the recent findings will be presented. There has been greater research activity on IBD than on HE, reflecting the relative economic importance of the species affected and the recent changes in the antigenic make up and pathogenicity of the IBDV. PMID:9706087

  8. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Samuel P.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support. Recent Advances: Further evidence is demonstrating long-term benefits from pharmacologic immunomodulation given the prolonged metabolic response to injury that may last for over a year following the initial insult. Critical Issues: The majority of evidence regarding early enteral feeding comes from mixed populations and smaller studies. However, on balance, available evidence favors early feeding. Data regarding immunonutrition does not support the routine use of these products. Limited data regarding use of antioxidants and trace elements support their use. Future Directions: Further evaluation of anti-inflammatory mediators of the immune response, such as statins, will likely play a role in the future. Further data are needed on the dosing and route of micronutrients as well as the utility of immunonutrition. Finally, little is known about nutrition in the obese burn patient making this an important area for investigation. PMID:24761346

  9. Histopathology of hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, H; Tanaami, S; Yamaguchi, M; Yoshino, T

    1975-01-01

    In the summer of 1972, a disease of turkeys manifesting hemorrhagic diarrhea as a main clinical symptom and hemorrhagic enteritis as a necropsy finding broke out on a turkey farm in Japan. Seven-week-old Large White turkeys suffering from this disease were studied histopathologically and electron microscopically. Clinically, affected birds showed bloody diarrhea. Death occurred to them after an acute course. In the blood film, immature monocytes were higher in count in them than in healthy birds. Necropsy revealed a number of dark red bloody clots in the intestinal tract, many petechiae in the mucous membrane of small intestine and ceca, and atrophy of the spleen. The histopathological changes characteristic of this disease were acute hemorrhagic enteritis, degenerative changes of lymphatic tissue, proliferation of reticuloendothelial cells all over the body, and formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies in these cells. By electron microscopy, viral particles showing a crystalline array were found in the nuclei of reticuloendothelial cells. Viral particles which had electron-dense nucleoids and a naked hexagonal shape were about 80 nm in average diameter. The ultrastructural features of those inclusion bodies were identical with those of avian adenovirus. PMID:170543

  10. Attachment of Enteric Viruses to Bottles?

    PubMed Central

    Butot, S.; Putallaz, T.; Croquet, C.; Lamothe, G.; Meyer, R.; Joosten, H.; Sánchez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Storage of water that was deliberately contaminated with enteric viruses in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles led to a rapid decrease of the apparent viral load, thereby hampering the development of samples for a collaborative evaluation of viral detection methods for bottled water. To determine if this decrease was due to spontaneous inactivation or to adhesion, an elution protocol was developed and combined with a rapid and sensitive real-time reverse transcription-PCR-based method to quantify adsorbed norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and rotavirus (RV) on bottle walls. The NV retention on PET bottle walls after 20 and 62 days reached an average level of 85% and 95% of the recovered inoculum, respectively. HAV and RV also showed adsorption onto PET bottles, reaching 90% and 80%, respectively, after 20 days of storage. NV and RV attachment was demonstrated to be dependent on the presence of autochthonous flora, whereas HAV adsorption was independent of it. Application of the elution and viral detection protocol to 294 commercially available water bottles obtained from 25 different countries did not give any positive result, thereby providing further evidence that the sources used for this product are free from enteric viruses and support for the theory that bottled water is not a vehicle for viral diseases. PMID:17586668

  11. Early Enteral Nutrition for Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Samuel P; Gibran, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition has been recognized as a critical component of acute burn care and ultimate wound healing. Debate remains over the appropriate timing of enteral nutrition and the benefit of supplemental trace elements, antioxidants, and immunonutrition for critically ill burn patients. Pharmacotherapy to blunt the metabolic response to burn injury plays a critical role in effective nutritional support. Recent Advances: Further evidence is demonstrating long-term benefits from pharmacologic immunomodulation given the prolonged metabolic response to injury that may last for over a year following the initial insult. Critical Issues: The majority of evidence regarding early enteral feeding comes from mixed populations and smaller studies. However, on balance, available evidence favors early feeding. Data regarding immunonutrition does not support the routine use of these products. Limited data regarding use of antioxidants and trace elements support their use. Future Directions: Further evaluation of anti-inflammatory mediators of the immune response, such as statins, will likely play a role in the future. Further data are needed on the dosing and route of micronutrients as well as the utility of immunonutrition. Finally, little is known about nutrition in the obese burn patient making this an important area for investigation. PMID:24761346

  12. [Drug administration through enteral feeding catheters].

    PubMed

    Goñi Viguria, R; Sánchez Sanz, L; Asiain Erro, M; Baztán Indave, A

    2001-01-01

    Because of easiness and accessibility, the oral route of administration is usually the route of choice for medication delivery, as long as the oral drug form is available and the patients' circumstances allow it.In patients admitted to the intensive care unit this route is frequently altered. This provokes difficulties in swallowing and consequently an enteral feeding catheter must be inserted to supply the patient's nutritional requirements. This catheter is also used for the drug administration, which necessitates opening capsules or crushing pills before dilution. When added to drug-nutrient interactions, this process alters the drug's properties and modifies its pharmacokinetic profile, its pharmacological effect and the intensity of side effects. It can also provoke catheter obstruction. The aim of this study was to establish guidelines for drug administration through enteral feeding catheters. We provide a thorough review of the literature, describe oral drug forms, present a protocol for correct drug administration and provide a guide to the most commonly used drugs in our unit. For each of these drugs we include recommendations on administration and possible alternatives. PMID:11459545

  13. Campylobacter enteritis in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Senok, Abiola C; Botta, Giuseppe A

    2009-01-01

    Diarrhoea illnesses constitute a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, Campylobacter spp. has been recognized as the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in both developed and developing countries. The biology of Campylobacters as well as the mechanism by which they cause disease is yet to be fully explained. In addition, non-availability of fast and reliable diagnostic methodology and the growing trend of antibiotic resistance continue to pose significant challenges. The absence of national surveillance programs for campylobacteriosis, particularly in developing countries, makes it difficult to give an accurate picture of the true infection prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of isolates circulating in the populations, a situation which had hitherto existed in the Arabian Gulf region. However, in recent years, emerging data from studies in the Arabian Gulf region has not only enhanced our understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter both in humans and poultry in the region, but has also contributed to the overall understanding of the mechanism of Campylobacter enteritis, antibiotic resistance, and improved diagnostic approaches. In this review, we examine these emerging data from the Arabian Gulf region. PMID:19755734

  14. Risk factors for a first-time drink-driving conviction among young men: a birth cohort study of all men born in Denmark in 1966.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian

    2008-06-01

    Using a complete birth cohort of all young men born in 1966 in Denmark (N = 43,403), the prevalence of a first-time drink-driving conviction among young men is estimated. More than 7% of the total male birth cohort was so convicted before the age of 27 years. In an examination of risk factors for a first-time drink-driving conviction, young adults coming from potentially vulnerable groups have an increased risk. Earlier criminal convictions of various types were also significant predictors of drink driving. Situational pressures also play a part and are controlled for, with the risk of a drink-driving conviction increased substantially in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas. The study concludes that disadvantages during adolescence, including parental substance abuse, having a teenage mother, and domestic violence, are associated with a first-time drink-driving conviction. PMID:18329224

  15. HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours among MSM repeat and first-time testers in China: implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue; Xu, Jie; Yang, Jie; Yang, Bo; Yu, Maohe; Gao, Yongjun; Dong, Willa M; Wu, Zunyou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about HIV testing, HIV infection and sexual behaviour among bathhouse patrons in China. This study aims to assess differences in HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending bathhouse in Tianjin, China. Methods Between March 2011 and September 2012, a HIV voluntary counselling and testing station was established in a gay bathhouse, which provided HIV testing and conducted a survey among participants recruited through snowball sampling. Differences in demographic and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers were assessed using the chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors for HIV infection. Results Of the 1642 respondents, 699 (42.6%) were repeat testers and 943 (57.4%) were first-time testers. Among repeat testers, a higher proportion were men aged 18 to 25, single, better educated, had a history of STIs and worked as male sex workers or “money boys” (MBs). Repeat testers were less likely to report having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months. The overall HIV prevalence was 12.4% (203/1642). There was no difference in HIV prevalence between repeat (11.2%, 78/699) and first-time (13.3%, 125/943) testers. The HIV prevalence increased with age among first-time testers (?trend2=9.816, p=0.002). First-time MB testers had the highest HIV prevalence of 34.5%. Conclusions MSM attending bathhouse had an alarmingly high HIV infection rate, particularly in MB. Targeted interventions are urgently needed especially focusing on older MSM and MBs. PMID:24993457

  16. INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

  17. Sustaining Retention of Nontraditional Students in the Geosciences in 2YC; Practices and Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, J. I.; Doser, D. I.

    2012-12-01

    As the role of 2YC (two-year colleges/community colleges) changes in the academic pipeline of higher education new practices and ideas to engage and retain students in the geosciences at the 2YC level need to be explored. 2YC typically have a student body composed of non-traditional students ranging from second career students, single parents, students with disabilities, seniors, and minorities. Currently, 2YCs serve 44% of all undergraduate students and 45% of all of all first time freshmen in the US. These statistics show the potential community colleges hold to encourage entering students to the STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math) fields as a possible career choice. But the reality is the number of STEM degrees awarded at community colleges has not followed the same trends in student enrollment. Over the past four years El Paso Community College (EPCC) in conjunction with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has implemented several initiatives in our effort to increase the number of Geological Science majors at EPCC and to ensure a successful transition to UTEP. These efforts are aimed to decrease attrition rates of science majors by; articulating degree plans between institutions, introduce field-based research projects to allow hands on experience for students, develop a working relationship between students and university faculty, diversify geology courses offered at EPCC, and strengthening the educational-bridge between the geological science departments of EPCC and UTEP through the aid of federally funded programs. The success of the these efforts have been seen by; the increase in geology majors in our A.S. degree program, the number of degrees conferred at EPCC, the successful transition of students to UTEP, and graduation of students from UTEP with advanced degrees.

  18. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  19. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  20. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  1. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  2. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... prior to challenge. If unfavorable reactions attributable to the vaccine occur, the serial...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  4. 30 CFR 1228.100 - Entering into an agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entering into an agreement. 1228.100 Section 1228.100 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL... Entering into an agreement. (a) A State or Indian tribe may request the Department to enter into...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health...

  6. 30 CFR 1228.100 - Entering into an agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entering into an agreement. 1228.100 Section 1228.100 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL... Entering into an agreement. (a) A State or Indian tribe may request the Department to enter into...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  11. 30 CFR 228.100 - Entering into an agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering into an agreement. 228.100 Section 228... MANAGEMENT COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES WITH STATES AND INDIAN TRIBES Oil and Gas, Onshore § 228.100 Entering into an agreement. (a) A State or Indian tribe may request the Department to enter into a...

  12. 30 CFR 1228.100 - Entering into an agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entering into an agreement. 1228.100 Section..., Onshore § 1228.100 Entering into an agreement. (a) A State or Indian tribe may request the Department to enter into a cooperative agreement by sending a letter from the governor, tribal chairman, or...

  13. 30 CFR 1228.100 - Entering into an agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entering into an agreement. 1228.100 Section 1228.100 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL... Entering into an agreement. (a) A State or Indian tribe may request the Department to enter into...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  3. HI STAR Student Astronomy Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadooka, M. M.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2010-04-01

    HI STAR program promotes pre-college students conducting authentic research. Projects entered in science fairs will be highlighted. Does research experience influence students to select STEM college majors?

  4. Enteral nutrition in pancreaticoduodenectomy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Salvatore; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo D; Spinelli, Gabriele; Ficarella, Silvia; Lo Monte, Giulia; Marrazzo, Antonio; Lo Monte, Attilio I

    2015-05-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%-40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN) and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE), postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH), length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. PMID:25942488

  5. New vaccines against bacterial enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, A M

    1990-01-01

    During the last 10 years, rapid progress in basic research and biotechnology related to enteric infection has now begun to have a substantial impact on vaccine development against these infections. Two new typhoid vaccines, one for oral administration and the other for injection, which have much fewer and milder side effects than previous whole-cell parenteral vaccines, have become available. An oral cholera vaccine has been developed which, without any adverse reactions at all, confers long-lasting protection against cholera. The new cholera vaccine also, through antitoxic immunologic cross-reactivity, protects significantly against diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Notable progress has also been made towards the development of an oral killed vaccine against ETEC diarrhoea as well as live attenuated vaccines against rotaviruses, cholera and shigellosis. PMID:2287897

  6. Two enteric coated microspheres in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J; MacDonald, A; Weller, P H; Fields, J; Pandov, H

    1990-01-01

    In a randomised single blind crossover study in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency, two enteric coated microsphere preparations of pancreatin were compared on a capsule for capsule basis, by measuring the coefficient of fat absorption, nitrogen excretion, weight change, and symptom scores after four weeks' treatment with each preparation. Thirty nine subjects were randomly allocated to receive Pancrease followed by Creon or vice versa. Each individual subject received the same number of capsules per day in each study period. Data from 27 children (Pancrease/Creon, n = 13 and Creon/Pancrease, n = 14) wer suitable for analysis. Results showed no significant differences between the two preparations in any variable studied. We conclude that there is no significant difference between Pancrease and Creon when compared on a capsule for capsule basis. PMID:2198848

  7. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  8. Needs assessment of enteral nutrition support products.

    PubMed

    Josephson, R V; Rupp, J W; Chambers, J F

    1985-11-01

    An opinion survey of San Diego hospital health care professionals who use enteral nutrition products for patient care identified cost as an important factor but indicated that quality control, special nutrition features, and wide application of use were even more important product characteristics considered prior to purchase. There was general agreement that customer service, along with volume discounts, was a crucial aspect of successful marketing. The need for local availability of products was also stressed repeatedly. The importance of high-cost product promotions by vendors was downplayed. Health professionals want more nutrition products with specialized compositional profiles (e.g., low or high protein, low sodium, and gluten- and lactose-free), improved flavor, and convenient single-serving packaging. PMID:3932503

  9. Lymphocytic enteritis and systemic vasculitis in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Rae, C A

    1994-01-01

    Lymphocytic enteritis and systemic lymphocytic vasculitis may be a new or previously unrecognized syndrome in sheep suffering from chronic wasting. Seven cases in three separate flocks were seen over an eight-year period at Veterinary Laboratory Services in Brighton, Ontario. Most of the animals were between five and twelve months of age and exhibited weight loss and inappetance, with or without diarrhea. All were Suffolks or crossbred Suffolks. In one of the flocks, there were also several sheep with lymphoma. Postmortem examination of carcasses and ancillary testing did not reveal an etiology; however, the intestinal and vascular lesions resembled those described in certain viral diseases, such as malignant catarrhal fever and Border disease, and immune-mediated diseases, such as polyarteritis nodosa. Submission for necropsy of sheep that exhibit signs of chronic wasting is encouraged, to help establish the etiology of the disease and its significance to the industry. Images Figure 1. PMID:7994703

  10. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Salvatore; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo D.; Spinelli, Gabriele; Ficarella, Silvia; Lo Monte, Giulia; Marrazzo, Antonio; Lo Monte, Attilio I.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN) and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE), postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF), postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH), length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. PMID:25942488

  11. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  12. Pourquoi Entrer a l'Universite? L'exemple d'une Universtie de Lettres et Sciences Humaines. (Why Enter a University? An Example from a Liberal Arts College.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canals, Valerie; Diebolt, Claude

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that the high dropout rate among first-year students in French universities is due in part to economic factors, which push some students into attending school when work is scarce. Differentiates between those who enter school to invest in the future and those who enter by default. (Contains 71 references.) (NB)

  13. Mechanosensitivity in the enteric nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) autonomously controls gut muscle activity. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) initiate reflex activity by responding to mechanical deformation of the gastrointestinal wall. MEN throughout the gut primarily respond to compression or stretch rather than to shear force. Some MEN are multimodal as they respond to compression and stretch. Depending on the region up to 60% of the entire ENS population responds to mechanical stress. MEN fire action potentials after mechanical stimulation of processes or soma although they are more sensitive to process deformation. There are at least two populations of MEN based on their sensitivity to different modalities of mechanical stress and on their firing pattern. (1) Rapidly, slowly and ultra-slowly adapting neurons which encode compressive forces. (2) Ultra-slowly adapting stretch-sensitive neurons encoding tensile forces. Rapid adaptation of firing is typically observed after compressive force while slow adaptation or ongoing spike discharge occurs often during tensile stress (stretch). All MEN have some common properties: they receive synaptic input, are low fidelity mechanoreceptors and are multifunctional in that some serve interneuronal others even motor functions. Consequently, MEN possess processes with mechanosensitive as well as efferent functions. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that MEN sense and control muscle activity at the same time as servo-feedback loop. The mechanosensitive channel(s) or receptor(s) expressed by the different MEN populations are unknown. Future concepts have to incorporate compressive and tensile-sensitive MEN into neural circuits that controls muscle activity. They may interact to control various forms of a particular motor pattern or regulate different motor patterns independently from each other. PMID:26528136

  14. Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites.

    PubMed

    Abad, F X; Pintó, R M; Bosch, A

    1994-10-01

    The survival of human enteric viruses on several porous (paper and cotton cloth) and nonporous (aluminum, china, glazed tile, latex, and polystyrene) environmental surfaces has been evaluated. Viruses persisted for extended periods on several types of materials commonly found in institutions and domestic environments. The stability of the viruses was generally influenced by environmental factors such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and the type of surface contaminated. Overall, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human rotavirus (HRV) were more resistant to inactivation than enteric adenovirus (ADV) and poliovirus (PV). The resistance to the desiccation step appears to be of major significance in determining the survival of a virus dried on fomites. ADV and PV showed a pronounced decrease in titer at this stage, whereas HAV and HRV displayed little decay at the desiccation step. HAV and HRV persistence was not affected by the presence of fecal material. On nonporous surfaces, PV and ADV persisted better in the presence of feces. However, on porous fomites the presence of fecal material had a negative influence on the survival of PV and ADV. Except for HRV, greater virus survival was observed at 4 degrees than at 20 degrees C. PV and HAV survival was enhanced at high RH; the survival of the latter was enhanced at least for nonporous materials. When dried on porous materials, HRV also exhibited greater persistence at high RH. The survival of ADV was not affected by RH. The validity of using bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis as indicators of human viruses dried on fomites was evaluated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7986043

  15. Surviving the First Time Through: A New Instructor's Views on Designing and Teaching Economic Geography and How Mentoring Early-Career Faculty Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocoy, Christine L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the reflections of a new instructor of economic geography in the USA. The author offers practical advice for designing and delivering a course for the first time. Suggestions are given in support of the view that sharing knowledge of effective teaching practices is an important component of mentoring early-career faculty. By…

  16. The influence of diet on necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Riddell, C; Kong, X M

    1992-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis was reproduced in broiler chickens by mixing cultures of Clostridium perfringens in the feed. Mortality due to necrotic enteritis was higher among chickens fed rations based on wheat, rye, barley, and oat groats than among chickens fed corn-based rations. Addition of pentosanase to a wheat-based diet did not affect the level of mortality due to necrotic enteritis. Addition of pectin and guar gum to different rations severely reduced growth rate and eliminated necrotic enteritis from test birds. Addition of glucose to a corn-based diet caused a small increase in mortality due to necrotic enteritis. PMID:1417581

  17. U.S. Student Wins Gold at Chemistry Olympiad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports results from the International Chemistry Olympiad where a student from the United States won a gold medal for the first time. The Olympiad seeks to identify the best high school chemistry students in the world. (JM)

  18. Men Who Enter Nursing: A Sociological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auster, Donald; Auster, Nancy R.

    Little is known about the relationship between the choice of a sex discrepant occupation and the selection of a nursing career, attitudes toward training, and professional socialization. The research design included a cross-sectional attitude survey of both beginning and advanced nursing school students. Data were obtained from a…

  19. STEM Professionals Entering Teaching: Navigating Multiple Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Jeanne M.; Johnston, Carol C.

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we identify the complexity of the transitioning identities of four STEM career changers to better inform teacher education programs on how to be more mindful of the needs of this population as they return to the life of a student again on their path toward a new career in teaching. Findings suggest the career changers…

  20. Enter Here: Personal Narrative and Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajder, Sara B.

    2004-01-01

    A step-by-step plan for creating a digital story grounded in sound theory and research about how adolescents expand their literacy is presented. Students were found to be selective about effects while putting the story first, choosing those that drove the story farther as opposed to those that mimicked what might be seen in films or television.

  1. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which animals are managed vary greatly by country, CH4 emissions reduction strategies must be tailored to country-specific circumstances. Strategies that are cost effective, improve productivity, and have limited potential negative effects on livestock production hold a greater chance of being adopted by producers. It is also important to evaluate CH4 mitigation strategies in terms of the total GHG budget and to consider the economics of various strategies. Although reductions in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises.

  2. Comparison of the Contraceptive Use and Its Related Factors Among Women Seeking Repeat and First-Time Induced Abortions in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bayrami, Roghieh; Javadnoori, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abortion in Iran, like other Islamic countries is severely restricted except in a few exceptions. However, some women who have an unwanted or mistimed pregnancy are seeking abortion. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the contraceptive use and its related factors among repeat and first- time induced abortion seekers in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 417 married women (age range, 15-49 years) seeking abortion services at either a hospital or private office in Maku City, the northwest of Iran, were selected through convenience sampling between December 2010 and March 2011. All the subjects were asked about the contraceptive methods used during the three months before the current pregnancy and the use of any emergency contraception and forced sex. Women who mentioned reasons except than completing family size for their applying for abortion were excluded from the analysis. Characteristics of women were examined using chi-square and t test. T test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare contraceptive methods and the regularity of contraceptive use between repeat and first-time abortion seekers, respectively. Results: About 33.8% of the repeat abortion-seekers and 76.8% of first-time abortion seekers were using male methods (withdrawal and condom). Utilization of an intrauterine device for birth control was higher among women seeking repeat abortion than in first-time abortion seekers (P = 0.003). All of 31 pill users in the repeat abortion-seeking group missed three or more pills per month for three times during the three months before contraception. The repeat abortion seekers had used condom more regularly than those in the first-time abortion seekers. Forced sex was more prevalent in the abortion seekers who had used male method. Conclusions: Using male methods are prevalent in abortion-seeker women. An increased focus is needed on training the regular use of pills and using the emergency contraception for all of the couples who are first-time abortion-seekers. Moreover, information about the role of forced sex might be efficacious in decreasing illegally induced repeat abortion in couples who use condom or withdrawal methods. PMID:25830153

  3. Enteric Bacteria and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria can contribute to cell proliferation and cancer development, particularly in chronic infectious diseases in which bacteria and/or bacterial components might interfere with cell function. The number of microbial cells within the gut lumen is estimated to be 100 trillion, which is about 10-times larger than the number of eukaryotic cells in the human body. Because of the complexity of the gut flora, identifying the specific microbial agents related to human diseases remains challenging. Recent studies have demonstrated that the stemness of colon cancer cells is, in part, orchestrated by the microenvironment and is defined by high Wnt activity. In this review article, we will discuss recent progress with respect to intestinal stem cells, cancer stem cells, and the molecular mechanisms of enteric bacteria in the activation of the Wnt pathway. We will also discuss the roles of other pathways, including JAK-STAT, JNK, and Notch, in regulating stem cell niches during bacterial infections using Drosophila models. Insights gained from understanding how host-bacterial interaction during inflammation and cancer may serve as a paradigm for understanding the nature of self-renewal signals. PMID:21297903

  4. Tracheopleuropulmonary injuries following enteral tube insertion.

    PubMed Central

    Odocha, O.; Lowery, R. C.; Mezghebe, H. M.; Siram, S. M.; Warner, O. G.

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-three cases of tracheopleuropulmonary injuries complicating enteral tube feeding are analyzed to identify the patterns of injury, and precipitating factors and ways to avoid them. Six new cases observed by the authors and 77 other cases cited in British literature between 1976 and 1987 are presented. In recent years, reports of this complication have been increasing, apparently in a geometrical progression: 8%, 18%, and 74% were reported between 1976 to 1979, 1980 to 1983, and 1984 to 1987, respectively. Sixty-one percent occurred in patients aged 60 years or older. Most of the patients (84%) were seriously ill, which compounded their complications. Seventy-four percent of all injuries were committed by house staff; the narrow bore tube with guide wire was used in 77% of cases. Less than reliable methods were used to confirm tube position in most instances. The presence of cuffed endotracheal tubes did not offer protection. The patients on mechanical ventilation tended to deteriorate if they developed a pneumothorax once the malpositioned tubes were removed. Of the cases reviewed for this report, 18 deaths occurred; 72% being directly related to the tube injuries. Lack of awareness, inadequate confirmatory methods, and insufficient supervision accounted for most of these preventable complications. Educating house/nursing staff in the use of the new tubes, closer supervision, and the application of equal measures of care and caution as employed in other invasive and potentially dangerous procedures are recommended to avoid disastrous outcome. PMID:2496234

  5. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C.

    1999-10-01

    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

  6. Enteric fever in Scotland, 1967-1974.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, J. C.; Heymann, C. S.

    1976-01-01

    A review of 194 cases of enteric infection in Scotland during 1967-74, is reported. Diagnosis was confirmed by the laboratory isolation of Salmonella typhi (64 cases), S. paratyphi A (3) and S. paratyphi B (127), from blood or faeces; 174 persons were clinically ill and 20 were symptomless infections. Most patients (81-0%) were under 35 years of age, with the highest incidence occurring among young adults of 15-24 years, many of whom had been travelling overseas. One-third of all cases (65) were imported infections; the remaining 129 patients had not been outside the United Kingdom. A significantly greater proportion of typhoid infection (54-7%) was contracted overseas, in contrast to paratyphoid B with only one-fifth of cases (21-2%) being imported; all three cases of paratyphoid A were imported. The geographic distribution of origin of imported infections is discussed, along with the frequency of organisms belonging to different phage types. Two deaths occurred, one of which was the result of complications of paratyphoid fever. All other patients responded well to treatment, although two persons continued to excrete and became chronic carriers. A few examples are given of episodes of particular epidemiological interest. It is expected that in future years there will be a continued increase in the proportion of imported infections as more persons travel overseas, concurrent with the continuing decline in the number of chronic carriers resident in the British Isles. PMID:812902

  7. Married men's first time experiences of early childbearing and their role in sexual and reproductive decision making: a qualitative study from rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Berggren, Vanja; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Bijay, Bharati; Johansson, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Male partners' involvement in women's sexual and reproductive health has been increasingly emphasised in international health. A qualitative approach with open-ended qualitative interviews was used to explore young, married men's first time experiences of early childbearing, their sexual and reproductive decision making and the meanings they make of their role as husbands and fathers. The results offer a nuanced picture of the men's vulnerability in becoming young fathers and having to assume their role as family decision-makers, while still being inexperienced in matters related to the health of their wives and newborn child. Constraints to gender equality and traditional norms and values continue to pose barriers to both young men and women making independent decisions in relation to marriage and childbearing. Men's involvement is necessary in healthcare programmes designed to improve women's sexual and reproductive health and the health of the newborn. Young, first-time fathers, in particular, need support and empowerment. PMID:22413843

  8. Demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elders using home enteral nutritional therapy in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salomon Zaban, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    According to statistical projections of the World Health Organization, during the period between 1950 and 2025, the group of elderly in Brazil will have increased 15 times. Chronic-degenerative diseases are the illnesses that most affect the elderly population, directly related to the growing demand for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elderly patients assisted at the public hospitals in the Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy Program, of the State Health Department of Distrito Federal. This is a retroprospective, cross-sectional and analytical study, based on primary data, which enrolled 141 elderly patients who were prescribed home enteral nutrition. The collected variables corresponded to age, gender, clinical diagnosis, enteral route and nutritional status at the beginning of Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The association between variables was analyzed through the t-Student and chi-square tests, with a significance level of 0.05 and a Confidence Interval (CI) of 95%. There was a higher number of female patients (53.9%) when compared to male (46.1%), average age 75.82 years old for both groups. The most prevalent diseases were cerebro-vascular accident sequels and cancer (42.6% and 22.7% respectively). It was observed a prevalence of malnutrition equal to 69.7%, independent of age and gender. The most used enteral route was the nasal. Though Brazilian policies concerning assistance to the elderly have advanced during the last few years, the need for public policies for nutritional recovery of such patients persists, to promote a better quality of life for them. PMID:19961057

  9. Enteral access for nutritional support: rationale for utilization.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A; Marsano, Luis S; Lukan, James K

    2002-09-01

    Acquisition of enteral access and provision of a sufficient volume of enteral nutrients early in the hospital course of a critically ill patient afford an opportunity to improve the outcome of that patient through the progression of his or her disease process. Failure to use the enteral route of feeding not only squanders this opportunity, but may, in addition, promote a pro-inflammatory state, which exacerbates disease severity and worsens morbidity. Enteral feeding provides a conduit for the delivery of immune stimulants and serves as effective prophylaxis against stress-induced gastropathy and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Tube placement beyond the stomach into the small bowel in hypermetabolic, severely ill patients prone to ileus and disordered gut motility aids delivery of enteral nutrients while reducing risk of aspiration. Endoscopic skills and expertise in gastrointestinal physiology are vital to the success of a nutrition support service and the provision of enteral tube feeding. PMID:12192194

  10. Emerging roles for enteric glia in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Enteric glia are important components of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and also form an extensive network in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Initially regarded as passive support cells, it is now clear that they are actively involved as cellular integrators in the control of motility and epithelial barrier function. Enteric glia form a cellular and molecular bridge between enteric nerves, enteroendocrine cells, immune cells, and epithelial cells, depending on their location. This Review highlights the role of enteric glia in GI motility disorders and in barrier and defense functions of the gut, notably in states of inflammation. It also discusses the involvement of enteric glia in neurological diseases that involve the GI tract. PMID:25689252

  11. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission autosomique récessive. La forme typique associe 5 signes cliniques: une diarrhée grave rebelle nécessitant dans la majorité des cas une nutrition parentérale du fait de la malnutrition, une dysmorphie avec un front large et bombé, une racine du nez large et un hypertélorisme, des anomalies des cheveux qui sont fragiles, cassants, incoiffables et qualifiés de « laineux », un retard de croissance intra utérine et des anomalies de l’immunité à type de déficit en immunoglobuline ou d’absence de réponse aux antigènes vaccinaux. Des anomalies de deux protéines peuvent être à l’origine du syndrome SD/THE: TTC37, une protéine à motif TPR et SKIV2L, une hélicase à ARN, toutes 2 étant des constituants du complexe SKI humain. Le complexe SKI est un co-facteur de l’exosome cytoplasmique qui assure la dégradation des ARN aberrants ou exogènes. Le diagnostic est d’abord clinique puis confirmé par le séquençage des gènes TTC37 et SKIV2L. Le diagnostic différentiel avec les autres formes de diarrhées intraitables est fait grâce aux analyses anatomopathologiques qui montrent dans les autres formes, des lésions spécifiques. La prise en charge clinique repose sur la nutrition parentérale et la supplémentation en immunoglobuline si nécessaire. Un certain nombre d’enfants peuvent être sevrés de la nutrition parentérale et des supplémentations en immunoglobulines. En cas d’atteinte hépatique, celle-ci peut être sévère et conduire au décès. Même avec une prise en charge optimale, les enfants présentent une petite taille et, dans la moitié des cas, un retard mental modéré. Disease name/synonyms – Syndromic diarrhea – Phenotypic diarrhea – Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome – Intractable diarrhea of infancy with facial dysmorphism &#x

  12. Helping children stop or avoid enteral feeding

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Long term enteral feeding is widely used to provides vital support for infants and children unable to feed orally, but once medically stable the transition to a normal diet can be difficult. Other children may need to commence tube feeding later in childhood because of difficulties associated with neurodisability, but recognising which children will benefit from tube feed is not straightforward. The Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill set up a multidisciplinary feeding team in 2002 to help avoid unnecessary tube feeding. We accept only children who are either artificially fed or with severe nutritional problems and only after attempted uni-disciplinary management. The team members are a clinical psychologist, paediatric dietitian and consultant paediatrician, supported by a specialist paediatric registrar, assistant psychologist and administrative support. We can see only a small proportion of all with complex feeding problems, but aim to improve the care of such children generally. We disseminate the lessons learned within the Feeding Clinic via education locally and nationally and have an active programme of research. Over the first ten years of the clinic we have seen 222 patients of whom 67% were initially either tube or oral supplement fed, while only 29% remain so at follow up. In the first three years of the clinic tube fed children had spent a median of seven years on feeds before they were successfully weaned, but since then that has fallen to a median of 2.7 years. Of 53 other children referred for possibly tube feeding, 32 (60%) remain well on a normal diet and only ten (19%) have needed to start tube feeding. The service is highly cost effective. Salary costs are only around £65,000 per year, while weaning five children per year, reducing their years on feeds by four years, saves the NHS £130,000.

  13. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Alexandre; Martinez-Vinson, Christine; Goulet, Olivier; Badens, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. PMID:23302111

  14. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability.

    PubMed

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  15. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  16. Freshman Students Survey, Westchester Community College, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcia M.

    In 1996, New York's Westchester Community College undertook a study of changes in the demographic characteristics of the college's student body, focusing on an increase in enrollment of Hispanic students in fall 1996. Data were gathered through the American College Testing Freshman Survey administered to 776 first-time students in 46 English…

  17. Student Equity Policy: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Gus

    Following the introduction of first-time student fees in the California Community Colleges (CCC) in 1984, minority student enrollments decreased markedly. A special statewide symposium was convened by the Board of Governors (BOG) of the CCC, and in 1986 a major policy statement was adopted to improve minority student access and achievement. In…

  18. Spatial Segregation of Virulence Gene Expression during Acute Enteric Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Richard C.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Barhoumi, Roula; Payne, H. Ross; Wu, Jing; Gomez, Gabriel; Pugh, Roberta; Lawhon, Sara D.; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Adams, L. Garry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To establish a replicative niche during its infectious cycle between the intestinal lumen and tissue, the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires numerous virulence genes, including genes for two type III secretion systems (T3SS) and their cognate effectors. To better understand the host-pathogen relationship, including early infection dynamics and induction kinetics of the bacterial virulence program in the context of a natural host, we monitored the subcellular localization and temporal expression of T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 using fluorescent single-cell reporters in a bovine, ligated ileal loop model of infection. We observed that the majority of bacteria at 2 h postinfection are flagellated, express T3SS-1 but not T3SS-2, and are associated with the epithelium or with extruding enterocytes. In epithelial cells, S. Typhimurium cells were surrounded by intact vacuolar membranes or present within membrane-compromised vacuoles that typically contained numerous vesicular structures. By 8 h postinfection, T3SS-2-expressing bacteria were detected in the lamina propria and in the underlying mucosa, while T3SS-1-expressing bacteria were in the lumen. Our work identifies for the first time the temporal and spatial regulation of T3SS-1 and -2 expression during an enteric infection in a natural host and provides further support for the concept of cytosolic S. Typhimurium in extruding epithelium as a mechanism for reseeding the lumen. PMID:24496791

  19. Diet and Environment Shape Fecal Bacterial Microbiota Composition and Enteric Pathogen Load of Grizzly Bears

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Northrup, Joseph M.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic clostridia in wild and captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and relates these to food resources consumed by bears. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces were obtained from animals of two wild populations and from two captive animals during an active bear season. Wild animals consumed a diverse diet composed of plant material, animal prey and insects. Captive animals were fed a regular granulated diet with a supplement of fruits and vegetables. Bacterial populations were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Fecal microbiota composition fluctuated in wild and in captive animals. The abundance of Clostridium clusters I and XI, and of C. perfringens correlated to regular diet protein intake. Enteroaggregative E. coli were consistently present in all populations. The C. sordellii phospholipase C was identified in three samples of wild animals and for the first time in Ursids. Conclusion This is the first longitudinal study monitoring the fecal microbiota of wild carnivores and comparing it to that of captive individuals of the same species. Location and diet affected fecal bacterial populations as well as the presence of enteric pathogens. PMID:22194798

  20. Entering First-Year Residents' Experiences and Knowledge of Infection Control of Hepatitis B and HIV, at Five University-Affiliated Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Angella; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 149 entering first-year medical residents concerning experiences with and knowledge of infection control investigated occurrence and patterns of accidental needle-sticking and reporting, student immunization for Hepatitis B, and instruction in universal precautions. It is concluded that students are at risk for needle-sticking, but…

  1. Entering First-Year Residents' Experiences and Knowledge of Infection Control of Hepatitis B and HIV, at Five University-Affiliated Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Angella; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 149 entering first-year medical residents concerning experiences with and knowledge of infection control investigated occurrence and patterns of accidental needle-sticking and reporting, student immunization for Hepatitis B, and instruction in universal precautions. It is concluded that students are at risk for needle-sticking, but…

  2. Necrotic enteritis in chickens: a paradigm of enteric infection by Clostridium perfringens type A.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kerry K; Songer, J Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Withdrawal of antimicrobial growth promoters and ionophore coccidiostats has been accompanied by a resurgence in incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE), a severe Clostridium perfringens-induced disease which some consider the most clinically dramatic bacterial enteric disease of poultry. Lesions, in jejunum and ileum, are focal-to-confluent, often with a tightly adhered pseudomembrane, and hemorrhage is uncommon. The key risk factor for development of NE is an intestinal environment that favors growth of the organism. Birds on high energy, protein-rich, wheat- or barley-based diets experience NE at a rate up to ten times greater than do birds on maize-based diets. Specific strains of type A cause NE, although only a few specific virulence attributes are known. The role of alpha toxin (CPA) has been called into question by the finding that an engineered CPA mutant retained full virulence in vivo, although the counterpoint to this is the finding that immunization with CPA toxoids provides substantial protection against NE. A recently described toxin, NetB, seems likely to be involved in pathogenesis of infection by most NE strains. Immunization with CPA, NetB, or other proteins, delivered by conventional means or vectored by recombinant attenuated Salmonella vectors may help the industry deal with NE. Future progress may be based in large part on genomic and proteomic analyses. PMID:19186215

  3. Necrotic enteritis in chickens: a paradigm of enteric infection by Clostridium perfringens type A.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Cooper KK; Songer JG

    2009-02-01

    Withdrawal of antimicrobial growth promoters and ionophore coccidiostats has been accompanied by a resurgence in incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE), a severe Clostridium perfringens-induced disease which some consider the most clinically dramatic bacterial enteric disease of poultry. Lesions, in jejunum and ileum, are focal-to-confluent, often with a tightly adhered pseudomembrane, and hemorrhage is uncommon. The key risk factor for development of NE is an intestinal environment that favors growth of the organism. Birds on high energy, protein-rich, wheat- or barley-based diets experience NE at a rate up to ten times greater than do birds on maize-based diets. Specific strains of type A cause NE, although only a few specific virulence attributes are known. The role of alpha toxin (CPA) has been called into question by the finding that an engineered CPA mutant retained full virulence in vivo, although the counterpoint to this is the finding that immunization with CPA toxoids provides substantial protection against NE. A recently described toxin, NetB, seems likely to be involved in pathogenesis of infection by most NE strains. Immunization with CPA, NetB, or other proteins, delivered by conventional means or vectored by recombinant attenuated Salmonella vectors may help the industry deal with NE. Future progress may be based in large part on genomic and proteomic analyses.

  4. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  5. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  6. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  7. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  9. Enteral Nutrition in Crohn's Disease: An Underused Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, S.; Wagner, J.; Kirkwood, C. D.; Catto-Smith, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile. PMID:24382954

  10. ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA GULCH. ENTERING ORE BUCKETS ROLLED OF SUSPENSION CABLE ONTO UPPER STEEL RAIL, WHERE THEY WERE DISCONNECTED FROM TRACTION (LOWER) CABLE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  11. Faecaloid breath heralding secondary aorto-enteric fistula.

    PubMed

    Mosimann, F

    1995-01-01

    A patient underwent simultaneous abdominal aortic prosthetic replacement and resection of a Meckel diverticulum. He then developed faecaloid breath. Later reoperation for aorto-enteric fistula cured halitosis. We conclude in retrospect that faecaloid breath may herald a secondary aorto-enteric fistula. A pathophysiological mechanism is suggested and discussed. PMID:7725782

  12. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  14. Recent progress in the characterization of avian enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of the poultry gut, remarkably little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in the laboratory....

  15. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  17. Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Predict First-Time Coronary Heart Disease: An 8-Year Follow-Up of a Community-Based Middle Aged Population

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Peter; Jonasson, Lena; Nilsson, Lennart; Falk, Magnus; Kristenson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Background The enzyme in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been suggested to be an important determinant of plaque degradation. While several studies have shown elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease, results in prospective population based studies evaluating MMP-9 in relation to first time coronary events have been inconclusive. As of today, there are four published studies which have measured MMP-9 in serum and none using plasma. Measures of MMP-9 in serum have been suggested to have more flaws than measures in plasma. Aim To investigate the independent association between plasma levels of MMP-9 and first-time incidence of coronary events in an 8-year follow-up. Material and Methods 428 men and 438 women, aged 45–69 years, free of previous coronary events and stroke at baseline, were followed-up. Adjustments were made for sex, age, socioeconomic position, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease at baseline, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Results 53 events were identified during a risk-time of 6 607 person years. Hazard ratio (HR) for MMP-9 after adjustment for all covariates were HR = 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02, p = 0.033). Overall, the effect of adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors was low. Conclusion Levels of plasma MMP-9 are independently associated with risk of first-time CHD events, regardless of adjustments. These results are in contrast to previous prospective population-based studies based on MMP-9 in serum. It is essential that more studies look at MMP-9 levels in plasma to further evaluate the association with first coronary events. PMID:26389803

  18. Postia alni Niemelä & Vampola (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) – member of the problematic Postia caesia complex – has been found for the first time in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Due to their bluish basidiocarps the Postia caesia (syn. Oligoporus caesius) complex forms a distinctive morphological group within the polypore genus Postia Fr., 1874. Five species of this group occur in Europe: Postia alni Niemelä & Vampola, Postia caesia (Schrad.) P. Karst., Postia luteocaesia (A. David) Jülich, Postia mediterraneocaesia M. Pierre & B. Rivoire and Postia subcaesia (A. David) Jülich. In this study Postia alni is reported for the first time from Hungary. The dichotomous key of the species of the European Postia caesia complex was prepared as well. PMID:24855437

  19. Continuation rates of oral hormonal contraceptives in a cohort of first-time users: a population-based registry study, Sweden 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Josefsson, Ann; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Lindberg, Malou; Foldemo, Anniqa; Brynhildsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate if continuation rates in first-time users of oral hormonal contraceptives differed between different formulations and to measure if the rates were related to the prescribing categories, that is, physicians and midwives. Design A longitudinal national population-based registry study. Setting The Swedish prescribed drug register. Participants All women born between 1977 and 1994 defined as first-time users of hormonal contraceptives from 2007 to 2009 (n=226?211). Main outcome measures A tendency to switch the type of hormonal contraceptive within 6?months use and repeated dispensation identical to the first were estimated as percentages and relative risks (RRs). Physicians’ and midwives’ prescription patterns concerning the women's continuation rates of oral hormonal contraceptive type. Results In Sweden, there were 782?375 women born between 1977 and 1994 at the time of the study. Of these, 226?211 women were identified as first-time users of hormonal contraceptives. Ethinylestradiol+levonorgestrel, desogestrel-only and ethinylestradiol+drospirenone were the hormonal contraceptives most commonly dispensed to first-time users at rates of 43.3%, 24.4% and 11.1%, respectively. The overall rate of switching contraceptive types in the first 6?months was 11.3%, which was highest for desogestrel-only (14.3%) and lowest for ethinylestradiol+drospirenone (6.6%). The switching rate for all three products was highest in the 16-year to 19-year age group. Having a repeated dispensation identical to the initial dispensation was highest for users of ethinylestradiol either combined with levonorgestrel or drospirenone, 81.4% and 81.2%, respectively, whereas this rate for the initial desogestrel-only users was 71.5%. The RR of switching of contraceptive type within the first 6?months was 1.35 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.39) for desogestrel-only and 0.63 (0.59 to 0.66) for ethinylestradiol+drospirenone compared with ethinylestradiol+levonorgestrel as the reference category. There were no differences in the women's continuation rates depending on the prescriber categories. Conclusions Desogestrel-only users conferred the highest switcher rate to another hormonal contraceptive within a 6-month period. Users of ethinylestradiol+levonorgestrel were more prone to switch to another product within 6?months than women using ethinylestradiol+drospirenone. These findings may be of clinical importance when tailoring hormonal contraceptives on an individual basis. PMID:24141970

  20. An Outbreak of Food-Borne Typhoid Fever Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in Japan Reported for the First Time in 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Uryu, Hideko; Yamada, Ritsuko; Kashiwa, Naoyuki; Nei, Takahito; Ehara, Akihito; Takei, Reiko; Mori, Nobuaki; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hayasaka, Tomomi; Kagawa, Narito; Sugawara, Momoko; Suzaki, Ai; Takahashi, Yuno; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in 16 years, a food-borne outbreak of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was reported in Japan. Seven patients consumed food in an Indian buffet at a restaurant in the center of Tokyo, while one was a Nepali chef in the restaurant, an asymptomatic carrier and the implicated source of this outbreak. The multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed 100% consistency in the genomic sequence for five of the eight cases. PMID:26621565