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Sample records for first-time entering students

  1. Steady Stream of High School Graduates Enter B.C. Public Post-Secondary Education for the First Time Each Year. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Transitions Project, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Student Transition project (STP) has collected eleven years of grade 12 and post-secondary enrollment data, since it's inception in 2003. This information is used to track student transitions from grade 12 graduation into post-secondary education, student mobility between post-secondary institutions and post-secondary credential completions.…

  2. The Impact of Study Abroad on Academic Success: An Analysis of First-Time Students Entering Old Dominion University, Virginia, 2000-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Min; de Silva, Chandra R.; Neufeldt, Ellen; Dane, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a widespread assumption that study abroad develops skills that are marketable in an increasingly global market. Students at many institutions, including Old Dominion University (ODU), have undertaken study abroad mostly after their sophomore year, well after they have chosen a major. The profile of U.S. students studying abroad compiled…

  3. Analysis of the Enrollment Loss among First-Time-in-College Students Attending Miami-Dade Community College. Research Report No. 95-07R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brann, Herman I.

    From fall 1990 to fall 1994, Florida's Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) experienced a decline in enrollment among first-time-in-college students. To determine reasons for the decline, M-DCC examined characteristics and high school of origin of first-time students in the period, categorizing students as direct-entry (i.e., entering within 1…

  4. First-Time Student Questionnaire: An Attempt to Identify Those Applicants Most Likely Not to Register.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spahr, Anthony E.

    A study was conducted at Morton College (Illinois) to develop a profile of students who applied to the college, but did not register for classes. A sample of 445 potential students who participated in the college's placement testing program for the fall 1984 semester completed the First-Time Student Questionnaire, which asked for information…

  5. Perceptions of First-Time in College Community College Students Regarding Factors and Barriers for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Deana K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of first-generation first-time in college (FTIC) students who have completed a student success course (Learning Frameworks: First-Year Experience-EDUC 1300) at the community college level regarding (a) factors that enable them to succeed and (b) factors that are barriers to their success. A…

  6. Rites of Pedagogical Passage: How Graduate Student Instructors Negotiate the Challenges of First-Time Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smollin, Leandra M.; Arluke, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of the first-time teaching experience of graduate instructors, drawing on interview and focus group data from 35 sociology students in a doctoral program at a large university in the United States. Results indicate the majority of graduate instructors felt a great deal of anxiety due to challenges they faced when…

  7. Persistence and Attainment of 2011-12 First-Time Postsecondary Students after 3 Years. First Look. NCES 2016-401

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole; Radford, Alexandria Walton; Wu, Joanna; Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Wilson, David; Hill, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a "first look" at selected findings from the 2012/14 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:12/14). It is based on final data describing a nationally representative sample of undergraduates who entered postsecondary education for the first time during the 2011-12 academic year. BPS:12/14 covers the…

  8. Concerns of Entering Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Robert H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    First-year dental students from three schools were surveyed to assess their concern about psychosocial, academic, time, isolation, and money issues. Similarity in ranking of concerns, and differences in intensity of concern are examined for implications for research in stress management. (MSE)

  9. Benchmarking & Benchmarks: Effective Practice with Entering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If it takes a village to raise a child, it takes a strong network of committed colleagues to launch an initiative like "SENSE." From its conception in fall 2006 to the first national administration in fall 2009, the Survey of Entering Student Engagement ("SENSE") has been supported by key individuals and groups, without whom there would have been…

  10. Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) 2000 Survey Results: First-Time, Full-Time Students Institutional Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Barbara; Richardson, Odette Marie

    This document is a report on the 2000 Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) survey results from first-time, full-time students at Mt. San Antonio College (SAC) (California). The survey gathered data on student demographics, background experiences, college expectations, attitudes, and opinions. It was administered to 1,000 students, 867…

  11. Perceived Quality of Service and Behavioral Intentions of First-Time Students Enrolled at The University of North Carolina Asheville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Patrice Black

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the SERVQUAL (Service Quality Instrument) to examine the perceptions of first-time enrolled students at University of North Carolina Asheville regarding the services they receive from a selected group of departments in the university's One Stop area. In addition, the study examined whether a relationship…

  12. Evaluation of an Online Alcohol Education Program for First-Time-in-College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Elayne R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students has maintained its place as a major issue in American higher education since its inception. Although dangerous drinking has always proliferated among college students, institutions have only provided alcohol and other drug (AOD) education and interventions encouraging students to adapt less harmful habits for a…

  13. The First Time Effect: The Impact of Study Abroad on College Student Intellectual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Joshua S.

    2009-01-01

    Study abroad programs on American college and university campuses are booming, with a national goal of sending abroad one million students within ten years. In this timely and thought-provoking look at the benefits of studying abroad, Joshua S. McKeown moves beyond the acknowledged cultural and linguistic benefits to focus on how it promotes…

  14. A comparative study on first-time and experienced project-based learning students in an engineering design module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, K. J.

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to compare and evaluate the learning ability and performance differences between two groups of students undergoing project-based learning (PjBL), with one group having prior PjBL experience, while the other group is being freshly exposed to PjBL. More specifically, it examines if there are significant differences in knowledge score, problem-solving ability, and eventual project-deliverable outcomes between the two sets of students. Performances were compared via qualitative and quantitative analyses. Key findings have indicated a significant increase in fundamental formative knowledge; enhanced problem-solving abilities; and production of better performing artefacts with regard to the set of design skills between experienced and first-time PjBL groups. This study also highlighted that experienced PjBL students have less conflicts within their groups, and are more receptive to PjBL compared to first-time PjBL students. Results from this study provide a starting point for educators to seek new learning/facilitating strategies that are relevant based on the experience and learning styles of students.

  15. The Influence of the Freshman Academy Model on the English End of Course Test Scores and Promotion Rates of First Time Ninth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Claretta M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of high school transition strategies for ninth grade students in comparison to the traditional high school experience of first time ninth grade students. This study compared the English End-of-Course (EOC) test scores of first time ninth grade students in a traditional high school setting…

  16. Spring 1981 Non-Continuing Student Survey; Fall 1980 Entering Students. Student Flow Program, Report 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Kapiolani Community Coll.

    As part of a student flow project designed to monitor the progress of students who entered Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Fall 1980 for five consecutive semesters, a survey was conducted of the 753 Fall 1980 entering students who did not re-enroll in Spring 1981. The survey instrument asked respondents to: (1) indicate their main reason for…

  17. Decision to Enter the Profession of Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Deborah J.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider factors that graduate students in master's degree programs in student affairs identify as influential to their decisions to enter the student affairs profession. A total of 300 master's students from 24 randomly selected graduate programs participated in the study. Relatively few differences were found…

  18. The First Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Beth

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates her experience of meeting a Montessori kid for the first time and shares the characteristics she observed in Montessori students. The author was working as director of academic resources in university housing at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and met Jason, a pre-med sophomore who was the resident…

  19. Comparison of Spatial Skills of Students Entering Different Engineering Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veurink, N.; Sorby, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial skills have been shown to be important to success in an engineering curriculum, and some question if poor spatial skills prevent students from entering STEM fields or if students with weak spatial skills avoid engineering disciplines believed to highly spatially-oriented. Veurink and Hamlin (2011) found that freshmen students entering…

  20. The Influence of Student Demographics and Internal Characteristics on GPA, Persistence, and Academic Success of First-Time College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Employing a non-experimental, ex-post facto design, the study examined the relationship of student demographic information and internal characteristics identified from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) to student persistence, grade point average, and academic success. Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT), which focuses on the internal…

  1. Overconfidence of Vocational Education Students When Entering Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Mark P.; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Bahtsevanoglou, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is evidence that students who attend Technical and Further Education (TAFE) prior to entering higher education underperform in their first year of study. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-efficacy in understanding the performance of students who completed TAFE in the previous year in a first year subject of…

  2. Factors that Encourage Student Engagement: Insights from a Case Study of "First Time" Students in a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Barbara; Slater, Gloria R. L.

    2011-01-01

    This case study reports on the findings from one of nine tertiary institutions that took part in a project funded by the Teaching and Learning Research Initiative (TLRI) in New Zealand. The research question explored how institutional and non institutional learning environments influence student engagement with learning in a higher education,…

  3. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Ecologia: The Assumptions, Expectations, and Strategies of Modern Language Students Working in a Self-Access Learning Environment for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Alison

    1994-01-01

    This study examined 29 second-year undergraduate students of Spanish using a self-access learning environment for the first time, focusing on their language attitudes and learning strategies. The results show that, even as modern languages majors, the students possessed a model of language and strategies for learning that were significantly…

  5. Communication Characteristics of Students Entering MSSD 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nancy S.; And Others

    A communication profile of each student entering the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD) is composed of rankings in five areas: expressive manual communication including signing, fingerspelling, and synchronization; speech intelligibility; articulation; speech reading, including words and sentences; and audiometric test performance…

  6. Characteristics of SEEK Program Students: September 1968 Entering Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dispenzieri, Angelo; And Others

    A study was made of the characteristics of the 1,169 students from poverty areas in New York City who in September 1968 entered the Search for Education Elevation and Knowledge Program. Of the entrants nearly one-third enrolled at University Center, approximately one-fourth at Brooklyn College, and almost one-fifth at City College. Hunter, Lehman,…

  7. Predicting Academic Success of First-Time College-Bound African American Students at a Predominantly White Four-Year Public Institution: A Preadmission Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, M. William, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a preadmission predictive model of student success for prospective first-time African American college applicants at a predominately White four-year public institution within the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. This model will use two types of variables. They are (a) cognitive variables (i.e.,…

  8. "So You Are from England": Categorization and Cultural Reduction in First-Time Conversation Lounge Encounters between Foreign Teachers and Japanese Students of EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nao, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The article explores "culture talk" at the outset of first-time encounters between teachers and students of English as a foreign language in the conversation lounge of a Japanese university. It analyses the interactional procedures by which the foreign place of origin of the teacher becomes the topic of conversation following his or her…

  9. 85 Pct. of First-Time Students Attend College in Home States, U.S. Study Finds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A new survey shows that six states enroll more than 90 percent of their residents who attend college, with students more likely to leave their home states to attend four-year than two-year colleges. (MSE)

  10. Results of the Fall 1980 Entering Student Survey. Student Flow Program, Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Kapiolani Community Coll.

    A survey of 2,338 students entering Kapiolani Community College (KCC), Hawaii, in Fall 1980 was conducted during registration to determine students' educational cbjectives and to assess the financial, employment, and academic factors that may affect college success. The survey instrument asked students to indicate their: (1) reasons for attending…

  11. First Time International College Students' Level of Anxiety in Relationship to Awareness of Their Learning-Style Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Arlene Shorter

    2011-01-01

    Given the receptivity of American colleges to international students, administrators and professors must recognize the diversity such registrants bring to campus in the form of achievement, age, gender, language, and national differences. The purpose of this study was to compare learning style preferences of international first year college…

  12. Factors Associated with Engagement Levels among Entering and Returning Hispanic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Gerald F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the engagement levels among entering and returning Hispanic community college students. This study provides needed data focused specifically on Hispanic student engagement. Limited data exist on the persistence of community college students in general, and Hispanic students in particular. The data were…

  13. Recruiting and retaining geoscience students at a large public university: Balancing the needs of first-time freshman and upper-division transfer students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. D.; Clemens-Knott, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Geological Sciences at California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) is one of the largest geology programs in the state. Approximately 4,000 students at CSUF take general education geology classes; this provides a large pool from which to recruit undergraduate students for either the Geology B.S. or Earth Sciences B.A. offered by the department. The department has seen a dramatic increase in majors over the last decade, from a low of 28 majors in 2002 to more than 110 in 2012. This increase does not appear to be driven by growth in the oil industry; in a recent survey of CSUF geoscience (BS or BA) students, 15% of respondents indicated an interest in a career in petroleum. The department has engaged in aggressive recruitment and outreach efforts over the last decade, with activities ranging from earthquake preparedness rallies in conjunction with the annual California ShakeOut, to an emerging high school and community college intern program at the department's paleontology curation facility. Despite these efforts, the majority of CSUF geoscience students declared the geology major after taking an introductory physical geology course either at CSUF or a local community college. Over the last ten years, approximately 50% of the geoscience majors at CSUF transferred from a community college. Among the geoscience students who began their career at CSUF, only one third had declared a geoscience major in their freshman year. Over two thirds of geoscience majors at CSUF declared their major after completing more than 60 units. The strong tendency for students to declare a geoscience major late in their career poses significant challenges to students' ability to graduate in a timely manner. To mitigate this problem, the department has an aggressive advising program, wherein students attend mandatory advising with a faculty member every semester. The department is also working closely with community college partners to improve the preparation of transfer

  14. Predicting Agricultural Education Student Teachers' Intention to Enter Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, T. Grady; Harlin, Julie F.; Briers, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the student teaching experience and other variables influenced student teachers' intentions to teach. Data were collected from 80 student teachers at three universities--a land grant/research I institution, a non-land grant/doctoral degree granting institution, and a comprehensive regional institution.…

  15. Knowledge Structures of Entering Computer Networking Students and Their Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Students bring prior knowledge to their learning experiences. This prior knowledge is known to affect how students encode and later retrieve new information learned. Teachers and content developers can use information about students' prior knowledge to create more effective lessons and materials. In many content areas, particularly the sciences,…

  16. Are STEM High School Students Entering the STEM Pipeline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, M. Suzanne; Patel, Nimisha H.; Lindsey, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the career skills and interests for students in two STEM schools to national data. Students completed the KUDER skills assessment and career planning online tools. Results were compared across school, grade level, and sex. The results provided evidence that STEM high school students expressed career intents in predominately…

  17. A Statistical Comparison of First Time Praxis II Pass Rates between Homegrown 4 Year Students and Transfer Students of a Medium Size Suburban University: A Six Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jason Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the federal mandate specified by the No Child Left Behind Act to demonstrate content competency for teaching certification, students must pass a written examination. Missouri and 37 other states chose the Praxis II to satisfy requirements. Presently, schools of education advertise the passing rate of the Praxis II as 100%, since…

  18. A Quantitative Analysis of a Mandatory Student Success Course on First-Time Full-Time Student College Academic Progress and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenberg, Laurel Beth

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, community colleges have come into the spotlight nationally in terms of their potential to assist in the revitalization of the economy. This has resulted in an increased need for community colleges to understand more fully the factors that influence student persistence. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to…

  19. Flourishing, Substance Use, and Engagement in Students Entering College: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Kathryn Graff

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the association between positive mental health or flourishing, depression, and engaged learning in undergraduates. Participants: Entering first year students (N = 428) at a liberal arts college. Methods: Students completed measures of depression, flourishing, substance use, and student engagement. Results:…

  20. Implementation of a Study Skills Program for Entering At-Risk Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cynthia J.

    2014-01-01

    While the first year of medical school is challenging for all students, there may be specific issues for students from rural areas, economically disadvantaged backgrounds, ethnic minorities, or nontraditional age groups. A Summer Prematriculation Program (SPP) was created to prepare entering at-risk students for the demands of medical school. For…

  1. Entering Student Affairs: A Comparative Study of Graduate School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma; Eckman, Ellen; Strayhorn, Terrell

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the college choice process of graduate students in College Student Personnel programs at a public university and a private religiously affiliated university. Despite differences in size, mission, and location of the two institutions studied, the research findings show that respondent populations were similar demographically…

  2. Diagnostic Tests for Entering and Departing Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, Chris; Kotlicki, A.

    2006-12-01

    A diagnostic test administered at the start of a class should test basic concepts which are recognized as course prerequisites. The questions should not be over-packaged: e.g. students should be required to create models, rather than this being done for them each time. Students should be allowed great latitude in their answers, so we can discover what they are thinking. When administered at the end of a class the goals should be similar: testing concepts taught in the class itself and the retention of necessary concepts from previous classes. Great care has to be taken to avoid teaching to the test. In assessing an entire program, for example an undergraduate majors degree in physics, then one looks for very general skills and knowledge not specific to any one course. The purpose of an undergraduate degree in physics (or indeed any science) is to equip the students with a set of problem-solving skills and basic knowledge which can be applied in a large variety of workplace settings and to allow that student to contribute to civic society as a science-literate person. The creator of any diagnostic test should always have these big goals in mind. We have developed a set of questions which we think fulfill these criteria, yet are not specific to any particular level of science education. They have been administered to students in secondary schools across Canada, incoming first-year science students and final-year physics students at the University of British Columbia. The results will be presented.

  3. Influence of the Relationship between the Student Teacher and Cooperating Teacher on Student Teacher's Decision to Enter Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasperbauer, Holly J.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if student teachers' perceptions of the student teacher/cooperating teacher relationship were predictive of their decisions to enter the teaching profession. The target population of this study consisted of preservice agricultural education students at Texas A&M University. The accessible sample consisted…

  4. Diagnostic Examination for Students Entering Graduate Study in Soil Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loynachan, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    Reports that students with soil science background performed better on a diagnostic examination; no relationship existed between exam performance and country of origin, degree sought, or undergraduate class quartile. Concludes that exam results, the grade received in a beginning graduate-level course and the cumulative graduate grade-point average…

  5. Night Rehearsal. A Gaming-Simulation for Nontraditional Students Entering College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Kirk, Lynne D.

    This document contains the materials required to play a gaming simulation titled "Night Rehearsal" that is designed to familiarize both nontraditional college students and college personnel with some of the challenges facing nontraditional students entering college. Presented first are a brief discussion of some of the barriers typically…

  6. Longitudinal Study of Performance of Students Entering Harper College, 1976-1986. Volume XVII, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Toni

    A longitudinal study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, to observe the performance and achievement of students entering the college each fall from 1967 through 1986. Academic and personal data from transcripts were analyzed for randomly selected samples of 200 full- and 200 part-time students from each fall's…

  7. Statement on Competencies in Mathematics Expected of Entering College Students. April 2010. Revised May 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this" Statement on Competencies in Mathematics Expected of Entering College Students" is to provide a clear and coherent message about the mathematics that students need to know and to be able to do to be successful in college. While parts of this Statement were written with certain audiences in mind, the document as a whole…

  8. Analysis and Classification of Entering Freshmen Mathematic Students Using Multiple Discriminate Function Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Steve

    Predictor variables that could be used effectively to place entering freshmen methematics students into courses of instruction in mathematics were investigated at West Virginia University. Multiple discriminant analysis was used with nearly 6,000 student records collected over a three-year period, and a series of predictive equations were…

  9. Factors Influencing Senior Athletic Training Students' Preparedness to Enter the Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Benes, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Athletic training education programs must provide the student with opportunities to learn the roles and responsibilities of the athletic trainer. Objective: Investigate factors that help prepare the athletic training student (ATS) to successfully enter the workplace upon graduation from her undergraduate program. Design: Exploratory…

  10. Who Are the Future Teachers in Turkey? Characteristics of Entering Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksu, Meral; Demir, Cennet Engin; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner; Kiraz, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the background characteristics, socio-cultural values and pedagogical beliefs that entering student teachers bring with them into the faculties of education and explores their possible implications for teacher education in the Turkish context. The study comprised 18,226 first-year student teachers from 51 faculties…

  11. Importance of Computer Competencies for Entering JCCC Students: A Survey of Faculty and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weglarz, Shirley

    Johnson County Community College (JCCC) conducted a survey in response to faculty comments regarding entering students' lack of rudimentary computer skills. Faculty were spending time in non-computer related classes teaching students basic computer skills. The aim of the survey was to determine what the basic computer competencies for entering…

  12. The Relationship of Undergraduate First-Time-in-College Students' Expectations of Interactions with Faculty and Four-Year College Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Craig N.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty are the academic heart of colleges and universities. They guide learning and facilitate student academic and social integration in the campus community. As described by Tinto, student integration is an important component to success in college. Out-of-class and in-class faculty-student interaction supports student integration and may lead…

  13. Persistence in the Community College System After Six Semesters, Fall 1974 Entering Students. Student Flow Project, Report No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

    As part of a continuing student flow study in Hawaii community colleges, the persistence of 9,171 fall 1974 entering students after six semesters was analyzed to ascertain the degree to which they persisted at campuses other than the one of entry. Characteristics studied included sex, age, high school background, marital status, entry status,…

  14. Where the Sun Breezes Don't Stop Shining. Teachers' Journals and Students' Writings on First-Time Homebuying from the New American Homeowners Project, February-June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Catherine, Ed.

    The writings of both teachers and students participating in the New Americans Homeowners Project, a project combining English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and information on first-time home-buying for immigrants in language minority groups are presented. The project provided training and technical assistance to ESL teachers, and reached…

  15. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Six-Year Study of the First-Time and Ultimate Bar Exam Results of Students According to Law School Admission Council (LSAC) Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Beard, J.

    2011-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics addresses the matriculating class of 2001-2007 according to their Law School Admission Council (LSAC) index. Generally, this report will offer information on the first time bar and ultimate performance on the Bar Exam of TMSL students. In addition, graduating GPA according to the LSAC index will also…

  16. Sense of Direction: The Importance of Helping Community College Students Select and Enter a Program of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) are committed to increasing the rate at which entering students persist to completion of a certificate or degree or transfer to a university. Recent research suggests that efforts to increase student success in community colleges need to focus on helping new students choose and enter a program of study. Too…

  17. Academic and personality correlates of career indecision in medical students entering training.

    PubMed

    Walters, G D

    1982-11-01

    The academic and personality correlates of medical career indecision were investigated in two separate studies. In the first, the effect of career indecision on academic performance was examined in a group of ninety-eight (eighty male, eighteen female) medical students entering Texas Tech University School of Medicine over a 2-year period. These medical students voluntarily completed the Medical Specialty Preference Inventory (MSPI) as part of a routine preadmission test battery. Subjects were assigned to one of three conditions-decided, high-interest undecided and low-interest undecided--based on results from the MSPI. As predicted, 'low-interest undecided' students achieved significantly lower initial medical school grades relative to 'decided' students, whereas 'high-interest undecided' students did not differ from the 'decided' students. The second study investigated the influence of career indecision upon personality. Subjects for this study were eighty-eight (sixty-six male, twenty-two female) medical students entering Texas Tech University School of Medicine over a 1-year period. These students voluntarily completed the MSPI and several personality measures as part of a pre-admission test battery. The results only partially supported the stated hypotheses. Although 'low-interest undecided' students demonstrated less personal integration compared with 'decided' students, they were no more anxious. PMID:7176977

  18. Sources of Academic and Self-Regulatory Efficacy Beliefs of Entering Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Bandura's (1997) hypothesized sources of self-efficacy on the academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of entering middle school students ("N" = 263) and to explore whether these sources differ as a function of gender, reading ability, and race/ethnicity. For the full sample, mastery…

  19. The Development of a Prediction Model to Determine the Appropriate Level of Entering Students in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Herbert L., Jr.

    The problem was to determine the appropriate level of mathematics for an entering student at Chattanooga State Technical Institute to ensure probability of success in his initial course. A multiple regression analysis was used to establish an equation to determine the lower limit of the prediction interval, to determine whether I.Q. or mathematics…

  20. Burnout among Entering MSW Students: Exploring the Role of Personal Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Meekyung; Lee, Sang E.; Lee, Peter Allan

    2012-01-01

    Although individual susceptibility to burnout within a similar structural context is well-documented in other helping professions, little is known about the relationship between personal attributes and burnout in social work. Furthermore, despite a large number of entering MSW students with prior work experience, there is a paucity of research…

  1. The impact of a freshman academy on science performance of first-time ninth-grade students at one Georgia high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Vivian Summerour

    The purpose of this within-group experimental study was to find out to what extent ninth-grade students improved their science performance beyond their middle school science performance at one Georgia high school utilizing a freshman academy model. Freshman academies have been recognized as a useful tool for increasing academic performance among ninth-grade students because they address a range of academic support initiatives tailored to improve academic performance among ninth-grade students. The talent development model developed by Legters, Balfanz, Jordan, and McPartland (2002) has served as a foundational standard for many ninth grade academy programs. A cornerstone feature of this model is the creation of small learning communities used to increase ninth-grade student performance. Another recommendation was to offer credit recovery opportunities for ninth graders along with creating parent and community involvement activities to increase academic success among ninth-grade students. While the site's program included some of the initiatives outlined by the talent development model, it did not utilize all of them. The study concluded that the academy did not show a definitive increase in academic performance among ninth-grade students since most students stayed within their original performance category.

  2. Predicting Persistence for First-Time Undergraduate Adult Students at Four-Year Institutions Using First-Term Academic Behaviors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody; Holbrook, Wesley T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reported that, in the 24 to 54 age range, the United States ranked thirty-fourth among all for individuals with a postsecondary credential. For the United States to increase in rank, adult students, who are projected to increase by 1.9 million in postsecondary enrollment by…

  3. Implementing Process-Oriented, Guided-Inquiry Learning for the First Time: Adaptations and Short-Term Impacts on Students' Attitude and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Anthony; Pakhira, Deblina; Stains, Marilyne

    2013-01-01

    Innovative, research-based instructional practices are critical to transforming the conventional undergraduate instructional landscape into a student-centered learning environment. Research on dissemination of innovation indicates that instructors often adapt rather than adopt these practices. These adaptations can lead to the loss of critical…

  4. The Preparation of Students Entering Kentucky's Public Colleges and Universities in 2002 and 2004. Developmental Education Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This update presents information on students entering Kentucky's public postsecondary institutions in 2004, with comparisons to the entering class of 2002. This information updates Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education's 2005 report entitled, "Underprepared Students in Kentucky: A First Look at the 2001 Mandatory Placement Policy." In…

  5. Harvest: A Study of 1,775 Students Who Entered El Paso Community College in the Fall of 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Helen; Grady, Michael J.

    Harvest is a follow-up study on 1,775 students who entered El Paso Community College, Colorado Springs, Colorado for the fall 1973 term. Data through spring 1976 were analyzed. The study was undertaken to seek answers to the following questions: (1) How do students who enter with basic skills at the elementary, junior high, or high school level…

  6. Stress and cardiometabolic manifestations among Saudi students entering universities: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. Methods A total of 1878 apparently healthy Saudi students of the Preparatory Year, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (1112 men and 766 women) spanning 2 academic years were included. They were divided into 2 groups based on the validated perceived stress test (PST). Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of fasting blood glucose and a lipid profile. Results PST score (>27) considered indicative of stress was noted in 44.4% of students. The prevalence of this score was higher in women than in men (49.7% versus 40.7%). The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia was significantly higher in men than women (p < 0.01), and this was even more apparent among stressed men, who had a significantly higher prevalence of all the above cardiometabolic factors than the non-stressed ones (p < 0.01). Conclusion Perceived stress is alarmingly high among Saudi students entering universities. This study sheds light on the social responsibility of universities in promoting a healthy lifestyle, particularly in this age group, when exposure to different kinds of stressors may result in body weight and metabolic changes. PMID:24755010

  7. Implementation of a study skills program for entering at-risk medical students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While the first year of medical school is challenging for all students, there may be specific issues for students from rural areas, economically disadvantaged backgrounds, ethnic minorities, or nontraditional age groups. A Summer Prematriculation Program (SPP) was created to prepare entering at-risk students for the demands of medical school. For the past 2 yr, an emphasis was placed on the development of appropriate study plans and skills. On presurveys, students predicted an increase in their number of study hours per lecture hour, from 7.6 h in undergraduate coursework to 9.1 h in medical school coursework (n = 35). These study plans were infeasible given the rigorous didactic lecture schedule in medical school. Interventions were made through lectures on study plans and modeling of appropriate study habits using engaging lectures in the SPP physiology course. At the end of the program, a postsurvey was given, and students reported a reduction in the planned hours of study to a more realistic 3.9 h of study time per hour of lecture. Furthermore, students planned to decrease their use of textbooks while increasing their use of concept mapping, videos, and peer teaching. The majority of students completing the SPP program with a study skills emphasis performed well in the Medical Physiology course, with 4 students honoring in the course, 27 students passing, and 2 students remediating the course after an initial failure. These results indicate that at-risk medical students may have inappropriate study plans that can be improved through participation in a program that emphasizes study skills development. PMID:25179612

  8. Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. PMID:24093735

  9. The Influence of Religion and High School Biology Courses on Students' Knowledge of Evolution When They Enter College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Cotner, Sehoya; Bates, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Students whose high school biology course included evolution but not creationism knew more about evolution when they entered college than did students whose courses included evolution plus creationism or whose courses included neither evolution nor creationism. Similarly, students who believed that their high school biology classes were the…

  10. They Do Not Buy It: Exploring the Extent to Which Entering First-Year Students View Themselves as Customers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of scholars have discussed the pervasiveness of the conceptualization of students as customers, to date there has been limited reliable research examining the extent to which students actually view themselves as customers. Using a survey that was administered to a census of entering first-year students at a large public research…

  11. Cognitive Profile of Students Who Enter Higher Education with an Indication of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-01-01

    For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d = 1 and d = 2), arithmetic (d≈1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined. PMID:22719864

  12. [Meaning of the death/dying process for entering nursing students].

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Gabriella Michel dos Santos; de Oliveira, Kézia; de Oliveira, William Tiago; Sales, Catarina Aparecida; Ferreira, Patrícia Chatalov

    2013-03-01

    This is a qualitative study, based on Heidegger's existential phenomenology, with the purpose of revealing the meaning of death/dying for freshmen students of the nursing program. The study was developed in a public university in the northwest of Paraná, Brazil between August and October 2010, and 33 entering students from a Nursing program were interviewed. The following existential themes emerged from the phenomenological analysis: "Understanding death as a difficult process to be understood"; "Understanding death as a natural process"; and "Perceiving death as a passage to another life". The present study allowed to understand that knowledge and death are entangled in the temporality and the historicity of every being, which requires a scientific, ethical and philosophical understanding of the death/dying phenomenon so that the scholar may prepare for the humanized care of the patient and his/her family. PMID:23781739

  13. Entering Freshman Transfer and Career Students: A Comparison of Selected Educational Objectives with Recommendations for Transfer and Academic Advisement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Mary S.

    The descriptive study investigated the extent to which entering freshman students and transfer students at Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) are enrolled in degree programs that are compatible with their stated educational objectives, transfer intents, and degree intents. Subjects (N=376) enrolled in a mandatory orientation course were…

  14. Career Assimilation Program for Entering Russian Students (Project CAPERS). Final Evaluation Report, 1993-94. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    The Career Assimilation Program for Entering Russian Students (Project CAPERS) was an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII project in its second year in 1993-94. The project operated at three schools in a community school district in Brooklyn (New York), and served 128 Russian-speaking students, 104 of whom were of limited English…

  15. Survey of Fall 1975 Entering Students Who Graduated in 1975-76 or 1976-77: Community Colleges. Student Flow Project, Report No. 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Community Coll. System.

    As part of a longitudinal study of fall 1975 entering students at Hawaii community colleges, this report focuses on two student groups: those who graduated during 1975-76 and those who graduated during 1976-77. Student characteristics were significantly different between groups. There were greater proportions of female than male graduates for both…

  16. THE ENTERING STUDENT, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, A STUDY OF THE BACKGROUNDS, MOTIVATIONS, AND GOALS OF ENTERING STUDENTS IN THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AT DAVIS IN 1963 AND 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REGAN, MARY C.; THOMPSON, O. E.

    BIOGRAPHICAL, ATTITUDE, AND PERSONALITY INVENTORIES WERE ADMINISTERED TO FRESHMEN COLLEGE STUDENTS IN ALL FIELDS IN THE FALL OF 1963 AND 1964 TO IDENTIFY BACKGROUND, PRESENT ATTITUDES, AND PERSONALITY FACTORS OF THE AGRICULTURAL STUDENT. IN ADDITION, THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN COLLEGE HAD BEEN FOLLOWED. THE STUDENTS IN AGRICULTURE WERE GROUPED…

  17. Socioeconomic Characteristics and Motivations for Entering a Medical College--Differences between Graduate and Undergraduate Saudi Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Alqarni, Turki; AL-Jahdali, Sarah; Baharoon, Salim A.; AL-Harbi, Abdullah S.; Binsalih, Salih A.; Alshimemeri, Abdulah; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons for and the factors associated with deciding to enter a medical school in our graduate and undergraduate medical students and whether differ between the two groups. Method: This is a cross-sectional study. The survey we developed to investigate demographic and socioeconomic data and…

  18. Entering Higher Education in the United States: A Guide for Students from Other Countries. Revised Edition, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Stan, Ed.

    Guidelines for students from foreign countries who are considering entering a college or university in the United States and which will be useful to colleges and universities that have foreign applicants are presented. General information about postsecondary education in the United States and steps in the application process are addressed along…

  19. Black Students Entering CRC Colleges: Their Characteristics and Their First-Year Academic Performance. Research Memorandum 69-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    The College Research Center (CRC), a cooperative educational-research agency, investigated the progress of black students enrolled in liberal arts colleges (traditionally for women only). The study focused on (1) selected characteristics of Negro freshmen entering Member CRC Colleges, and (2) the correlational validity of standard admissions…

  20. The Emotional Experience of First-time Teaching: Reflections from Graduate Instructors, 1997-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meanwell, Emily; Kleiner, Sibyl

    2014-01-01

    Teaching for the first time can be a challenging but rewarding experience. For first-time graduate student instructors, however, it also officially marks the transition from student to teacher--a process that can be both transformational and emotion-laden. In this article, we use content analysis of 86 first-time sociology graduate student…

  1. An Examination of Assessment Scores between Students Who Attend Public Schools and Students Who Were Homeschooled Prior to Entering a Virtual Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Virtual charter schools, emerging in the 1990s, are a recent development in the education field and reflect today's technology-oriented society. This study examined existing data to evaluate what, if any, difference existed between students who attended public school and those who were homeschooled prior to entering the virtual charter school. …

  2. Practical Advice for First Time Online Instructors: A Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Gregory R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses results of interviews with five university teacher education professors that asked about their first-time experiences offering online courses. Recommends four categories for improvements: preparation, including a good introductory Web page for students; structure, including promoting interactivity by limiting class size and using…

  3. Ascertaining Learning Needs of Students Entering an Upper Level Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korth, Willard; Ferrero, Grace

    An educational testing program at the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), developed for juniors entering its school of education, evaluates their characteristics, the nature and extent of subject matter weaknesses, the need for and nature of remediation, and the relation of subject matter and basic skill achievement to success in methods…

  4. Entering the University: The Differentiated Experience of Two Chinese International Students in a New Zealand University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skyrme, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on findings from a longitudinal study of Chinese international students beginning study in a New Zealand university, and focuses on the very different experience of two students in relation to a single course and its assessment requirements, as they sought ways to negotiate identities as university students in their new setting.…

  5. Whatever Happened to Students Who Entered in Fall 1995? Persistence at Rio Hondo College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maack, Stephen C.

    This is Rio Hondo College's (California) institutional report on the retention and graduation behavior of the fall 1995 new student cohort. These students were tracked through 2001 using a longitudinal student-tracking database. The report presents information concerning the assorted variables associated with term-to-term persistence and associate…

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening and Treating Foreign-Born Students for Tuberculosis before Entering the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wingate, La’Marcus T.; Posey, Drew L.; Zhou, Weigong; Olson, Christine K.; Maskery, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is considering implementation of overseas medical screening of student-visa applicants to reduce the numbers of active tuberculosis cases entering the United States. Objective To evaluate the costs, cases averted, and cost-effectiveness of screening for, and treating, tuberculosis in United States-bound students from countries with varying tuberculosis prevalence. Methods Costs and benefits were evaluated from two perspectives, combined and United States only. The combined perspective totaled overseas and United States costs and benefits from a societal perspective. The United States only perspective was a domestic measure of costs and benefits. A decision tree was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis screening and treatment from the combined perspective. Results From the United States only perspective, overseas screening programs of Chinese and Indian students would prevent the importation of 157 tuberculosis cases annually, and result in $2.7 million in savings. From the combined perspective, screening programs for Chinese students would cost more than $2.8 million annually and screening programs for Indian students nearly $440,000 annually. From the combined perspective, the incremental cost for each tuberculosis case averted by screening Chinese and Indian students was $22,187 and $15,063, respectively. Implementing screening programs for German students would prevent no cases in most years, and would result in increased costs both overseas and in the United States. The domestic costs would occur because public health departments would need to follow up on students identified overseas as having an elevated risk of tuberculosis. Conclusions Tuberculosis screening and treatment programs for students seeking long term visas to attend United States schools would reduce the number of tuberculosis cases imported. Implementing screening in high-incidence countries could save the

  7. Statistical Methods for Protecting Personally Identifiable Information in the Disclosure of Graduation Rates of First-Time, Full-Time Degree- or Certificate-Seeking Undergraduate Students by 2-Year Degree-Granting Institutions of Higher Education. Technical Brief. NCES 2012-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Bersudskaya, Vera; Cubarrubi, Archie

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) requires that Title IV degree-granting institutions disclose annually the graduation rates of first-time, full-time degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students, disaggregated by gender, each major racial/ethnic subgroup, and receipt or non-receipt of a federal Pell grant or subsidized…

  8. Teaching Physics for the First Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Jan; Winn, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to be a quick and easy resource for anyone teaching physics for the first time. Written after extensive research, this book is filled with reliable labs, demos and activities that work well in the classroom. Also included are lesson plans, diagrams, and teacher notes for every activity. The book is not the end--it is just a…

  9. How to Motivate Students to Study before They Enter the Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogacnik, Lea; Cigic, Blaz

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises constitute an important part of chemical and biochemical courses at the university level. Nevertheless, students frequently are insufficiently prepared for the practical work, which often reduces their work to the level of a technician. A system designed to motivate students to study prior to the laboratory exercise was…

  10. Musical Identities in Transition: Solo-Piano Students' Accounts of Entering the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juuti, Sini; Littleton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the identity work of adult instrumental students negotiating their entry to a prestigious music academy and the professional field of music. Ten classical solo-piano students' accounts of their musical histories and experiences were collected through research interviews. The thematic analyses presented…

  11. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Skills of Students upon Entering and Exiting a Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, P. Elizabeth; Lane, Dorothy S.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the breast cancer screening knowledge of 27 medical students in first and fourth years. In the fourth year additional questions were asked about training and training needs. Although students performed significantly better on knowledge-based questions in the fourth year, considerable room for improvement remained. Most students…

  12. Enticing Students to Enter into Undergraduate Research: The Instrumentality of an Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Johnson, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    To encourage students to seek research opportunities with campus faculty, one large university in the Southeast created a course entitled Science for All. A major goal of the course was to encourage students to work directly with faculty on research projects of their interest. Overall, the findings show that some of the participants began to…

  13. From Home to Hall: The Transitional Experiences of Homeschooled Students Entering Residential University Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soufleris, Dawn Meza

    2014-01-01

    Research regarding homeschooled students and their transition to college has been focused on two distinct areas: their academic performance and success integrating into a university community. The purpose of this study was to analyze the transition experiences of students who were homeschooled prior to attendance at a residential university campus…

  14. Transition to first-time motherhood.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tina

    2011-02-01

    Becoming a mother for the first time signals a major life transition for many women. But even though age at first birth now spans a broader spectrum in the UK, women's ideas of what mothering will actually entail can remain narrowly focused. Yet everyday experiences of new mothering can feel very different from the ways in which it had been anticipated, envisaged and prepared for. In this article the experiences of a small group of women will be traced as they become mothers for the first time. This qualitative, longitudinal research approach reveals a gap between the women's expectations and their unfolding mothering experiences. In turn, the unexpected hard work and exhaustion of caring for a new baby can leave women confused and ambivalent about their early mothering experiences. These findings have implications for how antenatal preparation and postnatal care are planned and delivered. PMID:21388007

  15. A Study in Predicting English Grades for First-Time-in-College Students Using the Career Planning Program (CPP) and Multiple Assessment and Program Services (MAPS) Reading and Language Scores, Age, Gender, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randell G.

    To identify a set of predictor variables for student grades in a first-quarter English course, a study was undertaken of students' reading and language scores on the Career Planning Program (CPP) and the Multiple Assessment and Program Services (MAPS) placement tests. In addition, the relationship was examined between the first-quarter English…

  16. An Evaluation of the Right Choices Program to Determine Effectiveness in Delivering Constructive Interventions and Providing an Early Support Program in Order to Modify Behavior of First-Time Student Offenders Who Commit Drug and Violent Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to perform a program evaluation of the Right Choices Program to determine the program's effectiveness in delivering constructive interventions that modify student behavior once students have left the program and have returned to their regular learning environment. This mixed-method evaluation consisted of an…

  17. Correlation between prior exercise and present health and fitness status of entering medical students.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D Fred; Degenhardt, Brian F; Smith, Carol M

    2003-08-01

    Four hundred forty-one students were tested for strength, agility, flexibility, and endurance as well as for body fat, heart rate, and blood pressure. Questionnaires estimated prior exercise, sleep, diet, and leisure habits. Students were more fit than published norms. Their reported prior exercise habits correlated positively with estimated VO2max. Positive results of endurance tests correlated with better eating habits and lower blood pressure. Strong correlation existed between reported exercise and lower body fat, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure was in the hypertensive range in 57 individuals, and high blood pressure correlated with higher body weight, percent body fat, and resting heart rate. The authors concluded that most incoming medical students are fit and physically active. Positive correlations exist between prior exercise habits, performance on fitness tests, and indicators of reduced health risks. There was high correlation between risk factors for heart disease and measured blood pressure. PMID:12956248

  18. Competency Based Reading and Math Program for Adult Students Entering Vocational Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palagi, Robert G.

    The Testing and Assessment Department of Dawson Technical Institute (Illinois) determined that approximately 25-30 percent of the students taking the entrance Test of Adult Basic Education do not meet the academic level required to start a training program. A competency-based adult reading and math program was developed, and the decision was made…

  19. Measuring What Students Entering School Know and Can Do: PIPS Australia 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildy, Helen; Styles, Irene

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports analysis of 2006-2007 on-entry assessment data from the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools Baseline Assessment (PIPS-BLA) of random samples of students in England, Scotland, New Zealand and Australia. The analysis aimed, first, to investigate the validity and reliability of that instrument across countries and sexes, and,…

  20. Students Hearing Impaired from the 1963-1965 Rubella Epidemic Begin to Enter College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckless, E. Ross; Walter, Gerard G.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of the postsecondary qualifications among 8,000 or more children born hearing impaired as a result of the 1963-65 rubella epidemic revealed a favorable prognosis for postsecondary education for many rubella students graduating from secondary programs in 1983, l984, and l985. (Author/CL)

  1. Interactional Models of Learning Disabilities: Evidence from Students Entering Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined students in foster care for the relationship between learning and extrascholastic environments. Obtained achievement and intelligence scores for children (N=3,483) during the first months of foster care placement. Results showed average to low-average mean achievement and IQ, with academic deficits in basic skill areas. Results support…

  2. Individualized Education Program (IEP) Planning Guide for Special Education Students Entering High School Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Lewis P.

    This guide is designed to assist school program planners who are working with mainstreamed special education students in vocational education programs. The guide, covering grades 11 and 12, contains vocational program goals, objectives, and evaluation measures for 30 secondary vocational education programs in 15 curriculum areas, as well as for…

  3. Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility for Students Entering Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Lisa; Nguyen, Binh; Auten, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The "NCAA Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility" provides specific criteria to be used as a guide in reviewing the initial eligibility (graduation, core curriculum, grade-point average and ACT/SAT test scores) of students who have completed any portion of their secondary education in a non-United States educational…

  4. Suggestions for Screening Entering Kindergarten Students To Assist in the Identification of Possibly Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Starr

    This monograph is designed for New York parents and school personnel charged with administering the screening instruments for incoming kindergarten students to determine possible giftedness. It begins by explaining Article 65 of New York's Compulsory Education and School Census Law, Section 3208, which requires that parents be notified if their…

  5. A Case Study of Students Entering an Early College High School: Changes in Academic Behavior Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn more about the transition experiences of one group of high school students (N = 75) as they began attending one alternative pathway: an Early College High School program on a community college campus. A four-part conceptual framework of college readiness provided a structure from which to explore the…

  6. Teaching Entering Graduate Students the Role of Journal Articles in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Priscilla J.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate students need to understand the role of technical articles in research and to become familiar with the journal submission process. Although this knowledge is important to their careers, it is rarely included in coursework. To correct this, class discussion on the role of technical articles in research as well as the submission process has…

  7. Detainees arrested for the first time in French police stations.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Renaud; Beaufrère, Aurélie; Chariot, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The psychological impact of incarceration vary from individual to individual and most people first entering prison experience severe stress. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of detainees arrested for the first time and who had medical examination during custody. The study sample included 200 detainees arrested for the first time in 2012 and examined for the second time before May 31, 2013, 200 detainees arrested for the first time in 2012 and who had not a second examination by May 31, 2013, and a control group of 200 individuals who had been arrested before. Collected data related to persons' characteristics, the course of detention, alleged assaults and traumatic injuries. In our sample, victimization was the most frequent motivation for requesting a medical examination and affected 31-46% of patients who requested the examination. The medical examination was less frequently requested by the detainee at the first detention than at subsequent detentions (35% and 31% vs. 51%, P < 0.001). Unremarkable psychic states were found in most cases in all groups. Detainees expressed a good or very good opinion on custody in 40-51% of cases. In 75-89% of cases, detainees were considered to be unconditionally fit for detention. The present findings suggest only minor differences between clinical features of individuals arrested for the first time and their clinical status when they were arrested for the second time. The systematic collection of more detailed description of the detainees' psychic state could be relevant at the time of medical examinations in police cells. PMID:25735776

  8. First time description of dismantling phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Barrer, Laurence; Gimenez, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Dismantling is a complex psychic phenomenon, which is not easy to define, and little interest has been shown in the subject. The authors of this paper want to demonstrate that dismantling is the main defense mechanism in autism, bringing about de-consensus of senses. The effects perceived in a child with autistic disorder are passivity and lack of thought. The authors’ purpose here is to define the dismantled state and reveal its underlying process. This paper will therefore describe for the first time in literature, the dismantling phenomenon and will submit a metapsychological approach of this defense mechanism. PMID:25999871

  9. Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P.

    2014-01-01

    In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010−2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life. PMID:24727357

  10. Perceived stress scores among Saudi students entering universities: a prospective study during the first year of university life.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2014-04-01

    In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010-2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life. PMID:24727357

  11. Emporiatric enteritis: lessons learned from U.S. students in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, H. L.; Ericsson, C. D.; Dupont, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    In the studies reported, evidence has been presented that U.S. students traveling to Mexico represent a model for the study of travelers' diarrhea. The incidence of illness acquisition approximates that published in other studies of travelers. Natural immunity was shown to develop as students remained in Mexico presumably through repeated exposure to prevalent agents, particularly ETEC. ETEC, shigella strains and no detectable agent represented the largest groups when etiologic assessment was made. Food probably served as the important source of diarrhea particularly that due to ETEC and shigella strains. The level of bacteria isolated from food suggested that organism replication occurred due to improper temperature storage rather than to heavy initial contamination. The location of food consumption was related to degree of risk: self preparation was the safest, eating in Mexican homes the least safe and consumption of food in public restaurants was intermediate in risk. Water probably played a role in the transmission of viral infection. The risk of water contamination appeared to be highest during the rainy seasons. Finally, the antimicrobial agents TMP/SMX and TMP alone were shown to effectively prevent and treat this form of travelers' diarrhea. PMID:3837965

  12. Entering Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann; Sedorkin, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a short story of the authors, who show how they have "entered research", that is, entered the earliest conception of research and the early formation of research collaboration. As the authors worked together, they realised they had common concerns and life experiences. Each proudly identifies as working class Australian, each…

  13. Risky Business I. Entering Capital Markets for the First Time. Panel I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five panelists discuss how small businesses can acquire seed capital by considering venture; capital's role in the financing of business start-ups, using local banks as sources of advice and community support as well as funds for new entrepreneurs in rural areas, and investigating states' roles in supporting new ventures. (NEC)

  14. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills

  15. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebekah; Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, "The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner," "I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship," and "I think all students should participate in a similar experience." When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for

  16. Speed of Gravity Measured for First Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    learn about this intriguing cosmic force and its relationship to the other forces in nature," Kopeikin said. This is not the first time that Jupiter has played a part in producing a measurement of a fundamental physical constant. In 1675, Olaf Roemer, a Danish astronomer working at the Paris Observatory, made the first reasonably accurate determination of the speed of light by observing eclipses of one of Jupiter's moons. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. Weaving a Bridge of Sense: Students' Narrative Constructions as a Lens for Understanding Students' Coping with the Gap between Expectancies and Experiences When Entering Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulriksen, Lars; Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Moller, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how the application of narrative methodology brings new insights into understanding students' choices and their experiences upon entering a higher education programme. The point of departure is a study of a cohort of 38 students followed over a three-year period from when they were about to finish upper-secondary school in…

  18. Factors Influencing College Persistence for First-Time Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sheilynda; Lim, Doo Hun; Kim, JoHyun

    2015-01-01

    Using Tinto's (1993) longitudinal model of institutional departure, this study examined demographic variables, family characteristics, precollege and college academic performance factors, and extent to which mandatory placement in remedial courses predict persistence at a public research institution. This study also examined the relationship…

  19. Tuberculous Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, George S.; Tabrisky, Joseph; Peter, Michael E.

    1976-01-01

    Tuberculous enteritis occurs in about 2 percent of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although it is uncommon in the United States, tuberculous enteritis should be considered in any patient with active pulmonary tuberculosis and abdominal complaints. Eight cases of T. enteritis have been treated at Harbor General Hospital in the last 25 years. Associated pulmonary disease was shown radiologically to be present in seven of eight patients. Findings on contrast studies of the gastrointestinal tract showed disease in six of six patients examined. In five patients, surgical operation was required for diagnosis or complications. Resection of diseased bowel with primary anastomosis was done in five patients. Although medical therapy is the mainstay in the treatment of both pulmonary and intestinal tuberculosis, one staged resection of diseased bowel with primary anastomosis is the procedure of choice for complications such as obstruction, hemorrhage or perforation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:936600

  20. Radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, P.H.; Jenrette, J.M. III; Garvin, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    As the population receiving radiation therapy grows, so does the incidence of chronic radiation enteritis. A review of the pathology of chronic radiation enteritis reveals fibrosis, endarteritis, edema, fragility, perforation, and partial obstruction. Conservative management of patients with this disease is common. Because the obstruction is only partial, decompression is easily achieved with nasogastric suction and parenteral support. The patient is then often discharged on a liquid-to-soft diet. This therapeutic strategy does nothing for the underlying pathology. The problem, sooner or later, will return with the patient further depleted by the chronic radiation enteritis. We think surgical intervention is appropriate when the diagnosis of chronic radiation enteritis is assumed. The surgery in relation to this disease is high risk with a 30% mortality and 100% expensive morbidity. Early intervention seems to decrease these figures. All anastomoses, if possible, should be outside the irradiated area. Trapped pelvic loops of intestine should be left in place and a bypass procedure with decompressing enterostomies accomplished. The surgery should be performed by a surgeon with extensive experience with all kinds of bowel obstruction as well as experience in performing surgery in radiated tissue.

  1. Enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characteristic clinical signs associated with viral enteritis in young poultry include diarrhea, anorexia, litter eating, ruffled feathers, and poor growth. Intestines may have lesions; intestines are typically dilated and are filled with fluid and gaseous contents. The sequela to clinical disease...

  2. Pre-Service Post Graduate Teachers' First Time Experience with Constructivist Learning Environment (CLE) Using MOODLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boopathiraj, C.; Chellamani, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to enlighten and discuss Post Graduate student teachers' first time experiences and their level of satisfaction with the use of Moodle Learning Management System (LMS) during their "Research Methods in Education" course offered online. This study investigated 30 pre-service Post Graduate student teachers' to…

  3. Seven Years Later. Education and Work: A 1977 Survey of Students Who Entered the University of California in 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, C. Robert; Rosenstein, Carolyn

    Based on a national followup survey of college freshmen conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute, the University of California (UC) respondents were singled out for examination. In the spring of 1977, the national survey was sent to freshmen who had entered college in the fall of 1970. The UC sample of 4,240 freshmen attended either…

  4. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Price, Amanda A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Kraus, Caroline L.; McKenzie, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks. PMID:27279760

  5. GeoFORCE Texas: An Outreach Program that is Increasing the Number and Diversity of Students Completing STEM Degrees and Entering the Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, E.; Moore, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    GeoFORCE Texas is an outreach program of the Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin. Established in 2005 with the goal of increasing the number and diversity of students studying geosciences and engineering and entering the high-tech workforce, GeoFORCE has been highly successful. Key elements to that success will be presented here. GeoFORCE targets bright students in rural and inner-city schools where they are generally not academically challenged. Every summer throughout high school we take them on geologic field trips all over the country. In 2014, GeoFORCE led 15 field academies for about 600 students. The program is rigorous and academic. We emphasize college-level thinking skills. Because it is a 4-year program, they have a pretty good grounding in physical geology by the time they graduate. More importantly, they develop confidence in their ability to handle college, and a strong motivation to earn a college degree. GeoFORCE students are mostly minority (85%) and more than half will be the first in their family to graduate from college. GeoFORCE students exceed national averages in rates of going to college (97%), majoring in STEM fields (66%), majoring in geosciences (15%) and engineering (13%), and graduating from college (~85%). GeoFORCE is a public/private partnership and a workforce-focused program. The Jackson School funds staff and operating expenses (37%). Money for student programs comes from private industry (44%), state and federal grants (14%), and foundations and individual donors (5%). Our corporate partners are in the energy sector. In addition to funding, corporate sponsors attend the summer field programs, mentor GeoFORCE students, and provide opportunities for the students to visit the companies. As our students move toward college graduation, our industry and government partners have begun to hire them as interns. GeoFORCE graduates are now entering the workforce. Our first two cohorts are 4 and 5 years past high

  6. The Spiritual Engagement of Students Entering Institutions That Belong to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fereira, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Religion has been connected to higher education throughout its history in the United States and recent research suggests that the development of spirituality, as a part of the pursuit of higher education, is important to today's college student. In an effort to understand twenty-first century college students' perspectives on spirituality in…

  7. Cultivating College Success among Underprepared Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Judith Corbett; Daraviras, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The Brooklyn College, City University of New York (CUNY), Search for Education Elevation and Knowledge (SEEK) Program, a higher education opportunity program, provides special assistance to students who are entering college for the first time. SEEK students are from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds, and receive financial support as well as…

  8. First time issue of oral hormonal contraception by nurses.

    PubMed

    Presho, M; Leadbetter, C

    1999-10-01

    This study aimed to assess whether introducing the issue of first time oral hormonal contraception by nurses could expand the role of the family planning nurse and improve the service to the client group. Nurse acceptability of, and adherence to, the protocol were examined. Results indicate that with appropriate training the first time issue of oral hormonal contraception is a valuable skill in enhancing the nurses' role, reduces waiting time for clients and is acceptable to clients. PMID:10567062

  9. Entering the (Postgraduate) Field: Underrepresented Students' Acquisition of Cultural and Social Capital in Graduate School Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle; McCoy, Dorian L.

    2016-01-01

    Examining the role of humanities graduate preparation programs in facilitating underrepresented undergraduate students' socialization to the field (social context) of graduate education, this critical multisite case study finds that these programs are crucial to bidirectional anticipatory socialization for graduate education, where one gains new…

  10. Assessing the Quality of Student Thinking Directly: An Exploratory Study of Two Cohorts Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollacott, L.; Snell, D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an exploratory investigation involving the direct assessment of the quality of abstract thinking of two cohorts of South African university entrants who had very good school leaving qualifications. The investigation was prompted by the observation of difficulties these students seemed to have had in a first…

  11. The Application and Evaluation of a Two-Concept Diagnostic Instrument with Students Entering College General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Keily; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Instrument (Othman J., Treagust D. F. and Chandrasegaran A. L., (2008), "Int. J. Sci. Educ.," 30(11), 1531-1550) is used to investigate college students' understanding of two chemistry concepts: particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding. The instrument, originally developed…

  12. Design and Implementation of an Assessment Model for Students Entering Vocational Education Programs in the State of Colorado. Auto Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This basic vocational related skills assessment module in auto body is one of sixteen modules designed to help teachers assess and identify some of the areas in which special needs students may encounter learning difficulties. The materials in the module allow for informal assessment in three basic areas: academic skills, motor skills, and…

  13. Enter Sandbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clucas, T.; Wirth, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Interactive geospatial education tools can excite students and public audiences alike. Alaska EPSCoR and UAF GINA have taken one such tool - an augmented-reality sandbox invented at UC-Davis - and created a completely mobile version, which can be easily transported and deployed on and off the road system. In addition, EPSCoR has developed model curricula that use the sandbox to teach basic topography and hydrology skills. More advanced curricular modules in development will teach about flooding, tsunamis, and other hydrologic and landscape hazards. Instructions on building a mobile sandbox, curricula, and video of the sandbox in action are available at www.alaska.edu/epscor/Augmented-Reality%20Sandbox/

  14. First-time viewers' comprehension of films: bridging shot transitions.

    PubMed

    Ildirar, Sermin; Schwan, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Which perceptual and cognitive prerequisites must be met in order to be able to comprehend a film is still unresolved and a controversial issue. In order to gain some insights into this issue, our field experiment investigates how first-time adult viewers extract and integrate meaningful information across film cuts. Three major types of commonalities between adjacent shots were differentiated, which may help first-time viewers with bridging the shots: pictorial, causal, and conceptual. Twenty first-time, 20 low-experienced and 20 high-experienced viewers from Turkey were shown a set of short film clips containing these three kinds of commonalities. Film clips conformed also to the principles of continuity editing. Analyses of viewers' spontaneous interpretations show that first-time viewers indeed are able to notice basic pictorial (object identity), causal (chains of activity), as well as conceptual (links between gaze direction and object attention) commonalities between shots due to their close relationship with everyday perception and cognition. However, first-time viewers' comprehension of the commonalities is to a large degree fragile, indicating the lack of a basic notion of what constitutes a film. PMID:24654735

  15. XMM telescope goes on show for the first time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    After years of little-publicized effort in various parts of Europe, one of the finished XMM telescopes is presented for the first time to the press and other visitors during a press briefing on 22 May at the Centre Spatial de LiŠge (CSL) in Belgium. As the telescope is a flight model due to go into space, the inspection is hands-off, through a clean-room window. But visitors can see the multi-mirror module looking like a log of wood 70 centimetres wide and 60 centimetres long. In cross-section the nesting mirrors make concentric rings resembling the rings of annual growth in a tree --except that there are narrow gaps between the mirrors, to let in the X- rays. Galileo and Newton would not recognize the XMM module as a telescope, but they never had to focus X-rays, which ignore lenses and ordinary mirrors. The German physicist Hans Wolter invented a near-cylindrical mirror that narrows in a geometric fashion, first along a parabola and then a hyperbola. Some of the X-rays entering through the wider end are twice reflected from the interior wall at grazing angles, and go to a focus. When Wolter's concept went into telescopes for X-ray astronomy, most of the X-rays simply missed the mirror, so that any signal was weak. The remedy was to fill the interior with smaller concentric mirrors, to catch more of the X-rays. In practice, that meant either a few mirrors, fashioned and aligned with care to achieve a high resolving power, or many cruder mirrors which sacrificed optical sharpness for the sake of sensitivity. The XMM telescopes are the first to achieve both sharpness and sensitivity, thanks to innovations by European industry made possible by XMM's status as a Cornerstone Mission in ESA's science programme. Carl Zeiss in Germany provided mandrels (moulds) of 58 sizes, all carefully polished to the required paraboloidal-hyperboloidal shape. Media Lario in Italy made the reflective surface by depositing gold on the mandrel under vacuum, and then backed it with nickel

  16. Charting Pathways to Completion for Low-Income Community College Students. CCRC Working Paper No. 34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Weiss, Madeline Joy

    2011-01-01

    This study uses administrative data from Washington State to chart the educational pathways of first-time community college students over seven years, with a focus on young, socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Of particular interest are the rates at which students enter a course of study (by passing multiple college-level courses within a…

  17. Can College Actions Improve the Academic Achievement of At-Risk Minority Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    This study examined factors affecting academic achievement of at-risk minority students to evaluate intervention strategies designed to assist such students. Data were obtained on 2,386 first-time college students entering Prince George's Community College (Maryland) in fall 1990. Factor analysis identified 10 variables that explained a…

  18. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  19. Early Identification of Students Predicted to Enroll in Advanced, Upper-Level High School Courses: An Examination of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRose, Diego S.; Clement, Russell W.

    2011-01-01

    Broward County Public Schools' Research Services department uses logistic regression analysis to compute an indicator to predict student enrollment in advanced high school courses, for students entering ninth grade for the first time. This prediction indicator, along with other student characteristics, supports high school guidance staffs in…

  20. Lived Experiences of At-Risk Adult Students Attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Januwoina R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the phenomenological inquiry was to uncover the lived experiences of at-risk adult students in historically black colleges and universities. The intent was to provide an in-depth understanding of what these at-risk students face as they enter and matriculate at college, either for the first time or as returning students. The ten…

  1. Machining automation: Doing it right the first time

    SciTech Connect

    Setter, D.L.

    1990-08-01

    The implementation of a machining automation program and of the Allied-Signal efforts to Do it Right the First Time'' is presented. The automation program is a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for the machining and on-line inspection of a family of aluminum and stainless steel prismatic parts. The critical management and technical aspects found necessary to assure success in implementing large and risky automation programs are presented. The process being used is team based and has concentrated on involving the end users from the beginning.

  2. Cohort Analysis, Fall 1993 New Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

    In October 1996, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a longitudinal study of the characteristics of and outcomes experienced by students who entered the college for the first time in fall 1993, gathering data on retention rates, average attempted and earned cumulative hours, and graduation rates over 3 years. Of the 3,146…

  3. Characteristics of Adult Students Transitioning to a Traditional University and Perceptions of Student Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dani J.

    2012-01-01

    Limited research is devoted to the transitional process of adult students to the traditional university environment. Considering the incredible numbers of adults projected to return to higher education and/or entering a college or university program for the first time, it behooves institutions of higher learning to invest in the success of adult…

  4. Jordanian women: perceptions and practices of first-time pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Safadi, Reema

    2005-12-01

    A woman's child-bearing encounter is an experience that reflects the cultural beliefs and practices of the society. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions and practices of urban, low socioeconomic, Jordanian women (aged 18-30 years) in relation to their pregnancy career. An opportunistic sample consisting of 67 Muslim first-time pregnant women who followed up antenatal care at two maternity-care centres in East Amman was selected. A qualitative approach, including ethnographic semistructured interview, participant observation data from the households and clinics and oblique interviewing in random conversations initiated by the primigravidae, was conducted over 18 months. Women gave elaborative accounts of their pregnancy and childbirth expectations in narrative, phenomenological forms. Qualitative data analysis was performed concurrently with data collection, revealing the essential themes of immediacy of pregnancy; familial support and changing networks, especially for the after-birth period; fear of pain and medical interventions, all emphasizing the traditional and religious perceptions and practices in a familial context. PMID:16255738

  5. Technology Usage among Community College Faculty in First-Time-in-College Classes: A Call to Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Technology in higher education has played an increasingly dramatic role, particularly on community college campuses, with emphasis on how to provide better services to students via the use of technology. This report examines the challenge for faculty teaching first-time-in-college (FTIC) classes at El Centro College of the Dallas County Community…

  6. [Nurses in the first times of World War one].

    PubMed

    Marc, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    The First World War originated in new and huge problems for both military authorities and military health service. The modern war which begun in 1914 overflowed this Service reformed in 1912. Famous journalists and political men such as Barrès and Clémenceau took part against dramatic conditions encountered by wounded soldiers. The First World War saw the introduction of many new technologies to the art of killing one's enemy among them the machine gun and the heavy use of artillery. It resulted in massive amount of wounded and ill soldiers which overflowed the military health service and every evacuation mean to the rear front. From August 2nd, 1914 to December 31st, 1914, 798. 833 French wounded soldiers and 322.672 ill soldiers were treated by the French Army 7th direction, in charge of the military health service. In such circumstances, a voluntary, parallel and the efficient sanitary organisation took an importance unknown until yet. This organisation, the Red Cross, associated the Société française de secours aux blessés militaires (French society for help to the wounded soldiers), the Union des Femmes de France (French Women Union) and the Association des Dames françaises (French Ladies Association). These three organisations, associated to many religious ones, brought a real sanitary structure so necessary in the troubled period as the beginning of the First World War. Everywhere in France, health service structures such as the hôpital temporaire no. 103 (Temporary Hospital number 103) in Paris, model hospital from the Union des Femmes de France, associated volunteers civilian doctors and surgeons. To increase the professional value of the paramedical staffs, a very specific effort was done for the formation of nurses in number, as correctly and as quickly as possible. During the first year of the First World War, nurses will be estimated since they had been able by their action to balance the disorder of the very first time of the conflict. PMID

  7. Comparative Study of Freshmen College Student Beliefs and Values between Representative Private and Public Institutions of Higher Education in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Students entering college for the first time are embarking on a life-changing journey like none they have experienced. The potential impact the college experience will have on their lives is extreme. Students will be engaged in class and co-curricular settings in ways that will challenge them to produce developmental growth that will carry them…

  8. Residence Life and the New Student Experience, 3rd Edition. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, William J., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Residence life programs play a key role in recruiting students, helping them make a successful transition to a new institution, and in retaining them, whether students are enrolling for the first time, transferring from another institution, or entering graduate school. Chapters in this book address theories of learning and development, new…

  9. Chandra "Hears" A Black Hole For The First Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory detected sound waves, for the first time, from a super-massive black hole. The "note" is the deepest ever detected from an object in the universe. The tremendous amounts of energy carried by these sound waves may solve a longstanding problem in astrophysics. The black hole resides in the Perseus cluster, located 250 million light years from Earth. In 2002, astronomers obtained a deep Chandra observation that shows ripples in the gas filling the cluster. These ripples are evidence for sound waves that have traveled hundreds of thousands of light years away from the cluster's central black hole. perseus animation Illustration of Ripples in Perseus "We have observed the prodigious amounts of light and heat created by black holes, now we have detected the sound," said Andrew Fabian of the Institute of Astronomy (IoA) in Cambridge, England, and leader of the study. In musical terms, the pitch of the sound generated by the black hole translates into the note of B flat. But, a human would have no chance of hearing this cosmic performance, because the note is 57 octaves lower than middle-C (by comparison a typical piano contains only about seven octaves). At a frequency over a million, billion times deeper than the limits of human hearing, this is the deepest note ever detected from an object in the universe. "The Perseus sound waves are much more than just an interesting form of black hole acoustics," said Steve Allen, also of the IoA and a co-investigator in the research. "These sound waves may be the key in figuring out how galaxy clusters, the largest structures in the universe, grow," Allen said. For years astronomers have tried to understand why there is so much hot gas in galaxy clusters and so little cool gas. Hot gas glowing with X-rays should cool, and the dense central gas should cool the fastest. The pressure in this cool central gas should then fall, causing gas further out to sink in towards the galaxy, forming trillions of

  10. Enteric viruses of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of the poultry gut, very little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in ...

  11. Mecillinam in enteric fever.

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, B K; Ironside, A G; Brennand, J

    1979-01-01

    Twelve consecutive patients with enteric fever entered a trial of 14 days' treatment with mecillinam. Only three patients became afebrile within three days; four continued unimproved with fever and toxaemia for seven to nine days, when treatment was changed to chloramphenicol with good results. In one case the fever did not settle until the 13th day, and five days later the patient had a clinical relapse. Although all organisms recovered were fully sensitive to mecillinam, this drug is not an effective or consistent treatment for enteric fever. PMID:218670

  12. Much Ado about €500: Do Tuition Fees Keep German Students from Entering University? Evidence from a Natural Experiment Using DiD Matching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Tina; Helbig, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of tuition fees on enrolment behaviour among prospective students in Germany. According to the rational choice theory (RCT), we argue that due to the higher costs brought on by such fees tuition fees should have a negative effect on student's enrolment. This should be even more pronounced among prospective…

  13. Profile of Degree/Certificate-Seeking Entering Undergraduate Students, by Control and Level of Institution. Web Tables. NCES 2011-252

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott; Mason, Marcinda

    2011-01-01

    The Student Right to Know Act requires institutions that participate in any student financial assistance program under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (as amended) to disclose graduation rates. To assist institutions in meeting this requirement, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) collects these rates as part of the…

  14. Entering Adulthood: Balancing Stress for Success. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series. [Teacher's Guide and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Susan J.

    This curriculum guide provides high school students with specific tools to develop insights, attitudes and life skills they need to meet life's challenges and covers critical health and family life topics. It is part of a series designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility…

  15. Entering Adulthood: Examining Drugs and Risks. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series. [Teacher's Guide and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giarratano, Susan; Evans, Dale

    This curriculum guide for high-school students presents in-depth coverage of the full range of content related to drugs, including tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, narcotics, and hallucinogens. It is part of a series designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility for…

  16. Entering Adulthood: Understanding Depression and Suicide. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series. [Teacher's Guide and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Nanette D.

    This curriculum guide for high school students sensitively and expertly addresses the escalating social problem of suicide. This guide is part of a series designed to provide educators with the curricular tools necessary to challenge students to take personal responsibility for their health. With seven structured lessons, this teaching unit…

  17. Tracking Student Progress at PGCC: Basic Findings of the 1990 Entering Cohort, Four Year Academic Outcomes Analysis. Enrollment Analysis EA95-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughan, Karl

    Prince George's Community College, in Maryland, has developed a typology of student academic outcomes which takes into account the possibilities inherent in an open enrollment student body. The outcomes in the typology are award and transfer; transfer/no award; award/no transfer; traditional achievers, a summary of these three outcomes; sophomore…

  18. Summer Melt" and the Entering First-Year College Student: Insights from the College Match Pilot Program. College Match Issue Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Many students fail to enroll in college even after they have made a formal commitment to attend. Research has shown that nationally, between 10 percent and 40 percent of high school graduates who intend to go to college don't enroll the following fall. Among low-income students, these "summer melt" rates are even higher. The College…

  19. Transformative Learning and First-Time Managers: How Can HRD Practitioners Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nella A.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to management is one of the most difficult challenges first-time managers face--almost half fail. First-time managers may experience disorienting dilemmas that trigger transformative learning. HRD (human resource development) practitioners can assist in reducing the failure rate of first-time managers when they better understand the…

  20. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false First-time application procedures for... Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval. (a) Agencies or persons seeking accreditation or approval for the first time may submit...

  1. 22 CFR 96.20 - First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First-time application procedures for... Procedures for Accreditation and Approval § 96.20 First-time application procedures for accreditation and approval. (a) Agencies or persons seeking accreditation or approval for the first time may submit...

  2. An exploration of the perceptions of caring held by students entering nursing programmes in the United Kingdom: A longitudinal qualitative study phase 1.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jill; Cooper, Karen; Rosser, Elizabeth; Scammell, Janet; Heaslip, Vanessa; White, Sara; Donaldson, Ian; Jack, Eleanor; Hemingway, Ann; Harding, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    In a climate of intense international scrutiny of healthcare and nursing in particular, there is an urgent need to identify, foster and support a caring disposition in student nurses worldwide. Yet relatively little is known about how core nursing values are shaped during education programmes and this warrants further investigation. This longitudinal study commencing in February 2013 examines the impact of an innovative nursing curriculum based on a humanising framework (Todres et al. 2009) and seeks to establish to what extent professional and core values are shaped over the duration of a three year nursing programme. This paper reports on Phase One which explores student nurses' personal values and beliefs around caring and nursing at the start of their programme. Undergraduate pre-registration nursing students from two discrete programmes (Advanced Diploma and BSc (Honours) Nursing with professional registration) were recruited to this study. Utilising individual semi-structured interviews, data collection commenced with February 2013 cohort (n = 12) and was repeated with February 2014 (n = 24) cohort. Findings from Phase One show that neophyte student nurses are enthusiastic about wanting to care and aspire to making a difference to patients and their families. This research promises to offer contributions to the debate around what caring means and in particular how it is understood by student nurses. Findings will benefit educators and students which will ultimately impact positively on those in receipt of healthcare. PMID:26049787

  3. Navigating College: A Handbook on Self Advocacy Written for Autistic Students from Autistic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inclusion Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Leaving high school and going to college is complicated for everyone. But if you're a student on the autism spectrum who is about to enter higher education for the first time, it might be a little bit more complicated for you. Maybe you're worried about getting accommodations, getting places on time, or dealing with sensory issues in a new…

  4. Methodology and Implications of Statewide Success Rates of Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConochie, Daniel D.; Rajasekhara, Koosappa

    In 1991, the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges developed the "success rate," a reporting index which combined graduation, transfer, and persistence rates. Success rate matrices were produced by tracking first-time, full-time students representing seven cohorts (1980 to 1986) over a 4-year period, and matching entering enrollment files…

  5. A Student Outcomes Typology for Community Colleges: Identifying Achievers with Longitudinal Cohort Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughan, Karl; Clagett, Craig A.

    A study was conducted by Prince George's Community College, in Maryland, to determine outcomes after 4 years for the 2,643 first-time students who entered the college in fall 1990. The analysis was based on an outcomes typology developed at the college which defines outcomes as award and transfer; transfer without an award; award without transfer;…

  6. [Cyclic enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Hébuterne, X; Rampal, P

    1996-02-10

    Cyclic enteral nutrition consists in continuous infusion of nutrients with a pump over a 12 to 14 hour period at night. Different reports have demonstrated that cyclic enteral nutrition is well tolerated in malnourished ambulatory patients. The incidence of pneumonia by inhalation in this type of patients is less than 2%. Excepting patients with major amputation of the small intestine and important functional consequences, the increased infusion rate required by cyclic enteral nutrition does not diminish digestive tract absorption making the technique as effective as continuous 24-hour infusion. The main advantages of the cyclic infusion are the preservation of physiological balance between fasting and feeding, improved physical activity during the day with its beneficial effect on protein-energy metabolism, compatibility with oral nutrition during the day in nutrition reeducation programs, and the psychological impact in patients who are free to move about, further improving tolerance. Finally, cyclic enteral nutrition is adapted to enteral nutrition programs conducted in the patient's homes. PMID:8729381

  7. Learning and Teaching: Where Does Einstein's Concept of Learning about "Service of Our Fellow Man" Enter into Our Discussions about Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthey, George

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper discusses the significance of Albert Einstein's concept of learning about "service of our fellow man" into the discussions about student achievement. Albert Einstein wrote in 1954 of what he considered an evil of modern life--that the "individual feels more than ever dependent on society, but it is not felt in the positive…

  8. Enteral approaches in malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Avitzur, Yaron; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-04-01

    Enteral autonomy and freedom from parenteral nutrition dependency is the ultimate therapeutic goal in children with intestinal failure. This can be achieved following attainment of bowel adaptation in conditions such as short bowel syndrome. Enteral nutrition is a major therapeutic cornerstone in the management of children with intestinal failure. It promotes physiological development, bowel adaptation and enhances weaning from parenteral nutrition. The optimal method of delivery, type of nutrients, timing of initiation, promotion of feeds and transition to solid food in children with short bowel syndrome are debated. Lack of high quality human data hampers evidence based conclusions and impacts daily practices in the field. Clinical approaches and therapeutic decisions are regularly influenced by expert opinion and center practices. This review summarizes the physiological principles, medical evidence and practice recommendations on enteral nutrition approaches in short bowel syndrome and provides a practical framework for daily treatment of this unique group of patients. Oral and tube feeding, bolus and continuous feeding, type of nutrients, formulas, trace elements and solid food options are reviewed. Future collaborative multicenter, high quality clinical trials are needed to support enteral nutrition approaches in intestinal failure. PMID:27086892

  9. Enteric Redmouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), is a disease of salmonid fish species that is endemic in areas of the world where salmonids are intensively cultured. The disease causes a chronic to acute hemorrhagic septicemia which can lead to high rates of mortality partic...

  10. Evaluation of an Online Alcohol Education Program for First-Time-in-College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Elayne

    2011-01-01

    This study was guided by a research question regarding the efficacy of the AlcoholEdu program in increasing the use of protective behaviors among incoming college freshman of different drinking risk groups. Specifically, the researcher sought to determine which drinker risk groups, if any, showed the greatest degree of willingness to change…

  11. Some Characteristics and Opinions of L.A.C.C. Entering Students, Fall, 1977: A Report on Responses to the A.C.E. 1977 Student Information Form. Research Study #78-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Vance

    Los Angeles City College (LACC), a predominantly minority, inner-city community college, administered the ACE "1977 Student Information Form" to 3,000 incoming students for fall 1977. The form allowed students to express opinions on current issues; the generated information was used in comparing student characteristics and attitudes with those of…

  12. Application of the Consumer Decision-Making Model to Hearing Aid Adoption in First-Time Users

    PubMed Central

    Amlani, Amyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1980, hearing aid adoption rates have remained essentially the same, increasing at a rate equal to the organic growth of the population. Researchers have used theoretical models from psychology and sociology to determine those factors or constructs that lead to the adoption of hearing aids by first-time impaired listeners entering the market. In this article, a theoretical model, the Consumer Decision-Making Model (CDM), premised on the neobehavioral approach that considers an individual's psychological and cognitive emphasis toward a product or service, is described. Three theoretical models (i.e., transtheoretical, social model of disability, Health Belief Model), and their relevant findings to the hearing aid market, are initially described. The CDM is then presented, along with supporting evidence of the model's various factors from the hearing aid literature. Future applications of the CDM to hearing health care also are discussed. PMID:27516718

  13. Sing, Soothe and Sleep: A Lullaby Education Programme for First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Felicity; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an education programme conducted with first-time mothers. The study aimed to establish whether mothers found an education session on lullaby singing beneficial for them and their babies as well as reporting what lullabies were sung and why. Twenty first-time mothers were provided with examples of lullabies and asked to sing…

  14. Personality Differences of First-Time and Repeat Offenders Arrested for Driving while Intoxicated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, James R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined personality characteristics of first-time (n=174) and repeat (n=64) driving while intoxicated offenders. Found that repeat offenders differed significantly from first-time offenders on 12 of 24 personality characteristics, were less expressive emotionally, and were less flexible in ways of finding stimulation; however, self-reported…

  15. Biotechnology Enters Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that the agriculture industry is changing and that vocational agriculture students must learn more science than before to be prepared. Iowa formed groups of educators and business representatives to advise on which curricula should be funded. (JOW)

  16. John Glenn Entering Friendship 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Overall view of astronaut John Glenn, Jr., as he enters into the spacecraft Friendship 7 prior to MA-6 launch operations at Launch Complex 14. Astronaut Glenn is entering his spacecraft to begin the first American manned Earth orbital mission.

  17. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  18. Entering the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vince, Gaia

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence that we are now entering a new geological age defined by human influence on the planet, the Anthropocene. Millions of years from now, a stripe in the accumulated layers of rock on Earth's surface will reveal our human fingerprint just as we can see evidence of dinosaurs in rocks of the Jurassic, or the explosion of life that marks the Cambrian. There is now no part of the planet untouched by human influence. The realisation that we wield such planetary power requires a quite extraordinary shift in perception, fundamentally toppling the scientific, cultural and religious philosophies that define our place in the world. This session explores these issues and examines our new relationship with nature now that we so strongly influence the biosphere. And this session will look at what the impacts of our planetary changes mean for us, and how we might deal with the consequences of the Anthropocene we have created.

  19. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Engelhard, Chalee; Landry, Michel D.; McCallum, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs. PMID:26395081

  20. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Llena

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided. PMID:27266719

  1. Outcomes of Various Interventions for First-Time Perianal Abscesses in Children

    PubMed Central

    Juth Karlsson, Alexander; Salö, Martin; Stenström, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In children treated surgically for first-time perianal abscesses, discovery and excision of concomitant fistulas may also be warranted. Aim. To evaluate children of varying age after incision and drainage of first-time perianal abscesses, examining recurrences rates with and without search for a fistula. Method. A retrospective review was conducted, analyzing children (ages 0–15 years) treated for first-time perianal abscesses at a tertiary pediatric surgical center, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Results. A total of 104 patients subjected to 112 treatments for first-time perianal abscesses were eligible. Surgical procedures constituted 84 (75%) of treatments, searching for fistulas in 49 (58%). In 34 (69%), fistulas were confirmed and treated. In the surgically treated subset, the recurrence rate was higher if no attempt was made to exclude a fistula (46%), as opposed to confirmed absence of a fistula (27%) or concurrent fistulotomy (9%; p = 0.02). Younger patients showed a higher recurrence rate (12/26; 46%), compared with older counterparts (11/58; 19%) (p = 0.002). Conclusion. In children surgically treated for first-time perianal abscess, recurrence rates appear to be lowered by locating and treating coexisting fistulas. PMID:26881235

  2. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  3. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5th International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy. PMID:25759526

  4. Enteric neurons show a primary cilium

    PubMed Central

    Luesma, Mª José; Cantarero, Irene; Castiella, Tomás; Soriano, Mario; Garcia–Verdugo, José Manuel; Junquera, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile cilium whose structure is 9+0. It is involved in co-ordinating cellular signal transduction pathways, developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Defects in the structure or function of the primary cilium underlie numerous human diseases, collectively termed ciliopathies. The presence of single cilia in the central nervous system (CNS) is well documented, including some choroid plexus cells, neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes, but the presence of primary cilia in differentiated neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has not yet been described in mammals to the best of our knowledge. The enteric nervous system closely resembles the central nervous system. In fact, the ultrastructure of the ENS is more similar to the CNS ultrastructure than to the rest of the peripheral nervous system. This research work describes for the first time the ultrastructural characteristics of the single cilium in neurons of rat duodenum myenteric plexus, and reviews the cilium function in the CNS to propose the possible role of cilia in the ENS cells. PMID:23205631

  5. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53…

  6. Understanding Parenting Stress among Young, Low-Income, African-American, First-Time Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yiting; Fine, Mark A.; Ispa, Jean; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth; Wolfenstein, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model that examined the extent to which cognitive readiness to parent, perceived difficult child temperament, observed parenting behaviors, and positive coping styles predicted parenting stress among young, low-income, first-time, African-American mothers. One hundred and twenty African-American,…

  7. First-Time Freshmen in California Colleges and Universities, Fall 1999. Factsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This factsheet describes the enrollment and characteristics of first-time college freshmen in California public colleges and universities in fall 1999. Slightly more recent California high school graduates enrolled in public postsecondary institutions in fall 1999 than in the previous fall, but this growth did not keep pace with the rise in the…

  8. [Clinical trial requests of indigenous diagnostic imaging ultrasound devices in first-time registration application].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojun; Cao, Guofang; Tao, Kan

    2012-11-01

    This article introduces the clinical requests of indigenous diagnostic imaging ultrasound devices in first-time registration application and the clinical trial requests in Technical Review Guidance of Ultrasound Imaging Diagnostic Devices (category III) Registration and puts forward some questions of the guidance's implementation. It is hoped to help concerned people. PMID:23461122

  9. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  10. Does Home Visiting Benefit Only First-Time Mothers?: Evidence from Healthy Families Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Lee; Galano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    It is a common assumption that mothers who have had previous births would participate less fully and have poorer outcomes from early home visitation programs than would first-time mothers. The authors conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to test that assumption by measuring three aspects of participation: time in the program, the number…

  11. Preventive Effects of Lamaze Training for First-Time Parents: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markman, Howard J.; Kadushin, Frederick S.

    1986-01-01

    First-time parents completed questionnaires 3 months before childbirth and 1 and 9-10 weeks after birth. Found that 39 Lamaze-trained couples reported similar levels of marital satisfaction, state anxiety, and birth-related problems at all testings, while 37 non-Lamaze trained couples showed decreases in marital satisfaction and increases in…

  12. Making the Transition to Teaching Online: Strategies and Methods for the First-Time, Online Instructor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanSickle, Jennifer

    This paper discusses the changes in instruction needed to make the transition to teaching an online course. It discusses both traditional and alternative teaching methods a first-time online instructor might choose to use. The advantages and disadvantages of online courses are explored through a review of the literature, and ways in which online…

  13. Use of Music Intervention for Reducing Anxiety and Promoting Satisfaction in First-Time Filipino Fathers.

    PubMed

    Labrague, Leodoro J; McEnroe-Petitte, Denise M

    2016-03-01

    Childbirth is an anxiety-provoking event in a man's life. Therefore, strategies to decrease paternal anxiety during childbirth are necessary. This study determined the effects of music and satisfaction of first-time Filipino fathers during childbirth. In the study, a prospective quasi-experimental design was utilized. Ninety-eight purposive samples of first-time fathers were included in the study, 50 were allocated in the experimental group (music group) and 48 in the control group (nonmusic group) during the months of August to October 2013. Paternal anxiety and satisfaction were measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Visual Analogue Scale for Satisfaction, respectively. Results revealed that the first-time fathers in the experimental group had lower State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores (p < .05) and higher Visual Analogue Scale for Satisfaction scores (p < .05) than those in the control group. Findings of the study provide substantial evidence to support the use of music in reducing anxiety and promoting satisfaction among first-time fathers during childbirth. PMID:25432465

  14. Small Business Planning and Management for the First-Time Entrepreneur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doster, D. Howard; And Others

    Written with the small business manager and first-time entrepreneur in mind, this book provides the adult learner, in a class or alone, with activities and questions to increase understanding. These are intended to aid decision making as plans are made for the chosen enterprise. The book is divided into five parts: Looking at Entrepreneurship,…

  15. For the First Time in 3 Years, Faculty Salaries Beat Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millman, Sierra

    2007-01-01

    This year faculty salaries outpaced inflation for the first time in three years, but the American Association of University Professors is still warning of growing financial inequalities within higher education. "One year cannot reverse discouraging trends that have been developing over decades," writes Saranna R. Thornton, a professor of economics…

  16. A qualitative study on the breastfeeding experiences of first-time mothers in Vientiane, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of breastfeeding are well-recognised. The majority of first-time mothers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic however do not follow WHO guidelines of exclusively breastfeeding for the first six months, and less than half breastfeed for two years. UNICEF identified lack of exclusive breastfeeding as the second highest risk factor for under 5 mortality in Lao PDR, closely following lack of skilled delivery care. This study explored the reasons and influences behind first-time mothers' breastfeeding practices, as well as the role of attitudes, beliefs and experiences in influencing those practices. Methods A qualitative research design was chosen for this exploratory study. Two districts in Vientiane were selected, and in each district four focus group discussions, two with six first-time mothers and two with health staff were undertaken. In addition, sixteen in-depth interviews with first-time mothers and seven individual key informants were conducted. Results Participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards breastfeeding and recognised its importance. Despite this, breastfeeding practices were suboptimal. Few exclusively breastfed for the first six months of the baby’s life and most of the first-time mothers included in the sample had stopped or planned to stop breastfeeding by the time the infant was 18 months of age. Work was named as one of the main reasons for less than ideal breastfeeding practices. Traditional beliefs and advice from health staff and the first-time mothers' own mothers, were important influences on breastfeeding practices. First-time mothers also cited experiencing tension when there were differences in advice they received from different people. Conclusion Overall, the mothers were well-informed on the benefits of breastfeeding, and displayed positive attitudes towards it. Nevertheless, few maintained optimal breastfeeding practices in the first two years of the infant’s life. Further effort needs to be

  17. Viral enteric infections of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric diseases cause great economic losses to the poultry industry mostly from depressed weight gains, impaired feed efficiency, and decreased flock uniformity. Enteric syndromes have been described in both young turkeys and chickens and likely result from infection by a mixture of pathogenic age...

  18. Sensitivity of the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale: A Known Group Analysis of First Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups. PMID:24391731

  19. Exploring masculinities within men's identificatory imaginings of first-time fatherhood.

    PubMed

    Finn, Mark; Henwood, Karen

    2009-09-01

    The changing role and practices of men as fathers is a growing subject of interest and debate within academic and everyday responses to contemporary sociocultural change. Prompted by questions about the production of identities and masculinities that accompanies social change, this paper is a psychosocial exploration of the identificatory positionings that are apparent in men's talk of becoming first-time fathers. Our qualitative analysis draws on a sample of 30 heterosexual and variously skilled men aged between 18 and 40 years in Norfolk (UK) who were interviewed as first-time fathers just before and after the birth of their child. We explore aspects of men's identifications within inter-generationally located biographies and associated social and relational contexts, specifically attending to ways in which men can make sense of a 'new' style of fatherhood, themselves and their masculinities in terms of being modern and traditional fathers. In adopting a psychosocial approach we are primarily concerned for ways in which the identificatory positions available to first-time fathers are conditional on a complex assemblage of dynamic mediations that are at once social, discursive and psychological. PMID:19091163

  20. Adult patients looking at their burn injuries for the first time.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, C; Weinberg, K

    2001-01-01

    A total of 222 burn nurses from 30 burn centers completed a questionnaire about how and when a burn patient looks at their burn wound for the first time. The registered nurse is most frequently with the patient when the patient sees the wound for the first time (n = 187; 84%). Looking at the wound is not usually a planned event, and it is not documented in the patient record. Nurses use verbal and nonverbal patient cues to determine when it is appropriate for the patient to look initially at the wound and combine this initial look with an opportunity to teach wound healing. The patient asks the nurse for an opinion about the way the wound looks (n = 181; 81.5%). The nurse uses silence, presence-of-self, and gentle encouragement with the patient while remaining positive and honest. Respondents reported that the patient wants the truth but also needs reassurance and some degree of optimism when viewing the wound for the first time. PMID:11570538

  1. Do first-time breeding females imprint on their own eggs?

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Carra, Laura G.; Ontanilla, Juan; Martín-Galvez, David

    2013-01-01

    The egg-recognition processes underlying egg rejection are assumed to be based on an imprinting-like process (a female learning the aspect of her own eggs during her first breeding attempt). The imprinting-like process and the misimprinting costs have been the objective of many theoretical models and frequently have a leading role in papers published on brood parasitism; however, an experiment has never been undertaken to test the existence of this imprinting-like process by manipulating egg appearance in first-time breeding females. Here, we present the first such experimental study using the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), which is a conspecific brood parasite and which has a good ability to reject conspecific eggs, as a model species. We found that contrary to what the hypothesis predicts first-time breeding females did not reject their own eggs in their second breeding attempt. This lack of response against unmanipulated eggs could indicate that females have an innate preference for their own eggs. However, in a second experimental group in which first-time breeding females were allowed to learn the aspect of their (unmanipulated) own eggs, none ejected manipulated eggs during their second clutch either—a finding that does not support the idea of recognition templates being inherited, but instead suggests that recognition templates could be acquired again at each new breeding attempt. Our results demonstrate that it is likely that egg discrimination is not influenced by egg appearance in the first breeding attempt. PMID:23235707

  2. First-time Taiwanese expectant fathers' life experiences during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chien-Huei; Long, Ann

    2004-03-01

    This descriptive phenomenological study was designed to explore the life experiences of 14 Taiwanese first-time expectant fathers while their wives were in the third trimester of pregnancy. The authors used unstructured interviews to obtain the data from each participant. Data were analyzed by Colaizzi ' s (1978) method as a qualitative content analysis. In addition, the researcher used the work of Lincoln and Guba (1985) to enhance the rigorousness of this study. The findings demonstrated that during the third trimester of their wives ' pregnancy eight key themes emerged among the first-time expectant fathers, as follows: (1). Jubilation; (2). Feelings of uuncertainty (3). Adjustment; (4). Preparation for fatherhood; (5). Engagement; (6). Gender concerns; (7). The wonder of fetal movement, and (8). Expanded vision. The findings from this study have an important contribution to make to an advancement of practice, education and research concerning first-time fathers ' needs and aspirations. In addition, the findings showed that there is a need to reaffirm the place of caring in nursing and midwifery if our goal is to provide a high quality service which meets the needs of the woman and her family. It is essential for nurses to champion the advancement of family-centred care which involves their partners in pregnancy. PMID:15136964

  3. The Perspectives of First-Time Teachers Concerning Their Assimilation into the New School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Megan

    2012-01-01

    New teachers entering the profession are leaving within their first few years, with half exiting the profession in the first five years. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the experiences of new elementary school teachers regarding their assimilation into a new school environment. The primary research question involved…

  4. [Serious pulmonary barotrauma in a child after first-time scuba dive].

    PubMed

    Le Guen, H; Halbert, C; Gras Le Guen, C; Coulange, M

    2012-07-01

    Scuba diving is increasingly popular for children. However, this activity, including in shallow water, can be responsible for severe accidents. We report the case of a 13-year-old boy who dove for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea and suffered pulmonary barotraumas, complicated by arterial gas embolism with pneumomediastinum, cerebral, and coronary injuries. Any symptoms occurring after a dive, even in shallow water, must be considered a diving accident. Emergency medical personnel should contact a hyperbaric center for advice. In case of coronary or cerebral gaseous embolism, specific management requiring therapeutic recompression is urgently required. PMID:22682518

  5. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J.; Grebe, Stefan K.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca) kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined. Methods In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls. Results Serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001). Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008). Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82). In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH)2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05). Conclusions Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk. PMID:26332888

  6. The enter-educate approach.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Coleman, P L

    1992-03-01

    This article describes how the Population Communication Services (PCS) has seized on the "enter-educate" approach, the blending of popular entertainment with social messages, to change reproductive health behavior. The enter-educate approach spreads its message through songs, soap operas, variety shows, and other types of popular entertainment mediums. Because they entertain, enter-educate projects can capture the attention of an audience -- such as young people -- who would otherwise scorn social messages. And the use of population mediums makes it possible to reach a variety of audiences. Funded by USAID, PCS began its first enter-educate project in response to the increasing number of teenage pregnancies in Latin America. PCS developed 2 songs and videos, which featured popular teenage singers to serve as role models, to urge abstinence. The songs became instant hits. Since then, PCS has mounted more then 80 major projects in some 40 countries. Highlights of programs range from a successful multi-media family planning campaign in Turkey to humorous television ads in Brazil promoting vasectomy. Recently, PCS initiated projects to teach AIDS awareness. At the core of the enter-educate approach is the social learning theory which holds that much behavior is learned through the observation of role-models. Health professionals work alongside entertainers to produce works that have audience appeal and factual social messages. The enter-educate approach works because it is popular, pervasive, personal, persuasive, and profitable. PCS has found that enter-educate programs pay for themselves through cost sharing and cost recovery. PMID:12284960

  7. Enteric viruses of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although enteric disease in commercial poultry operations is common, and often unofficially reported and discussed by field veterinarians as “non-specific enteric disease”, three recognized enteric syndromes do exist in poultry: poult enteritis complex (PEC) and poult enteritis mortality syndrome (P...

  8. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  9. Determinants of First-Time Cancer Examinations in a Rural Community: A Mechanism for Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi; Emanuel, Amber S.; Shepperd, James A.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Marks, John G.; Muller, Keith E.; Riley, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. After conducting a media campaign focusing on the importance of oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) examinations, we assessed mechanisms of behavior change among individuals receiving an OPC examination for the first time. Methods. We used data from 2 waves of telephone surveys of individuals residing in 36 rural census tracts in northern Florida (n = 806). The second survey occurred after our media intervention. We developed media messages and modes of message delivery with community members via focus groups and intercept interviews. We performed a mediation analysis to examine behavior change mechanisms. Results. Greater exposure to media messages corresponded with heightened concern about OPC. Heightened concern, in turn, predicted receipt of a first-time OPC examination, but only among men. Conclusions. We extended earlier studies by measuring an outcome behavior (receipt of an OPC examination) and demonstrating that the putative mechanism of action (concern about the disease) explained the link between a media intervention and engaging in the target behavior. Improving the quality of media campaigns by engaging community stakeholders in selecting messages and delivery methods is an effective strategy in building public health interventions aimed at changing behaviors. PMID:25973820

  10. Ego-Dystonic Pregnancy and Prenatal Consumption of Alcohol Among First-Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines predictors of drinking during pregnancy among first-time mothers, in order to distinguish those in need of targeted screening and intervention. Methods Data from the prenatal panel of the Parenting for the First Time study were used in hierarchical linear regressions to determine likelihood of prenatal alcohol consumption among a sample of 645 women. Results African-American women and those of race/ethnicities other than White were less likely to drink, regardless of age or level of education. Among all women, being in school was associated with abstention (p = 0.05). Among teens, endorsing a perception of feeling “pushed around” was a significant indicator of prenatal alcohol consumption (p = 0.05), as was not having plans for infant feeding shortly before delivery (p = 0.05). Among adults with some level of college education, having a first prenatal visit after the fourth month of pregnancy was a significant predictor of drinking (p = 0.01). Conclusions This study indicates that women who evidence behaviors or attitudes indicating an ego-dystonic pregnancy (one that is psychologically or emotionally uncomfortable), may be more likely to self-medicate and cope via avoidance through drinking. These behaviors and attitudes may be indicators of the need for targeted screening and intervention, as well as indicators of underlying problems to be targeted in treatment. Further, among all women for whom continued education is a possibility, retaining the ability to attend school during the pregnancy can be protective. PMID:22045021

  11. Pregnancy Experiences of First-Time Fathers in Iran: A Qualitative Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Golian Tehrani, Shahnaz; Bazzazian, Shahin; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, is an important role and responsibility. For accepting this role, one needs to be well-prepared. Awareness of father’s experiences of pregnancy can help us to develop plans for the promotion of the role of fatherhood. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore how first time fathers describe their experiences of pregnancy. Patients and Methods: The data in this qualitative study were collected by individual open-ended interviews in five public health prenatal care clinics in Tehran, Iran, during 2010 ‒ 2011. Participants were 26 Iranian and Moslem first-time fathers living in Tehran, whose partner was in the 32th to 40th week of her normal pregnancy. Qualitative content text analysis was used for analyzing interviews. Results: Through analysis of fathers’ experiences of their wives’ pregnancy, four categories, as well as associated subcategories, emerged. The categories include: “Emotional responses to pregnancy, Feeling of change, Accepting the reality and satisfaction, Developing identity as a father.” These categories describe the phenomenon of “Transition to fatherhood”. Conclusions: Transition to fatherhood extends beyond only moderate mental and social changes, and may be influenced by cultural background and beliefs. Therefore, caregivers should be aware of fathers' changes and needs during pregnancy, and support them while taking into consideration their culture and beliefs. PMID:25838928

  12. Medical complications experienced by first-time ischemic stroke patients during inpatient, tertiary level stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Civelek, Gul Mete; Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the medical complications in first-time ischemic stroke patients, to identify the factors related to occurrence of complications. [Subjects and Methods] First-time ischemic stroke patients (n=81) admitted to a tertiary level inpatient rehabilitation center during a 5 year period were included in the study. The attending physiatrist noted the presence of specific medical complications and complications that required transfer to the acute care facility from patient records. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification was used to define the clinical subtypes of the ischemic stroke patients. The Charlson comorbidity index was used to evaluate co-morbid conditions. Functional disability was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure at admission and discharge. [Results] We found that 88.9% of the patients had at least one complication. The five most common complications were urinary tract infection (48.1%), shoulder pain (37.0%), insomnia (37.0%), depression (32.1%), and musculoskeletal pain other than shoulder pain (32.1%) and 11.1% of patients were transferred to acute care facility during rehabilitation period. Functional Independence Measure scores both at admission and discharge were significantly lower in patients with at least one complication than in patients with no complications. [Conclusion] Medical complications are common among patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation. Close interdisciplinary collaboration between physiatrists and other medical specialities is necessary for optimal management. PMID:27065523

  13. Temporal associations between substance use and delinquency among youth with a first time offense

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sarah B.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Ewing, Brett A.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Substance use and delinquency among adolescents has been shown to be positively associated; however, the temporal relationship is not well understood. Examining the association between delinquency and substance use is especially relevant among adolescents with a first-time substance use related offense as they are at-risk for future problems. METHOD Data from 193 adolescents at time of diversion program entry and six months later was examined using cross-lagged path analysis to determine whether substance use and related consequences were associated with other types of delinquency across time. RESULTS Results demonstrated that delinquency at program entry was related to subsequent reports of heavy drinking and alcohol consequences, but not marijuana use or its consequences. In contrast, alcohol and marijuana use at program entry was not related to future reports of delinquency. CONCLUSIONS Findings emphasize the need to build in comprehensive assessments and interventions for youth with a first time offense in order to prevent further escalation of substance use and criminal behaviors. PMID:24656642

  14. Medical complications experienced by first-time ischemic stroke patients during inpatient, tertiary level stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Civelek, Gul Mete; Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the medical complications in first-time ischemic stroke patients, to identify the factors related to occurrence of complications. [Subjects and Methods] First-time ischemic stroke patients (n=81) admitted to a tertiary level inpatient rehabilitation center during a 5 year period were included in the study. The attending physiatrist noted the presence of specific medical complications and complications that required transfer to the acute care facility from patient records. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification was used to define the clinical subtypes of the ischemic stroke patients. The Charlson comorbidity index was used to evaluate co-morbid conditions. Functional disability was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure at admission and discharge. [Results] We found that 88.9% of the patients had at least one complication. The five most common complications were urinary tract infection (48.1%), shoulder pain (37.0%), insomnia (37.0%), depression (32.1%), and musculoskeletal pain other than shoulder pain (32.1%) and 11.1% of patients were transferred to acute care facility during rehabilitation period. Functional Independence Measure scores both at admission and discharge were significantly lower in patients with at least one complication than in patients with no complications. [Conclusion] Medical complications are common among patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation. Close interdisciplinary collaboration between physiatrists and other medical specialities is necessary for optimal management. PMID:27065523

  15. The Socialization of First-Time Athletic Training Education Program Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viesselman, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Starting in 2004 athletic training students had to graduate from accredited athletic training education programs to become certified. Institutions had to accredit their athletic training education programs to continue offering students the opportunity to become certified. These institutions needed to transition current employees or hire new…

  16. Enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... be caused by: An autoimmune condition such as Crohn's disease Certain drugs, including ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, and cocaine ... may need to take antibiotics. People who have Crohn's disease will often need to take anti-inflammatory medicines. ...

  17. First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  18. First-time primary caregivers' experience of caring for young adults with first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I; Clark, Eileen

    2011-03-01

    Becoming a career is associated with physical, emotional, and financial hardship, with caregivers often experiencing a maelstrom of emotions as they struggle to understand what has happened to their loved one. While the burden of caring for young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) has been well documented, much less is known about how carers develop the strength and resilience to continue caring. This qualitative study aimed to understand the experience of 20 first-time primary caregivers of young adults with FEP. Most caregivers were female (85%, n = 17) and parents (85%, n = 17). The average length of involvement as a caregiver at an FEP service was 14.5 months. Six main themes were identified in the data, highlighting the carers' experience in supporting young adults with FEP. Caregiving is a burdensome responsibility and is characterized as a roller coaster and unpredictable experience. Caregivers often feel responsible for the young person's illness; however, eventually most come to terms with the changes that have occurred in the young person with FEP. As a consequence of the illness, the relationship between caregiver and care recipient frequently becomes closer and deeper, although it is important that they both maintain hope for the future. These findings provide important insights into the experiences of first-time caregivers of young people with FEP, with direct implications for improving the information and support given to caregivers by FEP services, as well as the development of interventions that effectively address the unique challenges caregivers face following the onset of FEP. PMID:19679716

  19. Colleges Enter the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Higher Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The implications for higher education of the U.S. transformation from an industrial to an information society are discussed in six papers. Russell Edgerton provides an overview in "Entering the Information Society: An Introduction." In "The Computer: An Enabling Instrument," Louis Robinson considers the current era of the personalization of the…

  20. Computer Literacy of Entering Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellep, Andrew

    In an effort to improve college program planning using data on the computer skills of entering freshmen, a survey was conducted to obtain information about computer science programs in Pennsylvania's public schools. The study investigated the material being taught, the background of computer science teachers, program plans, tendencies in the…

  1. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  2. [Enteral nutrition: past and future].

    PubMed

    Bengmark, S; Ortiz de Urbina, J J

    2004-01-01

    Perioperative nutrition has during the last century been transformed from a tool to provide calorie and nitrogen support to a tool to boost the immune system and increase resistance to complications. Despite all progress in medicine and surgery has perioperative morbidity, rate of infections, thrombosis and development of serosal adhesions remained the same as long as can be judged or at least during the last eighty years. Most prone to develop complications are persons above the age of 65 and persons with depressed immunity. About eighty percent of the immune system is localised in the gastrointestinal tract, which offers great opportunities for modulation through enterar nutrition. As the stomach has a tendency to develop postoperative paralysis, tube feeding is often necessary. Andresen demonstrated already in 1918 the advantages of enteral nutrition, which starts already on the table. Mulholland et al and Rhoads and co-workers demonstrated during the 1940s certain advantages of enteral tube feeding. Also works by Alexander, Fischer, Ryan and their co-workers supported the value of early enteral feeding, and suggested enteral feeding as an effective tool to boost the immune system. It was, however, works published in the early nineties by Moore et al and by Kudsk et al, which made surgeons more aware of the advantages of early enteral nutrition. Major surgery is known to have a high rate of complications. Uninterrupted perioperative nutrition, eg nutrition during the night before, during surgery and immediately after offers a strong tool to prevent complications. It is essential that the nutrition provides food also for the colon, e.g. fibres and healthy bacteria (probiotics) to ferment the fibre and boost the immune system. PMID:15049413

  3. Self-Management Strategies for Adolescents Entering the Work Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloss, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The article proposes a training program in self-management skills for handicapped youths entering the work force. Included are the following sample forms: critical events log, self-referral for training form, self-monitoring report, self-management contract. The forms provide tangible evidence of student progress in self-management. (DB)

  4. Research update on the poultry enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry enteric disease is an ongoing economic problem for the poultry industry in the United States and abroad. The etiologies of the recognized enteric disease syndromes—Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) and Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) in young turkeys, and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS...

  5. Freedom Star tows a barge with an SLWT into Port Canaveral for the first time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, tows a barge containing the third Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT will be used to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October. This first-time towing arrangement, part of a cost savings plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks are manufactured. The barge will now be transported up the Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tugboat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allows NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service directly to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies show a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications should be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, has also undergone deck strengthening enhancements and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed.

  6. Freedom Star tows a barge with an SLWT into Port Canaveral for the first time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, tows a barge containing the third Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT will be used to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October. This first-time towing arrangement, part of a cost savings plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks are manufactured. The barge will now be transported up the Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tugboat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allows NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service directly to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies show a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications should be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, has also undergone deck strengthening enhancements and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed. The other recovery vessel, Liberty Star, has undergone deck strengthening enhancements along with Freedom Star and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed.

  7. Lower Cortisol Activity is Associated with First-Time Driving while Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Sophie; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Gianoulakis, Christina; Tremblay, Jacques; Ng Ying Kin, NMK; Brochu, Serge; Pruessner, Jens; Dedovic, Katarina; Brown, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Driving while impaired (DWI) is a grave and persistent high-risk behavior. Previous work demonstrated that DWI recidivists had attenuated cortisol reactivity compared to non-DWI drivers. This suggests that cortisol is a neurobiological marker of high-risk driving. The present study tested the hypothesis that this initial finding would extend to first-time DWI (fDWI) offenders compared to non-DWI drivers. Male fDWI offenders (n = 139) and non-DWI drivers (n = 31) were exposed to a stress task, and their salivary cortisol activity (total output and reactivity) was measured. Participants also completed questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsivity, substance use, and engagement in risky and criminal behaviors. As hypothesized, fDWI offenders, compared to non-DWI drivers, had lower cortisol reactivity; fDWI offenders also showed lower total output. In addition, cortisol activity was the most important predictor of group membership, after accounting for alcohol misuse patterns and consequences and other personality and problem behavior characteristics. The findings indicate that attenuated cortisol activity is an independent factor associated with DWI offending risk at an earlier stage in the DWI trajectory than previously detected. PMID:25922575

  8. A Case of Bilateral Anterior Gleno-Humeral Dislocation following First Time Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Wheelton, Andrew; Dowen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following a seizure has recently been demonstrated as being more common than previously believed with 44 cases in the literature. This case is unique as it was caused by a first time seizure and there was no associated fracture of the humerus. Case Report: A previously fit and well 32 year old man presented to the Emergency Department following a convulsive episode. On initial assessment he was drowsy and the focus of investigation was the cause of the seizure, he was prepared for transfer to the medical ward. As he became more alert he complained of bilateral shoulder pain. Further clinical exam highlighted he had reduced range of movement in the shoulder joint bilaterally with a symmetrical clinical appearance of gleno-humeral dislocation. Radiographs confirmed bilateral anterior gleno-humeral dislocations which were reduced under sedation uneventfully. Conclusion: Post ictal patients can be difficult to assess when drowsy. Although not all seizures require musculoskeletal examination attending medical staff should remain vigilant to the possibility of injury following seizure to afford prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27299040

  9. Breastfeeding and Social Media among First-Time African American Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V.; Waters, Catherine M.; Dailey, Dawn E.; Lee, Kathryn A.; Lyndon, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of social media during the antepartum and postpartum periods among first-time African American mothers and their support persons. Design A qualitative critical ethnographic research design within the contexts of Family Life Course Development Theory and Black Feminist Theory. Setting Participants were recruited from community-based, public health, and home visiting programs. Participants A purposive sample was recruited, consisting of 14 pregnant African American women and eight support persons. Methods Pregnant and postpartum African American women and their support persons were interviewed separately during the antepartum and postpartum periods. Data were analyzed thematically. Results Participants frequently used social media for educational and social support and searched the internet for perinatal and parenting information. Most participants reported using at least one mobile application during their pregnancies and after giving birth. Social media were typically accessed through smartphones and/or computers using different websites and applications. While participants gleaned considerable information about infant development from these applications, they had difficulty finding and recalling information about infant feeding. Conclusion Social media are an important vehicle to disseminate infant feeding information; however, they are not currently being used to full potential. Our findings suggest that future interventions geared towards African American mothers and their support persons should include social media approaches. The way individuals gather, receive, and interpret information is dynamic. The increasing popularity and use of social media platforms offers the opportunity to create more innovative, targeted mobile health interventions for infant feeding and breastfeeding promotion. PMID:25712127

  10. Men, maternity and moral residue: negotiating the moral demands of the transition to first time fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Ives, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses men's transition to first time fatherhood, with a focus on the way they recognise various in-tension moral demands and negotiate an appropriate role for themselves. The findings are taken from a longitudinal study, drawing on elements of grounded theory, comprising a series of face-to-face and telephone interviews with 11 men over a 9-month period from the 12th week of pregnancy to 8 weeks after the birth. The analysis focuses on men's feelings and experience of exclusion and participation, and their response and reaction to that experience. The findings present two descriptive themes, ‘on the inside looking in’ and ‘present but not participating’, followed by third theme ‘deference and support: a moral response’ that exposes the dilemmatic nature of men's experience and explains the participants’ apparent acceptance of being less involved. The discussion explores the concept of moral residue, arguing that while deference and support may be an appropriate role for fathers in the perinatal period it may also be a compromise that leads to feelings of uncertainty and frustration, which is a consequence of being in a genuinely dilemmatic situation. PMID:25091825

  11. Traumatic First Time Shoulder Dislocation: Surgery vs Non-Operative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Polyzois, Ioannis; Dattani, Rupen; Gupta, Rohit; Levy, Ofer; Narvani, A Ali

    2016-01-01

    Management of first shoulder dislocation following reduction remains controversial. The two main options are immobilisation and arthroscopic stabilisation. The aim of this article is to highlight some of the issues that influence decision making when discussing management options with these patients, including natural history of the first time dislocation, outcomes of surgery and non-operative management particularly on the risk of future osteoarthritis (OA), the effects of delaying surgery and the optimal method of immobilisation. Extensive literature review was performed looking for previous publication addressing 4 points. i) Natural history of primary shoulder dislocation ii) Effect of surgical intervention on natural history iii) Risk of long term osteoarthritis with and without surgical intervention iv) Immobilisation techniques post reduction. Individuals younger than 25 years old are likely to re-dislocate with non-operative management. Surgery reduces risk of recurrent instability. Patients with recurrent instability appear to be at a higher risk of OA. Those who have surgical stabilisation do not appear to be at a higher risk than those who dislocate just once, but are less likely to develop OA than those with recurrent instability. Delaying surgery makes the stabilisation more demanding due to elongation of capsule, progressive labro-ligamentous injury, prevalence and severity of glenoid bone loss. Recent studies have failed to match the preliminary outcomes associated with external rotation braces. Defining the best timing and type of treatment remains a challenge and should be tailored to each individual’s age, occupation and degree of physical activity. PMID:27200385

  12. Lower Cortisol Activity is Associated with First-Time Driving while Impaired.

    PubMed

    Couture, Sophie; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Gianoulakis, Christina; Tremblay, Jacques; Ng Ying Kin, Nmk; Brochu, Serge; Pruessner, Jens; Dedovic, Katarina; Brown, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Driving while impaired (DWI) is a grave and persistent high-risk behavior. Previous work demonstrated that DWI recidivists had attenuated cortisol reactivity compared to non-DWI drivers. This suggests that cortisol is a neurobiological marker of high-risk driving. The present study tested the hypothesis that this initial finding would extend to first-time DWI (fDWI) offenders compared to non-DWI drivers. Male fDWI offenders (n = 139) and non-DWI drivers (n = 31) were exposed to a stress task, and their salivary cortisol activity (total output and reactivity) was measured. Participants also completed questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsivity, substance use, and engagement in risky and criminal behaviors. As hypothesized, fDWI offenders, compared to non-DWI drivers, had lower cortisol reactivity; fDWI offenders also showed lower total output. In addition, cortisol activity was the most important predictor of group membership, after accounting for alcohol misuse patterns and consequences and other personality and problem behavior characteristics. The findings indicate that attenuated cortisol activity is an independent factor associated with DWI offending risk at an earlier stage in the DWI trajectory than previously detected. PMID:25922575

  13. Organic carbon in topsoil - first time fully harmonised at a European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Baritz, Reiner; Reiman, Clemens; Gemas Project Team

    2013-04-01

    The organic fraction of soils often accounts for an only small but variable proportion of the total soil mass. Nevertheless the organic fraction profoundly influences e.g., soil properties, ecosystem functioning, and the magnitude of various ecosystem processes. In the cooperative project of Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil (GEMAS) a total of 2018 samples of agricultural (ploughed land, 0-20 cm) and 2023 samples of grazing land (0-10 cm) soil were collected at a density of 1 site per 2500 km2 each from 33 European countries, covering an area of 5,600,000 km2. All soil samples were sampled following a jointly agreed field protocol. The contents of TOC show large local differences with the highest concentrations of TOC in Finland, Ireland and Norway but also in other countries like e.g., Sweden, United Kingdom, and Germany distinctively high concentrations were measured. The distribution of TOC can be related to other measured soil properties like CEC, pH (CaCl2) and e.g., 52 chemical elements following an agua regia extraction. The GEMAS project has provided for the first time a fully harmonised data on TOC (and many other parameters) at a European scale.

  14. Gait Biomechanics in Participants, Six Months after First-time Lateral Ankle Sprain.

    PubMed

    Doherty, C; Bleakley, C; Hertel, J; Caulfield, B; Ryan, J; Delahunt, E

    2016-06-01

    No research currently exists predicating a link between the injury-affiliated sensorimotor deficits of acute ankle sprain and those of chronic ankle instability during gait. This analysis evaluates participants with a 6-month history of ankle sprain injury to affirm this link. 69 participants with a 6-month history of acute first-time lateral ankle sprain were divided into subgroups ('chronic ankle instability' and 'coper') based on their self-reported disability and compared to 20 non-injured participants during a gait task. Lower extremity kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 200 ms pre- to 200 ms post-heel strike (period 1) and from 200 ms pre- to 200 ms post-toe off (period 2). The 'chronic ankle instability' subgroup (who reported greater disability) displayed increased knee flexion during period 1. During period 2, this subgroup exhibited greater total displacement at their ankle joint and greater extensor dominance at their knee. That many of these features are present, both in individuals with acute ankle sprain and those with chronic ankle instability may advocate a link between acute deficits and long-term outcome. Clinicians must be aware that the sensorimotor deficits of ankle sprain may persevere beyond the acute stage of injury and be cognizant of the capacity for impairments to pervade proximally. PMID:27136507

  15. Enteral Nutrition in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469

  16. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  17. The First-Time Online Learner: Readiness and Successful Course Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyon, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Many community colleges consider online learning central to the mission of providing adults with access to academic, professional, and personal enrichment opportunities; however, the issue of student success in the online learning environment remains an area of concern. The low rate of online course completion in community colleges may be…

  18. Creating a Virtual World Mindset: A Guide for First Time Second Life Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoerger, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Education technology proponents argue that tech-savvy students want active learning opportunities that enable them to produce, as well as consume, content. Some educators have responded to this rhetoric by appropriating virtual worlds such as Second Life (SL) for teaching and learning. While SL rewards exploration and experimentation, the…

  19. Teaching to Learn: Analyzing the Experiences of First-Time Physics Learning Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Kara Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Assistant (LA) Model has demonstrated that it is successful in helping to meet multiple goals including enhancing student learning in LA-supported courses, increasing conceptual understanding of physics among LAs, and improving the teaching practices of former LAs in K-12 schools. The research reported here investigated the…

  20. Our First Time: Two Higher Education Tutors Reflect on Becoming a "Virtual Teacher"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Vince; Davey, Ronnie

    2005-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet as a means of both information distribution and social communication seems to be carrying with it a growing imperative for tertiary institutions to put teacher education, like many other things, "online". Often this is done in the name of offering teacher training to distant students who would otherwise not be…

  1. Necrotic enteritis in young calves.

    PubMed

    Morris, Winston E; Venzano, Agustín J; Elizondo, Ana; Vilte, Daniel A; Mercado, Elsa C; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2011-03-01

    Non-enterotoxin (CPE)-producing Clostridium perfringens type A has been associated with enteritis in calves. Recent evidence has suggested that a novel toxin, named beta2 (CPB2), is implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease, although there is little evidence supporting this. In the current study, the role of C. perfringens type A in an outbreak of enteritis in calves was studied. Two 20-day-old dairy calves exhibiting apathy and reluctance to eat, with paresis of the anterior limbs, were euthanized for postmortem examination. Gross and histological changes compatible with acute enteritis, rumenitis, meningitis, and pneumonia were seen in both calves. Clostridium perfringens type A non-CPE, non-CPB2 was isolated from the abomasum and the small intestine. Escherichia coli ONTH8 (with cdtBIII and f17 virulence genes detected by polymerase chain reaction) was also isolated from the brain, abomasum, and intestine from both calves. All the samples were negative for Salmonella spp. When the C. perfringens strain was inoculated into bovine ligated small and large intestinal loops, cell detachment, erosion, and hemorrhage of the lamina propria were observed, predominantly in the small intestine. The results suggest that non-CPE, non-CPB2 C. perfringens type A is able to induce pathologic changes in the intestine of calves, probably enhanced by other pathogens, such as some pathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:21398444

  2. Enteric pathogens through life stages

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”). PMID:22937528

  3. The "Turning Point" for Minority Pre-Meds: The Effect of Early Undergraduate Experience in the Sciences on Aspirations to Enter Medical School of Minority Students at UC Berkeley and Stanford University. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.20.08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Donald A.; Matsui, John

    2008-01-01

    The University of California faces the challenge of increasing the diversity of students graduating from its medical schools while also adhering to mandated restrictions on the use of race or ethnicity in the admissions process. Students from diverse backgrounds who gain admission as undergraduates to UC Berkeley and express an early interest in a…

  4. First time isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus in Persian Gulf, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Yashgin; Bahador, Nima; Baseri-Salehi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is a marine pathogenic bacterium which causes disease in marine animals and human. This bacterium mostly found in coastal shallow seawater. So, the aim of this study was isolation and characterization of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae from edible fish of Persian Gulf, Bandar Abbas. Material and Methods: Totally 100 fish from different species were evaluated and out of that 5 different types of fish with external symptoms including: Caranx sexfasciatus, Lethrinus olivaceus, Scomberoid tol, Auxis thazard and Liza macrolepis, were collected from Bandar Abbas local fish market in September 2013. The samples were cultured on Marin Agar 2216 and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile salts Sucrose Agar media and incubated at 25°C for 48 hrs. Then the isolates were characterized using biochemical (API 20 NE system) and molecular techniques. In addition, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of poly β hydroxy butyrate and hemolysis activity of isolates were evaluated. Results and Conclusion: Entirely, 30 Gram negative bacterial colonies were isolated from the selected fish. Among the isolates, two suspected colonies were identified as Photobacterium damselae from Caranx sexfasciatus with API 20NE biochemical test. This results confirmed by 16s rRNA sequencing method. Both isolates showed α hemolytic with existence of β hydroxyl butyrate. Furthermore, the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Conclusion: Overall, the study indicated first time isolation of this bacterium from one type of fish caught from Persian Gulf, which warns us to pay more attention to fishery in this geographical area. PMID:26668707

  5. Maternal and Hospital Factors Associated with First-Time Mothers' Breastfeeding Practice: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Huang, Shu-Her; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of breastfeeding is infrequent and indeterminate. Evidence is lacking regarding factors associated with breastfeeding at different postpartum time points. This prospective study investigated the change in, and correlates of, breastfeeding practices after delivery at a hospital and at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum among first-time mothers. We followed a cohort of 300 primiparous mothers of Taiwan who gave birth at two hospitals during 2010-2011. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine factors that were correlated with breastfeeding practices. In the study sample, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay was 66%; it declined to 37.5% at 1 month and 30.2% at 3 months postpartum. Only 17.1% of women reported continuing breastfeeding at 6 months. Early initiation of breastfeeding, rooming-in practice, and self-efficacy were significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding during the hospital stay. After discharge, health literacy, knowledge, intention, and self-efficacy were positively and significantly associated with breastfeeding exclusivity. Later initiation (hazard ratio=1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 1.97), shorter intention (hazard ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.13, 1.68), and self-efficacy (hazard ratio=0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.96, 0.99) were important predictors of breastfeeding cessation within 6 months of delivery. Continuous breastfeeding practice for 6 months is challenging and difficult for new mothers. Results showed that factors related to breastfeeding varied over time after delivery. Interventions seeking to sustain breastfeeding should consider new mothers' needs and barriers at different times. PMID:26110594

  6. Impact of body mass index on outcomes of 48281 patients undergoing first time cadaveric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Hurton, Scott; Cwinn, Matthew; Molinari, Michele

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate possible disparities in perioperative morbidity and mortality among different body mass index (BMI) groups and to simulate the impact that these differences might have had on the cohort of patients undergoing cadaveric liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: All adult recipients undergoing first time LT for benign conditions and receiving a whole graft from brain-dead donors were selected from the united network of organ sharing registry. From January 1994 to June 2013, 48281 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and were stratified by their BMI. The hypothesis that abnormal BMIs were independent predictors of inferior outcomes was tested with univariate and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: In comparison to normal weight recipients, underweight and morbidly obese recipients had increased 90-d mortality (adjusted OR = 1.737; 95%CI: 1.185-2.548, P = 0.005) (adjusted OR = 1.956; 95%CI: 1.473-2.597, P = 0.000) respectively and inferior patients’ survivals (adjusted HR = 1.265; 95%CI: 1.096-1.461, P = 0.000) (adjusted HR = 1.157; 95%CI: 1.031-1.299, P = 0.013) respectively. Overall, patients’ 5-year survival were 73.9% for normal-weight, 71.1% for underweight, 74.0% for overweight, 74.4% for class I obese, 75.0% for class II obese and 71.5% for class III obese recipients. Analysis of hypothetical exclusion of underweight and morbidly obese patients from the pool of potential LT candidates would have improved the overall survival of the entire cohort by 2.7% (95%CI: 2.5%-3.6%). CONCLUSION: Selected morbidly obese patients undergoing LT for benign conditions had 5-year survival rates clinically comparable to normal weight recipients. Impact analysis showed that exclusion of high-risk recipients (underweight and morbid obese patients) would not significantly improve the overall survival of the entire cohort of patients requiring LT. PMID:27358781

  7. First-time parents' expectations about the division of childcare and play.

    PubMed

    Biehle, Susanne N; Mickelson, Kristin D

    2012-02-01

    The current study examines violated expectations regarding the division of childcare and play in first-time parents during the initial transition to parenthood. The study's goal was threefold: (a) to compare prenatal expectations with the reported postpartum division of childcare and play, (b) to compare the influence of the reported division versus violated expectations on postpartum relationship satisfaction and depression, and (c) to examine the role of persistent violations of expectations on these outcomes. Couples expecting their first child were interviewed during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 1 and 4 months postpartum. Results indicated both mothers and fathers have unrealistic expectations during pregnancy; interestingly, the direction violation was opposite but converging for mothers and fathers. As found in prior research, mothers experienced unmet expectations with fathers doing less than mothers expected. Fathers, on the other hand, experienced overmet expectations with mothers doing more than fathers expected. Violated expectations were also a stronger predictor of depression and relationship satisfaction than the reported division, although again in opposite directions for mothers and fathers. Unmet expectations were negative for mothers, while overmet expectations with regard to childcare tasks were beneficial for fathers. The one caveat was for fathers' overmet expectations with play; in this case, a mother playing with the baby more than a father expected was related to less relationship satisfaction. A similar pattern of results was found for mothers and fathers with persistent violations. This study highlights the importance of understanding violated expectations in both mothers and fathers, as well as examining play separately from childcare. PMID:22182336

  8. The Correctional Custody Facility: Rehabilitation of the First-Time Offender in the U.S. Army.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert Evan

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Army's Correctional Custody Facility, a rehabilitation method for first-time offenders that is intended to recreate and strengthen the original resocialization process. The small number of return offenders suggests the facility's success as a rehabilitation concept. (JAC)

  9. Glenn Enters his Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. enters his Mercury capsule, 'Friendship 7' as he prepares for launch of the Mercury-Atlas rocket. On February 20, 1962 Glenn lifted off into space aboard his Mercury Atlas 6 (MA-6) rocket and became the first American to orbit the Earth. After orbiting the Earth 3 times, Friendship 7 landed in the Atlantic Ocean 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds later, just East of Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas. Glenn and his capsule were recovered by the Navy Destroyer Noa, 21 minutes after splashdown.

  10. Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40

  11. Effects of Ramadan on physical capacities of North African boys fasting for the first time

    PubMed Central

    Fenneni, Mohamed A.; Latiri, Imed; Aloui, Asma; Rouatbi, Sonia; Saafi, Mohamed A.; Bougmiza, Iheb; Chamari, Karim; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most of the literature related to the effects of Ramadan fasting on physical performance has focused on adults, and only three studies have examined its impact on children’s physical performance. Aims To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on first-time fasting boys’ performance in short-term explosive exercises [vertical and horizontal jump tests (VJT and HJT), 20-m and 30-m sprints and medicine-ball throw (MBT)], as well as in sub-maximal endurance [6-min walking distance (6MWD) measured during the 6-min walk test (6MWT)]. Methods Eighteen Tunisian boys [mean±standard deviation (SD) of age and body mass (BM): 11.9±0.8 y and 55.4±18.2 kg, respectively] were included. The experimental design comprised four testing phases: 2-weeks before Ramadan (BR), the end of the second week (R2) and the fourth week (R4) of Ramadan, and 10–12 days after the end of Ramadan (AR). At each phase, boys performed two test sessions in the afternoon (15:00–17:00 h) interrupted by 48 h of recovery (first test session: BM, VJT, HJT, and 20-m and 30-m sprint tests; second session: MBT and 6MWT). The study was conducted during the summer of 2012 from July 5 to August 29. Results 6MWDs (m) were significantly shorter during R2 (652±101) and R4 (595±123) compared to BR (697±86) and came back to baseline values AR. BM (kg) mean±SD did not significantly change during R2 (52±15) and during R4 (53±15) compared to BR (55±17), and short-term explosive performances were unchanged throughout the study. Conclusion In non-athletic children, first-ever Ramadan fasting impairs sub-maximal aerobic capacity but has no effect on BM or short-term explosive performance. PMID:25261691

  12. Regional Enteritis of the Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. M.; Michalyshyn, B.; Sherbaniuk, R. W.; Costopoulos, L. B.

    1965-01-01

    Forty-three cases of regional enteritis of the duodenum were found in the world literature. Regional duodenitis is relatively uncommon; in one large series of 600 cases of regional enteritis only three involved the duodenum. At the University of Alberta Hospital, in a three-year period (1962 to 1965), the authors encountered five patients with regional duodenitis, demonstrating a spectrum of clinical, radiologic and pathologic characteristics of this disease. The description of these patients brings the world's total to 48 reported cases. Two of these patients had symptoms of severe duodenal obstruction and were relieved by bypass procedures and vagotomy; one required surgery because of co-existent obstructive ileal disease: and two patients have improved on corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine without surgery. In our experience treatment with corticoids and salicylazosulfapyridine is beneficial. Four of the five patients remain in a state of mild to moderate nutritional impairment and have evidence of intestinal malabsorption. In the fifth case the period of followup is too short to permit assessment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 6 (X 50) and 7 (X 450)Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Figs. 13 and 14 (both X 100)Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21 PMID:5843869

  13. How Can We Improve Retention of the First-Time Donor? A Systematic Review of the Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Murray, Andrea L; Masser, Barbara M

    2016-04-01

    Blood products are critical to health systems and donations by voluntary nonremunerated donors are recommended. Worldwide, however, only around 5% of those eligible to donate do so and around half of those never return to donate again. This review focuses on what deters first-time donors, what predicts their retention, and what interventions may promote retention of this group. A comprehensive search of relevant databases identified 9 studies investigating motives and deterrents of first-time donors, 14 studies investigating predictors for first-time donors (13 whole blood [WB] and 2 plasmapheresis), and 15 studies (in 14 published articles) detailing interventions conducted on first-time donors. Drawing on an established blood donation taxonomy, studies were classified by 2 independent raters. Interventions were also classified into traditional, behavioral, or social science interventions. With only 2 eligible studies among first-time plasmapheresis donors, analyses focused on WB donors. First-time WB donors reported benevolent and collectivistic motivations, as well as personal benefits to commence WB donation. Self-reported deterrents have typically not been examined. Intention predicted first-time donor retention with intention determined by attitudes and a sense of (perceived behavioral) control. However, anxiety, adverse events, and deferrals all deterred retention. Traditional interventions, such as reminders and incentives, are widespread yet had only a small effect on return of first-time donors. Although behavioral science interventions such as fluid loading are effective, the strongest effect for the return of first-time donors was found when individual psychological support was provided. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the factors associated with the commencement and continuation of first WB donations. The current review revealed that self-reported motivators are typically not effective, and most successful predictive factors identified

  14. First-time comet observations at the National Observatory of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: We performed first-time scientific comet observations from Tübitak National Observatory (TUG), Turkey using two telescopes of that facility. In order to test the capabilities of the instruments, we performed a long comet-monitoring campaign from October 2013 to January 2014. We observed many comets, including but not limited to C/2012 S1 ISON, 154P Brewington, and C/2013 R1 Lovejoy. All comets were monitored for several nights with the Bessel R, V, and B filters from the 1-m (T100) and 1.5-m (RTT150) telescopes. Additionally, we acquired the first spectroscopic observations of a comet from TUG, using the TUG Faint Object Spectrograph (TFOSC with grism between 3230-9120 Å) mounted on RTT150. With these observations, we could assess the quality of the TUG instruments for cometary science, and identified a few limitations. We propose some technical improvements for future comet observations. These will open new observational opportunities for Turkish astronomers and a participation in international campaigns on cometary science. Observations and simulations: Apart from testing the instruments, our observations were also driven by the scientific questions regarding comet ISON around its perihelion passage. We intended to follow the formation and evolution of dust coma structures, and use well-tested models to simulate and understand this activity (Vincent et al. 2010, 2013, Lin et al. 2012). Additionally, we wanted to acquire spectra and derive the composition of the tail before and after perihelion. Unfortunately, the comet was not very active before perihelion and completely disintegrated at the end of November 2013. Nonetheless, we had acquired many images in the previous weeks, and we used the remaining nights to monitor other comets, mainly C/2013 R1 Lovejoy. Since the observatory is not equipped with the comet gas filters, we concentrated on dust structures and monitored comet ISON during October 2013 in Bessel R, B, and V filters. The cometary

  15. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  16. A Study of Factors Affecting Attrition Among Women Re-entering Formal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimal, M. William

    A survey of 374 women students, who re-entered formal education at 13 community colleges in Northern California, was conducted to determine whether probability of persistence or non-persistence could be predicted on the basis of selected life antecedents, and which student services were perceived by persisting and non-persisting students as most…

  17. Environmental Enteric Dysfunction in Children.

    PubMed

    Syed, Sana; Ali, Asad; Duggan, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of childhood death in resource-poor countries, killing approximately 760,000 children younger than 5 years each year. Although deaths due to diarrhea have declined dramatically, high rates of stunting and malnutrition have persisted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination with resultant intestinal inflammation and villous blunting. These histological changes were first described in the 1960s, but the clinical effect of EED is only just being recognized in the context of failure of nutritional interventions and oral vaccines in resource-poor countries. We review the existing literature regarding the underlying causes of and potential interventions for EED in children, highlighting the epidemiology, clinical and histologic classification of the entity, and discussing novel biomarkers and possible therapies. Future research priorities are also discussed. PMID:26974416

  18. START! The Successful Transitions and Retention Track Program: A Comprehensive Approach to Supporting GED Holders Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, J. Vincent; Michalak, Megan B.

    2012-01-01

    Students entering college face many obstacles to success. Students who received a General Education Development (GED) face additional barriers that must be addressed in order for success in higher education. The Successful Transitions and Retention Track Program employs a holistic approach to addressing the needs of GED holders entering college.

  19. Preparing to Enter Dental School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shailer

    A guide for students who are seeking admission to dental school is presented. The comprehensive coverage includes basic facts about dentistry as well as specific requirements about the following areas: facts about health care providers, treating patients in dentistry, and nonpatient-oriented dentistry; historical landmarks in dentistry; the…

  20. Skills for Children Entering Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Slater, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Assessing kindergarten entry skills is complex, requiring attention to skill proficiency and interactive behaviors deemed critical for learning to occur. In our analysis of a state initiative, pilot data were collected on early literacy and numeracy and 2 aspects of important student interactions in the classroom (social and task behaviors) within…

  1. Displays: Entering a New Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

  2. Entering China: an unconventional approach.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, W

    1997-01-01

    Conventional wisdom has it that the best way to do business in China is through an equity joint venture (EJV) with a well-connected Chinese partner. But pioneering companies are starting a trend toward a new way to enter that market: as a wholly foreign-owned enterprise, or WFOE. Increasingly, says the author, joint ventures do not offer foreign companies what they need to succeed in China. For example, many companies want to do business nationally, but the prospects for finding a Chinese partner with national scope are poor. Moreover, there are often conflicting perceptions between partners about how to operate an EJV: Chinese companies, for example, typically have a more immediate interest in profits than foreign investors do. By contrast, the author asserts, WFOEs are faster to set up and easier to manage; and they allow managers to expand operations more rapidly. That makes them the perfect solution, right? The answer is a qualified yes. First, foreign companies will still need sources of guanxi, or social and political connections. Second, managers must take steps to avoid trampling on China's cultural or economic sovereignty. Third and perhaps most important, foreign companies must be prepared to bring something of value to China-usually in the form of jobs or new technology that can help the country develop. Companies willing to make the effort, says the author, can reap the rewards of China's burgeoning marketplace. PMID:10165447

  3. What kinds of leaders are entering optometry schools?

    PubMed

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the parameters of leadership of students entering one optometry school, assess the relation between personality types and leadership during optometry school, and forecast potential for leadership beyond school. Personality inventories of 269 students entering University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) from 1988 through 1990 were analyzed for personality type according to Gough's two-vector system (V1 = extroversion/introversion; V2 = norm-favoring/norm-doubting) which results in four types or life styles: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta. Although some sex and ethnic differences were found, most (71%) optometry students were Alphas (extroverted/norm-favoring), accepted leaders who strive to maintain and advance consensual values. Alphas achieved well in classroom and clinic and were student leaders. A lesser number (10%), mostly women, were Gammas; extroverted but norm-questioning, Gammas can provide creative and progressive leadership. Remaining types were Betas (15%) and Deltas (4%), both introverted types who avoid leadership positions. In sum, traditional and, to a lesser degree, innovative leadership potential appears strong among optometry students; they should serve the profession well. PMID:1300525

  4. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  5. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  6. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  7. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  8. 22 CFR 51.42 - Persons born in the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) Primary evidence of birth in the United States. A person born in the United States generally must submit a birth certificate. The birth certificate must show the full name of the applicant, the applicant's place and date of birth, the full name of...

  9. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  10. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  11. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  12. 22 CFR 51.43 - Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Persons born outside the United States applying... NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Evidence of U.S. Citizenship or Nationality § 51.43 Persons born outside the United States applying for a passport for the first time. (a) General. A person born outside...

  13. An Autoethnography of a First-Time School District Superintendent: Complicated by Issues of Race, Gender, and Persistent Fiscal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Ardella Jones

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry used autoethnography methodology in a self-narrative format that places the self within the position of a first time Superintendent as an African American woman. The design of this research will allow the reader to travel with me through my experiences to obtain information about the challenges and obstacles of the superintendent…

  14. Testing Age-Paced Parenting Newsletters up to Age 3: Greater Impact on First-Time Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.

    2012-01-01

    An age-paced newsletter for parents of toddlers was evaluated. Mothers reported the newsletters were as useful as information from doctors or nurses and more useful than other sources of information. We hypothesized and found that first-time mothers reported the newsletters more useful than experienced mothers--reading more of the newsletters and…

  15. Death Awareness, Maternal Separation Anxiety, and Attachment Style among First-Time Mothers--A Terror Management Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the interplay between death awareness, attachment style, and maternal separation anxiety among first-time mothers of infants aged 3-12 months. In Study 1 (N = 60), a higher accessibility of death-related thoughts was found following induction of thoughts about separation from the infant. In Study 2 (N = 100), a mortality…

  16. Out of the Mouth of Babes: First-Time Disadvantaged Mothers and Their Perceptions of Infant Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Judith

    2011-01-01

    An increasing emphasis is being placed on the importance of speech, language and communication (SLC) development during the first two years of life, since this contributes to cognitive ability and to later educational outcomes. This article explores what disadvantaged, first-time mothers know and understand about three key contributors to positive…

  17. Effects of Video-Modeling on the Interaction Skills of First-Time Fathers of Late Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen Marie; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Kurilova, Jana; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Blahitka, Laurie; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an innovative educational--behavioral intervention for first-time fathers of late preterm (34-36 weeks' gestation) infants, with the aim of enhancing the infant's environment through strengthening fathers' skills in interaction with their young infant. Using a randomized controlled trial, fathers of 111 late…

  18. First-Time Mothers' Use of Music and Movement with Their Young Infants: The Impact of a Teaching Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlismas, Wendy; Bowes, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Examined impact of a 5-week music/movement program involving relaxation, kinesics, singing, visual contact, and tactile stimulation on first-time mothers' use of music and movement with their infants. Found that the program extended mothers' use of relaxation to music and rhythmical movement with their infants but not the use of song and massage…

  19. Environmental enteric dysfunction: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Rosie J.; Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to an incompletely defined syndrome of inflammation, reduced absorptive capacity, and reduced barrier function in the small intestine. It is widespread among children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding of EED and its possible consequences for health is currently limited. Objective A narrative review of the current understanding of EED: epidemiology, pathogenesis, therapies, and relevance to child health. Methods Searches for key papers and ongoing trials were conducted using PUBMED 1966–June 2014; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO Clinical Trials Registry; the Cochrane Library; hand searches of the references of retrieved literature; discussions with experts; and personal experience from the field. Results EED is established during infancy and is associated with poor sanitation, certain gut infections, and micronutrient deficiencies. Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), abnormal gut microbiota, undernutrition, and toxins may all play a role. EED is usually asymptomatic, but it is important due to its association with stunting. Diagnosis is frequently by the dual sugar absorption test, although other biomarkers are emerging. EED may partly explain the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in low- and middle-income countries and the increased risk of serious infection seen in children with undernutrition. Conclusions Despite its potentially significant impacts, it is currently unclear exactly what causes EED and how it can be treated or prevented. Ongoing trials involve nutritional supplements, water and sanitation interventions, and immunomodulators. Further research is needed to better understand this condition, which is of likely crucial importance for child health and development in low- and middle-income settings. PMID:25902619

  20. [Usefulness of enteral feeding in surgery].

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, L; Czekalski, P; Bilski, D; Olejniczak, W

    1997-01-01

    Eighty malnourished patients with neoplasms, enteric fistulae, multiorgan trauma and septic complications administered food by means of enteral feeding (EF). It was found that EF prevents weight loss and even causes weight gain in patients, increases total protein and albumin concentrations and decreases urea and creatinine levels in blood which is a proof of catabolism fall. Patient condition improvement and healing of the majority of enteric fistulae was achieved after EF. Factory diet intolerance affected 5% of patients and diarrhoea-6%. Investigations prove that enteral feeding is a good alternative to parenteral nutrition. If enteral feeding follows proper indications, technique and route of administration are chosen the right way, it allows the surgeon to perform operation, decreases the number of complications and enables the patient's organism fight septic syndrome. Enteral feeding is a state of the art method of severely ill patient nutrition. PMID:9424919

  1. Educational outcomes necessary to enter pharmacy residency training.

    PubMed

    Hester, Elizabeth Kelly; McBane, Sarah E; Bottorff, Michael B; Carnes, Tristan A; Dell, Kamila; Gonyeau, Michael J; Greco, Angelo J; McConnell, Karen J; Skaar, Debra J; Splinter, Michele Y; Trujillo, Toby C

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) that formal postgraduate residency training, or equivalent experience, is required to enter direct patient care practice. Therefore, it is important to align professional degree educational outcomes with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to enter residency training. This position statement addresses the outcomes necessary in the professional degree program curriculum to ensure the ability of pharmacy graduates to transition effectively into postgraduate year one residency training. Five key outcome areas are identified: communication, direct patient care, professionalism, research, and practice management. The position statement examines how performance in each of the five outcome areas should be addressed by professional degree programs. The ACCP believes that for the student to achieve the clinical proficiency necessary to enter residency training, the professional degree program should emphasize, assess, and provide adequate opportunities for students to practice: communication with patients, caregivers, and members of the health care team in direct patient care environments; provision of direct patient care in a wide variety of practice settings, especially those involving patient-centered, team-based care; professionalism under the supervision and guidance of faculty and preceptors who model and teach the traits of a health care professional; application of principles of research that engender an appreciation for the role of research and scholarship in one's professional development; and application of practice management, including documentation of direct patient care activities that affect drug-related outcomes. PMID:24753155

  2. Beliefs underlying the intention to donate again among first-time blood donors who experience a mild adverse event.

    PubMed

    Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J

    2013-10-01

    Using the belief basis of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the current study explored the rate of mild reactions reported by donors in relation to their first donation and the intention and beliefs of those donors with regard to returning to donate again. A high proportion of first-time donors indicated that they had experienced a reaction to blood donation. Further, donors who reacted were less likely to intend to return to donate. Regression analyses suggested that targeting different beliefs for those donors who had and had not reacted would yield most benefit in bolstering donors' intentions to remain donating. The findings provide insight into those messages that could be communicated via the mass media or in targeted communications to retain first-time donors who have experienced a mild vasovagal reaction. PMID:23820434

  3. Effects of ration levels on growth and reproduction from larvae to first-time spawning in the female Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiming; Zeng, Xiangling; Lin, Xiaotao; Xu, Zhongneng; Sun, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Somatic growth and reproduction were examined in individual laboratory-grown female Gambusia affinis fed with high (H), medium (M) and low (L) ration levels from birth to the first-time spawning. Results showed that the body length and weight, condition factor (CF), wet weight gain (WG(w)), specific growth rate in wet weight (SGR(w)) and ration levels in terms of energy (RL(e)) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time spawning. On the contrary, the food conversion efficiency in terms of energy (FCE(e)) increased significantly (p < 0.05) with the decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time sexual maturity. Furthermore, higher percentages of energy intake from food were allocated to somatic and gonad growth in M and L groups compared to the H group before sexual maturity; In addition, the time for first-time spawning in groups M and L was longer than that of the H group. As a result, the gonad-somatic index (GSI) and oocytes/embryos weight in M and L groups were similar to that of the H group, although the ovary weight and oocytes/embryos numbers were all lower than that of the H group. Also, similar growth performances were observed in second-generation offspring, which were produced by female parents fed with different ration levels. These findings suggest that the female G. affinis could produce a number of healthy offspring under conditions of food restriction, and that this could be achieved by increasing the energy allocated to gonad development, reducing fecundity and delaying spawning time. These life strategies ensured that G. affinis could survive and thrive in adverse environmental conditions and exhibit characteristics of invasive fish species. PMID:25768343

  4. Effects of Ration Levels on Growth and Reproduction from Larvae to First-Time Spawning in the Female Gambusia affinis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhiming; Zeng, Xiangling; Lin, Xiaotao; Xu, Zhongneng; Sun, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Somatic growth and reproduction were examined in individual laboratory-grown female Gambusia affinis fed with high (H), medium (M) and low (L) ration levels from birth to the first-time spawning. Results showed that the body length and weight, condition factor (CF), wet weight gain (WGw), specific growth rate in wet weight (SGRw) and ration levels in terms of energy (RLe) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time spawning. On the contrary, the food conversion efficiency in terms of energy (FCEe) increased significantly (p < 0.05) with the decreasing ration levels from birth to first-time sexual maturity. Furthermore, higher percentages of energy intake from food were allocated to somatic and gonad growth in M and L groups compared to the H group before sexual maturity; In addition, the time for first-time spawning in groups M and L was longer than that of the H group. As a result, the gonad-somatic index (GSI) and oocytes/embryos weight in M and L groups were similar to that of the H group, although the ovary weight and oocytes/embryos numbers were all lower than that of the H group. Also, similar growth performances were observed in second-generation offspring, which were produced by female parents fed with different ration levels. These findings suggest that the female G. affinis could produce a number of healthy offspring under conditions of food restriction, and that this could be achieved by increasing the energy allocated to gonad development, reducing fecundity and delaying spawning time. These life strategies ensured that G. affinis could survive and thrive in adverse environmental conditions and exhibit characteristics of invasive fish species. PMID:25768343

  5. Vaccination against enteric septicaemia of catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, the causative agent of enteric septicemia (ESC) of catfish, is one of the most economically important diseases of cultured channel catfish. In 2002, Wagner and coworkers reported that enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris (Flavobacterium columnaris) were the two m...

  6. Association of Maternal and Community Factors With Enrollment in Home Visiting Among At-Risk, First-Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; Jones, David E.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen K.; Short, Jodie A.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We identified individual and contextual factors associated with referral and enrollment in home visiting among at-risk, first-time mothers. Methods. We retrospectively studied referral and enrollment in a regional home visiting program from 2007 to 2009 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Using linked vital statistics and census tract data, we obtained individual and community measures on first-time mothers meeting eligibility criteria for home visiting (low income, unmarried, or age < 18 years). Generalized linear modeling was performed to determine factors associated with relative risk (RR) of (1) referral to home visiting among eligible mothers and (2) enrollment after referral. Results. Of 8187 first-time mothers eligible for home visiting, 2775 were referred and 1543 were enrolled. Among referred women, high school completion (RR = 1.10) and any college (RR = 1.17) compared with no high school completion were associated with increased enrollment, and enrollment was less likely for those living in communities with higher socioeconomic deprivation (RR = 0.71; P < .05). Conclusions. Barriers to enrollment in home visiting persisted at multiple ecological levels. Ongoing evaluation of enrollment in at-risk populations is critical as home visiting programs are implemented and expanded. PMID:24354835

  7. The experience of childbrith in first-time mothers who received narcotic analgesics during the first stage of labour.

    PubMed

    Jantjes, L; Strümpher, J; Kotzé, W J

    2007-06-01

    This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch's method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115). Four themes with sub-themes emerged from the analysis. The participants reported on the physical experience of labour and described experiencing a lot of pain for which analgesics were given. They also described how these drugs dulled the pain but made them sleepy and unable to cooperate with the midwives. They described their emotional experiences, which included joy and happiness as well as anxiety, anger and despondence. They also reported that they were not sufficiently informed about labour and child-birth. In the last theme they described the methods they used to help them cope with labour including distracting techniques, leaning on a supportive person or praying. Guidelines to help midwives overcome these problems were developed. PMID:17703826

  8. Coordination and symmetry patterns during the drop vertical jump, 6-months after first-time lateral ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Patterson, Matthew R; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the adaptive movement and motor control patterns of a group with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task. Fifty-one participants with a 6-month history of first-time acute LAS injury and twenty controls performed a DVJ task. 3D kinematic and sagittal plane kinetic profiles were plotted for the lower extremity joints of both limbs for the drop jump (phase 1) and drop landing (phase 2) phases of the DVJ. Inter-limb symmetry and the rate of impact modulation (RIM) relative to bodyweight (BW) during both phases of the DVJ were also determined. LAS participants displayed bilateral increases in knee flexion and an increase in ankle inversion during phases 1 and 2, respectively. They also displayed reduced ankle plantar flexion on their injured limb during both phases of the DVJ (p < 0.05); increased inter-limb asymmetry of RIM was noted for both phases of the DVJ, while the moment-of-force profile exhibited bilaterally greater hip extensor dominance during phase 1. Participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS display some movement patterns consistent with those observed in chronic ankle instability populations during similar tasks. PMID:25940807

  9. The Significance of Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses student writing as it relates to adult literacy education and describes "Write First Time," a newsletter of adult literacy students' writings. Suggests that having writing published gives learners a different view of other printed texts. (JOW)

  10. An Investigation of Elementary School Physical Education Experiences of Selected Entering Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbogast, Gary W.

    The elementary school experiences of 418 entering education majors at the University of New Mexico were investigated to determine the extent to which early experience may or may not have influenced the students' choice of physical education as a career. Data was collected concerning the following variables: 1) number of students whose shools had…

  11. Factors Influencing Entering Teacher Candidates' Preferences for Instructional Activities: A glimpse into their orientations towards teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanquer, Vicente; Novodvorsky, Ingrid; Tomanek, Debra

    2010-07-01

    The present study was designed to identify and characterize the major factors that influence entering science teacher candidates' preferences for different types of instructional activities, and to analyze what these factors suggest about teacher candidates' orientations towards science teaching. The study involved prospective teachers enrolled in the introductory science teaching course in an undergraduate science teacher preparation program. Our analysis was based on data collected using a teaching and learning beliefs questionnaire, together with structured interviews. Our results indicate that entering science teacher candidates have strong preferences for a few activity types. The most influential factors driving entering science teacher candidates' selections were the potential of the instructional activities to motivate students, be relevant to students' personal lives, result in transfer of skills to non-science situations, actively involve students in goal-directed learning, and implement curriculum that represents what students need to know. This set of influencing factors suggests that entering science teacher candidates' orientations towards teaching are likely driven by one or more of these three central teaching goals: (1) motivating students, (2) developing science process skills, and (3) engaging students in structured science activities. These goals, and the associated beliefs about students, teaching, and learning, can be expected to favor the development or enactment of three major orientations towards teaching in this population of future science teachers: "motivating students," "process," and "activity-driven."

  12. On the Learning Behaviours of English Additional-Language Speakers Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollacott, L.; Simelane, Z.; Inglis, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an inductive study on the learning behaviours and language difficulties of a small group of English additional-language students entering a school of chemical and metallurgical engineering in South Africa. Students were interviewed in their home language. While they appeared to have had a reasonable grounding…

  13. Enteral nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gassull, M A; Abad, A; Cabré, E; González-Huix, F; Giné, J J; Dolz, C

    1986-01-01

    To assess the effect of the addition of enteral tube feeding with polymeric diets to the standard treatment of acute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease a total of 43 patients admitted to hospital (23 with Crohn's disease and 20 with ulcerative colitis) were studied retrospectively. Total enteral nutrition was given to 26 as the sole nutritional supply and to 17 in conjunction with a normal ward diet, when appropriate, according to the severity of attack (control group). Nutritional state was assessed and classified in all patients at admission and at the end of the study, by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness, mid arm muscle circumference, and serum albumin concentration as representative of body fat, muscle protein, and visceral protein, respectively. At admission the three nutritional variables were not statistically different between the groups. There was a significantly positive effect on mid arm muscle circumference in patients on total enteral nutrition compared with the control group, but there was no effect on either triceps skinfold thickness or serum albumin concentration. The percentage of subjects requiring intravenous albumin infusion, however, was significantly less in the group fed enterally than in the control group. In addition, fewer patients in the group fed enterally required surgical treatment compared with the control group, despite the fact that one of the criteria for starting enteral nutritional support was the expectancy that surgery would be needed. Total enteral nutrition was well tolerated and no major side effects arose during its use in patients with acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:3098646

  14. Factors associated with the success of first-time African American freshmen taking introductory science lecture courses at a private HBCU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kendra Leigh

    This study had four purposes: (1) to investigate the relationship between performance in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses and their accompanying laboratory courses, (2) to investigate the relationship between performance in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses and a student's gender, (3) to investigate the relationship between performance in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses and a student's major, and (4) to investigate the relationship between performance in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses and a student's ACT scores. The sample consisted of 195 first--time freshmen who enrolled in and completed an introductory biology or an introductory chemistry lecture and laboratory courses during the fall semesters of 2007-2012. Of the 195 students, 61 were enrolled in introductory chemistry and 134 were enrolled in introductory biology courses. Logistic regression, via the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), was utilized to analyze several variables as they related to success in the lecture courses. Data were extracted from the university's student information system (BANNER), and analyses were conducted on biology and chemistry separately. The dependent variable for this study was a dichotomous variable for success and nonsuccess in introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture course. The independent variables analyzed were student's gender, major, final grade in an accompanying biology or chemistry laboratory course, and ACT test scores (composite, mathematics, and science). Results indicate that concurrent enrollment in a biology laboratory course increased the likelihood of success by 15.64 times in the lecture course. Gender was found to not be a significant predictor of success for either introductory biology or introductory chemistry lecture courses. STEM majors were 9.6 times more likely to be successful than non-STEM majors in

  15. Exploring the concept of positive deviance related to breastfeeding initiation in black and white WIC enrolled first time mothers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ping; Magnus, Jeanette H

    2012-11-01

    Positive deviance inquiry is effective in identifying advantageous health behaviors and improving health outcomes among disadvantaged resource-poor populations. The objective of this study was to apply the positive deviance concept to explore the characteristics of positive deviants for breastfeeding among WIC-enrolled first-time mothers in Louisiana. The cross sectional study included data on 2,036 WIC-enrolled first time mothers (52.6% black) from the LaPRAMs, 2000-2004. Chi-square test was used to compare groups. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to calculate adjusted OR and 95% CI by breastfeeding initiation status. The average age was 21.3 years, 31.5% had less than 12 years of education, and 44.6% of the sample reported having initiated breastfeeding. Black mothers were less likely to initiate breastfeeding than their white counterparts (OR 0.39 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.48)). Among 641 WIC-enrolled first time mothers with less than 12 years of education, 28.4% were identified as positive deviants for breastfeeding initiation. Among the black mothers 19.8% were positive deviants compared to 40.3% of the white mothers. Breastfeeding in the hospital after delivery (P < 0.0001) and having received help on how to breastfeed in the hospital (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with breastfeeding initiation in white and black mothers. In addition, the black positive deviants were more likely, OR 2.80 (95% CI: 1.20, 6.56) to have initiated breastfeeding if their baby was low birth weight. Breastfeeding practices shortly after delivery including assistance and education from staff in the hospital, are related to breastfeeding initiation among less educated WIC-enrolled mothers. PMID:21822964

  16. Apparent inferiority of first-time breeders in the kittiwake: The role of heterogeneity among age classes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cam, E.; Monnat, J.-Y.

    2000-01-01

    1. Many studies have provided evidence that first-time breeders have a lower survival, a lower probability of success, or of breeding, in the following year. Hypotheses based on reproductive costs have often been proposed to explain this. However, because of the intrinsic relationship between age and experience, the apparent inferiority of first-time breeders at the population level may result from selection, and experience may not influence performance within each individual. In this paper we address the question of phenotypic correlations between fitness components. This addresses differences in individual quality, a prerequisite for a selection process to occur. We also test the hypothesis of an influence of experience on these components while taking age and reproductive success into account: two factors likely to play a key role in a selection process. 2. Using data from a long-term study on the kittiwake, we found that first-time breeders have a lower probability of success, a lower survival and a lower probability of breeding in the next year than experienced breeders. However, neither experienced nor inexperienced breeders have a lower survival or a lower probability of breeding in the following year than birds that skipped a breeding opportunity. This suggests heterogeneity in quality among individuals. 3. Failed birds have a lower survival and a lower probability of breeding in the following year regardless of experience. This can be interpreted in the light of the selection hypothesis. The inferiority of inexperienced breeders may be linked to a higher proportion of lower-quality individuals in younger age classes. When age and breeding success are controlled for, there is no evidence of an influence of experience on survival or future breeding probability. 4. Using data from individuals whose reproductive life lasted the same number of years, we investigated the influence of experience on reproductive performance within individuals. There is no strong

  17. Laboratory Measures of Postural Control During the Star Excursion Balance Test After Acute First-Time Lateral Ankle Sprain

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris M.; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    Context No researchers, to our knowledge, have investigated the immediate postinjury-movement strategies associated with acute first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) as quantified by center of pressure (COP) and kinematic analyses during performance of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Objective To analyze the kinematic and COP patterns of a group with acute first-time LAS and a noninjured control group during performance of the SEBT. Design Case-control study. Setting University biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 81 participants with acute first-time LAS (53 men, 28 women; age = 23.22 ± 4.93 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.09 m, mass = 75.72 ± 13.86 kg) and 19 noninjured controls (15 men, 4 women; age = 22.53 ± 1.68 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.08 m, mass = 71.55 ± 11.31 kg). Intervention Participants performed the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) reach directions of the SEBT. Main Outcome Measure(s) We assessed 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremity joints and associated fractal dimension (FD) of the COP path during performance of the SEBT. Results The LAS group had decreased normalized reach distances in the ANT, PL, and PM directions when compared with the control group on their injured (ANT: 58.16% ± 6.86% versus 64.86% ± 5.99%; PL: 85.64% ± 10.62% versus 101.14% ± 8.39%; PM: 94.89% ± 9.26% versus 107.29 ± 6.02%) and noninjured (ANT: 60.98% ± 6.74% versus 64.76% ± 5.02%; PL: 88.95% ± 11.45% versus 102.36% ± 8.53%; PM: 97.13% ± 8.76% versus 106.62% ± 5.78%) limbs (P < .01). This observation was associated with altered temporal sagittal-plane kinematic profiles throughout each reach attempt and at the point of maximum reach (P < .05). This result was associated with a reduced FD of the COP path for each reach direction on the injured limb only (P < .05). Conclusions Acute first-time LAS was associated with bilateral deficits in postural control, as evidenced by the bilateral

  18. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    PubMed

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication. PMID:23871299

  19. Student attitudes toward cadaveric dissection at a UK medical school.

    PubMed

    Quince, Thelma A; Barclay, Stephen I G; Spear, Michelle; Parker, Richard A; Wood, Diana F

    2011-01-01

    A more humanistic approach toward dissection has emerged. However, student attitudes toward this approach are unknown and the influences on such attitudes are little understood. One hundred and fifty-six first-year medical students participated in a study examining firstly, attitudes toward the process of dissection and the personhood of the cadaver and secondly, the extent to which gender, anxiety, exposure to dissection, bereavement and prior experience of a dead body influenced these attitudes. Attitudes toward dissection were assessed by of levels of agreement toward eleven statements and by selection of adjectives describing possible feelings toward dissection. Students were asked about recent bereavement, whether they had seen a dead body prior to starting their course and exposure to dissection when completing the questionnaire. Validated instruments were used to measure disposition toward generalized anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and toward death anxiety (Collett-Lester Death Anxiety Scale). Between 60% and 94% of students held positive attitudes toward the process of dissection and over 70% of students selected 2 or fewer negative adjectives. Students' attitudes toward the personhood of the cadaver were more disparate. Disposition toward anxiety (particularly death anxiety), and exposure to dissection, influenced attitudes. Female gender and recent bereavement exerted a negative influence. Students with higher levels of anxiety experienced more negative feelings and those recently bereaved were less enthusiastic about dissection. Anticipation of dissection may be worse than reality. Sensitive preparation of students prior to entering the dissecting room for the first time may be beneficial. PMID:21656918

  20. Enteric Neuronal Regulation of Intestinal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of the two-way interaction between the nervous and immune systems. This interaction is particularly important in the bowel because of the unique properties of this organ. The lumen of the gut is lined by a very large but remarkably thin surface that separates the body from the enteric microbiome. Immune defenses against microbial invasion are thus well developed and neuroimmune interactions are important in regulating and integrating these defenses. Important concepts in the phylogeny of neuroimmunity, enteric neuronal and glial regulation of immunity, changes that occur in the enteric nervous system during inflammation, the fundamental role of serotonin (5-HT) in enteric neuroimmune mechanisms, and future perspectives are reviewed. PMID:27450201

  1. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  2. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

  3. Detection of enteric pathogens by the nodosome.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-03-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD)1 and NOD2 participate in signaling pathways that detect pathogen-induced processes, such as the presence of peptidoglycan fragments in the host cell cytosol, as danger signals. Recent work suggests that peptidoglycan fragments activate NOD1 indirectly, through activation of the small Rho GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1). Excessive activation of small Rho GTPases by virulence factors of enteric pathogens also triggers the NOD1 signaling pathway. Many enteric pathogens use virulence factors that alter the activation state of small Rho GTPases, thereby manipulating the host cell cytoskeleton of intestinal epithelial cells to promote bacterial attachment or entry. These data suggest that the NOD1 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells provides an important sentinel function for detecting 'breaking and entering' by enteric pathogens. PMID:24268520

  4. Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that allow enteric E. coli to colonize and cause disease in the human host are examined and for two of the pathotypes that express a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) we discuss the complex interplay between translocated effectors and manipulation of host cell signaling pathways that occurs during infection. PMID:22555463

  5. Student Advisement Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD.

    The advisement system at Prince George's Community College is designed to afford each student complete information and preparation for entry into appropriate courses. Student movement through the process is determined by whether the student is considered first-time, transfer, concurrent enrollment, a veteran, non-matriculated, handicapped,…

  6. Utility of Obtaining a Serum Basic Metabolic Panel in the Setting of a First-Time Nonfebrile Seizure.

    PubMed

    Zuccarelli, Britton D; Hall, Ara S

    2016-06-01

    New-onset nonfebrile seizures in an otherwise healthy child are common, affecting 25 000 to 40 000 U.S. children annually. We hypothesized seizure-provoking electrolyte disturbances such as hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and hypocalcemia are uncommon in these children. From January 1, 2009 to May 31, 2009, 358 children aged 29 days to 18 years with a diagnosis code of 780.39 ("other convulsions" including "first time seizure," etc) were included for potential retrospective review. Children with known epilepsy and febrile seizures were excluded. Electrolytes were obtained in nearly all children with a history suggestive of an underlying abnormality (13 of 14, 93%) but also in half of children with a reassuring history (62 of 119, 52%). No child with an unremarkable history and exam was found to have electrolyte abnormalities falling below levels most likely to be associated with acute symptomatic seizures. Electrolytes are unlikely to be abnormal in an otherwise well-appearing child after a first-time nonfebrile seizure. PMID:26810624

  7. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers. PMID:26441808

  8. Single-leg drop landing movement strategies 6 months following first-time acute lateral ankle sprain injury.

    PubMed

    Doherty, C; Bleakley, C; Hertel, J; Caulfield, B; Ryan, J; Delahunt, E

    2015-12-01

    No research exists predicating a link between acute ankle sprain injury-affiliated movement patterns and those of chronic ankle instability (CAI) populations. The aim of the current study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of participants, 6 months after they sustained a first-time acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury to establish this link. Fifty-seven participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS and 20 noninjured participants completed a single-leg drop landing task on both limbs. Three-dimensional kinematic (angular displacement) and sagittal plane kinetic (moment of force) data were acquired for the joints of the lower extremity, from 200 ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200 ms post-IC. Individual joint stiffnesses and the peak magnitude of the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) were also computed. LAS participants displayed increases in hip flexion and ankle inversion on their injured limb (P < 0.05); this coincided with a reduction in the net flexion-extension moment at the hip joint, with an increase in its stiffness (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the magnitude of the peak vertical GRF for either limb compared with controls. These results demonstrate that altered movement strategies persist in participants, 6 months following acute LAS, which may precipitate the onset of CAI. PMID:25545409

  9. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for the Treatment of First-Time Spontaneous Pneumothorax versus Conservative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mourgi, Majed; Alshehri, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim of the work Recent studies have shown that video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) is safe and beneficial as first time treatment for patients presenting with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). In this study we will compare the outcome of patients presenting with first time PSP treated by VATS with those treated conservatively. Material and methods This was a prospective double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted at our hospital, Forty one patients, presented to the hospital with first attack PSP from January 2010 to January 2013, were randomized to be treated by chest tube drainage (conservative group, group 1) or by primary video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS group, group 2). Outcomes were; duration of intercostal tube drainage, mean hospital stay, and recurrence rates of pneumothorax during the period of follow up. Results There was no significant difference in both groups regarding demographic data. The mean durations of removal of intercostal tube and hospital stay were significantly higher in conservative group than in VATS group. The recurrence rate in conservative group was 40.9% versus 0% in VATS group (highly significant). Conclusions Initial VATS is considered an efficient treatment modality for PSP as it has a shorter hospital stay and lower recurrence than conservative treatment, which if occurs, requires re-hospitalization with needs for VATS or surgery. PMID:26715922

  10. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others’ judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

  11. Early parenting program as intervention strategy for emotional distress in first-time mothers: a propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Miwako; Ishigami, Hideaki; Tokimoto, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Tango, Ryoko

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a single session intervention designed to reduce emotional distress in first-time mothers. We held a parenting class for first-time mothers who had given birth at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The program of the class consists of lectures on infant care and group discussion, which is a common form of intervention in Japan. The effectiveness of intervention is assessed according to differences in emotional distress experienced by class participants and nonparticipants, and analyzed by the use of a propensity score method to avoid self-selection bias. In order to be more confident about our results, we employ several variations of this method. Results from statistical analysis show that although the effectiveness of the intervention was limited, it was able to alleviate subjects' loss of self-confidence as mothers. Because this outcome shows a good degree of consistency across methods, it can be considered robust. Moreover, it is roughly consistent with previous studies. Effectiveness can probably be increased by developing a program that improves upon the intervention. PMID:22865390

  12. Sleep and Sleepiness among First-Time Postpartum Parents: A Field- and Laboratory-Based Multimethod Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N=42) and seven childless control dyads (N=14). Within their natural environment, participants completed one week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers’ sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness associated impairments. Study results inform social policy, postpartum sleep interventions, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  13. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent–child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers. PMID:26441808

  14. Positive posttraumatic stress disorder screens among first-time medical cannabis patients: prevalence and association with other substance use.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kleinberg, Felicia; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing for the use of medical cannabis for those individuals with qualifying medical conditions, which include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for a growing number of states. Little information is available regarding PTSD among medical cannabis patients. This study seeks to provide initial data on this topic by examining the prevalence and correlates of positive PTSD screens among a sample of patients seeking medical cannabis certification for the first time (n=186). Twenty-three percent (42/186; 95% confidence interval [CI] =17%-29%) of the patients in the study sample screened positive for PTSD. Moreover, the group that screened positive for PTSD had higher percentages of lifetime prescription opioid, cocaine, prescription sedative, and street opioid use, as well as a higher percentage of recent prescription sedative use, than the group that screened negative for PTSD. These findings highlight the relatively common use of other substances among medical cannabis patients with significant PTSD symptoms, even when compared with other patients seeking medical cannabis for the first time. As a growing number of states include PTSD among the list of qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis, additional research is needed to better characterize the longitudinal relationship between medical cannabis use and PTSD symptoms. PMID:24930048

  15. The Development and Validation of an Actuarial Risk Assessment Tool for the Prediction of First-Time Offending.

    PubMed

    Assink, Mark; van der Put, Claudia E; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2016-05-01

    For prevention purposes, it is important that police officers can estimate the risk for delinquency among juveniles who were involved in a criminal offense, but not in the role of a suspect. In the present study, the Youth Actuarial Risk Assessment Tool for First-Time Offending (Y-ARAT-FO) was developed based solely on police records with the aim to enable Dutch police officers to predict the risk for first-time offending. For the construction of this initial screening instrument, an Exhaustive Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (Exhaustive CHAID) analysis was performed on a data set that was retrieved from the Dutch police system. The Y-ARAT-FO was developed on a sample of 1,368 juveniles and validated on a different sample of 886 juveniles showing moderate predictive accuracy in the validation sample (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = .728). The predictive accuracy of the Y-ARAT-FO was considered sufficient to justify its use as an initial screening instrument by the Dutch police. PMID:25395478

  16. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Sockol, Laura E; Epperson, C Neill; Barber, Jacques P

    2014-06-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others' judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

  17. First-time electrical characterization of nanotubular ZrO2 films for micro-solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Birss, Viola I

    2015-05-14

    In this work, anodically grown ZrO2 nanotubes (NTs) are examined for the first time for use in micro solid oxide fuel cell (μ-SOFC) applications. This is due to their high surface area to volume ratio and useful nanoscale morphological features (e.g., 5-100 nm thick NT bases that could serve as the electrolyte layer). To understand their full potential for these applications, the determination of their electrical properties is necessary. Therefore, ZrO2 NTs, in the form of a uniform and crack-free film, were obtained by the two-step anodization of Zr foil in aqueous solutions. The films exhibited excellent adhesion to the Zr substrate, which facilitated impedance spectroscopy analyses, used for the first time to obtain the resistivity of the nanotubular array separately from the contact resistances. This gave a conductivity of the ZrO2 NTs of 1.6 × 10(-6) S cm(-1) at 600 °C in N2, approximately twice that reported for dense ZrO2 films measured at the same temperature in air, and also a very reasonable activation energy of 0.90 eV in the 400-600 °C temperature range. PMID:25877824

  18. First-time electrical characterization of nanotubular ZrO2 films for micro-solid oxide fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Birss, Viola I.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, anodically grown ZrO2 nanotubes (NTs) are examined for the first time for use in micro solid oxide fuel cell (μ-SOFC) applications. This is due to their high surface area to volume ratio and useful nanoscale morphological features (e.g., 5-100 nm thick NT bases that could serve as the electrolyte layer). To understand their full potential for these applications, the determination of their electrical properties is necessary. Therefore, ZrO2 NTs, in the form of a uniform and crack-free film, were obtained by the two-step anodization of Zr foil in aqueous solutions. The films exhibited excellent adhesion to the Zr substrate, which facilitated impedance spectroscopy analyses, used for the first time to obtain the resistivity of the nanotubular array separately from the contact resistances. This gave a conductivity of the ZrO2 NTs of 1.6 × 10-6 S cm-1 at 600 °C in N2, approximately twice that reported for dense ZrO2 films measured at the same temperature in air, and also a very reasonable activation energy of 0.90 eV in the 400-600 °C temperature range.

  19. Effects of Remediation on Academic Success of First-Time-in-College Female African Americans in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Francois, Francisse

    2013-01-01

    For decades, remedial education has been extensively used in higher education and studied as an effective tool to help overcome the challenge of student unpreparedness. While previous studies on remedial education addressed the academic failure of students, this study focuses on academic success of African American females. This causal-comparative…

  20. "Enter-educate." Reaching youth with messages of sexual responsibility.

    PubMed

    Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G

    1995-01-01

    Messages about sexual relationships, the prevention of pregnancy and disease, education, the empowerment of women, and concern for the environment are increasingly being disseminated to audiences of all ages through the use of entertainment. Ideas are presented in this Enter-Educate approach through popular, enjoyable entertainment in the form of songs, dramas, soap operas, variety shows, and other folk media. This approach can be adapted to be acceptable and effective in all cultures. Yafaman is one such example. It is a drama written and acted by high school students in Cote d'Ivoire which depicts the story of a school girl who learns that her older, married boyfriend is no longer interested in her when she becomes pregnant. After winning the annual national drama contest, Yafaman was televised and broadcast widely in schools and on national networks in francophone Africa. The video has also been dubbed in English for wider use. Popular music has delivered effective messages of sexual responsibility to young adults in Latin America and the Philippines. The US Agency for International Development-funded Population Communication Services project at the Johns Hopkins University supports 36 major Enter-Educate television series and specials, nine radio dramas, three songs, and nine music videos. Other organizations are expanding or experimenting with work in this area. The authors discuss the theoretical basis for Enter-Educate projects and explain that the approach works because it is pervasive, popular, personal, passionate, persuasive, practical, profitable, and proven effective. PMID:12319369

  1. A 1-Year Study on the Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Laetitia; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Urbès, Florence; Langlet, Jérémie

    2016-03-01

    Human enteric viruses occur in high concentrations in wastewater and can contaminate receiving environmental waters. Due to the lack of data on the prevalence of enteric viruses in New Caledonia, the presence and the concentrations of enteric viruses in wastewater and seawater were determined. Untreated wastewater and seawater samples were collected monthly for 1 year from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and from the WWTP's outlet, located directly on a popular recreational beach. Samples were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II (NoV GI and GII), astroviruses (AsV), sapoviruses (SaV), enteroviruses (EV), hepatitis A viruses (HAV), rotaviruses (RoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). To support these data, faecal samples from cases of gastroenteritis were tested for the first time for NoV and detected in the population. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, HAdV and HPyV were detected in all wastewaters, RoV in 75% and AsV in 67%. HAV were not detected in wastewater. Overall, 92% of seawater samples were positive for at least one virus. HPyV were detected most frequently in 92% of samples and at concentrations up to 7.7 × 10(3) genome copies/L. NoV GI, NoV GII, EV, SaV, RoV and HAdV were found in 33, 66, 41, 33, 16 and 66% of seawater samples, respectively. AsV were not detected in seawater. This study reports for the first time the presence of NoV and other enteric viruses in New Caledonia and highlights the year-round presence of enteric viruses in the seawater of a popular beach. PMID:26670603

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of First-Time Methadone Maintenance Therapy Across Northern, Rural, and Urban Regions of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Eibl, Joseph K.; Gomes, Tara; Martins, Diana; Camacho, Ximena; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Dhalla, Irfan A.; Marsh, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective was to determine the impact that a patient's geographic status has on the efficacy of first-time methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) retention. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study using administrative health care databases for patients who commenced methadone therapy between 2003 and 2012. Patients were stratified on the basis of their location of residence into 1 of 4 groups—Southern Urban, Southern Rural, Northern Urban, or Northern Rural. The primary outcome was continuous retention in treatment, defined as 1 year of uninterrupted therapy on the basis of prescription refill data. Mortality was measured as a secondary outcome. Results: We identified 17,211 patients initiating first-time MMT during this 10-year period. Nearly half of patients initiating therapy in northern regions completed 1 year of treatment (48.9%; N = 258 and 47.0%; N = 761 in Northern Rural and Urban regions, respectively), whereas lower rates of 40.6% (N = 410) and 39.3% (N = 5,518) occurred in Southern Rural and Urban regions, respectively. Patients residing in Northern Rural and Northern Urban regions were 31% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09%–1.58%] and 14% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02%–1.27%] more likely to be retained in treatment compared with those residing in Southern Urban regions. There was no significant difference in treatment retention between those residing in Southern Rural and Southern Urban regions. A mortality rate of 3% was observed within 1 year of patients initiating treatment, with patients in the Southern Rural region having the highest rate (4.85%). Conclusions: Our study identified regional differences in retention rates and mortality of first-time MMT. These findings may relate to geographic isolation and limited methadone program availability experienced in northern regions. We interpret the data to suggest that patients who have reduced access to

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs

  4. AZW-LA-II White Paint on Swift: Lessons Learned from First Time Flying on Spacecraft Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint was previously flown as a flight experiment, and is being flown as a calorimeter. However it has never been flown as a thermal coating of radiators on an operational spacecraft before. This paint has the lowest solar absorptance among all white paints, and a very small degradation. Its cost is many times more expensive than white paints that have a higher solar absorptance. To meet the thermal requirements of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) focal plane camera assembly (FPCA) charged coupled device (CCD), AZW-LA-II is used as the thermal coating for the BAT and XRT radiators. This paper presents the lessons learned from flying this low solar absorptance white paint as a thermal coating of radiators on an operational spacecraft for the first time.

  5. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  6. Work activities and the onset of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Nuwayhid, I A; Stewart, W; Johnson, J V

    1993-03-01

    In a prospective study of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters, a total of 115 cases and 109 randomly selected controls were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and July 1989 to examine the role of recent work activities in the onset of first-time low back pain. After adjusting for known risk factors and off-duty activities, statistically significant high-risk work activities included operating a charged hose inside a building (odds ratio (OR) = 3.26), climbing ladders (OR = 3.18), breaking windows (OR = 4.45), cutting structures (OR = 6.47), looking for hidden fires (OR = 4.32), and lifting objects > or = 18 kg (OR = 3.07). Low-risk activities included connecting hydrants to pumpers (OR = 0.36), pulling booster hose (OR = 0.19), and participating in drills (OR = 0.09) or physical training (OR = 0.16). When further adjusted for exposure to smoke (OR = 13.59), a surrogate for severity of alarms, the ORs associated with high-risk activities were no longer significant. This, however, does not diminish the role of activities in the onset of low back pain. Instead, it suggests an inseparable role for activities and environmental hazards. To examine this, the risk of low back pain was measured within five work zones sequential in time relative to location and distance from a structural fire. The risk gradually increased as the fire fighter moved away from the firehouse (OR = 0.10) and closer to the site of fire (OR = 3.91). PMID:8465805

  7. Stress, sex, and the enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Million, M; Larauche, M

    2016-09-01

    Made up of millions of enteric neurons and glial cells, the enteric nervous system (ENS) is in a key position to modulate the secretomotor function and visceral pain of the gastrointestinal tract. The early life developmental period, through which most of the ENS development occurs, is highly susceptible to microenvironmental perturbation. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has shown the impact of stress and early life adversity (ELA) on host gastrointestinal pathophysiology. While most of the focus has been on alterations in brain structure and function, limited experimental work in rodents suggest that the enteric nervous system can also be directly affected, as shown by changes in the number, phenotype, and reactivity of enteric nerves. The work of Medland et al. in the current issue of this journal demonstrates that such alterations also occur in pigs, a larger mammalian species with high translational value to human. This work also highlights a sex-differential susceptibility of the ENS to the effect of ELA, which could contribute to the higher prevalence of GI disorders in women. In this mini-review, we will discuss the development and composition of the ENS and related gastrointestinal sensory motor and secretory functions. We will then focus on the influence of stress on the enteric nervous system, with a particular emphasis on neurodevelopmental changes. Finally, we will discuss the influence of sex on those parameters. PMID:27561694

  8. Quinolone and Cephalosporin Resistance in Enteric Fever

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini Rajinder; Nair, Deepthi

    2010-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ciprofloxacin resistance has now become a norm in the Indian subcontinent. Novel molecular substitutions may become frequent in future owing to selective pressures exerted by the irrational use of ciprofloxacin in human and veterinary therapeutics, in a population endemic with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, tigecycline and penems. The first-line antimicrobials ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole need to be rolled back. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns for therapeutic reappraisal and for novel-drug targets. This review explores the antimicrobial resistance and its molecular mechanisms, as well as novel drugs in the therapy of enteric fever. PMID:20927288

  9. Detection of enteric pathogens by the nodosome

    PubMed Central

    Keestra, A. Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD)1 and NOD2 participate in signaling pathways that detect pathogen-induced processes, such as the presence of peptidoglycan fragments in the host cell cytosol, as danger signals. Recent work suggests that peptidoglycan fragments activate NOD1 indirectly, through activation of the small Rho GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1). Excessive activation of small Rho GTPases by virulence factors of enteric pathogens also triggers the NOD1 signaling pathway. Many enteric pathogens use virulence factors that alter the activation state of small Rho GTPases, thereby manipulating the host cell cytoskeleton of intestinal epithelial cells to promote bacterial attachment or entry. These data suggest that the NOD1 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells provides an important sentinel function for detecting ‘breaking and entering’ by enteric pathogens. PMID:24268520

  10. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  11. Enteric glial cells have specific immunosuppressive properties.

    PubMed

    Kermarrec, Laetitia; Durand, Tony; Neunlist, Michel; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle

    2016-06-15

    Enteric glial cells (EGC) have trophic and neuroregulatory functions in the enteric nervous system, but whether they exert a direct effect on immune cells is unknown. Here, we used co-cultures to show that human EGC can inhibit the proliferation of activated T lymphocytes. Interestingly, EGC from Crohn's patients were effective at one EGC for two T cells whereas EGC from control patients required a ratio of 1:1. These data suggest that EGC contribute to local immune homeostasis in the gastrointestinal wall. They also raise the possibility that EGC have particular immunosuppressive properties in inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease. PMID:27235353

  12. Diarrhea complicating enteral feeding after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Benya, R; Damle, P; Mobarhan, S

    1990-03-01

    In this case report we present in detail the complex nature of enteral feeding, diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, and edema in a critically ill patient. We also discuss the use of a peptide-elemental formula in this patient, who suffered continuous diarrhea for 15 weeks after liver transplantation. Use of this formula was associated with cessation of the diarrhea and permitted adequate nutritional delivery. After 26 weeks of mechanical pulmonary ventilation, extubation was possible. This case illustrates the ineffectiveness of parenteral albumin infusions for treatment of enteral edema and demonstrates the restoration of normal intestinal absorptive capacity when ultrafiltration was instituted and the patient's generalized edematous state was corrected. PMID:2106103

  13. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:22236533

  14. Enteric group 17 in clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Yang, D I; Chen, L C

    1989-11-01

    The Enteric Group 17, a new group of Enterobacteriaceae, has been classified (by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.) based on its positive methyl-red test as well as its negative response to Voges-Proskauer, motility, rhamnose and melibiose fermentation tests. The isolation rate of Enteric Group 17 among 500 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Taiwan is 1.8% (9/500). This finding recommends that Taiwan's hospital laboratories should pay particular attention to the possible presence of this bacteria when an isolate has reactions similar to that of Enterobacter cloacae or other members of the Enterobacter species. PMID:2700157

  15. Investigating turkey enteric picornavirus and its association with enteric disease in poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous research into the dynamic viral community in the turkey gastrointestinal tract revealed a number of novel enteric viruses. Of particular note in this previous metagenomic investigation was the observation of a number of novel avian enteric picornaviruses, in addition to numerous other ...

  16. Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human enteric viruses are one of the main causative agents of shellfish associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stability of the most predominant enteric viruses were determined in both tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human nor...

  17. Effectiveness of behavioral graded activity after first-time lumbar disc surgery: short term results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ostelo, R W J G; de Vet, H C W; Berfelo, M W; Kerckhoffs, M R; Vlaeyen, J W S; Wolters, P M J C; van den Brandt, P A

    2003-12-01

    Behavioral approaches to treating patients following lumbar disc surgery are becoming increasingly popular. The treatment method is based on the assumption that pain and pain disability are not only influenced by somatic pathology, if found, but also by psychological and social factors. A recent study highlighted the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral interventions, as compared to no treatment, for chronic low back patients. However, to the authors' knowledge, there is no randomized controlled trial that evaluates a behavioral program for patients following lumbar disc surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a behavioral graded activity (BGA) program compared to usual care (UC) in physiotherapy following first-time lumbar disc surgery. The BGA program was a patient-tailored intervention based upon operant therapy. The essence of the BGA is to teach patients that it is safe to increase activity levels. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Assessments were carried out before and after treatment by an observer blinded to treatment allocation. Patients suffering residual symptoms restricting their activities of daily living and/or work at the 6 weeks post-surgery consultation by the neurosurgeon were included. The exclusion criteria were: complications during surgery, any relevant underlying pathology, and any contraindication to physiotherapy or the BGA program. Primary outcome measures were the patient's Global Perceived Effect and the functional status. Secondary measures were: fear of movement, viewing pain as extremely threatening, pain, severity of the main complaint, range of motion, and relapses. Physiotherapists in the BGA group received proper training. Between November 1997 and December 1999, 105 patients were randomized; 53 into the UC group and 52 into the BGA group. The unadjusted analysis shows a 19.3% (95% CI: 0.1 to 38.5) statistically significant difference to the advantage of the UC group on Global

  18. Astronaut John Glenn Enters Friendship 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.

  19. Social Network Formation of Entering College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Harold I.

    The examination of the functioning of social networks has been used to understand how individual and environmental characteristics can mediate the availability of social support. To examine the relationship between personal attributes, psychosocial environmental attributes, and the interaction between these variables, 92 entering college freshmen…

  20. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  1. Molecular Physiology of Enteric Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Galligan, James J.; Akbarali, Hamid I.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca2+ channels and activation of K+ channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca2+ channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl− secretion and passive water movement into the colonic lumen. These effects account for the constipation caused by opioid receptor agonists. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists but not to the constipating actions. This may be due to differential β-arrestin-2-dependent opioid receptor desensitization and internalization in enteric nerves in the colon compared with the small intestine and in neuronal pain pathways. Further studies of differential opioid receptor desensitization and tolerance in subsets of enteric neurons may identify new drugs or other treatment strategies of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:25207608

  2. Molecular physiology of enteric opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Galligan, James J; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2014-09-10

    Opioid drugs have powerful antidiarrheal effects and many patients taking these drugs for chronic pain relief experience chronic constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Three classes of opioid receptors are expressed by enteric neurons: μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR). MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cylase and nerve terminal Ca(2+) channels and activation of K(+) channels. These effects reduce neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release. KOR couples to inhibition of Ca(2+) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In the human gastrointestinal tract, MOR, DOR, and KOR link to inhibition of acetylcholine release from enteric interneurons and purine/nitric oxide release from inhibitory motorneurons. These actions inhibit propulsive motility. MOR and DOR also link to inhibition of submucosal secretomotor neurons, reducing active Cl(-) secretion and passive water movement into the colonic lumen. These effects account for the constipation caused by opioid receptor agonists. Tolerance develops to the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists but not to the constipating actions. This may be due to differential β-arrestin-2-dependent opioid receptor desensitization and internalization in enteric nerves in the colon compared with the small intestine and in neuronal pain pathways. Further studies of differential opioid receptor desensitization and tolerance in subsets of enteric neurons may identify new drugs or other treatment strategies of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. PMID:25207608

  3. Astronaut Virgil Grissom Entering Liberty Bell 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Assisted by Astronaut John Glenn, Astronaut Virgil Grissom enters the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, for the MR-4 mission on July 21, 1961. Boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, the MR-4 mission was the second manned suborbital flight.

  4. Passive hemagglutination test for enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Petchclai, B; Ausavarungnirun, R; Manatsathit, S

    1987-01-01

    A passive hemagglutination (PHA) test for serodiagnosis of enteric fever was developed by sensitizing glutaraldehyde-preserved erythrocytes with lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella serogroups A, B, C, and D singly or simultaneously. The lipopolysaccharide-sensitized erythrocytes were tested with sera from 200 blood donors, 100 patients whose hemoculture was positive for Salmonella species, and 10 patients septicemic for other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The PHA test was positive in 90% of 28 acute-phase serum samples from patients with enteric fever from one hospital and in 93% of 72 acute-phase serum samples from another hospital. It was also positive in 100 and 60% of early- and late-convalescent-phase sera, respectively. The PHA test was negative in all patients septicemic for other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Absorption of sera from patients with enteric fever with lipopolysaccharide from other members of the Enterobacteriaceae did not reduce PHA titers, indicating the specificity of the PHA test. Simultaneous sensitization with lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella serogroups A, B, C, and D was useful as a screening test in a limited trial with 28 acute-phase sera, 10 early-convalescent-phase sera, and 17 late-convalescent-phase sera. The PHA test is indeed a simple, sensitive, specific, and rapid test supplementing hemoculture in laboratory diagnosis of enteric fever. PMID:3793865

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HIV among first time attenders of voluntary counseling and testing services in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing and counseling services and the predictor characteristics of these outcomes among individuals who presented for the first time to Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) public services. Methods A sample of 244 subjects in the geographic area of Naples (Italy) received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes relating to HIV infection, and practices relating to access to VCT service. Results Only 25% correctly identified the main modes of transmission and the main preventative measures of HIV and this knowledge was significantly higher in who had had more than one sexual partner and have not always used a condom during the intercourse in the last year, in those who have received information about HIV/AIDS through physician, and in those who have received middle school or lower educational level. The perceived risk of contracting HIV/AIDS was significantly higher in respondents of lower age, in those who perceived a better personal health status, and in those unmarried. Only 20.9% reported that they had received the HIV test and males and those who visited a physician or participated in preventive activities about HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to have had an HIV test. Conclusions This study supports the need to disseminate information and interventions to this population. PMID:23783146

  6. Design, Development and Operation of a Laboratory Pulsed Plasma Thruster for the First Time in West Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeiha, Abdolrahim; Anbarloui, Mehdi; Farshchi, Mohammad

    Although the pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) was first utilized on a space mission in 1964, after more than four decades, it is still a space-rated technology which has performed various propulsion tasks, from station-keeping to three-axis attitude control for a variety of former missions. With respect to the rapid growth in the small satellite community and the growing interest for smaller satellites in recent years, the PPT is one of the promising electric propulsion devices for small satellites (e.g., CubeSats) due to the following advantages: simplicity, lightweight, robustness, low power consumption, low production cost and small dimensions. Therefore, a laboratory benchmark rectangular breech-fed pulsed plasma thruster using a self-inductor as a coupling element was designed, developed and successfully tested in a bell-type vacuum chamber at 10-4 Pa for the first time in west Asia (Iran). The PPT has been tested using a 35 μF, 2.5 kV oil-filled capacitor, producing an impulse bit varying from 300 μN-s to 1.3 mN-s at a maximum specific impulse of 1100 s. As a result a research program in Iran was initiated for working on PPTs and the miniaturization of PPTs while increasing the performance parameters. The present paper briefly reviews the PPT design and development.

  7. Bilateral Femoral Neck Fractures in A Young Patient Suffering from Hypophosphatasia, Due to A First Time Epileptic Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, N; Bache, E; Clare, T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case of an adolescent sustaining bilateral femoral neck fractures due to a first time epileptic seizure, as a result of expansion of his known syrinx. Case Report: A 19-year-old patient suffering from hypophosphatasia (HPP), Arnold-Chiari malformation, and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt sustained a trivial fall with profound pain and an inability to mobilize. Radiographs demonstrated a right-sided Garden-4 femoral neck and left-sided multi-fragmentary intracapsular/extracapsular fractures. The patient had previously suffered bilateral proximal femoral shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary unlocked nail fixation that was still in situ. Operative treatment with an exchange to Synthes Adolescent Lateral Recon nail was performed on the right with two Recon screws inserted into the femoral head. On the left, the existing Pedinail was preserved with an additional single screw inserted into the femoral head. In addition, 3 months of non-mobilization was required for adequate bone healing. After 1-year from time of injury, there is no avascular necrosis on radiographs and the patient is mobilizing pain-free. Conclusion: Patients with hypophosphatasia have delayed bone healing. We recommend surgical fixation with an intramedullary device and periods of non-mobilization until there is radiographical evidence of adequate bone healing. PMID:27299074

  8. Making use of expertise: a qualitative analysis of the experience of breastfeeding support for first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Johnson, Sally; Lyttle, Steven

    2015-10-01

    There is now a body of research evaluating breastfeeding interventions and exploring mothers' and health professionals' views on effective and ineffective breastfeeding support. However, this literature leaves relatively unexplored a number of questions about how breastfeeding women experience and make sense of their relationships with those trained to provide breastfeeding support. The present study collected qualitative data from 22 breastfeeding first-time mothers in the United Kingdom on their experiences of, and orientation towards, relationships with maternity care professionals and other breastfeeding advisors. The data were obtained from interviews and audio-diaries at two time points during the first 5 weeks post-partum. We discuss a key theme within the data of 'Making use of expertise' and three subthemes that capture the way in which the women's orientation towards those assumed to have breastfeeding expertise varied according to whether the women (1) adopted a position of consulting experts vs. one of deferring to feeding authorities; (2) experienced difficulty interpreting their own and their baby's bodies; and (3) experienced the expertise of health workers as empowering or disempowering. Although sometimes mothers felt empowered by aligning themselves with the scientific approach and 'normalising gaze' of health care professionals, at other times this gaze could be experienced as objectifying and diminishing. The merits and limitations of a person-centred approach to breastfeeding support are discussed in relation to using breastfeeding expertise in an empowering rather than disempowering way. PMID:23557351

  9. Through the eyes of a new dad: experiences of first-time fathers of late-preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Benzies, Karen M; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Fathers of late-preterm (34-36 weeks' gestation) infants may experience challenges in parenting. Late-preterm infants are more irritable and less responsive in interactions. The unexpected early birth of an infant may negatively affect fathers' cognitive and emotional experiences. The Father-Infant Interaction Program (FIIP) is a video-modeled play intervention that aims to increase fathers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues. Using data from a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate FIIP, the purpose of the present study was to explore the experiences of first-time fathers of late-preterm infants and their perceptions of the intervention. We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with 85 fathers of 8-month-old infants during the outcome home visit for the RCT and thematically analyzed data. Three main themes about fathers' experiences emerged: Fathers believed they had the "best job in the world," yet saw fathering as the "biggest job ever." Fathers viewed fatherhood as an opportunity for personal growth and reflected on how their lives had changed since the arrival of their infant. Fathers in the intervention and comparison groups liked the convenience of the home visits and validation of their role as a father. Fathers in the intervention group liked the tailored feedback about play. PMID:25500919

  10. Male clients' behaviours with and perspectives about their last male escort encounter: comparing repeat versus first-time hires.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Margaret M; Grov, Christian; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Research on men who have sex with men suggests that condomless anal intercourse occurs more frequently in established sexual relationships. While comparable data regarding male-for-male escorting is unavailable, research implies that many clients seek emotional as well as physical connections with the men they hire. In 2012, 495 male clients, recruited via daddysreviews.com completed an online survey about their last hiring experience. Most participants were from the USA (85.7%), the UK and Canada (3.2% each). In total, 75% of encounters involved an escort hired for the first time; 25% were with a previously hired escort ('repeat encounter'). The client's age, lifetime number of escorts hired and number hired in the past year were positively associated with the last encounter being a repeat encounter. Cuddling, sharing a meal, drinking alcohol, taking a walk, watching a show and shopping were also positively associated with repeat encounters. Conversely, none of the sexual behaviours were significantly associated with repeat encounters. Repeat encounters were significantly more likely to include non-sexual behaviours alongside sexual activities, but no more likely to involve condomless anal intercourse. Moreover, clients' knowledge of escorts' HIV status was not significantly associated with engaging in condomless anal intercourse with repeat encounters. PMID:24915753

  11. Enteral feeding: how, when, how much?

    PubMed

    De Nisi, G

    2010-06-01

    In a NICU early enteral feeding is usually possible only when the newborn clinical conditions permit it. Because of the frequent need of umbilical/central catheters, they usually start with parenteral feeding and/or with minimal enteral feeding (trophic feeding). This kind of management is even more frequent in VLBWIs, in which the risk of NEC is very high. In this work we describe a model of early enteral exclusive feeding (EEEF) based on the use of banking human milk followed by mother In the Centre of Neonatology of Trento, as in other milk. Centers, the newborns weighing less than 750 g or with a GE <27 weeks, are treated with parenteral nutrition and minimal enteral feeding. The newborn weighing 750-1249g and with GE >26 weeks define a group in which we find critical neonates, who can not be treated with enteral feeding, and neonates whose clinical conditions permit EEEF. In particular, in a period of 16 years (1994-2009) in Trento, 308 newborns weighing 750-1249 g and GE >26 weeks were admitted. The 90.9% has been treated with prenatal steroids, the 91.9% was inborn, the 96.1% survived. In the 59.1% of the cases (175) we gave EEEF. We could continue with a complete EEEF in the 40.2% of the total (119 cases). The characteristics of these neonates and our centre management, based mainly on early use of banking human milk and mother milk, are detailed described. PMID:21089743

  12. An Autoethnography of a First-Time School District Superintendent: Experiences in Governance, Fiscal Stress, and Community Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stanley, III.

    2011-01-01

    There are just over 1,000 sitting superintendents and like number of local educational agencies (LEA's) in California, serving 6.2 million students. Superintendents' ability to share knowledge and learn from each other is limited; this is especially true the further one's work is removed from concentrated urban populations. This study addresses…

  13. Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A elaborate distinct systemic metabolite signatures during enteric fever

    PubMed Central

    Näsström, Elin; Vu Thieu, Nga Tran; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Voong Vinh, Phat; Ha Thanh, Tuyen; Johansson, Anders; Arjyal, Amit; Thwaites, Guy; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen; Antti, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The host–pathogen interactions induced by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A during enteric fever are poorly understood. This knowledge gap, and the human restricted nature of these bacteria, limit our understanding of the disease and impede the development of new diagnostic approaches. To investigate metabolite signals associated with enteric fever we performed two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) on plasma from patients with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections and asymptomatic controls, identifying 695 individual metabolite peaks. Applying supervised pattern recognition, we found highly significant and reproducible metabolite profiles separating S. Typhi cases, S. Paratyphi A cases, and controls, calculating that a combination of six metabolites could accurately define the etiological agent. For the first time we show that reproducible and serovar specific systemic biomarkers can be detected during enteric fever. Our work defines several biologically plausible metabolites that can be used to detect enteric fever, and unlocks the potential of this method in diagnosing other systemic bacterial infections. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03100.001 PMID:24902583

  14. The Developmental Education of Kentucky's Entering Public Postsecondary Class of 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, Kentucky instituted a placement policy mandating that all students entering undergraduate programs at public institutions who received a score of 17 or below on ACT subject exams in math, English or reading be placed in developmental coursework or receive supplemental help in those subjects. This study examines the public postsecondary…

  15. The Relationship among Wellness, Psychological Distress, and Social Desirability of Entering Master's-Level Counselor Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather L.; Robinson, E. H. "Mike", III; Young, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Two-hundred and four entering master's-level counseling students from 9 programs in 5 states participated in a study testing the only counseling-based wellness assessment measure, the Five Factor Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (J. E. Myers, R. M. Luecht, & T. J. Sweeney, 2004), for its relationship to 2 other constructs: psychological distress…

  16. The Difficult Transition? Teaching, Research, Service: Examining the Preparedness of Communication Faculty Entering the Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Toni Selena; Hickerson, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a survey of graduate students seeking employment, examines the categories and levels of preparedness of new professors/instructors as they enter academe. Preparedness was examined in several ways--specifically knowledge about higher education requirements and their preparation for teaching, advising, and service in the field…

  17. Computed tomography perfusion imaging may predict cognitive impairment in patients with first-time anterior circulation transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yunming; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Dan; Li, Yuxia; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI)-derived parameters are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients with first-time anterior circulation TIA (diagnosed within 24 h of onset) and normal cognition, treated between August 2009 and August 2014 at the Department of Neurology of Chengdu Military General Hospital, China, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent whole-brain CTPI within 1 week of TIA to detect cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) in the ischemic region. Based on cognitive function assessment 4 weeks after TIA, using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examination, the patients were divided into control and VCI groups. CTPI parameters and other clinical data were compared between groups, and Spearman's correlation analysis used to identify associations between cognitive scores and CTPI parameters in the VCI group. 50 patients (25 per group; aged 55-72 years) were included. Patient age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, time from TIA onset to admission, time from TIA onset to CTPI, and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and hyperhomocysteinemia did not differ between groups. Both groups showed TTP and MTT prolongation, CBF reduction, but no change in CBV in the ischemic region; these changes were significantly larger in the VCI group (P < 0.05). MTT correlated negatively with MoCA score (r = -0.51, P = 0.009). CTPI could facilitate early diagnosis of VCI in patients with anterior circulation TIA. PMID:26721459

  18. Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for the newborn infant. However, since all infants cannot be breast-fed, there is a need for background data for setting adequate daily intakes. Previously, concentration data on major essential elements and some toxic elements in breast milk, based on different analytical techniques, have been published. There is no recent study on a large number of metals and trace elements in breast milk, using a sensitive analytical method for determination of low element concentrations. Methods Breast milk concentrations of 32 metals and elements in early lactation (days 14-21) were determined in a random sample of first time Swedish mothers (n = 60) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Results There were small inter-individual concentration variations in the macroelements Ca, K, Mg, P and S, and striking similarities across studies and over time, supporting a tight regulation of these elements in breast milk. Large inter-individual and over time differences were detected for Na concentrations, which may reflect an increase in salt consumption in Swedish women. Large inter-individual differences were also detected for the microelements Co, Cr, Mn and Mo, and the toxic metals As, Cd, Pb, Sb and V. Arsenic and B were positively correlated with fish consumption, indicating influence of maternal intake on breast milk concentrations. Observed differences in breast milk element concentrations across studies and over time could be attributed to the timing of sampling and a general decline over time of lactation (Cu, Fe, Mo, Zn), a possible lack of regulation of certain elements in breast milk (As, B, Co, Mn, Se) and time trends in environmental exposure (Pb), or in some cases to differences in analytical performance (Cr, Fe). Conclusions This study provides reliable updated information on a number of metals and elements in breast milk, of which some have not previously been reported. PMID:23241426

  19. Informed Choice in the German Mammography Screening Program by Education and Migrant Status: Survey among First-Time Invitees.

    PubMed

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Reder, Maren; Razum, Oliver; Kolip, Petra; Spallek, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women and mammography screening programs are seen as a key strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality. In Germany, women are invited to the population-based mammography screening program between ages 50 to 69. It is still discussed whether the benefits of mammography screening outweigh its harms. Therefore, the concept of informed choice comprising knowledge, attitude and intention has gained importance. The objective of this observational study was to assess the proportion of informed choices among women invited to the German mammography screening program for the first time. A representative sample of 17,349 women aged 50 years from a sub-region of North Rhine Westphalia was invited to participate in a postal survey. Turkish immigrant women were oversampled. The effects of education level and migration status on informed choice and its components were assessed. 5,847 (33.7%) women responded to the postal questionnaire of which 4,113 were used for analyses. 31.5% of the women had sufficient knowledge. The proportion of sufficient knowledge was lower among immigrants and among women with low education levels. The proportion of women making informed choices was low (27.1%), with similar associations with education level and migration status. Women of low (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.18-3.46) and medium education level (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.27-1.75) were more likely to make an uninformed choice than women of high education level. Turkish immigrant women had the greatest odds for making an uninformed choice (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.92-14.66) compared to non-immigrant women. Other immigrant women only had slightly greater odds for making an uninformed choice than non-immigrant women. As immigrant populations and women with low education level have been shown to have poor knowledge, they need special attention in measures to increase knowledge and thus informed choices. PMID:26529513

  20. Spectrum of Surgical Presentation of Eosinophilic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Spoorthy Sudhakar; Shetty, Charan Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder presenting mostly with diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, weight loss, and hypersensitivity. Surgical manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders depends on the site and extent of involvement. In our case series of four patients two of them had ileocaecal masses with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction with past history of intake of antitubercular drugs for 9 months. On histopathological examination both of them proved to have eosinophilic enterocolitis. Thus it is a clinical dilemma to differentiate between these two conditions. The other two patients presented as acute abdomen with perforation and intussusception. All four patients were treated surgically. Postoperatively they recovered well with no symptoms on one year follow-up. In Indian setup tuberculosis being rampant there may be under reporting or wrongly diagnosed cases of eosinophilic enteritis. Thus a strong clinical suspicion and awareness of this clinical entity are essential among surgical community. PMID:25960910

  1. Enteric viral infections in lambs or kids.

    PubMed

    Martella, V; Decaro, N; Buonavoglia, C

    2015-12-14

    Diarrhoea in lambs and kids is often a complex, multi-factorial syndrome. Common infectious causes of diarrhoea in lambs and kids during the first month of life are of bacterial or parasite nature. However, despite appreciable improvements in management practices and prevention and treatment strategies over the last decades, diarrhoea is still a common and costly syndrome affecting newborn small ruminants. Recent advances in the diagnostics and metagenomic investigations of the enteric environment have allowed discovering a number of novel viruses, although their pathobiological properties remain largely unknown. Assessing more in depth the impact of these viruses on the health and productions of these livestock animals is necessary and requires the development of accurate diagnostic tools and updating of the diagnostic algorithms of enteric pathological conditions. PMID:26321129

  2. Spectrum of surgical presentation of eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Spoorthy Sudhakar; Shetty, Charan Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder presenting mostly with diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, weight loss, and hypersensitivity. Surgical manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders depends on the site and extent of involvement. In our case series of four patients two of them had ileocaecal masses with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction with past history of intake of antitubercular drugs for 9 months. On histopathological examination both of them proved to have eosinophilic enterocolitis. Thus it is a clinical dilemma to differentiate between these two conditions. The other two patients presented as acute abdomen with perforation and intussusception. All four patients were treated surgically. Postoperatively they recovered well with no symptoms on one year follow-up. In Indian setup tuberculosis being rampant there may be under reporting or wrongly diagnosed cases of eosinophilic enteritis. Thus a strong clinical suspicion and awareness of this clinical entity are essential among surgical community. PMID:25960910

  3. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  4. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis.

    PubMed

    Beer, W H; Fan, A; Halsted, C H

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value. PMID:3917601

  5. Enteral nutrition in dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  6. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  7. Diabetes and the enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, B; Srinivasan, S

    2007-12-01

    Diabetes is associated with several changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and associated symptoms such as nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and constipation. The pathogenesis of altered GI functions in diabetes is multifactorial and the role of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in this respect has gained significant importance. In this review, we summarize the research carried out on diabetes-related changes in the ENS. Changes in the inhibitory and excitatory enteric neurons are described highlighting the role of loss of inhibitory neurons in early diabetic enteric neuropathy. The functional consequences of these neuronal changes result in altered gastric emptying, diarrhoea or constipation. Diabetes can also affect GI motility through changes in intestinal smooth muscle or alterations in extrinsic neuronal control. Hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of these ENS changes. Antioxidants to prevent or treat diabetic GI motility problems have therapeutic potential. Recent research on the nerve-immune interactions demonstrates inflammation-associated neurodegeneration which can lead to motility related problems in diabetes. PMID:17971027

  8. Environmental toxins trigger PD-like progression via increased alpha-synuclein release from enteric neurons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan-Montojo, Francisco; Schwarz, Mathias; Winkler, Clemens; Arnhold, Mike; O'Sullivan, Gregory A.; Pal, Arun; Said, Jonas; Marsico, Giovanni; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Gille, Gabriele; Funk, Richard H. W.; Reichmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Pathological studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suggest that PD pathology progresses from the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the olfactory bulb into the central nervous system. We have previously shown that environmental toxins acting locally on the ENS mimic this PD-like pathology progression pattern in mice. Here, we show for the first time that the resection of the autonomic nerves stops this progression. Moreover, our results show that an environmental toxin (i.e. rotenone) promotes the release of alpha-synuclein by enteric neurons and that released enteric alpha-synuclein is up-taken by presynaptic sympathetic neurites and retrogradely transported to the soma, where it accumulates. These results strongly suggest that pesticides can initiate the progression of PD pathology and that this progression is based on the transneuronal and retrograde axonal transport of alpha-synuclein. If confirmed in patients, this study would have crucial implications in the strategies used to prevent and treat PD. PMID:23205266

  9. More Top Students Answer the Ministry's Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to help reverse a decades-long decline in the number of top students entering seminaries, the Lilly Endowment invited colleges to compete for grants to be used for three related purposes: (1) to help students explore the relationship between faith and work; (2) to encourage talented students to consider entering Christian ministry;…

  10. "Entering Research": A Course that Creates Community and Structure for Beginning Undergraduate Researchers in the STEM Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn; Branchaw, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called "Entering Research" that…

  11. Informed Choice in the German Mammography Screening Program by Education and Migrant Status: Survey among First-Time Invitees

    PubMed Central

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Reder, Maren; Razum, Oliver; Kolip, Petra; Spallek, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women and mammography screening programs are seen as a key strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality. In Germany, women are invited to the population-based mammography screening program between ages 50 to 69. It is still discussed whether the benefits of mammography screening outweigh its harms. Therefore, the concept of informed choice comprising knowledge, attitude and intention has gained importance. The objective of this observational study was to assess the proportion of informed choices among women invited to the German mammography screening program for the first time. A representative sample of 17,349 women aged 50 years from a sub-region of North Rhine Westphalia was invited to participate in a postal survey. Turkish immigrant women were oversampled. The effects of education level and migration status on informed choice and its components were assessed. 5,847 (33.7%) women responded to the postal questionnaire of which 4,113 were used for analyses. 31.5% of the women had sufficient knowledge. The proportion of sufficient knowledge was lower among immigrants and among women with low education levels. The proportion of women making informed choices was low (27.1%), with similar associations with education level and migration status. Women of low (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.18–3.46) and medium education level (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.27–1.75) were more likely to make an uninformed choice than women of high education level. Turkish immigrant women had the greatest odds for making an uninformed choice (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.92–14.66) compared to non-immigrant women. Other immigrant women only had slightly greater odds for making an uninformed choice than non-immigrant women. As immigrant populations and women with low education level have been shown to have poor knowledge, they need special attention in measures to increase knowledge and thus informed choices. PMID:26529513

  12. First-time Sliding Failure in Weak Sandstones and Subsequent Evolution in a Fast-moving Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoni, A.; Berti, M.; Bayer, B.; Bertello, L.; Franceschini, S.; Morandi, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Following intense rainfalls, during spring 2013 a first-time sliding failure developed over a gentle cultivated slope in Northern Apennines. The slope is made of weakly cemented layered sandstones and subordinate siltstones and mudstones of Eocene age. The morphology is fairly regular with an average angle of 15° that increases up to 25° in the lower part of the slope where the pelitic fraction is no longer present in the bedrock succession. Bedding generally dips into the slope though the presence of faults locally complicate the setting. The sliding interested the upper, more gentle part of the slope with a maximum depth of 10 to 15 meters. Morphological evidences indicate a rotational component of movement and rocks outcropping along the scarp show a moderate degree of weathering. The main landslide body maintained its coherence and only a minor part of the toe mobilized as a fast-moving flow. No building nor infrastructure was affected by the movement but a railway viaduct is present in the lower part of the slope. Following the 2013 failure, movements and pore pressures were monitored in the landslide deposit to control the evolution of the phenomena. During the following winter, the abundant precipitation caused a reactivation of the movement that led to a much larger fast-moving flow. In this work, we document the sequence of events that has interested the slope during the years 2013-2014. Subsequent ground-based and aerial topographic surveys allow to estimate the volumes involved in the different phases of movement. Field evidences and investigations are used to interpret the geotechnical model of the slope and constrain the range of resistances mobilized at failure. The deformations preceding the 2014 reactivation are analyzed together with post-failure landslide deceleration. It is shown that displacements proceeded maintaining sustained moderate velocities for days before the catastrophic reactivation, making difficult to anticipate the acceleration

  13. A First-Time-In-Human Phase I Clinical Trial of Bispecific Antibody-Targeted, Paclitaxel-Packaged Bacterial Minicells

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Mark; McArthur, Grant A.; Pattison, Scott T.; Pattison, Stacey L.; MacDiarmid, Jennifer; Brahmbhatt, Himanshu; Scott, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We have harnessed a novel biological system, the bacterial minicell, to deliver cancer therapeutics to cancer cells. Preclinical studies showed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted, paclitaxel-loaded minicells (EGFRminicellsPac) have antitumor effects in xenograft models. To examine the safety of the minicell delivery system, we initiated a first-time-in-human, open-label, phase I clinical study of EGFRminicellsPac in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methodology Patients received 5 weekly infusions followed by a treatment free week. Seven dose levels (1x108, 1x109, 3x109, 1x1010, 1.5x1010, 2x1010, 5x1010) were evaluated using a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Primary objectives were safety, tolerability and determination of the maximum tolerated dose. Secondary objectives were assessment of immune/inflammatory responses and antitumor activity. Principal Findings Twenty eight patients were enrolled, 22 patients completed at least one cycle of EGFRminicellsPac; 6 patients did not complete a cycle due to rapidly progressive disease. A total of 236 doses was delivered over 42 cycles, with a maximum of 45 doses administered to a single patient. Most common treatment-related adverse events were rigors and pyrexia. No deaths resulted from treatment-related adverse events and the maximum tolerated dose was defined as 1x1010 EGFRminicellsPac. Surprisingly, only a mild self-limiting elevation in the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was observed. Anti-LPS antibody titers peaked by dose 3 and were maintained at that level despite repeat dosing with the bacterially derived minicells. Ten patients (45%; n = 22) achieved stable disease as their best response. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study in humans of a novel biological system that can provide targeted delivery of a range of chemotherapeutic drugs to solid tumor cells. Bispecific antibody-targeted minicells, packaged with the chemotherapeutic

  14. Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm(exp -1) Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; deKok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm(exp -1) in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 (exp -1) emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it bad been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004. Our far-infrared observations were performed With the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Caasini. Although it bad been expected that the 220 cm(exp -1) emission would eventnal1y appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm(exp -1) feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm(exp -1) ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini image. The 220 cm(exp -1) feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager I and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS. Until now the 220 cm(exp -1) emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm(exp -1) emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes.

  15. 77 FR 51021 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Student Assistance General... institutions to disclose the employment and placement rate, retention rate of first-time,...

  16. African Swine Fever Virus Uses Macropinocytosis to Enter Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elena G.; Quintas, Ana; Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; Nogal, Marisa; Barroso, Susana; Carrascosa, Ángel L.; Revilla, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved. PMID:22719252

  17. Student Characteristics Report, Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Community Colleges of Kansas City, MO. Div. of Planning and Development.

    As part of a continuing survey of student characteristics at the Metropolitan Community Colleges, this report presents data from 14,918 regular credit enrollment students for fall 1977 and compares them to data from 1972. For the first time in the district's history, the majority of students (54%) were female, a shift that has only occurred in the…

  18. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors

  19. Enteric Viral Surrogate Reduction by Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses are a major problem in the food industry, especially as human noroviruses are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Chitosan is known to be effective against some enteric viral surrogates, but more detailed studies are needed to determine the precise application variables. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of increasing chitosan concentration (0.7-1.5% w/v) on the cultivable enteric viral surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and bacteriophages (MS2 and phiX174) at 37 °C. Two chitosans (53 and 222 kDa) were dissolved in water (53 kDa) or 1% acetic acid (222 KDa) at 0.7-1.5%, and were then mixed with each virus to obtain a titer of ~5 log plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. These mixtures were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C. Controls included untreated viruses in phosphate-buffered saline and viruses were enumerated by plaque assays. The 53 kDa chitosan at the concentrations tested reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1, MS2, and phi X174 by 2.6-2.9, 0.1-0.4, 2.6-2.8, and 0.7-0.9 log PFU/mL, respectively, while reduction by 222 kDa chitosan was 2.2-2.4, 0.8-1.0, 2.6-5.2, and 0.5-0.8 log PFU/mL, respectively. The 222 kDa chitosan at 1 and 0.7% w/v in acetic acid (pH 4.5) caused the greatest reductions of MS2 by 5.2 logs and 2.6 logs, respectively. Overall, chitosan treatments showed the greatest reduction of MS2, followed by FCV-F9, phi X174, and MNV-1. These two chitosans may contribute to the reduction of enteric viruses at the concentrations tested but would require use of other hurdles to eliminate food borne viruses. PMID:26162243

  20. Understanding the Impact of Academic Support Programs on First-Time Bar Passage for Students at the University of Idaho College of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Helen

    2013-01-01

    As racial and ethnic population changes occur in the United States these same changes should be reflected in the legal community of lawyers and judges. Although Black and Hispanic populations have been increasing over the past 30 years in the United States, this same proportionate increase has not occurred in the American Bar Association (ABA)…

  1. Early College Students' Perceptions Regarding Factors and Obstacles for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twardowski, Charlotte K.

    2012-01-01

    This study had two purposes. The first purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions of first-time in college high school students, specifically early college students, in regards to factors that enabled them to be successful. Secondly, the perceptions of first-time in college high school students, specifically early college students, were…

  2. Management of enteric fever with amdinocillin.

    PubMed

    Ball, A P; Geddes, A M

    1983-08-29

    Twenty-six patients with enteric fever treated with amdinocillin and/or its pivaloyloxymethyl ester in 1975 to 1978 were compared with 21 patients with enteric fever treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 1972 to 1974. Diagnosis was based on clinical illness and isolation of Salmonella typhi or S. paratyphi A/B from blood cultures or stool cultures. The dosage of pivamdinocillin in adults was 400 to 800 mg, every 6 hours, for 10 to 16 days; dosage in children was half this amount for 11 to 15 days. Of the 21 patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 18 (86 percent) showed a satisfactory clinical response; 13 of these 18 had negative stools immediately after therapy, and two more were negative at the time of discharge (total: 83 percent). Mean hospital stay of these patients was 34.5 days. Of the 26 patients treated with amdinocillin, 23 showed a satisfactory clinical response; 20 of those responding clinically were still excreting the causative organism at the end of therapy; seven of the group remained as convalescent patients who continued to excrete the causative organism in feces at the time of discharge. Mean hospital stay was 43 days. The results of initial trials of amdinocillin and ampicillin in combination suggest that such therapy may be preferable to use of amdinocillin alone, although the excretion of the causative organism during convalescence has not been adequately assessed. PMID:6311001

  3. [Drug administration through enteral feeding catheters].

    PubMed

    Goñi Viguria, R; Sánchez Sanz, L; Asiain Erro, M; Baztán Indave, A

    2001-01-01

    Because of easiness and accessibility, the oral route of administration is usually the route of choice for medication delivery, as long as the oral drug form is available and the patients' circumstances allow it.In patients admitted to the intensive care unit this route is frequently altered. This provokes difficulties in swallowing and consequently an enteral feeding catheter must be inserted to supply the patient's nutritional requirements. This catheter is also used for the drug administration, which necessitates opening capsules or crushing pills before dilution. When added to drug-nutrient interactions, this process alters the drug's properties and modifies its pharmacokinetic profile, its pharmacological effect and the intensity of side effects. It can also provoke catheter obstruction. The aim of this study was to establish guidelines for drug administration through enteral feeding catheters. We provide a thorough review of the literature, describe oral drug forms, present a protocol for correct drug administration and provide a guide to the most commonly used drugs in our unit. For each of these drugs we include recommendations on administration and possible alternatives. PMID:11459545

  4. Necrotic enteritis predisposing factors in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis in chickens develops as a result of infection with pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens and the presence of predisposing factors. Predisposing factors include elements that directly change the physical properties of the gut, either damaging the epithelial surface, inducing mucus production, or changing gut transit times; factors that disrupt the gut microbiota; and factors that alter the immune status of birds. In the past research into necrotic enteritis predisposing factors was directed by the simple hypothesis that low-level colonization of C. perfringens commonly occurred within the gut of healthy chickens and the predisposing factors lead to a proliferation of those bacteria to produce disease. More recently, with an increasing understanding of the major virulence factors of C. perfringens and the application of molecular techniques to define different clades of C. perfringens strains, it has become clear that the C. perfringens isolates commonly found in healthy chickens are generally not strains that have the potential to cause disease. Therefore, we need to re-evaluate hypotheses regarding the development of disease, the origin of disease causing isolates of C. perfringens, and the importance of interactions with other C. perfringens strains and with predisposing factors. Many predisposing factors that affect the physical and immunological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract may also change the resident microbiota. Research directed towards defining the relative importance of each of these different actions of predisposing factors will improve the understanding of disease pathogenesis and may allow refinement of experiment disease models. PMID:26926926

  5. Generalized entering coefficients: A criterion for foam stability against oil in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, V.; Fagan, M.E.; Radke, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    The unique mobility-control properties of foam in porous media make it an attractive choice as an injection fluid for enhanced oil recovery. Unfortunately, in many cases oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important to understand how oil destabilizes foam and what surfactant properties lead to increased stability against oil. To explain the stability of foam in porous media in the presence of oil, we generalize the ideas of spreading and entering behavior using Frumkin-Deryaguin wetting theory. This formulation overcomes the inherent deficiencies in the classical spreading and entering coefficients used to explain foam stability against oil. We find that oil-tolerant foam can be produced by making the oil surface ``water wet``. To test our theoretical ideas, we measure foam-flow resistance through 45--70 {mu}m glass beadpacks, surface and interfacial tensions, and disjoining pressure isotherms for foam and pseudoemulsion films for a variety of surfactant/oil systems. Most notably, we measure pseudoemulsion-film disjoining pressure isotherms for the first time and directly establish that pseudoemulsion film stability controls the stability of the foam in the systems we tested. Moreover, we demonstrate the correspondence between stable pseudoemulsion films, negative entering behavior, and oil-tolerant foams.

  6. INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

  7. Effect of pain scrambler therapy on shoulder joint pain and range of motion in patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for the first time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of pain scrambler therapy on shoulder joint pain and range of motion in patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for the first time. [Subjects and Methods] Pain scrambler therapy was administered once a day every 40 minutes for 10 days to patients that had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for the first time. The visual analog scale was used to measure pain, and a goniometer was used to measure shoulder range of motion. [Results] After 10 sessions of pain scrambler therapy, pain was significantly reduced from that before the treatment. In addition, shoulder range of motion was increased after 10 treatment sessions. [Conclusion] Thus, pain scrambler therapy greatly reduced pain and increased should range of motion in the patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for the first time. PMID:27512291

  8. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  9. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  10. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  11. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis...

  13. New insights into environmental enteric dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Trehan, Indi; Kelly, Paul; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Manary, Mark J

    2016-08-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) has been recognised as an important contributing factor to physical and cognitive stunting, poor response to oral vaccines, limited resilience to acute infections and ultimately global childhood mortality. The aetiology of EED remains poorly defined but the epidemiology suggests a multifactorial combination of prenatal and early-life undernutrition and repeated infectious and/or toxic environmental insults due to unsanitary and unhygienic environments. Previous attempts at medical interventions to ameliorate EED have been unsatisfying. However, a new generation of imaging and '-omics' technologies hold promise for developing a new understanding of the pathophysiology of EED. A series of trials designed to decrease EED and stunting are taking novel approaches, including improvements in sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions. Although many challenges remain in defeating EED, the global child health community must redouble their efforts to reduce EED in order to make substantive improvements in morbidity and mortality worldwide. PMID:26933151

  14. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  15. [Endoscopic and surgical procedures for enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Wallstabe, I; Tiedemann, A; Schiefke, I; Weimann, A

    2013-07-01

    Standardized management of oncology patients necessarily includes screening for nutritional risk. Weight loss of > 5 kg within 3 months and diminished food intake are warning signals even in overweight patients. In case oral nutrition is neither adequate nor feasible even by fortification or oral nutritional supplements, the implantation of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or fine needle catheter jejunostomy (FNCJ) offers enteral access for long-term nutritional support. Although the indications derive from fulfilling caloric needs, endoscopic or operative measures are not considered to be an urgent or even emergency measure. The endoscopist or surgeon should be fully aware and informed of the indications and make a personal assessment of the situation. The implantation of a feeding tube requires informed consent of the patient or legal surrogates. The review summarizes recent indications, technical problems and complications. PMID:23719727

  16. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  17. Detection of enteric pathogens in Turkey flocks affected with severe enteritis, in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura-Alvarez, Joelma; Nuñez, Luis F N; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Knöbl, Terezinha; Chacón, Jorge L; Moreno, Andrea M; Jones, Richard C; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-two flocks of turkeys affected by enteric problems, with ages between 10 and 104 days and located in the Southern region of Brazil, were surveyed for turkey by PCR for turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2), turkey coronavirus (TCoV), hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), rotavirus, reovirus, Salmonella spp., and Lawsonia intracellularis (Li) infections. Eleven profiles of pathogen combination were observed. The most frequently encountered pathogen combinations were TCoV-Li, followed by TCoV-TAstV-2-Li, TCoV-TastV-2. Only TCoV was detected as the sole pathogen in three flocks. Eight and 19 flocks of the 22 were positive for TAstV-2 and TCoV, respectively. Six were positive for Salmonella spp. and L. intracellularis was detected in 12 turkey flocks. Reovirus and HEV were not detected in this survey. These results throw new light on the multiple etiology of enteritis in turkeys. The implications of these findings and their correlation with the clinical signs are comprehensively discussed, illustrating the complexity of the enteric diseases. PMID:24817479

  18. Prucalopride exerts neuroprotection in human enteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Francesca; Bonora, Elena; Natarajan, Dipa; Vargiolu, Manuela; Thapar, Nikhil; Torresan, Francesco; Giancola, Fiorella; Boschetti, Elisa; Volta, Umberto; Bazzoli, Franco; Mazzoni, Maurizio; Seri, Marco; Clavenzani, Paolo; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Sternini, Catia; De Giorgio, Roberto

    2016-05-15

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its transporters and receptors are involved in a wide array of digestive functions. In particular, 5-HT4 receptors are known to mediate intestinal peristalsis and recent data in experimental animals have shown their role in neuronal maintenance and neurogenesis. This study has been designed to test whether prucalopride, a well-known full 5-HT4 agonist, exerts protective effects on neurons, including enteric neurons, exposed to oxidative stress challenge. Sulforhodamine B assay was used to determine the survival of SH-SY5Y cells, human enteric neurospheres, and ex vivo submucosal neurons following H2O2 exposure in the presence or absence of prucalopride (1 nM). Specificity of 5-HT4-mediated neuroprotection was established by experiments performed in the presence of GR113808, a 5-HT4 antagonist. Prucalopride exhibited a significant neuroprotective effect. SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with prucalopride were protected from the injury elicited by H2O2 as shown by increased survival (73.5 ± 0.1% of neuronal survival vs. 33.3 ± 0.1%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and a significant reduction of proapoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in all neurons tested. The protective effect of prucalopride was reversed by the specific 5-HT4 antagonist GR113808. Prucalopride promotes a significant neuroprotection against oxidative-mediated proapoptotic mechanisms. Our data pave the way for novel therapeutic implications of full 5-HT4 agonists in gut dysmotility characterized by neuronal degeneration, which go beyond the well-known enterokinetic effect. PMID:26893157

  19. Mechanosensitivity in the enteric nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) autonomously controls gut muscle activity. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) initiate reflex activity by responding to mechanical deformation of the gastrointestinal wall. MEN throughout the gut primarily respond to compression or stretch rather than to shear force. Some MEN are multimodal as they respond to compression and stretch. Depending on the region up to 60% of the entire ENS population responds to mechanical stress. MEN fire action potentials after mechanical stimulation of processes or soma although they are more sensitive to process deformation. There are at least two populations of MEN based on their sensitivity to different modalities of mechanical stress and on their firing pattern. (1) Rapidly, slowly and ultra-slowly adapting neurons which encode compressive forces. (2) Ultra-slowly adapting stretch-sensitive neurons encoding tensile forces. Rapid adaptation of firing is typically observed after compressive force while slow adaptation or ongoing spike discharge occurs often during tensile stress (stretch). All MEN have some common properties: they receive synaptic input, are low fidelity mechanoreceptors and are multifunctional in that some serve interneuronal others even motor functions. Consequently, MEN possess processes with mechanosensitive as well as efferent functions. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that MEN sense and control muscle activity at the same time as servo-feedback loop. The mechanosensitive channel(s) or receptor(s) expressed by the different MEN populations are unknown. Future concepts have to incorporate compressive and tensile-sensitive MEN into neural circuits that controls muscle activity. They may interact to control various forms of a particular motor pattern or regulate different motor patterns independently from each other. PMID:26528136

  20. Sustaining Retention of Nontraditional Students in the Geosciences in 2YC; Practices and Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos, J. I.; Doser, D. I.

    2012-12-01

    As the role of 2YC (two-year colleges/community colleges) changes in the academic pipeline of higher education new practices and ideas to engage and retain students in the geosciences at the 2YC level need to be explored. 2YC typically have a student body composed of non-traditional students ranging from second career students, single parents, students with disabilities, seniors, and minorities. Currently, 2YCs serve 44% of all undergraduate students and 45% of all of all first time freshmen in the US. These statistics show the potential community colleges hold to encourage entering students to the STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math) fields as a possible career choice. But the reality is the number of STEM degrees awarded at community colleges has not followed the same trends in student enrollment. Over the past four years El Paso Community College (EPCC) in conjunction with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has implemented several initiatives in our effort to increase the number of Geological Science majors at EPCC and to ensure a successful transition to UTEP. These efforts are aimed to decrease attrition rates of science majors by; articulating degree plans between institutions, introduce field-based research projects to allow hands on experience for students, develop a working relationship between students and university faculty, diversify geology courses offered at EPCC, and strengthening the educational-bridge between the geological science departments of EPCC and UTEP through the aid of federally funded programs. The success of the these efforts have been seen by; the increase in geology majors in our A.S. degree program, the number of degrees conferred at EPCC, the successful transition of students to UTEP, and graduation of students from UTEP with advanced degrees.

  1. Pourquoi Entrer a l'Universite? L'exemple d'une Universtie de Lettres et Sciences Humaines. (Why Enter a University? An Example from a Liberal Arts College.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canals, Valerie; Diebolt, Claude

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that the high dropout rate among first-year students in French universities is due in part to economic factors, which push some students into attending school when work is scarce. Differentiates between those who enter school to invest in the future and those who enter by default. (Contains 71 references.) (NB)

  2. Men Who Enter Nursing: A Sociological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auster, Donald; Auster, Nancy R.

    Little is known about the relationship between the choice of a sex discrepant occupation and the selection of a nursing career, attitudes toward training, and professional socialization. The research design included a cross-sectional attitude survey of both beginning and advanced nursing school students. Data were obtained from a…

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Megavirus Family Member Isolated from an Inland Water Lake for the First Time in India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirvan; Ali, Farhan; Bange, Disha

    2016-01-01

    We report here the isolation and complete genome sequencing of a large double-stranded DNA virus, Powai Lake megavirus, for the first time from India. The isolation of a large DNA virus with genome size >1 Mb from India further attests to the prevalence of Giant viruses in different environmental niches. PMID:27313286

  4. Surviving the First Time Through: A New Instructor's Views on Designing and Teaching Economic Geography and How Mentoring Early-Career Faculty Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocoy, Christine L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the reflections of a new instructor of economic geography in the USA. The author offers practical advice for designing and delivering a course for the first time. Suggestions are given in support of the view that sharing knowledge of effective teaching practices is an important component of mentoring early-career faculty. By…

  5. Enteral ecoimmunonutrition reduced enteral permeability and serum ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Di; Shao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzed how enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension (TPF), can impact on the enteral permeability and serum Ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection. Among 190 severe cerebral stroke patients with tolerance to TPF, they were randomized into control and treatment groups after antibiotics treatment due to lung infections. There were 92 patients in the control group and 98 patients in treatment group. The control group was treated with TPF and the treatment group was treated with enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension. All patients received continuous treatments through nasoenteral or nasogastric tubes. 7, 14, and 21 days after the treatments, the enteral tolerance to nutrition was observed in both groups. The tests included abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio. Serum Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA. The incidence of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea was lower in the treatment group and enteral tolerance to nutrition was also superior to the control group. No difference in serum Ghrelin level was observed between the control and treatment groups with enteral intolerance to nutrition. However, in patients with enteral tolerance to nutrition, the treatment group showed lower enteral nutrition and lower enteral permeability compared to the control group. In severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection, enteral ecoimmunonutrition after antibiotics treatment improved enteral tolerance to nutrition and reduced enteral permeability; meanwhile, it lowered the serum Ghrelin activity, which implied the high serum Ghrelin reduces enteral permeability. PMID:25142270

  6. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO(2) receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH(4), N(2)O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO(2), CH(4) is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH(4) emissions. Emission of CH(4) in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH(4) emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH(4) prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH(4) emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH(4) emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH(4) emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH(4) more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because

  7. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  8. The NEON School Enters a New Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennefeld, M.

    2004-12-01

    THE NEON SCHOOL, a school on astronomical observations organised by a collaboration of observatories (Asiago, Calar Alto, ESO, La Palma and OHP) is well known by PhD students in astronomy all over Europe. It runs tutorial observations directly at the telescope for students in small groups, under the supervision of an experienced astronomer. This way, the participants can execute a real scientific program with all the steps needed in professional life: preparation of the program with selection of targets and feasibility estimates; set-up of the instrument and calibrations; running of the observations, in general both imaging/photometry and spectroscopy; data reductions; and, finally, the presentation of the results at the end of the school.

  9. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study

    SciTech Connect

    Loiudice, T.A.; Lang, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response.

  10. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C.

    1999-10-01

    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

  11. Growth of bacteria in enteral feeding solutions.

    PubMed

    Anderton, A

    1985-08-01

    Solutions of Clinifeed ISO, Triosorbon, Vivonex Standard (full- and half-strength) and Vivonex HN were experimentally contaminated with two strains each of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae at concentrations of 10(2)-10(3) organisms/ml. Samples were incubated at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C and viable counts were made at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h. No increase in numbers of any of the organisms was observed in any of the feeds during 24 h at 4 degrees C. All organisms multiplied rapidly in Clinifeed ISO and in Triosorbon at 25 and 37 degrees C. There was less rapid growth in half-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, although at 37 degrees C all strains multiplied rapidly except for the two S. aureus strains, the growth of which was inhibited in half-strength Vivonex Standard at both 25 and 37 degrees C. In full-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, only P. aeruginosa showed any increase in numbers during 24 h, whereas P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes and E. cloacae all multiplied at 37 degrees C. None of the test organisms multiplied in full strength Vivonex HN at any of the temperatures studied. The results of the study show that bacteria survive and may multiply even in feeds with low pH and high osmolarity, and emphasise the importance of strict hygiene during the preparation and handling of all enteral feeds. PMID:3927003

  12. Treatment of radiation enteritis: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Loiudice, T A; Lang, J A

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with severe radiation injury to the small bowel seen over a 4-year period were randomized to four treatment groups: 1) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po, 2) methylprednisolone 80 mg intravenously plus total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, 3) total parenteral nutrition, 2.5 L/day, and 4) Vivonex-HN, 2 L/day po. Patients received nothing by mouth except water in groups II and III, and only Vivonex-HN in groups I and IV. Patients were treated for 8-wk periods. Improvement was gauged by overall nutritional assessment measurements, nitrogen balance data and by radiological and clinical parameters. No significant difference between groups I, II, III, and IV could be found for age, sex, mean radiation dosage, time of onset after radiation therapy, or initial nutritional assessment data. Differences statistically could be found between groups II and III and I and IV regarding nutritional assessment data, nitrogen balance, radiographic and clinical parameters after therapy, with marked improvement noted in groups II and III. We conclude that a treatment regimen consisting of total parenteral nutrition and bowel rest is beneficial in the treatment of radiation enteritis. Methylprednisolone appears to enhance this effect and indeed, may be responsible for a longer lasting response. PMID:6410908

  13. Uncovering Student Concerns. From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellenz, Robert A.; Conti, Gary J.

    1986-01-01

    This exercise is intended to help those working with adult basic education (ABE) students gain greater insight into the interests and concerns of adults entering their program. It is a group activity that presumes that at least some of the participants are familiar with entering students. It can be adapted to reflect the traditional two or three…

  14. Demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elders using home enteral nutritional therapy in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salomon Zaban, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    According to statistical projections of the World Health Organization, during the period between 1950 and 2025, the group of elderly in Brazil will have increased 15 times. Chronic-degenerative diseases are the illnesses that most affect the elderly population, directly related to the growing demand for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elderly patients assisted at the public hospitals in the Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy Program, of the State Health Department of Distrito Federal. This is a retroprospective, cross-sectional and analytical study, based on primary data, which enrolled 141 elderly patients who were prescribed home enteral nutrition. The collected variables corresponded to age, gender, clinical diagnosis, enteral route and nutritional status at the beginning of Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The association between variables was analyzed through the t-Student and chi-square tests, with a significance level of 0.05 and a Confidence Interval (CI) of 95%. There was a higher number of female patients (53.9%) when compared to male (46.1%), average age 75.82 years old for both groups. The most prevalent diseases were cerebro-vascular accident sequels and cancer (42.6% and 22.7% respectively). It was observed a prevalence of malnutrition equal to 69.7%, independent of age and gender. The most used enteral route was the nasal. Though Brazilian policies concerning assistance to the elderly have advanced during the last few years, the need for public policies for nutritional recovery of such patients persists, to promote a better quality of life for them. PMID:19961057

  15. Microbial shifts associated with necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Driessche, Karolien; Onrust, Lonneke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Moore, Robert J; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of necrotic enteritis (NE) is a complex process requiring one or a number of predisposing factors rather than just the presence of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens. Examples are dietary influences, such as high levels of non-starch polysaccharides and fishmeal, and factors that evoke epithelial cell damage, such as Fusarium mycotoxins in feed and Eimeria infections. Recent studies have shown that different predisposing factors induce similar shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition. Butyrate-producing-strains of the Ruminococcaceae family are decreased in abundance by both fishmeal and Eimeria. Similarly, a decreased abundance of butyrate-producing-strains belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family has been induced by fishmeal. Also shifts are observed in the lactic acid-producing bacteria, such as decreased abundance of Lactobacillus johnsonii or Weissella confusa, when broilers were fed a fishmeal-based diet or a Fusarium mycotoxin contaminated diet. Finally, the abundance of Candidatus Savagella was decreased in broilers following Eimeria challenge or feeding a fumonisins contaminated diet. The nature of the microbiota shifts indicate that immune modulatory actions of the intestinal microbiota may play a critical role in the effect on the necrosis inducing activity of C. perfringens. Indeed, colonization with butyrate-producing bacteria plays a key role in counteracting inflammation in the gut and preserving intestinal integrity, while Candidatus Savagella is involved in stimulating Th17 and immunoglobulin A responses. Lactic acid bacteria stimulate colonization of lactate-utilizing and butyrate-producing Lachnospiraceae. Future research needs to clarify the role of the microbiota changes in the pathogenesis of NE. PMID:26950294

  16. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies. PMID:25917772

  17. Psychopathology among cocaine abusers entering treatment.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, P H; Miller, A B; Millman, R B; Woody, G E; Todd, T; Kemp, J; Lipton, D S

    1990-07-01

    A number of different indicators of psychopathology were assessed in this study of 76 cocaine and crack abusers who entered outpatient treatment in New York City between June and December 1987. The majority (75%) had used cocaine for 4 years or more, and the majority (62%) spent over one thousand dollars a month on cocaine in the 6 months before entry into treatment. Forty-seven percent of the sample were found to be clinically depressed. Phobic disorders were the only other axis I diagnoses found in addition to depression, and all persons who were found to have phobic disorders also were diagnosed as having some form of depressive disorder. The four most common axis II diagnoses were antisocial personality (21%), passive-aggressive (21%), borderline (18%) and self-defeating (18%). Subjects were classified as falling into one of the following three categories of a newly developed "psychopathology classification": a) no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse or dependency; b) one or more axis II diagnoses, but no axis I diagnoses except for substance abuse or dependency; c) at least one axis I diagnosis in addition to drug disorders whether or not accompanied by an axis II diagnosis. Mean scores on subscales and total score on the SCL-90, as well as total score on the Beck Depression Inventory, were ordered by category of the classification scheme, with those having no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse having the lowest score and persons in the third category having the highest score.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2366058

  18. Enteral nutrient solutions. Limiting bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Paauw, J D; Fagerman, K E; McCamish, M A; Dean, R E

    1984-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of enteral nutrient solutions ( ENS ) in FFcess of food product standards is known to occur in the hospital setting. The large amounts of bacteria often given with ENS have been shown to create a reservoir for nosocomial infections, and nonpathogenic bacteria have been implicated. Patient tolerance is dependent on immune status and the bacterial load delivered to the gut. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial growth-sustaining properties of various ENS and to devise methods to limit bacterial growth. Five commercial products were prepared under sterile conditions. After inoculation with approximately 5 X 10(3) organisms/cm3 of Enterobacter cloacae, each solution was hung at room temperature for 24 hours with samples drawn at fixed intervals and plated for bacterial counts. Bacterial growth rates in Ensure, Travasorb , and Vital were markedly higher than those in Precision and Vivonex. Vivonex was noted to contain potassium sorbate (KS) used as a fungistatic agent. Recent studies have identified KS as a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic food preservative that is federally approved for this use. KS (0.03%) was added to Travasorb inoculated with 5 X 10(3) organisms/cm(3) of E. cloacae. The bacterial growth rate was reduced by 75 per cent, and the final count of 2-3 X 10(4) organisms/ml was within the federally regulated limit for milk. This study suggests that initial inoculum, growth rate, and hang time can be altered to provide a significant reduction in final bacterial counts in ENS . PMID:6428286

  19. The Premedical Student: His Identity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald O.; Riches, Eleanor; Levson, Bryan

    1964-01-01

    A prospective study is currently being conducted of students who were freshmen at the University of British Columbia in 1961-1962. Three cohorts are being followed: 136 premedical students, 107 science students, and 136 persons comprising a sample of general arts students. At registration in 1961, the only demographic difference was that the Premedical cohort had a greater proportion of catholics and persons from upper occupational classes. Premedical students generally performed as well in high school as science students and better than general arts students, though the academic potential of science students as measured by achievement and aptitude tests was superior. Premedical students performed better on freshman examinations than the other cohorts, though a significantly larger proportion of science students (84.4%) actually passed into second year than of premedical students (75.0%). A disturbing observation was that by second year the Science cohort had recruited more than enough students to balance its losses, while the Premedical cohort had lost three times as many students as it recruited. The net effect was not much reduced by students who entered directly from senior matriculation or other universities, since these students were about twice as likely to enter the Science cohort as they were to enter the Premedical cohort. PMID:14222669

  20. Emerging roles for enteric glia in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Enteric glia are important components of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and also form an extensive network in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Initially regarded as passive support cells, it is now clear that they are actively involved as cellular integrators in the control of motility and epithelial barrier function. Enteric glia form a cellular and molecular bridge between enteric nerves, enteroendocrine cells, immune cells, and epithelial cells, depending on their location. This Review highlights the role of enteric glia in GI motility disorders and in barrier and defense functions of the gut, notably in states of inflammation. It also discusses the involvement of enteric glia in neurological diseases that involve the GI tract. PMID:25689252

  1. Are People More Inclined to Vote at 16 than at 18? Evidence for the First-Time Voting Boost Among 16- to 25-Year-Olds in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Zeglovits, Eva; Aichholzer, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Potential consequences of lowering voting age to 16 have been discussed in recent scientific and public debates. This article examines turnout of young voters aged 16 to 17 in Austria, the first European country that lowered the general voting age to 16. For this purpose we use unique data taken from electoral lists of two recent Austrian regional elections. The results support the idea that the so-called “first-time voting boost” is even stronger among the youngest voters as turnout was (a) higher compared to 18- to 20-year-old first-time voters and (b) not substantially lower than the average turnout rate. We conclude that our findings are encouraging for the idea of lowering voting age as a means to establish higher turnout rates in the future. PMID:27226806

  2. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  3. Diet and Environment Shape Fecal Bacterial Microbiota Composition and Enteric Pathogen Load of Grizzly Bears

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Northrup, Joseph M.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic clostridia in wild and captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and relates these to food resources consumed by bears. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces were obtained from animals of two wild populations and from two captive animals during an active bear season. Wild animals consumed a diverse diet composed of plant material, animal prey and insects. Captive animals were fed a regular granulated diet with a supplement of fruits and vegetables. Bacterial populations were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Fecal microbiota composition fluctuated in wild and in captive animals. The abundance of Clostridium clusters I and XI, and of C. perfringens correlated to regular diet protein intake. Enteroaggregative E. coli were consistently present in all populations. The C. sordellii phospholipase C was identified in three samples of wild animals and for the first time in Ursids. Conclusion This is the first longitudinal study monitoring the fecal microbiota of wild carnivores and comparing it to that of captive individuals of the same species. Location and diet affected fecal bacterial populations as well as the presence of enteric pathogens. PMID:22194798

  4. Spatial Segregation of Virulence Gene Expression during Acute Enteric Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Richard C.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Barhoumi, Roula; Payne, H. Ross; Wu, Jing; Gomez, Gabriel; Pugh, Roberta; Lawhon, Sara D.; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Adams, L. Garry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To establish a replicative niche during its infectious cycle between the intestinal lumen and tissue, the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires numerous virulence genes, including genes for two type III secretion systems (T3SS) and their cognate effectors. To better understand the host-pathogen relationship, including early infection dynamics and induction kinetics of the bacterial virulence program in the context of a natural host, we monitored the subcellular localization and temporal expression of T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 using fluorescent single-cell reporters in a bovine, ligated ileal loop model of infection. We observed that the majority of bacteria at 2 h postinfection are flagellated, express T3SS-1 but not T3SS-2, and are associated with the epithelium or with extruding enterocytes. In epithelial cells, S. Typhimurium cells were surrounded by intact vacuolar membranes or present within membrane-compromised vacuoles that typically contained numerous vesicular structures. By 8 h postinfection, T3SS-2-expressing bacteria were detected in the lamina propria and in the underlying mucosa, while T3SS-1-expressing bacteria were in the lumen. Our work identifies for the first time the temporal and spatial regulation of T3SS-1 and -2 expression during an enteric infection in a natural host and provides further support for the concept of cytosolic S. Typhimurium in extruding epithelium as a mechanism for reseeding the lumen. PMID:24496791

  5. Comparative examination of cats with feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis and other relevant forms of feline enteritis.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Kremendahl, J; Jackson, M L; Reinacher, M

    2001-07-01

    Cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated enteritis (FAE), enteritis of other known viral etiology (parvovirus [PV], enteric coronavirus [CoV]), and enteritis of unknown etiology with histologic features similar to those of FAE and PV enteritis (EUE) and FeLV-negative and FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations were examined. Amount and types of infiltrating leukocytes in the jejunum and activity and cellular constituents of mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow were determined. PV and CoV infections were confirmed by immunohistologic demonstration of PV and CoV antigen, ultrastructural demonstration of viral particles in the intestinal content, and in situ hybridization for PV genome. FeLV infection was detected by immunohistology for gp70, p27, and p15E. Latent FeLV infection was excluded by polymerase chain reaction methods for exogenous FeLV DNA. Enterocyte lesions involved the crypts in cats with PV enteritis, FAE, and EUE and the villous tips in cats with CoV enteritis. Inflammatory infiltration was generally dominated by mononuclear cells and was moderate in the unaltered intestine and in cats with PV enteritis and marked in cats with FAE, CoV enteritis, and EUE. In cats with EUE, myeloid/histiocyte antigen-positive macrophages were relatively numerous, suggesting recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes. Lymphoid tissues were depleted in cats with PV enteritis and with EUE but were normal or hyperplastic in cats with FAE. Bone marrow activity was decreased in cats with PV enteritis; in cats with FAE or EUE and in FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations, activity was slightly increased. In cats with FAE and PV enteritis, a T-cell-dominated response prevailed. EUE showed some parallels to human inflammatory bowel disease, indicating a potential harmful effect of infiltrating macrophages on the intestinal epithelium. PMID:11467470

  6. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission

  7. Do They Enter the Workforce? Career Choices after an Undergrad Research Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, S.; Wissel, S.; Zwicker, A.; Ortiz, D.; Dominguez, A.

    2015-11-01

    Students in undergrad research internships go on to grad school at rates of 50-75% (Lopatto, 2007;Russell, 2005). NSF studied its undergrad program and found that 74% of physics interns (67% for engineering) go to grad school. PPPL undergrad interns were tracked for 10 years. Only 3% of physics PhD candidates are studying plasma physics, but 23% of our alumni that entered grad school did so in plasma. AIP reports that 60% of physics majors go to grad school (AIP, 2012), but 95% of PPPL interns have gone on to grad schools. Several programs track enrollment in grad school. AIP compiles statistics of undergrads who enter grad school and PhD students who work in the field. There has been no study of interns that follows the path from undergrad to grad school and then on to employment. Our tracking shows that most not only complete their advanced degrees but also stay in STEM fields following their academic careers. 88% of them become part of the STEM workforce, higher than the 82% of all physics PhDs employed in physics after obtaining their degree (AIP, 2014). PPPL puts more students in grad school in physics, and specifically plasma physics, and a higher percentage of those grad students stay in the STEM workforce.

  8. Student Equity Policy: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Gus

    Following the introduction of first-time student fees in the California Community Colleges (CCC) in 1984, minority student enrollments decreased markedly. A special statewide symposium was convened by the Board of Governors (BOG) of the CCC, and in 1986 a major policy statement was adopted to improve minority student access and achievement. In…

  9. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  10. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  11. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  12. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  13. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  14. Timing of predisposing factors is important in necrotic enteritis models.

    PubMed

    Van Waeyenberghe, Lieven; De Gussem, Maarten; Verbeke, Joren; Dewaele, Isabelle; De Gussem, Jeroen

    2016-06-01

    Since the ban of antimicrobial growth promotors, the importance of necrotic enteritis in broilers increases. Reliable and reproducible infection models are required for pathogenesis studies and product screening. Two major predisposing factors in necrotic enteritis models are fishmeal supplementation to feed and Eimeria infection. However, many unsolved issues regarding these predisposing factors still exist. Therefore, the influence of timepoint of fishmeal administration (onset on day 8 or day 18), timing of coccidiosis challenge (day 15 or day 19) and strain of coccidiosis challenge (field strain vs. commercial vaccine) on the induction of necrotic enteritis lesions was investigated. The birds were inoculated with Clostridium perfringens three times per day for four consecutive days (day 17 until day 20) and were scored for the presence of necrotic enteritis on days 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26. Supplementation of the diet with fishmeal from day 8 onwards increased the likelihood of necrotic enteritis compared to supplementation from day 18 onwards. Birds challenged on day 19 with coccidiosis were more likely to have necrotic enteritis on scoring days 23 and 24 compared to birds challenged on day 15. Differences on other scoring days were less pronounced. Finally, the strain of coccidiosis challenge had little influence on the induction of necrotic enteritis. Findings of this study can help researchers to set up successful necrotic enteritis infection models. PMID:26927291

  15. Sequence analysis of parvoviruses associated with enteric disease of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) are significant viral enteric diseases of poultry. The etiology of these diseases is not completely understood. Here, we report the application of a molecular screening method that was designed to detect novel viruses from...

  16. Enteral feeding in critical care, gastrointestinal diseases, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, D F; Teran, J C

    1998-07-01

    This article discusses the many advantages and changes that have occurred in the nutritional management of critically-ill patients, patients with gastrointestinal diseases, and patients with selected cancers. Mechanical obstruction is the only absolute contraindication to enteral nutrition. This article reviews the present aggressive approach to the use of enteral nutrition. PMID:9654573

  17. ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENTERING SIDE OF TRAM HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST UP ARRASTRA GULCH. ENTERING ORE BUCKETS ROLLED OF SUSPENSION CABLE ONTO UPPER STEEL RAIL, WHERE THEY WERE DISCONNECTED FROM TRACTION (LOWER) CABLE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  18. The HIV-Associated Enteric Microbiome Has Gone Viral.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brent E; Li, Sam X; Lozupone, Catherine A

    2016-03-01

    HIV infection is associated with dramatic alterations in enteric bacteria, but little is known about other microbiome components. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, studies by Monaco et al. (2016) and Handley et al. (2016) reveal an under-appreciated role of the enteric virome in HIV-associated gastroenteritis and pathogenesis. PMID:26962936

  19. Recent progress in the characterization of avian enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of the poultry gut, remarkably little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in the laboratory....

  20. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  1. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  2. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  3. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  4. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  5. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  9. Enteral Nutrition in Crohn's Disease: An Underused Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, S.; Wagner, J.; Kirkwood, C. D.; Catto-Smith, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile. PMID:24382954

  10. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  11. Entering First-Year Residents' Experiences and Knowledge of Infection Control of Hepatitis B and HIV, at Five University-Affiliated Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Angella; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 149 entering first-year medical residents concerning experiences with and knowledge of infection control investigated occurrence and patterns of accidental needle-sticking and reporting, student immunization for Hepatitis B, and instruction in universal precautions. It is concluded that students are at risk for needle-sticking, but…

  12. Jordanian Critical Care Nurses' Practices Regarding Enteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Sawsam Mohammad; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Darawad, Muhammad Waleed

    2015-01-01

    In Jordan, there is a gap in literature regarding nurses' practices of enteral nutrition. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess nurses' practices regarding enteral nutrition of critically ill adult patients. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to collect data through self-reported questionnaires and descriptive analyses were used to display the results of the study. The results revealed that some aspects of enteral nutrition practices were consistent with the current best evidences such as initiation time of enteral nutrition and backrest elevation. On the contrary, some aspects showed variations and inconsistency with current best evidences such as the amount of high gastric residual volume and its management. Nurses' practices regarding enteral nutrition were not consistent with international guidelines. This inconsistency can predispose patients to underfeeding. Enhancement of research utilization is highly recommended as well as establishing evidence-based guidelines. PMID:26226022

  13. Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Predict First-Time Coronary Heart Disease: An 8-Year Follow-Up of a Community-Based Middle Aged Population

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Peter; Jonasson, Lena; Nilsson, Lennart; Falk, Magnus; Kristenson, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Background The enzyme in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been suggested to be an important determinant of plaque degradation. While several studies have shown elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease, results in prospective population based studies evaluating MMP-9 in relation to first time coronary events have been inconclusive. As of today, there are four published studies which have measured MMP-9 in serum and none using plasma. Measures of MMP-9 in serum have been suggested to have more flaws than measures in plasma. Aim To investigate the independent association between plasma levels of MMP-9 and first-time incidence of coronary events in an 8-year follow-up. Material and Methods 428 men and 438 women, aged 45–69 years, free of previous coronary events and stroke at baseline, were followed-up. Adjustments were made for sex, age, socioeconomic position, behavioral and cardiovascular risk factors, chronic disease at baseline, depressive symptoms, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Results 53 events were identified during a risk-time of 6 607 person years. Hazard ratio (HR) for MMP-9 after adjustment for all covariates were HR = 1.44 (1.03 to 2.02, p = 0.033). Overall, the effect of adjustments for other cardiovascular risk factors was low. Conclusion Levels of plasma MMP-9 are independently associated with risk of first-time CHD events, regardless of adjustments. These results are in contrast to previous prospective population-based studies based on MMP-9 in serum. It is essential that more studies look at MMP-9 levels in plasma to further evaluate the association with first coronary events. PMID:26389803

  14. General practice variation in spirometry testing among patients receiving first-time prescriptions for medication targeting obstructive lung disease in Denmark: a population-based observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spirometry testing is essential to confirm an obstructive lung disease, but studies have reported that a large proportion of patients diagnosed with COPD or asthma have no history of spirometry testing. Also, it has been shown that many patients are prescribed medication for obstructive lung disease without a relevant diagnosis or spirometry test registered. General practice characteristics have been reported to influence diagnosis and management of several chronic diseases. However, these findings are inconsistent, and it is uncertain whether practice characteristics influence spirometry testing among patients receiving medication for obstructive lung disease. The aim of this study was therefore to examine if practice characteristics are associated with spirometry testing among patients receiving first-time prescriptions for medication targeting obstructive lung disease. Methods A national register-based cohort study was performed. All patients over 18 years receiving first-time prescriptions for medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008 were identified and detailed patient-specific data on sociodemographic status and spirometry tests were extracted. Information on practice characteristics like number of doctors, number of patients per doctor, training practice status, as well as age and gender of the general practitioners was linked to each medication user. Results Partnership practices had a higher odds ratio (OR) of performing spirometry compared with single-handed practices (OR 1.24, CI 1.09-1.40). We found a significant association between increasing general practitioner age and decreasing spirometry testing. This tendency was most pronounced among partnership practices, where doctors over 65 years had the lowest odds of spirometry testing (OR 0.25, CI 0.10-0.61). Training practice status was significantly associated with spirometry testing among single-handed practices (OR 1.40, CI 1.10-1.79). Conclusion Some of the variation in

  15. An Outbreak of Food-Borne Typhoid Fever Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in Japan Reported for the First Time in 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Uryu, Hideko; Yamada, Ritsuko; Kashiwa, Naoyuki; Nei, Takahito; Ehara, Akihito; Takei, Reiko; Mori, Nobuaki; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hayasaka, Tomomi; Kagawa, Narito; Sugawara, Momoko; Suzaki, Ai; Takahashi, Yuno; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in 16 years, a food-borne outbreak of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was reported in Japan. Seven patients consumed food in an Indian buffet at a restaurant in the center of Tokyo, while one was a Nepali chef in the restaurant, an asymptomatic carrier and the implicated source of this outbreak. The multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed 100% consistency in the genomic sequence for five of the eight cases. PMID:26621565

  16. Case Report: An Outbreak of Food-Borne Typhoid Fever Due to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in Japan Reported for the First Time in 16 Years.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Uryu, Hideko; Yamada, Ritsuko; Kashiwa, Naoyuki; Nei, Takahito; Ehara, Akihito; Takei, Reiko; Mori, Nobuaki; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hayasaka, Tomomi; Kagawa, Narito; Sugawara, Momoko; Suzaki, Ai; Takahashi, Yuno; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    For the first time in 16 years, a food-borne outbreak of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi was reported in Japan. Seven patients consumed food in an Indian buffet at a restaurant in the center of Tokyo, while one was a Nepali chef in the restaurant, an asymptomatic carrier and the implicated source of this outbreak. The multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed 100% consistency in the genomic sequence for five of the eight cases. PMID:26621565

  17. A Smooth Transition? Education and Social Expectations of Direct Entry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Paul; D'Annunzio-Green, Norma

    2009-01-01

    While the most common type of student entering higher education falls within the 17-19-year-old age group, universities in the UK are keen to accept other categories of students onto programmes as a means of increasing diversity and maintaining student numbers in the latter portion of a programme. One such category is those students who enter a…

  18. A novel subset of enteric neurons revealed by ptf1a:GFP in the developing zebrafish enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Rosa A; Gu, Tiffany; Bronner, Marianne E

    2016-03-01

    The enteric nervous system, the largest division of the peripheral nervous system, is derived from vagal neural crest cells that invade and populate the entire length of the gut to form diverse neuronal subtypes. Here, we identify a novel population of neurons within the enteric nervous system of zebrafish larvae that express the transgenic marker ptf1a:GFP within the midgut. Genetic lineage analysis reveals that enteric ptf1a:GFP(+) cells are derived from the neural crest and that most ptf1a:GFP(+) neurons express the neurotransmitter 5HT, demonstrating that they are serotonergic. This transgenic line, Tg(ptf1a:GFP), provides a novel neuronal marker for a subpopulation of neurons within the enteric nervous system, and highlights the possibility that Ptf1a may act as an important transcription factor for enteric neuron development. PMID:26865080

  19. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Theresa; Cattelona, Georg’ann

    2014-01-01

    Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1) breastfeeding initiation, (2) early post-partum breastfeeding, (3) breastfeeding plan, (4) post-partum breastfeeding support and (5) breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported ques­tionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67) of mothers received helped from their husband or part­ner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79) of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-par­tum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations. PMID:25649998

  20. First-Time Freshmen Four-Year Transfer Rates: Gainesville College to University System Senior Colleges and Universities, Fall 1988 to Fall 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, John

    A longitudinal study followed self-declared transfer students from time of entry at Gainesville College (GC) in fall 1988 through fall 1992, focusing on 4-year transfer rates to the University System of Georgia. Separate transfer rates were calculated for students who earned associate degrees from GC and for business administration majors, and…

  1. The Elements of an Effective Dissertation and Thesis: A Step-by-Step Guide to Getting it Right the First Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Raymond L.

    2006-01-01

    This is a student guide to writing an effective doctoral dissertation or a master's thesis. This book disaggregates the elements of the dissertation and provides the student with a description, definition, and example of each dissertation element. The author presents multiple viewpoints that include both quantitative and qualitative approaches.…

  2. Trial by Fire: Reflections on the Student Teaching Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Chris; Wright, Teri

    1994-01-01

    Contends that nothing can prepare a student teacher for their feelings the first time they step in front of a classroom. Presents reflections and suggestions for student teachers. Includes recommendations on classroom management, learning resources, and student teacher-student interaction. (CFR)

  3. Retention Awards: Are They an Effective Means of Retaining Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, Rick D.; And Others

    In spring 1997, a study was conducted to examine whether institutional contact with the student (in the form of a retention award) has a positive effect on student persistence. An experimental design was used to conduct the study. A sample of students was drawn based on their academic performance in Spring 1996. First-time students with long-term…

  4. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-12-15

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  5. [Enteral nutrition in premature newborn infants with sepsis].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Dorota; Lauterbach, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    The authors present beneficial effects and possible disadvantages of early enteral feeding of prematurely born infants. Also, the indications for maintaining enteral feeding in patients with sepsis are discussed. Breast milk is known to accelerate the process of maturation of alimentary tract as well as to improve the digestion of food compounds. Additionally, it protects the infant against bacterial translocations from gut to the blood stream and reduces the risk of sepsis in newborns, especially in very low birth weight infants. Finally, the authors formulate preliminary recommendations for enteral feeding of septic newborn infants. PMID:19471066

  6. Development and Validation of the University Student Housing Application and Student Matching and Placement Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishno, Aaron Scott

    2010-01-01

    Every year, on-campus student housing at colleges and universities throughout the United States populates with over 2.6 million students, many of which are first-time freshmen. To students in housing, finding the right roommate can decrease the effects of homesickness, minimize roommate conflict, and help build long-lasting relationships. Research…

  7. Inactivation of Geminin in neural crest cells affects the generation and maintenance of enteric progenitor cells, leading to enteric aganglionosis.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulou, Athanasia; Natarajan, Dipa; Nikolopoulou, Pinelopi; Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Lygerou, Zoi; Pachnis, Vassilis; Taraviras, Stavros

    2016-01-15

    Neural crest cells comprise a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates a diverse array of cell and tissue types, during vertebrate development. Enteric Nervous System controls the function of the gastrointestinal tract and is mainly derived from the vagal and sacral neural crest cells. Deregulation on self-renewal and differentiation of the enteric neural crest cells is evident in enteric nervous system disorders, such as Hirschsprung disease, characterized by the absence of ganglia in a variable length of the distal bowel. Here we show that Geminin is essential for Enteric Nervous System generation as mice that lacked Geminin expression specifically in neural crest cells revealed decreased generation of vagal neural crest cells, and enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs). Geminin-deficient ENCCs showed increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation during the early stages of gut colonization. Furthermore, decreased number of committed ENCCs in vivo and the decreased self-renewal capacity of enteric progenitor cells in vitro, resulted in almost total aganglionosis resembling a severe case of Hirschsprung disease. Our results suggest that Geminin is an important regulator of self-renewal and survival of enteric nervous system progenitor cells. PMID:26658318

  8. The impact of microbial immune enteral nutrition on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Xin, Fu-Ze; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Dao-Gui; Mi, Yue-Tang; Yu, Jun-Xiu; Li, Guo-Yong

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients in Liaocheng People's Hospital were randomized into the microbial immune enteral nutrition group and the control group: 24 patients in treatment group and 22 patients in control group. The immune microbial nutrition was given to the study group, but not to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and prealbumin and the number of CD3 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell, CD8 (+) T cell, CD4 (+)/CD8 (+) and natural killer cell of the two groups were detected on the 1, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were recorded, and the tolerance of the two groups for enteral nutrition and intestinal symptoms was collected and then comparing the two indicators and get results. The tolerance of microbial immune enteral nutrition group about abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea was better than the control group (P values were 0.018, 0.04 and 0.008 after 7 days; P values were 0.018, 0.015 and 0.002 after 14 days); and the cellular immune parameters were better than the control group((△) P = 0.008,([Symbol: see text]) P = 0.039, (☆) P = 0.032); No difference was found in nutrition indicators. To the patients with acute radiation enteritis, microbial immune enteral nutrition could improve the patient's immune status, and the tolerance of enteral nutrition could be better for the bowel function and the patients' rehabilitation. PMID:24366547

  9. Assessing Students' Moral Reasoning of a Values-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Di; Penny, Neil H.

    2011-01-01

    Students' moral reasoning was assessed at a religiously affiliated liberal arts university. Cohort data were collected from undergraduate students who had entered the university as freshmen: 364 students in 2007 and 264 students in 2009. The results indicated that there was a significant increase in students' post-conventional moral reasoning…

  10. The Evolution of Student Identity: A Case of Caveat Emptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda; Spolander, Gary; Ali, Imran; Maas, Beulah

    2014-01-01

    Engaging students has been seen as the key to promoting their achievement in higher education institutions. However, there is an important stage prior to this: the development of a positive student identity which influences students' motivation to engage. As the student body has evolved from full-time, on-campus students entering university…

  11. 6. DOUBLE METAL DOORS ON WEST SIDE WITH CABLES ENTERING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DOUBLE METAL DOORS ON WEST SIDE WITH CABLES ENTERING GROUND AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  12. 2. CONFLUENCE POOL, DETAIL OF TUNNEL PORTAL WITH WATER ENTERING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONFLUENCE POOL, DETAIL OF TUNNEL PORTAL WITH WATER ENTERING FROM SANTA ANA RIVER. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Mitigating enteric methane emissions: Where are the biggest opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. These include alterations in feeding management and nutrition, addition of compounds to modify rumen function, genetic improvements to increase animal lifetime productivity (including health and...

  14. Epigenetic Regulation of Enteric Neurotransmission by Gut Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Savidge, Tor C.

    2016-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on bacterial metabolite regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine. PMID:26778967

  15. Cut at eastern approach, with portal obscured by train entering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cut at eastern approach, with portal obscured by train entering tunnel, looking NNW. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Black Rock Tunnel, Beneath Black Rock Hill, southwest of Black Rock Dam, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  16. 31. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AS THE TRAM ENTERED THE GRAVITY TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AS THE TRAM ENTERED THE GRAVITY TRAM LINE, IT CROSSED THIS CUT-STONE BRIDGE AND WAS CONTROLLED BY THE SWITCHING PLATFORM IN THE BACKGROUND - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  17. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  18. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT PLEASURE CRAFTS ENTERING THE NAVIGATION LOCK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST AT PLEASURE CRAFTS ENTERING THE NAVIGATION LOCK. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Navigation Lock, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. 103. CABLES ENTERING CABLE TRAY SHED AT EAST OF LSB; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. CABLES ENTERING CABLE TRAY SHED AT EAST OF LSB; OXIDIZER APRON AND LAUNCH PAD IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. LRO Enters Lunar Orbit (Highlights) - Duration: 2 minutes, 33 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    After a four and a half day journey from the Earth, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, successfully entered orbit around the moon. Engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbel...

  1. Strategies for design and application of enteric viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Roth, James A; Saif, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viral infections in domestic animals cause significant economic losses. The recent emergence of virulent enteric coronaviruses [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)] in North America and Asia, for which no vaccines are available, remains a challenge for the global swine industry. Vaccination strategies against rotavirus and coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) infections are reviewed. These vaccination principles are applicable against emerging enteric infections such as PEDV. Maternal vaccines to induce lactogenic immunity, and their transmission to suckling neonates via colostrum and milk, are critical for early passive protection. Subsequently, in weaned animals, oral vaccines incorporating novel mucosal adjuvants (e.g., vitamin A, probiotics) may provide active protection when maternal immunity wanes. Understanding intestinal and systemic immune responses to experimental rotavirus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus vaccines and infection in pigs provides a basis and model for the development of safe and effective vaccines for young animals and children against established and emerging enteric infections. PMID:25387111

  2. Development of reference antisera to enteric-origin avian viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent molecular surveys have revealed geographically distinct lineages of avian reovirus, rotavirus and astrovirus circulating in commercial poultry. To improve our understanding of enteric virus pathogenesis, specific immunological reagents are needed to detect viruses in histological samples. To ...

  3. 1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, AND FROM SANTA ANA RIVER THROUGH TUNNEL #0 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail fence. The pond was a manipulated landscape element. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. National Enteric Disease Surveillance: Botulism Annual Summary, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    National Enteric Disease Surveillance: Botulism Annual Summary, 2012 An overview of national botulism surveillance is available at: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ ncezid/ dfwed/ PDFs/ bot- overview_ 508c. pdf Summary of Botulism ...

  6. 129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. Epigenetic Regulation of Enteric Neurotransmission by Gut Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Savidge, Tor C

    2015-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project defined microbial community interactions with the human host, and provided important molecular insight into how epigenetic factors can influence intestinal ecosystems. Given physiological context, changes in gut microbial community structure are increasingly found to associate with alterations in enteric neurotransmission and disease. At present, it is not known whether shifts in microbial community dynamics represent cause or consequence of disease pathogenesis. The discovery of bacterial-derived neurotransmitters suggests further studies are needed to establish their role in enteric neuropathy. This mini-review highlights recent advances in bacterial communications to the autonomic nervous system and discusses emerging epigenetic data showing that diet, probiotic and antibiotic use may regulate enteric neurotransmission through modulation of microbial communities. A particular emphasis is placed on bacterial metabolite regulation of enteric nervous system function in the intestine. PMID:26778967

  8. Enteric virus and vibrio contamination of shellfish: intervention strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION. Molluscan shellfish include oysters, clams, mussels, and cockles, which can cause illnesses from a variety of human pathogens. Enteric viruses, like norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are generally transmitted to shellfish through fecal contamination of shellfish harvesting areas, alth...

  9. VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CANE CLEANING PLANT AS IT ENTERS THE MILL, BUMPER ROLLERS IN THE CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  10. Crosstalk between Muscularis Macrophages and Enteric Neurons Regulates Gastrointestinal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Paul Andrew; Koscsó, Balázs; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; Stevanovic, Korey; Berres, Marie-Luise; Hashimoto, Daigo; Mortha, Arthur; Leboeuf, Marylene; Li, Xiu-Min; Mucida, Daniel; Stanley, E. Richard; Dahan, Stephanie; Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Merad, Miriam; Bogunovic, Milena

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal peristalsis is a dynamic physiologic process influenced by dietary and microbial changes. It is tightly regulated by complex cellular interactions; however, our understanding of these controls is incomplete. A distinct population of macrophages is distributed in the intestinal muscularis externa. We demonstrate that in the steady state muscularis macrophages regulate peristaltic activity of the colon. They change the pattern of smooth muscle contractions by secreting bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), which activates BMP receptor (BMPR) expressed by enteric neurons. Enteric neurons, in turn, secrete colony stimulatory factor 1 (CSF1), a growth factor required for macrophage development. Finally, stimuli from microbial commensals regulate BMP2 expression by macrophages and CSF1 expression by enteric neurons. Our findings identify a plastic, microbiota-driven, crosstalk between muscularis macrophages and enteric neurons, which controls gastrointestinal motility. PMID:25036630

  11. Avian necrotic enteritis: Experimental models, climate change, and vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes recent developments in disease models, pathogenesis, host immunity, risk factors, and vaccine development for Clostridium perfringens infection of poultry and necrotic enteritis (NE). The increasing trends of legislative restrictions and voluntary removal of antibiotic growth...

  12. NORTHERN END OF VIADUCT WHERE IT ENTERS BATTERY STREET TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHERN END OF VIADUCT WHERE IT ENTERS BATTERY STREET TUNNEL. LAKE UNION VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. TUNNEL PROCEEDS IN CUT AND COVER FASHION DIRECTLY BENEATH BATTERY STREET. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  13. Effect of enteral nutrition on human pancreatic secretions.

    PubMed

    Grant, J P; Davey-McCrae, J; Snyder, P J

    1987-01-01

    The influence on pancreatic secretion of four enteral feeding products was evaluated in a unique patient with an isolated duodenal fistula for whom enteral feeding access was obtained via a gastrostomy with a small Silastic catheter passed through the gastrostomy and through a surgically created gastrojejunostomy. The patient was totally supported by intravenous nutrition during the study. Each enteral feeding solution was administered at full strength at 50 ml/hr for 2 days with a 24-hr collection of pancreatic secretions by the duodenal cutaneous fistula taken on the second day. Infusion of the enteral feeding solutions did not alter volume of fistula drainage. All solutions decreased bicarbonate and amylase secretion but increased lipase and total nitrogen excretion. From this study, it would appear reasonable to administer Vivonex HN and Criticare HN via the jejunum in patients with pancreatic disease, whereas Osmolite would appear less satisfactory, due to its much stronger stimulation of lipase secretion. PMID:3110448

  14. IMPROVED METHOD FOR RECOVERY OF ENTERIC VIRUSES FROM WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various parameters involved in recovering indigenous enteric viruses from wastewater sludges aided by buffered beef extract elution and subsequent organic flocculation concentration were examined. Conditions were optimized to yield an overall effective method for use in environme...

  15. Anti-Enteric Neuronal Antibodies and the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sumei; Drossman, Douglas A; Ringel, Yehuda; Whitehead, William E

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Functional gastrointestinal disorders are those in which no abnormal metabolic or physical processes, which can account for the symptoms, can be identified. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a significant functional disorder, which affects 10-20 percent of the population worldwide. Predominant symptoms of IBS are abnormal defecation associated with abdominal pain, both of which may be exacerbated by psychogenic stress. Our study was designed to test a hypothesis that symptoms in a subset of patients with a diagnosis of IBS are associated with an autoimmune degenerative neuropathy in the enteric nervous system. Methods Serum was collected from Rome II-IBS patients and controls at the University of North Carolina Functional Gastrointestinal Diseases Center. Assay procedures were immunohistochemical localization of antibody binding to enteric neurons and human protein microarray assay for antigens recognized by antibodies in the sera. Results Eighty-seven percent of IBS sera and 59% of control sera contained anti-enteric neuronal antibodies. Antibody immunostaining was seen in the nucleus and cytoplasm of neurons in the enteric nervous system. Protein microarray analysis detected antibody reactivity for autoantigens in serum with anti-enteric neuronal antibodies and no reactivity for the same autoantigens in samples not containing anti-enteric neuronal antibodies in our immunostaining assay. Antibodies in sera from IBS patients recognized only 3 antigens out of an 8,000 immunoprotein array. The 3 antigens were: (1) a nondescript ribonucleoprotein (RNP-complex); (2) small nuclear ribonuclear polypeptide A; and (3) Ro-5,200 kDa. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest that symptoms in a subset of IBS patients might be a reflection of enteric neuronal damage or loss, caused by circulating anti-enteric autoimmune antibodies. PMID:22323991

  16. The Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong-A; Lee, Dong Hwan; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-01-01

    There are an increasing number of outbreaks of human pathogens related to fresh produce. Thus, the growth of human pathogens on plants should be explored. Human pathogens can survive under the harsh environments in plants, and can adhere and actively invade plants. Plant-associated microbiota or insects contribute to the survival and transmission of enteric pathogens in plants. Human enteric pathogens also trigger plant innate immunity, but some pathogens–such as Salmonella–can overcome this defense mechanism. PMID:25288993

  17. Endovascular Management of Acute Enteric Bleeding from Pancreas Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2007-04-15

    Arterioenteric fistula is a rare but serious complication of enteric drained pancreas transplant, which may lead to massive gastrointestinal bleeding. We present 3 patients with failed enteric drained pancreas transplants and massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to arterioenteric fistula. One patient was treated by embolization and the 2 others by stent graft placement. Bleeding was successfully controlled in all cases, at follow up of 5 days, 8 months, and 12 months, respectively. One patient died 24 days after embolization, of unknown causes.

  18. Astronaut James Lovell prior to entering Gemini Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., prime crew command pilot of the Gemini 12 space flight, in Building 5, Mission Simulation and Training Facility, Houston, Texas. This photo was taken prior to his entering the Gemini Mission Simulator for flight training (45578); Astronaut Lovell (right) talks with Burton M. Gifford (left) and Duane K. Mosel (center), both with the Simulation Branch, Flight Crew Support Division (45579); Astronaut Lovell prepares to enter Gemini Mission Simulator (45580).

  19. Coloring the Pipeline: An Analysis of the NASPA Undergraduate Fellows Program as a Path for Underrepresented Students into Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, Tonantzin

    2013-01-01

    This study applies self-efficacy theory from research on career-decision making to understand what influences underrepresented students' decision to enter the student affairs profession. The purpose of the study was to determine how underrepresented students choose student affairs as a profession. The study focused on undergraduate students who…

  20. The Doubling Theory: Dark Matter and Dark Energy Finally Explained, Speed of Light and Fine Structure Constant Calculated for the First Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet, Jean-Pierre Garnier

    2010-09-01

    Developed in previous papers [1, 2, 3, 4, 5], the ``doubling'' (of space and time) theory uses finite horizons of several virtual space-times which are embedded within the observable space-time. A specific fundamental movement creates imperceptible time instants (called ``temporal openings'') in the time flow. Considering different scale levels, it modifies the perception of the time flow and gives to each horizon instantaneous potential futures. This theory explains the cyclical planetary movement in the solar system, the entanglement between particles, the dissymmetry of matter/antimatter and the existence of the dark matter and dark energy. It can also calculate ``for the first time'' universal constants: the speed of light and the fine structure constant.