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1

Retention Report for First-Time Entering Students to Midlands Technical College, 1988-1991. Report II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989, Midlands Technical College implemented a comprehensive student tracking and retention reporting system to provide data on first-time students beginning in fall 1988. Highlighted findings for 1988 through 1991 included the following: (1) the freshman to sophomore retention rate for the fall 1990 cohort was 53.8%, a 6.4% increase over the…

Midlands Technical Coll., Columbia, SC.

2

Annual Report on Admission Standards for First-Time Entering Freshmen, Fall 2006: South Carolina Public Senior Colleges and Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reviews the results of five different reports related to admission standards and measures of achievement for first-time entering freshmen at South Carolina public senior colleges and universities. This document summarizes the results of five different reports related to admission standards and to measures of achievement of first-time

South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

3

Assessing Transfer and First-Time Freshmen Student Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a research project that compared the academic performance of community college transfer students with returning students at a four-year institution. Reports that native students demonstrated stronger academic performance than transfers at this institution. (Contains 33 references.) (RC)

Porter, Stephen R.

2003-01-01

4

Migration of First-Time First-Year Students to Iowa and from Iowa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the migration of first-time first-year students from other states to Iowa, and from Iowa to other states. Iowa had a net gain of 4,975 first-year students who came to the state to study in 2006. The numbers were provided by over 6,000 colleges and universities across the United States and were analyzed, from an Iowa…

Greiner, Keith

2008-01-01

5

Small Business Planning and Management for the First-Time Entrepreneur. Instructor's Resource Manual. Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's resource manual and student workbook accompany the textbook of the same name. The manual is intended to help the teacher working with the small business manager and first-time entrepreneur. Each chapter contains these sections: instructional goals; resource people; tips for follow-up activities at the end of each chapter;…

Hamilton, William H.; Connelly, Donald F.

6

Rites of Pedagogical Passage: How Graduate Student Instructors Negotiate the Challenges of First-Time Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the dynamics of the first-time teaching experience of graduate instructors, drawing on interview and focus group data from 35 sociology students in a doctoral program at a large university in the United States. Results indicate the majority of graduate instructors felt a great deal of anxiety due to challenges they faced when…

Smollin, Leandra M.; Arluke, Arnold

2014-01-01

7

Students' Reasons for Entering the Educational Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined why students decide to enter teaching as a profession through a survey of college students majoring in education at Northwestern Oklahoma State University. The study used triangulation with a data search, an anonymous survey, and an open-ended questionnaire. The 100 surveys were distributed randomly to junior and senior…

Hayes, Sandra

8

Using portfolio assignment to support students individually and sustainably -There's always a first time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent education of engineers, using the example of satellite geodesy at the Geodetic Institute of the University Karlsruhe (GIK, Germany), is still suffering from time pressure as well as from heavy curriculum content loading. Within this education students, where the academic teachers have to fulfill high requests from the new generation of students as well as from industry and from research institutions respectively, advanced satellite geodetic knowledge has to be transferred effectively and sustainably. In order to enable the students to train newest aspects related to satellite geodesy as well as important key competences, e.g. capacity for independent and academic work, reflection and evaluation skills, presentation skills, an innovative teaching concept was developed, tested, and evaluated. This teaching concept makes use of very different teaching techniques like portfolio assignment, project work, input from experts, jig saw, advance and post organizer. This presentation will focus on the portfolio assignment component. This teaching technique was used at the GIK during the last two years for the first time, in order to support students individually. The lessons learnt within this teaching experiment are going to be presented.

Mayer, M.

2009-04-01

9

Costs of Attendance and the Educational Programs of First-Time Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I use data from the State University of New York to examine whether changes in community college attendance costs yield different impacts on first-time enrollment in different community college programs. Evidence is strong that academic-program enrollment significantly and substantially decreases when 2-year tuition increases, but weaker that it…

Nutting, Andrew W.

2008-01-01

10

Perceived Quality of Service and Behavioral Intentions of First-Time Students Enrolled at The University of North Carolina Asheville  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use the SERVQUAL (Service Quality Instrument) to examine the perceptions of first-time enrolled students at University of North Carolina Asheville regarding the services they receive from a selected group of departments in the university's One Stop area. In addition, the study examined whether a relationship…

Mitchell, Patrice Black

2011-01-01

11

Facilitating service?learning for the first time with advanced graduate students: a mentoring perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an examination of the author’s experiences facilitating service?learning for the first time in a learning community of an advanced graduate course. The purpose of this paper is to share insights about this process, so that faculty who are considering the implementation of a service?learning pedagogy in similar courses might understand the challenges and ultimately experience success in

Suzanne M. Flannery Quinn

2006-01-01

12

Using portfolio assignment to support students individually and sustainably There's always a first time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent education of engineers, using the example of satellite geodesy at the Geodetic Institute of the University Karlsruhe (GIK, Germany), is still suffering from time pressure as well as from heavy curriculum content loading. Within this education students, where the academic teachers have to fulfill high requests from the new generation of students as well as from industry and

M. Mayer

2009-01-01

13

Work In progress - Western Michigan University’s effort to increase retention of first -time, first-year engineering and applied sciences students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the activities, assessment results, and improvements to increase the retention of first- time first-year students in Western Michigan University's College of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Retention strategies consist of student learning community to build connection among students and between students and the college, and faculty learning community to improve mentoring of students and student success. The student

Edmund Tsang; Cynthia Halderson; Kathleen Kallen

2007-01-01

14

CORRELATES OF ENTERING MEDICAL STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD GERIATRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six successive entering classes at a medical school were surveyed concerning their attitudes toward geriatrics. Responding students' general attitudes toward the elderly were not negative. Despite this, only 3% of all students showed interest in specializing in geriatric medicine. Path analysis revealed that preference for treating older patients, prior volunteer work with the elderly, and a positive attitude toward the

Celeste P. M. Wilderom; Jacob A. Tebes; Linda Nichols; Evan Calkins; Arthur G. Cryns; Frank Schimpfhauser

1990-01-01

15

The Distance to Delight: A Graduate Student Enters the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents the first stage of the qualitative research process: "entering the field." In it, the author, a young graduate student, uses portraiture to describe her journey to find a "research site" and then establish a "research relationship" with this community, a town in rural Arkansas. This portrait…

Tieken, Mara Casey

2013-01-01

16

Factors that Encourage Student Engagement: Insights from a Case Study of "First Time" Students in a New Zealand University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study reports on the findings from one of nine tertiary institutions that took part in a project funded by the Teaching and Learning Research Initiative (TLRI) in New Zealand. The research question explored how institutional and non institutional learning environments influence student engagement with learning in a higher education,…

Russell, Barbara; Slater, Gloria R. L.

2011-01-01

17

Ecologia: The Assumptions, Expectations, and Strategies of Modern Language Students Working in a Self-Access Learning Environment for the First Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined 29 second-year undergraduate students of Spanish using a self-access learning environment for the first time, focusing on their language attitudes and learning strategies. The results show that, even as modern languages majors, the students possessed a model of language and strategies for learning that were significantly…

Piper, Alison

1994-01-01

18

The Influence of Participation in Student Nurse Extern Programs on NCLEX-RN Pass Rates for First-Time Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: NCLEX-RN pass rate data for first-time candidates is used as a method to assess the quality of nursing education programs by nursing education accreditation bodies. In several states, the board of nursing uses NCLEX-RN pass rate data to measure the educational effectiveness of nursing programs operating within its’ jurisdiction. Educators and administrators in nursing programs are concerned about NCLEX-RN

Joy Turner Washburn

2006-01-01

19

The Bird's Eye View of Community Colleges: A Behavioral Typology of First-Time Students Based on Cluster Analytic Classification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a typology of community college students is a topic of long-standing and growing interest among educational researchers, policy-makers, administrators, and other stakeholders, but prior work on this topic has been limited in a number of important ways. In this paper, I develop a behavioral typology based on students'…

Bahr, Peter Riley

2010-01-01

20

85 Pct. of First-Time Students Attend College in Home States, U.S. Study Finds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new survey shows that six states enroll more than 90 percent of their residents who attend college, with students more likely to leave their home states to attend four-year than two-year colleges. (MSE)

Chronicle of Higher Education, 1988

1988-01-01

21

Characteristics and Opinions of Entering Undergraduate Students at Montana State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Montana State University's (MSU) use of the Student-Outcomes Information Services (SOIS), developed jointly by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) and the College Board for surveying the characteristics and opinions of entering undergraduate students, is examined. The Entering-Student Questionnaire, one of five…

Dulniak, Dennis J.

22

Analysis of Persistence after Four Semesters: Fall 1979 Entering Students. Student Flow Program, Report 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 1981, a study was conducted to determine the number and proportion of students entering Kapiolani Community College in fall 1979 who: (1) attended only one semester (non-persisters); (2) attended two or three consecutive semesters, dropped out and never returned (stop-outs); (3) attended one or two semesters, dropped out, but again…

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Kapiolani Community Coll.

23

A Small-Scale Client Project for Business Writing Students: Developing a Guide for First-Time Home Buyers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This assignment reflects a client-based pedagogy, which is often used in technical and professional communication courses. Unlike service learning pedagogy, which emphasizes social activism, client-based pedagogy focuses on helping students to understand and respond effectively to "real-world" clients and their organizational contexts. Also,…

Kreth, Melinda L.

2005-01-01

24

Students' Approaches to Learning when Entering Higher Education: Differences between Students with Senior General Secondary and Senior Secondary Educational Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, more students have entered Dutch higher education. This is a consequence of the possibility to offer students to enter higher education, with a certificate from senior secondary education (SSVE). In earlier days most students in higher education had passed senior general secondary education (SGSE), or even pre-university education. It is…

Van Bragt, Cyrille A. C.; Bakx, Anouke W. E. A.; Van der Sanden, Johan M. M.; Croon, Marcel A.

2007-01-01

25

Persistence of New Students Who Entered College of the Desert, Fall 1991 and Fall 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken at California's College of the Desert to determine the persistence rates of new students who entered the college in fall 1991 and fall 1992. Course enrollment was tracked for these students through fall 1996, with outcomes examined by student gender, ethnicity, and age; student enrollment in credit or non-credit courses;…

Breindel, Matthew D.

26

Surveys of Former Students (Summer), Program Completers, Entering Students, Expansion Classroom Students, Former Students (Fall/Winter), [and] Role of Marketing Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of former summer students, program completers, entering students, expansion classroom students, and former fall/winter students as well as a discussion of the role of marketing techniques at the Eastern Campus of Cuyahoga Community College are presented. Demographic data for all survey populations were collected and included age, sex,…

Tartaglia, Gary R.

27

Are STEM High School Students Entering the STEM Pipeline?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the career skills and interests for students in two STEM schools to national data. Students completed the KUDER skills assessment and career planning online tools. Results were compared across school, grade level, and sex. The results provided evidence that STEM high school students expressed career intents in predominately…

Franco, M. Suzanne; Patel, Nimisha H.; Lindsey, Jill

2012-01-01

28

Assessment Measures: Using Surveys of Entering Students in Assessment Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mississippi State University is participating in a pilot test of the Beginning College Student Survey (BCSS), the newest addition to the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE). The BCSS is designed to provide information about students' experiences in high school and expectations for college and parallels NSSE's premier survey of college…

Pike, Gary R.

2004-01-01

29

Developing an Empirically Based Typology of Attitudes of Entering Students toward Participation in Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning communities (LC) seek to strengthen and enrich students' connections to each other, their teachers, and the subject matter they are studying. Their success depends on the nature of the learning community program, the learning styles of the students who participate and the reasons why students entered the program. This study uses a…

Jones, Peter R.; Laufgraben, Jodi Levine; Morris, Nancy

2006-01-01

30

Flourishing, Substance Use, and Engagement in Students Entering College: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study explores the association between positive mental health or flourishing, depression, and engaged learning in undergraduates. Participants: Entering first year students (N = 428) at a liberal arts college. Methods: Students completed measures of depression, flourishing, substance use, and student engagement. Results:…

Low, Kathryn Graff

2011-01-01

31

Enter AGU student contest to win free Fall Meeting registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU is excited to announce its first Student Video and Student T-shirt Design competitions. This is an opportunity for students to display their artistic sides and share their creativity and love of science with the world. Entries could highlight an aspect of Earth or space science in an educational and/or entertaining way or showcase a career path in geophysical sciences. Winners of these student-only competitions will be awarded free registration to the 2012 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

Smedley, Kara

2012-07-01

32

Entering Student Affairs: A Comparative Study of Graduate School Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the college choice process of graduate students in College Student Personnel programs at a public university and a private religiously affiliated university. Despite differences in size, mission, and location of the two institutions studied, the research findings show that respondent populations were similar demographically…

Mertz, Norma; Eckman, Ellen; Strayhorn, Terrell

2012-01-01

33

Helping Students Enter the World of the Poem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the invitations and speech situations implicit in lyric poetry that often alienate students with little poetry experience. Presents five conditions English teachers can provide that will make poetry more accessible to students, particularly the invention needed to accept the "invitation" of a poem. (HTH)

Jones, Dan C.

1981-01-01

34

Diagnostic Tests for Entering and Departing Undergraduate Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A diagnostic test administered at the start of a class should test basic concepts which are recognized as course prerequisites. The questions should not be over-packaged: e.g. students should be required to create models, rather than this being done for them each time. Students should be allowed great latitude in their answers, so we can discover what they are thinking. When administered at the end of a class the goals should be similar: testing concepts taught in the class itself and the retention of necessary concepts from previous classes. Great care has to be taken to avoid teaching to the test. In assessing an entire program, for example an undergraduate majors degree in physics, then one looks for very general skills and knowledge not specific to any one course. The purpose of an undergraduate degree in physics (or indeed any science) is to equip the students with a set of problem-solving skills and basic knowledge which can be applied in a large variety of workplace settings and to allow that student to contribute to civic society as a science-literate person. The creator of any diagnostic test should always have these big goals in mind. We have developed a set of questions which we think fulfill these criteria, yet are not specific to any particular level of science education. They have been administered to students in secondary schools across Canada, incoming first-year science students and final-year physics students at the University of British Columbia. The results will be presented.

Waltham, Chris; Kotlicki, A.

2006-12-01

35

Recruiting and retaining geoscience students at a large public university: Balancing the needs of first-time freshman and upper-division transfer students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Geological Sciences at California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) is one of the largest geology programs in the state. Approximately 4,000 students at CSUF take general education geology classes; this provides a large pool from which to recruit undergraduate students for either the Geology B.S. or Earth Sciences B.A. offered by the department. The department has seen a dramatic increase in majors over the last decade, from a low of 28 majors in 2002 to more than 110 in 2012. This increase does not appear to be driven by growth in the oil industry; in a recent survey of CSUF geoscience (BS or BA) students, 15% of respondents indicated an interest in a career in petroleum. The department has engaged in aggressive recruitment and outreach efforts over the last decade, with activities ranging from earthquake preparedness rallies in conjunction with the annual California ShakeOut, to an emerging high school and community college intern program at the department's paleontology curation facility. Despite these efforts, the majority of CSUF geoscience students declared the geology major after taking an introductory physical geology course either at CSUF or a local community college. Over the last ten years, approximately 50% of the geoscience majors at CSUF transferred from a community college. Among the geoscience students who began their career at CSUF, only one third had declared a geoscience major in their freshman year. Over two thirds of geoscience majors at CSUF declared their major after completing more than 60 units. The strong tendency for students to declare a geoscience major late in their career poses significant challenges to students' ability to graduate in a timely manner. To mitigate this problem, the department has an aggressive advising program, wherein students attend mandatory advising with a faculty member every semester. The department is also working closely with community college partners to improve the preparation of transfer students through advising partnerships facilitated by the NSF-sponsored STEM2 program, and through active collaboration in implementing a geology "Associate's Degree-for-Transfer" at community colleges under the framework of California's Student Transfer Achievement Reform Act (SB 1440).

Bowman, D. D.; Clemens-Knott, D.

2012-12-01

36

Analysis and Classification of Entering Freshmen Mathematic Students Using Multiple Discriminate Function Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictor variables that could be used effectively to place entering freshmen methematics students into courses of instruction in mathematics were investigated at West Virginia University. Multiple discriminant analysis was used with nearly 6,000 student records collected over a three-year period, and a series of predictive equations were…

Ahrens, Steve

37

Individual and Combined Impact of Institutional Student Support Strategies on First-Time, Full-Time, Degree-Seeking Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although U.S. rates of college enrollment among 18-24 year olds have reached historic highs, rates of degree completion have not kept pace. This is especially evident at community colleges, where a disproportionate number of students from groups who, historically, have had low college-completion rates enroll. One way community colleges are…

Beckert, Kimberly Marrone

2011-01-01

38

The Development of a Prediction Model to Determine the Appropriate Level of Entering Students in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem was to determine the appropriate level of mathematics for an entering student at Chattanooga State Technical Institute to ensure probability of success in his initial course. A multiple regression analysis was used to establish an equation to determine the lower limit of the prediction interval, to determine whether I.Q. or mathematics…

Hooper, Herbert L., Jr.

39

Predicting Graduation Status of Nursing Students Using Entering GPA and Grades in Algebra, Biology, and Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken at Morton College, in Illinois, to examine the relationship of entering grade point average (GPA) and grades in prerequisite support courses in algebra, biology, and chemistry to graduation in the college's nursing program. A sample was developed of 255 students admitted to the nursing program in 1990, 1991, and 1992 and…

Spahr, Anthony E.

40

Sources of Academic and Self-Regulatory Efficacy Beliefs of Entering Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Bandura's (1997) hypothesized sources of self-efficacy on the academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of entering middle school students ("N" = 263) and to explore whether these sources differ as a function of gender, reading ability, and race/ethnicity. For the full sample, mastery…

Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

2006-01-01

41

Career influences among final year dental students who plan to enter private practice  

PubMed Central

Background Existing research about the influence of educational debt on students’ decision to enter general practice immediately after graduation is conflicting. Other potential factors that could affect this decision include the influence of a spouse or other family member, the importance of a mentoring dentist, and how students perceive the burden of their debt. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of debt on career decision-making while also considering the role of other influences. Methods Responses to a self-completed questionnaire of all final (fourth) year students at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry from 2007 through 2010 were analyzed to identify the importance of educational debt and the influence of spouses, other family members, and mentoring dentists in the decision to enter private general practice immediately after graduation. Statistical analysis included bivariate tests (t-tests and Chi-square tests) and multivariable logistic regression. Results 58.9% of respondents (N?=?156) planned to immediately enter private practice after dental school. Bivariate analyses revealed women to be more likely to enter private practice than their male counterparts (69.0% vs. 51.8%, p?=?.006). Students planning to enter practice immediately did not differ significantly from those with other career plans on the basis of marital status or having a family member in dentistry. Anticipated educational debt of at least $100,000 was positively associated with plans to enter private practice immediately after graduation. Self-reported importance of educational debt was not associated with career plans. However, the influence of a spouse, other family members, and family dentists were also positively associated with the decision to enter private practice. These factors all maintained significance in the final multivariable model (p?enter private practice (OR?=?2.34; p?=?0.023). Conclusions Since the 1970s, increasing numbers of dentists in the U.S. have pursued specialty training after dental school. However, rising educational debts may counter this trend as increasing numbers of dentists choose to immediately pursue general dentistry at graduation. This project has demonstrated the significant influence of educational debt, beyond other external influences.

2014-01-01

42

Where the Sun Breezes Don't Stop Shining. Teachers' Journals and Students' Writings on First-Time Homebuying from the New American Homeowners Project, February-June 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The writings of both teachers and students participating in the New Americans Homeowners Project, a project combining English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and information on first-time home-buying for immigrants in language minority groups are presented. The project provided training and technical assistance to ESL teachers, and reached…

Anderson, Catherine, Ed.

43

The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Six-Year Study of the First-Time and Ultimate Bar Exam Results of Students According to Law School Admission Council (LSAC) Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following report of descriptive statistics addresses the matriculating class of 2001-2007 according to their Law School Admission Council (LSAC) index. Generally, this report will offer information on the first time bar and ultimate performance on the Bar Exam of TMSL students. In addition, graduating GPA according to the LSAC index will also…

Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Beard, J.

2011-01-01

44

Sex Differences in Cooperative Education: A Study of First-Time Cooperative Education Students in Traditional and Non-Traditional Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The data collected in a 1978-79 study of 742 students enrolled in cooperative education (co-op) programs in forty-seven participating colleges and universities describes by sex what students in various fields of study do on their job, what they perceive their work conditions and responsibilities to be, how they view their abilities, and how their…

Heller, Barbara R.; And Others

45

Stress and cardiometabolic manifestations among Saudi students entering universities: a cross-sectional observational study  

PubMed Central

Background In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. Methods A total of 1878 apparently healthy Saudi students of the Preparatory Year, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (1112 men and 766 women) spanning 2 academic years were included. They were divided into 2 groups based on the validated perceived stress test (PST). Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of fasting blood glucose and a lipid profile. Results PST score (>27) considered indicative of stress was noted in 44.4% of students. The prevalence of this score was higher in women than in men (49.7% versus 40.7%). The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia was significantly higher in men than women (p?students entering universities. This study sheds light on the social responsibility of universities in promoting a healthy lifestyle, particularly in this age group, when exposure to different kinds of stressors may result in body weight and metabolic changes.

2014-01-01

46

The impact of a freshman academy on science performance of first-time ninth-grade students at one Georgia high school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this within-group experimental study was to find out to what extent ninth-grade students improved their science performance beyond their middle school science performance at one Georgia high school utilizing a freshman academy model. Freshman academies have been recognized as a useful tool for increasing academic performance among ninth-grade students because they address a range of academic support initiatives tailored to improve academic performance among ninth-grade students. The talent development model developed by Legters, Balfanz, Jordan, and McPartland (2002) has served as a foundational standard for many ninth grade academy programs. A cornerstone feature of this model is the creation of small learning communities used to increase ninth-grade student performance. Another recommendation was to offer credit recovery opportunities for ninth graders along with creating parent and community involvement activities to increase academic success among ninth-grade students. While the site's program included some of the initiatives outlined by the talent development model, it did not utilize all of them. The study concluded that the academy did not show a definitive increase in academic performance among ninth-grade students since most students stayed within their original performance category.

Daniel, Vivian Summerour

47

Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future. PMID:24093735

Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

2013-10-01

48

A Descriptive Study Comparing GPA, Retention and Graduation of First-Time, Full-Time, Provisionally Admitted First-Generation College Students and Their Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative research study used ex post facto data to analyze possible relationships between a discrete set of independent variables and academic achievement among provisionally admitted students at a public, four-year historically black university located in the mid-Atlantic United States. The independent variables were first-generation…

Lodhavia, Rajalakshmi

2009-01-01

49

Cognitive Profile of Students Who Enter Higher Education with an Indication of Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

For languages other than English there is a lack of empirical evidence about the cognitive profile of students entering higher education with a diagnosis of dyslexia. To obtain such evidence, we compared a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students diagnosed with dyslexia with a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. Our study showed selective deficits in reading and writing (effect sizes for accuracy between d?=?1 and d?=?2), arithmetic (d?1), and phonological processing (d>0.7). Except for spelling, these deficits were larger for speed related measures than for accuracy related measures. Students with dyslexia also performed slightly inferior on the KAIT tests of crystallized intelligence, due to the retrieval of verbal information from long-term memory. No significant differences were observed in the KAIT tests of fluid intelligence. The profile we obtained agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings suggesting that it generalizes to all alphabetic languages. Implications for special arrangements for students with dyslexia in higher education are outlined.

Brysbaert, Marc

2012-01-01

50

Attrition and Retention of Full-Time, First-Time and Full-Time, Transfer Students in Baccalaureate and Associate Degree Programs, Including Postsecondary Opportunity Students, Class of 1984 and Partial History of Later Cohorts as of Fall 1986. State University of New York. Office of Institutional Research Report No. 4-87A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of the 1986 Attrition/Retention Survey of the State University of New York are presented. After a brief narrative summary of the findings, extensive data on attrition, retention, and completion are provided for: full-time, first-time students and full-time transfer students at the associate and baccalaureate degree levels; and students in…

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Office of Institutional Research and Analytical Studies.

51

A Comparison of the Academic Experiences and Achievement of University Students Entering by Traditional and Non-Traditional Means.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of three years of student records revealed a marginal disadvantage in academic performance for students entering the University of Newcastle via three different non-traditional enabling programs (findings differed by program), but a positive effect on academic performance of mature age on entry. (EV)

Cantwell, Robert; Archer, Jennifer; Bourke, Sid

2001-01-01

52

Students from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups entering the dental hygiene profession.  

PubMed

African American, Hispanic/Latina, and American Indian/Alaska Native persons are markedly underrepresented racial and ethnic groups (UREG) in the dental hygiene profession. The purpose of this study was to survey UREG dental hygiene students to determine their perceptions of the barriers and facilitators that influenced their decision to enter the dental hygiene profession. Participants were eighty-four UREG students attending entry-level dental hygiene programs across the state of California. We conducted face-to-face interviews using a survey guide that consisted of forty-two mostly closed-ended questions. Most (57 percent) participants reported that they had either perceived or experienced barriers: primarily costs associated with the program and the lack of role models in their race/ethnicity. Almost all participants reported that there had been a person, mainly a dental professional, who influenced them to become a dental hygienist; 62 percent of these individuals were reported to be from a similar UREG group as the participant. Funding (57 percent) and emotional support from family and friends (87 percent) were the predominant facilitators employed by the participants to overcome barriers. Based on these results, we recommend three strategies to recruit more UREG students into the dental hygiene profession: more extensive outreach programs, enhanced mentoring by UREG dental professionals, and a modified admission process. PMID:24609348

Sandino, Alma H; Rowe, Dorothy J

2014-03-01

53

Does nursing assistant certification increase nursing student's confidence level of basic nursing care when entering a nursing program?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore nursing student's confidence level with basic nursing care when entering the nursing program after implementation of required nursing assistant certification for program admission. In addition, the relationship between being employed as a nursing assistant and confidence level with basic nursing care when entering the nursing program was explored. A Likert-scale survey assessing confidence levels of basic nursing care was sent to 156 nursing students admitted to a nursing program prior to their first nursing course. Confidence level with nursing skills, nursing assistant employment, and length of nursing assistant employment were assessed. Students were most confident in hand washing (M = 5.87, SD = 0.36), gloving and gowning (M =5.46, SD = 0.75), making an unoccupied bed (M = 5.38, SD = 0.88), and oral temperature (M = 5.30, SD = 0.87). Students were least confident in the fitting for cane (M = 1.74, SD = 1.16) and ambulation with crutches on steps (M =1.81, SD = 1.27). Nursing assistant employment increased student confidence with basic nursing care. Nursing programs cannot assume that students are prepared in basic nursing care based on a nursing assistant certification. PMID:24720945

Stombaugh, Angie; Judd, Andrea

2014-01-01

54

Entering the University: The Differentiated Experience of Two Chinese International Students in a New Zealand University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on findings from a longitudinal study of Chinese international students beginning study in a New Zealand university, and focuses on the very different experience of two students in relation to a single course and its assessment requirements, as they sought ways to negotiate identities as university students in their new setting.…

Skyrme, Gillian

2007-01-01

55

The Emotional Experience of First-time Teaching: Reflections from Graduate Instructors, 1997-2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching for the first time can be a challenging but rewarding experience. For first-time graduate student instructors, however, it also officially marks the transition from student to teacher--a process that can be both transformational and emotion-laden. In this article, we use content analysis of 86 first-time sociology graduate student

Meanwell, Emily; Kleiner, Sibyl

2014-01-01

56

A Statistical Profile of the Entering Class at Broome Community College, Fall 1983: Student Characteristics, Needs and Goals. Working Paper Series No. 1-85.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broome Community College (BCC) is developing a series of questionnaires to assess the impact of college on its students, and to measure the college's role, if any, in promoting social mobility. The first study in this series focused on the backgrounds, needs, and goals of students who entered BCC during June, July, and August of 1983. Students who…

Romano, Richard M., Comp.

57

Musical Identities in Transition: Solo-Piano Students' Accounts of Entering the Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the identity work of adult instrumental students negotiating their entry to a prestigious music academy and the professional field of music. Ten classical solo-piano students' accounts of their musical histories and experiences were collected through research interviews. The thematic analyses presented…

Juuti, Sini; Littleton, Karen

2010-01-01

58

Helping Hispanic Students to Complete High School and Enter College. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographically, mainland Hispanic Americans constitute a population that is economically and educationally diverse. Nonetheless, a cluster of related findings indicates that Hispanic students are more poorly prepared for college than non-Hispanic White students. More Hispanic high school seniors than White non-Hispanics are enrolled in vocational…

Ascher, Carol

59

Abdullah's Blogging: A Generation 1.5 Student Enters the Blogosphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blogging has emerged as one of the most popular forms of online discourse. The ease and lack of expense in setting up blogs has raised intriguing possibilities for language learning classrooms. The unique nature of their architecture and their low cost have not only affected how students can publish and distribute their work to a wider audience…

Bloch, Joel

2007-01-01

60

Enter the Madcap Prince of Wales: Students Directing "Henry IV, Part I."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that William Shakespeare's "Henry IV, Part I" is an appropriate and useful text for secondary English classrooms. Shows how the play lends itself to performance-based instruction. Outlines ways of accomplishing student engagement, using film versions, and assigning written work. (HB)

Earthman, Elise Ann

1993-01-01

61

A Case Study of Students Entering an Early College High School: Changes in Academic Behavior Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to learn more about the transition experiences of one group of high school students (N = 75) as they began attending one alternative pathway: an Early College High School program on a community college campus. A four-part conceptual framework of college readiness provided a structure from which to explore the…

Healy, James J.

2009-01-01

62

Measuring What Students Entering School Know and Can Do: PIPS Australia 2006-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports analysis of 2006-2007 on-entry assessment data from the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools Baseline Assessment (PIPS-BLA) of random samples of students in England, Scotland, New Zealand and Australia. The analysis aimed, first, to investigate the validity and reliability of that instrument across countries and sexes, and,…

Wildy, Helen; Styles, Irene

2008-01-01

63

Does the Rising Cost of Tuition Affect the Socio-Economic Status of Students Entering University?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As tuition fees increase, universities need to be concerned whether costs have risen to a point where students from low-income families are being disproportionately excluded. Given the rates of increases in tuition fees in recent times, this outcome seems plausible and is often the opening point of discussions on this matter (see for example, the…

Kelly, Wayne; Shale, Doug

2004-01-01

64

Individualized Education Program (IEP) Planning Guide for Special Education Students Entering High School Vocational Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to assist school program planners who are working with mainstreamed special education students in vocational education programs. The guide, covering grades 11 and 12, contains vocational program goals, objectives, and evaluation measures for 30 secondary vocational education programs in 15 curriculum areas, as well as for…

Burrell, Lewis P.

65

Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility for Students Entering Fall 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "NCAA Guide to International Academic Standards for Athletics Eligibility" provides specific criteria to be used as a guide in reviewing the initial eligibility (graduation, core curriculum, grade-point average and ACT/SAT test scores) of students who have completed any portion of their secondary education in a non-United States educational…

Mills, Lisa; Nguyen, Binh; Auten, Lisa

2007-01-01

66

Willingness to provide behavioral health recommendations: a cross-sectional study of entering medical students  

PubMed Central

Background Behavioral factors contribute importantly to morbidity and mortality, and physicians are trusted sources for information on reducing associated risks. Unfortunately, many clinical encounters do not include prevention counseling, and medical school curriculum plays an important role in training and promoting such counseling among medical students. Methods We surveyed all 93 freshman medical students at entry to the University of California, Davis School of Medicine in 2009 to evaluate baseline knowledge of population health principles and examine their approach to clinical situations involving four common behavioral risk factors illustrated in brief clinical vignettes: smoking, alcohol use in a patient with indications of alcoholism, diet and exercise in an overweight sedentary patient, and a 16-year-old contemplating initiation of sexual intercourse. Based on vignette responses, we assessed willingness to (1) provide information on risks, (2) recommend elimination of the behavior as the most efficacious means for reducing risk, (3) include strategies apart from elimination of the behavior for lowering risk (i.e., harm reduction), and (4) assure of their intention to continue care whether or not recommendations are accepted. Results Students answered correctly 71.4?% (median; interquartile range 66.7?% - 85.7?%) of clinical prevention and population health knowledge questions; men scored higher than women (median 83.3?% vs. 66.7?%, p<0.02). Students showed high willingness to provide information and strategies for harm reduction apart from risk elimination, while respecting patient autonomy. Willingness to recommend elimination of high-risk behaviors “always or nearly always” was high for smoking (78.5?%), alcohol consumption in a patient with indications of alcoholism (64.5?%), and diet and exercise in a sedentary and overweight individual (87.1?%), and low for the 16-year-old considering initiating sexual intercourse (28.0?%; Friedman test, p<0.001). Willingness was not associated with the respondent’s background knowledge of population health principles or gender. Conclusion Students showed high willingness to educate and respect patient autonomy. There was high willingness to recommend elimination of risk behaviors for smoking, alcohol, and poor diet/exercise, but not for sexual intercourse in an adolescent considering sexual debut. Further research should address promoting appropriate science-based preventive health messages, and curriculum should include explicit discussion of content of recommendations.

2012-01-01

67

Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life  

PubMed Central

In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010?2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P.

2014-01-01

68

Statistical Methods for Protecting Personally Identifiable Information in the Disclosure of Graduation Rates of First-Time, Full-Time Degree- or Certificate-Seeking Undergraduate Students by 2-Year Degree-Granting Institutions of Higher Education. Technical Brief. NCES 2012-151  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) requires that Title IV degree-granting institutions disclose annually the graduation rates of first-time, full-time degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students, disaggregated by gender, each major racial/ethnic subgroup, and receipt or non-receipt of a federal Pell grant or subsidized…

Chen, Xianglei; Bersudskaya, Vera; Cubarrubi, Archie

2011-01-01

69

HPV vaccine awareness and willingness of first-year students entering university in Western Turkey.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge on HPV and HPV vaccination, and to determine vaccination attitude among Ege university students in Izmir, Turkey. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in first-year English preparatory class. Systematic cluster sampling was applied and 717 (72.6%) of students registered to the 54 classes in 17 different faculties/schools were contacted. Data were collected between April 30 and May 18, 2010, through a self-reported questionnaire including 40 questions. A knowledge score was calculated by summing up the number of correct answers given to the 12 knowledge questions. Analyses were done using t-test, chi-square test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of participants was 19.7±1.5 and 445 (62.1%) were female. Overall, 132 (18.9%) had experienced sexual intercourse, but only 7 of them were female. Among participants, 24.1% had heard of HPV and 25.1% about HPV vaccine. The knowledge item with the highest correct answer rate (32.3%) was that HPV caused cervical cancer. The mean total knowledge score was remarkably poor (1.8±2.6 over 12 items), with 59.6% of respondents having zero as their score. There was no difference in mean knowledge scores between males and females. Higher income, history of sexual intercourse and higher knowledge score were significant factors increasing HPV and vaccine awareness for the whole group, adjusted for gender. Genital cancer history in the family significantly increased awareness, but only among girls. Only three students (0.4%) had already been vaccinated, all being female. Among females, 11.6% intended to be vaccinated vs. 10.1% for males, without any significant difference. Visiting a gynaecologist/urologist in the last three years, a history of genital cancer in the family, vaccine awareness, a higher total knowledge score, and being from the East of Turkey were significant predictors of a positive vaccination attitude. HPVvaccination still remains as a 'hot medical topic' in Turkey, since it hasn't yet become a popular health issue. Based on their age of first intercourse, first year at the university seems to be appropriate timing to inform Turkish girls, whereas it is a bit late for boys. Thus, integration of HPV education into secondary/high school curricula should be considered. PMID:21338218

Durusoy, Raika; Yamazhan, Mustafa; Ta?bakan, Meltem I?ikgöz; Ergin, I?il; Aysin, Murat; Pullukçu, Hüsnü; Yamazhan, Tansu

2010-01-01

70

Students Entering the University of New South Wales in 1975: Attitudes, Expectations, and Aspirations. Tertiary Education Research Centre Monograph No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is presented on attitudes of students enrolling for the first time at the University of New South Wales in 1975. Attitudes toward higher education, anticipated difficulties in making the transition from high school to university, and ideas about the likely demands and rewards of advanced study were surveyed, using a forced-choice…

Wieneke, Chris

71

An Evaluation of the Right Choices Program to Determine Effectiveness in Delivering Constructive Interventions and Providing an Early Support Program in Order to Modify Behavior of First-Time Student Offenders Who Commit Drug and Violent Acts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to perform a program evaluation of the Right Choices Program to determine the program's effectiveness in delivering constructive interventions that modify student behavior once students have left the program and have returned to their regular learning environment. This mixed-method evaluation consisted of an…

Barnes, Lisa B.

2010-01-01

72

Developmental Placement and Academic Progress: Tracking "At-Risk" Students in the 1990 Entering Cohort. Enrollment Analysis EA95-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to determine which factors most consistently identified incoming at-risk students, Prince George's Community College (PGCC), in Maryland, conducted a longitudinal study of fall 1990 entering freshmen without previous college experience. After dividing the cohort into at-risk categories (e.g., age, study load, racial background,…

Boughan, Karl

73

The Academic and Remedial Placement Profile of Students Entering B.C.C. [Bronx Community College] in September 1974 by Curriculum Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bronx Community College entering class in September 1974 is described in terms of high school averages (general, English, mathematics, foreign language) and of placements into precollege-level English, reading, and mathematics courses. The actual programs of the students placed, but not registered, in these remedial courses are examined. A…

Bronx Community Coll., NY.

74

Teaching Physics for the First Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to be a quick and easy resource for anyone teaching physics for the first time. Written after extensive research, this book is filled with reliable labs, demos and activities that work well in the classroom. Also included are lesson plans, diagrams, and teacher notes for every activity. The book is not the end--it is just a…

Mader, Jan; Winn, Mary

2008-01-01

75

Observed communication skills: how do they relate to the consultation content? A nation-wide study of graduate medical students seeing a standardized patient for a first-time consultation in a general practice setting  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we wanted to investigate the relationship between background variables, communication skills, and the bio-psychosocial content of a medical consultation in a general practice setting with a standardized patient. Methods Final-year medical school students (N = 111) carried out a consultation with an actor playing the role of a patient with a specific somatic complaint, psychosocial stressors, and concerns about cancer. Based on videotapes, communication skills and consultation content were scored separately. Results The mean level of overall communication skills had a significant impact upon the counts of psychosocial issues, the patient's concerns about cancer, and the information and planning parts of the consultation content being addressed. Gender and age had no influence upon the relationship between communication skills and consultation content. Conclusion Communication skills seem to be important for final-year students' competence in addressing sensitive psychosocial issues and patients' concerns as well as informing and planning with patients being representative for a fairly complex case in general practice. This result should be considered in the design and incorporation of communication skills training as part of the curriculum of medical schools.

Gude, Tore; Vaglum, Per; Anvik, Tor; Baerheim, Anders; Eide, Hilde; Fasmer, Ole B; Graugaard, Peter; Grimstad, Hilde; Hjortdahl, Per; Holen, Are; Nordoy, Tone; Skirbekk, Helge; Finset, Arnstein

2007-01-01

76

Enteral Access and Enteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition is the route of choice in patients with a functioning gastrointestinal tract. Early enteral nutrition has\\u000a been shown to improve outcomes in a variety of critically ill patient populations. Enteral nutritional support is indicated\\u000a for patients with poor volitional intake, neurological impairment, oropharyngeal dysfunction, short gut syndrome, and major\\u000a trauma or burns. A~number of enteral access options are

Christopher R. Lynch; John C. Fang; Stephen A. McClave

77

Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Increases for the First Time Since 1993  

NSF Publications Database

... Engineering Increases for the First Time Since 1993 (January 11, 2001) This Data Brief presents ... and engineering graduate students through 1999. Data are presented on trends in number of graduate ...

78

Chances of Success in and Engagement with Mathematics for Students Who Enter University with a Weak Mathematics Background  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing number of Australian students elect not to undertake studies in mathematical methods in the final years of their secondary schooling. Some higher education providers now offer pathways for these students to pursue mathematics studies up to a major specialization within the bachelor of science programme. This article analyses the…

Varsavsky, Cristina

2010-01-01

79

Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among medical students entering clinical training: a three year prospective questionnaire and interview-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i) and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale) were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI), Burnout (OLBI), Depression (MDI) at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI) were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. Results 98 (77%) responded on both occasions, 80 (63%) of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27%) had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities should be available.

Dahlin, Marie E; Runeson, Bo

2007-01-01

80

Campylobacter enteritis.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni/coli has recently become recognized as a common bacterial cause of diarrhea. Infection can occur at any age. The usual incubation period of campylobacter enteritis is 2 to 5 days. Fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain are the most common clinical features. The stools frequently contain mucus and, a few days after the onset of symptoms, frank blood. Significant vomiting and dehydration are uncommon. A rapid presumptive laboratory diagnosis may be made during the acute phase of the illness by direct phase-contrast microscopy of stools. Isolation of the organism from stools requires culture in a selective medium containing antibiotics and incubation under reduced oxygen tension at 42 degrees C. The organism persists in the stools of untreated patients for up to 7 weeks following the onset of symptoms. Erythromycin may produce a rapid clinical and bacteriologic cure, and should be used to treat moderately to severely ill patients as well as patients with compromised host defences. The emergence of erythromycin-resistant strains requires close monitoring. The epidemiologic aspects of campylobacter enteritis will be fully understood only when methods become available for differentiating strains of C. jejuni/coli. The historical background and current knowledge of campylobacter enteritis are reviewed in this paper. Images FIG. 1

Karmali, M A; Fleming, P C

1979-01-01

81

Helping Minority Students with Nontraditional Skills Enter and Complete College. ERIC/CUE Fact Sheet Number 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several areas related to minority student college attendance are presented in this research review including the current enrollment situation, financial considerations, prediction of college persistence, college characteristics which affect persistence, and special assistance programs. Current enrollment statistics are cited on the percentage of…

Ascher, Carol

82

The Application and Evaluation of a Two-Concept Diagnostic Instrument with Students Entering College General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Particulate Nature of Matter and Chemical Bonding Diagnostic Instrument (Othman J., Treagust D. F. and Chandrasegaran A. L., (2008), "Int. J. Sci. Educ.," 30(11), 1531-1550) is used to investigate college students' understanding of two chemistry concepts: particulate nature of matter and chemical bonding. The instrument, originally developed…

Heredia, Keily; Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

2012-01-01

83

A study of interest patterns of successful and unsuccessful home economics students entering college with similar achievement and aptitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of 60 students at New York State College of Home Economics were paired for high school achievement and decile rank on the American Council Examination. They differed in college achievement, participation in activities, and probable employability. The Strong Vocational Interest Blank was administered, and differences in percentages of the two groups marking each symbol were calculated. The following

M. Mercer

1942-01-01

84

Assessing the Quality of Student Thinking Directly: An Exploratory Study of Two Cohorts Entering Engineering Education in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of an exploratory investigation involving the direct assessment of the quality of abstract thinking of two cohorts of South African university entrants who had very good school leaving qualifications. The investigation was prompted by the observation of difficulties these students seemed to have had in a first…

Woollacott, L.; Snell, D.

2012-01-01

85

Speaking with an Accent: Some Practical Advice for Foreign First-Time Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of Ph.D. programs in political science in the United States provide some kind of teaching training for graduate students, which ranges from assisting other instructors to designing and teaching new courses. In most cases, departments make an effort to guide these students in their new role as instructors; however, first-time teachers…

Berardo, Ramiro

2011-01-01

86

Cohort Analysis, Fall 1993 New Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October 1996, Illinois' Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) conducted a longitudinal study of the characteristics of and outcomes experienced by students who entered the college for the first time in fall 1993, gathering data on retention rates, average attempted and earned cumulative hours, and graduation rates over 3 years. Of the 3,146…

Moraine Valley Community College., Palos Hills, IL. Office of Institutional Research.

87

Comparative Study of Freshmen College Student Beliefs and Values between Representative Private and Public Institutions of Higher Education in Kentucky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students entering college for the first time are embarking on a life-changing journey like none they have experienced. The potential impact the college experience will have on their lives is extreme. Students will be engaged in class and co-curricular settings in ways that will challenge them to produce developmental growth that will carry them…

Combs, Brian S.

2009-01-01

88

An Investigation of the Relationship between Selected Demographic Variables and Dual Enrollment Participation on Postsecondary Success for First Time Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between dual enrollment participation in high school and successful transition to post-secondary institutions for first year students. The sample consisted of a random sample of first-time students enrolled at four-year, two-year, and technical colleges in North Louisiana. Participants completed the National…

Barker, Marby S.

2010-01-01

89

Parenting Expectations: Younger and Older First-Time Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to parenthood is a time of great interest to scholars. Because some parents prosper and others falter after the birth of their first child, understanding factors that influence this transition is of critical importance; one reason is the similarity (or lack thereof) between parents' prebirth parenting expectations. The present study examined (1) similarity between and typologies of first-time

Adaliss Rodriguez; Kari Adamsons

2012-01-01

90

Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

2011-01-01

91

Responding Globally to the Online Learning Needs of Military Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of my proposal is to present a comprehensive look at the specific needs of military students who are actively deployed globally, and who are entering the "virtual classroom" for the first time. Additionally, I have drawn upon my own experiences as an educator of more than 15 years, as well as someone who has developed course curriculum…

Bricker, Suzane L.

2012-01-01

92

Reluctant Colossus: America Enters the Age of Imperialism. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project. Student and Teacher's Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains student materials and a teacher's guide. The materials are designed to make complex international issues understandable and meaningful for students. The unit probes the political, moral, and racial issues raised by the Spanish-American War and the acquisition of an overseas empire. Students compare the values and concerns at…

Bakker, Don

93

Who visits the psychiatric emergency room for the first time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine patient and system characteristics of first-time (“incident”) vs. recurrent (“recurrent”) use of a psychiatric\\u000a emergency room (PER).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data on demographic and clinical characteristics and health service utilization were collected for incident and recurrent\\u000a users (n=3,719) who visited the PER of the university hospital in Leuven, Belgium, between March 2000 and March 2002.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  About 64% (n=2,368) were incident and

Ronny Bruffaerts; Marc Sabbe; Koen Demyttenaere

2006-01-01

94

Machining automation: Doing it right the first time  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of a machining automation program and of the Allied-Signal efforts to Do it Right the First Time'' is presented. The automation program is a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) for the machining and on-line inspection of a family of aluminum and stainless steel prismatic parts. The critical management and technical aspects found necessary to assure success in implementing large and risky automation programs are presented. The process being used is team based and has concentrated on involving the end users from the beginning.

Setter, D.L.

1990-08-01

95

Profile of Degree/Certificate-Seeking Entering Undergraduate Students, by Control and Level of Institution. Web Tables. NCES 2011-252  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Student Right to Know Act requires institutions that participate in any student financial assistance program under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (as amended) to disclose graduation rates. To assist institutions in meeting this requirement, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) collects these rates as part of the…

Ginder, Scott; Mason, Marcinda

2011-01-01

96

Translating Success: How Careful Planning within a Problems-Based Curriculum Can Prepare Students to Enter College-Level Math Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amy Biehl High School (ABHS) is a charter high school located in downtown Albuquerque that serves students from Albuquerque and the surrounding communities. Despite its population's differences in skills, special needs, socioeconomic class, race, culture, and English proficiency, it has one common goal for all its students: that they are able to…

Fillmore, Jessica

2007-01-01

97

Thai men becoming a first-time father.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand the process of Thai men becoming a first-time father. Twenty expectant fathers were voluntarily recruited from the antenatal clinics of three hospitals in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. The data were collected by in-depth interviews and analyzed on the basis of grounded theory methodology. The findings demonstrated that "protecting the unborn baby" was the basic social process that emerged as the core category. This process was divided into three phases: confirming and accepting, perceiving the unborn baby as a human being, and ensuring the health of the mother and baby. Throughout this process, the Thai expectant fathers applied many strategies to manage their concerns, needs, and emotions and to develop themselves into fathers. The process of protecting the unborn baby provides insight into the expectant fathers' experiences, which will enable nurses and midwives to assist and care for men as they become fathers. PMID:21210916

Sansiriphun, Nantaporn; Kantaruksa, Kannika; Klunklin, Areewan; Baosuang, Chavee; Jordan, Pamela

2010-12-01

98

Rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction (MI) to identify focus areas for long-term cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in general practice. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects Patients with first-time MI in 2009 from the Central Denmark Region. Data were obtained from patient questionnaires and from registers. Results Of the 1288 eligible patients, 908 (70.5%) responded. The mean (SD) age was 67.1 (11.7) years and 626 (68.9%) were men. Overall, 287 (31.6%) of the patients lived alone and 398 (45.4%) had less than 10 years of education. Upwards of half (58.5%) of the patients stated that they had participated in hospital-based rehabilitation shortly after admission. A total of 262 (29.2%) were identified with anxiety or depressive disorder or both, according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Of these, 78 (29.8%) reported that they had participated in psychosocial support, and 55 (21.0%) used antidepressants. One in five patients smoked three months after MI although nearly half of the smokers had stopped after the MI. Regarding cardioprotective drugs, 714 (78.6%) used aspirin, 694 (76.4%) clopidogrel, 756 (83.3%) statins, and 735 (81.0%) beta-blockers. Conclusion After three months, there is a considerable potential for further rehabilitation of MI patients. In particular, the long-term CR should focus on mental health, smoking cessation, and cardioprotective drugs.

Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Vestergaard, Mogens; S?ndergaard, Jens; Christensen, Bo

2011-01-01

99

Technology Usage among Community College Faculty in First-Time-in-College Classes: A Call to Standardization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology in higher education has played an increasingly dramatic role, particularly on community college campuses, with emphasis on how to provide better services to students via the use of technology. This report examines the challenge for faculty teaching first-time-in-college (FTIC) classes at El Centro College of the Dallas County Community…

Goomas, David T.

2013-01-01

100

Methodology and Implications of Statewide Success Rates of Community College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, the Maryland State Board for Community Colleges developed the "success rate," a reporting index which combined graduation, transfer, and persistence rates. Success rate matrices were produced by tracking first-time, full-time students representing seven cohorts (1980 to 1986) over a 4-year period, and matching entering enrollment files…

McConochie, Daniel D.; Rajasekhara, Koosappa

101

Comparison of Graduation Rates for Scholarship Athletes and All Students by Gender, Race, and Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the six-year college graduation rates of scholarship athletes with all students in the Oklahoma State System using data for fall 1990 first-time, full-time baccalaureate degree-seeking entering freshmen. The study also examined three-year graduation rates of fall 1993 freshmen seeking associate degrees. Graduation rates for…

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

102

Student Retention and Graduation at the City University of New York: Fall 1970 to Spring 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document concerns the retention and graduation of students at the City University of New York. Major attention is devoted to those who entered the senior and community colleges of CUNY as first-time freshmen in September 1970. This group was the first to enroll in the university under the open admissions policy. This report includes the group…

Kaufman, Barry; Botwinick, Rena

103

Spring Research Festival Sponsored by NICBR for First Time | Poster  

Cancer.gov

For the past 16 years, the annual Spring Research Festival has been sponsored by NCI at Frederick and Fort Detrick to acquaint fellow researchers, students, and the community at large with the important discoveries being made at this facility to fight cancer, AIDS, and other infectious diseases.

104

Health and safety intervention with first-time mothers.  

PubMed

A health education program was evaluated which used child development specialists as home visitors and served a population of first-time mothers living in rural communities. The evaluation compared health and safety outcomes between intervention and control groups. The research staff, separate from the intervention staff, collected data in the homes of 156 intervention and 107 control mothers when the infants were 6 and 12 months old. Significant group differences were found on health and safety outcomes. As compared with controls, the intervention mothers (i) had safer homes; (ii) were more likely to use birth control, thus had fewer pregnancies since birth of their first child; (iii) reported smoking fewer cigarettes; (iv) knew more about effects of smoking on their child's health and (v) were more likely to use health department services. In sum, mothers who received early education home visits from child development specialists experienced positive health and safety outcomes. It is highly recommended that a program such as this be implemented as part of health delivery program with new mothers and infants. PMID:16908498

Culp, Anne McDonald; Culp, R E; Anderson, J W; Carter, S

2007-04-01

105

Inviting Confidence in School: Invitations as a Critical Source of the Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Entering Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine whether constructs drawn from invitational theory serve as additional sources of self-efficacy beliefs of students in Grade 6 (N = 468). The hypothesized sources and the invitational constructs each correlated with academic self-efficacy. Invitations, mastery experience, and physiological state predicted…

Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

2006-01-01

106

Segmental enteritis: "enteritis necroticans". A clinicopathologic study.  

PubMed

Acute segmental enteritis, also called "enteritis necroticans" is characterized by nonocclusive intestinal ischemia in the absence of any precipitating cause. We studied 30 such patients over a 5.5-year period. All patients had acute abdominal symptoms requiring emergency laparotomy, and in only 30% was a preoperative diagnosis of segmental enteritis proposed. The jejunum alone (63.3%), or with the ileum (26.7%), was the most common site of necrotic patches (86.7%), frank gangrene (50.0%), free perforation (36.7%), and circumferential dusky lesions (30.0%). Twenty-eight patients required resection of the affected bowel. Specimen angiography in two cases showed normal mesenteric vasculature. In 12 patients, a detailed microbiological profile from peritoneal fluid, intestinal contents, and intestinal wall was performed, but Clostridium welchii was isolated from none. The resected intestinal specimens showed mucosal ulceration, submucosal edema, mixed inflammatory infiltrate, and patchy necrosis of the muscularis propria. The intramural vessels were patent in all cases. Wound-related complications occurred in 14, pulmonary complications in 14, renal failure in eight, and fecal fistulas in five; 23.3% died. PMID:8776086

Singh, G; Narang, V; Malik, A K; Khanna, S K

1996-01-01

107

Hektoen Enteric Agar Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hektoen enteric agar is a selective and differential media for the recovery of enteric gram-negative rods from mixed microbiota.  The growth of gram-positive organisms and nonpathogenic enteric coliforms is inhibited through the use of bile salts and dyes, allowing intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella and Shigella, to be more easily recovered.  The media can also differentiate between organisms that produce H2S and those that do not due to the presence of an iron-containing compound.  The use and interpretation of growth on this media is discussed in this protocol.

American Society For Microbiology;

2010-11-11

108

Pathophysiology of Campylobacter Enteritis,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Campylobacter jejuni has exploded from obscurity to be recognized as a major human enteric pathogen. This recognition has triggered numerous bacteriological investigations, but the many mysteries and surprises associated with the organism will challenge t...

E. C. Lee M. B. Caldwell P. Guerry R. I. Walker T. J. Trust

1986-01-01

109

What Is Enteral Nutrition?  

MedlinePLUS

... is a Nutrition Support Professional Press Room What Is Enteral Nutrition All people need food to live. ... person can begin to eat normally again. How Is Tube Feeding Supplied? Tube feeding can be given ...

110

Characteristics of First-Time Alcohol Treatment Seekers: The COMBINE Study*  

PubMed Central

Objective: The current study compared alcoholics who entered treatment for the first time with those who had reported one or more prior treatment experiences using a large sample (N = 1,362) of alcoholics who entered the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-sponsored COMBINE (Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions) Study of pharmacological and behavioral treatment efficacy. Method: Participants were categorized into three prior-treatment groups: (1) treatment naive (n = 691, 50.73%), (2) one to two prior treatments (n = 380, 27.90%), or (3) three or more prior treatments (n = 291, 21.37%). Groups were compared at baseline on multiple drinking and psychosocial variables. Results: The treatment-naive group was more likely to be female, educated, married, and employed. They reported the lowest levels of drinks per drinking day, average drinks per day, alcohol dependence, craving, and alcohol-related consequences; but, they had the oldest age at onset of alcohol problems. Both the treatment-naive group and the one-to-two prior-treatment group had lower percentage days abstinent within the prior 30 days, compared with the three-or-more group (22% and 25% vs 32%, respectively). The treatment-naive group reported the least commitment to an abstinence goal (43% vs 70% and 80%, respectively) and the lowest mean number of Alcoholics Anonymous meetings attended (0.86 vs 3.10 vs 6.91, respectively). They also reported fewer psychological symptoms, less distress, and higher levels of quality of life on physical, emotional, and environmental domains, as well as social relationships. Conclusions: Results suggest that a greater understanding of treatment-naive versus treatment-experienced clients may provide a better profile of help-seeking behavior and may suggest different approaches to treatment.

LoCastro, Joseph S.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Donovan, Dennis M.; Couper, David; Pope, Kimberly W.

2008-01-01

111

Chandra "Hears" A Black Hole For The First Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory detected sound waves, for the first time, from a super-massive black hole. The "note" is the deepest ever detected from an object in the universe. The tremendous amounts of energy carried by these sound waves may solve a longstanding problem in astrophysics. The black hole resides in the Perseus cluster, located 250 million light years from Earth. In 2002, astronomers obtained a deep Chandra observation that shows ripples in the gas filling the cluster. These ripples are evidence for sound waves that have traveled hundreds of thousands of light years away from the cluster's central black hole. perseus animation Illustration of Ripples in Perseus "We have observed the prodigious amounts of light and heat created by black holes, now we have detected the sound," said Andrew Fabian of the Institute of Astronomy (IoA) in Cambridge, England, and leader of the study. In musical terms, the pitch of the sound generated by the black hole translates into the note of B flat. But, a human would have no chance of hearing this cosmic performance, because the note is 57 octaves lower than middle-C (by comparison a typical piano contains only about seven octaves). At a frequency over a million, billion times deeper than the limits of human hearing, this is the deepest note ever detected from an object in the universe. "The Perseus sound waves are much more than just an interesting form of black hole acoustics," said Steve Allen, also of the IoA and a co-investigator in the research. "These sound waves may be the key in figuring out how galaxy clusters, the largest structures in the universe, grow," Allen said. For years astronomers have tried to understand why there is so much hot gas in galaxy clusters and so little cool gas. Hot gas glowing with X-rays should cool, and the dense central gas should cool the fastest. The pressure in this cool central gas should then fall, causing gas further out to sink in towards the galaxy, forming trillions of stars along the way. Scant evidence has been found for such a flow of cool gas or star formation. This forced astronomers to invent several different ways to explain why the gas contained in clusters remained hot, and, until now, none of them was satisfactory. perseus animation Animation of Sound Waves Generated in Perseus Cluster of Ripples in Perseus Heating caused by a central black hole has long been considered a good way to prevent cluster gas from cooling. Although jets have been observed at radio wavelengths, their effect on cluster gas was unclear since this gas is only detectable in X-rays, and early X-ray observations did not have Chandra's ability to find detailed structure. Previous Chandra observations of the Perseus cluster showed two vast, bubble-shaped cavities in the cluster gas extending away from the central black hole. Jets of material pushing back the cluster gas have formed these X-ray cavities, which are bright sources of radio waves. They have long been suspected of heating the surrounding gas, but the mechanism was unknown. The sound waves, seen spreading out from the cavities in the recent Chandra observation, could provide this heating mechanism. A tremendous amount of energy is needed to generate the cavities, as much as the combined energy from 100 million supernovae. Much of this energy is carried by the sound waves and should dissipate in the cluster gas, keeping the gas warm and possibly preventing a cooling flow. If so, the B-flat pitch of the sound wave, 57 octaves below middle-C, would have remained roughly constant for about 2.5 billion years. Perseus is the brightest cluster of galaxies in X-rays, and therefore was a perfect Chandra target for finding sound waves rippling through the hot cluster gas. Other clusters show X-ray cavities, and future Chandra observations may yet detect sound waves in these objects.

2003-09-01

112

Radiation Enteritis PDQ Spanish Redirect  

Cancer.gov

Radiation Enteritis PDQ Spanish Redirect El sumario de información del PDQ® Enteritis por radiación ha sido incorporado al sumario de información Complicaciones gastrointestinales. Para proseguir utilice unos de los siguientes enlaces.(The Radiation Enteritis

113

The impact of an SBR mandated developmental English course on performance in college English I by students with relatively high ACT and medium AAPP English scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall, 1985, the Tennessee State Board of Regents mandated assessment and placement for all first time degree-seeking students who entered state supported institutions other than the University of Tennessee system. Individual institutions interpreted the document, The White Paper, that set down the guidelines for implementing the process.^ At Volunteer State Community College (VSCC), the Developmental Education Committee set

Larita Jule Burrows Alford

1988-01-01

114

Improving Retention and Academic Achievement for First-Time Students at a Two-Year College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty at a two-year community/technical college undertook a project in the spring 2010 semester to incorporate more intensive and intrusive academic advising into the Freshman Seminar (COL 105) course. A study was undertaken in which 14 sections of COL 105 were divided into an experimental group (taught by specially-trained instructors who…

Ryan, Mary Gene

2013-01-01

115

Dear Parents of Students Entering Grade Three  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southington Public School District encourages learning throughout the summer weeks. As such, this letter is being sent home to inform you of our summer reading expectations. In collaboration with the Governor's Reading Challenge, all elementary schools are participating in this joint summer reading program. Please find the grade level reading list on the Southington Public Schools' website. There will

Joseph V. Erardi; Howard J. Thiery

2009-01-01

116

Regional enteritis in lambs.  

PubMed

Thirty-two lambs with regional enteritis were examined. Eighteen were received alive and examined clinically, while the remaining were dead on arrival. One of the sick lambs recovered without treatment. Occurrence and epidemiology, clinical signs, clinical pathology, necropsy findings, light microscopy, immunoperoxidase studies, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy are reported. The disease was characterised by stretching of the fore- and hindlimbs, ill thrift, intermittent diarrhoea, leucocytosis, thickened ileal wall and hyperplasia of the ileal mucosa. None of the methods applied revealed any causal agents. Possible aetiological factors are discussed. PMID:2193333

Ulvund, M J; Teige, J

1990-05-01

117

Enteral histaminosis: Clinical implications.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that enteral histaminosis is a major cause of food intolerance resulting from dysfunctional metabolism of endogenous histamine in certain food stuffs. However, this phenomenon has been poorly characterised and, due to the lack of epidemiological data, the existence of this condition has been underestimated, which may lead to incorrect diagnosis. This short commentary highlights a stricter regimen of diagnostic procedure in order to take into account the many causes of food intolerance. The underlying mechanisms ascribed particularly to non-immunologically food reactions require more rigorous research and further work is vital. PMID:10442479

Amon, U; Bangha, E; Küster, T; Menne, A; Vollrath, I B; Gibbs, B F

1999-06-01

118

Education, Training, and Academic Experience of Newly Hired, First-Time Pharmacy Faculty Members  

PubMed Central

Objective. To describe the education, training, and academic experiences of newly hired faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy during the 2012-2013 academic year. Methods. A survey regarding education, training, and academic experiences was conducted of all first-time faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy hired during the 2012-2013 academic year. Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members accounted for the majority (68.2%) of new hires. Ambulatory care was the most common pharmacy specialty position (29.8%). Most new faculty members had a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) as their terminal degree (74.8%), and 88.3% of pharmacy practice faculty members completed a residency. Of new faculty members who responded to the survey, 102 (67.5%) had at least 3 prior academic teaching, precepting, or research experiences. Conclusion. New faculty members were hired most frequently for clinical faculty positions at the assistant professor level and most frequently in the specialty of ambulatory care. Prior academic experience included precepting pharmacy students, facilitating small discussions, and guest lecturing.

Fleming, Marc L.; Fernandez, Julianna M.; Garey, Kevin W.

2014-01-01

119

Enteric hepatitis viruses  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary.

Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

120

Entering the Formative Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses formative assessment--classroom strategies that ensure students are understanding music concepts. Unlike summative assessments (end-of-process evaluations like final exams, SATs, or auditions), formative assessments need to be non-threatening, helpful, and most of all, effective. The process starts with a teacher…

Powers, Keith

2011-01-01

121

Enteral nutrition access devices.  

PubMed

The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, performing a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such situations, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the ASGE Governing Board. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through August 2009 for articles related to endoscopy in patients requiring enteral feeding access by using the keywords "endoscopy," "percutaneous," "gastrostomy," "jejunostomy," "nasogastric," "nasoenteric," "nasojejunal," "transnasal," "feeding tube," "enteric," and "button." Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. PMID:20541746

Kwon, Richard S; Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M

2010-08-01

122

Doctorate Awards Increase in S&E Overall, but Computer Science Declines for First Time  

NSF Publications Database

... Computer Science Declines for First Time (November 7, 1997) This report highlights data on persons ... The Survey of Earned Doctorates collected this data from all persons in U.S. research universities ...

123

Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 1977 cases that involved students and institutions of higher education indicates that students seem to be more concerned with their rights as educational consumers. The majority of cases concern controversies focusing on classroom and academic evaluation and treatment of students; receipt of various forms of financial aid; use of…

Gehring, Donald D.; Young, D. Parker

124

Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

2009-01-01

125

First-time NCLEX-RN pass rate: measure of program quality or something else?  

PubMed

The first-time NCLEX-RN(®) pass rate is considered by many to be the primary, if not sole, indicator of the quality of prelicensure nursing education programs. Used by state boards of nursing, educational program accreditors, and nursing faculty, the first-time NCLEX-RN pass rate influences important decisions about overall program quality, admission and progression policies, curricula, and teaching and learning practices. In this article, the authors call for a professional dialogue about the use of first-time pass rate (F-TPR) as an indicator of program quality, offer alternative methods for using the F-TPR as one measure of program quality, and suggest further research. One program's experience with low F-TPRs is offered as an exemplar of the unintended negative consequences that occur when the F-TPR is used as a sole criterion by a state board of nursing in judging a program's quality. PMID:24855991

Taylor, Heidi; Loftin, Collette; Reyes, Helen

2014-06-01

126

Promotion Rates for First-time Assistant and Associate Professors Appointed from 1967 to 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To provide benchmark information against which medical schools can compare their own promotion data, this Analysis in Brief examines the 10-year promotion outcomes of full-time faculty who were first-time assistant professors or first-time associate professors at any time from 1967 to 1997. We suspect that the changing landscape of academic medicine in recent decades provides important context for our findings, such as changes in the demographics of faculty, the meaning of tenure, faculty productivity, the importance of work-life balance, and the growth of Ph.D. faculty in clinical departments. We tracked every first-time assistant professor or first-time associate professor appointed during the academic years 1967 to 1997 for 10 years in the AAMCÃÂs Faculty Roster, the only national database on the employment, training, and demographic backgrounds of individual U.S. medical school faculty. The results indicated generally declining promotion rates and increasing average times to promotion for medical school faculty. For all first-time assistant professors, the average 10-year promotion rates declined from 43.5 to 32.8 percent, and the average time to promotion for these respective groups of cohorts lengthened from 5.2 to 6.2 years for the group cohorts in the study period. For all first-time associate professors, the average promotion rate to full professor declined from 41.7 percent to 38.6 percent, and the average time to promotion increased from 5.7 to 6.1 years for the group cohorts in the study period. Different promotion rates with regard to tenure status, gender, and race/ethnicity were also recorded.

PhD Christine Qi Liu (AAMC)

2010-05-01

127

Enteral feeding misconnections: an update.  

PubMed

Enteral misconnections are defined as inadvertent connections between enteral feeding systems and nonenteral systems such as intravascular lines, peritoneal dialysis catheters, tracheostomy tube cuffs, medical gas tubing, and so on. Sentinel event data and causative factors are outlined along with potential solutions to prevent such medical errors. The solutions can be grouped into 3 areas: (1) education, awareness, and human factors; (2) purchasing strategies; and (3) design changes. Updates on safety innovations and programs are presented. PMID:19483062

Guenter, Peggi; Hicks, Rodney W; Simmons, Debora

2009-01-01

128

Enteric neuroplasticity evoked by inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroplastic changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) may be observed in physiological states, such as development and aging, or occur as a consequence of different pathological conditions, ranging from enteric neuropathies (e.g., Hirschsprung's disease) to intestinal (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease) or extra-intestinal diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease). Studying ENS plasticity may help to elucidate the pathophysiology of several diseases and

Valentina Vasina; Giovanni Barbara; Luigia Talamonti; Vincenzo Stanghellini; Roberto Corinaldesi; Marcello Tonini; Fabrizio De Ponti; Roberto De Giorgio

2006-01-01

129

Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

2009-01-01

130

The first-time adult-onset offender: findings from a community corrections cohort.  

PubMed

Preoccupation of criminologists with juvenile-onset criminal careers overshadows the fact that offenders who begin their criminal careers in adulthood comprise a substantial portion of adult offender populations. Little is known about adult-onset offenders, generally, and even less about first-time adult-onset offenders. Using a large sample of adult felons on probation supervision, this study explores differences between first and repeat offenders. With respect to risk factors at intake, timing of rearrest, and frequency and nature of supervision failures over 3 years, first-time adult-onset participants exhibited statistically significant differences in relation to both repeat adult-onset and juvenile persistent offenders, with largest differences occurring in analyses involving the latter. With respect to risk factors at intake and rearrest, events in adulthood played a more dominant role among first-time adult-onset offenders compared with other groups, where criminal lifestyle factors were in greater evidence. The article concludes with a discussion of community supervision practices to prevent the progression of the first-time adult-onset offender's criminal career, social reforms to assist this group, and avenues for relevant future research. PMID:20547732

Harris, Patricia M

2011-09-01

131

Dietary behaviours during pregnancy: findings from first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Limited prevalence data are available for nutrition related health behaviours during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess dietary behaviours during pregnancy among first-time mothers, and to investigate the relationships between these behaviours and demographic characteristics, so that appropriate dietary intervention strategies for pregnant women can be developed. METHOD: An analysis of cross-sectional survey was conducted using data from 409

Li Ming Wen; Victoria M Flood; Judy M Simpson; Chris Rissel; Louise A Baur

2010-01-01

132

First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53…

Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

2014-01-01

133

First-Time and Repeat Admissions Aged 18 to 25 to Substance Abuse Treatment: 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) on substance abuse treatment admissions in 2006, repeat admissions aged 18 to 25 were more likely than first-time admissions of the same age group to report heroin and other opiates as the primary substa...

2008-01-01

134

Why Do First-Time and Repeat Visitors Patronize a Destination?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of tourists' destination choices have either focused on how to attract more tourists or on developing stable relationships with existing ones. Therefore, the fit of a conceptual model incorporating relational (destination attachment) and transactional (destination image) antecedents to patronizing intentions (revisit, recommend, and resist change) was tested on a sample of first-time visitors and on a sample of

Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

2010-01-01

135

Recidivism at a Shelter for Adolescents: First-Time versus Repeat Runaways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a study that examined child and family influences on recidivism for 166 youths admitted to a shelter. Results indicated that youth emotional problems were significantly related to recidivism for repeat runaways, whereas family changes and length of stay at the shelter were significantly related to recidivism for first-time

Baker, Amy J. L.; McKay, Mary M.; Lynn, Cynthia J.; Schlange, Hans; Auville, Alicia

2003-01-01

136

A Study of Supervisory Priorities of First-Time High School Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The supervisory tasks that a novice principal emphasizes upon school entry make a major difference in developing the principal's professional identity as one who leads the improvement of instruction. Over the course of 2 years (1987-89), 12 first-time high school principals (7 male and 5 female, 10 white and 2 black) were studied. To ensure…

Wright, Lance V.

137

The "Turning Point" for Minority Pre-Meds: The Effect of Early Undergraduate Experience in the Sciences on Aspirations to Enter Medical School of Minority Students at UC Berkeley and Stanford University. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.20.08  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of California faces the challenge of increasing the diversity of students graduating from its medical schools while also adhering to mandated restrictions on the use of race or ethnicity in the admissions process. Students from diverse backgrounds who gain admission as undergraduates to UC Berkeley and express an early interest in a…

Barr, Donald A.; Matsui, John

2008-01-01

138

Characterization of the duck enteritis virus UL55 protein  

PubMed Central

Background Characteration of the newly identified duck enteritis virus UL55 gene product has not been reported yet. Knowledge of the protein UL55 can provide useful insights about its function. Results The newly identified duck enteritis virus UL55 gene was about 561 bp, it was amplified and digested for construction of a recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)/UL55 for expression in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the recombinant protein UL55(pUL55) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 host cells after induction by 0.2 mM IPTG at 37°C for 4 h and aggregated as inclusion bodies. The denatured protein about 40 KDa named pUL55 was purified by washing five times, and used to immune rabbits for preparation of polyclonal antibody. The prepared polyclonal antibody against pUL55 was detected and determined by Agar immundiffusion and Neutralization test. The results of Wstern blotting assay and intracellular analysis revealed that pUL55 was expressed most abundantly during the late phase of replication and mainly distributed in cytoplasm in duck enteritis virus infected cells. Conclusions In this study, the duck enteritis virus UL55 protein was successfully expressed in prokaryotic expression system. Besides, we have prepared the polyclonal antibody against recombinant prtein UL55, and characterized some properties of the duck enteritis virus UL55 protein for the first time. The research will be useful for further functional analysis of this gene.

2011-01-01

139

Incidence of teams in the firms owned by serial, portfolio and first-time entrepreneurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the prevalence of teams in the firms owned by habitual and first-time entrepreneurs. Most team-oriented\\u000a studies in the field of entrepreneurship have rather focused on entrepreneurial than management teams. In this study, we extend\\u000a the prior research by linking management teams to the discussion and by paying attention a previous closure experience of\\u000a an entrepreneur. The

Sanna Tihula; Jari Huovinen

2010-01-01

140

Sensitivity of the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale: A Known Group Analysis of First Time Mothers  

PubMed Central

Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups.

Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

2013-01-01

141

High-Dose ?-Aminocaproic Acid Versus Aprotinin: Antifibrinolytic Efficacy in First-Time Coronary Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The antifibrinolytic efficacy of a high-dose regimen of ?-aminocaproic acid (?-ACA) was compared with aprotinin in first-time coronary operations.Methods. In a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study, 20 patients received high-dose ?-ACA (10 g both as a loading and cardiopulmonary bypass priming dose, 2.5 g\\/h until 4 hours after protamine), and another 20 patients received aprotinin (2 × 106 KIU [280

Balthasar Eberle; Eckhard Mayer; Gerhard Hafner; Jens Heinermann; Manfred Dahm; Winfried Prellwitz; Wolfgang Dick; Hellmut Oelert

1998-01-01

142

Prospective results after first-time surgery for obstetric fistulas in East African women.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to document the complications, outcomes and causes of obstetric fistulas in East African women who underwent first-time surgical repair. Attention was also paid to social background and characteristics of the patients. Data were collected prospectively from patients operated on in the period from January 2001 to August 2003. Only patients who received first-time surgery and whose fistula had been caused by obstructed labour were included in the study. Eight hundred eighty-eight patients received fistula-related surgical treatment. A total of 639 of the patients with 647 fistulas underwent first-time repair. Our study comprised the 581 (90.9%) patients whose fistulas had been caused by obstructed labour. Their mean age was 27 years, 70% were shorter than 156 cm, and 30.8% had completed primary education. In 45.1%, the fistula patient was primigravida; perinatal survival was 11.5%. Mean duration between onset of the fistula and surgical treatment was 36.4 months. In 40.6%, the fistula patients lived separated from their partner. Overall closure rate of the fistulas was 93.8%. No variables were identified for success of closure using a multivariate analysis. Patients operated on within 3 months had a slightly better surgical outcome 93.9% versus 87.0%. Our population of East African obstetric fistula patients shared most of the demographic and physical features of fistula patients in the rest of the African continent. Early surgical repair (<3 months) seemed to improve the surgical outcome and can be expected to restore the social status of the patient. PMID:17492390

Raassen, Tom J I P; Verdaasdonk, Emiel G G; Vierhout, Mark E

2008-01-01

143

UCLA researchers report for the first time how cells communicate to activate Notch signaling  

Cancer.gov

During formation of multi-cellular organisms, cells need to talk to each other to make critical decisions as to what kind of cell to become, as well as when and where to become that cell type. The Notch signaling system allows cells to directly talk to each other to program almost every cell type in the body. Now, researchers from UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have shown for the first time that the mechanical force produced by cell-cell interactions is critical for programming by the Notch signaling system.

144

Taking personal responsibility for well-being increases birth satisfaction of first time mothers.  

PubMed

Birth satisfaction has been found to enhance a mother's capacity to develop a sense of maternal identity. This study used a phenomenological form of thematic analysis to gain in-depth insights into the birth experiences of first-time New Zealand mothers. Taking personal responsibility (the choices participants made in relation to being in control of and accountable for their own birth processes) was a core theme. Those participants who described the neoliberalist ideal of taking personal responsibility to be well informed and well prepared for any birth experience felt more confident that they would be able to work with whatever labour and birth event eventuated. PMID:21593137

Howarth, Anne M; Swain, Nicola; Treharne, Gareth J

2011-11-01

145

Enteric pathogens through life stages  

PubMed Central

Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”).

Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

2012-01-01

146

First-time DWI offenders are at risk of recidivating regardless of sanctions imposed  

PubMed Central

Objective Research demonstrates that punitive approaches to DWI employed by the judiciary have failed to significantly reduce recidivism. However, little is known about the deterrent effects of administrative and diversion sanctions. We examine whether such sanctions deter first-time DWI offenders. Methods We grouped combinations of administrative, judicial, and diversion sanctions routinely employed in the state of Maryland for processing drivers arrested for DWI into one of eight mutually exclusive disposition sequences. We applied this classification to Maryland drivers who had been licensed in the state and had precisely one DWI on their record prior to January 1, 1999. We then used a proportional hazards model to estimate the probability of remaining free of a new DWI during a 6-year period (January 1, 1999 – December 31, 2004) as a function of the disposition of the index violation, and of selected factors that could affect that probability. Results Drivers with a prior DWI were at relatively high risk of recidivating regardless of how they were sanctioned. Those who received administrative and alternative sanctions had a risk of recidivating similar to that of drivers who were convicted. Conclusion All dispositions sequences, not just convictions, indicate that first-time DWI offenders are at high risk of recidivating.

Ahlin, Eileen M.; Zador, Paul L.; Rauch, William J.; Howard, Jan M.; Duncan, G. Doug

2011-01-01

147

Internal conflicts of Iranian first-time mothers in adaptation to maternal role  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies indicate that becoming a mother is accompanied by prominent physical, social, and psychological changes which can affect not only mother's psychological healthiness, but also all other aspects of her personal and family life. The purpose of this research was to explore the struggles experienced by Iranian first-time mothers in adapting to their maternal role between 0 and 1 year after giving birth. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design was used in this study. Twenty-one first-time mothers with diverse ethnic backgrounds were recruited in their home or healthcare centers in Tehran and Ahwaz. Data collected through in-depth interviews were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The analysis produced four themes: “Unpreparedness,” “lack of control,” “incomplete maternal feelings,” and “unstable relations.” The main theme, “internal conflict,” integrates all other categories and encapsulates the major changes to which women are subjected, as well as the factors distressing this experience. Conclusion: Discrepancies between subjective expectations and postnatal experiences take an influential role in causing postpartum conflict and strain. The more accurate information mothers and families have about this transitory stage, the better they can get prepared to deal with it. This specifies the pivotal role of midwives, midwifery educators, and healthcare policy makers in incorporating these concepts into training programs and protocols of healthcare and support services in due time, form, and content that is in accordance with mothers’ mental and psychological needs.

Javadifar, Nahid; Majlesi, Fereshte; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Montazeri, Ali

2013-01-01

148

Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Programs Up in 2003, but Declines for First-Time Foreign Students  

NSF Publications Database

... gov/statistics/. For further information, contact Julia Oliver Human Resources Statistics Program ... Division of Science Resources Statistics National Science Foundation 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Suite ...

149

Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Fields Reaches New Peak; First-Time Enrollment of Foreign Students Declines  

NSF Publications Database

... of more than 6 percent in 2002. In contrast, after reaching a peak in 1992, enrollment of men ... 4 Source Data: Excel file Country of Origin The net aggregate gains in enrollment of temporary visa ...

150

Student Advisement Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advisement system at Prince George's Community College is designed to afford each student complete information and preparation for entry into appropriate courses. Student movement through the process is determined by whether the student is considered first-time, transfer, concurrent enrollment, a veteran, non-matriculated, handicapped,…

Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD.

151

The Decision to Enter Medicine: Motivations, Social Support, and Discouragements for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women medical students indicated that wanting to serve others, independence, and interest in science were strong motivations for entering medicine. Women, more often than men, cited the challenge of a medical career and high occupational prestige; they were also more likely to have been discouraged from entering medicine. (Author)

Kutner, Nancy G.; Brogan, Donna R.

1980-01-01

152

Designing and interpreting the results of first-time-to-man studies  

PubMed Central

First human administration of a new chemical entity (NCE) constitutes a critical step in drug development. The primary objective of such a study is the assessment of the shortterm safety and tolerability of single and multiple doses of the NCE in healthy volunteers. Secondary objectives are to obtain preliminary data on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics using surrogate or biornarkers of the beneficial as well as the adverse effects of the drug. Interpretation of safety data should be cautious and mainly based on comparisons with placebo. A special focus should be made on the assessment of adverse events, liver enzymes, and cardiac repolarization. Well-designed, first-time-to-man studies should determine the safety of the NCE in humans and predict the dose range that may be used to safely and accurately conduct further clinical trials in the target patient population based on safety data (maximum tolerated dose), pharmacodynamics (minimum active dose, duration of action, and dosage regimen), and pharmacokinetics (dosage regimen).

Patat, Alain A.

2000-01-01

153

Discovery and study of Leishmania turanica for the first time in China.  

PubMed Central

Reported are the results of multidisciplinary studies on Leishmania turanica, which was isolated from the auricular tissues of naturally infected great gerbils in Xinjiang, China. Discussed are the biology of the parasite, its molecular biology, its pathogenicity in rodents and humans and its vectors. This was the first time that L. turanica had been reported in China. L. turanica is highly pathogenic in BALB/c mice, with the resulting systemic infection being lethal, and it causes dermal lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. L. turanica parasitizes the macrophages in the interstitium of the testes of Cricetulus barabensis, and entirely destroys the Leydig's cells of severely infected animals. Inoculation of L. turanica can induce simian and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. The cell membrane and flagella of the promastigotes of L. turanica have rather active ACPase. The major vectors of L. turanica were Phlebotomus mongolensis and P. andrejevi.

Guan, L. R.; Yang, Y. Q.; Qu, J. Q.; Shen, W. X.

1995-01-01

154

Implant use for primary hip and knee arthroplasty: are we getting it right first time?  

PubMed

Implants used for hip and knee arthroplasties have recently come under increased scrutiny. In England, a large variety of prostheses are currently being used. With the need for savings within the NHS of up to £20 billion over the next five years, we should be 'getting it right first time' by using the most reliable implants with proven survivorship. The 8th Annual Report from the NJR (2011) reporting on prostheses used in 2010 was analysed to determine whether implants had published survivorship data. This study demonstrates that the majority of implants did have long-term results but a small percentage had no published data. The cost of these implants was calculated to see if the implants provided best value for money based on survivorship. Implant choice was also correlated to revision rates published in the NJR report (2011) to help determine whether their continued use was justified. PMID:23507062

Ng Man Sun, Stephen; Gillott, Elizabeth; Bhamra, Jagmeet; Briggs, Tim

2013-06-01

155

First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research  

SciTech Connect

SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

Eads, Damian R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosten, Edward J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

156

Some Observations on Attrition of Students from Canadian Medical Schools  

PubMed Central

Students who entered their freshman year for the first time in 1958 and in 1959, from all medical schools in Canada, and those entering the four Western schools in 1960 were studied from the time they matriculated until they either graduated or withdrew from medical school. The rate of attrition is about 15% of matriculants each year, with the lowest rate at the University of Western Ontario (1.7%) and the highest at the University of Ottawa (33.6%) over the time period studied. Attrition was classified as academic and non-academic. Significantly higher rates were found in the case of non-academic attrition for women and in the case of academic attrition for Commonwealth students. Significantly higher rates for both types of attrition were found for older students and students who had attended undergraduate colleges different from their medical school colleges. It would appear from available statistics that the factors which combine to produce attrition are the intellectual and personality characteristics of the student, school promotional policies and evaluation methods.

Anderson, Donald O.; Riches, Eleanor

1967-01-01

157

"This Is the First Time I Ever Liked Gym!" A Look at PE and Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher who blended adventure education strategies into a standard physical education course during the 1980s describes similar programs at 12 schools that were inspired by Project Adventure workshops. The emphasis on cooperative teamwork and trust-building engages students and teachers alike. Advice is given on how to start an adventure-based…

Panicucci, Jane

2000-01-01

158

Creating a Virtual World Mindset: A Guide for First Time Second Life Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education technology proponents argue that tech-savvy students want active learning opportunities that enable them to produce, as well as consume, content. Some educators have responded to this rhetoric by appropriating virtual worlds such as Second Life (SL) for teaching and learning. While SL rewards exploration and experimentation, the…

Stoerger, Sharon

2010-01-01

159

An Educationally Focused Faculty/Field Liaison Program for First-Time Field Instructors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regular small meetings between field instructors and faculty have provided new field instructors with practicum skills. Using an andragogical model, these skills can be used in field practice education. Linkages between field and faculty can be strengthened, a mutual aid group developed, and student performance expectations unified. (MSE)

Bogo, Marion

1981-01-01

160

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

161

Enteritis por radiación PDQ Redirect Spanish  

Cancer.gov

Enteritis por radiación PDQ Redirect Spanish El sumario de información del PDQ® Enteritis por radiación ha sido incorporado al sumario de información Complicaciones gastrointestinales. Para proseguir utilice unos de los siguientes enlaces.(The Radiation

162

Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition  

PubMed Central

It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

2013-01-01

163

Displays: Entering a New Dimension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

Starkman, Neal

2007-01-01

164

Multicultural Web-Based Motivational Interviewing for Clients with a first-time DUI Offense  

PubMed Central

Culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions are needed to reduce the risk of DUI recidivism among diverse populations. Using core elements of Motivational Interviewing, we developed a culturally-relevant web-MI intervention (web-MI) in English and Spanish to serve as a standalone or adjunctive program in DUI educational settings and evaluated its feasibility and acceptability among clients with first-time DUI offenses. We conducted an iterative formative assessment using focus groups with staff (n = 8) and clients (n = 27), and usability interviews with clients (n = 21). Adapting MI for the web was widely accepted by staff and clients. Clients stated the web-MI was engaging, interactive and personal, and felt more comfortable than past classes and programs. Spanish-speaking clients felt less shame, embarrassment, and discomfort with the web-MI compared to other in-person groups. Results support the viability of web-MI for DUI clients at risk for recidivism and highlight the importance of adapting the intervention for diverse populations. Key decisions used to develop the web-MI are discussed.

Osilla, Karen Chan; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Diaz-Fuentes, Claudia M.; Lara, Marielena; Watkins, Katherine

2012-01-01

165

Freedom Star tows a barge with an SLWT into Port Canaveral for the first time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, tows a barge containing the third Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT will be used to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October. This first-time towing arrangement, part of a cost savings plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks are manufactured. The barge will now be transported up the Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tugboat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allows NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service directly to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies show a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications should be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, has also undergone deck strengthening enhancements and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed.

1998-01-01

166

Freedom Star tows a barge with an SLWT into Port Canaveral for the first time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, tows a barge containing the third Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT will be used to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October. This first-time towing arrangement, part of a cost savings plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks are manufactured. The barge will now be transported up the Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tugboat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allows NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service directly to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies show a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications should be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, has also undergone deck strengthening enhancements and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed. The other recovery vessel, Liberty Star, has undergone deck strengthening enhancements along with Freedom Star and will soon have the necessary towing winch installed.

1998-01-01

167

Infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs predict antenatal intention among first-time mothers in queensland.  

PubMed

Abstract Aim: This study assessed infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among women from Queensland, Australia, in their first pregnancy. Antenatal feeding intention in this group was described, and the hypothesis was tested that antenatal knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about infant feeding are associated with antenatal intention for the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding for the infant's first year. Subjects and Methods: The Feeding Queensland Babies Study is a prospective survey of infant feeding attitudes and behaviors among first-time mothers in Queensland, Australia. Data on infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and intention were collected antenatally, and an Infant Feeding Attitudes Score was calculated. Results: Although 85% of respondents endorsed breastfeeding as most appropriate for infants, 11% valued formula feeding equally. Intention to give any breastmilk during the first weeks was 98%, but it fell to 18% during the second year. More than one-quarter of women reported intention to introduce foods other than breastmilk before 5 months of infant age. The infant feeding attitudes and beliefs score correlated positively with feeding intention for breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary solids. Conclusions: Enhancing women's knowledge of recommendations and their understanding of breastfeeding's specific benefits and the reasons for recommended scheduling of feeding transitions may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and duration and the age-appropriate introduction of complementary solids. Communication of detailed feeding recommendations for the infant's first year and specific information about the health benefits of breastfeeding should be a goal of healthcare providers working with pregnant women. PMID:24840853

Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

2014-06-01

168

Perforated typhoid enteritis in children.  

PubMed Central

A prospective study of 65 patients with perforated typhoid enteritis managed operatively over a 3 year period at a university hospital is presented. There were 45 males and 20 females with ages ranging from 5 to 15 years. Presenting symptoms were fever, abdominal pain, vomiting and either diarrhoea or constipation. All the patients were subjected to surgery and 56 (86%) underwent two-layer bowel closure after freshening of ulcer margins. The overall mortality rate in this study was 20% and was adversely influenced by the increasing duration of perforation, presence of shock and faecal peritonitis. Early surgery after prompt and adequate resuscitation is life saving. However, prevention of typhoid fever by providing safe drinking water and better sanitary conditions appears to offer the best chance of decreasing the high rates of mortality and morbidity of this deadly disease.

Gupta, V.; Gupta, S. K.; Shukla, V. K.; Gupta, S.

1994-01-01

169

Asterless Licenses Daughter Centrioles to Duplicate for the First Time in Drosophila Embryos  

PubMed Central

Summary Centrioles form centrosomes and cilia, and defects in any of these three organelles are associated with human disease [1]. Centrioles duplicate once per cell cycle, when a mother centriole assembles an adjacent daughter during S phase. Daughter centrioles cannot support the assembly of another daughter until they mature into mothers during the next cell cycle [2–5]. The molecular nature of this daughter-to-mother transition remains mysterious. Pioneering studies in C. elegans identified a set of core proteins essential for centriole duplication [6–12], and a similar set have now been identified in other species [10, 13–18]. The protein kinase ZYG-1/Sak/Plk4 recruits the inner centriole cartwheel components SAS-6 and SAS-5/Ana2/STIL, which then recruit SAS-4/CPAP, which in turn helps assemble the outer centriole microtubules [19, 20]. In flies and humans, the Asterless/Cep152 protein interacts with Sak/Plk4 and Sas-4/CPAP and is required for centriole duplication, although its precise role in the assembly pathway is unclear [21–24]. Here, we show that Asl is not incorporated into daughter centrioles as they assemble during S phase but is only incorporated once mother and daughter separate at the end of mitosis. The initial incorporation of Asterless (Asl) is irreversible, requires DSas-4, and, crucially, is essential for daughter centrioles to mature into mothers that can support centriole duplication. We therefore propose a “dual-licensing” model of centriole duplication, in which Asl incorporation provides a permanent primary license to allow new centrioles to duplicate for the first time, while centriole disengagement provides a reduplication license to allow mother centrioles to duplicate again.

Novak, Zsofia A.; Conduit, Paul T.; Wainman, Alan; Raff, Jordan W.

2014-01-01

170

Predicting hospital costs for first-time coronary artery bypass grafting from preoperative and postoperative variables.  

PubMed

To predict hospital costs after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from preoperative characteristics and postoperative complications, 4 analyses of the data were used: (1) a univariate analysis of each preoperative and postoperative variable, (2) a multivariate analysis of the preoperative variables (model 1), (3) a multivariate analysis of the postoperative variables (model 2), and (4) a multivariate analysis of pre- and postoperative variables (model 3). Eight-hundred seven patients who underwent a first-time CABG at Emory University during 1990 were analyzed in this study. Using model 1, the determinants of costs were higher angina grade (p = 0.0006), previous myocardial infarction (p = 0.0133), older age (p = 0.0001), congestive heart failure (p = 0.0001), and a higher number of diseased vessels (p = 0.0001). For model 2, the determinants of costs were adult respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.0073), intraaortic balloon pumping (p < 0.0001), pneumonia (p < 0.0001), septicemia p < 0.0001), major arrhythmia (p < 0.0001), reexploration for bleeding (p < 0.0001), wound infection (p = 0.0632), neurologic event (p = 0.0013), fluid overload (p = 0.0516), and absence of pericarditis (p = 0.0588). For univariate analysis, the determinants of increased costs were similar to those from models 1 and 2. Although there is considerable variance in hospital costs for any number of complications, utilized resources (costs) increase inexorably as patients have more complications after coronary surgery. The mean cost to the hospital for the 382 patients who underwent CABG and experienced no complications was $16,776.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7942547

Mauldin, P D; Weintraub, W S; Becker, E R

1994-10-15

171

First-time parents' experiences of home-based postnatal care in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Aim To gain a deeper understanding of first-time parents' experiences of early discharge from hospital after delivery and home-based postnatal care. Material and methods The study was comprised of focus group interviews, interviews with couples and with fathers. Twenty-one parents participated. Inclusion criteria: healthy women who have given birth to their first child after a normal pregnancy and delivery, the women's partners, healthy and full term babies, Swedish-speaking, discharge from the delivery ward within 24 hours, resident in the Uppsala community, the parents cohabited at the time of the delivery. The material was analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results Three themes emerged: The family's strategy, which describes the family's expectations of postnatal care and their experiences of the real situation. Some are flexible concerning going home early, and others have decided in advance. Self-reliance and strength, which explores the parents' feelings of security and uncertainty, freedom and independence, and shared responsibility. Breast-feeding is described as the ‘main thing’, an interactive learning process. Professional support in the home summarizes the parents' experience of the midwife's support at home. While conflicting feelings may be revealed during the first days, the midwife confirms their new roles as parents. The midwife is seen as a support and adviser to the parents. Conclusion This study shows that parents welcome home-based postnatal care with professional support from midwives. We conclude that this care suits healthy families. We think it will be more important in the future to discriminate between healthy families and those in need of hospital care, than to focus on the moment when they leave the hospital, early or late.

Aarts, Clara; Darj, Elisabeth

2010-01-01

172

Asterless licenses daughter centrioles to duplicate for the first time in Drosophila embryos.  

PubMed

Centrioles form centrosomes and cilia, and defects in any of these three organelles are associated with human disease [1]. Centrioles duplicate once per cell cycle, when a mother centriole assembles an adjacent daughter during S phase. Daughter centrioles cannot support the assembly of another daughter until they mature into mothers during the next cell cycle [2-5]. The molecular nature of this daughter-to-mother transition remains mysterious. Pioneering studies in C. elegans identified a set of core proteins essential for centriole duplication [6-12], and a similar set have now been identified in other species [10, 13-18]. The protein kinase ZYG-1/Sak/Plk4 recruits the inner centriole cartwheel components SAS-6 and SAS-5/Ana2/STIL, which then recruit SAS-4/CPAP, which in turn helps assemble the outer centriole microtubules [19, 20]. In flies and humans, the Asterless/Cep152 protein interacts with Sak/Plk4 and Sas-4/CPAP and is required for centriole duplication, although its precise role in the assembly pathway is unclear [21-24]. Here, we show that Asl is not incorporated into daughter centrioles as they assemble during S phase but is only incorporated once mother and daughter separate at the end of mitosis. The initial incorporation of Asterless (Asl) is irreversible, requires DSas-4, and, crucially, is essential for daughter centrioles to mature into mothers that can support centriole duplication. We therefore propose a "dual-licensing" model of centriole duplication, in which Asl incorporation provides a permanent primary license to allow new centrioles to duplicate for the first time, while centriole disengagement provides a reduplication license to allow mother centrioles to duplicate again. PMID:24835456

Novak, Zsofia A; Conduit, Paul T; Wainman, Alan; Raff, Jordan W

2014-06-01

173

First-time parents' expectations about the division of childcare and play.  

PubMed

The current study examines violated expectations regarding the division of childcare and play in first-time parents during the initial transition to parenthood. The study's goal was threefold: (a) to compare prenatal expectations with the reported postpartum division of childcare and play, (b) to compare the influence of the reported division versus violated expectations on postpartum relationship satisfaction and depression, and (c) to examine the role of persistent violations of expectations on these outcomes. Couples expecting their first child were interviewed during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 1 and 4 months postpartum. Results indicated both mothers and fathers have unrealistic expectations during pregnancy; interestingly, the direction violation was opposite but converging for mothers and fathers. As found in prior research, mothers experienced unmet expectations with fathers doing less than mothers expected. Fathers, on the other hand, experienced overmet expectations with mothers doing more than fathers expected. Violated expectations were also a stronger predictor of depression and relationship satisfaction than the reported division, although again in opposite directions for mothers and fathers. Unmet expectations were negative for mothers, while overmet expectations with regard to childcare tasks were beneficial for fathers. The one caveat was for fathers' overmet expectations with play; in this case, a mother playing with the baby more than a father expected was related to less relationship satisfaction. A similar pattern of results was found for mothers and fathers with persistent violations. This study highlights the importance of understanding violated expectations in both mothers and fathers, as well as examining play separately from childcare. PMID:22182336

Biehle, Susanne N; Mickelson, Kristin D

2012-02-01

174

A Multi-state Study on Mental Health Evaluation for Children Entering Foster Care.  

PubMed

When compared with the general United States child population, children entering foster care have elevated rates of mental health problems. This study examines: (1) state approaches to mental health evaluations for children entering foster care for the first time, (2) the consistency of these approaches with professional guidelines, and (3) whether the specific instruments endorsed are supported by available evidence. Semi-structured qualitative interviews and a document review of available protocols/policies were conducted for 47 states and the District of Columbia. All states endorsed mental health evaluations; variation existed between states in approach, timeframe, administrator, and specific instruments endorsed. PMID:23709285

Hayek, Munya; Mackie, Thomas I; Mulé, Christina M; Bellonci, Christopher; Hyde, Justeen; Bakan, Jennifer S; Leslie, Laurel K

2014-07-01

175

Substance-Use Disorders and Poverty as Prospective Predictors of First-Time Homelessness in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined whether substance-use disorders and poverty predicted first-time homelessness over 3 years. Methods We analyzed longitudinal data from waves 1 (2001–2002) and 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions to determine the main and interactive effects of wave 1 substance use disorders and poverty on first-time homelessness by wave 2, among those who were never homeless at wave 1 (n = 30 558). First-time homelessness was defined as having no regular place to live or having to live with others for 1 month or more as a result of having no place of one’s own since wave 1. Results Alcohol-use disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.34), drug-use disorders (AOR = 2.51), and poverty (AOR = 1.34) independently increased prospective risk for first-time homelessness, after adjustment for ecological variables. Substance-use disorders and poverty interacted to differentially influence risk for first-time homelessness (P < .05), before, but not after, adjustment for controls. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of both substance-use disorders and poverty in the risk for first-time homelessness, and can serve as a benchmark for future studies. Substance abuse treatment should address financial status and risk of future homelessness.

Thompson, Ronald G.; Wall, Melanie M.; Greenstein, Eliana; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

2013-01-01

176

Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm-1 Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm-1 in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south [1]. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 cm-1 emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it had been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004 [2]. Our far-infrared observations were performed with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini [3]. Although it had been expected that the 220 cm-1 emission would eventually appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm-1feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm-1 ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini images [4]. The 220 cm-1 feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager 1 [5, 6] and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS [7-10]. Until now the 220 cm-1 emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm-1 emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes. References: [1] Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 761, L15, 2012. [2] Jennings, D. E., et al., ApJ, 754, L3, 2012. [3] Flasar, F. M., et al., Space Sci. Rev., 115, 169, 2004. [4] West, R. A., et al., DPS, paper 300.04, 2012. [5] Kunde et al. 1981, [6] Coustenis et al., 1999. [7] de Kok et al., Icarus, 191, 223, 2007. [8] de Kok et al., Icarus, 197, 572, 2008. [9] Samuelson et al., Icarus, 189, 63, 2007. [10] Anderson, et al., presented at workshop "Titan Through Time 2", 2012.

Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; de Kok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

2013-04-01

177

Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40 years and above. Conclusions Men who expect their first baby at an advanced or very advanced age constitute a socioeconomically heterogeneous group with more health problems and more risky health behaviour than younger men. Since older men often have their first child with a woman of advanced age, in whom similar characteristics have been reported, their combined risk of adverse perinatal outcomes needs further attention by clinicians and researchers.

2013-01-01

178

Educational outcomes necessary to enter pharmacy residency training.  

PubMed

It is the position of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) that formal postgraduate residency training, or equivalent experience, is required to enter direct patient care practice. Therefore, it is important to align professional degree educational outcomes with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to enter residency training. This position statement addresses the outcomes necessary in the professional degree program curriculum to ensure the ability of pharmacy graduates to transition effectively into postgraduate year one residency training. Five key outcome areas are identified: communication, direct patient care, professionalism, research, and practice management. The position statement examines how performance in each of the five outcome areas should be addressed by professional degree programs. The ACCP believes that for the student to achieve the clinical proficiency necessary to enter residency training, the professional degree program should emphasize, assess, and provide adequate opportunities for students to practice: communication with patients, caregivers, and members of the health care team in direct patient care environments; provision of direct patient care in a wide variety of practice settings, especially those involving patient-centered, team-based care; professionalism under the supervision and guidance of faculty and preceptors who model and teach the traits of a health care professional; application of principles of research that engender an appreciation for the role of research and scholarship in one's professional development; and application of practice management, including documentation of direct patient care activities that affect drug-related outcomes. PMID:24753155

Hester, Elizabeth Kelly; McBane, Sarah E; Bottorff, Michael B; Carnes, Tristan A; Dell, Kamila; Gonyeau, Michael J; Greco, Angelo J; McConnell, Karen J; Skaar, Debra J; Splinter, Michele Y; Trujillo, Toby C

2014-04-01

179

Diagnosing clostridial enteric disease in poultry.  

PubMed

The world's poultry industry has grown into a multibillion-dollar business, the success of which hinges on healthy intestinal tracts, which result in effective feed conversion. Enteric disease in poultry can have devastating economic effects on producers, due to high mortality rates and poor feed efficiency. Clostridia are considered to be among the most important agents of enteric disease in poultry. Diagnosis of enteric diseases produced by clostridia is usually challenging, mainly because many clostridial species can be normal inhabitants of the gut, making it difficult to determine their role in virulence. The most common clostridial enteric disease in poultry is necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens, which typically occurs in broiler chickens but has also been diagnosed in various avian species including turkeys, waterfowl, and ostriches. Diagnosis is based on clinical and pathological findings. Negative culture and toxin detection results may be used to rule out this disease, but isolation of C. perfringens and/or detection of its alpha toxin are of little value to confirm the disease because both are often found in the intestine of healthy birds. Ulcerative enteritis, caused by Clostridium colinum, is the other major clostridial enteric disease of poultry. Diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis is by documentation of typical pathological findings, coupled with isolation of C. colinum from the intestine of affected birds. Other clostridial enteric diseases include infections produced by Clostridium difficile, Clostridium fallax, and Clostridium baratii. PMID:23572451

Cooper, Kerry K; Songer, J Glenn; Uzal, Francisco A

2013-05-01

180

Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathogens. Forty-three of 47 enteric pathogens (92%) produced identical rates of semiquantitative growth on the SSI enteric medium and 5% blood agar, whereas three Vibrio spp. and one Aeromonas spp. showed reduced growth. Gram-positive bacteria did not grow on the SSI enteric medium. Most enteric pathogens had a detection limit of 50 bacteria per ml of feces, but higher numbers of Vibrio spp. and some Shigella spp. were required for detection. The growth rates of 125 enteric pathogens and 12 Yersinia spp. on the SSI enteric medium, xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), Hektoen enteric (HE), Salmonella-Shigella (SS), and cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar were compared. Detection rates after application of 200 CFU were 99% for SSI enteric medium, 92% for XLD, 88% for HE, and 82% for SS agar. The 12 Yersinia spp. grew excellently on both the SSI enteric medium and CIN agar. We conclude that the performance of the SSI enteric medium compares favorably to those of other media tested. Its ability to detect Yersinia spp. may limit the number of media needed in the typical laboratory. The direct identification of enteric pathogens on the medium may also provide a more rapid diagnosis.

Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank

1999-01-01

181

Enteral feed obstructing its own way  

PubMed Central

Esophageal obstruction due to solidified enteral feeds is a rare but distressful complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux, very low gastric pH, decreased pepsin and pancreatic enzyme secretions may be responsible for the solidification of casein containing enteral formulas. Recognition and avoidance of these factors will prevent such complication.

Kesarwani, Vikas; Ghelani, Dhaval R.; Reece, Graham

2010-01-01

182

Enteral feeding: Drug\\/nutrient interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition support via a feeding tube is the first choice for artificial nutrition. Most patients also require simultaneous drug therapy, with the potential risk for drug–nutrient interactions which may become relevant in clinical practice. During enteral nutrition, drug–nutrient interactions are more likely to occur than in patients fed orally. However, there is a lack of awareness about its clinical

R. LOURENÇO

2001-01-01

183

Enteral nutrition and the critically ill.  

PubMed Central

Critically ill patients invariably require nutritional intervention. Traditionally, enteral nutrition has not been widely employed in this patient population. This is due in part to the success of present-day parenteral nutrition, and to difficulties encountered with enteral feeding. Recent evidence has demonstrated that enteral is preferable to parenteral nutrition in terms of cost, complications, gut mucosal maintenance, and metabolic and immune function. Enterally administered nutritional support can and should be utilised as the preferred route of nourishment for the critically ill. The appropriate choice of access and formula, as well as a rational strategy for implementation, should improve the likelihood of success. This article describes the unique features of critical illness as they pertain to nutritional support, the benefits of enteral nutrition, and the obstacles to success, and offers suggestions which may improve the ability to provide nutrients adequately via the intestinal tract.

Shikora, S. A.; Ogawa, A. M.

1996-01-01

184

Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.  

PubMed

Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators. PMID:23438312

Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

2013-12-01

185

Residence and Migration of First-Time Freshmen Enrolled in Degree-Granting Institutions: Fall 1996. E.D. Tabs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents detailed tabulations of data on the residence and migration of first-time freshmen enrolled in degree-granting institutions in the Fall of 1996 based on data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System's Fall Enrollment survey. Tables are presented by state, control (public/private), and level of institution, for…

Barbett, Samuel

186

Risk Perceptions of a Mixed Image Destination: The Case of Turkey's First Time vs. Repeat Leisure visitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to investigate tourists' perception of risk about Turkey as a mix image destination and second, to examine if perceived risk of Turkey as a tourism destination differs between first-time and repeat visitors.The findings of the study indicated six risk dimensions as perceived by tourists visited Turkey: (1) time and social risk, (2)

Kurtulus Karamustafa; Galia Fuchs; Arie Reichel

2012-01-01

187

Social support during childbirth as a catalyst for early breastfeeding initiation for first-time Nigerian mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Initiation of breastfeeding can be difficult in a busy maternity centre with inadequate manpower and social support. This study aims to explore the role of psychosocial support offered by companions on breastfeeding initiation among first-time mothers. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial conducted among women attending the antenatal clinic of the University College

Imran O Morhason-Bello; Babatunde O Adedokun; Oladosu A Ojengbede

2009-01-01

188

First-Time Mothers' Use of Music and Movement with Their Young Infants: The Impact of a Teaching Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined impact of a 5-week music/movement program involving relaxation, kinesics, singing, visual contact, and tactile stimulation on first-time mothers' use of music and movement with their infants. Found that the program extended mothers' use of relaxation to music and rhythmical movement with their infants but not the use of song and massage…

Vlismas, Wendy; Bowes, Jennifer

1999-01-01

189

Eosinophilic enteritis confined to an ileostomy site.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition that can manifest anywhere from esophagus to rectum. Its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, malignancy, food allergy, parasitic or viral infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and drug sensitivity. We present the case of a 41-year-old male diagnosed with ulcerative colitis who underwent proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and loop ileostomy formation utilizing Seprafilm®, who later developed eosinophilic enteritis of the loop ileostomy site. This is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis and its possible link to the use of bioabsorbable adhesion barriers. PMID:21960943

Laxa, Bernadette U; Bouchard, Alexandre; De Petris, Giovanni; Heigh, Russell; Heppell, Jacques

2011-05-01

190

Eosinophilic Enteritis Confined to an Ileostomy Site  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic enteritis is a rather rare condition that can manifest anywhere from esophagus to rectum. Its description in the literature is sparse, but associations have been made with collagen vascular disease, malignancy, food allergy, parasitic or viral infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and drug sensitivity. We present the case of a 41-year-old male diagnosed with ulcerative colitis who underwent proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and loop ileostomy formation utilizing Seprafilm®, who later developed eosinophilic enteritis of the loop ileostomy site. This is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis and its possible link to the use of bioabsorbable adhesion barriers.

Laxa, Bernadette U.; Bouchard, Alexandre; De Petris, Giovanni; Heigh, Russell; Heppell, Jacques

2011-01-01

191

"Enter-educate." Reaching youth with messages of sexual responsibility.  

PubMed

Messages about sexual relationships, the prevention of pregnancy and disease, education, the empowerment of women, and concern for the environment are increasingly being disseminated to audiences of all ages through the use of entertainment. Ideas are presented in this Enter-Educate approach through popular, enjoyable entertainment in the form of songs, dramas, soap operas, variety shows, and other folk media. This approach can be adapted to be acceptable and effective in all cultures. Yafaman is one such example. It is a drama written and acted by high school students in Cote d'Ivoire which depicts the story of a school girl who learns that her older, married boyfriend is no longer interested in her when she becomes pregnant. After winning the annual national drama contest, Yafaman was televised and broadcast widely in schools and on national networks in francophone Africa. The video has also been dubbed in English for wider use. Popular music has delivered effective messages of sexual responsibility to young adults in Latin America and the Philippines. The US Agency for International Development-funded Population Communication Services project at the Johns Hopkins University supports 36 major Enter-Educate television series and specials, nine radio dramas, three songs, and nine music videos. Other organizations are expanding or experimenting with work in this area. The authors discuss the theoretical basis for Enter-Educate projects and explain that the approach works because it is pervasive, popular, personal, passionate, persuasive, practical, profitable, and proven effective. PMID:12319369

Piotrow, P T; Rimon, J G

1995-01-01

192

Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes  

PubMed Central

Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feeding tubes has evolved due to development of new feeding tubes and endoscopic technology. Enteral feeding can be divided into methods that provide short-term and long-term access to the GIT. This review article focuses on the current range of methods of gaining access to the GIT to provide enteral feed.

Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony CK

2010-01-01

193

Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Enteric Escherichia coli (E. coli) are both natural flora of humans and important pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally enteric E. coli have been divided into 6 pathotypes, with further pathotypes often proposed. In this review we suggest expansion of the enteric E. coli into 8 pathotypes to include the emerging pathotypes of adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) and Shiga-toxin producing enteroaggregative E. coli (STEAEC). The molecular mechanisms that allow enteric E. coli to colonize and cause disease in the human host are examined and for two of the pathotypes that express a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) we discuss the complex interplay between translocated effectors and manipulation of host cell signaling pathways that occurs during infection.

Clements, Abigail; Young, Joanna C.; Constantinou, Nicholas; Frankel, Gad

2012-01-01

194

Detection of enteric pathogens by the nodosome.  

PubMed

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD)1 and NOD2 participate in signaling pathways that detect pathogen-induced processes, such as the presence of peptidoglycan fragments in the host cell cytosol, as danger signals. Recent work suggests that peptidoglycan fragments activate NOD1 indirectly, through activation of the small Rho GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1). Excessive activation of small Rho GTPases by virulence factors of enteric pathogens also triggers the NOD1 signaling pathway. Many enteric pathogens use virulence factors that alter the activation state of small Rho GTPases, thereby manipulating the host cell cytoskeleton of intestinal epithelial cells to promote bacterial attachment or entry. These data suggest that the NOD1 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells provides an important sentinel function for detecting 'breaking and entering' by enteric pathogens. PMID:24268520

Keestra, A Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J

2014-03-01

195

Isolated Enteric Cyst in the Neck  

PubMed Central

We report an extremely rare case of isolated enteric cyst in the neck region which was diagnosed on the histopathological examination. It was suspected to be duplication cyst on radiology. We have also evaluated the differential diagnosis and management issues.

Mahore, Amit; Sankhe, Shilpa; Tikeykar, Vishakha

2014-01-01

196

Bush Enters the Middle East Fray.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On 24 June, President George Bush finally entered the fray of Middle East peace making. During his first year in office, his administration had steadfastly refused to get involved in the Palestinian-Israeli dispute, believing such personal intervention by...

G. E. Robinson

2002-01-01

197

OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet, but other members of the enterovi...

198

Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English language literature between 1999–2009. Results. Nasogastric tube feeding appears to be safe and well tolerated in the majority of patients with severe AP, rendering the concept of pancreatic rest less probable. Enteral nutrition has a beneficial influence on the outcome of AP and should probably be initiated as early as possible (within 48 hours). Supplementation of enteral formulas with glutamine or prebiotics and probiotics cannot routinely be recommended. Conclusions. Nutrition therapy in patients with AP emerged from supportive adjunctive therapy to a proactive primary intervention. Large multicentre studies are needed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of nasogastric feeding and to investigate the role of early nutrition support.

Spanier, B. W. M.; Bruno, M. J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.

2011-01-01

199

Postiaalni Niemelä & Vampola (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) - member of the problematic Postiacaesia complex - has been found for the first time in Hungary.  

PubMed

Due to their bluish basidiocarps the Postiacaesia (syn. Oligoporuscaesius) complex forms a distinctive morphological group within the polypore genus Postia Fr., 1874. Five species of this group occur in Europe: Postiaalni Niemelä & Vampola, Postiacaesia (Schrad.) P. Karst., Postialuteocaesia (A. David) Jülich, Postiamediterraneocaesia M. Pierre & B. Rivoire and Postiasubcaesia (A. David) Jülich. In this study Postiaalni is reported for the first time from Hungary. The dichotomous key of the species of the European Postiacaesia complex was prepared as well. PMID:24855437

Papp, Viktor

2014-01-01

200

Smart-1: The First Time Of Europe To The Moon; Wandering in the Earth-Moon Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After 40 years from the first lunar missions, Europe has started for the first time the development of a mission which has the Moon as a target. SMART-1 will be the first Western-European mission to the Earth's satellite. The primary objective of the mission is to flight test technology innovation for the future scientific deep-space missions. This paper describes the mission concept, the technology and the scientific aspects.

Racca, Giuseppe D.; Foing, Bernard H.; Coradini, Marcello

201

Long-term results after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for first-time and recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Few investigators have reported on results after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) with follow-up periods longer than 24 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate VATS for first-time and recurrent SP and to follow patients long-term.Methods. One hundred nine patients were followed long-term after treatment of SP by VATS. Ninety-five patients had primary SP

Rudolf A Hatz; Michaela F Kaps; Georgios Meimarakis; Florian Loehe; Christian Müller; Heinrich Fürst

2000-01-01

202

Latino Identity of First-time Immigrants in the Philadelphia Area: What are its Characteristics and How Does it Develop?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the question of how Hispanic\\/Latino identity develops among first-time immigrants to the U.S. living in the Philadelphia area. This exploration was done through an extensive review of the current literature and by carrying out in-depth interviews with six individuals who were at least eighteen years old and diverse in terms of gender and countries of origin. Two

Sarvelia Nonantzin Peralta-Duran

2007-01-01

203

Participation in an Extended Orientation Course and its Relationship with Student Involvement, Student Satisfaction, Academic Performance, and Student Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impact of the First-Year Experience (FYE) course at Florida State University on student involvement, student satisfaction, academic performance, and student retention.\\u000aStudent data was collected on the 1999 and 2001 First-Time-In-College (FTIC) students at the university. Grade point averages and enrollment records were compared between students who enrolled in the

Hollins Thomas Neal Jr

2003-01-01

204

University students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A questionnaire of 19 questions given to 76 students entering an `Introduction to astronomy' course at university showed that the students held a series of misconceptions on several central topics in basic astronomy.

Trumper, Ricardo

2005-11-28

205

Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old man presented with a Hinchey II perforated diverticulitis and underwent laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. During the postoperative course the patient received enteral tube feeding which was followed by a bowel obstruction accompanied with pneumatosis intestinalis (PI). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once again. In the weeks that followed the patient developed atypical bowel symptoms and recurrent PI which resolved each time the drip feeding was discontinued. Despite the mild clinical course, a CT scan showed massive PI on day 21 after the laparotomy. After excluding life-threatening conditions conservative management was instituted and the patient recovered completely after discontinuing the drip feeding. We present one of the few cases of subclinical PI associated with enteral tube feeding that could be managed conservatively. PMID:24302661

Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert

2013-01-01

206

Sustaining Retention of Nontraditional Students in the Geosciences in 2YC; Practices and Ideas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the role of 2YC (two-year colleges/community colleges) changes in the academic pipeline of higher education new practices and ideas to engage and retain students in the geosciences at the 2YC level need to be explored. 2YC typically have a student body composed of non-traditional students ranging from second career students, single parents, students with disabilities, seniors, and minorities. Currently, 2YCs serve 44% of all undergraduate students and 45% of all of all first time freshmen in the US. These statistics show the potential community colleges hold to encourage entering students to the STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math) fields as a possible career choice. But the reality is the number of STEM degrees awarded at community colleges has not followed the same trends in student enrollment. Over the past four years El Paso Community College (EPCC) in conjunction with The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has implemented several initiatives in our effort to increase the number of Geological Science majors at EPCC and to ensure a successful transition to UTEP. These efforts are aimed to decrease attrition rates of science majors by; articulating degree plans between institutions, introduce field-based research projects to allow hands on experience for students, develop a working relationship between students and university faculty, diversify geology courses offered at EPCC, and strengthening the educational-bridge between the geological science departments of EPCC and UTEP through the aid of federally funded programs. The success of the these efforts have been seen by; the increase in geology majors in our A.S. degree program, the number of degrees conferred at EPCC, the successful transition of students to UTEP, and graduation of students from UTEP with advanced degrees.

Villalobos, J. I.; Doser, D. I.

2012-12-01

207

Apparent inferiority of first-time breeders in the kittiwake: The role of heterogeneity among age classes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Many studies have provided evidence that first-time breeders have a lower survival, a lower probability of success, or of breeding, in the following year. Hypotheses based on reproductive costs have often been proposed to explain this. However, because of the intrinsic relationship between age and experience, the apparent inferiority of first-time breeders at the population level may result from selection, and experience may not influence performance within each individual. In this paper we address the question of phenotypic correlations between fitness components. This addresses differences in individual quality, a prerequisite for a selection process to occur. We also test the hypothesis of an influence of experience on these components while taking age and reproductive success into account: two factors likely to play a key role in a selection process. 2. Using data from a long-term study on the kittiwake, we found that first-time breeders have a lower probability of success, a lower survival and a lower probability of breeding in the next year than experienced breeders. However, neither experienced nor inexperienced breeders have a lower survival or a lower probability of breeding in the following year than birds that skipped a breeding opportunity. This suggests heterogeneity in quality among individuals. 3. Failed birds have a lower survival and a lower probability of breeding in the following year regardless of experience. This can be interpreted in the light of the selection hypothesis. The inferiority of inexperienced breeders may be linked to a higher proportion of lower-quality individuals in younger age classes. When age and breeding success are controlled for, there is no evidence of an influence of experience on survival or future breeding probability. 4. Using data from individuals whose reproductive life lasted the same number of years, we investigated the influence of experience on reproductive performance within individuals. There is no strong evidence that a process operating within individuals explains the improvement in performance observed at the population level.

Cam, E.; Monnat, J. -Y.

2000-01-01

208

Profile of U.S.C. Entering Freshmen, Fall, 1981. Research Notes No. 39-82.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student characteristics, opinions, and projections for fall 1981 entering freshmen at the University of South Carolina (USC) were compared to national norms, based on administration of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program questionnaire of the American Council of Education. Twelve areas of interest that were selected for analysis from the…

Fidler, Paul P.; Smith, Robert M.

209

Student Characteristics Related to Persistence for First-Year Community College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed student characteristics that impact persistence among first-year students attending a large, metropolitan community college. The Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshmen Survey was administered to first-time students during orientation. Factor analysis was used to classify students' personality and behavioral…

Hawley, Tamela H.; Harris, Tracy A.

2006-01-01

210

Death awareness, maternal separation anxiety, and attachment style among first-time mothers--a terror management perspective.  

PubMed

Two studies explored the interplay between death awareness, attachment style, and maternal separation anxiety among first-time mothers of infants aged 3-12 months. In Study 1 (N = 60), a higher accessibility of death-related thoughts was found following induction of thoughts about separation from the infant. In Study 2 (N = 100), a mortality salience induction led to higher maternal separation anxiety. Contrary to expectations, these findings were not moderated by mother's attachment style. The results are explained in terms of Terror Management Theory, and demonstrate its applicability to maternal emotions and cognitions. PMID:18958960

Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

2008-01-01

211

76 FR 33970 - Employment Authorization for Libyan F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe Economic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...enter the following statement in the remarks field of the Student and Exchange Visitor...entered the following statement in the remarks field of the SEVIS student record, which...entering the following statement in the remarks field of the student's SEVIS...

2011-06-10

212

"Entering Research": A Course that Creates Community and Structure for Beginning Undergraduate Researchers in the STEM Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called "Entering Research" that…

Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn; Branchaw, Janet

2010-01-01

213

Geographic Origins of Students, Fall 1989. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of the annual survey of the geographic origins, or permanent residence, of students attending institutions of the State University of New York (SUNY) during the fall 1989 term are presented in three volumes. Student data elements in the report include student level, student load, student history (first-time/transfer), and permanent…

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

214

Enteric Bacteriophages in Saint Louis Bay, Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples from four stations in Saint Louis Bay, Mississippi were examined monthly for the presence of enteric bacteriophages over the period from July 1971 to March 1972. The samples were of surface and bottom water, bottom sediment, and surface and gut of...

J. O. Graves

1972-01-01

215

Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal

W. H. Beer; A. Fan; C. H. Halsted

1985-01-01

216

STS-72 Mission Specialist Barry enters Endeavour  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-72 Mission Specialist Dr. Daniel T. Barry (center) prepares to enter the Space Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39B, as white room closeout crew members Mike Mangione (no. Davis (no. 6) assist him. Endeavour is set to lift off during and approximately 49-minute window opening at 4:18 am EST, Jan. 11.

1996-01-01

217

Attachment of Enteric Viruses to Bottles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of water that was deliberately contaminated with enteric viruses in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles led to a rapid decrease of the apparent viral load, thereby hampering the development of samples for a collaborative evaluation of viral detection methods for bottled water. To determine if this decrease was due to spontaneous inactivation or to adhesion, an elution protocol was developed

S. Butot; T. Putallaz; C. Croquet; G. Lamothe; R. Meyer; H. Joosten; G. Sanchez

2007-01-01

218

Enteral stents: from esophagus to colon.  

PubMed

Because of significant advances in endoscopic techniques and the development of high-quality stents, endoscopic enteral stent placement is increasingly being performed for the management of malignant GI obstruction. Palliative stenting is now routinely performed for malignant esophageal, gastric, duodenal, and colon obstruction. In addition to palliative indications, preoperative stenting in the colon may be performed as a bridge to surgery to achieve immediate decompression and convert an emergent surgery into an elective, 1-stage procedure.The realm of enteral stenting has recently expanded to include management of benign conditions such as leaks, fistulas, and benign strictures in the GI tract. Further research is required to study the use of enteral stents in benign conditions and to adequately compare endoscopic stent placement with surgical intervention. Promising new technologies such as biodegradable stents and drug-eluting stents also require further investigation. With continued innovation in endoscopic techniques and stenting devices, the field of enteral stenting is likely to expand further, with an increase in indications and improvement in outcomes. PMID:24237947

Kochar, Rajan; Shah, Nimeesh

2013-12-01

219

Positive posttraumatic stress disorder screens among first-time medical cannabis patients: Prevalence and association with other substance use.  

PubMed

Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation allowing for the use of medical cannabis for those individuals with qualifying medical conditions, which include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for a growing number of states. Little information is available regarding PTSD among medical cannabis patients. This study seeks to provide initial data on this topic by examining the prevalence and correlates of positive PTSD screens among a sample of patients seeking medical cannabis certification for the first time (n=186). Twenty-three percent (42/186; 95% confidence interval [CI] =17%-29%) of the patients in the study sample screened positive for PTSD. Moreover, the group that screened positive for PTSD had higher percentages of lifetime prescription opioid, cocaine, prescription sedative, and street opioid use, as well as a higher percentage of recent prescription sedative use, than the group that screened negative for PTSD. These findings highlight the relatively common use of other substances among medical cannabis patients with significant PTSD symptoms, even when compared with other patients seeking medical cannabis for the first time. As a growing number of states include PTSD among the list of qualifying medical conditions for medical cannabis, additional research is needed to better characterize the longitudinal relationship between medical cannabis use and PTSD symptoms. PMID:24930048

Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kleinberg, Felicia; Jannausch, Mary; Ilgen, Mark A

2014-10-01

220

Identification of functional parameters for the classification of older female fallers and prediction of 'first-time' fallers.  

PubMed

Falls remain a challenge for ageing societies. Strong evidence indicates that a previous fall is the strongest single screening indicator for a subsequent fall and the need for assessing fall risk without accounting for fall history is therefore imperative. Testing in three functional domains (using a total 92 measures) were completed in 84 older women (60-85 years of age), including muscular control, standing balance, and mean and variability of gait. Participants were retrospectively classified as fallers (n = 38) or non-fallers (n = 42) and additionally in a prospective manner to identify first-time fallers (FTFs) (n = 6) within a 12-month follow-up period. Principal component analysis revealed that seven components derived from the 92 functional measures are sufficient to depict the spectrum of functional performance. Inclusion of only three components, related to mean and temporal variability of walking, allowed classification of fallers and non-fallers with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate that FTFs show a tendency towards the performance of fallers, even before their first fall occurs. This study suggests that temporal variability and mean spatial parameters of gait are the only functional components among the 92 measures tested that differentiate fallers from non-fallers, and could therefore show efficacy in clinical screening programmes for assessing risk of first-time falling. PMID:24898021

König, N; Taylor, W R; Armbrecht, G; Dietzel, R; Singh, N B

2014-08-01

221

Early parenting program as intervention strategy for emotional distress in first-time mothers: a propensity score analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a single session intervention designed to reduce emotional distress in first-time mothers. We held a parenting class for first-time mothers who had given birth at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The program of the class consists of lectures on infant care and group discussion, which is a common form of intervention in Japan. The effectiveness of intervention is assessed according to differences in emotional distress experienced by class participants and nonparticipants, and analyzed by the use of a propensity score method to avoid self-selection bias. In order to be more confident about our results, we employ several variations of this method. Results from statistical analysis show that although the effectiveness of the intervention was limited, it was able to alleviate subjects' loss of self-confidence as mothers. Because this outcome shows a good degree of consistency across methods, it can be considered robust. Moreover, it is roughly consistent with previous studies. Effectiveness can probably be increased by developing a program that improves upon the intervention. PMID:22865390

Okamoto, Miwako; Ishigami, Hideaki; Tokimoto, Kumiko; Matsuoka, Megumi; Tango, Ryoko

2013-08-01

222

The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers  

PubMed Central

Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others’ judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period.

Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

2014-01-01

223

The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers.  

PubMed

Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others' judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

Sockol, Laura E; Epperson, C Neill; Barber, Jacques P

2014-06-01

224

Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A elaborate distinct systemic metabolite signatures during enteric fever  

PubMed Central

The host–pathogen interactions induced by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A during enteric fever are poorly understood. This knowledge gap, and the human restricted nature of these bacteria, limit our understanding of the disease and impede the development of new diagnostic approaches. To investigate metabolite signals associated with enteric fever we performed two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) on plasma from patients with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections and asymptomatic controls, identifying 695 individual metabolite peaks. Applying supervised pattern recognition, we found highly significant and reproducible metabolite profiles separating S. Typhi cases, S. Paratyphi A cases, and controls, calculating that a combination of six metabolites could accurately define the etiological agent. For the first time we show that reproducible and serovar specific systemic biomarkers can be detected during enteric fever. Our work defines several biologically plausible metabolites that can be used to detect enteric fever, and unlocks the potential of this method in diagnosing other systemic bacterial infections. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03100.001

Nasstrom, Elin; Vu Thieu, Nga Tran; Dongol, Sabina; Karkey, Abhilasha; Voong Vinh, Phat; Ha Thanh, Tuyen; Johansson, Anders; Arjyal, Amit; Thwaites, Guy; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen; Antti, Henrik

2014-01-01

225

Testing f (R) theories using the first time derivative of the orbital period of the binary pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use one of the post-Keplerian parameters to obtain constraints on f (R) theories of gravity. Using the Minkowskian limit, we compute the prediction of f (R) theories on the first time derivative of the orbital period of a sample of binary stars, and we use our theoretical results to perform a comparison with the observed one. Selecting a sample of relativistic binary systems, we estimate the parameters of analytic f (R) gravity. We find that the theory is not ruled out if we consider only the double-neutron star systems, and in this case we can cover the existing gap between the general relativity prediction and the observed data.

De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; De Martino, Ivan

2013-05-01

226

Usefulness of frequent supraventricular extrasystoles and a high CHADS2 score to predict first-time appearance of atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Frequent supraventricular extrasystoles (SVEs) are associated with the subsequent first-time appearance of atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined role of SVEs and an AF-related risk score for ischemic stroke, the CHADS2 score, on the occurrence of new AF in patients in sinus rhythm. The Shinken Database 2004-2010 lists 3,263 patients who underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring. A total of 2,589 patients were analyzed, after excluding 674 patients previously diagnosed with AF. Frequent SVEs were defined as ?102 beats/day (the top quartile) and the presence of a clinical background for a CHADS2 score ?2 points as a high CHADS2 score. During the mean follow-up period of 571.4 ± 606.4 days, new AF occurred in 38 patients (9.4 per 1,000 patient-years). The incidence of new AF was 2.7 and 37.7 per 1,000 patient-years for patients with nonfrequent SVEs (<102 beats/day) and low CHADS2 scores and those with frequent SVEs and high CHADS2 scores, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the hazard ratio for frequent SVEs and a high CHADS2 score compared with nonfrequent SVEs and a low CHADS2 score was 9.49 (95% confidence interval 3.20 to 28.15, p <0.001), even after adjustment for gender, age, medications, and echocardiographic parameters. In conclusion, frequent SVEs and a high CHADS2 score independently and synergistically predict the first-time appearance of AF in patients in sinus rhythm, indicating an approximately 10-fold higher risk. Patients meeting these criteria should have more aggressive early intervention for preventing AF. PMID:23499279

Suzuki, Shinya; Sagara, Koichi; Otsuka, Takayuki; Kano, Hiroto; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Takai, Hideaki; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Oikawa, Yuji; Koike, Akira; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Yajima, Junji; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi

2013-06-01

227

Generation of Live Piglets from Cryopreserved Oocytes for the First Time Using a Defined System for In Vitro Embryo Production  

PubMed Central

We report the successful piglet production from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time by using a simple, high capacity vitrification protocol for preservation and a defined system for in vitro embryo production. Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from prepubertal gilts were vitrified in microdrops and stored in liquid nitrogen. After warming, COCs were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization (IVF), and subsequent culture (IVC). Adjusting warmplate temperature to 42°C during warming prevented temperature drops in a medium below 34.0°C and significantly increased the percentage of oocyte survival and thus blastocyst yields obtained from total vitrified oocytes compared with that of warming at 38°C (87.1% vs 66.9% and 4.4% vs 2.7%, respectively). Nuclear maturation and fertilization of oocytes were not affected by vitrification and warming temperature. Blastocyst development on day 7 (day 0?=?IVF) of the surviving oocytes after warming at 38°C and 42°C was not different but lower (P<0.05) than those of non-vitrified control oocytes (4.6%, 5.2% and 17.9%, respectively). However, blastocyst cell numbers in the control and vitrified groups were similar irrespective of warming temperature. Omitting porcine follicular fluid (pFF) from IVM medium (POM) did not affect maturation, fertilization and embryo development of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Transfer of blastocysts obtained on day 5 from vitrified oocytes matured either with or without pFF into 4 recipients (2 for each group) resulted in 4 pregnancies and the delivery of a total of 18 piglets. In conclusion, optimization of warming temperature was a key factor for achieving high survival rates, and surviving oocytes could be utilized in vitro using defined media. Using these modifications, live piglets could be obtained from cryopreserved oocytes for the first time.

Somfai, Tamas; Yoshioka, Koji; Tanihara, Fuminori; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

2014-01-01

228

Home enteral feeding part 1: an overview.  

PubMed

Preventing or reducing malnutrition using nutritional support is proven to be effective both clinically and financially. The continuation of enteral tube feeding in the community continues to grow and the population are an increasingly elderly and disabled group, with the majority living in their own homes and requiring some or total help with their enteral tube feeding. Part 1 of this two-part article looks at some of the key aspects in the management of patients in the community, including routine monitoring, the administration of feed and medications and management of the various tubes. Part 2 will discuss some of the current areas of controversy/debate, including the use of syringes, water type, feed hanging times and confirmation of nasogastric tube position in patients on acid reducing therapy. PMID:17577144

Fogg, Louisa

2007-06-01

229

Eosinophilic Enteritis Presenting as Intussusception in Adult  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is defined as a disorder that selectively affects the gastrointestinal tract with eosinophil-rich inflammation in the absence of any known causes for eosinophilia. The clinical manifestations vary according to the site of the eosinophilic infiltrated layer of the bowel wall. Eosinophilic enteritis presenting as intussusception in adult has not been previously reported in the literature. Especially, making the diagnosis of intussusception in adults is often difficult due to the variable clinical findings. In our case, the correct diagnosis of intussusception due to eosinophilic enteritis was arrived at rather easily based on the ultrasonography and endoscopic biopsy. The patient was treated with oral prednisolone at 30 mg/day for 7 days, and then the drug was tapered off for 2 months; we didn't perform surgery. He has been asymptomatic for about 1 year after discharge without disease recurrence.

Shin, Woon Geon; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Park, Choong Kee

2007-01-01

230

A subunit vaccine against hemorrhagic enteritis adenovirus.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) is an adenovirus that infects turkeys and causes immunosuppression and mortality. The virus used for the inactivated vaccine is extracted from spleens of infected turkeys, since its propagation in tissue cultures or embryonated eggs is unsuitable for mass production. The aim of this study was to develop a subunit vaccine based on a capsid protein of the virus. The knob protein, together with an adjacent part of the shaft domain pertaining to the fiber protein of HEV, was expressed in Escherichia coli and tested as a vaccine. Vaccination with this recombinant protein conferred protection against challenge in controlled and in floor-pen experiments. This finding suggests that the knob protein may be used as safe and efficient vaccine against hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys. The possibility that the knob proteins of other adenoviruses may be protective and serve as vaccine is also discussed. PMID:15998555

Pitcovski, J; Fingerut, E; Gallili, G; Eliahu, D; Finger, A; Gutter, B

2005-09-01

231

Protozoal enteric infections in homosexual men.  

PubMed

The prevalence of enteric protozoal infections was examined in a group of 200 homosexual men. Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolyt .) was found in 22.8%, apathogen amoeba in 54.5% and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) in 9.1% of the participants. Antibodies against E. histolyt . were significantly higher in subjects carrying E. histolyt . than in the group with apathogen amoeba and in uninfected participants. Clinical symptoms were not associated with protozoal infection. The analysis of a number of variables showed that oral-anal sex and promiscuity were the two most important risk factors for protozoal infection. The clinical significance of protozoal enteric infections and their possible relation to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is discussed. PMID:6328099

Bienzle, U; Coester, C H; Knobloch, J; Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I

1984-04-01

232

Entering research: A course that creates community and structure for beginning undergraduate researchers in the STEM disciplines.  

PubMed

Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called Entering Research that creates a learning community to support beginning undergraduate researchers and is designed to parallel the Entering Mentoring course for graduate students, postdocs, and faculty serving as mentors of undergraduate researchers. The course serves as a model that can be easily adapted for use across the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines using a readily available facilitator's manual. Course evaluations and rigorous assessment show that the Entering Research course helps students in many ways, including finding a mentor, understanding their place in a research community, and connecting their research to their course work in the biological and physical sciences. Students in the course reported statistically significant gains in their skills, knowledge, and confidence as researchers compared with a control group of students, who also were engaged in undergraduate research but not enrolled in this course. In addition, the faculty and staff members who served as facilitators of the Entering Research course described their experience as rewarding and one they would recommend to their colleagues. PMID:20516356

Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn; Branchaw, Janet

2010-01-01

233

Entering Research: A Course That Creates Community and Structure for Beginning Undergraduate Researchers in the STEM Disciplines  

PubMed Central

Undergraduate research experiences have been shown to enhance the educational experience and retention of college students, especially those from underrepresented populations. However, many challenges still exist relative to building community among students navigating large institutions. We developed a novel course called Entering Research that creates a learning community to support beginning undergraduate researchers and is designed to parallel the Entering Mentoring course for graduate students, postdocs, and faculty serving as mentors of undergraduate researchers. The course serves as a model that can be easily adapted for use across the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines using a readily available facilitator's manual. Course evaluations and rigorous assessment show that the Entering Research course helps students in many ways, including finding a mentor, understanding their place in a research community, and connecting their research to their course work in the biological and physical sciences. Students in the course reported statistically significant gains in their skills, knowledge, and confidence as researchers compared with a control group of students, who also were engaged in undergraduate research but not enrolled in this course. In addition, the faculty and staff members who served as facilitators of the Entering Research course described their experience as rewarding and one they would recommend to their colleagues.

Balster, Nicholas; Pfund, Christine; Rediske, Raelyn

2010-01-01

234

African Swine Fever Virus Uses Macropinocytosis to Enter Host Cells  

PubMed Central

African swine fever (ASF) is caused by a large and highly pathogenic DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), which provokes severe economic losses and expansion threats. Presently, no specific protection or vaccine against ASF is available, despite the high hazard that the continued occurrence of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the recent outbreak in the Caucasus in 2007, and the potential dissemination to neighboring countries, represents. Although virus entry is a remarkable target for the development of protection tools, knowledge of the ASFV entry mechanism is still very limited. Whereas early studies have proposed that the virus enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, the specific mechanism used by ASFV remains uncertain. Here we used the ASFV virulent isolate Ba71, adapted to grow in Vero cells (Ba71V), and the virulent strain E70 to demonstrate that entry and internalization of ASFV includes most of the features of macropinocytosis. By a combination of optical and electron microscopy, we show that the virus causes cytoplasm membrane perturbation, blebbing and ruffles. We have also found that internalization of the virions depends on actin reorganization, activity of Na+/H+ exchangers, and signaling events typical of the macropinocytic mechanism of endocytosis. The entry of virus into cells appears to directly stimulate dextran uptake, actin polarization and EGFR, PI3K-Akt, Pak1 and Rac1 activation. Inhibition of these key regulators of macropinocytosis, as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, results in a considerable decrease in ASFV entry and infection. In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time the whole pathway for ASFV entry, including the key cellular factors required for the uptake of the virus and the cell signaling involved.

Sanchez, Elena G.; Quintas, Ana; Perez-Nunez, Daniel; Nogal, Marisa; Barroso, Susana; Carrascosa, Angel L.; Revilla, Yolanda

2012-01-01

235

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies and genotypes in asymptomatic, first-time blood donors in Namibia.  

PubMed Central

Reported is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Namibia as determined using a third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on samples of blood collected from all asymptomatic, first-time blood donors between 1 February and 31 July 1997 (n = 1941). The HCV seroprevalence was 0.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-1.5%) and no associations were detected between a positive HCV serostatus and the person's sex, region of residence, or previous hepatitis B exposure or hepatitis B carrier status, as determined by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The only significant association in a logistic regression model was an increase in HCV positivity with increasing age (P = 0.04). Viral RNA was amplified from 2 out of 18 (11.1%) specimens that were ELISA positive. Genotyping of these specimens, by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), showed the presence of genotypes 5 and 1a. The positive predictive value of using HBsAg positivity as a surrogate screening marker for HCV in Namibian blood donors was poor (1.6%), with low sensitivity (16.7%) and specificity (89.3%), and detecting only 3 out of 18 serologically HCV-positive specimens. The results of this first study of the prevalence and epidemiology of HCV infection in Namibia suggest that donor blood should be screened for HCV by ELISA in order to prevent the transmission of hepatitis C virus.

Vardas, E.; Sitas, F.; Seidel, K.; Casteling, A.; Sim, J.

1999-01-01

236

How much does Low Socioeconomic Status Increase the Risk of Prenatal and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in First Time Mothers?  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine socioeconomic status (SES) as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. A secondary objective was to determine whether SES was a specific risk factor for elevated postpartum depressive symptoms beyond its contribution to prenatal depressive symptoms. Design Quantitative, secondary analysis, repeated measures, descriptive design. Setting Participants were recruited from paid childbirth classes serving upper middle class women and Medicaid-funded hospitals serving low-income clients in Northern California. Participants A sample of 198 first time mothers was assessed for depressive symptoms in their third trimester of pregnancy and at one, two, and three months postpartum. Main Outcome Measure Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale. Results Low SES was associated with increased depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and at 2 and 3 months, but not at 1 month postpartum. Women with four SES risk factors (low monthly income, less than a college education, unmarried, unemployed) were 11 times more likely than women with no SES risk factors to have clinically elevated depression scores at 3 months postpartum, even after controlling for the level of prenatal depressive symptoms. Conclusion Although new mothers from all SES strata are at risk for postpartum depression, SES factors including low education, low income, being unmarried, and being unemployed increased the risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms in this sample.

Goyal, Deepika; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn A.

2009-01-01

237

Male clients' behaviours with and perspectives about their last male escort encounter: comparing repeat versus first-time hires.  

PubMed

Research on men who have sex with men suggests that condomless anal intercourse occurs more frequently in established sexual relationships. While comparable data regarding male-for-male escorting is unavailable, research implies that many clients seek emotional as well as physical connections with the men they hire. In 2012, 495 male clients, recruited via daddysreviews.com completed an online survey about their last hiring experience. Most participants were from the USA (85.7%), the UK and Canada (3.2% each). In total, 75% of encounters involved an escort hired for the first time; 25% were with a previously hired escort ('repeat encounter'). The client's age, lifetime number of escorts hired and number hired in the past year were positively associated with the last encounter being a repeat encounter. Cuddling, sharing a meal, drinking alcohol, taking a walk, watching a show and shopping were also positively associated with repeat encounters. Conversely, none of the sexual behaviours were significantly associated with repeat encounters. Repeat encounters were significantly more likely to include non-sexual behaviours alongside sexual activities, but no more likely to involve condomless anal intercourse. Moreover, clients' knowledge of escorts' HIV status was not significantly associated with engaging in condomless anal intercourse with repeat encounters. PMID:24915753

Wolff, Margaret M; Grov, Christian; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2014-08-01

238

Role of triamcinolone in radiation enteritis management  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role of triamcinolone in the management of acute and chronic enteritis caused by pelvic radiotherapy. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with rectum adenocarcinoma or endometrium adenocarcinoma were studied. We compared the results of 14 patients treated with injected triamcinolone acetonide (TA) with those of 14 patients who were not treated with TA. For the TA group, 40 mg of TA was injected intramuscularly on the 1st, 11th and 21st d of radiotherapy; the control group received no injections. All of the study participants had a median age of 65 years, had undergone postoperative radiotherapy and were evaluated weekly using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Acute Morbidity Score Criteria, and complete blood counts for every 10 d. RESULTS: Triamcinolone was found to effectively prevent and treat radiation-induced acute gastrointestinal (enteritis) and genitourinary (cystitis) side effects (P = 0.022 and P = 0.023). For the lower GI side effect follow up, 11 patients in the control group had Grade 2 toxicity and 3 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. In the TA group, 5 patients had Grade 2 toxicity and 9 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. For the genitourinary system side effect follow up, 4 patients had Grade 2 toxicity and 6 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. Additionally, 2 patients had Grade 2 toxicity and 2 patients had Grade 1 toxicity. The neutrophil counts did not differ between the TA group and the control group. There was no meaningful difference between age groups and primary cancers. At the 12th mo of follow up, there were no differences between groups for chronic side effects. CONCLUSION: Triamcinolone is a moderately potent steroid, that is inexpensive and has a good safety profile. It would be beneficial for reducing medical expenses related to treatment of radiation induced enteritis.

Cetin, Eren; Ozturk, Aysen Sevgi; Orhun, Haluk; Ulger, Sukran

2014-01-01

239

Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle.  

PubMed

Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors associated with prediction of methane and allow a better examination and representation of policies regulating emissions from cattle. PMID:24259373

Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias

2014-07-01

240

ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late milk feeding are widely used. This randomised controlled trial aims to determine whether a policy of early initiation of milk feeds is beneficial compared with late initiation. Optimising neonatal feeding for this group of babies may have long-term health implications and if either of these policies is shown to be beneficial it can be immediately adopted into clinical practice. Methods and Design Babies with gestational age below 35 weeks, and with birth weight below 10th centile for gestational age, will be randomly allocated to an "early" or "late" enteral feeding regimen, commencing milk feeds on day 2 and day 6 after birth, respectively. Feeds will be gradually increased over 9-13 days (depending on gestational age) using a schedule derived from those used in hospitals in the Eastern and South Western Regions of England, based on surveys of feeding practice. Primary outcome measures are time to establish full enteral feeding and necrotising enterocolitis; secondary outcomes include sepsis and growth. The target sample size is 400 babies. This sample size is large enough to detect a clinically meaningful difference of 3 days in time to establish full enteral feeds between the two feeding policies, with 90% power and a 5% 2-sided significance level. Initial recruitment period was 24 months, subsequently extended to 38 months. Discussion There is limited evidence from randomised controlled trials on which to base decisions regarding feeding policy in high risk preterm infants. This multicentre trial will help to guide clinical practice and may also provide pointers for future research. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN: 87351483

Leaf, Alison; Dorling, Jon; Kempley, Steve; McCormick, Kenny; Mannix, Paul; Brocklehurst, Peter

2009-01-01

241

The surgical treatment of regional enteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A review of the significant contributions to the literature on the surgical management of regional enteritis has been made.\\u000a \\u000a Eight cases from the experience with this disease at the Meriden Hospital and from the author's experience have been presented\\u000a from the standpoint of their surgical management and the results.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a An analysis of the claims made for the greater efficacy of

Allan J. Ryan

1951-01-01

242

Gibson, Solovyev, Budarin and Precourt enter Astrovan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-71 Mission Commander Robert L. 'Hoot' Gibson; Mir 19 Mission Commander Anatoly Y. Solovyev and Flight Engineer Nikolai M. Budarin; and STS-71 Pilot Charles J. Precourt get ready to enter the Astrovan parked outside the Operations and Checkout Building. The seven-member STS-71 crew is headed for the Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39A, destined for an historic rendezvous and docking with the Russian Space Station Mir. Atlantis is scheduled to lift off during a 10-minute window opening at 4:43:02 p.m. EDT on 6/24/95.

1995-01-01

243

Short course ciprofloxacin therapy for enteric fever.  

PubMed

A short course of ciprofloxacin, 750 mgm b.i.d. for 7 days was found to be effective in the treatment of enteric fever in 21 hospitalized patients with S.typhi (18) and S.paratyphi A(3). Median time for fever response was 3 days. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.0078-0.062 mcgm/ml). The mean serum peak and trough levels were 5.4 and 1.6 mcgm/ml respectively. Stool cultures were free of Salmonellae on follow up (11-24 weeks). Two developed recurrence of paratyphoid fever, 17 days and 4 months after therapy. PMID:8300488

Mathai, D; Kudva, G C; Keystone, J S; Kozarsky, P E; Jesudason, M V; Lalitha, M K; Kaur, A; Thomas, M; John, J; Pulimood, B M

1993-07-01

244

A Smooth Transition? Education and Social Expectations of Direct Entry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the most common type of student entering higher education falls within the 17-19-year-old age group, universities in the UK are keen to accept other categories of students onto programmes as a means of increasing diversity and maintaining student numbers in the latter portion of a programme. One such category is those students who enter a…

Barron, Paul; D'Annunzio-Green, Norma

2009-01-01

245

U.S. dental school applicants and enrollees, 2006 and 2007 entering classes.  

PubMed

The number of applicants to dental schools in the United States continues to rise at a double-digit rate, 12 percent from 2005 to 2006 and 14 percent from 2006 to 2007. The number of applicants to the 2006 and 2007 years' entering classes of U.S. dental schools was 12,500 and 13,700, respectively. The number of first-time enrollees (4,600) in 2007 was the highest recorded since 1989. Men continue to comprise the majority of all applicants, 55 percent in 2006 and 53 percent in 2007. However, the percentage of women applicants to each school ranged from a third to more than half. Underrepresented minority (URM) applicants comprised 12 percent of the applicant pools in both 2006 and 2007. For the 2007 entering class, URM enrollees comprised 13 percent of enrollees. As in previous years, in 2007, the largest number of applicants and enrollees came from states that are among the largest in population in the United States: California, Texas, New York, and Florida. Grade point average and Dental Admission Test scores were the highest in more than a decade. More than three out of four of the 2007 first-time, first-year enrollees earned a baccalaureate degree either in biological/life or physical sciences or in health. Regardless of major field of study, the percent rates of enrollment generally exceeded 30 percent, though there were exceptions (e.g., engineering and education). The majority of enrollees to the 2007 entering classes were twenty-two or twenty-three years of age. PMID:19043889

Okwuje, Ifie; Anderson, Eugene; Siaya, Laura; Brown, L Jackson; Valachovic, Richard W

2008-11-01

246

Rates of Return on Investments in Education at Montgomery College: A Human Capital Study of All First-Time Students Enrolled during Fall 1980 and FY 1980 Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A human capital study was conducted at Montgomery College to assess the rate of return on educational expenditures by contrasting the future lifetime earnings of people with less education with that of people with greater educational attainment. The study assessed the costs of education (e.g., for tuition and fees, books and supplies, foregone…

Montgomery Coll., Rockville, MD. Office of Institutional Research.

247

The Evolution of Student Identity: A Case of Caveat Emptor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Engaging students has been seen as the key to promoting their achievement in higher education institutions. However, there is an important stage prior to this: the development of a positive student identity which influences students' motivation to engage. As the student body has evolved from full-time, on-campus students entering university…

Martin, Linda; Spolander, Gary; Ali, Imran; Maas, Beulah

2014-01-01

248

Development and Validation of the University Student Housing Application and Student Matching and Placement Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year, on-campus student housing at colleges and universities throughout the United States populates with over 2.6 million students, many of which are first-time freshmen. To students in housing, finding the right roommate can decrease the effects of homesickness, minimize roommate conflict, and help build long-lasting relationships. Research…

Dishno, Aaron Scott

2010-01-01

249

Attachment of enteric viruses to bottles.  

PubMed

Storage of water that was deliberately contaminated with enteric viruses in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles led to a rapid decrease of the apparent viral load, thereby hampering the development of samples for a collaborative evaluation of viral detection methods for bottled water. To determine if this decrease was due to spontaneous inactivation or to adhesion, an elution protocol was developed and combined with a rapid and sensitive real-time reverse transcription-PCR-based method to quantify adsorbed norovirus (NV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and rotavirus (RV) on bottle walls. The NV retention on PET bottle walls after 20 and 62 days reached an average level of 85% and 95% of the recovered inoculum, respectively. HAV and RV also showed adsorption onto PET bottles, reaching 90% and 80%, respectively, after 20 days of storage. NV and RV attachment was demonstrated to be dependent on the presence of autochthonous flora, whereas HAV adsorption was independent of it. Application of the elution and viral detection protocol to 294 commercially available water bottles obtained from 25 different countries did not give any positive result, thereby providing further evidence that the sources used for this product are free from enteric viruses and support for the theory that bottled water is not a vehicle for viral diseases. PMID:17586668

Butot, S; Putallaz, T; Croquet, C; Lamothe, G; Meyer, R; Joosten, H; Sánchez, G

2007-08-01

250

Astrobiology Student Science Fair Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrasolar Planet Transit and The Light Curve of a Variable Star are some titles of high school student projects entered in the Hawaii State Science Fair. These students were mentored by teachers who participated in the UH Institute for Astronomy Toward Other Planetary Systems summer program under the direction of professor Karen J. Meech. After attending several 3-week TOPS NSF

M. Kadooka; K. J. Meech

2004-01-01

251

Ten years of hip fractures in Italy: For the first time a decreasing trend in elderly women  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the hospitalization rate of femoral neck fractures in the elderly Italian population over ten years. METHODS: We analyzed national hospitalizations records collected at central level by the Ministry of Health from 2000 to 2009. Age- and sex-specific rates of fractures occurred at femoral neck in people ? 65 years old. We performed a sub-analysis over a three-year period (2007-2009), presenting data per five-year age groups, in order to evaluate the incidence of the hip fracture in the oldest population. RESULTS: We estimated a total of 839008 hospitalizations due to femoral neck fractures between 2000 and 2009 in people ? 65, with an overall increase of 29.8% over 10 years. The incidence per 10000 inhabitants remarkably increased in people ? 75, passing from 158.5 to 166.8 (+5.2%) and from 72.6 to 77.5 (+6.8%) over the ten-year period in women and men, respectively. The oldest age group (people > 85 years old) accounted for more than 42% of total hospital admissions in 2009 (n = 39000), despite representing only 2.5% of the Italian population. Particularly, women aged > 85 accounted for 30.8% of total fractures, although they represented just 1.8% of the general population. The results of this analysis indicate that the incidence of hip fractures progressively increased from 2000 to 2009, but a reduction can be observed for the first time in women ? 75 (-7.9% between 2004 and 2009). CONCLUSION: Incidence of hip fractures in Italy are continuously increasing, although women aged 65-74 years old started showing a decreasing trend.

Piscitelli, Prisco; Feola, Maurizio; Rao, Cecilia; Celi, Monica; Gasbarra, Elena; Neglia, Cosimo; Quarta, Giuseppe; Liuni, Federico Maria; Parri, Simone; Iolascon, Giovanni; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Distante, Alessandro; Tarantino, Umberto

2014-01-01

252

STEM Professionals Entering Teaching: Navigating Multiple Identities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this qualitative study, we identify the complexity of the transitioning identities of four STEM career changers to better inform teacher education programs on how to be more mindful of the needs of this population as they return to the life of a student again on their path toward a new career in teaching. Findings suggest the career changers relied upon their identities from their previous careers to engage students in science; however, support is needed, both in terms of the coursework and returning to be a student again. Additionally, support is necessary for intervening in difficult placements and work situations as these STEM career changers make the transition to their newly chosen career of teaching science.

Grier, Jeanne M.; Johnston, Carol C.

2012-02-01

253

Students and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

254

Persistence of Developmental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students entering Harrisburg Area Community College (H.A.C.C.), Pennsylvania, who are identified as being inadequately prepared for regular coursework are assigned to appropriate developmental courses, to prepare them for subsequent entry into the regular career or transfer curricula. A recent analysis of the program outlines such factors as…

Snyder, Fred A.; Blocker, Clyde E.

255

Student Assistance Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Student Assistance Program (SAP) is a chemical use prevention and early intervention program. Entering the fifth year of implementation, the SAP has expanded from a part-time service contracted with Mental Health to a school-based program serving two high schools and three middle schools. The program is broad based, employing a variety of…

Faulkner, Robin; And Others

256

Student Attitude Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A ten item questionnaire dealing with parental family income, the legalization of marijuana, pollution, and a volunteer army was administered to the entering freshman class on September 6, 1970. The results indicate that the freshmen tend to underestimate the actual earning power of their fellow students' families by approximately $1,800. However,…

Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

257

Inactivation of Enteric Pathogens during Aerobic Digestion of Wastewater Sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion ...

S. R. Farrah G. Bitton S. G. Zam

1986-01-01

258

INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

259

Propagation of Hemorrhagic Enteritis Virus in a Turkey Cell Line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) and to the application of this procedure to the production of an hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) vaccine and as a bioassay technique for determin...

K. Nazerian A. M. Fadly

1982-01-01

260

Which labral lesion can be best reduced with external rotation of the shoulder after a first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Immobilization in external rotation after a first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation has been shown to improve the\\u000a position of the labroligamentous lesion relative to the glenoid rim. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the\\u000a effect of the external rotation position of the shoulder on different types of labroligamentous lesions in patients with first-time\\u000a traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation

Dominik Seybold; Benedikt Schliemann; Christoph M. Heyer; Gert Muhr; Christoph Gekle

2009-01-01

261

Developing a Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention for First-Time Adolescent Offenders At-Risk for an Alcohol or Drug Use Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how teens who had committed a first-time alcohol or other drug (AOD) offense responded to a motivational interviewing (MI) group intervention. Participants were 101 first-time AOD adolescent offenders (M = 15.88; 63% male, 54% Hispanic). The authors developed and tested a six-session curriculum called Free Talk and solicited feedback from different teens after each session. Groups were

Elizabeth J. DAmico; Karen Chan Osilla; Sarah B. Hunter

2010-01-01

262

APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

1969-01-01

263

Enteral immunonutrition versus standard enteral nutrition for patients undergoing oesophagogastric resection for cancer.  

PubMed

A best evidence topic in surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was "In cancer patients undergoing oesophageal or gastric resection for cancer and requiring postoperative nutritional support, does enteral immunonutrition confer additional clinical benefits as compared to standard enteral nutrition? Two hundred and fifty-eight papers were identified by a search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, of which six randomized controlled trials represented the best evidence to answer this clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group, study group, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. All six of these randomised controlled trials compared the clinical benefits of standard enteral nutrition with those of enteral nutrition supplemented with a variety of immune-modulating substances. The studies failed to demonstrate consistent differences in patients' postoperative clinical course, complications, length of hospital stay and inflammatory marker levels. Hence although there is reasonable evidence to suggest that immunonutrition improves humoral immunity as opposed to cellular immunity, this improvement does not result in reductions in infection rates or reduced hospital stay. There is currently not enough evidence to recommend routine immunonutrition in all patients undergoing oesophageal or gastric resection for cancer. PMID:23274278

Mabvuure, Nigel T; Roman, Ina; Khan, Omar A

2013-01-01

264

Home enteral nutrition and organizing models. Organization and risks of pediatric home enteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is the only possible alternative to staying in hospital for patients with malnutrition due to several diseases. In pediatric patients HEN is usually request- ed by the specialty medical team or by the general pediatrician. The nutritional team, pediatrician, home care staff, and hospital specialists collaborate to give the patient effective treatment. When dealing with malnourished

G. L. NANNETTI; B. ABBATE

265

Detection of enteric pathogens in Turkey flocks affected with severe enteritis, in Brazil.  

PubMed

Twenty-two flocks of turkeys affected by enteric problems, with ages between 10 and 104 days and located in the Southern region of Brazil, were surveyed for turkey by PCR for turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2), turkey coronavirus (TCoV), hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), rotavirus, reovirus, Salmonella spp., and Lawsonia intracellularis (Li) infections. Eleven profiles of pathogen combination were observed. The most frequently encountered pathogen combinations were TCoV-Li, followed by TCoV-TAstV-2-Li, TCoV-TastV-2. Only TCoV was detected as the sole pathogen in three flocks. Eight and 19 flocks of the 22 were positive for TAstV-2 and TCoV, respectively. Six were positive for Salmonella spp. and L. intracellularis was detected in 12 turkey flocks. Reovirus and HEV were not detected in this survey. These results throw new light on the multiple etiology of enteritis in turkeys. The implications of these findings and their correlation with the clinical signs are comprehensively discussed, illustrating the complexity of the enteric diseases. PMID:24817479

Moura-Alvarez, Joelma; Nuñez, Luis F N; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Knöbl, Terezinha; Chacón, Jorge L; Moreno, Andrea M; Jones, Richard C; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

2014-08-01

266

Psychotic Illness in First-Time Mothers with No Previous Psychiatric Hospitalizations: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Psychotic illness following childbirth is a relatively rare but severe condition with unexplained etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal background characteristics and obstetric factors on the risk of postpartum psychosis, specifically among mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations. Methods and Findings We investigated incidence rates and potential maternal and obstetric risk factors of psychoses after childbirth in a national cohort of women who were first-time mothers from 1983 through 2000 (n = 745,596). Proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks of psychoses during and after the first 90 d postpartum, among mothers without any previous psychiatric hospitalization and among all mothers. Within 90 d after delivery, 892 women (1.2 per 1,000 births; 4.84 per 1,000 person-years) were hospitalized due to psychoses and 436 of these (0.6 per 1,000 births; 2.38 per 1,000 person-years) had not previously been hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder. During follow-up after the 90 d postpartum period, the corresponding incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were reduced to 0.65 for all women and 0.49 for women not previously hospitalized. During (but not after) the first 90 d postpartum the risk of psychoses among women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization was independently affected by: maternal age (35 y or older versus 19 y or younger; hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.7); high birth weight (? 4,500 g; hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0); and diabetes (hazard ratio 0). Conclusions The incidence of psychotic illness peaks immediately following a first childbirth, and almost 50% of the cases are women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization. High maternal age increases the risk while diabetes and high birth weight are associated with reduced risk of first-onset psychoses, distinctly during the postpartum period.

Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Hultman, Christina M; Harlow, Bernard; Cnattingius, Sven; Sparen, Par

2009-01-01

267

'Inconvenient biology:' advantages and disadvantages of first-time parenting after age 40 using in vitro fertilization  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND As ages at first birth have steadily risen in the industrial west over the last several decades, the phenomenon of ‘delayed childbearing’ has come under research scrutiny by demographers, medical specialists and social scientists. In this study, we specifically explore the perceived advantages and disadvantages of postponed conception as well as participants’ retrospective opinions on the ‘optimal age’ for parenting. METHODS To this end, we examined a cohort purposely chosen to epitomize delayed childbearing, i.e. men and women who used IVF to conceive at the very end of their reproductive capability. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 with 46 couples and 15 individual self-selected US women and men who had used IVF to conceive their first child when the woman was aged 40 or older at the time of delivery. Although the demographics of this cohort were consistent with others who use IVF in the USA, their median income was 3–4 times higher than that of the average US family, which may bias their largely positive parenting experiences. RESULTS Most women and men believed that childbearing later in life resulted in advantages for themselves and their families. These included having established careers with financial security and career-time flexibility, enhanced emotional preparedness, committed co-parenting relationships and a positive overall family experience. The main disadvantage was the unexpected difficulty in conceiving that culminated in the use of IVF and resulted in a smaller family than desired, although many expressed feeling ‘lucky’ to have children at all. Other disadvantages were lack of energy for parenting, less available lifetime to spend with children and anticipated stigma as older parents. CONCLUSIONS These disadvantages appear to have influenced conception and parenting experiences so that in hindsight the majority of participants identified the optimal age for first-time parenting as 5–10 years earlier than they had conceived. This age range was imagined to maximize the financial and emotional advantages of later parenting while minimizing the impact of age-related infertility, diminished energy, anticipated health issues and the social stigma of appearing too old to parent.

Mac Dougall, K.; Beyene, Y.; Nachtigall, R.D.

2012-01-01

268

Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm(exp -1) Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm(exp -1) in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 (exp -1) emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it bad been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004. Our far-infrared observations were performed With the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Caasini. Although it bad been expected that the 220 cm(exp -1) emission would eventnal1y appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm(exp -1) feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm(exp -1) ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini image. The 220 cm(exp -1) feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager I and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS. Until now the 220 cm(exp -1) emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm(exp -1) emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes.

Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; deKok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

2013-01-01

269

Why computer science students need math  

Microsoft Academic Search

Too many students enter the field of computer science with high aspirations but poor math skills. These students often do not realize the significance of mathematics in computer science. This paper discusses several relevant areas of computer science and explains why computer science students need math in order to master the material taught in these courses and to eventually find

Theresa Beaubouef

2002-01-01

270

Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which animals are managed vary greatly by country, CH4 emissions reduction strategies must be tailored to country-specific circumstances. Strategies that are cost effective, improve productivity, and have limited potential negative effects on livestock production hold a greater chance of being adopted by producers. It is also important to evaluate CH4 mitigation strategies in terms of the total GHG budget and to consider the economics of various strategies. Although reductions in GHG emissions from livestock industries are seen as high priorities, strategies for reducing emissions should not reduce the economic viability of enterprises.

Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

2011-01-01

271

NVCC Students in Developmental and ESL Courses: Fall 1995 to Fall 1999. Research Report. Developmental Studies Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the enrollment of Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC) students in developmental English, developmental math, and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses. Students examined were first-time students, transfer students, continuing students, and returning students. Enrollment statistics and demographic data from fall…

Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale. Office of Institutional Research.

272

Factors Influencing the First-Year Persistence of First Generation College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factors that influence the first-year persistence of first generation college students at four-year institutions were studied using data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) database. The BPS is a longitudinal study of first-time students in the 1995 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. First generation students are those whose…

Duggan, Michael

273

An Exploratory Study of First-Semester Student Attrition in a Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if student background variables (age, gender, race, academic preparation); student status (part/full-time student), and student circumstances (commuting distance, independent/dependent financial student status) could predict fall-to-spring attrition (2006-2007) in a sample of 542 first-time,…

Scott, Ophelia Turner

2010-01-01

274

Engineered cobalt oxide nanoparticles readily enter cells.  

PubMed

Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for applications not only as catalysts or energy storage devices, but also in biomedicine, as contrast enhancement agents for magnetic resonance imaging, or for drug delivery. The same characteristics that make cobalt-based NPs so attractive raise serious questions about their safety. In this context, we investigated Co3O4-NPs. Believing that the characterization of NPs is relevant for understanding their biological activity, we analyzed them by atomic force and electron microscopy to define size, shape, and aggregation. To clarify whether their biological effects could be due to a potential release of cobalt ions, we evaluated spontaneous dissolution in different media. To determine their potential toxicity to human cells, we measured cell viability and ROS formation in two human cell lines using CoCl2 for comparison. Co3O(4)-NPs induced a concentration- and time-dependent impairment of cellular viability, although cobalt ions were more toxic. We also demonstrated that cobalt causes a rapid induction of ROS if supplied in the form of Co3O4-NPs rather than as ions. Moreover, we evaluated the cellular uptake of NPs. Interestingly, Co3O4-NPs are able to enter the cell very rapidly, remaining confined in vesicles inside the cytoplasm. They were found also inside the cell nuclei, though less frequently. PMID:19539014

Papis, Elena; Rossi, Federica; Raspanti, Mario; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Colombo, Graziano; Milzani, Aldo; Bernardini, Giovanni; Gornati, Rosalba

2009-09-28

275

Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C. [and others] [and others

1999-10-01

276

DRUG RESISTANCE OF ENTERIC BACTERIA II.  

PubMed Central

Harada, Kenji (Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan), Mitsuo Kameda, Mitsue Suzuki, and Susumu Mitsuhashi. Drug resistance of enteric bacteria. II. Transduction of transmissible drug-resistance (R) factors with phage epsilon. J. Bacteriol. 86:1332–1338. 1963.—Transmissible drug-resistance (R) factors, which transfer resistance to tetracycline (TC), chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and sulfonamide by cell-to-cell contact, were found to be transduced in the system of Salmonella E group with phage epsilon (?15 and ?34). The R+ transductants of S. newington (S-84) and S. chittagong (S-224) were all found to be unable to transfer their R factors by conjugation, and their R factors were not eliminated by treatment with acridine dyes so far as tested. The R factors containing TC resistance were consistently segregated when transduced. At low multiplicities of infection, the R+ transductants with ?15 were all nonlysogenic and unable to produce normal ?15 phage particles; among the R+ transductants with ?34, 34% were lysogenic and 66% were sensitive to ?34.

Harada, Kenji; Kameda, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Mitsue; Mitsuhashi, Susumu

1963-01-01

277

Tracheopleuropulmonary injuries following enteral tube insertion.  

PubMed Central

Eighty-three cases of tracheopleuropulmonary injuries complicating enteral tube feeding are analyzed to identify the patterns of injury, and precipitating factors and ways to avoid them. Six new cases observed by the authors and 77 other cases cited in British literature between 1976 and 1987 are presented. In recent years, reports of this complication have been increasing, apparently in a geometrical progression: 8%, 18%, and 74% were reported between 1976 to 1979, 1980 to 1983, and 1984 to 1987, respectively. Sixty-one percent occurred in patients aged 60 years or older. Most of the patients (84%) were seriously ill, which compounded their complications. Seventy-four percent of all injuries were committed by house staff; the narrow bore tube with guide wire was used in 77% of cases. Less than reliable methods were used to confirm tube position in most instances. The presence of cuffed endotracheal tubes did not offer protection. The patients on mechanical ventilation tended to deteriorate if they developed a pneumothorax once the malpositioned tubes were removed. Of the cases reviewed for this report, 18 deaths occurred; 72% being directly related to the tube injuries. Lack of awareness, inadequate confirmatory methods, and insufficient supervision accounted for most of these preventable complications. Educating house/nursing staff in the use of the new tubes, closer supervision, and the application of equal measures of care and caution as employed in other invasive and potentially dangerous procedures are recommended to avoid disastrous outcome.

Odocha, O.; Lowery, R. C.; Mezghebe, H. M.; Siram, S. M.; Warner, O. G.

1989-01-01

278

Entering First-Year Residents' Experiences and Knowledge of Infection Control of Hepatitis B and HIV, at Five University-Affiliated Hospitals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 149 entering first-year medical residents concerning experiences with and knowledge of infection control investigated occurrence and patterns of accidental needle-sticking and reporting, student immunization for Hepatitis B, and instruction in universal precautions. It is concluded that students are at risk for needle-sticking, but…

Goetz, Angella; And Others

1992-01-01

279

HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours among MSM repeat and first-time testers in China: implications for HIV prevention  

PubMed Central

Introduction Little is known about HIV testing, HIV infection and sexual behaviour among bathhouse patrons in China. This study aims to assess differences in HIV prevalence and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending bathhouse in Tianjin, China. Methods Between March 2011 and September 2012, a HIV voluntary counselling and testing station was established in a gay bathhouse, which provided HIV testing and conducted a survey among participants recruited through snowball sampling. Differences in demographic and high-risk sexual behaviours between repeat and first-time testers were assessed using the chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors for HIV infection. Results Of the 1642 respondents, 699 (42.6%) were repeat testers and 943 (57.4%) were first-time testers. Among repeat testers, a higher proportion were men aged 18 to 25, single, better educated, had a history of STIs and worked as male sex workers or “money boys” (MBs). Repeat testers were less likely to report having unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months. The overall HIV prevalence was 12.4% (203/1642). There was no difference in HIV prevalence between repeat (11.2%, 78/699) and first-time (13.3%, 125/943) testers. The HIV prevalence increased with age among first-time testers (?trend2=9.816, p=0.002). First-time MB testers had the highest HIV prevalence of 34.5%. Conclusions MSM attending bathhouse had an alarmingly high HIV infection rate, particularly in MB. Targeted interventions are urgently needed especially focusing on older MSM and MBs.

Bai, Xue; Xu, Jie; Yang, Jie; Yang, Bo; Yu, Maohe; Gao, Yongjun; Dong, Willa M; Wu, Zunyou

2014-01-01

280

DRUG RESISTANCE OF ENTERIC BACTERIA IV.  

PubMed Central

Kondo, Eiko (Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan), and Susumu Mitsuhashi. Drug resistance of enteric bacteria. IV. Active transducing phage P1 CM produced by the combination of R factor with phage P1. J. Bacteriol. 88:1266–1276. 1964.—During an investigation of the transduction of R factors with phage P1, a phage lysate capable of transducing the character of chloramphenicol resistance (CMr) in extremely high frequency was obtained. The transduction of the CMr character with the lysate was consistently accompanied by lysogenization with the phage used for transduction. This lysate exhibits no beneficial effect with normal P1, and no effect is produced by decreasing the multiplicity of infection. A single infection with the phage allows the formation of plaques as well as CMr lysogenic cells at the center of the plaque. Both the transducing and plaque-forming activities of the lysate were lost by neutralization with anti-P1 phage serum, and its absorption to the host bacteria was enhanced by the addition of Ca++. Thus, it was concluded that a derivative of P1 phage (P1 CM) was isolated which had not only the ability to transduce the CMr character but also the capacity to form plaques; i.e., the CMr gene of R factor is specifically associated with the genome of phage P1. No detectable differences were noted between P1 CM and normal P1 phage in density-gradient analyses in CsCl, in stability of lysogenization, in ability to transduce chromosomal markers, and in the mode of induction from lysogenic cells by ultraviolet irradiation. The instance of transduction of the CMr character described here may also be considered as an example of lysogenic conversion, in the sense that the alteration in CMr character is inseparable from lysogenicity.

Kondo, Eiko; Mitsuhashi, Susumu

1964-01-01

281

The Freshman Experience and the Role of Student Assistants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Student Assistants' Program (SAP) was implemented at Bronx Community College (BCC) (New York) to reduce attrition between admission and the first day of classes. The principal objective of the program is to train presently enrolled students to provide individual assistance to entering freshmen. These student assistants help new students with…

Santa Rita, Emilio

282

Students with Asperger's syndrome in the CS classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

More students with Asperger's Syndrome are entering higher education and a majority of these students are choosing a computer science curriculum. With an increasing number of students with disabilities in the classroom, it is important to understand the particular aspects of a disability that will affect classroom situations. This paper presents common characteristics of students with Asperger's Syndrome and offers

Mary Anne L. Egan

2005-01-01

283

Personal Factors that Influence Deaf College Students' Academic Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research tells us that academic preparation is key to deaf students' success at college. Yet, that is not the whole story. Many academically prepared students drop out during their first year. This study identified entering deaf college students' personal factors as assessed by their individual responses to both the "Noel-Levitz College Student

Albertini, John A.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Matchett, Mary Karol

2012-01-01

284

The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students

Poole, Dawn

2012-01-01

285

Hypothetical Biotechnology Companies: A Role-Playing Student Centered Activity for Undergraduate Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science students leaving undergraduate programs are entering the biotechnology industry where they are presented with issues which require integration of science content. Students find this difficult as through-out their studies, most content is limited to a single subdiscipline (e.g., biochemistry, immunology). In addition, students need…

Chuck, Jo-Anne

2011-01-01

286

The Role of Precollege Data in Assessing and Understanding Student Engagement in College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research studies show that high school experiences, engagement, and academic achievement, as well as entering expectations and attitudes, are important predictors of student success. Therefore, to better understand first-year student engagement, it makes sense to consider the backgrounds and precollege characteristics of entering college students.…

Cole, James S.; Kennedy, Marianne; Ben-Avie, Michael

2009-01-01

287

The Bentley "Measures of Musical Abilities" as Predictors of Conservatory Students' Musical Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the reliability and validity of the Bentley Measures of Musical Abilities (BMMA) for predicting musical achievement of students entering the Conservatory Alberto Ginastera (Argentina) by measuring the students improvement over the first four-month term. Encourages the use of the BMMA as a means to evaluating the entering students

Musumeci, Orlando

1997-01-01

288

Classifying Community Colleges Based on Students' Patterns of Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, I draw on Bahr's ("Research in Higher Education" 51:724-749, 2010; New Directions for Institutional Research S1:33-48, 2011) behavioral typology of first-time community college students to examine college-level variation in students' patterns of use of 105 community colleges in California. I find that students' patterns of use vary…

Bahr, Peter Riley

2013-01-01

289

Engagement in post?compulsory education: students' motivation and action  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on one phase of a project on student engagement in Aotearoa New Zealand. It reports the results of a survey of students enrolled for the first time in a post?compulsory education programme. The students were enrolled in one of nine institutions: two universities, one w?nanga, four institutes of technology, a private training establishment and a community organisation.

Nick Zepke; Linda Leach; Philippa Butler

2010-01-01

290

Returning to work? Preferences and decisions of first-time mothers about engagement in paid work and care of their child  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective longitudinal study investigates the preferences and decisions of first-time mothers about engagement in paid work and care of their child. The study tracks 124 mothers as they negotiate their preferred options through to their actual decisions about paid work and care in the first year of their child’s life. Such evidence provides better understanding of the influences on

Wendy Anne Boyd; Karen J Thorpe; Collette Patria Tayler

2009-01-01

291

'I wouldn’t leave them somewhere that made me feel insecure': Preferences of expectant first-time mothers for care of their child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia, like other developed economies, has witnessed continual increase in maternal employment over the past two decades – 40% in 1983 to 53% in 2007. This trend has placed focus on both supply of child care1 and demand for quality care. This study examined preferences for care of the child among 124 Australian women expecting their first child. Expectant first-time

Wendy Anne Boyd; Collette Patria Tayler; Karen J Thorpe

2008-01-01

292

1What do first-time mothers worry about? A study of usage patterns and content of calls made to a postpartum support telephone hotline  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Telephone hotlines designed to address common concerns in the early postpartum could be a useful resource for parents. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using a telephone as an intervention in a randomized controlled trial. We also aimed to test to use of algorithms to address parental concerns through a telephone hotline. METHODS: Healthy first-time mothers were

Hibah Osman; Monique Chaaya; Lama El Zein; Georges Naassan; Livia Wick

2010-01-01

293

Altered States of Consciousness and Short-Term Psychological After-Effects Induced by the First Time Ritual Use of Ayahuasca in an Urban Context in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups Uni?o do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in Uni?o do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to

Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa; Joel Sales Giglio; Paulo Dalgalarrondo

2005-01-01

294

Diet and Environment Shape Fecal Bacterial Microbiota Composition and Enteric Pathogen Load of Grizzly Bears  

PubMed Central

Background Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic clostridia in wild and captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and relates these to food resources consumed by bears. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces were obtained from animals of two wild populations and from two captive animals during an active bear season. Wild animals consumed a diverse diet composed of plant material, animal prey and insects. Captive animals were fed a regular granulated diet with a supplement of fruits and vegetables. Bacterial populations were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Fecal microbiota composition fluctuated in wild and in captive animals. The abundance of Clostridium clusters I and XI, and of C. perfringens correlated to regular diet protein intake. Enteroaggregative E. coli were consistently present in all populations. The C. sordellii phospholipase C was identified in three samples of wild animals and for the first time in Ursids. Conclusion This is the first longitudinal study monitoring the fecal microbiota of wild carnivores and comparing it to that of captive individuals of the same species. Location and diet affected fecal bacterial populations as well as the presence of enteric pathogens.

Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Northrup, Joseph M.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Ganzle, Michael

2011-01-01

295

Alternative method for enteric coating of HPMC capsules resulting in ready-to-use enteric-coated capsules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop an alternative method for enteric coating of HPMC capsules that avoids the sealing step before coating, resulting in ready-to-use enteric-coated capsules for the use in retail or hospital pharmacy or R&D sections of pharmaceutical industry and for the production of enteric-coated heat and moisture sensitive biomaterials. HPMC caps and bodies 00 (Vcaps,

Nathalie Huyghebaert; An Vermeire; Jean Paul Remon

2004-01-01

296

Lymphoma Vaccine Enters Large-Scale Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

For the first time, results of a recently completed lymphoma cancer vaccine study show that there is a clear anti-tumor effect in a small group of patients who were vaccinated over the course of five years.

297

The Physics Questions in Student Selection Examination and Physics Curriculum and the Effect of Those Questions in Students' Success in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Success of high school students in solving physics questions of student selection examination (OSS) that has to be taken by high school students before entering the Turkish universities have been investigated with regard to these questions to be solved by students and suitability to high school physics curriculum and factors affecting students

Demirci, Neset

2007-01-01

298

Students and Their Presenting Concerns at a Student Counselling Service at a South African University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a summary of the concerns and the demographic data collected from clients at the Student Counselling Service (SCS) at the University of Cape Town (UCT), South Africa, during the period of March 2001 to April 2003. First-time presenting clients who are enrolled students, were asked to ill out an anonymous questionnaire, of…

Schreiber, B. M.

2007-01-01

299

Enteral Nutrition in Crohn's Disease: An Underused Therapy  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile.

Kansal, S.; Wagner, J.; Kirkwood, C. D.; Catto-Smith, A. G.

2013-01-01

300

Acute Infantile Gastroenteritis Associated with Human Enteric Viruses in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study, conducted from January 2003 to June 2005, investigated the incidence and the clinical role of various enteric viruses responsible for infantile gastroenteritis in 632 Tunisian children presenting in dispensaries (380 children) or hospitalized (252 children) for acute diarrhea. At least one enteric virus was found in each of 276 samples (43.7%). A single pathogen was observed in

Khira Sdiri-Loulizi; Hakima Gharbi-Khelifi; Alexis de Rougemont; Slaheddine Chouchane; Nabil Sakly; Katia Ambert-Balay; Mouna Hassine; Mohamed Neji Guediche; Mahjoub Aouni; Pierre Pothier

2008-01-01

301

Early enteral immunonutrition in patients with severe sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To compare the mortality of critically ill patients given either enteral feeding with an immune-enhancing formula or parenteral nutrition (PN). We report the results of a planned interim analysis on patients with severe sepsis which was undertaken earlier than planned once a meta-analysis suggested excess mortality in patients with severe sepsis given enteral immunonutrition. Design. Randomised multicentre unblinded controlled

Guido Bertolini; Gaetano Iapichino; Danilo Radrizzani; Rebecca Facchini; Bruno Simini; Paola Bruzzone; Giancarlo Zanforlin; Gianni Tognoni

2003-01-01

302

A Guide to Enteral Drug Administration in Palliative Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral feeding is indicated in patients unable to ingest sufficient nutrients but whose gastrointestinal function is adequate for digestion and absorption. Indications in palliative care include patients with radical esophageal surgery, upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction, anorexia, and dysphagia. As the oral route is the preferred method of palliative drug delivery, the enteral feeding tube can become an important tool for

Peter J Gilbar; Dip Hosp Clin Pharm Pract

1999-01-01

303

Spectral analysis of HIV seropositivity among migrant workers entering Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is paucity of published data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Middle-East particularly Kuwait. We took advantage of the routine screening of migrants for HIV infection, upon arrival in Kuwait from the areas with high HIV prevalence, to 1) estimate the HIV seroprevalence among migrant workers entering Kuwait and to 2) ascertain if any

Saeed Akhtar; Hameed GHH Mohammad

2008-01-01

304

Detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses from poult enteritis syndrome in turkeys.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to detect and characterize enteric viruses [rotavirus, turkey astrovirus-2 (TAstV-2), reovirus, and turkey coronavirus] from cases of poult enteritis syndrome (PES) in Minnesota turkeys. Of the intestinal contents collected from 43 PES cases, 25 were positive for rotavirus and 13 for small round viruses by electron microscopy (EM). Of the enteric virus-positive cases by EM (n=27), 16 cases had rotavirus or small round viruses alone and the remaining 11 cases had both viruses. None of the cases were positive for reovirus or coronavirus by EM. However, with reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 40 cases (93%) were positive for rotavirus, 36 (84%) for TAstV-2, and 17 (40%) for reovirus. None of the cases were positive for turkey coronavirus by RT-PCR. The viruses from all cases were detected either alone or in combination of 2 or 3 by RT-PCR. Thus, 8 (19%) cases were positive for a single virus, whereas a combination of viruses was detected in the remaining 35 (81%) cases. The rota-TAstV-2 combination was the most predominant (n=18 cases). Fifteen cases were positive for all 3 viruses. The rotaviruses had sequence homology of 89.8 to 100% with previously published sequences of turkey rotaviruses at the nucleotide level. The TAstV-2 had sequence homology of 84.6 to 98.7% with previously published TAstV-2, whereas reoviruses had sequence homology of 91.6 to 99.3% with previously published sequences of turkey reoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that rota- and reoviruses clustered in a single group, whereas TAstV-2 clustered in 2 different groups. In conclusion, a larger number of PES cases was positive for rotavirus, TAstV-2, and reovirus by RT-PCR than with EM. The presence of more than one virus and changes at the genetic level in a virus may affect the severity of PES in turkey flocks. PMID:20075272

Jindal, N; Patnayak, D P; Chander, Y; Ziegler, A F; Goyal, S M

2010-02-01

305

Transition to life--a sendoff to the real world for graduating medical students.  

PubMed

Graduating medical students will enter the workforce, often for the first time. Many have spent the past 20 years as students, receiving financial support from parents, and have not managed real-life issues such as financial planning, real estate, balancing well-being with employment, and integrating into a new community with stressful working conditions. To address a perceived need, we designed an intervention to introduce graduating medical students to financial planning, real estate choices, physician wellness during relocation/internship, and traits of efficient interns. The objectives of this study are to (a) assess baseline experience, knowledge, and comfort of seniors about "real-life" experiences, and (b) assess the efficacy of a 4-hr educational intervention on perceptions of understanding financial planning, real estate choices, intern preparedness, and physician wellness. Acute Care College seniors (classes of 2009 and 2010) attended the intervention after match day and completed a survey to gather demographic data and assess preexisting knowledge and a postintervention survey (1-7 Likert scale). Forty-nine students (45% male; M age = 25.5 years) participated. Prior experiences: 43% no break in education, 51% no full-time job, 38% never signed a rental lease and 94% had not purchased real estate, 90% did not have (or were not aware of having) disability insurance, and 82% had educational debt exceeding $50,000. Following the workshop, students felt more confident in their understanding of life skills topics (real estate, 83%; financial planning, 94%; well-being, 86%). Our workshop assisted in preparing for life after medical school for 98% of the participants. Graduating medical students can gain knowledge about real-life responsibilities and confidence during an educational session prior to starting residency. PMID:22250934

Coates, Wendy C; Spector, Tahlia S; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian

2012-01-01

306

Teacher Licensing and Student Achievement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

States use licensing to ensure that only qualified teachers can be hired, but loopholes often allow teachers to enter the classroom via alternate routes. Comparing the performance of students whose teachers hold standard certificates with students whose teachers have non-standard credentials is one way to gauge the efficacy of licensing. Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study finds that students whose teachers possess a B.A. or M.A. in math outperform other students in math. Students whose teachers have any kind of certification (standard, emergency, alternative, etc.) outperform students whose teachers have no certification or are certified in a different subject. The authors also report that math and science students whose teachers have emergency credentials do no worse than those whose teachers hold standard teaching credentials.

Goldhaber, Dan; Brewer, Dominic

2010-11-02

307

[Postoperative enteral feeding in digestive anastomosis with proximal oesophageal partner].  

PubMed

This paper aim is to discuss the advantages of enteral postoperative feeding on patients submitted to surgery finalized through an eso-digestive anastomosis; in these cases enteral feeding is often delayed 5-8 days after the surgery, and in case of an anastomotic dehiscence may be even impossible. Also, the paper promotes duodenostomy as an important enteral feeding way, and discusses the indications and contraindications of different enteral nutrition pathways in such cases. There were studied 230 cases, 149 cases submitted to cancer surgery and 81 cases with benign condition surgery followed by an eso-digestive anastomosis, in which the following enteral nutrition pathways was practiced: nasogastric or naso-esojejunal feeding tube (55 cases); Witzel jejunostomy (28 cases); gastrostomy (79 cases); duodenostomy (68 cases). Postoperative morbidity induced exclusively by the enteral nutrition pathway was encountered in 36% of patients. On patients with an eso-gastric cervical anastomosis or esogastric thoracic anastomosis we used jejunostomy as enteral feeding path and a gastric tube passed by pyloric canal for gastric decompression. In cases of esophageal reconstruction for benign esophageal strictures gastrostomy remains the best feeding method. Duodenostomy was practiced as a feeding pathway in cases of total gastrectomy with esojejunal anastomosis, with closure of the duodenal stump. PMID:20941969

Vasile, I; Mirea, C; Vîlcea, I D; Calot?, F; Pa?alega, M; Me?in?, C; Cheie, M; Mogoan??, S; Dumitrescu, T; Grecu, C; Radu, V; Moraru, E

2010-01-01

308

Likelihood of Treatment in a Coronary Care Unit for a First-Time Myocardial Infarction in Relation to Sex, Country of Birth and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between sex, country of birth, level of education as an indicator of socioeconomic position, and the likelihood of treatment in a coronary care unit (CCU) for a first-time myocardial infarction. Design Nationwide register based study. Setting Sweden. Patients 199 906 patients (114 387 men and 85,519 women) of all ages who were admitted to hospital for first-time myocardial infarction between 2001 and 2009. Main outcome measures Admission to a coronary care unit due to myocardial infarction. Results Despite the observed increasing access to coronary care units over time, the proportion of women treated in a coronary care unit was 13% less than for men. As compared with men, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio among women was 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.82). This lower proportion of women treated in a CCU varied by age and year of diagnosis and country of birth. Overall, there was no evidence of a difference in likelihood of treatment in a coronary care unit between Sweden-born and foreign-born patients. As compared with patients with high education, the adjusted odds ratio among patients with a low level of education was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.96). Conclusions Foreign-born and Sweden-born first-time myocardial infarction patients had equal opportunity of being treated in a coronary care unit in Sweden; this is in contrast to the situation in many other countries with large immigrant populations. However, the apparent lower rate of coronary care unit admission after first-time myocardial infarction among women and patients with low socioeconomic position warrants further investigation.

Yang, Dong; James, Stefan; de Faire, Ulf; Alfredsson, Lars; Jernberg, Tomas; Moradi, Tahereh

2013-01-01

309

Implementation of ISO 14001:2004 (environmental management system standard) for reverse osmosis desalination plants for the first time in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of ISO 14001:2004 (environmental management system) has been executed for reverse osmosis desalination plants for the first time in Iran at Noor Vijeh Company (N.V. Co), a water and wastewater firm based in Tehran. The scope of work was the activities and product of company's BWRO desalination plant in the city of Qom (3000 m3 per day) and SWRO

Arian Edalat

2008-01-01

310

Engineering Communication: Student Reading Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handout, from Justin Foss at the Engineering Technology Pathways project, introduces students to the "four relationships to Engineering Communication to become successful." Those steps are: Mathematical Expression, Communication Skills, 2-Dimensional Drafting and Sketching, and 3-Dimensional Modeling. Each step is elaborated with examples, and the reading is followed by a list of sources for more information. This is an excellent introductory lecture or reading for students just entering the engineering design classroom.

Foss, Justin

2010-10-07

311

Survey of Montgomery County Public School Eleventh Grade High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 1984, a survey was conducted by Montgomery College (MC) to ascertain the postsecondary educational goals of Montgomery County Public School (MCPS) 11th grade students; to understand students' perceptions of MC; to identify the criteria students use in college selection; and to assess the needs of entering students. Students at 18 of the…

Campbell, William E.; Hemenway, David A.

312

HTLV-1/2 seroprevalence and coinfection rate in Brazilian first-time blood donors: an 11-year follow-up.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence and geographic distribution of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors are extremely important to transfusion services. We evaluated the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among first-time blood donor candidates in Ribeirão Preto city and region. From January 2000 to December 2010, 1,038,489 blood donations were obtained and 301,470 were first-time blood donations. All samples were screened with serological tests for HTLV-1/2 using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In addition, the frequency of coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chagas disease (CD) and syphilis was also determined. In-house PCR was used as confirmatory test for HTLV-1/2. A total of 296 (0.1%) first-time donors were serologically reactive for HTLV-1/2. Confirmatory PCR of 63 samples showed that 28 were HTLV-1 positive, 13 HTLV-2 positive, 19 negative and three indeterminate. Regarding HTLV coinfection rates, the most prevalent was with HBV (51.3%) and HCV (35.9%), but coinfection with HIV, CD and syphilis was also detected. The real number of HTLV-infected individual and coinfection rate in the population is underestimated and epidemiological studies like ours are very informative. PMID:22634882

Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Azevedo, Rochele; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Valente, Vanderléia Bárbaro; Ubiali, Eugênia Maria Amorim; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone

2012-01-01

313

Soluble CD163 does not predict first-time myocardial infarction in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a nested case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive biomarker of myocardial infarction (MI). Methods We conducted a nested case–control study of 55 cases with first-time MI and 182 controls matched for age, duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), gender, smoking, and no known cardiovascular disease. All patients had four available plasma samples, 1: Before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), 2: Three months after ART, 3: One year before the case’s MI, and 4: The last sample available before the case’s MI. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the association of sCD163 with first-time MI. Results The two groups had similar HIV-parameters and cardiovascular risk factors were equally distributed. There was no significant association between sCD163 and MI neither in samples obtained one year before (OR 1.05, CI 95% 0.85 – 1.29, p?=?0.66) nor two months before (OR 1.20, CI 95% 0.98-1.47 p?=?0.08). Conclusion sCD163 did not prove to be a useful biomarker for prediction of first-time MI in a HIV-infected population.

2013-01-01

314

Public-Private Partnerships Benefit Students and Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's highly competitive job market, it takes more than just having the right training or degree to get hired. Many companies require previous work experience to even be considered for an interview. For young adults looking to enter the workforce for the first time, or older adults making a career change, this can be a frustrating situation.…

Nichols, Tiffani

2012-01-01

315

Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems  

SciTech Connect

Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

Nijs, Els L. F., E-mail: nijs@email.chop.ed [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Clinical Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Cahill, Anne Marie, E-mail: cahill@email.chop.ed [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States)

2010-12-15

316

Introducing the Action Potential to Psychology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this simple active learning technique for teaching, students are assigned "roles" and act out the process of the action potential (AP), including the firing threshold, ion-specific channels for ions to enter and leave the cell, diffusion, and the refractory period. Pre-post test results indicated that students demonstrated increased…

Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.

2014-01-01

317

The Professional Socialization of Social Work Students.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this dissertation is to explore some effects of graduate social work education on the students' attitudes and expectations towards their chosen field, as compared to medical students -- a group expected to enter a field at the opposite end ...

T. H. Shey

1968-01-01

318

Patterns of Admission for Transfer Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics show that the number of student transfers has now doubled the number of entering freshmen at 4-year institutions. To acquire representative national data on the kinds of students who transfer and what determines whether they are admitted or not, a survey was made of 146 selected colleges that closely represent 4-year accredited…

Willingham, Warren W.; Findikyan, Nurhan

319

Creating a Faculty Culture of Student Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sophia Graff, a beginning algebra teacher at Valencia College in Orlando, had an idea. The state of Florida had instituted a mandatory competency test that students needed to pass to enter intermediate algebra, but only a third of her students were succeeding. As part of an action-research project that was required for all professors seeking…

Aspen Institute, 2013

2013-01-01

320

Student Loans: What Do We Want?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A college financial aid administrator argues that good student loan programs are being discontinued because of politics and territoriality, and calls on the banking industry to enter into a more productive partnership with higher education, families, and associations to solve some of the problems of student loan financing and develop good public…

Frishberg, Ellen

1996-01-01

321

Assessing Students' Skills and Interests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph addresses assessment of students entering two-year colleges. In her introduction to the monograph, Luene Corwin provides an overview of various assessment models in existence. Assessment systems currently in use are discussed in the following papers: "Assessment at Guilford Technical Community College," by Paula Garber; "Testing at…

Corwin, Luene; And Others

322

The impact of microbial immune enteral nutrition on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients in Liaocheng People's Hospital were randomized into the microbial immune enteral nutrition group and the control group: 24 patients in treatment group and 22 patients in control group. The immune microbial nutrition was given to the study group, but not to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and prealbumin and the number of CD3 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell, CD8 (+) T cell, CD4 (+)/CD8 (+) and natural killer cell of the two groups were detected on the 1, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were recorded, and the tolerance of the two groups for enteral nutrition and intestinal symptoms was collected and then comparing the two indicators and get results. The tolerance of microbial immune enteral nutrition group about abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea was better than the control group (P values were 0.018, 0.04 and 0.008 after 7 days; P values were 0.018, 0.015 and 0.002 after 14 days); and the cellular immune parameters were better than the control group((?) P = 0.008,([Symbol: see text]) P = 0.039, (?) P = 0.032); No difference was found in nutrition indicators. To the patients with acute radiation enteritis, microbial immune enteral nutrition could improve the patient's immune status, and the tolerance of enteral nutrition could be better for the bowel function and the patients' rehabilitation. PMID:24366547

Shao, Feng; Xin, Fu-Ze; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Dao-Gui; Mi, Yue-Tang; Yu, Jun-Xiu; Li, Guo-Yong

2014-06-01

323

Addressing the Needs of Under-Prepared Students in Higher Education: Does College Remediation Work? NBER Working Paper No. 11325  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, thousands of students graduate high school academically unprepared for college. As a result, approximately one-third of entering postsecondary students require remedial or developmental work before entering college-level courses. However, little is known about the causal impact of remediation on student outcomes. At an annual cost of…

Bettinger, Eric P.; Long, Bridget Terry

2005-01-01

324

129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

325

VIEW LOOKING EAST AT PLEASURE CRAFTS ENTERING THE NAVIGATION LOCK. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING EAST AT PLEASURE CRAFTS ENTERING THE NAVIGATION LOCK. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Navigation Lock, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

326

View facing north (30°) of Transmission Line entering Teton River ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View facing north (30°) of Transmission Line entering Teton River Valley, near Structure 40-7 - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

327

IMPROVED METHOD FOR RECOVERY OF ENTERIC VIRUSES FROM WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Various parameters involved in recovering indigenous enteric viruses from wastewater sludges aided by buffered beef extract elution and subsequent organic flocculation concentration were examined. Conditions were optimized to yield an overall effective method for use in environme...

328

Inadvertent Central Venous Infusion of Enteral Feed: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Inadvertent administration of enteral feed into an intravenous line is preventable usually by design of incompatible connectors, but these may not be available universally. We discuss a case report where this occurred and the subsequent management strategy.

Sen, Indrani; Raju, Ravish Sanghi; Vyas, Frederick Lorence; John, Preeta; Sitaram, Venkatramani

2008-01-01

329

Inadvertent central venous infusion of enteral feed: a case report.  

PubMed

Inadvertent administration of enteral feed into an intravenous line is preventable usually by design of incompatible connectors, but these may not be available universally. We discuss a case report where this occurred and the subsequent management strategy. PMID:18990273

Sen, Indrani; Raju, Ravish Sanghi; Vyas, Frederick Lorence; John, Preeta; Sitaram, Venkatramani

2008-11-01

330

19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic...Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within,...

2014-04-01

331

An Entering Year Program: Assisting with University Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Entering Year Program at the University of Iowa, which provides a deliberate and systematic integration of educational support services within the residence hall environment. Goals and specific activities are described. (JAC)

Hetherington, Cheryl; Davis, June

1984-01-01

332

Preparation and characterization of enteric microparticles by coacervation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to produce cinnarizine loaded Eudragit(®) L100-55 microparticles by coacervation technique in order to achieve pH responsive drug release using hydroxypropyl methycellulose (HPMC) as stabilizer. The effect of enteric polymer: HPMC ratio on properties of microparticles was investigated with regard to particle size distribution, morphology, yield, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release profiles and interaction between cinnarizine and Eudragit(®) L100-55. High drug encapsulation efficiency was seen in all microparticles. Particle diameter increased when the enteric polymer content was higher relative to HPMC. In vitro dissolution studies demonstrated that the drug release from the microparticles was dependent upon enteric polymer: HPMC ratio and particle size distribution. At the ratio of at least 3.75:1 of enteric polymer: HPMC, drug release was suppressed most significantly in low pH (hydrochloric acid as medium) while rapid drug release was observed in pH 7.4. PMID:23003201

Thomas, Steffi; Chong, Yin Ning; Chaw, Cheng Shu

2013-07-01

333

2. CANAL BOAT ENTERING THE DELAWARE CANAL FROM OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CANAL BOAT ENTERING THE DELAWARE CANAL FROM OF THE LEHIGH RIVER. BOATS COULD BE FERRIED ACROSS THE DELAWARE RIVER TO THE MORRIS CANAL BY A CABLE SUPPORTED TROLLEY. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

334

1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

335

Improved Method for Recovery of Enteric Viruses from Wastewater Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various parameters involved in recovering indigenous enteric viruses from wastewater sludges aided by buffered beef extract elution and subsequent organic flocculation concentration were examined. Conditions were optimized to yield an overall effective me...

C. J. Hurst T. Goyke

1986-01-01

336

Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Pathogens in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacterial enteric infections exact a heavy toll on human populations, particularly among children and immunosuppressed individuals\\u000a in developing countries, where malnutrition, HIV\\/AIDS and poor sanitation abound. Despite the explosion of knowledge on the\\u000a pathogenesis of enteric diseases during the past two decades, the number of diarrhoeal episodes and human deaths reported\\u000a especially among the poor populations in developing countries remain

Samuel Kariuki

337

Enteral nutrition intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of enteral feeding intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients, the effect of enteral feeding intolerance on the efficacy of feeding, the correlation between the infection marker (procalcitonin [PCT]) and the nutrition status marker (prealbumin) and the impact of feeding intolerance on the outcome of septic burn patients. From January 2009 to December 2012 the data of all burn patients with the diagnosis of sepsis who were placed on enteral nutrition were analyzed. Septic patients were divided into two groups: group A, septic patients who developed feeding intolerance; group B, septic patients who did not develop feeding intolerance. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed and compared. The diagnosis of sepsis was applied to 29% of all patients. Of these patients 35% developed intolerance to enteral feeding throughout the septic period. A statistically significant increase in mean PCT level and a decrease in prealbumin level was observed during the sepsis period. Group A patients had statistically significant lower mean caloric intake, higher PCT:prealbumin ratio, higher pneumonia incidence, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Maximum Score, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and a higher mortality rate in comparison with the septic patients without gastric feeding intolerance. The authors concluded that a high percentage of septic burn patients developed enteral feeding intolerance. Enteral feeding intolerance seems to have a negative impact on the patients' nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality. PMID:24879397

Lavrentieva, Athina; Kontakiotis, Theodore; Bitzani, Militsa

2014-01-01

338

Transplanted progenitors generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal colon  

PubMed Central

Cell therapy has the potential to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by diseases of the enteric nervous system. Many studies have demonstrated that various stem/progenitor cells can give rise to functional neurons in the embryonic gut; however, it is not yet known whether transplanted neural progenitor cells can migrate, proliferate, and generate functional neurons in the postnatal bowel in vivo. We transplanted neurospheres generated from fetal and postnatal intestinal neural crest–derived cells into the colon of postnatal mice. The neurosphere-derived cells migrated, proliferated, and generated neurons and glial cells that formed ganglion-like clusters within the recipient colon. Graft-derived neurons exhibited morphological, neurochemical, and electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of enteric neurons; they received synaptic inputs; and their neurites projected to muscle layers and the enteric ganglia of the recipient mice. These findings show that transplanted enteric neural progenitor cells can generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal bowel and advances the notion that cell therapy is a promising strategy for enteric neuropathies.

Hotta, Ryo; Stamp, Lincon A.; Foong, Jaime P.P.; McConnell, Sophie N.; Bergner, Annette J.; Anderson, Richard B.; Enomoto, Hideki; Newgreen, Donald F.; Obermayr, Florian; Furness, John B.; Young, Heather M.

2013-01-01

339

[Croatian guidelines for use of enteral nutrition in Crohn's disease].  

PubMed

Nutrition has an important role in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). This role includes the prevention and correction of malnutrition, the prevention of osteoporosis and the promotion of optimal growth and development in children. In active Crohn's disease, nutritional therapy (in the form of enteral feeding) is an effective primary therapy for pediatric patients. Studies have shown that there is no difference in the efficacy of elemental, oligomeric and polymeric enteral formulas. Therefore, the use of polymeric formula is recommended because of higher palatability, better acceptance by patients, lower rate of complications and lower cost when compared with other enteral formulas. Today we have knowledge that some nutrients which are added to modified special enteral formulas have almost pharmacological terapeutic potential in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Novel nutritional therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bowel disease, such as transforming growth factor-beta-enriched (TGF-beta2) enteral feeding, showed beneficial effects in several clinical studies. Croatian guidelines for enteral nutrition in Crohn's disease have been developed by interdisciplinary expert group of Croatian clinicians involved with inflammatory bowel disease. The guidelines are based on evidence from relevant medical literature and clinical experience of working group. PMID:20359151

Krznari?, Zeljko; Kolacek, Sanja; Bender, Darija Vranesi?; Keleci?, Dina Ljubas; Cukovi?-Cavka, Silvija; Sinci?, Brankica Mijandrusi?; Bani?, Marko; Borzan, Vladimir; Simuni?, Miroslav; Persi?, Mladen; Stimac, Davor; Vuceli?, Boris

2010-01-01

340

Border Security: Improvements Needed to Reduce Time Taken to Adjudicate Visas for Science Students and Scholars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year thousands of international science students and scholars apply for visas to enter the United States to participate in education and exchange programs. Foreign science students and scholars offer our country diversity and intellectual knowledge a...

2004-01-01

341

A Study of Factors Associated with the Occupational Plans of Iowa Vocational Agriculture Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was conducted to determine if there are differences in selected factors related to the educational and occupational plans of vocational agriculture students who plan to enter on-farm agricultural occupations, those who plan to enter off-farm agricultural occupations, and those who plan to enter non-agricultural occupations. The…

Byler, Bennie L.; Kaas, Duane A.

342

Course of infection with enteric parasites in hosts shifted from enteral to total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Two groups of rats were kept on an oral diet after infection with 10(4) Trichinella spiralis or 10 Hymenolepis diminuta larvae. Sixteen days and 2 days after infection with H. diminuta and T. spiralis, respectively, 8 rats from each group were switched to intravenous (iv) alimentation, while the remaining animals were retained on oral nutrition as controls. Rats were killed during the following 21 days. The number of T. spiralis recovered from iv-fed rats was significantly higher than in controls, whereas the sex ratio and worm size were similar. Disaccharidase deficiencies normally associated with either infection or parenteral feeding were additive in the infected, parenterally nourished rats. The rise in peroxidase activity normally associated with intestinal trichinosis was not as great (P less than 0.05) in iv-fed rats. Intravenous feeding did not affect tapeworm number, but caused destrobilization. This was followed by secondary proglottization that led to development of worms of normal length and with gravid segments, but with an increased length: weight ratio. Conclusions: oral food deprivation in the host does not adversely affect development of established T. spiralis. The larger worm burden in iv-fed rats may be due to reduced inflammation normally involved in worm expulsion. Exogenous food in the gut is not necessary for maintaining established H. diminuta; factors necessary for sustenance and growth can be acquired by the worm entirely from the exocrino-enteric circulation. PMID:819643

Castro, G A; Johnson, L R; Copeland, E M; Dudrick, S J

1976-06-01

343

First-Time Freshmen Four-Year Transfer Rates: Gainesville College to University System Senior Colleges and Universities, Fall 1988 to Fall 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study followed self-declared transfer students from time of entry at Gainesville College (GC) in fall 1988 through fall 1992, focusing on 4-year transfer rates to the University System of Georgia. Separate transfer rates were calculated for students who earned associate degrees from GC and for business administration majors, and…

Hamilton, John

344

The Elements of an Effective Dissertation and Thesis: A Step-by-Step Guide to Getting it Right the First Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a student guide to writing an effective doctoral dissertation or a master's thesis. This book disaggregates the elements of the dissertation and provides the student with a description, definition, and example of each dissertation element. The author presents multiple viewpoints that include both quantitative and qualitative approaches.…

Calabrese, Raymond L.

2006-01-01

345

An Examination of Special Education Decision Making with Hispanic First-Time Referrals in Large Urban School Districts: Longitudinal Study I Report. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristics of Hispanic students referred for special education services during 1983-84 in several large urban school districts with large minority populations were examined. Also examined was the predictive ability of various statistical models with respect to the eventual diagnostic outcomes of the students. File data were collected for…

Rueda, Robert; And Others

346

Identifying students at risk through ineffective study strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the proportion of students entering higher education rises, difficulties caused by inadequate preparation also increase. An ongoing study is developing a computer-based system to identify students whose study skills and strategies appear to be ineffective, which will also provide advice to students that is to some extent targeted to their individual needs. This paper concentrates on the first stages

H. Tait; N. Entwistle

1996-01-01

347

Making Connections: Dimensions of Student Engagement. 2009 Findings. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students arrive at college expecting to succeed and believing that they are motivated to do so. Too often, though, there is an evident difference between being motivated and being prepared to succeed. Still, community college students often come to recognize one factor that plays a pivotal role in their success: connections. Entering students

Community College Survey of Student Engagement, 2009

2009-01-01

348

Making Connections: Dimensions of Student Engagement. 2009 Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students arrive at college expecting to succeed and believing that they are motivated to do so. Too often, though, there is an evident difference between being motivated and being prepared to succeed. Still, community college students often come to recognize one factor that plays a pivotal role in their success: connections. Entering students

Community College Survey of Student Engagement, 2009

2009-01-01

349

Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments in Canadian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This article presents a study of the higher education experiences of students with visual impairments in Canada. Methods: Students with visual impairments and the staff members of disability programs were surveyed and interviewed regarding the students' experiences in entering higher education and completing their higher education…

Reed, Maureen; Curtis, Kathryn

2012-01-01

350

Introducing Technical Articles to Graduate Students Through Active Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their undergraduate studies, students obtain most of their information from textbooks and handbooks. Yet for graduate students, it is often necessary to obtain more current information that is only available in technical articles. Many entering graduate students are unaware of the role of journal articles in research and are not informed about the article submission process. Although this knowledge

Priscilla J. Hill

351

Discovering the Determinants of Chemistry Course Perceptions in Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goals of this project were to develop a reliable instrument to measure the chemistry course perceptions (CCP) of undergraduate chemistry students and to determine the predictors of CCP of undergraduate students as they enter their first college chemistry class. In a pilot study, 250 undergraduate students were solicited with 57…

Reardon, Robert F.; Traverse, Maria A.; Feakes, Debra A.; Gibbs, Karen A.; Rohde, Rodney E.

2010-01-01

352

Transitioning Students with Disabilities from Middle to High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students with disabilities entering the 9th grade express concern about getting lost in the larger high school environment, being picked on by older students, and having more challenging academic classes. The transition from middle-to-high school process for students with disabilities at Westminster High School in suburban Los Angeles is a…

Frasier, James R.

2007-01-01

353

Student and Stakeholder Perceptions of the Transition to High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mixed method, longitudinal design was used to assess student and stakeholder perceptions of the transition to high school. Comparisons between parent and student perceptions revealed few differences and both groups were generally optimistic about entering the Freshmen Center. Following the transition, student perceptions exhibited important…

Smith, Joshua S.; Akos, Patrick; Lim, Sungtaek; Wiley, Shanna

2008-01-01

354

Language and Anxiety: An Ethnographic Study of International Postgraduate Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some findings from an ethnographic study of international postgraduate students at a university in the South of England, which involved interviews and participant observation over a 12-month academic year. One of the major themes that emerged from this research was students’ anxiety over their level of English language. Although all students entered their course with a minimum

Lorraine Brown

2008-01-01

355

California Migrant Student Movement Study--Region 1 Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data taken from the Migrant Student Record Transfer System, a study was undertaken to examine migrant student movement patterns for Region 1 of California's Migrant Education Program which includes eight counties located along the Pacific coast between Los Angeles and San Francisco. In 1977, 490 students entered Region 1 from another state;…

Davis, Benjamin G.

356

Designing a First Year Experience Course for IS Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

First Year Experience (FYE) courses target entering students and introduce them to the college environment and expectations for the college classroom. These courses have gained increasing popularity due to their positive impact on retention of students, as well as increased graduation rates. This workshop will describe how to design a FYE course specifically targeting IS students. The IS focused FYE

Amy B. Woszczynski; Martha Myers

2005-01-01

357

University Students' Conceptualization and Interpretation of Topographic Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the strategies and assumptions that college students entering an introductory physical geology laboratory use to interpret topographic maps, and follows the progress of the students during the laboratory to analyze changes in those strategies and assumptions. To elicit students’ strategies and assumptions, we created and refined a topographic visualization test that was administered before and after instruction

Douglas Clark; Stephen Reynolds; Vivian Lemanowski; Thomas Stiles; Senay Yasar; Sian Proctor; Elizabeth Lewis; Charlotte Stromfors; James Corkins

2008-01-01

358

Assessment of Critical Thinking Skills in Associate Degree Nursing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the change in the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students as they progressed through their educational process at the Reedsburg campus of Madison Area Technical College (MATC) in Wisconsin. The study sample consisted of two cohorts of 24 students each (students entering MATC's associate degree nursing program…

Soukup, Frances

359

Derrida Meets IBM: Using Deconstruction To Teach Business Communication Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The business communications teacher helps the student learn to write the proposal that wins a promotion or the sales letter that wins new customers. Students poised to enter the business world need language theories as much as students studying literature, for the corporate language culture is as unpredictable and ambiguous as any literary text.…

Rice, H. William

360

Academic and Nonacademic Student Life at Stony Brook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the first of three reports designed to provide information on the student at Stony Brook. The academic and nonacademic student life at Stony Brook is discussed in relationship to the entering students; academic life; the social and psychological dimensions; the residences; the services and peer helping; women undergraduates;…

Bess, James L.; And Others

361

Can't Do Maths--Understanding Students' Maths Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of students continuing with their mathematics education post GCSE level has declined in recent years and hence students entering Engineering degrees are reducing. The University of Birmingham recognized this problem and introduced the Suite of Technology programme (STP) which no longer requires students to have A-level mathematics.…

Metje, N.; Frank, H. L.; Croft, P.

2007-01-01

362

Opinions of English Major Students about Their Departments' Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University websites serve as sharing information with students whether prospective or enrolled. Often, before entering their departments, students visit them to have an idea as to what it would be like to be a part of that university and/or department. In that sense, websites help students in deciding whether the university matches their…

Zengin, Bugra; Arikan, Arda; Dogan, Duygu

2011-01-01

363

Pathways of Student Persistence at RSC (Includes Persistence of Matriculants).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, a study was conducted of semester-to-semester persistence patterns at Rancho Santiago College (RSC). The study involved tracking the attendance patterns of all RSC students entering as new students in fall 1983 and each subsequent fall until 1990; and comparing the persistence rates of matriculated and non-matriculated students in the…

Fredericksen, Marlene

364

A smooth transition?Education and social expectations of direct entry students  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the most common type of student entering higher education falls within the 17—19-year-old age group, universities in the UK are keen to accept other categories of students onto programmes as a means of increasing diversity and maintaining student numbers in the latter portion of a programme. One such category is those students who enter a programme directly into the

Paul Barron; Norma DAnnunzio-Green

2009-01-01

365

Postia alni Niemel? & Vampola (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) - member of the problematic Postia caesia complex - has been found for the first time in Hungary  

PubMed Central

Abstract Due to their bluish basidiocarps the Postia caesia (syn. Oligoporus caesius) complex forms a distinctive morphological group within the polypore genus Postia Fr., 1874. Five species of this group occur in Europe: Postia alni Niemelä & Vampola, Postia caesia (Schrad.) P. Karst., Postia luteocaesia (A. David) Jülich, Postia mediterraneocaesia M. Pierre & B. Rivoire and Postia subcaesia (A. David) Jülich. In this study Postia alni is reported for the first time from Hungary. The dichotomous key of the species of the European Postia caesia complex was prepared as well.

2014-01-01

366

Clinical Equivalency of Ciprofloxacin 750 mg Enterally and 400 mg Intravenously for Patients Receiving Enteral Feeding: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Concomitant enteral administration of ciprofloxacin with products containing magnesium, aluminum, and calcium (e.g., as enteral feeds) decreases the oral bioavailability of this antibiotic. The manufacturer currently recommends holding enteral feeds for a total of 8 h after ciprofloxacin is given, but this is not feasible for patients who are receiving continuous enteral feeding. A previous study demonstrated that a higher dose of oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg BID) may compensate for the reduced bioavailability associated with this drug–food interaction, allowing adequate concentrations for effective bactericidal activity. Objective: To evaluate whether ciprofloxacin 750 mg administered enterally is a clinically feasible alternative to ciprofloxacin 400 mg administered intravenously for adults receiving enteral feeds. Methods: A literature search was conducted in EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2008) and MEDLINE (January 1949 to April 2008), with no language restrictions, using the key words “ciprofloxacin”, “fluoroquinolone”, “tube feed”, and “enteral”. For trials that remained after screening of the abstract, the full text was reviewed and the reference lists were hand-searched to identify additional trials. The following outcomes were prespecified: death, serious adverse events, clinical cure, microbiological cure, re-infection, total adverse events, ratio of area under the curve (AUC, in microgram-hours per millilitre) to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, in micrograms per millilitre), ratio of maximum serum concentration (Cmax, in micrograms per millilitre) to MIC, and Cmax. Results: The search identified 121 potentially eligible studies, which were screened on the basis of information provided in the abstract. From this initial screening, it was clear that 113 studies did not meet the inclusion criteria. The remaining 8 studies were subjected to a full-text review, which revealed that only 1 study met the inclusion criteria. In that study, ciprofloxacin 750 mg given enterally yielded an AUC similar to that achieved with 400 mg given parentally, but the Cmax was lower. No clinical outcomes were reported. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence from this systematic review to determine whether patients receiving enteral feeds concomitantly with enteral ciprofloxacin 750 mg BID will achieve clinical outcomes similar to those receiving parenteral ciprofloxacin 400 mg BID.

Chui, Donna; Cheng, Lily; Tejani, Aaron M

2009-01-01

367

Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the effect of proton pump inhibitors on adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction. Design Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched study based on administrative data. Setting All hospitals in Denmark. Participants All aspirin treated patients surviving 30 days after a first myocardial infarction from 1997 to 2006, with follow-up for one year. Patients treated with clopidogrel were excluded. Main outcome measures The risk of the combined end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke associated with use of proton pump inhibitors was analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazard models, and propensity score matched Cox proportional hazard models. Results 3366 of 19?925 (16.9%) aspirin treated patients experienced recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. The hazard ratio for the combined end point in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors based on the time dependent Cox proportional hazard model was 1.46 (1.33 to 1.61; P<0.001) and for the propensity score matched model based on 8318 patients it was 1.61 (1.45 to 1.79; P<0.001). A sensitivity analysis showed no increase in risk related to use of H2 receptor blockers (1.04, 0.79 to 1.38; P=0.78). Conclusion In aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction, treatment with proton pump inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events.

2011-01-01

368

Adjunctive enteral phenobarbital for adult status epilepticus: a brief report  

PubMed Central

Background Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency condition. Intravenous phenobarbital (PB) is recommended for refractory SE treatment. However, intravenous PB is unavailable in Thailand. Enteral PB has been shown to be effective in SE children. Methods In adult SE patients, the efficacy of enteral PB as an adjunctive therapy has been reported. This is a case series of adult SE patients who were treated with enteral PB at Khon Kaen University Hospital, Thailand. The clinical features and clinical outcomes are reported. Results There were six patients; five patients had convulsive SE, and one patient had nonconvulsive SE. All patients received PB enterally, at dosages of 900 mg initially and repeated doses of 900 mg as needed. This was gradually reduced to a maintenance dosage of 180 mg/day. Three out of six patients were completely controlled, whereas the other three patients were partially controlled. Three out of six patients were seizure-free after the initial loading dose of PB. No adverse effects were found in this study. Conclusion In adult patients, enteral PB may be effective as an add-on for refractory SE therapy.

Tiamkao, Somsak; Suttapan, Kornkanok; Pranbul, Sineenard; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

2013-01-01

369

Student interests and undergraduate performance: the importance of student–course alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a growing interest in the influences on undergraduate performance in recent years as a result of the increasing diversity of students entering third-level education and an ever increasing emphasis on the development of a robust knowledge economy. This paper investigates the influence of students’ dominant interest types and prior academic achievement on undergraduate performance in an Irish

Raymond Lynch; Niall Seery; Seamus Gordon

2011-01-01

370

Student Assessment System. Student Performance Record. Task Detailing. Cosmetology. Georgia Vocational Education Program Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet lists tasks and functions the cosmetology student should be able to do upon entering an employment situation or a postsecondary school. (Listings are also available for the areas of allied health occupations/practical nursing and transportation/automotive mechanics.) Tasks are coded to correspond to those on the Student Performance…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

371

The attitudes of male student teachers towards a career in special education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the reasons why so few male student teachers are entering the special education sector. This comes as recent statistics reveal that the percentage of male teaching staff in special education in Northern Ireland is much lower than in England. The article first critically considers the international literature on male students’ perceptions of entering the teaching profession. The

Noel Purdy

2009-01-01

372

Re-deploying Techniques of Pastoral Power by Telling Tales on Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on interviews undertaken with second year student teachers. They describe their motivations for wishing to enter the profession and imagine the type of teacher they wish to become. These student teachers express a desire to make a difference as strong motivation for wanting to enter the profession. This is not uncharacteristic.…

Tsolidis, Georgina; Pollard, Vikki

2007-01-01

373

Career Development for College Students with Asperger's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An increasing number of students with Asperger's syndrome are entering college today. Students with Asperger's syndrome face complex symptomology such as difficulty with social skills, narrowed interests, sensory issues, and lack of self-awareness that may affect their ability to complete college and successfully enter the workforce.…

Mynatt, Blair Sumner; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Hughes, Amber

2014-01-01

374

On Interpreting Students; Perceptions of Their College Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CUES scores for 75 colleges were related to college mean scores of 1964 entering freshmen on SAT(V) and SAT(M), sex composition of students, religion, and size of entering class. There remained substantial variance on the five CUES scales not predictable from the set of five institutional characteristics. (Author)

Centra, John A.; Linn, Robert L.

1970-01-01

375

How Not to Lose Your Students with Concept Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four physiology courses participating in a science education program used concept maps for the first time. At the conclusion of the term, students responded to an end-of-term survey about the activity. Following varied results, we sought to identify factors that students indicated are important for the acceptance of the technique. To encourage…

Bentley, Francoise Judith Benay; Kennedy, Sarah; Semsar, Katharine

2011-01-01

376

Advancing cognitive moral development: a field observation of college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, field observation research is conducted in a natural, controlled environment (i.e., classroom) to investigate ethical decision-making of college students. One hundred twelve (112) college students enrolled in four Principles of Marketing classes in a southeastern United States university participated in the study. In two of the four classes, the importance of ethical behavior was discussed in

Cynthia Rodriguez Cano; Doreen Sams

377

Advice and Student Agency in the Transition to Middle School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In response to the 2000 Virginia state writing prompt, eighth grade students wrote a letter of advice to a sixth grader coming to middle school for the first time. A purposeful sample of more than 10,000 writing responses was collected. Content analysis of a random sample of 350 responses revealed themes of advice for students negotiating the transition to middle school.

Akos, Patrick

2004-01-01

378

What prepares students to succeed in college physics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an obvious answer to the question: The best way to prepare students to succeed in college physics is to expose them to the material in high school. After all, few people are able to understand the concepts the first time around. But, as we tell our students when we want them to question, for example, the idea that

David Hammer

2003-01-01

379

Student Persistence in the Human Sciences: Freshman to Sophomore Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine persistence predictors among first-time college freshmen who declared majors in a College of Human Environmental Sciences at a land-grant university, the College Student Inventory (CSI) was used. It allowed the researchers to identify predictors of retention among incoming students by investigating the relationship between persistence…

Robertson, Lona J.; Taylor, Christopher A.

2009-01-01

380

Patterns in Student Financial Aid at Rural Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the 2005 Basic Classifications of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as a framing device through which to examine patterns of student financial aid at America's rural community colleges, which represent 64% of all U.S. community colleges. Rural community colleges serve more first-time, full-time students than…

Hardy, David E.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

2008-01-01

381

Variables that Encourage Students to Persist in Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimating the persistence of first-time students from the first year to the second year of college is a growing social and financial concern. Studying how socioeconomic status affects year-to-year persistence may help to identify and assist those students who have socioeconomic profiles most likely to indicate challenges to year-to-year…

Settle, Jim S.

2011-01-01

382

Advice and Student Agency in the Transition to Middle School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the 2000 Virginia state writing prompt, eighth grade students wrote a letter of advice to a sixth grader coming to middle school for the first time. A purposeful sample of more than 10,000 writing responses was collected. Content analysis of a random sample of 350 responses revealed themes of advice for students negotiating the transition to middle

Patrick Akos

383

The aging colon: the role of enteric neurodegeneration in constipation.  

PubMed

Constipation is a common problem in the elderly, and abnormalities in the neural innervation of the colon play a significant role in abnormalities in colonic motility leading to delayed colonic transit. The scope of this review encompasses the latest advances to enhance our understanding of the aging colon with emphasis on enteric neurodegeneration, considered a likely cause for the development of constipation in the aging gut in animal models. Neural innervation of the colon and the effects of aging on intrinsic and extrinsic nerves innervating the colonic smooth muscle is discussed. Evidence supporting the concept that neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, not only affect the brain but also cause neurodegeneration within the enteric nervous system leading to colonic dysmotility is presented. Further research is needed to investigate the influence of aging on the gastrointestinal tract and to develop novel approaches to therapy directed at protecting the enteric nervous system from neurodegeneration. PMID:20878508

Wiskur, Brandt; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

2010-12-01

384

Drug–Nutrient Interactions in Patients Receiving Enteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Describe enteral nutrition and discuss its indications, routes of administration, administration regimens, and safety issues.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Define different classes of interactions that can occur between enteral nutrition and medication – including those that are\\u000a specific to administration, formulation, drug, or disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Describe appropriate medication administration in the patient receiving enteral nutrition therapy.

Carol J. Rollins

385

Measuring Student Scholastic Effort: An Economic Theory of Learning Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction and testing of a model to evaluate effectiveness of various teaching methods in economics. The variables included students' time spent on the course and expected grade upon entering the course. (Author/AV)

Wetzel, James N.

1977-01-01

386

Supplementary enteral nutrition maintains remission in paediatric Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Liquid diets given enterally combined with "bowel rest' are efficacious in the treatment of active Crohn's disease, but rapid recrudescence of gastrointestinal symptoms after resumption of a normal diet is common. AIMS--This study examined whether continuation of enteral nutrition as a nocturnal supplement to an ad libitum daytime intake of a normal diet increased the length of remission of Crohn's disease in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS--Children and adolescents with active Crohn's disease treated successfully with exclusive enteral nutrition were classified retrospectively according to whether they continued supplementary enteral nutrition or not. Time to relapse and linear growth were compared between the two cohorts. RESULTS--Between January 1986 and December 1992, 65 patients aged 7-17 years (mean (SD) 13.6 (2.1) years) (36 males, 29 females) with Crohn's disease in exacerbation were treated for > or = four weeks by bowel rest and nasogastric tube feeding of an oligopeptide or amino acid based formula. At first follow up visit, remission (fall in Paediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index, PCDAI to < or = 20) was achieved in 47 of 65 (72%) patients. Subsequently, 20 of these 47 (43%) relapsed by six months and 28 of 47 (60%) by 12 months. Patients who continued nasogastric supplementary feeding (n = 28) after resumption of an otherwise normal diet remained well longer than those who discontinued nocturnal supplements completely (n = 19) (p < 0.02). Furthermore, continued use of nasogastric supplements before completion of puberty was associated with improved linear growth. CONCLUSION--After successful treatment of active Crohn's disease by exclusive enteral nutrition, supplementary enteral nutrition without restriction of normal diet is associated with prolongation of remission and improved linear growth in children and adolescents.

Wilschanski, M; Sherman, P; Pencharz, P; Davis, L; Corey, M; Griffiths, A

1996-01-01

387

76 FR 26750 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activities: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special Tariff...concerning: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special Tariff...Title: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special...

2011-05-09

388

76 FR 39416 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activities: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special Tariff...Act: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special Tariff...Title: Documentation Requirements for Articles Entered Under Various Special...

2011-07-06

389

41 CFR 102-73.60 - With whom may Federal agencies enter into lease agreements?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false With whom may Federal agencies enter into lease agreements? 102-73...60 With whom may Federal agencies enter into lease agreements? Federal agencies, upon approval from GSA, may enter into lease agreements with...

2013-07-01

390

Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus  

PubMed Central

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV) was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E) of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The envelope (E) gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

Zou, Zhong; Liu, Zhigang; Jin, Meilin

2014-01-01

391

Efficient strategy to generate a vectored duck enteritis virus delivering envelope of duck tembusu virus.  

PubMed

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV) was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E) of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The envelope (E) gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV. PMID:24956180

Zou, Zhong; Liu, Zhigang; Jin, Meilin

2014-01-01

392

Detection of mink enteritis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was discovered in the last decade but only used for the first time in the diagnosis of mink enteritis virus (MEV) infection in this study. The amplification could be completed within 60 min, under isothermal condition at 65°C, by employing a set of four primers targeting the VP2 gene of MEV. The LAMP was more sensitive than the conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 10(-1) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50))/ml per reaction, compared with 10 TCID(50)/ml for PCR analysis. No cross reactivity was observed for other related viruses, including canine distemper virus (CDV) and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV). Eighty four of 230 clinical samples were found to be positive for MEV, which is higher than that determined by using the conventional PCR method (68). The results indicate the LAMP can be potentially used to determine MEV as a simple, rapid procedure. This assay would be an available alternative to PCR analysis for the diagnosis of MEV infection in mink, particularly in less well-equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited. PMID:23183142

Wang, Jianke; Cheng, Shipeng; Yi, Li; Cheng, Yuening; Yang, Shen; Xu, Hongli; Li, Zhenguang; Shi, Xinchuan; Wu, Hua; Yan, Xijun

2013-02-01

393

Evaluation of a treatment algorithm for acute traumatic osseous Bankart lesions resulting from first time dislocation of the shoulder with a two year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background Studies dealing with acute osseous Bankart lesions and corresponding treatment strategies are rare. The purpose of this study is to analyze the results after applying our treatment algorithm for acute glenoid rim fractures caused by first time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocations. Methods 25 patients were included in this retrospective case series. All patients sustained a first time shoulder dislocation caused by ski or snowboard accidents. An osseous Bankart lesion was detected in all shoulders. Operative therapy was performed in patients with osseous defects of 5% or more, otherwise conservative therapy was initiated. Primary study outcome parameter was the Rowe score. Additionally, the outer rotation deficit and operative complications were analysed. Results 12 patients showed a defect size of less than 5% and were treated conservatively. The average lesion size was 2%. For these patients, the Rowe score was excellent in 58%, good in 25%, and moderate in 17% of patients. Three patients (25%) complained about a feeling of instability. 13 patients had a lesion size of more than 5%, average 15%, and were treated operatively. The Rowe score for this group was excellent in 54%, good in 31%, and moderate results in 15% of patients. One patient (8%) complained about a feeling of instability, without recurrent dislocations. There were no statistically significant differences between both study groups (ROWE score: p?=?0.98). Conclusions Applying our treatment algorithm for acute osseous Bankart lesions consisting of a conservative strategy for small defect sizes and a surgical approach for medium-sized and large defects leads to encouraging mid-term results and a low rate of recurrent instability in active patients.

2013-01-01

394

A global view of library associations for students and new librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To guide students' thinking about joining professional associations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A few representative professional organizations are explored. Aspects such as organizational structure, history, culture, professional focus, and size are discussed. Findings – Many more professional associations exist and encourage student participation than most students are aware of when they enter the profession. Practical implications – Students can compare

Jim Agee; Linda Lillard

2005-01-01

395

A National Study of Student Early Alert Programs at Two-Year Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately half of students at the community college level leave the institution before degree completion. Community college students are more likely than four-year students to be first-generation students, attend school part-time, be less prepared academically, work full-time, have family responsibilities, and have entered college later in…

Fletcher, Darla Michelle Keel

2012-01-01

396

Get with the Program: Accelerating Community College Students' Entry into and Completion of Programs of Study. CCRC Working Paper No. 32  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students who enter higher education through a community college fail to earn a postsecondary credential. One reason for this that has not received enough attention is that many students do not enter a college-level program of study. Many new students arrive at community colleges without clear goals for college and careers. Community colleges…

Jenkins, Davis

2011-01-01

397

Relationship between Admission Criteria and Program Completion in an Associate Degree Nursing Program: Improving the Identification of the Student at Risk for Program Noncompletion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students enter colleges and universities with the expectation that they will attain the degree to which they aspire and graduate. Colleges and universities admit students they expect to be successful using research based academic predictors of success. Students who seek a degree from community colleges similarly enter with the expectation that…

Dolinar, Susan M.

2010-01-01

398

Occurrence of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Oysters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Enteric bacteria and virus levels were determined in oysters from paired stations that were opened or closed for commercial shellfishing on the basis of total coliform levels in the water. Six pairs of stations were sampled quarterly over a 1-year period....

M. D. Sobsey C. R. Hackney R. J. Carrick B. Ray M. L. Speck

1980-01-01

399

Entering Guanxi: A Business Ethical Dilemma in Mainland China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents an effort to distinguish between two types of guanxi prevalent in mainland China: favor-seeking guanxi that is culturally rooted and rent-seeking guanxi that is institutionally defined. Different rules of maneuvering the two types of guanxi are identified in light of Chinese cultural and business ethics. Strategies for entering guanxi in mainland China are also suggested.

Chenting Su; James E. Littlefield

2001-01-01

400

GDNF induces synaptic vesicle markers in enteric neurons.  

PubMed

Regulation of intestinal motility depends on an intact synaptic vesicle apparatus. Thus, we investigated the expression of the synaptic vesicle markers synaptophysin and synaptobrevin in the human enteric nervous system (ENS) and their regulation by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in cultured enteric neurons. Full-thickness specimens of the human colon were assessed for expression of synaptophysin and synaptobrevin and neuronal localization was assessed by dual-label immunocytochemistry with PGP 9.5. Effects of GDNF on both synaptic markers were monitored in enteric nerve cell cultures and the presence of varicosities was determined by applying electron microscopy to the cultures. Human colonic specimens showed immunoreactivity for synaptophysin and synaptobrevin in both myenteric and submucosal ganglia as well as in nerve fibers. Both synaptic vesicle markers co-localized with the neuronal marker PGP 9.5 and exhibited granular accumulation patterns in the human and rat ENS. In cultured rat myenteric neurons GDNF treatment promoted expression of both synaptic vesicle markers and the formation of neuronal varicosities. The regulation of synaptophysin and synaptobrevin in enteric neurons by GDNF argues for the induction of functional neuronal networks in culture characterized by an increase of synaptogenesis. PMID:24025431

Böttner, M; Harde, J; Barrenschee, M; Hellwig, I; Vogel, I; Ebsen, M; Wedel, T

2013-11-01

401

Gallbladder perforation: A rare complication of enteric fever?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Gallbladder perforation is a rare complication of acute calculous cholecystitis in adults. Perforation of gallbladder due to enteric fever is extremely rare condition. Pre-operative diagnosis is rarely made and mortality is high. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of acalculous gallbladder perforation following enteric fever in a 14-year-old boy, who presented as acute abdomen and responded very well after emergency laparotomy and cholecystectomy. DISCUSSION Enteric fever is common in tropics and a common cause of bowel perforation. Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of typhoid and gallbladder perforation is extremely rare complication. Ultrasound and CT lack specificity to detect gallbladder perforation. Diagnosis is usually made intra-operatively. Cholecystectomy is treatment of choice in such cases and provides good result. CONCLUSION Gallbladder perforation secondary to enteric fever requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. In typhoid endemic region, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patient presenting with a history of prolonged fever and signs of peritonitis. Early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention are very important in reducing the morbidity and mortality. Cholecystectomy is the choice with a good outcome.

Singh, Mahendra; Kumar, Lovekesh; Singh, Rashpal; Jain, Aaron K.; Karande, Snehal K.; Saradna, Arjun; Prashanth, U.

2013-01-01

402

View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View shows exposed tail of aircraft being serviced inside the hangar. Operational apron in background. View to southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

403

I.G. Farben directors enter the courtroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directors of the huge I. G. Farben Chemical Combine are shown entering the Nurnberg courtroom where they are on trial. As war criminals the defendants are charged with violation of the Versailles treaty, producing explosives, poison gas and other offensive weapons for Hitler, the plunder and seizure of factories in occupied countries, and the exploitation of slave labor in Farben

OMGUS MILITARY TRIBUNAL

1947-01-01

404

Studies on the Genetics of Virulence in Enteric Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Shigella flexneri 2a hybrid produced by mating with an Escherichia coli Hfr strain lost its ability to cause a fatal enteric infection when fed to starved guinea pigs. However, the hybrid retained other properties of virulence associated with its virule...

R. C. Parlett

1965-01-01

405

DETAIL OF PENSTOCK ENTERING SURGE TANK AND SOUTH SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF PENSTOCK ENTERING SURGE TANK AND SOUTH SIDE OF POWERHOUSE. 69-KV TRANSMISSION TOWERS WITH LIGHTENING ARRESTORS ARE SEEN ON HILLSIDE TO THE NORTH. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

406

Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with eosinophilic enteritis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder that may present with various symptoms. It may involve the gastrointestinal tract in a variety of ways; some of the most well-known ones are transaminitis, lupus mesenteric vasculitis, lupus enteritis and mesenteric vascular leakage. We describe a case of a patient with SLE who presented with a five-month history of diarrhea caused by eosinophilic enteritis. To the best of our knowledge, there are few cases reported in the literature of patients with SLE who initially present with chronic diarrhea due to eosinophilic enteritis. Case presentation A 38-year-old Persian Iranian woman was admitted with a five-month history of diarrhea and abdominal pain. A physical examination showed nothing abnormal. Initially, she had only lymphopenia and mild eosinophilia. No autoimmune or infectious etiology was detected to justify these abnormalities. A thorough evaluation was not helpful in finding the etiology, until she developed a scalp lesion similar to discoid lupus erythematosus. Computed tomography showed small bowel wall thickening. Briefly, she manifested full-blown SLE, and it was revealed that the diarrhea was caused by eosinophilic enteritis. Conclusion Considering SLE in a patient who presents with chronic diarrhea and lymphopenia may be helpful in earlier diagnosis and therapy. This is an original case report of interest to physicians who practice internal medicine, family medicine and gastroenterology.

2011-01-01

407

Enteric Physiology of the Transplanted Gut: Absorption and Motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous progress has been made recently in small bowel transplantation. However, our understanding of the enteric function of the transplanted gut remains in its infancy. Unlike many of the other organs commonly transplanted, the function of the transplanted gut appears to be markedly affected by the consequences of the transplantation procedure (denervation, lymphatic disruption, and immune phenomena). This review discusses

Michael G. Sarr

1996-01-01

408

AFRICANAMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AFRICAN-AMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN TWO OF THE 1916 STABLES. PHOTOGRAPH IS LOOKING TO THE WEST AND WAS TAKEN IN 1928 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1928.00.00.13, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

409

Enteric infection meets intestinal function: how bacterial pathogens cause diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diarrhoea is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. In bacterium-induced diarrhoea, rapid loss of fluids and electrolytes results from inhibition of the normal absorptive function of the intestine as well as the activation of secretory processes. Advances in the past 10 years in the fields of gastrointestinal physiology, innate immunity and enteric bacterial virulence mechanisms highlight the

V. K. Viswanathan; Kim Hodges; Gail Hecht

2008-01-01

410

Necrotizing hepatitis associated with enteric salmonellosis in an alpaca  

PubMed Central

Abstract Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the feces of an alpaca suffering anorexia and weight loss. Multifocal necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis consistent with bacterial infection was found in the liver biopsies. Enteric salmonellosis may be associated with milder physical and clinicopathological changes in camelids than in other large animal species.

2004-01-01

411

Early pharmacokinetic profiles of enteral tacrolimus after multivisceral transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tacrolimus (FK506) has proved itself to be of value in transplantation, particularly in liver transplantation, where good absorption1 of the drug has allowed enteral administration at an early stage. Its potency has allowed progress in multiple organ transplants but this comes at the cost of increased toxicity when used in high doses, particularly when given intravenously.2In small bowel transplantation the

L. J. Hansen; P. Puzycz; H. C. Gooi; P. Lodge; S. Pollard

1997-01-01

412

Seasonality in pulmonary tuberculosis among migrant workers entering Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data on seasonal variation in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries contrary to recognized seasonality in the TB notification in western societies. This study examined the seasonal pattern in TB diagnosis among migrant workers from developing countries entering Kuwait. METHODS: Monthly aggregates of TB diagnosis results for consecutive migrants tested between January I, 1997 and

Saeed Akhtar; Hameed GHH Mohammad

2008-01-01

413

Temporal epidemiology of microfilaraemia among migrant workers entering Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is paucity of published data on the microfilarial infection among migrants from endemic countries entering Kuwait. The primary objectives of this study were to use routine health surveillance data to i) to estimate the prevalence of microfilarial infection in migrant workers to Kuwait and ii) to determine the occurrence of any time trends in the proportions of microfilaria

Saeed Akhtar; Hameed GHH Mohammad; Edwin Michael

2008-01-01

414

Enteral nutrition as primary therapy in Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

The developments in enteral feeding for Crohn's disease in the past decade are critically reviewed. The advent of amino acid based chemically defined elemental diets signalled the end of 'total bowel rest' in the management of these patients. Subsequently, controlled clinical trials showed that elemental diets were as effective as corticosteroids in inducing clinical remission in patients with acute exacerbations of Crohn's disease. The later use of peptide based elemental diets, in Crohn's disease produced somewhat conflicting results. The initial uncontrolled studies suggest that polymeric whole protein diets might also be effective in the management of acute exacerbations of the disease, casting in turn doubts concerning the role of dietary antigens in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Results of controlled studies comparing the use of elemental and polymeric diets as primary therapy in Crohn's disease have, however, also produced conflicting results. The results of one recent controlled trial in which the use of polymeric diet was compared with that of corticosteroids does, however, suggest that these diets may have a primary therapeutic effect in Crohn's disease. An analysis of the composition of some of the enteral diets used in different trials suggest that the effectiveness of enteral diets in treating active Crohn's disease might relate more to their fat than nitrogen composition. A hypothesis is proposed that the effectiveness of enteral nutrition in the primary therapy of acute exacerbations of Crohn's disease occurs because the successful diets used contain insufficient precursors for arachidonate derived eicosanoid synthesis.

Fernandez-Banares, F; Cabre, E; Gonzalez-Huix, F; Gassull, M A

1994-01-01

415

Entering Communities: Social Justice Oriented Disaster Response Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors need to learn how to effectively and respectfully enter into communities hit by disasters and create collaborative partnerships with community members. Using critical consciousness theory, the authors describe a humanistic, culturally responsive approach to disaster response counseling for marginalized individuals and communities and…

West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.

2011-01-01

416

Personality Profiles of Veterans Entering Treatment for Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to reveal the typical personality profiles of veterans who have been perpetrators of domestic violence. Cluster analysis revealed that the MCMI-II profiles of 183 veterans entering treatment for domestic violence at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center fell into three clusters. These clusters were labeled Subclinical Narcissism, Narcissistic Personality Disorder, and High General Psychopathology\\/ Substance

Bertram Rothschild; Carolyn Dimson; Ragnar Storaasli; Lori Clapp

1997-01-01

417

Descriptive Summary of 2003-04 Beginning Postsecondary Students: Three Years Later. NCES 2008-174  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a description of the student characteristics, persistence, and degree attainment of a nationally representative sample of students who began postsecondary education for the first time during the 2003-04 academic year. The report describes the background, academic preparation, and experience of these beginning students over 3…

Berkner, Lutz; Choy, Susan

2008-01-01

418

Student perceptions of support services and the influence of targeted interventions on retention in distance education  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve student retention in distance education, Simpson suggested in 2003 that institutions analyse their own retention characteristics and ‘spot the leaks.’ In 2008 the Centre for Distance Learning at Laidlaw College, New Zealand, employed two part?time academic support coordinators in an effort to improve student retention and success. This study compares the retention statistics for first?time student outcomes across

Mark Nichols

2010-01-01

419

West Los Angeles College Student Follow-Up Study Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A follow-up study was conducted among new students at West Los Angeles College (WLAC) to identify student characteristics, educational goals, and objectives; and to relate these characteristics to student attrition. Subjects for the study were 483 first-time freshmen enrolled at WLAC in Fall 1977. This initial sample was surveyed again one year…

Garber, Robert

420

Teaching Assistants Who Instruct Preparatory Mathematics to Academically-Challenged First-Year College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching preparatory mathematics to first-time college students--who come from economically impoverished high schools that have not prepared their students to do college level mathematics--can be a daunting task for teaching assistants (TAs). The preparation of TAs to assist such students in the mastery of mathematical content is a complex…

Tawfeeq, Dante A. L.

2011-01-01

421

Border Security: Streamlined Visas Mantis Program Has Lowered Burden on Foreign Science Students and Scholars, but Further Refinements Needed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year thousands of international science students and scholars apply for visas to enter the United States to participate in education and exchange programs. Foreign science students and scholars offer our country diversity and intellectual knowledge a...

2005-01-01

422

Effect of enteric biopsy closure orientation on enteric circumference and volume of saline needed for leak testing.  

PubMed

This study describes the effect of enteric biopsy closure orientation on circumference and volume of saline needed for leak testing. There were significant differences in circumference measurements at baseline, central circumference of longitudinally closed sites, and volume of saline for leak testing. PMID:24381348

Matz, Brad M; Boothe, Harry W; Wright, James C; Boothe, Dawn M

2014-01-01

423

Hepatitis B virus infection among first-time blood donors in Italy: prevalence and correlates between serological patterns and occult infection  

PubMed Central

Background A prospective, 1-year study was performed among Italian first-time, volunteer blood donors, who account for 12% of all donations, in order to assess the frequency and serological patterns of hepatitis B virus infection and the presence of occult infection. Materials and methods Consecutive donors (n=31,190) from 21 blood transfusion centres, from age classes not subjected to universal HBV vaccination, were tested for HBsAg and anti-HBc by commercial immunoassays. Other HBV serological markers were searched for and qualitative and quantitative assessments of HBV-DNA were made in HBsAg and/or anti-HBc-positive individuals. Results Of the 31,190 donors studied, 100 (0.32%) were positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBc, 2 for HBsAg (0.01%) alone, and 2,593 (8.3%) for anti-HBc. Of these last, 86.7% were also positive for anti-HBs (with or without anti-HBe), 2.9% were positive for anti-HBe without anti-HBs and 10.4% had no other HBV markers (anti-HBc alone). A general north-south increasing gradient of HBV prevalence was observed. Circulating HBV-DNA was found in 96.8% of HBsAg-positive subjects as compared to 0.55% (12/2,186) of anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative subjects, with higher frequencies among anti-HBs-negative than among anti-HBs-positive ones (1.68% vs 0.37%; p <0.01) and among the 57 cases positive for both anti-HBc and anti-HBe (7%). HBV-DNA levels were significantly higher in HBsAg-positive subjects than in HBsAg-negative ones (median: 456 IU/mL vs 38 IU/mL). Conclusions The prevalence of HBV infection among Italian first-time blood donors is much lower than in the past. The presence of occult infections in this group was confirmed (frequency: 1 in 2,599), supporting the hypothesis of long-term persistence of HBV infection after clearance of HBsAg. HBsAg and nucleic acid amplification testing for blood screening and vaccination against HBV are crucial in order to further reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted HBV towards zero.

Romano, Luisa; Velati, Claudio; Cambie, Giuseppe; Fomiatti, Laura; Galli, Claudio; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo

2013-01-01

424

Enteric Infection with Citrobacter rodentium Induces Coagulative Liver Necrosis and Hepatic Inflammation Prior to Peak Infection and Colonic Disease  

PubMed Central

Acute and chronic forms of inflammation are known to affect liver responses and susceptibility to disease and injury. Furthermore, intestinal microbiota has been shown critical in mediating inflammatory host responses in various animal models. Using C. rodentium, a known enteric bacterial pathogen, we examined liver responses to gastrointestinal infection at various stages of disease pathogenesis. For the first time, to our knowledge, we show distinct liver pathology associated with enteric infection with C. rodentium in C57BL/6 mice, characterized by increased inflammation and hepatitis index scores as well as prominent periportal hepatocellular coagulative necrosis indicative of thrombotic ischemic injury in a subset of animals during the early course of C. rodentium pathogenesis. Histologic changes in the liver correlated with serum elevation of liver transaminases, systemic and liver resident cytokines, as well as signal transduction changes prior to peak bacterial colonization and colonic disease. C. rodentium infection in C57BL/6 mice provides a potentially useful model to study acute liver injury and inflammatory stress under conditions of gastrointestinal infection analogous to enteropathogenic E. coli infection in humans.

Raczynski, Arkadiusz R.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Schlieper, Katherine; Fox, James G.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

2012-01-01

425

ERIC/CUE: Helping Hispanic Students To Complete School and Enter College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the diversity of Hispanic Americans and their high school preparation for college. Their sociocultural characteristics and the predictive value of grades and college admission tests are discussed. Recommends important steps in counseling college-bound Hispanics. Gives list of organizations and resources for counselors. (SA)

Ascher, Carol

1985-01-01

426

Library Use and Undergraduate Student Outcomes: New Evidence for Students' Retention and Academic Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic libraries, like other university departments, are being asked to demonstrate their value to the institution. This study discusses the impact library usage has on the retention and academic success of first-time, first-year undergraduate students at a large, public research university. Usage statistics were gathered at the University of…

Soria, Krista M.; Fransen, Jan; Nackerud, Shane

2013-01-01

427

An analysis of first-time enquirers to the CancerBACUP information service: variations with cancer site, demographic status and geographical location  

PubMed Central

A retrospective comparison of cancer incidence data and, where relevant, population data with 16 955first-time users (patients, relatives and friends) of a national cancer information service (CancerBACUP) during the period April1995 to March 1996 is presented. The number of events observed was compared with the number of events expected, were the nationalrates of cancer incidence and population demographics apply. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) (observed – expectedratios) were used to indicate any differences. Statistically significant differences (P< 0.001) in the observed andexpected sex, age and primary site distribution of patients enquired about were found. Statistically significant differences(P< 0.001) were also identified for the age, employment status, socioeconomic class and geographical location offirst-time enquirers (patients, relatives and friends). Enquiries about brain, testis and breast cancers and non-Hodgkin'slymphoma (NHL) were substantially higher than expected; enquiries about bladder, lung, stomach and colorectal cancers were muchlower than expected. As the service is provided via a freephone number, it is available to all, and users might be expected to berandomly distributed across the variables listed. The underlying reasons for the differences identified need to be investigated,and the role of information in the care of cancer patients should be formally evaluated. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Boudioni, M; McPherson, K; Mossman, J; Boulton, M; Jones, A L; King, J; Wilson, E; Slevin, M L

1999-01-01

428

Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goi?s, central Brazil  

PubMed Central

Introduction Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. Methods A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Results An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3), tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1), illicit drug use (OR = 2.3), sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9) were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. Conclusion The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.

dos Anjos, Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; Brunini, Sandra Maria; Teles, Sheila Araujo

2011-01-01

429

Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil.  

PubMed

This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings. PMID:16149333

Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

2005-06-01

430

Depression and suicidality during the postpartum period after first time deliveries, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012.  

PubMed

Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted. PMID:24093957

Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia

2013-09-01

431

Montgomery Community College Profile of Entering Freshmen, Fall 1971.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a profile of 2,578 freshmen students at Montgomery College (Maryland), fall 1971. Data are presented in the following areas: (1) academic potentials, including ACT scores and high school grades; (2) goals and aspirations; (3) student personnel needs in the areas of housing, transportation, financial welfare, special programs, and…

Gell, Robert L., Comp.

432

HIV antibody seroprevalence among prisoners entering the California correctional system.  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional blind study was conducted in the spring of 1988 to estimate the extent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among inmates entering the California correctional system. Of the 6,834 inmates receiving entrance physical examinations during the study period, 6,179 (90.4%) had serum tested for the presence of HIV antibodies after routine blood work was completed and personal identifiers were removed. Seroprevalence was 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 2.1% to 3.0%) among the 5,372 men tested and 3.1% (95% confidence interval, 2.1% to 4.5%) among the 807 women tested. Seroprevalence was more than twice as high among men arrested in the San Francisco Bay Area as in those arrested elsewhere in the state. The regional differences in HIV seroprevalence observed among entering inmates mirror infection rates reported among intravenous drug users from the same regions.

Singleton, J. A.; Perkins, C. I.; Trachtenberg, A. I.; Hughes, M. J.; Kizer, K. W.; Ascher, M.

1990-01-01

433

Dual pathways regulate neurite outgrowth in enteric ganglia.  

PubMed

Primary cultures of guinea pig myenteric plexus ganglia were used to examine the ability of agents that activate adenylate cyclase or mimic intracellular adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) to stimulate morphological growth. Dose-dependent increases in neurite length and density were produced in enteric neuronal cultures by forskolin (212% of control), cholera toxin (356% of control), or the permeant cAMP analogues 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and dibutyryl cAMP. (R)-p-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent kinases, blocked the growth-promoting effects of cAMP analogues but not of nerve growth factor (NGF). Activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways also increased production of mRNA for alpha-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2. Dual pathways, regulated by NGF and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, influence growth signaling in enteric ganglia. PMID:7943337

Simeone, D M; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W

1994-10-01

434

Descriptive epidemiology of enteric disease in Chennai, India.  

PubMed

There are very few data on the prevalence of coccidian enteric parasites among low-income adults hospitalized in Chennai, India. Stool samples from 200 patients were screened for selected parasites, enteric bacterial pathogens, and other protozoa over a 3-month period. The study identified 42 (21%) Cryptosporidium, 36 (18%) V. cholerae, 17 (9%) Salmonella, 12 (6%) Isospora, six (3%) helminths, five (3%) Shigella, one (1%) Cyclospora, one (1%) other protozoan, and 0% V. parahaemolyticus cases. Co-infection was present in 21 patients. Cryptosporidium was detected in 17 (81%) of co-infected patients. Our findings highlighted the relatively high proportion of patients in this population with Cryptosporidium and Isospora and suggest that further study be undertaken to determine the utility of broader use of diagnostic testing for coccidian parasites in India. Detection may be beneficial because isosporiasis is treatable and both Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important pathogens in AIDS patients. PMID:22800607

Chopra, R D; Dworkin, M S

2013-05-01

435

Imaging spectrum after pancreas transplantation with enteric drainage.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of pancreas transplantation more than 40 years ago, surgical techniques and immunosuppressive regiments have improved and both have contributed to increase the number and success rate of this procedure. However, graft survival corresponds to early diagnosis of organ-related complications. Thus, knowledge of the transplantation procedure and postoperative image anatomy are basic requirements for radiologists. In this article, we demonstrate the imaging spectrum of pancreas transplantation with enteric exocrine drainage. PMID:24497791

Chen, Jian-Ling; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Wang, Sing-E; Tseng, Hsiuo-Shan; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Huang, Shan-Su; Chang, Cheng-Yen

2014-01-01

436

Antimicrobial-Resistant Enteric Bacteria from Dairy Cattle?  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted to understand the descriptive and molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative enteric bacteria in the feces of healthy lactating dairy cattle. Gram-negative enteric bacteria resistant to ampicillin, florfenicol, spectinomycin, and tetracycline were isolated from the feces of 35, 8, 5, and 42% of 213 lactating cattle on 74, 39, 9, 26, and 82% of 23 farms surveyed, respectively. Antimicrobial-resistant gram-negative bacteria accounted for 5 (florfenicol) to 14% (tetracycline) of total gram-negative enteric microflora. Nine bacterial species were isolated, of which Escherichia coli (87%) was the most predominant species. MICs showing reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline were observed in E. coli isolates. Isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin (48%), ceftiofur (11%), chloramphenicol (20%), florfenicol (78%), spectinomycin (18%), and tetracycline (93%). Multidrug resistance (?3 to 6 antimicrobials) was seen in 40% of E. coli isolates from healthy lactating cattle. Of 113 tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates, tet(B) was the predominant resistance determinant and was detected in 93% of isolates, while the remaining 7% isolates carried the tet(A) determinant. DNA-DNA hybridization assays revealed that tet determinants were located on the chromosome. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates (n = 99 isolates) belonged to 60 subtypes, which is suggestive of a highly diverse population of tetracycline-resistant organisms. On most occasions, E. coli subtypes, although shared between cows within the herd, were confined mostly to a dairy herd. The findings of this study suggest that commensal enteric E. coli from healthy lactating cattle can be an important reservoir for tetracycline and perhaps other antimicrobial resistance determinants.

Sawant, Ashish A.; Hegde, Narasimha V.; Straley, Beth A.; Donaldson, Sarah C.; Love, Brenda C.; Knabel, Stephen J.; Jayarao, Bhushan M.

2007-01-01

437

Live viral vaccines for respiratory and enteric tract diseases.  

PubMed

In its programme for accelerated development of vaccines for viral respiratory and enteric tract diseases the WHO has assigned a very high priority to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses and rotaviruses. There is also some interest in alternative approaches to immunization against influenza viruses because of the failure of inactivated vaccines to provide complete and reasonably durable immunity. Current attempts to develop satisfactorily attenuated viruses for use in prevention of disease caused by the above viral pathogens are described. PMID:2838984

Chanock, R M; Murphy, B R; Collins, P L; Coelingh, K V; Olmsted, R A; Snyder, M H; Spriggs, M K; Prince, G A; Moss, B; Flores, J

1988-04-01

438

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. View of "dry air inlets" to waveguides entering scanner building 105. Dried air is generated under pressure by Ingersoll-Rand dehumidified/dessicator and compressor system. View is at entrance from passageway that links into corner of scanner building. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

439

Gastrojejunostomy for management of acute proximal enteritis in a horse.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old Arabian stallion was treated medically 6 days for proximal enteritis. On the sixth day, exploratory celiotomy verified the diagnosis and ruled out other intraluminal and extraluminal gastrointestinal tract obstructions. A gastrojejunostomy was performed. The horse had trouble maintaining and gaining weight in the first year after surgery, but 8 years after surgery, the owner reported that the horse was doing well. PMID:8163421

Gillis, J P; Taylor, T S; Puckett, M J

1994-02-15

440

Angiotensin receptors and actions in guinea pig enteric nervous system.  

PubMed

Actions of ANG II on electrical and synaptic behavior of enteric neurons in the guinea pig small intestine were studied. Exposure to ANG II depolarized the membrane potential and elevated neuronal excitability. The number of responding neurons was small, with responses to ANG II in 32% of submucosal neurons and 25% of myenteric neurons. Hyperpolarizing responses were evoked by ANG II in 45% of the neurons. The hyperpolarizing responses were suppressed by alpha2-noradrenergic receptor antagonists, which suggested that the hyperpolarizing responses reflected stimulation of norepinephrine release from sympathetic neurons. Exposure to ANG II enhanced the amplitude and prolonged the duration of noradrenergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and suppressed the amplitude of both fast and slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials. The selective ANG II(1) receptor (AT1R) antagonists, ZD-7115 and losartan, but not a selective AT2R antagonist (PD-123319), suppressed the actions of ANG II. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR confirmed expression of AT1R protein and the mRNA transcript for the AT1R in the enteric nervous system. No expression of AT2R protein or mRNA was found. Immunoreactivity for AT1R was expressed by the majority of neurons in the gastric antrum and small and large intestine. AT1R immunoreactivity was coexpressed with calbindin, choline acetyltransferase, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, and nitric oxide synthase in subpopulations of neurons. The results suggest that formation of ANG II might have paracrine-like actions in the enteric nervous system, which include alterations in neuronal excitability and facilitated release of norepinephrine from sympathetic postganglionic axons. The enhanced presence of norepinephrine is expected to suppress fast and slow excitatory neurotransmission in the enteric microcircuits and to suppress neurogenic mucosal secretion. PMID:16093423

Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Fang, Xiu-Cai; Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

2005-09-01

441

Enteric Nervous System: Development and Developmental Disturbances—Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a This review, which is presented in two parts, summarizes and synthesizes current views on the genetic, molecular, and cell\\u000a biological underpinnings of the early embryonic phases of enteric nervous system (ENS) formation and its defects. Accurate\\u000a descriptions of the phenotype of ENS dysplasias, and knowledge of genes which, when mutated, give rise to the disorders (see\\u000a Part 1 in

Donald Newgreen; Heather M. Young

2002-01-01

442

Boron in the major UK rivers entering the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron in the major UK rivers entering the North Sea is predominantly in dissolved form and concentrations show large variations in time and space. The time-dependent feature relates to seasonal patterns linked to flow. Boron concentrations are well described by a power relationship of the type [B]=a?flowb, where a and b are constants. In this equation, the a term varies

Colin Neal; Kay K Fox; Martin Harrow; Margaret Neal

1998-01-01

443

Enteral Nutrition for Feeding Severely Underfed Patients with Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water) and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium). In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1) to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2) to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI) of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2. The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2 to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2 and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p < 0.0001). Caloric intake levels were established after measuring resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and nutritional support was performed with enteral feeding. Vitamins, phosphate, and potassium supplements were administered during refeeding. All patients achieved a significant modification of BMI; none developed refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding.

Gentile, Maria Gabriella

2012-01-01

444

Seasonality in Human Zoonotic Enteric Diseases: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Although seasonality is a defining characteristic of many infectious diseases, few studies have described and compared seasonal patterns across diseases globally, impeding our understanding of putative mechanisms. Here, we review seasonal patterns across five enteric zoonotic diseases: campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, vero-cytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in the context of two primary drivers of seasonality: (i) environmental effects on pathogen occurrence and pathogen-host associations and (ii) population characteristics/behaviour. Methodology/Principal Findings We systematically reviewed published literature from 1960–2010, resulting in the review of 86 studies across the five diseases. The Gini coefficient compared temporal variations in incidence across diseases and the monthly seasonality index characterised timing of seasonal peaks. Consistent seasonal patterns across transnational boundaries, albeit with regional variations was observed. The bacterial diseases all had a distinct summer peak, with identical Gini values for campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (0.22) and a higher index for VTEC (Gini?=?0.36). Cryptosporidiosis displayed a bi-modal peak with spring and summer highs and the most marked temporal variation (Gini?=?0.39). Giardiasis showed a relatively small summer increase and was the least variable (Gini?=?0.18). Conclusions/Significance Seasonal variation in enteric zoonotic diseases is ubiquitous, with regional variations highlighting complex environment-pathogen-host interactions. Results suggest that proximal environmental influences and host population dynamics, together with distal, longer-term climatic variability could have important direct and indirect consequences for future enteric disease risk. Additional understanding of the concerted influence of these factors on disease patterns may improve assessment and prediction of enteric disease burden in temperate, developed countries.

Lal, Aparna; Hales, Simon; French, Nigel; Baker, Michael G.

2012-01-01

445

Cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE) is an extremely rare illness characterised by chronic or relapsing subileus status resulting from multiple small intestinal fibrous strictures and multiple shallow ulcers of the small bowel. The etiology is unknown and pathogenesis is not fully understood. Therapy with systemic glucocorticosteroids is the treatment of choice. However, most patients develop corticosteroid dependence. Deep enteroscopy enables precise diagnostic work, possible endoscopic treatment of stenoses; may obviate the need for surgery and prevent excessive small bowel resections. PMID:24369459

Kohoutová, Darina; Bártová, Jolana; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Repák, Rudolf; Kopá?ová, Marcela; Bureš, Jan

2013-01-01

446

Enteric Protozoa in the Developed World: a Public Health Perspective  

PubMed Central

Summary: Several enteric protozoa cause severe morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals worldwide. In developed settings, enteric protozoa are often ignored as a cause of diarrheal illness due to better hygiene conditions, and as such, very little effort is used toward laboratory diagnosis. Although these protozoa contribute to the high burden of infectious diseases, estimates of their true prevalence are sometimes affected by the lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques to detect them in clinical and environmental specimens. Despite recent advances in the epidemiology, molecular biology, and treatment of protozoan illnesses, gaps in knowledge still exist, requiring further research. There is evidence that climate-related changes will contribute to their burden due to displacement of ecosystems and human and animal populations, increases in atmospheric temperature, flooding and other environmental conditions suitable for transmission, and the need for the reuse of alternative water sources to meet growing population needs. This review discusses the common enteric protozoa from a public health perspective, highlighting their epidemiology, modes of transmission, prevention, and control. It also discusses the potential impact of climate changes on their epidemiology and the issues surrounding waterborne transmission and suggests a multidisciplinary approach to their prevention and control.

Fletcher, Stephanie M.; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John

2012-01-01

447

Neural stem cell therapies for enteric nervous system disorders.  

PubMed

The enteric nervous system is vulnerable to a range of congenital and acquired disorders that disrupt the function of its neurons or lead to their loss. The resulting enteric neuropathies are some of the most challenging clinical conditions to manage. Neural stem cells offer the prospect of a cure given their potential ability to replenish missing or dysfunctional neurons. This article discusses diseases that might be targets for stem cell therapies and the barriers that could limit treatment application. We explore various sources of stem cells and the proof of concept for their use. The critical steps that remain to be addressed before these therapies can be used in patients are also discussed. Key milestones include the harvesting of neural stem cells from the human gut and the latest in vivo transplantation studies in animals. The tremendous progress in the field has brought experimental studies exploring the potential of stem cell therapies for the management of enteric neuropathies to the cusp of clinical application. PMID:24322895

Burns, Alan J; Thapar, Nikhil

2014-05-01

448

Enteric coating of granules containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

PubMed

Abstract In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine. PMID:24914724

Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

2014-06-01

449

Enteric protozoa in the developed world: a public health perspective.  

PubMed

Several enteric protozoa cause severe morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals worldwide. In developed settings, enteric protozoa are often ignored as a cause of diarrheal illness due to better hygiene conditions, and as such, very little effort is used toward laboratory diagnosis. Although these protozoa contribute to the high burden of infectious diseases, estimates of their true prevalence are sometimes affected by the lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques to detect them in clinical and environmental specimens. Despite recent advances in the epidemiology, molecular biology, and treatment of protozoan illnesses, gaps in knowledge still exist, requiring further research. There is evidence that climate-related changes will contribute to their burden due to displacement of ecosystems and human and animal populations, increases in atmospheric temperature, flooding and other environmental conditions suitable for transmission, and the need for the reuse of alternative water sources to meet growing population needs. This review discusses the common enteric protozoa from a public health perspective, highlighting their epidemiology, modes of transmission, prevention, and control. It also discusses the potential impact of climate changes on their epidemiology and the issues surrounding waterborne transmission and suggests a multidisciplinary approach to their prevention and control. PMID:22763633

Fletcher, Stephanie M; Stark, Damien; Harkness, John; Ellis, John

2012-07-01

450

The effect of Quercus castaneifolia extract on pathogenic enteric bacteria.  

PubMed

The family of Enterobacteriaceae is a major group of gram negative bacteria, some of these microorganisms are pathogen and could cause disease mainly gastroenteritis. Recently, due to drug resistant nature of these bacteria specially in developing countries treatment of the patient considered as important investigate. Quercus castaneifolia is a native plant of Yasuj province in Iran, which the people who living in this area consume the fruit of this plant for treatment of enteric disease. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fruit of Q. castaneifolia extract on pathogenic enteric bacteria viz., E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Yersinia enterocolitica. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were assessed by gel diffusion method and modification of E-test respectively. All the experiments were performed in triplicate and the statistical analysis was carried out on the results. The results obtained from this study indicated that alcoholic extract was shown antimicrobial effect on the microorganisms tested. In addition, S. dysentriae was more sensitive with zone of inhibition 18 mm and MIC value was 2.5 × 10(-4) whereas, E. coli was less sensitive with zone of inhibition 12 mm and MIC value 1 × 10(-2). Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica showed relatively intermediate susceptibility to the extract with zone of inhibition of 14 mm and MIC value 5 × 10(-3). Overall, Q. castaneifolia may be considered for treatment of the patients suffering from enteric disease. PMID:21827865

Bahador, N; Baserisalehi, M

2011-12-01

451

Positive Enteric Contrast Material for Abdominal and Pelvic CT with Automatic Exposure Control: What Is the Effect On Patient Radiation Exposure?  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effect of positive enteric contrast administration on automatic exposure control (AEC) CT radiation exposure in 1) a CT phantom, and 2) a retrospective review of patients. Materials and Methods We scanned a CT phantom containing simulated bowel that was sequentially filled with water and positive enteric contrast, and recorded the mean volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). We also identified 17 patients who had undergone 2 technically comparable CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis, one with positive enteric contrast and the other with oral water. Paired student t-tests were used to compare the mean CTDIvol between scans performed with and without positive enteric contrast. Both the phantom and patient CT scans were performed using AEC with a fixed noise index. Results The mean CTDIvol for the phantom with simulated bowel containing water and positive enteric contrast were 8.2 ± 0.2 mGy, and 8.7 ± 0.1 mGy (6.1% higher than water, p=0.02), respectively. The mean CTDIvol for patients scanned with oral water and with positive enteric contrast were 11.8mGy and 13.1mGy, respectively (p=0.003). This corresponded to a mean CTDIvol which was 11.0% higher (range: 0.0–20.7% higher) in scans with positive enteric contrast than those with oral water in patients. Conclusions When automatic exposure control is utilized for abdominopelvic CT, the radiation exposure, as measured by CTDIvol, is higher for scans performed with positive enteric contrast than those with oral water.

Wang, Zhen J.; Chen, Katherine S.; Gould, Robert; Coakley, Fergus V.; Fu, Yanjun; Yeh, Benjamin M.

2014-01-01

452

Necrotic enteritis-producing strains of Clostridium perfringens displace non-necrotic enteritis strains from the gut of chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We inoculated broiler chicks with mixtures of Clostridium perfringens strains to investigate the single strain dominance observed in natural cases of necrotic enteritis (NE) [Nauerby, B., Pedersen, K., Madsen, M., 2003. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the genetic diversity among Clostridium perfringens isolates from chickens. Vet. Microbiol. 94, 257–266]. Pre-inoculation bacteriologic culture of chick intestines yielded up to six

Angelique J. Barbara; Hien T. Trinh; Robert D. Glock; J. Glenn Songer

2008-01-01

453

First Time-dependent Study of H2 and H_3^+ Ortho-Para Chemistry in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium: Observations Meet Theoretical Predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) initiates the gradual increase of molecular complexity during the life cycle of matter. A key molecule that enables build-up of new molecular bonds and new molecules via proton donation is H_3^+. Its evolution is tightly related to molecular hydrogen and thought to be well understood. However, recent observations of ortho and para lines of H2 and H_3^+ in the diffuse ISM showed a puzzling discrepancy in nuclear spin excitation temperatures and populations between these two key species. H_3^+, unlike H2, seems to be out of thermal equilibrium, contrary to the predictions of modern astrochemical models. We conduct the first time-dependent modeling of the para-fractions of H2 and H_3^+ in the diffuse ISM and compare our results to a set of line-of-sight observations, including new measurements presented in this study. We isolate a set of key reactions for H_3^+ and find that the destruction of the lowest rotational states of H_3^+ by dissociative recombination largely controls its ortho/para ratio. A plausible agreement with observations cannot be achieved unless a ratio larger than 1:5 for the destruction of (1, 1)- and (1, 0)-states of H_3^+ is assumed. Additionally, an increased cosmic-ray ionization rate to 10-15 s-1 further improves the fit whereas variations of other individual physical parameters, such as density and chemical age, have only a minor effect on the predicted ortho/para ratios. Thus, our study calls for new laboratory measurements of the dissociative recombination rate and branching ratio of the key ion H_{3}^{+} under interstellar conditions. Partly based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, as part of program 088.C-0351.

Albertsson, T.; Indriolo, N.; Kreckel, H.; Semenov, D.; Crabtree, K. N.; Henning, Th.

2014-05-01

454

VLTI/MIDI observation of the silicate carbon star Hen 38 (IRAS08002-3803): silicate dust reservoir spatially resolved for the first time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of N-band spectro-interferometric observations of the silicate carbon star Hen 38 (IRAS08002-3803) with the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Our observations of IRAS08002-3803 with baseline lengths of 39-47 m have spatially resolved the dusty environment of a silicate carbon star for the first time and revealed an unexpected wavelength dependence of the angular size in the N band: the uniform-disk diameter is found to be constant and ~36 mas (72 R*) between 8 and 10 ?m, while it steeply increases longward of 10 ?m to reach ~53 mas (106 R*) at 13 ?m. Neither spherical shell models nor axisymmetric disk models consisting of silicate grains alone can simultaneously explain the observed wavelength dependence of the visibility and the spectral energy distribution (SED). We propose that the circumstellar environment of IRAS08002-3803 may consist of two grain species coexisting in the disk: silicate and a second grain species, for which we consider amorphous carbon, large silicate grains, and metallic iron grains. Comparison of the observed visibilities and SED with our models shows that such disk models can fairly - though not entirely satisfactorily - reproduce the observed SED and N-band visibilities. Our MIDI observations and the radiative transfer calculations lend support to the picture where oxygen-rich material around IRAS08002-3803 is stored in a circumbinary disk surrounding the carbon-rich primary star and its putative low-luminosity companion.

Ohnaka, Keiichi; Driebe, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Preibisch, Thomas; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd

2006-07-01

455

Astronomy On-Line Programme Enters "hot Week"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World's Biggest Astronomy WWW-Event Attracts Thousands of Students The Astronomy On-line Programme (See ESO Press Release 09/96 of 18 June 1996) began officially on 1 October and is now about to enter its most intense phase, known as the Hot Week . On 18 - 22 November, an estimated 4000 astronomy-interested, mostly young people in Europe and on four other continents will get together during five days in what - not unexpected - has become the world's biggest astronomy event ever organised on the World Wide Web. This carefully structured Programme is carried out in collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the European Southern Observatory and the European Commission, under the auspices of the Fourth European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. The Programme has already had a most visible impact on the school education of natural sciences in various countries; for instance, the Internet-connection of schools has been advanced in some, in order to allow groups to participate. There have been numerous contacts among the groups across the borders and there are clear signs that many Astronomy On-line participants have progressed to use the impressive possibilities of the Web in an efficient and structured way. There has been a lively media interest in Astronomy On-line all over Europe and it is expected to increase during the next week. The current status of Astronomy On-line It is obvious that the pilot function of the Astronomy On-line Programme in the use of the Web has been very effective and that the associated dissemination of astronomical knowledge has been successful. At this time, more than 650 groups have registered with Astronomy On-line. Most come from 31 different European countries and a few dozen groups are located in North and South America as well as in Asia and Australia. Together they have experienced the steady build-up of Astronomy On-line over the past weeks, by means of numerous contributions from a large number of teachers, amateur astronomers and others interested in this field of science. The Astronomy On-line concept is that of a well-structured marketplace with a number of different shops which cater to the participants with a great variety of interesting and educational activities. These range from the availability of useful links to educational and scientific Web sites all around the world, collaborative projects where many participants in different countries work together to achieve an astronomical result and, not the least, the possibility to submit observing programmes to a dozen telescopes at 10 major observatories, including La Silla in Chile. In the early phases of Astronomy On-line , coordinated observations were performed of a lunar eclipse on 27 September and a partial solar eclipse on 12 October. Both events attracted many hundreds of observers from groups in almost all European countries and provisional reports have already been published on the Web. Many beautiful photographs and interesting reports about the activities of the individual groups are also available at their special Web sites. The Hot Week will last from Monday to Friday, 18-22 November and the time interval from 15:00-21:00 UT (16:00 - 22:00 Central European Time) will be the busiest. During this period, a variety of activities will take place. For instance, the groups will have the opportunity to contact professional astronomers at many observatories. They will also be invited to follow the other developments, e.g. the astronomical observations. The resulting images will immediately be made available on the Web. There will also be a Final Event involving all the groups. How to obtain more information about Astronomy On-line Astronomy On-line may be accessed through: http://www.eso.org/astronomyonline/ and http://www.algonet.se/~sirius/eaae.htm. National Astronomy On-line Committees have been established in many European countries. They have set up National Astronomy On-line Web-sites which can be reached directly from the sites indicated above. Information about the indivi

1996-11-01

456

Unemployment Compensation (UC): Eligibility for Students Under State and Federal Laws, September 7, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent economic recession and subsequent recovery period has produced one of the most challenging labor markets in recent decades. Many workers lost their jobs during this time period, as others were just entering the market for the first time. As a s...

A. Eder J. M. Whittaker

2012-01-01

457

Finding Opportunities to Nudge Student Groups over the Finish Line: Examining Students' Five-Year Progress. Data Notes. Volume 7, Number 1, January-February 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has revealed that students who complete coursework in a concentrated area, defined as completing three or more courses in a specific field of study, are much more likely to have successful outcomes than those who do not. Moreover, fewer than half of students included in this research, which followed students over seven years, entered

Clery, Sue

2012-01-01

458

Student Supports: Developmental Education and Other Academic Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Low rates of college completion are a major problem in the United States. Less than 60 percent of students at four-year colleges graduate within six years, and at some colleges, the graduation rate is less than 10 percent. Additionally, many students enter higher education ill-prepared to comprehend college-level course material. Some estimates…

Bettinger, Eric P.; Boatman, Angela; Long, Bridget Terry

2013-01-01

459

What Community College Developmental Mathematics Students Understand about Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nation is facing a crisis in its community colleges: more and more students are attending community colleges, but most of them are not prepared for college-level work. The problem may be most dire in mathematics. By most accounts, the majority of students entering community colleges are placed (based on placement test performance) into…

Stigler, James W.; Givvin, Karen B.; Thompson, Belinda J.

2010-01-01

460

Teaching Engineering for Students with Right Brain Dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally engineering education is heavily left brain dominant; as a result, right brain dominant students are discouraged from entering this field. However, this approach also causes some problems for the left brain dominant students, as the power of the right brain is not fully utilized. In this paper we propose a more balanced approach, which can make full use of

Yumin Zhang; David Probst

461

The Experiences of University Students with a Mood Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mood disorders typically materialise in young adulthood, a life-stage when many enter university. However, Padron notes that few studies have examined the experiences of students with a mood disorder. The current study offers a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with five university students who had personal experience of such a…

Demery, Rachel; Thirlaway, Kathryn; Mercer, Jenny

2012-01-01

462

Barriers to Transfer Student Academic Success and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Transition to College Inventory (TCI) designed to identify patterns of noncognitive factors related to academic performance and persistence was adapted and validated for use with first-year transfer students in a university setting. In this study, 369 entering transfer students were surveyed during Transfer Preview, an orientation program for…

Duggan, Molly H.; Pickering, J. Worth

2008-01-01

463

E-Books or Textbooks: Students Prefer Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has demonstrated that the experience of reading e-books is not equivalent to reading textbooks. This study examines factors influencing preference for e-books as well as reported use of e-book content. Although the present student cohort is the most technologically savvy to ever enter universities, students do not prefer e-books…

Woody, William Douglas; Daniel, David B.; Baker, Crystal A.

2010-01-01

464

California Migrant Student Movement Study--Region 4 Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fresno County comprises Region 4 of the California Migrant Education Program. The area enjoys a low 6.9% unemployment rate compared to the state average of 7.83%. An analysis of movement patterns of migrant students from, to, and within the state showed that 348 migrant students entered the region from another state in 1977; Texas, Arizona and…

Davis, Benjamin G.

465

A Quantitative Examination of Public School Student Attitudes toward Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a deficit of male and female students entering the fields of math and science, and the need for highly educated individuals in these areas is expected to increase. While various factors may play a role in creating this deficit, there is a lack of research on one factor, that of student attitudes toward science. The theories of social…

Schuchman, Matthew

2011-01-01

466

Supervising the Student Teacher in the Public School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The student teacher being supervised in the public school soon becomes a full time, licensed teacher. Student teaching is perceived to be the cap stone or final course in undergraduate preparation before entering the profession of being a teacher. It carries much responsibility for the cooperating teacher and the university supervisor in assisting…

Ediger, Marlow

2009-01-01

467

Grade Level Retention of Texas Students, 1996-97 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report looks at student retention in Texas over a 4-year period, beginning with the 1993-94 school year. Grade-level retention is typically defined as having a student repeat an unsuccessful grade or holding back a child not developmentally ready to enter school. The information is analyzed by grade, ethnicity, and gender, as well as other…

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Research and Evaluation.

468

Trends in Aptitude of Graduate Students in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to provide some indication as to whether the recent employment trends among scientists is resulting in a drop of the ability of students entering scientific fields, GRE files were used to construct a history of aptitude test statistics for 1966-67, 1967-68, 1970-71, and 1971-72. For the latter three years, students were classified by…

Boldt, Robert F.

469

Potential Predictors of Student Teaching Performance: Considering Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to increase teacher quality have focused on increasing both the admission and graduation standards required for students entering the profession. This study examined the relationship between common standards, such as college GPA, ACT scores, and Praxis exam scores, with student teacher performance as measured by an assessment rubric based…

Hall, P. Cougar; West, Joshua H.

2011-01-01

470

Students Training for Academic Readiness (STAR): Year Five Evaluation Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs, or GEAR UP, is a federally-funded system of grants that focuses on preparing low-income students to enter and succeed in postsecondary educational programs. GEAR UP grants extend across 6 school years and require that funded districts begin providing grant services to students no…

Maloney, Catherine; Lopez, Omar

2012-01-01

471

Counseling The Mexican-American Student: A Position Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors attempt to increase understanding of the Chicano student in a community college setting. The attitudes and values of a counselor are very important in a counseling relationship; therefore, a counselor must be honest with himself in analyzing his own feelings about those who are different from himself. Many Chicano students enter

Gonzalez, Carlos; And Others

472

CAREER CHOICE FACTORS FOR BSW STUDENTS: A 10YEAR PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the major factors involved in choosing to enter social work for 746 undergraduate students studied over a 10-year period. Its findings suggest that, although altruism remains the touchstone for their choice, students are motivated by both service to others and job self-interest. The findings also indicate that the dimensions of motivation for choosing social work have not

James G. Hanson; James G. McCullagh

1995-01-01

473

Psychological Adaptation of Turkish Students at U.S. Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of Turkish citizens entering the U.S. for their studies is growing more rapidly than almost any other group. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how acculturation factors affect psychological adaptation of Turkish students in the U.S. One hundred and twenty-four Turkish students participated in the study. Regression…

Bektas, Yelda; Demir, Ayhan; Bowden, Randall

2009-01-01

474

Student Retention Databases: An Important Element in Enrollment Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many higher education institutions are focusing on their admissions operations. They are attempting to ensure a steady stream of enrolling students, and/or attempting to ensure the quality or composition of their entering classes. However, many colleges have not developed a comprehensive method of tracking student cohorts, measuring retention, and…

Pollock, Charles R.

475

Latina Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latina students have the highest high school dropout rate of all racial and ethnic groups. This article has three objectives: provide a brief overview of educational trends for Latina students, discuss factors associated with their educational trajectory and suggest strategies for change based on best practice wisdom. Results show that academic disparities between Latina students and other racial\\/ethnic female students

Ruth Enid Zambrana; Irene M. Zoppi

2002-01-01

476

Skeletal toxicity associated with chronic ethanol exposure in a rat model using total enteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol abuse decreases bone mass, inhibits osteoblast differentiation and function, increases fracture incidence, and delays fracture healing. Four studies were designed to use intragastric ethanol delivery as part of a total enteral nutrition (TEN) system to determine the negative systemic effects of chronic ethanol on 1) the rat skeleton and 2) local rapid bone formation during limb lengthening (distraction osteogenesis, DO). In study 1, three-point bending tests demonstrated that after 75 days of ethanol exposure, the tibiae had significantly lower load to failure versus control diet (p = 0.0006) or ad libitum chow-fed rats (p = 0.0029). Study 2 examined alcohol's effects on the density and cross-sectional area of the proximal tibial metaphysis using peripheral quantitative computed tomography and found that after 25 days of ethanol exposure the trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (p = 0.011) and cortical cross-sectional area (p = 0.011) were lower compared with controls. In study 3, a comparison of distracted tibial radiographs and histological sections demonstrated ethanol-related decreases in both gap mineralization (p = 0.03) and bone column formation (p = 0.01). Histological comparisons in study 4 reproduced the ethanol-related deficits in new bone formation duri