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Sample records for fish diseases

  1. Fish can get diseases too

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as an important component of the ecology of fish in the wild. Many of the viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal pathogens of fish that were initially discovered in captive fish have their origin among wild populations; however, the impact of disease among these free-ranging stocks has been difficult to study. At the WFRC, combinations of field and laboratory investigations, aided by the tools of molecular biology, have begun to provide information on the ecology of infectious diseases among natural populations of fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: fish-eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions fish-eye disease fish-eye disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fish-eye disease , also called partial LCAT deficiency, is ...

  3. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  4. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. IMPORTANCE OF FISH DISEASES - AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diseases of fishes can be important because they may induce mortality. Additionally, sublethal diseases may cause poor growth onversion, poor flesh quality, or undesirable visual changes. urthermore, some pathogens of fish are infectious to humans. his eview describes in three ca...

  6. Nutrition and Disease Resistance in Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under intensive aquaculture production, good nutrition plays a key role in promoting good growth, sustaining health, and maintaining the ability of fish to withstand stress and resist disease-causing agents. Fish, like homeothermic vertebrates, defend against infectious agents by a variety of immuno...

  7. Protective immunity in fish against protozoan diseases.

    PubMed

    Woo, P T K

    2007-09-01

    The demand for and costs of producing land-based animal protein continues to escalate as the world population increases. Fish is an excellent protein, but the catch-fishery is stagnant or in decline. Intensive cage culture of fish is a viable option especially in countries with lakes/rivers and/or a long coastline; however, disease outbreaks will likely occur more frequently with cage culture. Hence protective strategies are needed, and one approach is to exploit the piscine immune system. This discussion highlights immunity (innate/natural and adaptive/acquired) in fish against three pathogenic protozoa (Amyloodinium ocellatum, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Cryptobia salmositica). Histone-like proteins in the mucus and skin of naturally resistant fish kill trophonts of A. ocellatum, and also may cause abnormal development of tomonts. Breeding of Cryptobia-resistant brook charrs is possible as resistance is controlled by a dominant Mendelian locus, and the parasite is lysed via the Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation. Production of transgenic Cryptobia-tolerant salmon is an option. Recovered fish are protected from the three diseases (acquired immunity). Live I. multifiliis theronts injected intraperitoneally into fish elicit protection. Also, a recombinant immoblizing-antigen vaccine against ichthyophthirosis has been developed but further evaluations are necessary. The live Cryptobia vaccine protects salmonids from infections while the DNA-vaccine stimulates production of antibodies to neutralize the disease causing factor (metalloprotease) in cryptobiosis; hence infected fish recover more rapidly. PMID:18410078

  8. The protozoan diseases of hatchery fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1935-01-01

    Following the somewhat bleak picture painted in the consideration of the bacterial diseases of hatchery fish in the last number of The Progressive Fish Culturist, it is a relief to turn to another large group of fish diseases caused by small, single-celled parasitic animals known as the protozoa. To the hatcheryman, the protozoan diseases of fish are just as important as the bacterial diseases for they are equally destructive if allowed to run unchecked. The protozoan diseases are just as common as those caused by bacteria, particularly at those hatcheries which depend upon lakes or streams for their water supplies. However, a very cheery point of difference exists between these two groups of diseases—the protozoan diseases are easier to recognize and, for the most part, they are exceedingly easy to eradicate. To the hatcheryman who has struggled day and night for weeks in an attempt to combat an epidemic wherein he is rewarded immediately by the satisfying sight of a complete recovery of his infected fish as the direct result of his labors.

  9. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times

  10. Fish and fish oil in health promotion and disease prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  11. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  12. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  13. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  14. Two Cases of Rhabdomyolysis (Haff Disease) After Eating Carp Fish

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joey V.; Sein, Saw; Lyon, Claudia; Apergis, George

    2016-01-01

    Unexplained rhabdomyolysis after eating fish is a rare condition caused by an unidentified toxin. Most of the incidences in the United States have been linked to consuming buffalo fish or crawfish. We present 2 cases of Haff disease in which the patients consumed grass carp as opposed to the usual suspects of buffalo fish or crawfish.

  15. Accumulation of hydroxyl lipids and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal in live fish infected with fish diseases.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryusuke; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Yoshimasa; Hatate, Hideo; Matsushita, Teruo

    2014-04-01

    Hydroxy lipids (L-OH) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) levels as well as other parameters such as lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehydes levels in the liver of diseased fish were investigated. Although significant differences in lipid level, lipid class, fatty acid composition, and other aldehyde levels were not always observed between normal and diseased fish, L-OH and HHE levels were significantly higher in the liver of the diseased fish than in that of the normal fish cultured with the same feeds under the same conditions. In the liver of puffer fish (Fugu rubripes) infected with Trichodina, L-OH and HHE levels significantly increased from 25.29±5.04 to 47.70 ± 5.27 nmol/mg lipid and from 299.79±25.25 to 1,184.40±60.27 nmol/g tissue, respectively. When the levels of HHE and other aldehydes in the liver of the normal and diseased puffer fish were plotted, a linear relationship with a high correlation coefficient was observed between HHE and propanal (r2=0.9447). Increased L-OH and HHE levels in the liver of the diseased fish and a high correlation between HHE and propanal in the liver of the normal and diseased fish were also observed in flat fish (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with streptococcus, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) infected with jaundice, and amberjack (S. purpurascens) infected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. PMID:24390795

  16. Beyond the zebrafish: diverse fish species for modeling human disease

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years, zebrafish, and to a lesser extent medaka, have become widely used small animal models for human diseases. These organisms have convincingly demonstrated the usefulness of fish for improving our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to pathological conditions, and for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Despite the usefulness of zebrafish and medaka in the investigation of a wide spectrum of traits, there is evidence to suggest that other fish species could be better suited for more targeted questions. With the emergence of new, improved sequencing technologies that enable genomic resources to be generated with increasing efficiency and speed, the potential of non-mainstream fish species as disease models can now be explored. A key feature of these fish species is that the pathological condition that they model is often related to specific evolutionary adaptations. By exploring these adaptations, new disease-causing and disease-modifier genes might be identified; thus, diverse fish species could be exploited to better understand the complexity of disease processes. In addition, non-mainstream fish models could allow us to study the impact of environmental factors, as well as genetic variation, on complex disease phenotypes. This Review will discuss the opportunities that such fish models offer for current and future biomedical research. PMID:24271780

  17. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognised as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs ...

  18. Overview of fish immune system and infectious diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the fish immune system and the emerging or re-emerging bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal diseases considered to currently have a negative impact on aquaculture is presented. The fish immune system has evolved with both innate (natural resistance) and adaptive (acquired) immu...

  19. Fish Vaccine Development and Use to Prevent Streptococcal Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important pathogen of tilapia, hybrid striped bass and trout raised in intensive aquaculture is Streptococcus sp., a cause of severe economic losses in the fish farming industry. Infected fish experience severe to moderate mortality due to Streptococcus iniae and/or S. agalactiae. The diseased ...

  20. Infectious diseases of fishes in the Salish Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul; Rhodes, Linda; Kurath, Gael; Winton, James

    2013-01-01

    As in marine regions throughout other areas of the world, fishes in the Salish Sea serve as hosts for many pathogens, including nematodes, trematodes, protozoans, protists, bacteria, viruses, and crustaceans. Here, we review some of the better-documented infectious diseases that likely contribute to significant losses among free-ranging fishes in the Salish Sea and discuss the environmental and ecological factors that may affect the population-level impacts of disease. Demonstration of these diseases and their impacts to critical and endangered resources provides justification to expand pathogen surveillance efforts and to incorporate disease forecasting and mitigation tools into ecosystem restoration efforts.

  1. Fish Oil for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weitz, Daniel; Weintraub, Howard; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, are increasingly being used in the management of cardiovascular disease. It is clear that fish oil, in clinically used doses (typically 4 g/d of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) reduce high triglycerides. However, the role of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing mortality, sudden death, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and heart failure has not yet been established. This review will focus on the current clinical uses of fish oil and provide an update on their effects on triglycerides, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and arrhythmia. We will explore the dietary sources of fish oil as compared with drug therapy, and discuss the use of fish oil products in combination with other commonly used lipid-lowering agents. We will examine the underlying mechanism of fish oil’s action on triglyceride reduction, plaque stability, and effect in diabetes, and review the newly discovered anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. Finally, we will examine the limitations of current data and suggest recommendations for fish oil use. PMID:20699674

  2. Dynamics of fish diseases in the lower Elbe River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, H.

    1984-03-01

    As part of a survey on population dynamics and ecology of fishesin the Elbe River, seasonal and regional fluctuations of external fish diseases were studied from the open North Sea to Hamburg in 1981 1982. Clinical signs of 11 different diseases, several of them not being recorded before, were noted in 22 fish species. Averaged over all samples, the total disease prevalence was below 1 % in 16 species. Highest prevalences were found in smelt (12.7 %), eel (9.2 %), and flounder (5.5 %). The frequency of most diseases increased in larger (older) fish. High prevalences of skeletal abnormalities in cod could be related to abnormal migration habits of diseased fish. Spawning papillomatosis, skin ulceration, and fin rot in smelt occurred predominantly during the spawning season. Most diseases observed occurred at relatively high prevalences in the central Elbe estuary between Cuxhaven and Brunsbüttel. This is most obvious for lymphocystis, fin rot, skin ulceration, and bleaching syndrome in flounder, but such a tendency also seems to occur in cauliflower disease of eel, as well as spawning papillomatosis and pharyngeal granuloma in smelt. This area is less heavily polluted and less frequently affected by oxygen deficiency than the area upstream of Glückstadt, where diseases in general occurred at lower frequencies. Therefore, it is concluded that neither pollution nor lack of oxygen are the main triggers for the outbreak of diseases in Elbe fish. It is supposed that large tidal fluctuations of salinity are a major stress factor for fish in the estuary between Cuxhaven and Brunsbüttel. Flounder from this area usually are in a relatively bad nutritional state. Their condition factor increases significantly towards Hamburg, while their disease prevalence decreases in the same direction.

  3. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction. PMID:23538940

  4. RNA FISH for detecting expanded repeats in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Martyna O; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

    2016-04-01

    RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a widely used technique for detecting transcripts in fixed cells and tissues. Many variants of RNA FISH have been proposed to increase signal strength, resolution and target specificity. The current variants of this technique facilitate the detection of the subcellular localization of transcripts at a single molecule level. Among the applications of RNA FISH are studies on nuclear RNA foci in diseases resulting from the expansion of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats present in different single genes. The partial or complete retention of mutant transcripts forming RNA aggregates within the nucleoplasm has been shown in multiple cellular disease models and in the tissues of patients affected with these atypical mutations. Relevant diseases include, among others, myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) with CUG repeats, Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) with CAG repeats, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) with CGG repeats, myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) with CCUG repeats, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD) with GGGGCC repeats and spinocerebellar ataxia type 32 (SCA32) with GGCCUG. In this article, we summarize the results obtained with FISH to examine RNA nuclear inclusions. We provide a detailed protocol for detecting RNAs containing expanded CAG and CUG repeats in different cellular models, including fibroblasts, lymphoblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells and murine and human neuronal progenitors. We also present the results of the first single-molecule FISH application in a cellular model of polyglutamine disease. PMID:26615955

  5. Comparative Pathogenomics of Bacteria Causing Infectious Diseases in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Al-Ghabshi, Aliya; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

    2012-01-01

    Fish living in the wild as well as reared in the aquaculture facilities are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by a phylogenetically diverse collection of bacterial pathogens. Control and treatment options using vaccines and drugs are either inadequate, inefficient, or impracticable. The classical approach in studying fish bacterial pathogens has been looking at individual or few virulence factors. Recently, genome sequencing of a number of bacterial fish pathogens has tremendously increased our understanding of the biology, host adaptation, and virulence factors of these important pathogens. This paper attempts to compile the scattered literature on genome sequence information of fish pathogenic bacteria published and available to date. The genome sequencing has uncovered several complex adaptive evolutionary strategies mediated by horizontal gene transfer, insertion sequence elements, mutations and prophage sequences operating in fish pathogens, and how their genomes evolved from generalist environmental strains to highly virulent obligatory pathogens. In addition, the comparative genomics has allowed the identification of unique pathogen-specific gene clusters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the virulogenomes of important fish bacterial pathogens, and the genes involved in their evolutionary adaptation to different ecological niches. The paper also proposes some new directions on finding novel vaccine and chemotherapeutic targets in the genomes of bacterial pathogens of fish. PMID:22675651

  6. Fishing diseased abalone to promote yield and conservation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D; Bidegain, Gorka; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2016-03-01

    Past theoretical models suggest fishing disease-impacted stocks can reduce parasite transmission, but this is a good management strategy only when the exploitation required to reduce transmission does not overfish the stock. We applied this concept to a red abalone fishery so impacted by an infectious disease (withering syndrome) that stock densities plummeted and managers closed the fishery. In addition to the non-selective fishing strategy considered by past disease-fishing models, we modelled targeting (culling) infected individuals, which is plausible in red abalone because modern diagnostic tools can determine infection without harming landed abalone and the diagnostic cost is minor relative to the catch value. The non-selective abalone fishing required to eradicate parasites exceeded thresholds for abalone sustainability, but targeting infected abalone allowed the fishery to generate yield and reduce parasite prevalence while maintaining stock densities at or above the densities attainable if the population was closed to fishing. The effect was strong enough that stock and yield increased even when the catch was one-third uninfected abalone. These results could apply to other fisheries as the diagnostic costs decline relative to catch value. PMID:26880843

  7. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison L H; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2014-10-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases. PMID:24671087

  8. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison LH; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2014-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases. PMID:24671087

  9. Observations on gas-bubble disease of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1953-01-01

    SOME DIFFICULTY has been experienced in raising fry and young fingerlings at the Puyallup hatchery of the Washington State Department of Game, a hatchery now in its fourth year of operation. There has been evidence of gas in the yolk-sac fry, and the mortality was always excessive among the fingerlings while reared in the hatchery troughs. The mortality rate decreased and evidence of gas-bubble disease disappeared when the fish mere moved to outside ponds. Also, fish seemed less susceptible to parasitic diseases when held in the ponds rather than 1m hatchery troughs. Strains of fish raised at the station were cutthroat trout (Salmo clarkii clarkii and Salmo clarkii lewisi) rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdnerii iriatus)

  10. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overv...

  11. A review of infectious gill disease in marine salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S O; Rodger, H D

    2011-06-01

    Infectious gill diseases of marine salmonid fish present a significant challenge in salmon-farming regions. Infectious syndromes or disease conditions affecting marine-farmed salmonids include amoebic gill disease (AGD), proliferative gill inflammation (PGI) and tenacibaculosis. Pathogens involved include parasites, such as Neoparamoeba perurans, bacteria, such as Piscichlamydia salmonis and Tenacibaculum maritimum, and viruses, such as the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). The present level of understanding of these is reviewed with regard to risk factors, potential impacting factors, methods of best practice to mitigate infectious gill disease, as well as knowledge gaps and avenues for future research. PMID:21401646

  12. Simplified methods for the prolonged treatment of fish diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1939-01-01

    The prevention or control of epidemics of fish diseases by applying a disinfecting solution in a uniform concentration directly to the water supply of a fish pond or trough for a definite period of time has been exceedingly slow in development. In so far as can be determined, the original idea should be credited to. Marsh and Robinson (1910). In their work on the control of algae in fish ponds by the continuous application of dilute copper sulphate solution, administered to the inflowing water supply by means of a floating syphon, they suggested this method as a possibility in the treatment of fish diseases. Following their work, this commendable idea seems to have remained quite dormant and apparently forgotten until Hess (1930) revived it twenty or more years later. This worker found that a prolonged immersion in a dilute disinfecting bath was more efficacious in remowng fluke parasites from goldfish than was the customary short "hand dip" method. Kingsbury and Embody (1932) later adapted the idea of a prolonged treatment to running water by the use of a float valve for maintaining a constant level in a reservoir, resulting in a constant flow to the pond or trough to be treated. Shortly thereafter, Fish (1933) modified the floating syphon of Marsh and Robinson, as it was a simpler apparatus than that of Kingsbury and Embody.

  13. Phytotherapy as an alternative for treating fish disease.

    PubMed

    Valladão, G M R; Gallani, S U; Pilarski, F

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of livestock rearing often promotes an increase in inappropriate practices that disregard care for the environment, animal health, and workers' health. Intensive fish farming systems are often associated with higher stocking density and massive use of artificial feed. Currently, outbreaks of parasitic, bacterial, and fungal diseases act as major limiting factors for fish farming, meaning that producers have to make use of massive amounts of antibiotics, disinfectants, and pesticides in order to control mortality and avoid huge economic losses. Because of adverse effects on the aquatic environment, terrestrial organisms, and human health (both fish handlers and consumers), this therapy has been criticized. Use of herbal medicines within animal production has shown promise, in that it is natural and biodegradable and has antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including those relating to fish. Recently, researchers have reported promising effects from many herbal medicines for treating parasitic diseases caused by protozoa and metazoa, and broad activity against bacteria and fungi. This review addresses the current issues regarding indiscriminate use of chemicals and antibiotics in aquaculture and discusses the main findings and methodologies of the latest research on herbal medicines to stimulate and accelerate research in this field, especially in developing countries. PMID:25620601

  14. Of fish and men: using zebrafish to fight human diseases.

    PubMed

    Ablain, Julien; Zon, Leonard I

    2013-12-01

    Long restricted to the field of developmental biology, the use of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has extended to the study of human pathogenesis. Fostered by the rapid adaptation of new technologies, the design and analysis of fish models of human diseases have contributed important findings that are now making their way from aquariums to clinics. Here we outline the clinical relevance of the zebrafish as a model organism. PMID:24275383

  15. Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

    2006-06-01

    Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

  16. Fish is Fish: the use of experimental model species to reveal causes of skeletal diversity in evolution and disease

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M. P.; Henke, K.; Hawkins, M. B.; Witten, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Fishes are wonderfully diverse. This variety is a result of the ability of ray-finned fishes to adapt to a wide range of environments, and has made them more specious than the rest of vertebrates combined. With such diversity it is easy to dismiss comparisons between distantly related fishes in efforts to understand the biology of a particular fish species. However, shared ancestry and the conservation of developmental mechanisms, morphological features and physiology provide the ability to use comparative analyses between different organisms to understand mechanisms of development and physiology. The use of species that are amenable to experimental investigation provides tools to approach questions that would not be feasible in other ‘non-model’ organisms. For example, the use of small teleost fishes such as zebrafish and medaka has been powerful for analysis of gene function and mechanisms of disease in humans, including skeletal diseases. However, use of these fish to aid in understanding variation and disease in other fishes has been largely unexplored. This is especially evident in aquaculture research. Here we highlight the utility of these small laboratory fishes to study genetic and developmental factors that underlie skeletal malformations that occur under farming conditions. We highlight several areas in which model species can serve as a resource for identifying the causes of variation in economically important fish species as well as to assess strategies to alleviate the expression of the variant phenotypes in farmed fish. We focus on genetic causes of skeletal deformities in the zebrafish and medaka that closely resemble phenotypes observed both in farmed as well as natural populations of fishes. PMID:25221374

  17. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 2. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Stewart, I; Lewis, R J; Eaglesham, G K; Graham, G C; Poole, S; Craig, S B

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is a food-borne neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of finfish that have accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. Ciguatera is a distressing and sometimes disabling condition that presents with a self-limiting though occasionally severe gastro-intestinal illness, progressing to a suite of aberrant sensory symptoms. Recovery can take from days to years; second and subsequent attacks may manifest in a more severe illness. Ciguatera remains largely a pan-tropical disease, although tourism and export fish markets facilitate increased presentation in temperate latitudes. While ciguatera poisoning in the South Pacific was recognised and eloquently described by seafarers in the 18th Century, it remains a public-health challenge in the 21st Century because there is neither a confirmatory diagnostic test nor a reliable, low-cost screening method to ascertain the safety of suspect fish prior to consumption. A specific antidote is not available, so treatment is largely supportive. The most promising pharmacotherapy of recent decades, intravenous mannitol, has experienced a relative decline in acceptance after a randomized, double-blind trial failed to confirm its efficacy. Some questions remain unanswered, however, and the use of mannitol for the treatment of acute ciguatera poisoning arguably deserves revisiting. The immunotoxicology of ciguatera is poorly understood, and some aspects of the epidemiology and symptomatology of ciguatera warrant further enquiry. PMID:21092393

  18. Quorum Signal Inhibitors and Their Potential Use against Fish Diseases.

    PubMed

    Chu, Weihua; McLean, Robert J C

    2016-06-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial communication used to control group behaviors, including bioluminescence, virulence factor production, biofilm formation, and biofilm antimicrobial tolerance. Many aquatic bacterial pathogens such as Aeromonas, Vibrio, and Edwardsiella spp. use QS to regulate virulence factor production. The disruption of QS has been shown to be an effective strategy in the competition between higher organisms and bacteria and more recently between bacterial species. For this reason, QS disruption has been proposed as a strategy to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. In this review, we summarize the current literature and illustrate the value of QS inhibitors in controlling virulence production in aquatic bacterial pathogens. This represents a new, nonantibiotic strategy to combat fish diseases. Received August 11, 2015; accepted January 26, 2016. PMID:27184419

  19. Columnaris as a disease of cold-water fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1945-01-01

    A natural outbreak of columnaris disease among wild adult and hatchery-reared fingerling salmon in the State of Washington is described. The disease is identified by the recovery of the causative organism, Bacillus columnaris Davis, which may be readily identified by its characteristic action in forming columns on the surfaces of infected material held in a water mount on a microscope slide. The gross lesions vary in appearance according to the particular organ affected but are formed, essentially, by the progressive necrosis and disintegration of the tissues. The tissues primarily affected are skin, body musculature, and the gills. Cultivation of the causative organism in tryptone solutions is recorded. Controlled, laboratory-induced infections indicate that among the cold-water fishes, columnaris disease is of little consequence to fingerlings at water temperatures below 55° F., but becomes highly pathogenic at temperatures in excess of 70° F. Between these temperature thresholds, the degree and severity of the infection is markedly influenced by factors adverse to the host. No effective control measures have been found.

  20. Computer program for sample sizes required to determine disease incidence in fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ossiander, Frank J.; Wedemeyer, Gary

    1973-01-01

    A computer program is described for generating the sample size tables required in fish hatchery disease inspection and certification. The program was designed to aid in detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in salmonids, but it is applicable to any fish disease inspection when the sampling plan follows the hypergeometric distribution.

  1. A review of advances in the study of diseases of fish: 1954-1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Post, G.

    1965-01-01

    STUDY OF DISEASE IN ANIMALS, INCLUDING MAN, has progressed rapidly in the past decade. Looking back, we find amazing success in the study of man's diseases and possibly only a little less success in studies of diseases of domesticated homeothermic animals. We who are interested in the poikilothermic animals may feel at times that we have not advanced so rapidly in our field. The reason for this may be closely associated with economics. The market for drugs and therapeutic agents is greater for domestic livestock than for cultured fishes. A larger income is derived from rearing domestic livestock. Therefore, more public funds are available for study of diseases of man and domestic livestock, while such funds are limited for the study of diseases of fish. The Federal and State fish-cultural systems, as well as colleges and universities, have been most active in research on fish disease and probably will continue to be so.

  2. Leveraging Small Aquarium Fishes to Advance Understanding of Environmentally Influenced Human Disorders and Diseases

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small aquarium fishes provide a model organism that recapitulates the development, physiology and specific disease processes present in humans without the many limitations of rodent-based models currently in use. Fish models offer advantages in cost, rapid life-cycles, and extern...

  3. Recommendations for control of pathogens and infectious diseases in fish research facilities☆

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Michael L.; Feist, Stephen W.; Harper, Claudia; Hoogstraten-Miller, Shelley; Mac Law, J.; Sánchez-Morgado, José M.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Sanders, George E.; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Whipps, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about infectious diseases in fish used for research have risen along with the dramatic increase in the use of fish as models in biomedical research. In addition to acute diseases causing severe morbidity and mortality, underlying chronic conditions that cause low-grade or subclinical infections may confound research results. Here we present recommendations and strategies to avoid or minimize the impacts of infectious agents in fishes maintained in the research setting. There are distinct differences in strategies for control of pathogens in fish used for research compared to fishes reared as pets or in aquaculture. Also, much can be learned from strategies and protocols for control of diseases in rodents used in research, but there are differences. This is due, in part, the unique aquatic environment that is modified by the source and quality of the water provided and the design of facilities. The process of control of pathogens and infectious diseases in fish research facilities is relatively new, and will be an evolving process over time. Nevertheless, the goal of documenting, detecting, and excluding pathogens in fish is just as important as in mammalian research models. PMID:18755294

  4. Recommendations for control of pathogens and infectious diseases in fish research facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, M.L.; Feist, S.W.; Harper, C.; Hoogstraten-Miller, S.; Law, J.M.; Sanchez-Morgado, J. M.; Tanguay, R.L.; Sanders, G.E.; Spitsbergen, J.M.; Whipps, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about infectious diseases in fish used for research have risen along with the dramatic increase in the use of fish as models in biomedical research. In addition to acute diseases causing severe morbidity and mortality, underlying chronic conditions that cause low-grade or subclinical infections may confound research results. Here we present recommendations and strategies to avoid or minimize the impacts of infectious agents in fishes maintained in the research setting. There are distinct differences in strategies for control of pathogens in fish used for research compared to fishes reared as pets or in aquaculture. Also, much can be learned from strategies and protocols for control of diseases in rodents used in research, but there are differences. This is due, in part, the unique aquatic environment that is modified by the source and quality of the water provided and the design of facilities. The process of control of pathogens and infectious diseases in fish research facilities is relatively new, and will be an evolving process over time. Nevertheless, the goal of documenting, detecting, and excluding pathogens in fish is just as important as in mammalian research models. ?? 2008.

  5. The nutritional background of the host alters the disease course in a fish-myxosporean system.

    PubMed

    Estensoro, Itziar; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2011-01-10

    The aim of the present work was to determine if a practical plant protein-based diet containing vegetable oils (VO) as the major lipid source could alter the disease course when challenged with the myxosporean Enteromyxum leei, a wide-spread parasite in the Mediterranean basin causing heavy economic losses. Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fed for 9 months either a fish oil (FO) diet or a blend of VOs at 66% of replacement (66VO diet) were challenged by exposure to parasite-contaminated water effluent. All fish were periodically and non-lethally sampled to obtain biometrical data and to know their infection status. After 102 days of exposure, fish were euthanized and haematological, biometrical, histological, immunological, glutathione and anti-oxidant data were obtained from tissue, blood and serum samples. Anorexia appeared in both exposed groups, but feed intake reduction was higher in 66VO fish. The signs of disease (lower growth, condition factor, specific growth rate, haematocrit) as well as the disease course were worse in fish from 66VO group, with a higher prevalence and intensity of infection, a higher percentage of fish harbouring the parasite in the entire intestinal tract, and a faster establishment of the parasite. Parasite intensity of infection was negatively correlated with growth parameters and haematocrit in both groups, and with complement, lysozyme and hepatic total glutathione in 66VO fish. PMID:20947256

  6. Rapid detection of Flavobacterium columnare, the bacterium causing Columnaris Disease in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a ubiquitous bacterium that causes columnaris disease in a wide variety of fish resulting in devastating losses particularly in the commercial aquaculture industry worldwide. Timely diagnosis of disease is imperative for prevention of spread and to reduce the economic los...

  7. Fish-on-a-chip: a sensitive detection microfluidic system for alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics has become an important tool in diagnosing many diseases, including neurological and genetic disorders. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that irreversibly and progressively destroys memory, language ability, and thinking skills. Commonly, detection of AD is expensive and complex. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based microfluidic chip platform is capable of diagnosing AD at an early stage and they are effective tools for the diagnosis with low cost, high speed, and high sensitivity. In this review, we tried to provide basic information on the diagnosis of AD via FISH-based microfluidics. Different sample preparations using a microfluidic chip for diagnosis of AD are highlighted. Moreover, rapid innovations in nanotechnology for diagnosis are explained. This review will provide information on dynamic quantification methods for the diagnosis and treatment of AD. The knowledge provided in this review will help develop new integration diagnostic techniques based on FISH and microfluidics. PMID:21619660

  8. Columnaris disease in fish: a review with emphasis on bacterium-host interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare (F. columnare) is the causative agent of columnaris disease. This bacterium affects both cultured and wild freshwater fish including many susceptible commercially important fish species. F. columnare infections may result in skin lesions, fin erosion and gill necrosis, with a high degree of mortality, leading to severe economic losses. Especially in the last decade, various research groups have performed studies aimed at elucidating the pathogenesis of columnaris disease, leading to significant progress in defining the complex interactions between the organism and its host. Despite these efforts, the pathogenesis of columnaris disease hitherto largely remains unclear, compromising the further development of efficient curative and preventive measures to combat this disease. Besides elaborating on the agent and the disease it causes, this review aims to summarize these pathogenesis data emphasizing the areas meriting further investigation. PMID:23617544

  9. Disease-protective symbiosis among fishes and other aquatic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snieszko, S.F.

    1962-01-01

    There have been numerous observations of one species of animal removing parasites from another. These are, however, generally regarded as biological curiosities rather than as significant factors in the control of parasites or disease.

  10. Oily fish, coffee and walnuts: Dietary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vikas; Mah, Xian-Jun; Garcia, Maria Carmela; Antonypillai, Christina; van der Poorten, David

    2015-10-01

    Rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasing worldwide in tandem with the metabolic syndrome, with the progressive form of disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) likely to become the most common cause of end stage liver disease in the not too distant future. Lifestyle modification and weight loss remain the main focus of management in NAFLD and NASH, however, there has been growing interest in the benefit of specific foods and dietary components on disease progression, with some foods showing protective properties. This article provides an overview of the foods that show the most promise and their potential benefits in NAFLD/NASH, specifically; oily fish/ fish oil, coffee, nuts, tea, red wine, avocado and olive oil. Furthermore, it summarises results from animal and human trials and highlights potential areas for future research. PMID:26457022

  11. Oily fish, coffee and walnuts: Dietary treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vikas; Mah, Xian-Jun; Garcia, Maria Carmela; Antonypillai, Christina; van der Poorten, David

    2015-01-01

    Rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasing worldwide in tandem with the metabolic syndrome, with the progressive form of disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) likely to become the most common cause of end stage liver disease in the not too distant future. Lifestyle modification and weight loss remain the main focus of management in NAFLD and NASH, however, there has been growing interest in the benefit of specific foods and dietary components on disease progression, with some foods showing protective properties. This article provides an overview of the foods that show the most promise and their potential benefits in NAFLD/NASH, specifically; oily fish/ fish oil, coffee, nuts, tea, red wine, avocado and olive oil. Furthermore, it summarises results from animal and human trials and highlights potential areas for future research. PMID:26457022

  12. Lipid emulsions containing fish oil protect against PN-induced cholestatic liver disease in preterm piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During their first weeks of life preterm infants are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN). However, PN is associated with the development of cholestasis (PN Associated Liver Disease PNALD). Studies in children showed that fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD; whether they prevent PNALD...

  13. Identification of Yersinia ruckeri from diseased salmonid fish by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wortberg, F; Nardy, E; Contzen, M; Rau, J

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM), which mainly affects salmonid fish. Isolates of Y. ruckeri from diseased salmonid fish were obtained over a 6-year period from eight fish farms in the State of Baden-Württemberg, Southwest Germany. The strains were characterized by biochemical methods and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with artificial neural network analysis. These methods were complemented by 16S rDNA sequencing for several isolates. The set of strains from these fish farms included sorbitol-positive, gelatinase-positive and non-motile Y. ruckeri. These variants were differentiated with an advanced FT-IR module, which is part of a higher-ranking method including more than 200 well-defined Yersinia strains against a background of more than 1000 other Gram-negative isolates. Validation of the newly constructed method yielded 97.4% of Y. ruckeri identified correctly on the species level. Thus, the FT-IR analysis enables distinction of all Y. ruckeri from other Yersinia species (e.g. fish-borne Y. enterocolitica) and other Enterobacteriaceae typically misidentified because of similar biochemical reaction profiles, especially Hafnia alvei. The differentiation of sorbitol-positive variants of Y. ruckeri using FT-IR was demonstrated. PMID:22103737

  14. Farming behaviour of reef fishes increases the prevalence of coral disease associated microbes and black band disease

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Jordan M.; Ainsworth, Tracy D.; Choat, J. Howard; Connolly, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial community structure on coral reefs is strongly influenced by coral–algae interactions; however, the extent to which this influence is mediated by fishes is unknown. By excluding fleshy macroalgae, cultivating palatable filamentous algae and engaging in frequent aggression to protect resources, territorial damselfish (f. Pomacentridae), such as Stegastes, mediate macro-benthic dynamics on coral reefs and may significantly influence microbial communities. To elucidate how Stegastes apicalis and Stegastes nigricans may alter benthic microbial assemblages and coral health, we determined the benthic community composition (epilithic algal matrix and prokaryotes) and coral disease prevalence inside and outside of damselfish territories in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed distinct bacterial communities associated with turf algae and a two to three times greater relative abundance of phylotypes with high sequence similarity to potential coral pathogens inside Stegastes's territories. These potentially pathogenic phylotypes (totalling 30.04% of the community) were found to have high sequence similarity to those amplified from black band disease (BBD) and disease affected corals worldwide. Disease surveys further revealed a significantly higher occurrence of BBD inside S. nigricans's territories. These findings demonstrate the first link between fish behaviour, reservoirs of potential coral disease pathogens and the prevalence of coral disease. PMID:24966320

  15. Farming behaviour of reef fishes increases the prevalence of coral disease associated microbes and black band disease.

    PubMed

    Casey, Jordan M; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Choat, J Howard; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-08-01

    Microbial community structure on coral reefs is strongly influenced by coral-algae interactions; however, the extent to which this influence is mediated by fishes is unknown. By excluding fleshy macroalgae, cultivating palatable filamentous algae and engaging in frequent aggression to protect resources, territorial damselfish (f. Pomacentridae), such as Stegastes, mediate macro-benthic dynamics on coral reefs and may significantly influence microbial communities. To elucidate how Stegastes apicalis and Stegastes nigricans may alter benthic microbial assemblages and coral health, we determined the benthic community composition (epilithic algal matrix and prokaryotes) and coral disease prevalence inside and outside of damselfish territories in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed distinct bacterial communities associated with turf algae and a two to three times greater relative abundance of phylotypes with high sequence similarity to potential coral pathogens inside Stegastes's territories. These potentially pathogenic phylotypes (totalling 30.04% of the community) were found to have high sequence similarity to those amplified from black band disease (BBD) and disease affected corals worldwide. Disease surveys further revealed a significantly higher occurrence of BBD inside S. nigricans's territories. These findings demonstrate the first link between fish behaviour, reservoirs of potential coral disease pathogens and the prevalence of coral disease. PMID:24966320

  16. Fish intake and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2 large US cohorts1234

    PubMed Central

    Barr, R Graham; Willett, Walter C; Speizer, Frank E; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite mechanistic data that linked fish and omega-3 (n–3) PUFAs with lower risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), epidemiologic data remain scarce. Fish and n–3 PUFAs are an important component of the prudent dietary pattern that is thought to be protective in the onset of COPD. Objective: We examined the role of fish and PUFA intakes on risk of developing COPD while taking into account the overall dietary pattern. Design: We investigated the objective in 120,175 women and men from the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Over the study period (1984–2000), there were 889 cases of newly diagnosed COPD. Cumulative average intakes of fish, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n–3 PUFAs, n–6 PUFAs, and the n–3:n–6 ratio were calculated from repeated food-frequency questionnaires. Because fish is a food group included in the prudent pattern, we derived a new prudent pattern without the contribution from fish, and we termed this pattern the “modified prudent” pattern. We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Before the dietary pattern was taken into account, and with 14 factors controlled for, we showed that more-frequent fish intake (≥4 servings/wk) was inversely associated with risk of COPD [adjusted pooled HR for the highest intake compared with the lowest intake (<1 serving/wk): 0.71; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.94]. After additional adjustment for the dietary pattern (modified prudent and Western patterns), the association was NS (0.84; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.13). No significant associations were shown between PUFA intakes and risk of COPD. Conclusion: Although COPD-prevention efforts should continue to focus on smoking cessation, these prospective findings support the importance of promoting a healthy diet in multi-interventional programs to prevent COPD instead of focusing on changes in an isolated food or nutrient. PMID:25646333

  17. Selective feeding by coral reef fishes on coral lesions associated with brown band and black band disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong-Seng, K. M.; Cole, A. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Willis, B. L.

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that corallivorous fishes may be vectors for coral disease, but the extent to which fishes actually feed on and thereby potentially transmit coral pathogens is largely unknown. For this study, in situ video observations were used to assess the level to which fishes fed on diseased coral tissues at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. Surveys conducted at multiple locations around Lizard Island revealed that coral disease prevalence, especially of brown band disease (BrB), was higher in lagoon and backreef locations than in exposed reef crests. Accordingly, video cameras were deployed in lagoon and backreef habitats to record feeding by fishes during 1-h periods on diseased sections of each of 44 different coral colonies. Twenty-five species from five fish families (Blennidae, Chaetodontidae, Gobiidae, Labridae and Pomacentridae) were observed to feed on infected coral tissues of staghorn species of Acropora that were naturally infected with black band disease (BBD) or brown band disease (BrB). Collectively, these fishes took an average of 18.6 (±5.6 SE) and 14.3 (±6.1 SE) bites per hour from BBD and BrB lesions, respectively. More than 40% (408/948 bites) and nearly 25% (314/1319 bites) of bites were observed on lesions associated with BBD and BrB, respectively, despite these bands each representing only about 1% of the substratum available. Moreover, many corallivorous fishes ( Labrichthys unilineatus, Chaetodon aureofasciatus, C. baronessa, C. lunulatus, C. trifascialis, Cheiloprion labiatus) selectively targeted disease lesions over adjacent healthy coral tissues. These findings highlight the important role that reef fishes may play in the dynamics of coral diseases, either as vectors for the spread of coral disease or in reducing coral disease progression through intensive and selective consumption of diseased coral tissues.

  18. Application of artificial photoperiod in fish: a factor that increases susceptibility to infectious diseases?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Ariel; Campos, Victor; Yañez, Francisco; Alveal, Katherine; Gutiérrez, Pamela; Rivas, Meyling; Contreras, Nancy; Klempau, Alfredo; Fernandez, Italo; Oyarzun, Ciro

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the mortality associated with the potential stressor effect induced by application of artificial photoperiods in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After application of artificial photoperiods, high mortalities of trout subjected to this management were recorded (36% in LD 14:10 and 25% in LD 24:0) as compared to controls (7%). The recorded signology related to diseased trout included darkening, lethargy and erratic swimming. Among the morphological changes, skin lesions and ulcerative-type necrosis could be observed. Blood tests, histopathology and isolation of pathogens identified as Flavobacterium psychrophilum, associated with Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Saprolegnia sp., were performed. The application of artificial photoperiods suggests that fish may be more susceptible to opportunistic diseases; thus, it is advisable to emphasize preventive measures in fish subjected to this management. PMID:22160663

  19. Protective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds and oil against columnaris disease in fishes.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2016-06-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is currently the most frequently reported bacterial disease affecting farm-raised channel catfish in the USA. Common treatments against the disease include the use of medicated feed that has led to emergent antibiotic resistant strains of F. columnare. Nigella sativa (Black cumin) is a medicinal herb commonly used by many cultures as a natural remedy for numerous disorders. Recently, we have discovered the antibacterial activity of N. sativa and its oil extract against F. columnare. In this study, we showed N. sativa oil (NSO) strongly inhibited the growth of all of the strains of F. columnare tested and yielded significantly larger zones of inhibition than those produced by oxytetracyclin. We tested the protective effect against columnaris disease in vivo by incorporating NSO (5%) or N. sativa seeds (NSS) (5%) into fish feeds. Fishes (Ictalurus punctatus and Danio rerio) fed amended diets displayed significantly lower mortality than those fed control diets. Per cent mortalities in control groups ranged from 77% to 44% and from 70% to 18% in zebrafish and channel catfish, respectively. A dose study using different NSS concentrations showed that 5% NSS offered the most protection against columnaris disease in channel catfish. PMID:26265495

  20. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF INFECTIOUS AND NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES IN OYSTERS AND FISHES IN THREE GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of 3 northern US Gulf Coast estuaries (Pensacola and Escambia Bays in Northwest Florida; Mobile Bay, Alabama; Pascagoula Harbor, Mississippi Sound, Mississippi) investigates: (1) frequencies of known new diseases, including neoplasms, in oysters and fishes at sites amon...

  1. The expanding role of fish models in understanding non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Yoichi; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excessive fat accumulates in the liver of an individual who has not consumed excessive alcohol. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can progress to hepatic cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD is considered to be a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and its incidence has risen worldwide in lockstep with the increased global prevalence of obesity. Over the last decade, rodent studies have yielded an impressive list of molecules associated with NAFLD and NASH pathogenesis. However, the identification of currently unknown metabolic factors using mammalian model organisms is inefficient and expensive compared with studies using fish models such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Substantial advances in unraveling the molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD have recently been achieved through unbiased forward genetic screens using small fish models. Furthermore, these easily manipulated organisms have been used to great advantage to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of various chemical compounds for the treatment of NAFLD. In this Review, we summarize aspects of NAFLD (specifically focusing on NASH) pathogenesis that have been previously revealed by rodent models, and discuss how small fish are increasingly being used to uncover factors that contribute to normal hepatic lipid metabolism. We describe the various types of fish models in use for this purpose, including those generated by mutation, transgenesis, or dietary or chemical treatment, and contrast them with rodent models. The use of small fish in identifying novel potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of NAFLD and NASH is also addressed. PMID:23720231

  2. From fish to man: understanding endogenous remyelination in CNS demyelinating diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Dalcq, Monique; Williams, Anna; Stadelmann, Christine; Stankoff, Bruno; Zalc, Bernard; Lubetzki, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) of man, evolutionary pressure has preserved some capability for remyelination while axonal regeneration is very limited. In contrast, two efficient programmes of regeneration exist in the adult fish CNS, neurite regrowth and remyelination. The rapidity of CNS remyelination is critical since it not only restores fast conduction of nerve impulses but also maintains axon integrity. If myelin repair fails, axons degenerate, leading to increased disability. In the human CNS demyelinating disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS), remyelination often takes place in the midst of inflammation. Here, we discuss recent studies that address the innate repair capabilities of the axon-glia unit from fish to man. We propose that expansion of this research field will help find ways to maintain or enhance spontaneous remyelination in man. PMID:18474520

  3. Charcoal agar, a new growth medium for the fish disease bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, J G; Stevenson, R M

    1985-01-01

    Charcoal is an effective replacement for serum in media for the isolation and culture of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. The medium, KDM-C, contains 10 g of peptone, 0.5 g of yeast extract, 1 g of L-cysteine hydrochloride, 1 g of activated charcoal, and 15 g of agar per liter and is adjusted to pH 6.8 with NaOH before autoclaving. Eight strains of R. salmoninarum grew from dilute inocula as well on KDM-C as on a standard serum-containing medium (KDM-2). The medium was effective for both primary isolations from fish and repeated transfers and has potential value for antigen preparation and physiological studies. Images PMID:4083882

  4. Risk-based methods for fish and terrestrial animal disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, Birgit; Peeler, Edmund; Lyngstad, Trude; Brun, Edgar; Bang Jensen, Britt; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2013-10-01

    Over recent years there have been considerable methodological developments in the field of animal disease surveillance. The principles of risk analysis were conceptually applied to surveillance in order to further develop approaches and tools (scenario tree modelling) to design risk-based surveillance (RBS) programmes. In the terrestrial animal context, examples of risk-based surveillance have demonstrated the substantial potential for cost saving, and a similar benefit is expected also for aquatic animals. RBS approaches are currently largely absent for aquatic animal diseases. A major constraint in developing RBS designs in the aquatic context is the lack of published data to assist in the design of RBS: this applies to data on (i) the relative risk of farm sites becoming infected due to the presence or absence of a given risk factor; (ii) the sensitivity of diagnostic tests (specificity is often addressed by follow-up investigation and re-testing and therefore less of a concern); (iii) data on the variability of prevalence of infection for fish within a holding unit, between holding units and at farm level. Another constraint is that some of the most basic data for planning surveillance are missing, e.g. data on farm location and animal movements. In Europe, registration or authorisation of fish farms has only recently become a requirement under EU Directive 2006/88. Additionally, the definition of the epidemiological unit (at site or area level) in the context of aquaculture is a challenge due to the often high level of connectedness (mainly via water) of aquaculture facilities with the aquatic environment. This paper provides a review of the principles, methods and examples of RBS in terrestrial, farmed and wild animals. It discusses the special challenges associated with surveillance for aquatic animal diseases (e.g. accessibility of animals for inspection and sampling, complexity of rearing systems) and provides an overview of current developments relevant

  5. Got a Sick Fish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  6. Iridovirus disease in two ornamental tropical freshwater fishes: African lampeye and dwarf gourami.

    PubMed

    Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Miyata, Masato; Miyazaki, Teruo

    2002-04-01

    Many species of ornamental freshwater fishes are imported into Japan from all over the world. We found African lampeye Aplocheilichthys normani and dwarf gourami Colisa lalia suffering from an iridovirus infection just after being imported by tropical fish wholesalers from Singapore. African lampeye were cultured on the Indonesian Island of Sumatra and dwarf gourami were cultured in Malaysia before export. Diseased fishes displayed distinct histopathological signs of iridovirus infection: systemic appearance of inclusion body-bearing cells, and necrosis of splenocytes and hematopoietic cells. Electron microscopy revealed viral particles (African lampeye:180 to 200 nm in edge to edge diameter; dwarf gourami: 140 to 150 nm in diameter) in an inclusion body within the cytoplasm of inclusion body-bearing cells as well as in the cytoplasm of necrotized cells. Experimental infection with an iridovirus isolate from African lampeye (ALIV) revealed pathogenicity of ALIV to African lampeye and pearl gourami Trichogaster leeri. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from ALIV and an iridovirus isolate from dwarf gourami (DGIV) using iridovirus-specific primers were indistinguishable. The nucleotide sequence of PCR products derived from ALIV (696 base pairs) and DGIV (701 base pairs) had 95.3% identity. These results indicate that ALIV and DGIV have a single origin. PMID:12033703

  7. Intestinal failure-associated liver disease and the use of fish oil-based lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Olivier J

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is caused by the critical reduction of functional gut mass below the minimal amount necessary for adequate digestion and absorption to satisfy body nutrient and fluid requirements for maintenance in adults and growth in children. The advent of parenteral nutrition (PN) resulted in a dramatic improvement in life expectancy of patients suffering IF, but it has its own complications, such as catheter related sepsis. In pediatric patients suffering IF, intraluminal intestinal bacterial overgrowth may cause bacterial translocation and subsequent cholestasis and liver fibrosis. With our current understanding of the genesis of intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD), it should be prevented or at least early recognized and treated especially in patients experiencing prematurity and/or sepsis. Targeting harmful cytokine responses can be expected to reduce the severity and frequency of IFALD. In that view, prevention of sepsis, appropriate management of enteral feeding, prevention and treatment of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and the effects of fish oil, as providing omega-3 fatty with anti-inflammatory effects, are promising in avoiding or reversing cholestasis. This chapter aims to review both IF and PN related factors of liver disease with special emphasize on inflammation as cause of liver injury and on the use of fish oil based lipid emulsions as a provision of both alpha-tocopherol (200 g/l of 20% emulsion), as anti-oxidant agent and long-chain PUFAs. PMID:25471806

  8. Benefit-Risk Assessment of Fish Oil in Preventing Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Lands, Bill

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a preventable disease, which combines two general processes: chronic vascular inflammation and acute thrombosis. Both are amplified with positive feedback signals by n-6 eicosanoids derived from food-based n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-6 HUFA). This amplification is lessened by competing actions of n-3 HUFA. Death results from fatal interactions of the vascular wall with platelets and clotting proteins. The benefits of fish oil interventions are confounded by complex details in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse events, timescale factors, topology, financial incentives and people's sense of cause and effect. Two basic aspects of n-3 HUFA that are overlooked in CVD dynamics are saturable, hyperbolic responses of the enzymes continually supplying n-6 HUFA and hard-to-control positive feedback receptor signals by excessive n-6 HUFA-based mediators. Multiple feedback loops in inflammation and thrombosis have diverse mediators, and reducing one mediator that occurs above its rate-limiting levels may not reduce the pathophysiology. Clinicians have developed some successful interventions that decrease CVD deaths in the form of secondary prevention. However, the current high CVD prevalence in the USA remains unchanged, and successful primary prevention of CVD remains uncertain. This review weighs the available evidence to help clinicians, the biomedical community and the public put the use of fish oil supplements into a balanced perspective. PMID:27412006

  9. The Use of Fish Oil Lipid Emulsion in the Treatment of Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease (IFALD)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Melissa I.; Puder, Mark; Gura, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, fish oil based lipid emulsions have been used in the treatment of intestinal failure associated liver disease, with a noticeable impact on decreasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality of this often fatal condition. With this new therapy, however, different approaches have emerged as well as concerns about potential risks with using fish oil as a monotherapy. This review will discuss the experience to date with this lipid emulsion along with the rational for its use, controversies and concerns. PMID:23363993

  10. Developments in the control of bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibactenum salrnoninarum, was first reported more than 50 yr ago; nevertheless, large gaps persist in our knowledge of the infection - particularly in methods for its control. In the 1950's, principal control measures consisted of prophylactic or therapeutic feeding of sulfonamides, which were later supplanted by the antibiotic erythromycin. Chemotherapy has effected some reduction of mortality, but benefits are typically transient and mortality usually resumes after the drug is withdrawn. Some studies have indicated that diet composition affects the prevalence and severity of the disease. Although tests of chemotherapeutants and diet modification have continued, research emphasis has shifted partly toward prevention of the disease by breaking the infection cycle. It is now generally accepted that R. salrnoninarum can be transmitted both vertically and horizontally. Experimental evidence indicates that immersion of newly fertilized eggs in iodophor or erythromycin does not prevent vertical transmission. However, the injection of female salmon with erythromycin before they spawn shows promise as a practical means of interrupting vertical transmission. The results of attempts to prevent infection of juvenile salmonids by vaccination against bacterial kidney disease have been disappointing, thus underscoring a basic need for a better understanding of protective mechanisms in salmonids. The recent development of more sensitive and quantitative detection methods should aid in evaluating the efficacy of current and future control strategies.

  11. Pathological alterations typical of human Tay-Sachs disease, in the retina of a deep-sea fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishelson, L.; Delarea, Yacov; Galil, Bella S.

    Micrographs of retinas from the deep-sea fish Cataetyx laticeps revealed visual cells containing membranous whorls in the ellipsoids of the inner segments resulting from stretching and modifications of the mitochondria membranes and their cristae. These pathological structures seem to be homologous to the whorls observed in retinas of human carriers of Tay-Sachs disease. This disease, a genetic disorder, is found in humans and some mammals. Our findings in fish suggest that the gene responsible can be found throughout the vertebrate evolutionary tree, possibly dormant in most taxa.

  12. Development of a cost-effective oral vaccination method against viral disease in fish.

    PubMed

    Companjen, A R; Florack, D E A; Bastiaans, J H M W; Matos, C I; Bosch, D; Rombout, J H W M

    2005-01-01

    Different vaccination methods have been applied to protect fish against the detrimental effects of various pathogens. Several studies have shown the potentials of oral vaccination. In theory oral vaccination is an effortless and stress-free method which can be applied at almost any age. In general, however, the vaccine has to be protected to avoid digestion, which results in high costs for application in aquaculture. In this paper we introduce a cost-effective oral vaccination strategy for viral diseases of fish. The vaccines discussed here include fusion proteins consisting of a gut adhesion molecule and a viral peptide expressed in plants. The adhesion molecule mediates binding to and uptake from the gut, whereas the viral peptide functions as vaccine antigen mediating the induction of a humoral immune response. The first pilot studies using a fusion of the gut adhesion molecule and well-characterised heterologous linear B- and T-cell viral epitopes, produced in potato tubers, showed a promising binding and subsequent uptake in the end gut of carp. The results further indicated that a specific humoral immune response was evoked. PMID:15962477

  13. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  14. THE ROLE OF REEF FISH IN THE TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS OF BLACK-BAND DISEASE IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeby, Greta S. and Deborah L. Santavy. In press. Role of Reef Fish in the Transmission Dynamics of Black-Band Disease in the Florida Keys (Abstract). To be presented at the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium, 28 June-2 July 2004, Okinawa, Japan. 1 p. (ERL,GB R998).

    T...

  15. Complete genome sequence of Yersinia ruckeri str. CSF007-82, etiologic agent of enteric redmouth disease in salmonid fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the complete, closed and finished chromosomal and extra-chromosomal genome sequences of Y. ruckeri strain CSF007-82, etiologic agent of enteric red mouth disease in salmonid fish. The chromosome is 3,799,036 bp with a G+C content of 47.5% and encodes 3,530 predicted CDS, 7 ribosomal opero...

  16. Fish oil–based lipid emulsions in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: An ongoing positive experience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported the beneficial effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLEs) as monotherapy in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). In this report, we share our ongoing experience at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, in the use of FOLE in treatment of P...

  17. Mycobacterium ulcerans causes minimal pathogenesis and colonization in Medaka (Oryzias latipes): An experimental fish model of disease transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mosi, Lydia; Mutoji, Nadine K.; Basile, Fritz A; Donnell, Robert; Jackson, Kathrine L.; Spangenberg, Thomas; Kishi, Yoshito; Ennis, Don G.; Small, Pamela L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans causes Buruli ulcer in humans, a progressive ulcerative epidermal lesion due to the mycolactone toxin produced by the bacterium. Molecular analysis of M. ulcerans reveals it is closely related to M. marinum, a pathogen of both fish and man. Molecular evidence from diagnostic PCR assays for the insertion sequence IS2404 suggests an association of M. ulcerans with fish. However, fish infections by M. ulcerans have not been well documented and IS2404 has been found in other mycobacteria. We have thus, employed two experimental approaches to test for M. ulcerans in fish. We show here for the first time that M. ulcerans with or without the toxin does not mount acute or chronic infections in Japanese Medaka “Oryzias latipes” even at high doses. Moreover, M. ulcerans-infected medaka do not exhibit any visible signs of infection nor disease and the bacteria do not appear to replicate over time. In contrast, similar high doses of the wild-type M. marinum or a mycolactone producing M. marinum “DL” strain are able to mount an acute disease with mortality in medaka. Although these results would suggest that M. ulcerans does not mount infections in fish we have evidence that CLC macrophages from goldfish are susceptible to mycolactones. PMID:22465732

  18. Changes in fish consumption in midlife and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women.

    PubMed

    Lajous, Martin; Willett, Walter C; Robins, James; Young, Jessica G; Rimm, Eric; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Hernán, Miguel A

    2013-08-01

    Without data from randomized trials, the long-term effects of fish consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD) need to be inferred from observational studies. We estimated CHD risk under different hypothetical interventions on fish consumption during mid- and later life in 2 prospective US cohorts of 25,797 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and 53,772 women in the Nurses' Health Study. Participants provided information on risk factors and disease every 2 years and on diet every 4 years. We adjusted for baseline and time-varying risk factors for CHD by using the parametric g-formula (where g stands for "generalized"). We observed 1,865 incident CHD cases among men (in 1990-2008) and 1,891 CHD cases among women (in 1986-2008). The risk ratios for CHD when comparing the risk if everyone had consumed at least 2 servings of fish per week with the risk if no one consumed fish during the follow-up periods were 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.15) for men and 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 0.98) for women. Our results suggest that increasing fish consumption to at least 2 servings per week in mid- or later life may lower CHD risk in women but not in men. Our analytical approach allowed us to explicitly specify hypothetical interventions and to assess the effectiveness of dietary changes in midlife. PMID:23813701

  19. Changes in Fish Consumption in Midlife and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Lajous, Martin; Willett, Walter C.; Robins, James; Young, Jessica G.; Rimm, Eric; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Without data from randomized trials, the long-term effects of fish consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD) need to be inferred from observational studies. We estimated CHD risk under different hypothetical interventions on fish consumption during mid- and later life in 2 prospective US cohorts of 25,797 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and 53,772 women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Participants provided information on risk factors and disease every 2 years and on diet every 4 years. We adjusted for baseline and time-varying risk factors for CHD by using the parametric g-formula (where g stands for “generalized”). We observed 1,865 incident CHD cases among men (in 1990–2008) and 1,891 CHD cases among women (in 1986–2008). The risk ratios for CHD when comparing the risk if everyone had consumed at least 2 servings of fish per week with the risk if no one consumed fish during the follow-up periods were 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.15) for men and 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 0.98) for women. Our results suggest that increasing fish consumption to at least 2 servings per week in mid- or later life may lower CHD risk in women but not in men. Our analytical approach allowed us to explicitly specify hypothetical interventions and to assess the effectiveness of dietary changes in midlife. PMID:23813701

  20. n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies on the relation between dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and cardiovascular disease vary in quality, and the results are inconsistent. A systematic review of the literature on the effects of n-3 FAs (consumed as fish or fish oils rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid or as alph...

  1. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  2. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions prevent and reverse parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: the Boston experience.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, Vincent E; Gura, Kathleen M; Le, Hau D; Meisel, Jonathan A; Puder, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is the most prevalent and most severe complication of long-term parenteral nutrition. Its underlying pathophysiology, however, largely remains to be elucidated. The currently approved parenteral lipid emulsions in the United States contain safflower or soybean oils, both rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Mounting evidence indicates that the omega-6 PUFAs originating from plant oils in these lipid emulsions may play a role in the onset of liver injury. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions, in contrast, are primarily composed of omega-3 PUFAs, thus providing a promising alternative. The authors review the literature on the role of lipid emulsions in the onset of PNALD and discuss prevention and treatment strategies using a fish oil-based lipid emulsion. They conclude that a fish oil-based emulsion is hepatoprotective in a murine model of PNALD, and it appears to be safe and efficacious for the treatment of this type of liver disease in children. A prospective randomized trial that is currently under way at the authors' institution will objectively determine the place of fish oil monotherapy in the prevention of PNALD. PMID:19571170

  3. Diseases of cultured marine fishes caused by Platyhelminthes (Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K

    2015-01-01

    Mariculture is a rapidly developing industrial sector. Generally, fish are maintained in net cages with high density. Cage culture systems allow uncontrolled flow of sea water containing potentially infectious stages of fish parasites. In such culture conditions, prevention of such parasitic infections is difficult for parasites with life cycles that complete within culture sites, among which monogeneans and blood flukes are the most important platyhelminthes. Intense monogenean infections induce respiratory and osmo-regulatory dysfunctions. A variety of control measures have been developed, including freshwater bath treatment and chemotherapy. The potential to control monogenean infections through selective breeding, modified culture techniques to avoid infection, and general fish health management are discussed. It should be noted that mariculture conditions have provided some host-specific monogeneans with a chance to expand their host ranges. Blood flukes sometimes induce mass mortality among farmed fish. In-feed administration of praziquantel is the best solution to treat infected fish. Some cases are described that show how international trade in marine fish has resulted in the spread of hitherto unknown parasites into indigenous farmed and wild fish. PMID:24998438

  4. Prenatal diagnosis by FISH in a family with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease caused by duplication of PLP gene.

    PubMed

    Woodward, K; Palmer, R; Rao, K; Malcolm, S

    1999-03-01

    A diagnosis of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (MIM 312080) was made in a young boy. No mutation in the coding region of the proteolipid protein (PLP) gene had been found. The boy's maternal aunt came for prenatal diagnosis when 16+ weeks pregnant and carrying a male fetus. Samples were tested for duplication of the PLP gene, by interphase FISH, in lymphocyte preparations from the proband, his aunt and an amniotic fluid cell preparation from the fetus. The proband was found to carry the duplication, thus confirming the diagnosis of Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease, but neither the aunt nor the fetus carried a duplication. PMID:10210128

  5. Pediatric Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease is Reversed with Six Months of Intravenous Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Kara L.; Dunn, James C.Y.; Shew, Stephen B.; Reyen, Laurie; Farmer, Douglas; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Venick, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that when intravenous (IV) soybean oil (SO) is replaced with fish oil (FO), direct hyperbilirubinemia is more likely to resolve. The necessary duration of FO has not been established. This study seeks to determine if 24 weeks of FO is an effective and safe therapy for intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Materials and Methods This is a clinical trial using patients with IFALD between the ages of 2 weeks and 18 years. SO was replaced with FO (1 g/kg/day) in 10 subjects who were receiving the majority of their calories from parenteral (PN). Subjects were compared to 20 historical controls receiving SO. SO for both groups was prescribed by the primary medical team at variable doses. The primary outcome was time to reversal of cholestasis. Secondary outcomes were death, transplant, and full enteral feeds. Safety measurements included growth, essential fatty acid deficiency, and laboratory markers to assess bleeding risk. Results The Kaplan-Meier method estimates that 75% in the FO group will experience resolution of cholestasis by 17 weeks vs. 6% in the SO group (p < 0.0001). When compared to the SO group, the FO group had decreased serum direct bilirubin concentrations at weeks 8 (p=0.03), 12, 16, 20 and 24 (p< 0.0001). While length Z-score at the end of the study increased in the FO group compared to baseline (p=0.03), there were no significant differences in other outcomes. Conclusions A limited duration of FO appears to be safe and effective in reversing IFALD. PMID:23894176

  6. Fish oil induced increase in walking distance, but not ankle brachial pressure index, in peripheral arterial disease is dependent on both body mass index and inflammatory genotype.

    PubMed

    Madden, Jacqueline; Brunner, Andreas; Dastur, Neville D; Tan, Rebecca M; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed; Shearman, Cliff P; Calder, Philip C; Grimble, Robert F

    2007-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease. Evidence suggests that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition and long chain n-3 fatty acids, found in oily fish and fish oils, have been shown to reduce inflammation. Genetic and lifestyle factors such as body mass index (BMI) also influence inflammation. In this study we have examined the effect of fish oil in patients with claudication secondary to PAD. Fish oil supplementation, providing 1g EPA and 0.7 g DHA per day for 12 weeks, increased walking distance on a treadmill set at 3.2 km/h with a 7% incline. Walking distance to first pain increased from 76.2+/-8.5 m before fish oil to 140.6+/-25.5 m after fish oil (mean+/-SEM, p=0.004) and total distance walked increased from 160.0+/-21.5 m before fish oil to 242.1+/-34.5 m after fish oil (p=0.002). Fish oil supplementation also improved ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) from 0.599+/-0.017 before fish oil to 0.776+/-0.030 after fish oil (p<0.001). The increase in walking distance was dependent on both BMI and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (detected using amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction). Neither BMI nor any of the genotypes examined affected the ability of fish oil to increase ABPI. The mechanisms by which fish oil affects walking distance and ABPI do not appear to be the same. PMID:17600695

  7. Reversal of Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease by Switching From a Combination Lipid Emulsion Containing Fish Oil to Fish Oil Monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Jihye; Hong, Seul Hee; Oh, Chae-Youn; Lee, Suk-Koo; Seo, Jeong-Meen

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is a serious complication of parenteral nutrition (PN). Studies have shown that the amount and content of intravenous lipid emulsions (LEs) used is closely related to the development of IFALD. We report 2 cases of IFALD reversed by switching from a combination lipid emulsion containing fish oil to fish oil monotherapy (Omegaven; Fresenius Kabi Austria Gmbh, Graz, Austria). Patients initially received PN containing SMOFlipid 20% (SMOF; Fresenius Kabi Austria Gmbh, Graz, Austria), 2.0-3.0 g/kg/d, over 24 hours. When IFALD developed, LE was switched from SMOF to Omegaven starting at 1.0 g/kg/d over 12 hours. Case 1 was an 11-month-old girl with a diagnosis of extensive Hirschsprung disease up to the proximal jejunum. She developed direct bilirubinemia at 3 months, and the patient's LE was switched to Omegaven. A decrease in direct bilirubin was observed after 60 days on Omegaven, and IFALD was completely resolved after 90 days. Case 2 was a 1-month-old boy with a history of gastroschisis diagnosed with megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome. He could not tolerate any oral feeds and was kept on full PN. He had elevated direct bilirubin and developed IFALD since 5 weeks. Omegaven treatment was initiated at 5 months. Direct bilirubin rose to 8 mg/dL during the first month on Omegaven. Then a gradual decrease in direct bilirubin was observed, and after 5 months on Omegaven, IFALD was completely resolved. In conclusion, 2 infants with advanced IFALD showed reversal of cholestasis by switching from SMOF to Omegaven monotherapy. PMID:25560679

  8. Isolation of a rhabdovirus during outbreaks of disease in cyprinid fish species at fishery sites in England.

    PubMed

    Way, K; Bark, S J; Longshaw, C B; Denham, K L; Dixon, P F; Feist, S W; Gardiner, R; Gubbins, M J; Le Deuff, R M; Martin, P D; Stone, D M; Taylor, G R

    2003-12-01

    A virus was isolated during disease outbreaks in bream Abramis brama, tench Tinca tinca, roach Rutilis rutilis and crucian carp Carassius carassius populations at 6 fishery sites in England in 1999. Mortalities at the sites were primarily among recently introduced fish and the predominant fish species affected was bream. The bream stocked at 5 of the 6 English fishery sites were found to have originated from the River Bann, Northern Ireland. Most fish presented few consistent external signs of disease but some exhibited clinical signs similar to those of spring viraemia of carp (SVC), with extensive skin haemorrhages, ulceration on the flanks and internal signs including ascites and petechial haemorrhages. The most prominent histopathological changes were hepatocellular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and splenitis. The virus induced a cytopathic effect in tissue cultures (Epithelioma papulosum cyprini [EPC] cells) at 20 degrees C and produced moderate signals in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of SVC virus. The virus showed a close serological relationship to pike fry rhabdovirus in both EIA and serum neutralisation assays and to a rhabdovirus isolated during a disease outbreak in a bream population in the River Bann in 1998. A high degree of sequence similarity (> or = 99.5% nucleotide identity) was observed between the English isolates and those from the River Bann. Experimental infection of juvenile bream, tench and carp with EPC cell-grown rhabdovirus by bath and intraperitoneal injection resulted in a 40% mortality of bream in the injection group only. The virus was re-isolated from pooled kidney, liver and spleen tissue samples from moribund bream. The field observations together with the experimental results indicate that this rhabdovirus is of low virulence but may have the potential to cause significant mortality in fishes under stress. PMID:14735920

  9. Potassium permanganate elicits a shift of the external fish microbiome and increases host susceptibility to columnaris disease.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham H; Arias, Covadonga R

    2015-01-01

    The external microbiome of fish is thought to benefit the host by hindering the invasion of opportunistic pathogens and/or stimulating the immune system. Disruption of those microbial communities could increase susceptibility to diseases. Traditional aquaculture practices include the use of potent surface-acting disinfectants such as potassium permanganate (PP, KMnO4) to treat external infections. This study evaluated the effect of PP on the external microbiome of channel catfish and investigated if dysbiosis leads to an increase in disease susceptibility. Columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, was used as disease model. Four treatments were compared in the study: (I) negative control (not treated with PP nor challenged with F. columnare), (II) treated but not challenged, (III) not treated but challenged, and (IV) treated and challenged. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) and pyrosequencing were used to analyze changes in the external microbiome during the experiment. Exposure to PP significantly disturbed the external microbiomes and increased catfish mortality following the experimental challenge. Analysis of similarities of RISA profiles showed statistically significant changes in the skin and gill microbiomes based on treatment and sampling time. Characterization of the microbiomes using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing confirmed the disruption of the skin microbiome by PP at different phylogenetic levels. Loss of diversity occurred during the study, even in the control group, but was more noticeable in fish subjected to PP than in those challenged with F. columnare. Fish treated with PP and challenged with the pathogen exhibited the least diverse microbiome at the end of the study. PMID:26170019

  10. Soy Protein Alleviates Hypertension and Fish Oil Improves Diastolic Heart Function in the Han:SPRD-Cy Rat Model of Cystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Naser H M; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Jia, Yong; Netticadan, Thomas; Aukema, Harold

    2016-05-01

    Abnormalities in cardiac structure and function are very common among people with chronic kidney disease, in whom cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death. Dietary soy protein and fish oil reduce kidney disease progression in the Han:SPRD-Cy model of cystic renal disease. However, the effects of these dietary interventions in preventing alterations in cardiac structure and function due to kidney disease (reno-cardiac syndrome) in a cystic kidney disease model are not known. Therefore, weanling Han:SPRD-Cy diseased (Cy/+) and normal (+/+) rats were given diets containing either casein or soy protein, and either soy or fish oil in a three-way design for 8 weeks. Diseased rats had larger hearts, augmented left ventricular mass, and higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to the normal rats. Assessment of cardiac function using two-dimensional guided M-mode and pulse-wave Doppler echocardiography revealed that isovolumic relaxation time was prolonged in the diseased compared to normal rats, reflecting a diastolic heart dysfunction, and fish oil prevented this elevation. Soy protein resulted in a small improvement in systolic and mean arterial pressure but did not improve diastolic heart function, while fish oil prevented diastolic heart dysfunction in this model of cystic kidney disease. PMID:26626478

  11. An epidemic model for the interactions between thermal regime of rivers and transmission of Proliferative Kidney Disease in salmonid fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Luca; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Strepparava, Nicole; Hartikainen, Hanna; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) affects salmonid populations in European and North-American rivers. It is caused by the endoparasitic myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which exploits freshwater bryozoans (Fredericella sultana) and salmonids as primary and secondary hosts, respectively. Incidence and mortality, which can reach up to 90-100%, are known to be strongly related to water temperature. PKD has been present in brown trout population for a long time but has recently increased rapidly in incidence and severity causing a decline in fish catches in many countries. In addition, environmental changes are feared to cause PKD outbreaks at higher latitude and altitude regions as warmer temperatures promote disease development. This calls for a better comprehension of the interactions between disease dynamics and the thermal regime of rivers, in order to possibly devise strategies for disease management. In this perspective, a spatially explicit model of PKD epidemiology in riverine host metacommunities is proposed. The model aims at summarizing the knowledge on the modes of transmission of the disease and the life-cycle of the parasite, making the connection between temperature and epidemiological parameters explicit. The model accounts for both local population and disease dynamics of bryozoans and fish and hydrodynamic dispersion of the parasite spores and hosts along the river network. The model is time-hybrid, coupling inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal dynamics, the former being described in a continuous time domain, the latter seen as time steps of a discrete time domain. In order to test the model, a case study is conducted in river Wigger (Cantons of Aargau and Lucerne, Switzerland), where data about water temperature, brown trout and bryozoan populations and PKD prevalence are being collected.

  12. Co-existence of classic familial lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase deficiency and fish eye disease in the same family.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, H S; Ramanarayanan, S; Gupta, A; Bhardwaj, M

    2015-01-01

    We report a family with a rare genetic disorder arising out of mutation in the gene that encodes for the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). The proband presented with nephrotic syndrome, hemolytic anemia, cloudy cornea, and dyslipidemia. Kidney biopsy showed certain characteristic features to suggest LCAT deficiency, and the enzyme activity in the serum was undetectable. Mother and younger sister showed corneal opacity and dyslipidemia but no renal or hematological involvement. These two members had a milder manifestation of the disease called fish eye disease. This case is presented to emphasize the importance of taking family history and doing a good clinical examination in patients with nephrotic syndrome and carefully analyze the lipid fractions in these subset of patients. PMID:26664212

  13. Co-existence of classic familial lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase deficiency and fish eye disease in the same family

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, H. S.; Ramanarayanan, S.; Gupta, A.; Bhardwaj, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a family with a rare genetic disorder arising out of mutation in the gene that encodes for the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). The proband presented with nephrotic syndrome, hemolytic anemia, cloudy cornea, and dyslipidemia. Kidney biopsy showed certain characteristic features to suggest LCAT deficiency, and the enzyme activity in the serum was undetectable. Mother and younger sister showed corneal opacity and dyslipidemia but no renal or hematological involvement. These two members had a milder manifestation of the disease called fish eye disease. This case is presented to emphasize the importance of taking family history and doing a good clinical examination in patients with nephrotic syndrome and carefully analyze the lipid fractions in these subset of patients. PMID:26664212

  14. Potentials and limits for the use of ozone as a fish disease control agent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Nelson, Nancy C.; Yasutake, Wm. T.

    1979-01-01

    Ozone and chlorine inactivation curves were determined in three types of freshwater at 20 C for the destruction of the fish pathogens Aeromonas salmonicida the etiologic agent of furunculosis, and Yersinia ruckeri the enteric redmouth bacterium (ERM). Ozone and chlorine inactivation curves were also obtained in the same water types at 10 C for the fish pathogenic viruses infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHNV), and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV). Acute toxicity tests using the rainbow trout as a representative salmonid revealed that ozone was highly toxic at the dose levels used. Partial chronic (3. mo.) testing revealed that ozone exposure at 2 μg/L causes only minimal physiological changes, none of which would be expected to compromise biological function.

  15. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  16. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  17. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Fibrotic Profile of Fish Oil Emulsions Used in Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Clerigues, Alfonso; Marti-Bonmati, Ezequiel; Milara, Javier; Almudever, Patricia; Cortijo, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with many complications including severe hepatobiliary dysfunction. Commercial ω-6 fatty acid-soybean based-lipid emulsions in PN may mediate long term PN associate liver disease (PNALD) whereas ω-3-fish oil parenteral emulsions have shown to reverse PNALD in children. However, its clinical effectiveness in adults has been scarcely reported. In this work, we study the role of soybean and fish oil lipid commercial emulsions on inflammatory and profibrotic liver markers in adults with long term PNALD and in in vitro cellular models. Inflammatory and profibrotic markers were measured in serum of ten adults with long term PNALD and in culture supernatants of monocytes. Liver epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) to evaluate in vitro liver fibrosis. Omegaven®, a 100% fish oil commercial emulsion, was infused during four months in two patients with severe long term PNALD reversing, at the first month, the inflammatory, profibrotic and clinical parameters of PNALD. The effect was maintained during the treatment course but impaired when conventional lipid emulsions were reintroduced. The other patients under chronic soybean oil-based PN showed elevated inflammatory and profibrotic parameters. In vitro human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide induced a strong inflammatory response that was suppressed by Omegaven®, but increased by soybean emulsions. In other experiments, TGFβ1 induced EMT that was suppressed by Omegaven® and enhanced by soybean oil lipid emulsions. Omegaven® improves clinical, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic parameters in adults with long-term home PNALD. PMID:25502575

  18. Physical mapping of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) by BAC-FISH

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of ‘Osa Gold’ were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method. The BAC clone adjacent to the black spot disease-related gene was labeled as a probe for FISH analysis. Black spot disease-related genome regions were detected in telomeric positions of two medium size chromosomes. These two sites and six telomeric 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sites were located on different chromosomes as determined from the results of multi-color FISH. The effectiveness of the physical mapping of useful genes on pear chromosomes achieved by the BAC-FISH method was unequivocally demonstrated. PMID:27436955

  19. Physical mapping of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of 'Osa Gold' were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method. The BAC clone adjacent to the black spot disease-related gene was labeled as a probe for FISH analysis. Black spot disease-related genome regions were detected in telomeric positions of two medium size chromosomes. These two sites and six telomeric 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sites were located on different chromosomes as determined from the results of multi-color FISH. The effectiveness of the physical mapping of useful genes on pear chromosomes achieved by the BAC-FISH method was unequivocally demonstrated. PMID:27436955

  20. Association of mycobacteria in recirculating aquaculture systems and mycobacterial disease in fish.

    PubMed

    Yanong, Roy P E; Pouder, Deborah B; Falkinham, Joseph O

    2010-12-01

    Mycobacterium marinum isolates cultivated from tissue containing granulomatous lesions in Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus and from biofilm samples collected from their tank and water recirculating system had identical (L1 of 11 bands) repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) DNA fingerprints. A second M. marinum clone sharing 4 of 11 rep-PCR bands with the first clone was isolated from some fish tissues but not from system samples. Water samples yielded low numbers of colonies of mycobacteria (0.08-1.3/mL), but high numbers were recovered from biofilms (260-12,000/swab) and filters (63-21,000/ filter). Mycobacterium hemophilum, M. chelonae, M. trivale, M. gastri, and M. gordonae were isolated from system samples alone. PMID:21413504

  1. Publications on fish parasites and diseases, 330 B.C.-A.D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, E.A.

    1963-01-01

    These references were collected in 1924, but until now this collection has been available only in manuscript form. Because of the current increased interest in this field, this bibliography is being issued to make it more generally accessible. They include the earliest known references to fish parasites (330 B.C.) as well as a nearly complete collection up to 1924. In some instances only one or two works of a more prolific researcher are cited, therefore it is recommended that the student use the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (U. S. Department of Agriculture) freely. For more current work consult the following, of which Dogiel et al.(1958), Hoffman and Sindermann (1962), Schaperclaus (1954), and Snieszko et aL(in press) have extensive bibliographies:

  2. A FISH KILL OF MASSIVE PROPORTION IN KUWAIT BAY, ARABIAN GULF, 2001: THE ROLES OF BACTERIAL DISEASE, HARMFUL ALGAE, AND EUTROPHICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August and September, 2001, Kuwait Bay, a semi-enclosed embayment of the Arabian Gulf, experienced a massive disease event that killed nearly 3000 tons of wild mullet (Liza klunzingeri Day 1888), due to the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae. In the Bay, this event was preceded by a small fish k...

  3. High rates of resolution of cholestasis in parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease with fish oil-based lipid emulsion monotherapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research was conducted to determine factors leading to resolution of cholestasis in patients with parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease treated with fish-oil-based lipid emulsion (FOLE). We used a prospective observational study of 57 infants <6 months of age with parenteral nutrition-as...

  4. Association between fish consumption, long chain omega 3 fatty acids, and risk of cerebrovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rajiv; Stevens, Sarah; Gorman, Donal; Pan, An; Warnakula, Samantha; Chowdhury, Susmita; Ward, Heather; Johnson, Laura; Crowe, Francesca; Hu, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify associations of fish consumption and long chain omega 3 fatty acids with risk of cerebrovascular disease for primary and secondary prevention. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Studies published before September 2012 identified through electronic searches using Medline, Embase, BIOSIS, and Science Citation Index databases. Eligibility criteria Prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled trials reporting on associations of fish consumption and long chain omega 3 fatty acids (based on dietary self report), omega 3 fatty acids biomarkers, or supplementations with cerebrovascular disease (defined as any fatal or non-fatal ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, cerebrovascular accident, or transient ischaemic attack). Both primary and secondary prevention studies (comprising participants with or without cardiovascular disease at baseline) were eligible. Results 26 prospective cohort studies and 12 randomised controlled trials with aggregate data on 794 000 non-overlapping people and 34 817 cerebrovascular outcomes were included. In cohort studies comparing categories of fish intake the pooled relative risk for cerebrovascular disease for 2-4 servings a week versus ≤1 servings a week was 0.94 (95% confidence intervals 0.90 to 0.98) and for ≥5 servings a week versus 1 serving a week was 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96). The relative risk for cerebrovascular disease comparing the top thirds of baseline long chain omega 3 fatty acids with the bottom thirds for circulating biomarkers was 1.04 (0.90 to 1.20) and for dietary exposures was 0.90 (0.80 to 1.01). In the randomised controlled trials the relative risk for cerebrovascular disease in the long chain omega 3 supplement compared with the control group in primary prevention trials was 0.98 (0.89 to 1.08) and in secondary prevention trials was 1.17 (0.99 to 1.38). For fish or omega 3 fatty acids the estimates for ischaemic and haemorrhagic cerebrovascular events were broadly

  5. Effect of Dietary Combination of Methionine and Fish Oil on Cellular Immunity and Plasma Fatty Acids in Infectious Bursal Disease Challenged Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Teck Chwen, Loh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that the birds fed with 5.5% fish oil had higher total protein, white blood cell count, and IL-2 concentration than those of other groups at 7 days after IBD challenge. Inclusion of fish oil in diet had no effect on IFN-γ concentration. However, supplementation of methionine twice the recommendation enhanced the serum IFN-γ and globulin concentration. Neither of fish oil nor methionine supplementation affected the liver enzymes concentration. It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens. PMID:24198724

  6. Amplification and transport of an endemic fish disease by an introduced species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul; Leeuw, Bjorn; Jacob, Gregg; Grady, Courtney; Lujan, Kenneth; Gutenberger, Susan; Purcell, Maureen K.; Woodson, James; Winton, James; Parsley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of American shad from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast of North America in the late 1800’s and the subsequent population expansion in the 1980’s resulted in the amplification of Ichthyophonus sp., a Mesomycetozoean parasite of wild marine fishes. Sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA gene complex (small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions) and Ichthyophonus epidemiological characteristics indicate a low probability that Ichthyophonus was co-introduced with American shad from the Atlantic; rather, Ichthyophonus was likely endemic to marine areas of the Pacific region and amplified by the expanding population of a highly susceptible host species. The migratory life history of shad resulted in the transport of amplified Ichthyophonus from its endemic region in the NE Pacific to the Columbia River watershed. An Ichthyophonus epizootic occurred among American shad in the Columbia River during 2007, when infection prevalence was 72%, and 57% of the infections were scored as moderate or heavy intensities. The epizootic occurred near the record peak of shad biomass in the Columbia River, and corresponded to an influx of 1,595 mt of infected shad tissues into the Columbia River. A high potential for parasite spillback and the establishment of a freshwater Ichthyophonus life cycle in the Columbia River results from currently elevated infection pressures, broad host range, plasticity in Ichthyophonus life history stages, and precedents for establishment of the parasite in other freshwater systems. The results raise questions regarding the risk for sympatric salmonids and the role of Ichthyophonus as a population-limiting factor affecting American shad in the Columbia River.

  7. Infectious disease and quality assurance considerations for the transfer of cryopreserved fish gametes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    Although cryopreservation of sperm has become an accepted technique for selective breeding and genetic improvement in livestock industries, no systematic approach is available for banking germplasm of aquatic species (i.e. embryos, semen and ova). The intent of this chapter is not to provide recommendations for specific measures to eliminate particular pathogens and subsequent diseases, but rather to develop a general framework and strategies for facing the new and unexpected. This chapter presents microbiological and quality assurance concerns for a cryopreservation program. In particular, the chapter identifies organisms transmittable in semen of animals, microorganisms and diseases of importance to aquatic species, pathogen detection issues, methods for prevention and control and how sperm quality can be assessed. 

  8. Little fish, big catch: zebrafish as a model for kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Poureetezadi, Shahram Jevin; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2016-06-01

    The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a relevant vertebrate model for biomedical research and translational studies because of its broad genetic conservation with humans. In recent years, scientists have formulated a growing list of zebrafish kidney disease paradigms, the study of which has contributed a multitude of insights into the basic biology of human conditions and even identified potential therapeutic agents. Conversely, there are also distinctive aspects of zebrafish biology lacking in higher vertebrates, such as the capacity to heal without lasting scar formation after tissue damage and the ability to generate nephrons throughout their lifespan, which makes the zebrafish uniquely suited to study regeneration in the context of the kidney. Here, we review several informative zebrafish models of kidney disease and discuss their future applications in nephrology. PMID:27165832

  9. Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, detected by nested reverse transcription-PCR of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Magnússon, H B; Fridjónsson, O H; Andrésson, O S; Benediktsdóttir, E; Gudmundsdóttir, S; Andrésdóttir, V

    1994-01-01

    An assay based on reverse transcription and nested PCR amplification of hypervariable regions within the 16S rRNA sequence was used to specifically detect Renibacterium salmoninarum, the slowly growing causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. This assay detected 1 to 10 bacteria per sample and took 1 to 2 days to perform. The assay was used to detect R. salmoninarum in ovarian fluid obtained from naturally infected fish. The assay was unreliable when it was used to examine kidney tissue. Images PMID:7529017

  10. Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, detected by nested reverse transcription-PCR of 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Magnússon, H B; Fridjónsson, O H; Andrésson, O S; Benediktsdóttir, E; Gudmundsdóttir, S; Andrésdóttir, V

    1994-12-01

    An assay based on reverse transcription and nested PCR amplification of hypervariable regions within the 16S rRNA sequence was used to specifically detect Renibacterium salmoninarum, the slowly growing causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. This assay detected 1 to 10 bacteria per sample and took 1 to 2 days to perform. The assay was used to detect R. salmoninarum in ovarian fluid obtained from naturally infected fish. The assay was unreliable when it was used to examine kidney tissue. PMID:7529017

  11. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  12. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat genotyping of Renibacterium salmoninarum, a bacterium causing bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a bacterial disease of fish, which is both geographically widespread and difficult to control. Previously, application of various molecular typing methods has failed to reliably discriminate between R. salmoninarum isolates originating from different host species and geographic areas. The current study aimed to utilize multilocus variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) to investigate inter-strain variation of R. salmoninarum to establish whether host-specific populations exist in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout respectively. Such information would be valuable in risk assessment of transmission of R. salmoninarum in a multispecies aquaculture environment. Results The present analysis utilizing sixteen VNTRs distinguished 17 different haplotypes amongst 41 R. salmoninarum isolates originating from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in Scotland, Norway and the US. The VNTR typing system revealed two well supported groups of R. salmoninarum haplotypes. The first group included R. salmoninarum isolates originating from both Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout circulating in Scottish and Norwegian aquaculture, in addition to the type strain ATCC33209T originating from Chinook salmon in North America. The second group comprised isolates found exclusively in Atlantic salmon, of mainly wild origin, including isolates NCIB1114 and NCIB1116 associated with the original Dee disease in Scotland. Conclusions The present study confirmed that VNTR analysis can be successfully applied to discriminate R. salmoninarum strains. There was no clear distinction between isolates originating from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout as several haplotypes in group 1 clustered together R. salmoninarum isolates from both species. These findings indicate a potential exchange of pathogens between Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in Scottish and Norwegian aquaculture during the last 20 years. In a scenario of

  13. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  14. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  15. A Modelling Framework for Assessing the Risk of Emerging Diseases Associated with the Use of Cleaner Fish to Control Parasitic Sea Lice on Salmon Farms.

    PubMed

    Murray, A G

    2016-04-01

    Sea lice are the most damaging parasite of marine salmonids, both economically and in terms of potential impacts on wild fish. An increasingly widely applied control is the use of cleaner fish (CF) such as wrasse that eat lice. However, such CF can carry pathogens that may cause disease in salmon, including the potential emergence of new diseases. This is not just a theoretical risk, as demonstrated by a recent outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse held on salmon farms in Shetland. A modelling framework is developed to identify conditions in which emergence might occur, and, from this, means of reducing risk. Diseases that might emerge easily in farmed salmon would be likely to have already done so by other routes of exposure, and if risks are very low, they would need to be greatly enhanced to become significant relative to costs of lice control. CF may most enhance risks from disease with moderate probability of emerging. Risks of emergence can be reduced by replacing wild-caught with hatchery-reared CF, minimizing mixing of CF from different sources, surveillance for clinical disease in the CF and ensuring strategic biosecurity (area management with synchronized fallowing). Reuse of CF for a second salmon production cycle may reduce costs and even probability of infection (especially from wild-caught CF), but should only be considered as part of a rigorous area management programme because the practice presents opportunities for pathogens to adapt to salmon by weakening fallowing. PMID:25208602

  16. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

  17. [An outbreak of lipoid liver degeneration (LLD) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a fish farm and attempts to cure the disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Roald, S O

    1976-01-01

    A description of a field experiment on the therapeutic effect of 4 different drugs against lipoid liver degeneration is given in a natural outbreak of the disease in a fish farm. The diagnosis was based on pathological and histopathological changes in the liver and characterized on the basis of the degree of ceroid deposited in the liver cells. The size and weight of the fish had no influence on the deposition, but it was shown that LLD caused a higher mortality in Atlantic salmon than in rainbow trout, showing a weekly mortality of 2.5 and 0.3%, respectively. In the field experiments therapeutic effect was obtained with 1) Vitamin E, mixed into the feed in amounts of 90 mg alpha-tocopherol + 450 mg ethoxyquin pr. kg wet feed. 2) A combination of alpha-tocopherol and selene mixed into the diet in amounts of 20 mg tocopheryli acetas and 0.4 mg natrii seleniis pr. kg wet feed. The cause of the disease is not verified, but it seemes that rancid material in the diet was the main etiological factor. Predisposing factors influencing the peroxydation of the feed under practical conditions in Norwegian fish farms have been discussed. PMID:934810

  18. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  19. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  20. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  1. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD. PMID:27213553

  2. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD. PMID:27213553

  3. Linking spatially distributed biogeochemical data with a two-host life-cycle pathogen:A model of whirling disease dynamics in salmonid fishes in the Intermountain West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Lamb, R.; Stevens, L.; Morrissey, L. A.; Kerans, B.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Fish diseases are often caused by waterborne parasites, making them ideal systems for modeling the non-linear relationships between biogeochemical features and disease dynamics. Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, has been a major contributor to the loss of wild rainbow trout populations in numerous streams within the Intermountain West (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming). The parasite alternates between an invertebrate and vertebrate host, being transmitted between the sediment feeding worm T.Tubifex and salmonid fishes. A greater understanding of the linkage between biological stream integrity, geomorphic features, water quality parameters and whirling disease risk is needed to improve current management techniques. Biodiversity and abundance of the worm communities are influenced by biogeochemical features and linked to disease severity in fish. We collected and identified ~700 worms from eight sites using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key. Additionally, ~1700 worms were identified using only a taxonomic key. Our work examines the links between worm community structure and biogeochemical features. We use a modified Self-Organizing-Map (SOM), which is a non-parametric clustering method based on an artificial neural network (ANN). Clustering methods are particularly attractive for exploratory data analyses because they do not require either the target number of groupings or the data structure be specified at the outset. ANN clustering methods have been shown to be more robust and to account for more data variability than traditional methods when applied to clustering geo-hydrochemical and microbiological datasets. The SOM highlights spatial variation of worm community structure between sites; and is used in tandem with expert knowledge (Lamb and Kerans) of local worm communities and a Madison River, MT physiochemical dataset (GIS-derived layers, water quality parameters). We iteratively clustered the physiochemical data

  4. Transgenic Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM) ...

  5. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  6. Genetic improvement of disease resistance in salmonid fish using selective breeding: Overview of concepts, considerations and limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In aquaculture, endemic infectious diseases constitute a considerable economic burden due to direct losses as well as indirect impacts on growth and animal welfare. In response to infectious disease, it is well documented that host genetic variation is present in most animal populations, especially ...

  7. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring in Idaho, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, A.Douglas

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the progress of Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s fish health monitoring during the past five years and will serve as a completion report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. Anadromous fish at twelve IDFG facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed to anadromous fish prior to their release. A fish disease database has been developed and data is presently being entered. Alternate funding has been secured to continue fish health monitoring.

  8. Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS) in colonial fish-eating birds: similarity to chick-edema disease.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, M; Kubiak, T; Ludwig, J; Fox, G

    1991-08-01

    Several species of colonial fish-eating birds nesting in the Great Lakes basin, including herring gulls, common terns and double-crested cormorants, have exhibited chronic impairment of reproduction. In addition to eggshell thinning caused by high levels of DDT and metabolites, the reproductive impairment is characterized by high embryonic and chick mortality, edema, growth retardation, and deformities, hence the name Great Lakes embryo mortality, edema, and deformities syndrome (GLEMEDS). The hypothesis has been advanced that GLEMEDS in colonial fish-eating birds resembles chick-edema disease of poultry and has been caused by exposure to chick-edema active compounds that have a common mode of action through the cytochrome P-448 system. Detailed evidence has been collected from the following three groups of studies on herring gulls in the lower Great Lakes during the early 1970s; Forster's terns in Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1983; and double-crested cormorants and Caspian terns in various locations in the upper Great Lakes from 1986 onwards. It has proved difficult to establish not only the onset of the disease in the various species at various locations but also the period in which chick-edema active compounds were released. Anecdotal evidence suggested that serious egg mortality in Lake Ontario herring gulls first occurred in 1966, through the signs of chick-edema disease were not looked for until 1974. Only indirect evidence is available on the date of the release of one of the presumed causal agents, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, but highest levels may have occurred in the early to mid 1960s. More reliable data show that the onset of the improvement of reproduction of Lake Ontario herring gulls coincided with the declines in organochlorine compounds and particularly 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCB. Similarly, information on the onset of the disease and exposures in the Forster's tern and double-crested cormorants in Green Bay is uncertain but bird banders did not

  9. Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the Causative Agent of Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmonid Fish, from Pen-Cultured Coho Salmon.

    PubMed

    Sakai, M; Kobayashi, M

    1992-03-01

    The detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum antigen from pen-cultured coho salmon was attempted. Flounder (Limanda herzensteini) (n = 24), greenling (Hexagrammos otakii) (n = 5), Japanese sculpin (Cottus japonicus) (n = 1), and flathead (Platycephalus indicus) (n = 22) captured by fishing around coho salmon net pens were examined for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigen by an indirect dot blot assay and by an indirect fluorescent-antibody technique using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. R. salmoninarum antigen was detected from kidney samples of one greenling and six flathead. Moreover, 86 scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) were hung from the edge of the net pen for 50 days, and R. salmoninarum antigen was demonstrated in 31 samples by the indirect dot blot assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. PMID:16348666

  10. Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the Causative Agent of Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmonid Fish, from Pen-Cultured Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Masanori

    1992-01-01

    The detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum antigen from pen-cultured coho salmon was attempted. Flounder (Limanda herzensteini) (n = 24), greenling (Hexagrammos otakii) (n = 5), Japanese sculpin (Cottus japonicus) (n = 1), and flathead (Platycephalus indicus) (n = 22) captured by fishing around coho salmon net pens were examined for the presence of R. salmoninarum antigen by an indirect dot blot assay and by an indirect fluorescent-antibody technique using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. R. salmoninarum antigen was detected from kidney samples of one greenling and six flathead. Moreover, 86 scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) were hung from the edge of the net pen for 50 days, and R. salmoninarum antigen was demonstrated in 31 samples by the indirect dot blot assay and the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique. PMID:16348666

  11. Fish flavor.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T

    1996-02-01

    This article reviews features of flavor in three groups of fishes and summarizes them as follows: (1) fresh saltwater fish are nearly odorless because they contain a small quantity of volatiles; (2 freshwater fish give off pyrrolidine and earthy-odor compounds, which are responsible for their maturity and surrounding water pollution, and (3) euryhaline fish exhibit a variety of unsaturated carbonyls and alcohols derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PAs). These features are discussed, as are the effects of different enzymatic activities on PA oxidation and the effects of pH on mechanisms of formation of the volatiles. The monotonous volatile constitution of saltwater fish is likely caused by an unknown antioxidation system restraining the fish from oxidizing. The variety of constitution of euryhaline fish, especially that of anadromous fish under spawning conditions, could result from the loss of that system. The thermal environments of heated foods are also reviewed. The basic environment of fish, which allows the formation of flavor compounds, is discussed to confirm the volatiles found in unheated fish. PMID:8744606

  12. NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

  13. Does the use of salmon frames as bait for lobster/crab creel fishing significantly increase the risk of disease in farmed salmon in Scotland?

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G

    2015-07-01

    Salmon farming is an important economic activity, and employer, particularly for remoter areas of Scotland; crustacean fisheries are also significant small businesses in these areas. Salmon frames (the head and spine that remain after evisceration and filleting) are sometimes used to bait the creel pots used to catch lobsters and crabs. These frames may contain pathogens that could potentially be spread to salmon farms in the vicinity of creel fisheries. Therefore, an analysis has been carried out for key pathogens of farmed salmon to assess the risks associated with this process. Infection of farms via creel bait requires that: (1) pathogens are present in salmon at harvest; (2) they are not removed from the salmon that used for bait during processing; (3) they transmit from creel pot baits to salmon farms. This last step is critical and leads to most of the uncertainty in results. Risk were assessed for 7 viruses, 3 bacteria, and 3 eukaryotic parasites of importance to salmon farming. A potentially significant risk was identified in association with disease control programmes if fish were filleted at a secondary processor; such a situation should arise only rarely. A very low risk, per event, was identified from imports, however, because of large numbers of Norwegian imports processed in the UK this risk is always present. Risks were at worst of low (disease control) or very low (imports) probability and are significant only because of the magnitude of consequences. PMID:25980750

  14. Fish and lifestyle-related disease prevention: experimental and epidemiological evidence for anti-atherogenic potential of taurine.

    PubMed

    Yamori, Yukio; Murakami, Shigeru; Ikeda, Katsumi; Nara, Yasuo

    2004-12-01

    1. Taurine supplementation attenuated the development of hypertension and stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). 2. WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases Alimentary Comparison) study revealed wide differences in 24-h urinary taurine excretion, which were inversely associated with age-adjusted mortality rates of coronary heart diseases (CHD). 3. Hypercholesterolemia as well as arterial fat deposition related to the cause of CHD was attenuated by dietary taurine supplementation in SHRSP on high-fat cholesterol diet. 4. Taurine affected the gene expression of 7alpha-hydroxylase and thus regulated serum cholesterol level through the control of the rate limiting step of cholesterol excretion into bile acids. 5. Taurine attenuated atherogenesis due to the control of oxidative stress through the inhibition of the production of oxidative LDL and to its scavenger effect on hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from leucocytes and macrophages. 6. Taurine may act as an immunomodulator of cytokine production, which is involved in atherogenesis. PMID:15649278

  15. Characterization of Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Diseased Farmed and Wild Marine Fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast, Latin America, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Wang, Rui; Wiles, Judy; Baumgartner, Wes; Green, Christopher; Plumb, John; Hawke, John

    2015-06-01

    We examined Lancefield serogroup B Streptococcus isolates recovered from diseased, cultured hybrid Striped Bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis × White Bass M. chrysops) and wild and cultured Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis from coastal waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf coast) and compared those isolates to strains from tilapias Oreochromis spp. reared in Mississippi, Thailand, Ecuador, and Honduras and to the original Gulf coast strain identified by Plumb et al. ( 1974 ). The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic, biochemical, and antibiotic susceptibility analyses. Genetic analysis was performed using partial sequence comparison of (1) the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; (2) the sipA gene, which encodes a surface immunogenic protein; (3) the cspA gene, which encodes a cell surface-associated protein; and (4) the secY gene, which encodes components of a general protein secretion pathway. Phylogenies inferred from sipA, secY, and cspA gene sequence comparisons were more discriminating than that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The U.S. Gulf coast strains showed a high degree of similarity to strains from South America and Central America and belonged to a unique group that can be distinguished from other group B streptococci. In agreement with the molecular findings, biochemical and antimicrobial resistance analyses demonstrated that the isolates recovered from the U.S. Gulf coast and Latin America were more similar to each other than to isolates from Thailand. Three laboratory challenge methods for inducing streptococcosis in Gulf Killifish were evaluated-intraperitoneal (IP) injection, immersion (IMM), and immersion plus abrasion (IMMA)-using serial dilutions of S. agalactiae isolate LADL 97-151, a representative U.S. Gulf coast strain. The dose that was lethal to 50% of test fish by 14 d postchallenge was approximately 2 CFU/fish via IP injection. In contrast, the fish that were challenged via IMM or IMMA presented cumulative mortality

  16. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  17. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  18. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  19. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion: current updates on a promising novel therapy for the management of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Gohel, Tushar; Deen, Omer J.; DeChicco, Robert; Shatnawei, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal failure is characterized by loss of enteral function to absorb necessary nutrients and water to sustain life. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a lifesaving therapeutic modality for patients with intestinal failure. Lifelong PN is also needed for patients who have short bowel syndrome due to extensive resection or a dysmotility disorder with malabsorption. However, prolonged PN is associated with short-term and long-term complications. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is one of the long-term complications associated with the use of an intravenous lipid emulsion to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency in these patients. PNALD affects 30–60% of the adult population on long-term PN. Further, PNALD is one of the indications for isolated liver or combined liver and intestinal transplantation. There is no consensus on how to manage PNALD, but fish oil-based lipid emulsion (FOBLE) has been suggested to play an important role both in its prevention and reversal. There is significant improvement in liver function in those who received FOBLE as lipid supplement compared with those who received soy-based lipid emulsion. Studies have also demonstrated that FOBLE reverses hepatic steatosis and reduces markers of inflammation in patients on long-term PN. Future prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further strengthen the positive role of FOBLE in PNALD. PMID:25858884

  20. Deficiency of zebrafish fgf20a results in aberrant skull remodeling that mimics both human cranial disease and evolutionarily important fish skull morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, W. James; Wirgau, Rachel M.; Sweet, Elly M.; Albertson, R. Craig

    2013-01-01

    The processes that direct skull remodeling are of interest to both human-oriented studies of cranial dysplasia and evolutionary studies of skull divergence. There is increasing awareness that these two fields can be mutually informative when natural variation mimics pathology. Here we describe a zebrafish mutant line, devoid of blastema(dob), which does not have a functional fgf20a protein, and which also presents cranial defects similar to both adaptive and clinical variation. We used geometric morphometric methods to provide quantitative descriptions of the effects of the dob mutation on skull morphogenesis. In combination with whole-mount in situ hybridization labeling of normal fgf20a expression and assays for osteoblast and osteoclast activity, the results of these analyses indicate that cranial dysmorphologies in dob zebrafish are generated by aberrations in post-embryonic skull remodeling via decreased osteoblasotgenesis and increased osteoclastogenesis. Mutational effects include altered skull vault geometries and midfacial hypoplasia that are consistent with key diagnostic signs for multiple human craniofacial syndromes. These phenotypic shifts also mimic changes in the functional morphology of fish skulls that have arisen repeatedly in several highly successful radiations (e.g., damselfishes and East-African rift-lake cichlids). Our results offer the dob/fgf20a mutant as an experimentally tractable model with which to examine post-embryonic skull development as it relates to human disease and evolution. PMID:24261444

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil attenuates kidney disease and prolongs median and maximal life span of autoimmune lupus-prone mice

    PubMed Central

    Halade, Ganesh V; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Barnes, Jeffery; Chandrasekar, Bysani; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of individual components of fish oils (FO) in various human inflammatory diseases still remains unresolved, possibly due to low levels of n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or lower ratio of DHA to EPA. Since FO enriched with DHA (FO-DHA) or EPA (FO-EPA) has become available recently, we investigated their efficacy on survival and inflammatory kidney disease in a well-established animal model of human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Results show for the first time that FO-DHA dramatically extends both the median (658 days) and maximal (848 days) lifespan of (NZB × NZW)F1 (B × W) mice. In contrast, FO-EPA fed mice had a median and maximal lifespan of ~384 and 500 days, respectively. Investigations into possible survival mechanisms revealed that FO-DHA (Vs. FO-EPA) lowers serum anti-dsDNA antibodies, IgG deposition in kidneys, and proteinuria. Further, FO-DHA lowered LPS-mediated increases in serum IL-18 levels and caspase-1-dependent cleavage of pro-IL-18 to mature IL-18 in kidneys. Moreover, FO-DHA suppressed LPS-mediated PI3K, Akt, and NF-κB activations in kidney. These data indicate that DHA, but not EPA, is the most potent n-3 fatty acid that suppresses glomerulonephritis and extends lifespan of SLE-prone short-lived B × W mice, possibly via inhibition of IL-18 induction and IL-18-dependent signaling. PMID:20368275

  2. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  3. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  4. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  5. Trangenic fish as models in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Winn, R N

    2001-01-01

    Historically, fish have played significant roles in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to chemical contamination in aquatic environments. Considering the contributions of transgenic rodent models to biomedicine, it is reasoned that the development of transgenic fish could enhance the role of fish in environmental toxicology. Application of transgenic fish in environmental studies remains at an early stage, but recent introduction of new models and methods demonstrates progress. Rapid advances are most evident in the area of in vivo mutagenesis using fish carrying transgenes that serve as recoverable mutational targets. These models highlight many advantages afforded by fish as models and illustrate important issues that apply broadly to transgenic fish in environmental toxicology. Development of fish models carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has revealed that numerous aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Researchers have revealed that fish exhibit frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. Results have demonstrated the feasibility of in vivo mutation analyses using transgenic fish and have illustrated their potential value as a comparative animal model. Challenges to development and application of transgenic fish relate to the needs for improved efficiencies in transgenic technology and in aspects of fish husbandry and use. By taking advantage of the valuable and unique attributes of fish as test organisms, it is anticipated that transgenic fish will make significant contributions to studies of environmentally induced diseases. PMID:11581523

  6. Fish Oil–Based Lipid Emulsions in the Treatment of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease: An Ongoing Positive Experience123

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Muralidhar H.; Carter, Beth A.; Hawthorne, Keli M.; King, Kristi; Abrams, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the beneficial effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLEs) as monotherapy in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). In this report, we share our ongoing experience at Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas in the use of FOLE in treatment of PNALD as presented at the 2013 Experimental Biology meeting. We describe the findings of a single center, prospective, observational study of infants <6 mo of age with PNALD who received parenteral FOLE as monotherapy. A total of 97 infants received FOLE under the compassionate-use protocol for the treatment of PNALD. Eighty-three (86%) survived with resolution of cholestasis and 14 (14%) died. The median conjugated bilirubin (CB) concentration at the initiation of FOLE therapy was 4.8 mg/dL (range 2.1–26). The median time to resolution of cholestasis was 40 d (range 3–158). Compared with infants with mild cholestasis (CB of 2.1–5 mg/dL at the initiation of FOLE), nonsurvivors were significantly more premature and took longer to resolve their cholestasis. Gestational age at birth correlated inversely with CB at the beginning of FOLE and peak CB. Infants with an initial CB >10 mg/dL had a higher mortality rate than infants with an initial CB <5 mg/dL (35% vs. 6%; P < 0.05). Our experience with the use of FOLE in PNALD continues to be encouraging. Prematurity continues to be a major determinant in mortality and severity of cholestasis. This calls for further controlled studies designed to optimize dose and timing of intervention in the use of FOLE in neonates. PMID:24425724

  7. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  8. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  9. Genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare ATCC 49512

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, and highly prevalent fish pathogen causing columnaris disease in freshwater fish worldwide. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of F. columnare strain ATCC 49512. ...

  10. Relation of fish oil supplementation to markers of atherothrombotic risk in patients with cardiovascular disease not receiving lipid-lowering therapy.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Christopher J; Bliden, Kevin P; Gesheff, Martin G; Pandya, Shachi; Guyer, Kirk E; Singla, Anand; Tantry, Udaya S; Toth, Peter P; Gurbel, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Fish oil supplementation (FOS) is known to have cardiovascular benefits. However, the effects of FOS on thrombosis are incompletely understood. We sought to determine if the use of FOS is associated with lower indices of atherothrombotic risk in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (sCAD). This is a subgroup analysis of consecutive patients with sCAD (n=600) enrolled in the Multi-Analyte, Thrombogenic, and Genetic Markers of Atherosclerosis study. Patients on FOS were compared with patients not on FOS. Lipid profile was determined by vertical density gradient ultracentrifugation (n=520), eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid was measured by gas chromatography (n=437), and AtherOx testing was performed by immunoassay (n=343). Thromboelastography (n=419), ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation (n=137), and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels (n=259) were performed immediately before elective coronary angiography. In the total population, FOS was associated with higher eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid content (p<0.001), lower triglycerides (p=0.04), total very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.002), intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.02), and AtherOx levels (p=0.02) but not in patients on lipid-lowering therapy. Patients not on lipid-lowering therapy taking FOS had lower very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol, remnant lipoproteins, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, AtherOx levels, collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot strength, and shear elasticity (p<0.03 for all). In clopidogrel-treated patients, there was no difference in ADP-induced aggregation between FOS groups. Patients on FOS had lower urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 levels regardless of lipid-lowering therapy (p<0.04). In conclusion, the findings of this study support the potential benefit of FOS for atherothrombotic risk reduction in sCAD with

  11. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety. PMID:25876709

  12. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus). PMID:22163339

  13. Vaccination of fish against Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two primary Flavobacterium spp. involved in disease of aquaculture raised fish worldwide including, F. columnare, and F. psychrophilum; the etiologic agents of columnaris disease and bacterial coldwater disease (CWD) or rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), respectively. Traditional vaccines...

  14. Emerging flavobacterial infections in fish: A review

    PubMed Central

    Loch, Thomas P.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterial diseases in fish are caused by multiple bacterial species within the family Flavobacteriaceae and are responsible for devastating losses in wild and farmed fish stocks around the world. In addition to directly imposing negative economic and ecological effects, flavobacterial disease outbreaks are also notoriously difficult to prevent and control despite nearly 100 years of scientific research. The emergence of recent reports linking previously uncharacterized flavobacteria to systemic infections and mortality events in fish stocks of Europe, South America, Asia, Africa, and North America is also of major concern and has highlighted some of the difficulties surrounding the diagnosis and chemotherapeutic treatment of flavobacterial fish diseases. Herein, we provide a review of the literature that focuses on Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium spp. and emphasizes those associated with fish. PMID:26257926

  15. Emerging flavobacterial infections in fish: A review.

    PubMed

    Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Flavobacterial diseases in fish are caused by multiple bacterial species within the family Flavobacteriaceae and are responsible for devastating losses in wild and farmed fish stocks around the world. In addition to directly imposing negative economic and ecological effects, flavobacterial disease outbreaks are also notoriously difficult to prevent and control despite nearly 100 years of scientific research. The emergence of recent reports linking previously uncharacterized flavobacteria to systemic infections and mortality events in fish stocks of Europe, South America, Asia, Africa, and North America is also of major concern and has highlighted some of the difficulties surrounding the diagnosis and chemotherapeutic treatment of flavobacterial fish diseases. Herein, we provide a review of the literature that focuses on Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium spp. and emphasizes those associated with fish. PMID:26257926

  16. FISH in polycythemia vera (PCV)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiel, A.; Gaber, E.; Manor, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Trisomies 8 and 9 are the most common numerical abnormalities in polycythemia vera (PCV). However, their role in the pathogenesis of the disease is unclear as is their diagnostic or prognostic value. We evaluated the role of fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) as compared to chromosome analysis in the detection of trisomies 8 or 9 in peripheral blood cells of 14 PCV and 5 secondary PCV patients. Using FISH, we found trisomies 8 and 9 in 10 PCV patients above the cutoff levels of 5%. However, no patient with the secondary PCV reached the cutoff level. Out of 10 PCV patients in whom the trisomy was detected by FISH, only in 3 was this trisomy also detected by routine cytogenetics. The incidence of the finding of trisomy 9 correlates with the duration of the disease, suggesting that this is not the primary event in PCV. FISH is a sensitive, convenient and rapid method for diagnosis and follow-up of chromosome aberrations in PCV patients. Application of FISH to larger cohort of patients may provide valuable information regarding their role in initiation and progession of the disease.

  17. The dual myths of the healthy wild fish and the unhealthy farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Oivind

    2007-05-01

    Although diseases, suffering and death have always been recognized as intrinsic parts of life as far as humans are concerned, it seems that many people tend to disregard these factors when it comes to animals. In particular, wild fish are generally assumed to be 'healthy', although the public concept of that term is unclear. In contrast, farmed fish are often popularly viewed as 'unhealthy'. Present knowledge of the importance of epizootics among wild fish is clearly limited, especially regarding viral and bacterial diseases. In contrast to the popular view, the available data indicates that disease among wild fish is common, that epizootics may be of significant ecological importance, and that there is reason to believe that fish diseases among wild as well as cultured fish may be associated with reduced welfare. Large-scale aquaculture without prophylaxis is practically impossible without an unacceptable impact on the environment, as well as reduced fish welfare. In this essay, I oppose the traditional view that industrialisation of aquaculture is linked to reduced fish welfare. In contrast, modern industrial aquaculture with state-of-the-art prophylaxis probably represents a major improvement in controlling fish diseases, thus increasing fish welfare. This is true especially when compared to traditional third world aquaculture, as measured in terms of fish mortality and consumption of antibacterial agents. However, aquaculture may influence diseases of wild fish populations either by providing vectors for transmission of pathogens into new geographic areas, or by altering the balance in host-parasite dynamics by increasing the number of available hosts. PMID:17578255

  18. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  19. Disease prevention in the trout hatchery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1939-01-01

    With the comparatively recent evolution of fish hatching into true fish culture the problems offered by fish disease have likewise evolved from more or less of a petty annoyance into a first class headache.

  20. Short-Term, High-Dose Fish Oil Supplementation Increases the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid–Derived Mediators in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (the OMEGA-PAD I Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Grenon, S Marlene; Owens, Christopher D; Nosova, Emily V; Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Alley, Hugh F; Chong, Karen; Perez, Sandra; Yen, Priscilla K; Boscardin, John; Hellmann, Jason; Spite, Matthew; Conte, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) experience significant morbidity and mortality. The OMEGA-PAD I Trial, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, addressed the hypothesis that short-duration, high-dose n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) oral supplementation improves endothelial function and inflammation in PAD. Methods and Results Eighty patients with stable claudication received 4.4 g of fish oil or placebo for 1 month. The primary end point was endothelial function as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Secondary end points included biomarkers of inflammation, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolome changes, lipid profile, and walking impairment questionnaires. Although there was a significant increase in FMD in the fish oil group following treatment (0.7±1.8% increase from baseline, P=0.04), this response was not different then the placebo group (0.6±2.5% increase from baseline, P=0.18; between-group P=0.86) leading to a negative finding for the primary endpoint. There was, however, a significant reduction in triglycerides (fish oil: −34±46 mg/dL, P<0.001; placebo −10±43 mg/dL, P=0.20; between-group differential P-value: 0.02), and an increase in the omega-3 index of 4±1% (P<0.001) in the fish oil group (placebo 0.1±0.9%, P=0.49; between-group P<0.0001). We observed a significant increase in the production of pathway markers of specialized pro-resolving mediators generated from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish oil group. Conclusions High-dose, short-duration fish oil supplementation did not lead to a different response in the primary end point of endothelial function between the treatment and placebo group, but improved serum triglycerides and increased the production of downstream n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids–derived products and mediators in patients with PAD. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01310270. PMID

  1. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Mattia; Cioni, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins. PMID:26528989

  2. Scolecobasidium humicola, a fungal pathogen of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1973-01-01

    Scolecobasidium humicola, a previously undescribed fungal pathogen of fish was isolated from coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In natural infections the kidney was the organ most affected. The disease was difficult to transmit experimentally and appeared to be only weakly contagious.

  3. Development of a quadruplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for field detection of four Vibrio species associated with fish disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shun; Gao, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Min; Liu, Dan-Yang; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A quadruplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was developed to detect four Vibrio species, including Vibrio ichthyoenteri, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio scophthalmi, and Vibrio vulnificus, simultaneously. Four sets of species-specific primers were designed with different restriction sites contained in the inner primers. The quadruplex LAMP method could distinguish four Vibrio species via the subsequent restriction enzyme analysis. The sensitivity of the quadruplex LAMP method were 10(2)-10(3) times higher than the sensitivity of conventional PCR. V. scophthalmi, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. ichthyoenteri could be detected in the different tissues of the infected fish by the quadruplex LAMP method simply and conveniently through using SYBR Green I to facilitate visual inspection of the LAMP products. The method we developed in this study could be a simple and convenient diagnostic tool for field detection of Vibrio infection in fish. PMID:27468405

  4. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  5. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    PubMed

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  6. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  7. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  8. 7 CFR 503.6 - Camping, boating, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Camping, boating, and fishing. 503.6 Section 503.6... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.6 Camping, boating, and fishing. The use of PIADC as a recreational area for camping, boating, fishing, and picnicking is...

  9. 7 CFR 503.6 - Camping, boating, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Camping, boating, and fishing. 503.6 Section 503.6... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.6 Camping, boating, and fishing. The use of PIADC as a recreational area for camping, boating, fishing, and picnicking is...

  10. 7 CFR 503.6 - Camping, boating, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Camping, boating, and fishing. 503.6 Section 503.6... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.6 Camping, boating, and fishing. The use of PIADC as a recreational area for camping, boating, fishing, and picnicking is...

  11. 7 CFR 503.6 - Camping, boating, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Camping, boating, and fishing. 503.6 Section 503.6... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.6 Camping, boating, and fishing. The use of PIADC as a recreational area for camping, boating, fishing, and picnicking is...

  12. 7 CFR 503.6 - Camping, boating, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Camping, boating, and fishing. 503.6 Section 503.6... OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.6 Camping, boating, and fishing. The use of PIADC as a recreational area for camping, boating, fishing, and picnicking is...

  13. Microencapsulation of Fish Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beindorff, Christiaan M.; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

    For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to urban consumers. For many, fresh fish and fried fish are now a part of their standard diet.

  14. A streptomycete pathogenic to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.

    1949-01-01

    A streptomycete and pseutdomonad were isolated from blueback salmon, Oncorhynchuis nerka (WValbaum), and shown to be pathogenic to fish. Trhese organisms were isolated from young blueback salmon taken from a gr'oup that developed an increasing mortality after feeding about a month at the United States Fishery Station, Leavenworth, Washington. A superficial examination revealed only the presence of fungus (probably Sap0olcynia parasitica), which wvas on the gills and was eliminated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt. Although the fungus infection was eliminated, the mortality continued. It was observed by the station biologist at the time that the majority of the fish in the hatchery troughs were healthy, but that there w-as alwzays present an apathetic group that hud(dled on the bottom, refused food, ancl eventually weakene(l and died. The bulk of the daily mortality was composedI of fish from this group. The apathetic group received constant recruitment from the more vigorous stock, and their number showed a gradual increase rather than clepletion. A more critical examination of the larger affected fish revealedl that thc kICidneys and spleens weIe disintegrating; mycelial masses w-ere sporadically observed in the body cavity; congestion wN-as present in the gastrointestinal tract; some hemorrhagic areas were present in the body musculature; an(l a few fish had a perforating ulceration of the body wall. Furi'unculosis was immediately suspected, and attempts were made to isolate from the diseaseti fish Bacteriim .salininicida Lehmann and Netumann, the etiological agent of furunculosis. B. salmornicida Awas not recovered, however, even after repeated attempts at isolation. Subsequently it was discovered that two other organisms, a streptomycete and a pseudomonad, were characteristically present in the diseased fish. Both organisms were found experimentally to be pathogenic to fish.

  15. COMPLIANCE STUDIES: WHAT ABOUT THE FISH?

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Wagner, Katie A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, M. B.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-08-21

    ABSTRACT It is understood that operational and structural conditions at hydroelectric facilities along with environmental conditions of the migration corridors affect the passage conditions for fish. Hydropower fish survival assessments at the individual- and population-level have progressed over the past decade with development of turbine simulation software and improvements in telemetry systems, in particular, micro-transmitters, cabled and autonomous receivers, and advanced statistical designs that provide precise estimates of passage routes and dam-passage survival. However, these approaches often ignore fish condition as a variable in passage and survival analyses. To account for fish condition effects on survival results, compliance statistical models often require increased numbers of tagged fish. For example, prior to and during migration, fish encounter numerous stressors (e.g., disease, predation, contact with structures, decompression events), all of which can cause physical and physiological stress, altering the probability of survival after passage through a dam or a series of dams. In addition, the effects of surgical transmitter implantation process or the transmitter itself may cause physiological stress, alter behavior, and/or decrease survival. Careful physiological evaluations can augment survival model assumptions, resultant data, and predictive scenarios. To exemplify this, surgeons concurrently noted fish condition and surgical implantation during a multi-dam compliance study in 2011. The analyses indicted that surgeon observations on fish condition and surgical outcomes were related to 24 h holding mortalities and fish that never detected after release. Short reach and long reach survival were related to surgical outcomes and fish condition, respectively.

  16. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1992-08-01

    The Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project (Project) had its origin, in the mid-1980's, in perceived differences or inconsistencies in fish disease detection, diagnosis and control capabilities between the five conservation agencies rearing and releasing anadromous salmonids for fishery resource management and mitigation purposes in the Columbia River basin. Agency fish health programs varied greatly. Some agencies had personnel, equipment and funding to frequently monitor the health status of both juvenile production fish and adult salmon or steelhead trout at the time of spawning. Other agencies had much smaller programs and limited resources. These differences became better understood when the Pacific Northwest Fish Health Protection Committee developed its Model Fish Health Protection Program including recommendations for standard fish disease detection procedures. Even though some agencies could not immediately attain the goals set by the Model Program it was unanimously adopted as a desirable objective. Shortly thereafter, a multi-party planning group was assembled to help the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) find ways to improve agency fish health programs and implement measures under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The planning group assessed existing agency fish health monitoring capabilities, agreed upon satisfactory levels of capability to detect and identify important fish pathogens, and designed a five-year project establishing comparable fish health monitoring capability in each agency. It was strongly believed that such a project would improve the health and quality of the millions of hatchery fish released annually in the Columbia River basin and improve interagency communications and disease control coordination. During 1986 and 1987 BPA individually negotiated five separate contracts with the fishery agencies to standardize fish health monitoring, develop a common data collection and reporting format

  17. Salted fish and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W; Eng, A C

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for a hypothesis that eating salted fish is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is reviewed. The hypothesis was tested among Malaysian Chinese using a matched case-control design. The kinds of salted fish and patterns of use were also investigated in a control group comprising 100 Chinese, 50 Malay and 50 Indian households. During 1980, in Selangor, Malaysia, interviews with 100 Chinese cases of NPC and 100 non-disease controls indicated that salted fish consumption during childhood was a significant risk (relative risk = 3.0, P = 0.04), with an elevated risk for daily as opposed to less frequent consumption. Salted fish consumption during adolescence was a less significant risk, and current consumption not at all. There were 19 kinds of fishes reported as being eaten as salted fish by the 200 control households. There were marked differences between ethnic groups in preference for different kinds: Chinese preferred red snapper (74% of households), Malay jewfish (54%) and Indian red snapper (28%). Salted fish was hardly ever eaten daily by any household; weekly was a moderate frequency in all ethnic groups; less than weekly most common. There were no statistically significant differences between Chinese NPC case and non-disease control participants in kind of salted fish eaten. Results were the same when the data were analyzed by sex, subethnic group and income. PMID:6635717

  18. Progress in molecular diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth-disease type 1 (CMT 1, HMSN I) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-detection of a potential genetic mosaicism

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, K.; Liehr. T.; Ekici, A.

    1994-09-01

    We tested 20 CMT 1 patients characterized according to the criteria of the European CMT consortium by Southern hybridization of MspI restricted genomic DNA with probes pVAW409R1, pVAW412Hec and pEW401HE. In 11 of the 20 CMT 1 cases (55%), we observed a duplication in 17q11.2; one patient had a dinucleotide insertion in exon 6 of the PO-gene (5%). One HNPP case had a typical 17p11.2 deletion. Analysis of CA-repeats was performed with primers RM11GT and Mfd41; SSCP-analysis of the PO, PMP22 and Cx32-genes is in progress. FISH was carried out with probe pVAW409R1. 125 interphase nuclei were analyzed for each proband by counting the signals per nucleus. Normal cells show a characteristic distribution of signals: 1 signal in 5.9% of nuclei, 2 in 86.3% and 3 in 7.8%. A duplication is indicated by a shift to 3 signals in more than approximately 60% and 2 in less than 25% of the nuclei. In contrast, the 17p11.2 deletion of the HNPP patient shifts to 82.4% of nuclei with a single hybridization signal versus 14.4% with 2 signals. We detected one case with significantly abnormal distribution of interphase nuclei hybridization signals compared to cultures of normal cells and to those with 17p11.2 duplication or deletion: 3.2% nuclei revealed 1 signal, 48.0% two signals and 48.8% 3 signals, indicating a pathogenic but moderate dosis increase compared to the throughout duplicated cases. FISH with probe pVAW409R1 is a versatile tool to detect the HNPP deletion both in interphase nuclei and in metaphase chromosomes. In CMT 1 disease interphase nuclei are required for FISH analysis due to the small duplication of 1.5 Mbp. In contrast to Southern techniques, FISH is able to detect genetic mosaicism.

  19. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1989-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Evaluating and understanding fish health risks and their consequences in propagated and free-ranging fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffitt, C.M.; Haukenes, A.H.; Williams, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Fishery managers and resource conservationists are increasingly interested in understanding the fish health and disease risks of free-ranging fishes and whether propagated fishes or features and practices used at fish culture facilities pose a health risk to free-ranging populations. Disease agents are present in most both captive and all free-ranging fish populations, but the consequences and extent of infections in free-ranging populations are often difficult to measure, control, and understand. Sampling methods, protocols, and assay techniques developed to assess the health of captive populations are not as applicable for assessments of free-ranging fishes. The use of chemicals and therapeutics to control diseases and parasites in propagated fishes likely reduces the risk of introducing specific pathogens into the environment, but control measures may have localized effects on the environment surrounding fish culture facilities. To understand health risks of propagated and free ranging fishes, we must consider fish populations, culture facilities, fish releases, and their interactions within the greater geospatial features of the aquatic environment. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  1. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1987-1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1988-08-01

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract DE-AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. First year highlights included remodeling of the Olympia (WA) Fish Health Center to provide laboratory space for histopathological support services to participating state agencies, acquisition of gas monitoring equipment for hatchery water systems, expanded disease detection work for bacterial kidney disease and erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome in fish stocks at 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries and advancements in computerized case history data storage and analysis. This report summarizes the health status of fish reared at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin, briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar years 1984, 1985, 1986 and 1987. 1 ref.

  2. Contributions from metabolomics to fish research.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Linda M; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2008-10-01

    Metabolomics is a systems approach to studying the small, endogenous metabolites in an organ, biofluid or whole organism. It can be used as a screening tool for metabolite profiling, or to detect changes in the metabolome brought on by external or internal stressors. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate the information obtained from the application of metabolomics in fish research and to discuss its future potential. It is already clear that metabolomics has contributed new knowledge about fish in areas such as basic physiology and development, disease, water pollution and aspects concerning fish as foodstuffs. PMID:19082135

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary & secondary prevention studies: a systematic review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between dietary omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease is uncertain. The published literature is replete with studies of varying methodological quality and sometimes contradictory results. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review and critical appraisal ...

  4. Localization of Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus associated with huanglongbing disease in various organs of its insect vector Diaphorina citri using FISH and Q-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) has been associated with huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, which is currently the most devastating citrus disease in many areas of the world. HLB is transmitted in Florida by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) in a persiste...

  5. Scorpion fish sting

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  6. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  7. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  8. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  9. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  10. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  11. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  12. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.265 Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) This part does not apply to fish meal or fish scrap that contains less than 5...

  13. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  14. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  15. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  16. Chromosome aberrations and aneuploidy in sperm of Hodgkin`s disease patients before and {approximately}15 years after MOPP-chemotherapy analyzed by multi-color FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Hummelen, P.V.; Lowe, X.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1997-10-01

    MOPP-chemistry includes potent mutagens which induce chromosomal abnormalities in human somatic and rodent germ cells. Sperm samples five pre- and four rodent germ cells. Sperm samples (five pre- and four post-treatment) from 8 Hodgkin`s patients were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect 3 categories of chromosomal defects in sperm: (1) terminal duplications of deletions in chr. 1p, (2) aneuploidy involving chr. 1 or 8, and (3) diploidy. In 3 pre-treatment and 2 post-treatment samples, each from a different donor, the levels of chromosomal damage were comparable to those of healthy controls. For one patient significantly higher proportions of sperm carrying structural chromosome aberrations were detected in a 15 years post-treatment sample, compared to his pre-treatment sample and pre-treatment samples of other patients. This patient also showed significantly elevated levels of hyperploid and diploid sperm in both his pre- and post-treatment samples. Elevated levels of diploid sperm were also observed in a pre-treatment sample of a second patient. In a 23 years post-treatment sample of another patient the fraction of sperm carrying chromosome aberrations was also significantly higher than in pre-treatment samples. To conclude, elevated frequencies of sperm with structural chromosome damage were observed in at least one patient, suggesting clonal outgrowth of chromosomal aberrant stem cells due to MOPP treatment. Although MOPP does not seem to increase numerical aberrations in sperm significant inter-individual differences were present among the Hodgkin`s patient.

  17. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  18. Fish Health Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For commercial success, a recirculating aquaculture operation must maintain fish at densities far greater than normally found in nature. At the same time, the producer must maintain an environment that supports good fish health. This chapter discusses various aspects of fish health management, inclu...

  19. Fish under exercise.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish. PMID:21611721

  20. Fish community results

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, G.D.; Scott, E.M. Jr.; Brown, A.M.

    1991-05-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates 9 reservoirs on the Tennessee River and 37 reservoirs on its tributaries. TVA is committed to maintaining the health of aquatic resources created when the reservoir system was built. To that end, TVA in cooperation with Valley states, operates a water resource monitoring program that includes physical, chemical, and biological data collection components. Biological monitoring will target the following selected elements within three zones of the reservoir (inflow, transition, and forebay): Sediment/Water-column Acute Toxicity Screening, Benthic macroinvertebrates, and Fish. Reservoir fisheries monitoring is divided into the following activities: Fish Biomass, Fish Tissue Contamination, Fish Community Monitoring, and Fish Health Assessment. This report presents the results of fish community monitoring and fish health assessments.

  1. The effects of pollution on fish health.

    PubMed

    Austin, B

    1998-12-01

    Potentially harmful substances-e.g. pesticides, heavy metals and hydrocarbons-are often released into the aquatic environment. When large quantities of pollutants are released there may be an immediate impact as measured by large-scale sudden mortalities of aquatic organisms, e.g. fish kills resulting from contamination of waterways with agricultural pesticides. Lower levels of discharge may result in an accumulation of the pollutants in aquatic organisms. The end results, which may occur long after the pollutants have passed through the environment, include immunosuppression, reduced metabolism, and damage to gills and epithelia. However, the link between adverse water quality and fish diseases is not proven. Alleged pollution-related diseases include epidermal papilloma, fin/tail rot, gill disease, hyperplasia, liver damage, neoplasia and ulceration. Many surveys have indicated a greater proportion of diseased fish in polluted compared to non-polluted marine sites. Yet, the value of such surveys may be questioned. Specific examples of fish diseases thought to reflect the effects of pollution include surface lesions attributed to Serratia plymuthica, fin and tail rot caused by Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens, gill disease resulting from the actvity of Flavobacterium spp., vibriosis as caused by Vibrio anguillarum, and enteric redmouth (causal agent, Yersinia ruckeri). Research indicated that some of the diseases caused by Aeromonas, Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas resulted from generally adverse water quality, i.e. higher than usual quantities of organic material, oxygen depletion, changes in pH values and enhanced microbial populations. Some infections with Serratia and Yersina may well have reflected contamination of waterways with domestic sewage, e.g. leaking septic tanks. At least one outbreak of vibriosis was linked to high concentrations of copper, which may have debilitated the fish making them more susceptible to disease. PMID:21182713

  2. Eating fish for two

    PubMed Central

    Strain, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Summary This article is based on the British Nutrition Foundation’s Annual Lecture, which focused on maternal fish consumption and the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on fetal development, with respect to current guidance and policy on fish consumption during pregnancy. Fish makes a valuable contribution to nutrient intakes across the globe and is the primary protein source for many individuals, particularly those in the developing world. Populations with a high fish consumption, such as in the Republic of the Seychelles, have a greater exposure to MeHg, which is present in varying amounts in all fish. Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant, which is known to impair neurodevelopment. The dose of MeHg from fish consumption, however, needed to impair neurodevelopment is unknown. Current UK and US guidance on fish consumption during pregnancy tend to focus more on avoiding risks rather than highlighting the benefits which can be obtained from eating fish. Such recommendations have been mainly based on data arising from epidemiological studies in the Faroe Islands, where methylmercury exposure was largely from pilot whale consumption. Although small adverse effects on child development have been reported in data from the Faroe Islands, data from the on-going Seychelles Child Development Studies have shown no adverse effects of prenatal methlymercury exposure from high maternal fish consumption (9–12 meals containing fish per week) on developmental outcomes. Instead these data suggest that nutrients, including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), provided by fish may offer a beneficial effect and attenuate or modify any effects of MeHg on developmental outcomes. Recent expert consultations have concluded that the health benefits of fish consumption outweigh the risks posed by MeHg exposure and have argued the need for improved education and guidance to highlight the importance of consuming nutrients, including LC-PUFAs, from fish for optimal child

  3. Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G Ed; Steegenga, Wilma

    2016-08-01

    Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains showed that fish oil can increase lifespan, affecting pathways like inflammation and oxidation thought to be involved in the regulation of aging. Could fish oil and its omega-3 fatty acids act as geroprotectors? Probably not. A new study by Strong et al. challenges the role for fish oil supplementation in aging. Using a large cohort of genetically heterogeneous mice in three sites, part of the Interventions Testing Program of the NIA, Strong et al. show that fish oil supplementation at either low or high dosages has no effect on the lifespan of male or female mice. Although it is still possible that fish oil supplementation has health benefits for specific age-related diseases, it does not appear to slow aging or have longevity benefits. PMID:27564420

  4. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1990-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This interagency project was developed to provide a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. Agencies involved in the project are: WDF, Washington Department of Wildlife, Oregon Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its third year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1989. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989 and will compare sampling results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on stocks. 2 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    DOEpatents

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  6. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1990-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Disinfection with peracetic acid (PAA), an alternative against fish pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the lack of approved substances to treat fish diseases, disinfecting substances are tested to treat fish pathogens. These agents should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. One of these substances is peracetic acid...

  8. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  9. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  10. Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens. PMID:21314902

  11. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated. PMID:25666551

  12. Dietary nutrients, additives, and fish health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease outbreaks have become a major threat to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry, with antibiotics and chemicals historically used to treat animals ineffective or not allowed to be used today. In this book Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, the relationships between dietar...

  13. Zoonotic infections from fish and shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The worldwide development of aquaculture and the worldwide transport of live aquaculture products has, apart from many advantages, also worrisome consequences. Among them is the occurrence and increased recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and ...

  14. Fish Vaccines: Current State and Future Advances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In aquaculture, the development and use of vaccines is now making rapid progress to achieve its full potential as an effective disease prevention tool. Currently, USDA, APHIS, CVB licenses 17 fish vaccines of which 2 are modified live and 14 are killed vaccines. The objective of vaccination is to pr...

  15. Oroesophageal Fish Bone Foreign Body

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung Up

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone foreign body (FFB) is the most frequent food-associated foreign body (FB) in adults, especially in Asia, versus meat in Western countries. The esophageal sphincter is the most common lodging site. Esophageal FB disease tends to occur more frequently in men than in women. The first diagnostic method is laryngoscopic examination. Because simple radiography of the neck has low sensitivity, if perforation or severe complications requiring surgery are expected, computed tomography should be used. The risk factors associated with poor prognosis are long time lapse after FB involvement, bone type, and longer FB (>3 cm). Bleeding and perforation are more common in FFB disease than in other FB diseases. Esophageal FB disease requires urgent treatment within 24 hours. However, FFB disease needs emergent treatment, preferably within 2 hours, and definitely within 6 hours. Esophageal FFB disease usually occurs at the physiological stricture of the esophagus. The aortic arch eminence is the second physiological stricture. If the FB penetrates the esophageal wall, a life-threatening aortoesophageal fistula can develop. Therefore, it is better to consult a thoracic surgeon prior to endoscopic removal. PMID:27461891

  16. Oroesophageal Fish Bone Foreign Body.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Up

    2016-07-01

    Fish bone foreign body (FFB) is the most frequent food-associated foreign body (FB) in adults, especially in Asia, versus meat in Western countries. The esophageal sphincter is the most common lodging site. Esophageal FB disease tends to occur more frequently in men than in women. The first diagnostic method is laryngoscopic examination. Because simple radiography of the neck has low sensitivity, if perforation or severe complications requiring surgery are expected, computed tomography should be used. The risk factors associated with poor prognosis are long time lapse after FB involvement, bone type, and longer FB (>3 cm). Bleeding and perforation are more common in FFB disease than in other FB diseases. Esophageal FB disease requires urgent treatment within 24 hours. However, FFB disease needs emergent treatment, preferably within 2 hours, and definitely within 6 hours. Esophageal FFB disease usually occurs at the physiological stricture of the esophagus. The aortic arch eminence is the second physiological stricture. If the FB penetrates the esophageal wall, a life-threatening aortoesophageal fistula can develop. Therefore, it is better to consult a thoracic surgeon prior to endoscopic removal. PMID:27461891

  17. Fish Malodour syndrome in a child.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alexandra; Faria, Ana; Oliva, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Body odour can be a manifestation of several metabolic diseases. Diagnosis may be difficult because the disease is often unknown to the doctor. We present a child observed in a general paediatric clinic for bad body odour after eating fish. Given the suspicion of trimethylaminuria, molecular study of flavin mono-oxygenase 3 gene was requested. A pathogenic mutation and polymorphism were identified, which could explain the complaint. Dietary and hygienic measures were imposed with symptom improvement. PMID:25870212

  18. Larvivorous fish for preventing malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Walshe, Deirdre P; Garner, Paul; Abdel-Hameed Adeel, Ahmed A; Pyke, Graham H; Burkot, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult anopheline mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. Some fish species eat mosquito larvae and pupae. In disease control policy documents, the World Health Organization includes biological control of malaria vectors by stocking ponds, rivers, and water collections near where people live with larvivorous fish to reduce Plasmodium parasite transmission. The Global Fund finances larvivorous fish programmes in some countries, and, with increasing efforts in eradication of malaria, policy makers may return to this option. We therefore assessed the evidence base for larvivorous fish programmes in malaria control. Objectives Our main objective was to evaluate whether introducing larvivorous fish to anopheline breeding sites impacts Plasmodium parasite transmission. Our secondary objective was to summarize studies evaluating whether introducing larvivorous fish influences the density and presence of Anopheles larvae and pupae in water sources, to understand whether fish can possibly have an effect. Search methods We attempted to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, or ongoing). We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; LILACS; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) until 18 June 2013. We checked the reference lists of all studies identified by the above methods. We also examined references listed in review articles and previously compiled bibliographies to look for eligible studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials, including controlled before-and-after studies, controlled time series and controlled interrupted time series studies from malaria-endemic regions that introduced fish as a larvicide and reported on malaria in

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Fish Pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila JBN2301.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wuming; Li, Ningqiu; Li, Ming; Zhang, Defeng; An, Guannan

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most important fish pathogens in China. Here, we report complete genome sequence of a virulent strain, A. hydrophila JBN2301, which was isolated from diseased crucian carp. PMID:26823580

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Fish Pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila JBN2301

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wuming; Li, Ming; Zhang, Defeng; An, Guannan

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most important fish pathogens in China. Here, we report complete genome sequence of a virulent strain, A. hydrophila JBN2301, which was isolated from diseased crucian carp. PMID:26823580

  1. PREPARATION OF WHOLE SMALL FISH FOR HISTOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic pathology, which is primarily concerned with chemically-induced structural changes in cells or tissues, depends on the proper histological processing of test specimens. In fishes, histopathological examination is widely recognized as a reliable method for disease diag...

  2. Summer Fish Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Dennis; Pulu, Tupou L.

    The booklet presents a description and illustrates, with photographs, the Eskimo lifestyle and the kinds of activities that occur at a summer fish camp on the Yukon River. Eleven suggested activities are listed for the teacher to present when using the booklet. Activities include studying the map of Alaska; tracing the life cycle of the fish;…

  3. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  4. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  5. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  6. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  7. Stress in Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress in fish involves a condition disruptive of physiological homeostasis that occurs in response to unfavorable external influences and is capable of adversely affecting fish. Any stimulus that provokes stress responses is known as a stressor, disrupting a stable condition and causing a response....

  8. Cryopreservation of Fish Sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokura, Hisashi

    Present status of research activities in cryopreservation of fish gamete in aquaculture field was introduced. More than 59 fish species have been reported in the research histories and nearly half of them were studied during recent 10 years. This means that the research activities are increasing, though commercial profit have not obtained yet. Fish species of which sperm can successfully cryopreserved is still limited comparing to numerous species in telost. One of the major obstacle for improvement of the technique is existence of wide specie specific variance in the freezing tolerance of fish sperm. The varianc can possibly be explaind thorugh the informations obtained by the studies in comparative spermatology, which is recently activated field in fish biology.

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  10. 77 FR 27186 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... accordance with section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1531 et. seq) and regulations governing listed fish...), anesthetized, sampled for biological data (length, weight, disease status) and tissues/scales. The fish...

  11. Fish Lice (Argulus japonicus) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Whitney, Jesse C; Jensen, V Behrana

    2015-01-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp; family Argulidae) are branchiuran crustaceans that parasitize both marine and freshwater fishes. Argulus spp can be a major threat to fish health, because heavy infestations can cause significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, fish lice are known to be the vehicle for other fish diseases. During rounds at our facility, Argulus japonicus was collected from the caudal and anal fins of 3 goldfish (Carassius auratus).These goldfish were asymptomatic, and no additional cases were noted after manual removal of the lice. As soon as any Argulus organisms are identified, management and treatment are recommended because infections can escalate rapidly. Currently, there are no FDA-approved drugs for the control and treatment of this parasite, but several chemicals including organophosphates and diflubenzuron have been used with success. The screening and quarantine of incoming fish is the best way to avoid a facility-wide Argulus infestation. PMID:25926394

  12. Fish Lice (Argulus japonicus) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Whitney, Jesse C; Jensen, V Behrana

    2015-04-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp; family Argulidae) are branchiuran crustaceans that parasitize both marine and freshwater fishes. Argulus spp can be a major threat to fish health, because heavy infestations can cause significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, fish lice are known to be the vehicle for other fish diseases. During rounds at our facility, Argulus japonicus was collected from the caudal and anal fins of 3 goldfish (Carassius auratus). These goldfish were asymptomatic, and no additional cases were noted after manual removal of the lice. As soon as any Argulus organisms are identified, management and treatment are recommended because infections can escalate rapidly. Currently, there are no FDA-approved drugs for the control and treatment of this parasite, but several chemicals including organophosphates and diflubenzuron have been used with success. The screening and quarantine of incoming fish is the best way to avoid a facility-wide Argulus infestation. PMID:25926394

  13. Fish tapeworm infections (diphyllobothriasis) in Canada, particularly British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Ching, H L

    1984-05-01

    Although the risk of diphyllobothriasis is generally low in Canada, fish tapeworm infections seem to have become more frequent in recent years. This increase is probably a consequence of the growing popularity of raw or inadequately cooked ethnic fish dishes or of a preference for lightly cooked fish, especially salmon. Only freshwater fish become infected with the larvae, but not everyone may realize that salmon can acquire the parasites before they leave their native lakes and rivers for the sea. If fish known to be sources of the tapeworms are to be eaten raw they should first be well frozen or salted to kill the larvae. Physicians should regard fish tapeworm infection as a notifiable disease. In Canada niclosamide, the drug of choice, is available from the manufacturer on a patient-by-patient basis. PMID:6713334

  14. A mycosis-like granuloma of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.; Lehman, W.L.

    1955-01-01

    Mycoses of systemic distribution are rarely observed in fresh-water fish in this country. In a recent review of atypical cell growths in fishes, Nigrelli cited the only known instance of a mycetoma in a North American fresh-water fish which occurred in the head of fingerling landlocked salmon from an Idaho hatchery. The fungus associated with this granuloma was characterized by a branching septate mycelium. Rucker reported a streptomycete which was pathogenic to blueblack salmon. This organism produced internal nodules containing masses of hyphae but no inflammatory response. A pathogenic fungus has been observed frequently in marine fish, however, and in both marine and fresh-water fish in Europe. This organism was tentatively classified as a Phycomycete in or near the order Chytridiales and was assigned to the genus and species Ichthyophonus hoferi, later reclassified as Ichthyosporidium hoferi. The graduloma described in this report occurs in fresh-water trout and is apparently caused by a budding, yeast-like form with no hyphae which evokes a tremendous inflammatory reaction. Morphologically, the organism does not resemble the previously described Ichthyosporidium. The lesions were first seen accidentally in sections prepared from a diplobacillus infection of brook trout termed “kidney disease.” Subsequently, the granuloma was observed in three widely separated infections involving the diplobacillus in each instance.The histological material was received in a fixed condition; thus, no cultural data was available and the nomenclature and classification of the mycotic organism were not attempted. The present distribution of the disease, however, with its potential threat to domestic fish populations, seemed to warrant a description and discussion of the disease. Efforts are in progress to culture the organism.

  15. Enteric Redmouth Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), is a disease of salmonid fish species that is endemic in areas of the world where salmonids are intensively cultured. The disease causes a chronic to acute hemorrhagic septicemia which can lead to high rates of mortality partic...

  16. Bacterial zoonoses of fishes: a review and appraisal of evidence for linkages between fish and human infections.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T

    2015-01-01

    Human contact with and consumption of fishes presents hazards from a range of bacterial zoonotic infections. Whereas many bacterial pathogens have been presented as fish-borne zoonoses on the basis of epidemiological and phenotypic evidence, genetic identity between fish and human isolates is not frequently examined or does not provide support for transmission between these hosts. In order to accurately assess the zoonotic risk from exposure to fishes in the context of aquaculture, wild fisheries and ornamental aquaria, it is important to critically examine evidence of linkages between bacteria infecting fishes and humans. This article reviews bacteria typically presented as fish-borne zoonoses, and examines the current strength of evidence for this classification. Of bacteria generally described as fish-borne zoonoses, only Mycobacterium spp., Streptococcus iniae, Clostridium botulinum, and Vibrio vulnificus appear to be well-supported as zoonoses in the strict sense. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, while transmissible from fishes to humans, does not cause disease in fishes and is therefore excluded from the list. Some epidemiological and/or molecular linkages have been made between other bacteria infecting both fishes and humans, but more work is needed to elucidate routes of transmission and the identity of these pathogens in their respective hosts at the genomic level. PMID:25466575

  17. Development of Vaccines Against Nocardiosis in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sukanta K; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis, one of the most systemic and devastating diseases, is currently emerging as an important disease of cultured marine and freshwater fishes. The causative agent of this disease is Nocardia seriolae, a Gram-positive acid-fast bacterium. An effective vaccine/vaccination strategy against this pathogen is necessary to control the significant loss in aquaculture practices. In this chapter, we present the vaccination/immunization protocol in fish against both live (sublethal) and inactivated form of N. seriolae using ginbuna crucian carp (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) as a model. N. seriolae either in live (sublethal) form or inactivated antigenic form is found to elevate immunity in ginbuna and also can induce protective immunity upon challenge. In order to develop live vaccine, determination of sublethal dose is critical and needs to be established in the host fish species through pathogenicity and persistence studies. Herein for ginbuna, a sublethal dose of 10(6) CFU/mL was determined by pathogenicity study through a series of challenge doses followed by pathogen persistence study by microbiological and molecular techniques. On the other hand, for inactivated antigenic form, the concentration of the N. seriolae was approximately 10(8) CFU/mL. Although this study showed significant potential of both the forms of N. seriolae as candidate for vaccination, factors such as dose, duration and form need to be optimized in individual fish species. PMID:27076299

  18. State of Idaho Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Foott, J. Scott; Hauch, A. Kent

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the progress in the assigned tasks which have occurred during the second year of the Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring Project. Fish at seven Idaho Department of Fish and Game facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed on smolts prior to their release in the Spring of 1989. A disease database has been developed and facility impediments to fish health have been identified.

  19. Disease of coral and coral reef fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Department of the Interior protects sensitive habitats amounting to about 3,600,000 acres of coral reefs and other submerged lands. These reefs are important ecosystems in 13 National Wildlife Refuges, 10 National Parks and in certain territorial waters such as the Wake Atoll.

  20. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  1. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  2. FISH KILLS, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data related to fish kills in North Carolina are collected and stored in tables on the Web at the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. http://www.esb.enr.state.nc.us/Fishkill/fishkill00.htm

  3. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  4. Dehydrofreezing of Fish I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Tsuneo

    Recently, new method of removing water from perishable food were developed using dehydration sheet with material having high osmotic pressure and absorbent polymer. Dehydration sheet consist of mixture of sugar dehydrolysate and absorbent polymer covered with sem-permeable membrane, and can remove water in liquid state by contact with perishable food. Dehydration rate of fish using with dehydration sheet varied depending on species, their shape, and ambient temperature etc. Fish were dehydrated with dehydration sheet at low temperature as 0 - 5 C and frozen in cold storage room. Dehydrofrozen fish were kept it's high quality and freshness after thawing, ATPase activity of fish muscle was kept at high level after dehydrofreezing in the case of cod and alaska pollack, and flesh color of farming salmon was kept after thawing.

  5. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  6. T Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  7. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hawai‘i and the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na+ channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai‘i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai‘i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

  8. Ciguatera fish poisoning in Hawai'i and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Nathanial K; Palmer, Wyatt R; Bienfang, Paul K

    2014-11-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne illness caused by fish containing ciguatoxin (CTX). The toxin is produced by the microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. which are then eaten by reef fish; humans contract the illness when eating either fish that have eaten the algae, or carnivorous fish that have eaten those fish. CTX is an odorless, tasteless, and colorless neurotoxin that blocks voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels and accumulates in many tissues of the fish, especially the viscera. The illness is typically mild to moderate in severity with gastrointestinal (diarrhea, cramping, nausea, vomiting) and neurological (paraesthesias, cold allodynia, fatigue, pruritis) manifestations. Rarely, the disease can be more severe with significant neuropathic or cardiac effects such as bradycardia and hypotension. Endemic to Hawai'i and islands throughout the Caribbean and Pacific, CFP incidence rates range from several to thousands of cases per 100,000 per year. Since fishing is important for local food supply, exportation, and recreation throughout the Pacific, CFP is medically and economically significant in these areas. We present a case of CFP from Hawai'i to illustrate the disease, demonstrating that the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with confirmatory tests from fish samples available in some cases. Treatment is supportive and symptomatic with no disease specific remedy. The prognosis for most cases is good with a short duration of self-limited symptoms, but for some cases neurological sequelae can become chronic. With no effective treatment, education on which species of reef fish and which body parts to avoid eating is essential in the prevention of CFP. PMID:25478299

  9. The response of fish to immunostimulant diets.

    PubMed

    Vallejos-Vidal, Eva; Reyes-López, Felipe; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    In order to maintain fish health and to improve performance immunostimulants have been used as dietary additives to improve weight gain, feed efficiency, and/or disease resistance in cultured fish. In aquaculture, non-specific immunostimulants have been widely used probably due to the limited knowledge of the immune response in fish and the ease of their application. Many studies have been carried out to assess the effect of dietary immunostimulants in fish including algal derivatives, herb and plant extract containing diets using a wide range of downstream analytical techniques. Many immunostimulants are based upon tradition and folklore transferred through generations and specific to certain geographical regions rather than known biological properties. However, there are studies in which it is possible to observe a clear and direct dose-dependent stimulatory effect upon the immune system. Other dietary supplements used contain PAMPs (Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns) as immunostimulants whose recognition depends upon PRR (pathogen recognition receptor) interactions including the TLRs (Toll-like receptor). Despite the growing interest in the use of immunostimulants across the aquaculture industry the underlying mechanisms of ligand recognition, extract composition and activation of the fish immune response remains fragmented. In this review we focus upon the last 15 years of studies addressing the assessment of: (1) plant, herb and algae extracts; and (2) PAMPs, upon non-specific immune parameters of activation and immunostimulant diet efficacy. PMID:27389620

  10. Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the desert southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Archdeacon, Thomas P; Iles, Alison; Kline, S Jason; Bonar, Scott A

    2010-12-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs between January 2005 and April 2007. The Asian fish tapeworm was present in the Gila River, Salt River, Verde River, San Pedro River, Aravaipa Creek, and Fossil Creek, Arizona, and in Lake Tuendae at Zzyzx Springs and Afton Canyon of the Mojave River, California. Overall prevalence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Arizona fish populations was 19% (range = 0-100%) and varied by location, time, and fish species. In California, the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of the Asian fish tapeworm in Mohave tui chub Gila bicolor mohavensis were higher during warmer months than during cooler months. Three new definitive host species--Yaqui chub G. purpurea, headwater chub G. nigra, and longfin dace agosia chrysogaster--were identified. Widespread occurrence of the Asian fish tapeworm in southwestern U.S. waters suggests that the lack of detection in other systems where nonnative fishes occur is due to a lack of effort as opposed to true absence of the parasite. To limit further spread of diseases to small, isolated systems, we recommend treatment for both endo- and exoparasites when management actions include translocation of fishes. PMID:21413512

  11. Verification of Meso-Zeaxanthin in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen; Meagher, Katie A; Howard, Alan N; Kelly, David; Thurnham, David I

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives The carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate in the central retina (the macula), where they are collectively known as macular pigment (MP). MP has been shown to enhance visual function in both diseased and non-diseased retinae, and therefore an understanding and confirmation of, the origins of these carotenoids is needed. Studies have shown that L and Z are present in many foodstuffs found in a typical Western diet (e.g. spinach, kale, peppers, yellow corn and eggs). It has been shown that MZ is generated from L in the primate retina and earlier reports suggested that MZ was present in some fish species. Recently, however, one research group reported that MZ is not present in fish and suggested that the earlier reports showing MZ in these marine species were a methodological artefact. The current study was designed to investigate the reason for the contradiction, and test for the presence of MZ in fish and some other foods. Methods Raw fruits, vegetables and fish were extracted for carotenoid analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. Results MZ was not detected in any of the fruits or vegetables tested in our study. However, using retention time matching, absorption spectrum comparison, and sample spiking, we verified the presence of MZ in salmon skin, sardine skin, trout skin and trout flesh. Conclusion This study confirmed the presence MZ in nature, and in the human food chain. PMID:25717420

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Strain C#2

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Zhu, Yongtao; Li, Nan; LaFrentz, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes columnaris disease of freshwater fish. Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2 was isolated from a diseased warm-water fish and is typed as genomovar II. The genome consists of a single 3.33-Mb circular chromosome with 2,689 predicted coding genes. PMID:27340080

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Strain C#2.

    PubMed

    Bartelme, Ryan P; Newton, Ryan J; Zhu, Yongtao; Li, Nan; LaFrentz, Benjamin R; McBride, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes columnaris disease of freshwater fish. Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2 was isolated from a diseased warm-water fish and is typed as genomovar II. The genome consists of a single 3.33-Mb circular chromosome with 2,689 predicted coding genes. PMID:27340080

  14. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes columnaris disease of freshwater fish. Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2 was isolated from a diseased warm water fish and is typed as genomovar II. The genome consists of a single 3.33 Mb circular chromosome with 2,689 pred...

  15. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  16. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  17. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. PMID:22355456

  18. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  19. Genetic and environmental melanoma models in fish

    PubMed Central

    Patton, E Elizabeth; Mitchell, David L; Nairn, Rodney S

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animal models are extremely valuable for the study of human diseases, especially those with underlying genetic components. The exploitation of various animal models, from fruitflies to mice, has led to major advances in our understanding of the etiologies of many diseases, including cancer. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a form of cancer for which both environmental insult (i.e., UV) and hereditary predisposition are major causative factors. Fish melanoma models have been used in studies of both spontaneous and induced melanoma formation. Genetic hybrids between platyfish and swordtails, different species of the genus Xiphophorus, have been studied since the 1920s to identify genetic determinants of pigmentation and melanoma formation. Recently, transgenesis has been used to develop zebrafish and medaka models for melanoma research. This review will provide a historical perspective on the use of fish models in melanoma research, and an updated summary of current and prospective studies using these unique experimental systems. PMID:20230482

  20. Applying Selective Breeding And Vaccination To Improve Fish Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious disease causes substantial economic loss in aquaculture. In an effort to reduce loss, selective breeding of animals with superior disease resistance is being increasingly utilized as a component within fish health management plans. Selective breeding is especially applicable to salmonid ...

  1. The welfare of fish.

    PubMed

    Iwama, George K

    2007-05-01

    Our interactions with fish cover a wide range of activities including enjoying them as pets to consuming them as food. I propose that we confine the consideration of the welfare of fish to their physiology, and not join the discussion on whether fish can feel pain and suffering, as humans. A significant proportion of the papers on animal welfare center on whether non-human animals can feel pain, and suffer as humans. This is a question that never can be answered unequivocally. The premise of the present paper is that we have an ethical responsibility to respect the life and wellbeing of all organisms. Thus, we should concentrate on the behavioural, physiological, and cellular indicators of their well-being and attempt to minimize a state of stress in the animals that we have in our care or influence. PMID:17578254

  2. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection. PMID:26475022

  3. Claudins in teleost fishes

    PubMed Central

    Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fishes are a large and diverse animal group that represent close to 50% of all described vertebrate species. This review consolidates what is known about the claudin (Cldn) family of tight junction (TJ) proteins in teleosts. Cldns are transmembrane proteins of the vertebrate epithelial/endothelial TJ complex that largely determine TJ permeability. Cldns achieve this by expressing barrier or pore forming properties and by exhibiting distinct tissue distribution patterns. So far, ~63 genes encoding for Cldn TJ proteins have been reported in 16 teleost species. Collectively, cldns (or Cldns) are found in a broad array of teleost fish tissues, but select genes exhibit restricted expression patterns. Evidence to date strongly supports the view that Cldns play a vital role in the embryonic development of teleost fishes and in the physiology of tissues and organ systems studied thus far. PMID:24665402

  4. Fish hematology and associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Grant, Krystan R

    2015-01-01

    Fish health is a growing concern as pets, education, and aquaculture evolves. For the veterinary staff, fish handling, diagnostics, medicine, and surgery may require specialized training and equipment in comparison with terrestrial and arboreal animals, simply because of their aquatic nature and diversity. Fish hematology is one diagnostic tool that may not require additional equipment, may be inexpensive, and provide useful information in guiding treatment options. Challenges involving hematology may include handling and restraint, venipuncture, evaluation, and interpretation. In this article, strategies for these challenges are discussed for teleost (bony fish) and elasmobranch (cartilaginous fish) fish types. PMID:25421028

  5. Fish Hematology and Associated Disorders.

    PubMed

    Grant, Krystan R

    2015-09-01

    Fish health is a growing concern as pets, education, and aquaculture evolves. For the veterinary staff, fish handling, diagnostics, medicine, and surgery may require specialized training and equipment in comparison with terrestrial and arboreal animals, simply because of their aquatic nature and diversity. Fish hematology is one diagnostic tool that may not require additional equipment, may be inexpensive, and provide useful information in guiding treatment options. Challenges involving hematology may include handling and restraint, venipuncture, evaluation, and interpretation. In this article, strategies for these challenges are discussed for teleost (bony fish) and elasmobranch (cartilaginous fish) fish types. PMID:26297413

  6. Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch opening is at upper left, ceiling planks and knees at center and right. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  7. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  8. Significant effects of fishing gear selectivity on fish life history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhenlin; Sun, Peng; Yan, Wei; Huang, Liuyi; Tang, Yanli

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual's traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectivity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. According to the existing tend of exploited fish individual's life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  9. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  10. Ooey, Gooey, Fish Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Maryellen

    2004-01-01

    Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…

  11. Miniature sonar fish tag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered sonar device may be implanted in body of fish. It transmits signal that can be detected with portable tracking gear or by automatic detection-and-tracking system. Operating life of over 4000 hours may be expected. Device itself may be used almost indefinitely.

  12. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  13. Puffer fish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J

    1998-01-01

    Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed. Images p336-a PMID:9785165

  14. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  15. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  16. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  17. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  18. Fish-induced keriorrhea.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ka Ho; Nichols, Peter D; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2009-01-01

    Many deep-sea fishes store large amounts of wax esters in their body for buoyancy control. Some of them are frequently caught as by-catch of tuna and other fishes. The most noteworthy ones include escolar and oilfish. The accumulation of the indigestible wax esters in the rectum through consumption of these fish engenders discharges or leakage per rectum as orange or brownish green oil, but without noticeable loss of water. This physiological response is called keriorrhea, which is variously described as "oily diarrhea," "oily orange diarrhea," or "orange oily leakage" by the mass media and bloggers on the internet. Outbreaks of keriorrhea have been repeatedly reported across continents. Additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea were complained by the victims. They are probably due to anxiety or panic when suffering from keriorrhea. Escolar and oilfish are banned from import and sale in Italy, Japan, and South Korea. Rapid detection of the two fishes is imperative to ensure proper labeling and safeguarding of the public before and after any keriorrhea outbreak. PMID:19595384

  19. The Last Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the collapse of Newfoundland's once immense northern-cod fishery in 1992 from the perspective of a family fisherman who has become an environmental activist. Discusses failures in environmental management including the overfishing of shared resources encouraged by the Canadian government and hastened by international fishing fleets and…

  20. Truck-Drivin' Fish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity that enables first-grade students to learn about color mixing by driving toys trucks through paint. Explains that the students created rainbow fish and drew the background with crayons. States that this activity demonstrates how to utilize nontraditional tools or objects when creating art. (CMK)

  1. Nutrients and Chemical Pollutants in Fish and Shellfish. Balancing Health Benefits and Risks of Regular Fish Consumption.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors are clearly associated with at least five of the ten leading causes of death, including coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, non-insulin insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. Concerning specifically fish and seafood consumption, its beneficial health effects in humans are clearly supported by an important number of studies performed in the last 30 years. These studies have repeatedly linked fish consumption, especially those species whose contents in omega-3 fatty acids are high, with healthier hearts in the aging population. The nutritional benefits of fish and seafood are also due to the content of high-quality protein, vitamins, as well as other essential nutrients. However, a number of studies, particularly investigations performed in recent years, have shown that the unavoidable presence of environmental contaminants in fish and shellfish can also mean a certain risk for the health of some consumers. While prestigious international associations as the American Heart Association have recommended eating fish at least two times (two servings a week), based on our own experimental results, as well as in results from other laboratories, we cannot be in total agreement with that recommendation. Although a regular consumption of most fish and shellfish species should not mean adverse health effects for the consumers, the specific fish and shellfish species consumed, the frequency of consumption, as well as the meal size, are essential issues for adequately balancing the health benefits and risks of regular fish consumption. PMID:25486051

  2. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for each fishing year... MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is...

  3. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  4. Augmented Fish Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1989-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. This project provides a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its second year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1988. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1988 and will compare sampling results from 1987 and 1988. The analysis will be divided in two sections: adult analysis and juvenile analysis. The adult analysis will include results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on index stocks. Additionally, highlights from monthly monitoring exams will identify any significant and unusual findings from the routine exams completed in 1988. 6 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Sulfadiazine for kidney disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.; Bernier, A.F.; Whipple, W.J.; Burrows, R.E.

    1951-01-01

    The blueback salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus nerka) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Station at Winthrop, Washington, underwent an infection that was caused by a very short, Gram-positive, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacterium. A further description is impossible at this time, as the organism has not been grown satisfactorily for proper identification. The disease was characterized by white, raised areas of dead tissue mainly in the kidney: for this reason it is referred to as kidney disease. Belding and Merrill (1935) described a disease among the brook, brown, and rainbow trout at a State hatchery in Massachusetts which, from the description, might be the same as kidney disease. J.H. Wales of the California Division of Fish and Game described (unpublished manuscript, 1941) a disease in hatchery trout in California which seems to be identical to kidney disease.

  6. Liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline in edible fish fillets from six species of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The approved use of oxytetracycline (OTC) in U.S. Aquaculture is limited to specific diseases in salmonids and channel catfish. OTC may also be effective in controlling diseases in other fish species important to public aquaculture, but before approved use of OTC can be augmented, an analytical method for determining OTC in fillet tissue from multiple species of fish will be required to support residue depletion studies. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatographic (LC) method that is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in edible fillets from multiple species of fish. Homogenized fillet tissues from walleye, Atlantic salmon, striped bass, white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and channel catfish were fortified with OTC at nominal concentrations of 10, 20, 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g. In tissues fortified with OTC at 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g, mean recoveries ranged from 83 to 90%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.9 to 5.8%. In all other tissues, mean recoveries ranged from 59 to 98%, and RSDs ranged from 3.3 to 20%. Method quantitation limits ranged from 6 to 22 ng/g for the 6 species. The LC parameters produced easily integratable OTC peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds. The method is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in fillet tissue from 6 species of fish from 5 phylogenetically diverse groups.

  7. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  8. Bacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease of salmonid fish that impacts sustainable production for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in juvenile salmonids and prespawning a...

  9. The future of fish.

    PubMed

    Worm, Boris; Branch, Trevor A

    2012-11-01

    Recently, the global state of marine fisheries and its effects on ecosystems have received much scientific (and public) scrutiny. There is little doubt that global limits to exploitation have been reached and that recovery of depleted stocks must become a cornerstone of fisheries management. Yet, current trends appear to be diverging between well-assessed regions showing stabilization of fish biomass and other regions continuing to decline. This divergence can be explained by improved controls on exploitation rates in several wealthy countries, but low management capacity elsewhere. Here, we identify an urgent need to direct priorities towards 'fisheries-conservation hotspots' of increasing exploitation rates, high biodiversity, and poor management capacity, and conclude that the future of fish depends, at least in part, on redoubling science, co-management and conservation efforts in those regions. PMID:22877983

  10. Beyond Biodiversity: Fish Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits. Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the Barcoding target gene COI as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas. Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods. We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level. PMID:21829636

  11. Visualization on fish's wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuemin; Lu, Xiyun; Yin, Xiezhen

    2002-05-01

    In this paper an experiment on wake of Goldfish swimming unrestricted was conducted in a water tunnel. Method of color liquid was used to visualize the wake. Results show that there is reverse Karman vortex street in symmetrical plane of the wake and the Strouhal frequency of the fish is in the range 0.25-0.35. A 3D vortex ring chain model was presented.

  12. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level. PMID:21829636

  13. Investigating global change and fish biology with fish otolith radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalish, John M.

    1994-06-01

    Fish otoliths, calcium carbonate gravity and auditory receptors in the membranous labyrinths of teleost fish, can provide radiocarbon data that are valuable to a wide range of disciplines. For example, the first pre- and post-bomb time series of radiocarbon levels from northern or southern hemisphere temperate oceans was obtained by carrying out accelerator mass spectrometry analyses on selected regions of fish otoliths. These data can provide powerful constraints on both carbon cycle models and ocean general circulation models. Because fish otoliths can serve as a proxy of radiocarbon in seawater dissolved inorganic carbon in all oceans and at most depths, there is considerable scope for further investigations of otolith radiocarbon in relation to both oceanography and global change. In addition to applications relevant to global change, fish otoliths are also valuable sources of information on the age, growth, and ecology of fishes, with age being among the most important parameters in population modelling and fisheries management. Use of the bomb radiocarbon chronometer to validate fish age determination methods offers considerable advantages over traditional forms of age validation and promises to become a standard tool in fish biology and fisheries management. Radiocarbon data from otoliths can also provide valuable information on the ecology of fishes and has already provided surprising information relevant to the ecology of some deep-sea fishes.

  14. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, BLUE FISH: THE FISH QUALITY INDEX AS A RISK COMMUNICATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many people are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PT) such as methyl mercury, PCBs or Dioxins are underestimated because of their amplification in the food chain ...

  15. [Lactobacilli of freshwater fishes].

    PubMed

    Kvasnikov, E I; Kovalenko, N K; Materinskaia, L G

    1977-01-01

    Normal microflora in the intestinal tract of fishes inhabiting fresh-water reservoirs includes lactic bacteria. The number of the bacteria depends on the animal species, the composition of food, the age, and the season. The highest number of these microorganisms (hundreds of millions per gram of the intestinal content) is found in carps. Enterococci are most often encountered in fishes inhabiting ponds: Streptococcus faecalis Andrewes a. Horder, Str. faecium Orla-Jensen, Str. bovis Orla-Jensen. Lactobacilli are more typical of fishes in water reserviors: Lactobacillus plantarum (Orla-Jensen) Bergey et al., L. casei (Orla-Jensen) Hansen a. Lessel, L. casei var. casei, L. casei var. rhamnosus, L. Casei var. alactosus, L. leichmannii (Henneberg) Bergey et al., L. acidophillus (Moro) Hansen a. Mocquot, L. Fermenti Beijerinck, L. cellobiosus Rogosa et al., L. Buchneri (Henneberg) Bergey et al. The content of lactic bacteria varies in water reservoirs; their highest content is found in ooze (tens of thousands per gram). PMID:909475

  16. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  17. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  18. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  19. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  20. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  1. Fish consumption, mercury exposure and serum antinuclear antibody in Amazonians.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria Francinaire A; Fraiji, Nelson A; Barbosa, Antonio C; De Lima, Domingos S N; Souza, Jurandir R; Dórea, José G; Cordeiro, George W O

    2006-08-01

    Exposure to intrinsic Hg in fish was studied in Amazon populations with high prevalence of malaria disease. High fish-eater riverines were compared to urban (Manaus residents) low fish-eater riverines in regards to Hg exposure (hair-Hg) and serum antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Most riverines (99.0%) ate fish daily compared to only 3% of controls. Fish species high in MeHg was consumed more frequently (45.5%) by riverines than controls (18.8%). Mean hair-Hg (34.5 ppm) of riverines was significantly higher than controls (1.0 ppm). Although positive serum ANA was more frequently observed in riverine fish-eaters (12.4%) than controls (2.9%), there was no significant association between hair-Hg and ANA. High prevalence of malaria reporting among riverines was neither associated with Hg exposure nor with serum ANA. An autoimmune dysfunction is unlikely to occur as a result of MMHg exposure due to fish consumption. PMID:16854670

  2. Unintended consequences and trade-offs of fish passage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    8. McLaughlin, Robert L.; Smyth, Eric R.; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Jones, Michael L.; Koops, Marten A.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Vélez-Espino, Luis-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We synthesized evidence for unintended consequences and trade-offs associated with the passage of fishes. Provisioning of fish passageways at dams and dam removals are being carried out increasingly as resource managers seek ways to reduce fragmentation of migratory fish populations and restore biodiversity and nature-like ecosystem services in tributaries altered by dams. The benefits of provisioning upstream passage are highlighted widely. Possible unwanted consequences and trade-offs of upstream passage are coming to light, but remain poorly examined and underappreciated. Unintended consequences arise when passage of native and desirable introduced fishes is delayed, undone (fallback), results in patterns of movement and habitat use that reduce Darwinian fitness (e.g. ecological traps), or is highly selective taxonomically and numerically. Trade-offs arise when passage decisions intended to benefit native species interfere with management decisions intended to control the unwanted spread of non-native fishes and aquatic invertebrates, or genes, diseases and contaminants carried by hatchery and wild fishes. These consequences and trade-offs will vary in importance from system to system and can result in large economic and environmental costs. For some river systems, decisions about how to manage fish passage involve substantial risks and could benefit from use of a formal, structured process that allows transparent, objective and, where possible, quantitative evaluation of these risks. Such a process can also facilitate the design of an adaptive framework that provides valuable insights into future decisions.

  3. Microbial diversity and potential pathogens in ornamental fish aquarium water.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine F; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112

  4. Microbial Diversity and Potential Pathogens in Ornamental Fish Aquarium Water

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine F.; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species. PMID:22970112

  5. Cryptobiosis and its control in North American fishes.

    PubMed

    Woo, P T

    2001-05-01

    Cryptobiosis is caused by the haemoflagellates Cryptobia bullocki and Cryptobia salmositica. These parasites infect food fishes (e.g. flounders, salmon) on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America and clinical signs of the disease include anaemia, and abdominal distention with ascites. The virulent factor in salmonid cryptobiosis, caused by C. salmositica, is a secretory metalloprotease (200 kDa). Fish mortality may be up to 100% in the absence of treatment, consequently strategies have been developed to protect them from disease/mortality. A single dose of a live vaccine protects fish for at least 2 years, and it is via the production of complement-fixing antibodies, enhanced phagocytosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Inhibition of the parasite's cysteine protease by a monoclonal antibody reduces multiplication, infectivity and survival of the parasite. Consequently, the recombinant cysteine protease (49 kDa) of the parasite will be tested as a potential vaccine. The trypanocidal drug, isometamidium chloride (1.0 mg/kg), is effective (therapeutic and prophylactic) against C. salmositica in chinook salmon. Its efficacy is significantly enhanced if it is conjugated either to a monoclonal antibody or to polyclonal antibodies from immune fish. Selective breeding of Cryptobia-resistant brook charr (innate resistance to infection) is possible, and the resistant factor(s) is controlled by a dominant Mendelian locus. In these resistant charr the parasite is lysed via the alternate pathway of complement activation (innate immunity to infection). There are also Cryptobia-tolerant charr, fish that are susceptible to infection but have no clinical disease (innate resistance to disease). In these fish, one of the natural anti-proteases, alpha2-macroglobulin, neutralises the metalloprotease secreted by C. salmositica. Production of transgenic Cryptobia-tolerant salmon is an option to vaccination and or chemotherapy. Also, transgenic pathogen-tolerant animals may

  6. Adsorption to fish sperm of vertically transmitted fish viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  7. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  8. Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    PubMed

    Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Leenders, Max; Agudo, Antonio; Bergmann, Manuela M; Valanou, Elisavet; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Overvad, Kim; Sonestedt, Emily; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Wennberg, Maria; Jansson, Jan Håkan; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Agnoli, Claudia; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Tumino, Rosario; Altzibar, Jone M; Vineis, Paolo; Masala, Giovanna; Ferrari, Pietro; Muller, David C; Johansson, Mattias; Luisa Redondo, M; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Brustad, Magritt; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv

    2015-01-01

    Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean fish, and fatty fish in a large prospective cohort including ten European countries. More than 500,000 men and women completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1999 and were followed up for mortality until the end of 2010. 32,587 persons were reported dead since enrolment. Hazard ratios and their 99% confidence interval were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Fish consumption was examined using quintiles based on reported consumption, using moderate fish consumption (third quintile) as reference, and as continuous variables, using increments of 10 g/day. All analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. No association was seen for fish consumption and overall or cause-specific mortality for both the categorical and the continuous analyses, but there seemed to be a U-shaped trend (p < 0.000) with fatty fish consumption and total mortality and with total fish consumption and cancer mortality (p = 0.046). PMID:25377533

  9. Fish detection and classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidd, Richard A.; Wilder, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Marine biologists traditionally determine the presence and quantities of different types of fish by dragging nets across the bottom, and examining their contents. This method, although accurate, kills the collected fish, damages their habitat, and consumes large quantities of resources. This paper presents an alternative, a machine vision system capable of determining the presence of fish species. Illumination presents a unique problem in this environment, and the design of an effective illumination system is discussed. The related issues of object orientation and measurement are also discussed and resolved. Capturing images of fish in murky water also presents challenges. An adaptive thresholding technique is required to appropriately segment the fish from the background in these images. Mode detection, and histogram analysis are useful tools in determining these localized thresholds. It is anticipated that this system, created in conjunction with the Rutgers Institute for Marine and Coastal Science, will effectively classify fish in the estuarine environment.

  10. [Medical treatment during fish envenomation].

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Gawlikowski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Expositions to fish venoms should be treated as a separate group of intoxications because of their different diagnostic procedure. Until now, there are over 220 venomous fish species described, but skin excretions are potentially toxic for humans. Cases of fish envenomations (37), consulted by Poison Information Centres in Poland, as well as described in literature and contained in Micromedex database were analyzed. The course of envenomation, medical management during exposition to venomous of Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, freshwater and marine fishes were resolved. Injuries caused by venoms fishes were similarly treated, usually symptomatic. Specific antivenoms are available only for two fish species. Each patient exposed to sting or bite should be examined and observed. If characteristic sings and symptoms of envenomation are present, proper medical management should be proceed. PMID:19788131

  11. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare strains infecting fishes inhabiting the Laurentian Great Lakes basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agent of columnaris disease, causes significant losses in fish worldwide. In this study, F. columnare infection prevalence was assessed in representative Great Lakes fish species. Over 2,000 wild, feral, and hatchery-propagated salmonids, percids, centrarc...

  12. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  13. An immobilization antigen gene of the fish-parasitic protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis strain ARS-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a severe fish parasite that causes ‘white spot’ disease in many freshwater fish and leads to high mortality. The antigens on the parasite surface are involved in the antibody-mediated immobilization and hence designated as immobilization antigens (i-antigens). ...

  14. The Function of Fish Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    What is known about the biological activity of fish cytokines is reviewed. Most of the functional studies performed to date have been in teleost fish, and have focused on the induced effects of cytokine recombinant proteins, or have used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish. Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. This knowledge will aid our ability to determine and modulate the pathways leading to protective immunity, to improve fish health in aquaculture. PMID:27231948

  15. The Function of Fish Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    What is known about the biological activity of fish cytokines is reviewed. Most of the functional studies performed to date have been in teleost fish, and have focused on the induced effects of cytokine recombinant proteins, or have used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish. Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. This knowledge will aid our ability to determine and modulate the pathways leading to protective immunity, to improve fish health in aquaculture. PMID:27231948

  16. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  17. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Frøyland, Livar

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB(7), arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. PMID:22225822

  18. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  19. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  20. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout...

  1. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  2. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  3. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  4. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout...

  5. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout...

  6. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  7. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  8. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  9. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  10. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  11. 76 FR 60379 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of.... Sport Fishing. We allow fishing on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to the following conditions: 0 1. We allow fishing in impounded waters contained within dikes...

  12. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout...

  13. New research method looks at fish mucus

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a new way to analyze fish tissues to understand fish ecology. Instead of killing the fish to collect the sample for analysis, we collect body mucus from the fish and analyze that. The fish can then be returned alive to the stream or lake.

  14. Efficiency of fish propulsion.

    PubMed

    Maertens, A P; Triantafyllou, M S; Yue, D K P

    2015-08-01

    The system efficiency of a self-propelled flexible body is ill-defined, hence we introduce the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the power needed to tow a body in rigid-straight condition over the power it requires for self-propulsion, both measured for the same speed. Through examples we show that the quasi-propulsive efficiency is a rational non-dimensional metric of the propulsive fitness of fish and fish-like mechanisms, consistent with the goal to minimize fuel consumption under size and velocity constraints. We perform two-dimensional viscous simulations and apply the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency to illustrate and discuss the efficiency of two-dimensional undulating foils employing first carangiform and then anguilliform kinematics. We show that low efficiency may be due to adverse body-propulsor hydrodynamic interactions, which cannot be accounted for by an increase in friction drag, as done previously, since at the Reynolds number Re = 5 000 considered in the simulations, pressure is a major contributor to both thrust and drag. PMID:26226349

  15. Fronts, fish, and predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, Igor M.; Hunt, George L.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Schick, Robert S.; Prieto, Rui; Brodziak, Jon; Teo, Steven L. H.; Thorne, Lesley; Bailey, Helen; Itoh, Sachihiko; Munk, Peter; Musyl, Michael K.; Willis, Jay K.; Zhang, Wuchang

    2014-09-01

    Ocean fronts play a key role in marine ecosystems. Fronts shape oceanic landscapes and affect every trophic level across a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, from meters to thousands of kilometers, and from days to millions of years. At some fronts, there is an elevated rate of primary production, whereas at others, plankton is aggregated by advection and by the behavior of organisms moving against gradients in temperature, salinity, light irradiance, hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical and biological factors. Lower trophic level organisms - phytoplankton and zooplankton - that are aggregated in sufficient densities, attract organisms from higher trophic levels, from planktivorous schooling fish to squid, large piscivorous fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Many species have critical portions of their life stages or behaviors closely associated with fronts, including spawning, feeding, ontogenetic development, migrations, and other activities cued to frontal dynamics. At different life stages, an individual species or population might be linked to different fronts. The nature and strength of associations between fronts and biota depend on numerous factors such as the physical nature and spatio-temporal scales of the front and the species and their life stages in question. In other words, fronts support many different niches and micro/macro-habitats over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  17. FIXATION OF FISH TISSUES. IN: THE LABORATORY FISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter deals with the fixation of fish tissues and whole fish. Traditionally, fixation has been applied to animal tissues mainly for histological or pathological studies. Development of new molecular and immunologic tools now allows tissue and cellular localization of nucle...

  18. Fish Passage: A New Tool to Investigate Fish Movement: JSATS

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-04-20

    A new system is being used to determine fish mortality issues related to hydroelectric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. Called the juvenile salmon acoustic telemetry system (JSATS), this tool allows researchers to better understand fish movement, behavior, and survival around dams and powerhouses.

  19. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes. PMID:22715316

  20. Differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions in fish.

    PubMed Central

    Law, M

    2001-01-01

    Tissues such as skin and muscle have a limited repertoire of morphological response to injury. The two most important phenomena that determine the outcome of cell injury appear to be a) critical cell membrane damage, with associated fluid and ionic imbalances; and b) inability of mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, to restart ATP synthesis. In fish, skin ulcers can have many different etiologies, including infectious agents, toxins, physical causes, immunologic causes, and nutritional and metabolic perturbations. This article is concerned primarily with the possible pathways of disease involved in ulcerative lesions of fish. In particular, the high prevalence of ulcerative lesions in Atlantic menhaden found along the mid-Atlantic coast, especially in North Carolina estuarine waters, has received much recent attention. These ulcerative lesions are likely to be initiated by a series of factors that lead ultimately to a breach of the normal barrier function of the skin. Bioassays that attempt to define the role of individual etiologic agents such as fungi (oomycetes) or putative Pfiesteria toxin(s) should recognize this multiplicity of factors and should include appropriate quality control measures for water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrogenous wastes, etc.) as well as bacterial and other contaminants that may confound bioassay results and their interpretation. Consideration of these factors along with the whole animal in the context of its environment can only advance the science, perhaps provide clues to the causative pathways of skin ulcers in fish, and give us keener insight into the health of the aquatic environment. PMID:11677175

  1. Efficacy of a modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccine in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is an aquatic bacterium that is responsible for columnaris disease. This aquatic pathogen has a worldwide distribution and is highly infectious to both warm and cold water fish. A modified live F. columnare vaccine was developed through repeated passage of a virulent strai...

  2. AN OVERVIEW STREPTOCOCCUS IN WARM-WATER FISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite being known mainly as mammalian disease agents, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae have become recognized as emerging pathogens of wild and cultured fish. The worldwide economic impact of S. iniae and S. agalactiae to the aquaculture industry is estimated in hundreds of millions annually...

  3. Phoma herbarum, a fungal plant saprophyte, as a fish pathogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Yasutake, W.T.; Leek, Steve

    1975-01-01

    Phoma herbarum, a fungal plant saprophyte, was isolated from diseased hatchery-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The disease was observed at 10 national fish hatcheries in Washington and Oregon, but the low incidence of experimental infections indicate that it is only weakly contagious. Histopathological examination suggests that the air bladder is one of the primary organs infected. The visceral organs are also affected in both natural and experimental infections.

  4. Fishing effects on energy use by North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Simon; van Hal, Ralf; Hiddink, Jan G.; Maxwell, Tracy A. D.

    Fishing affects patterns of energy use in fish populations, as demonstrated by changes in population energy consumption and the size and age when energy demands are greatest. We compare theoretical predictions and observed patterns of energy use (expressed as the primary production required to support fish production) by North Sea fish, based on simple and widely applicable theory that links life history parameters, fishing mortality ( F), trophic transfer efficiency and relationships between size and trophic level (as determined using nitrogen stable isotope analysis). For the demersal species that dominate total biomass, relationships between size and trophic level were quite consistent among years. There were large decreases in relative energy requirements of all exploited demersal populations except plaice Pleuronectes platessa during the last 3 to 4 decades. Relative energy requirements of plaice were more stable because smaller plaice, which now dominate the exploited population, feed at higher trophic levels than larger plaice. The sizes and ages when population energy demands were greatest fell with increasing fishing mortality and differences between the predicted ( F = 0) and observed ages at maximum energy demand were greater in larger species. Currently, the energy demands of most species peak early in life (1-3 years) and largely reflect patterns of recruitment, leading to a homogenisation of the trophodynamics of the fish community. The fate of energy that is no longer used by commercially exploited species is not clear, partly because of the infrequent and untargeted monitoring of species that are more resilient to fishing. However, we conducted a preliminary assessment of the energy demands of solenette Buglossidium luteum, a very abundant small flatfish in the central North Sea that has increased in abundance in recent years. The solenette's high abundance and resilience to fishing, suggests that it now requires 35% of primary production in part of

  5. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important nutrition and disease management properties. Presently fish oil (FO) supplementation relies on capsular triglyceride. Flavored emulsified lipid preparations may provide an improved approach to FO del...

  6. EFFECTS OF SEASONAL AND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ON OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) AND ASSOCIATED FISH POPULATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of water quality and seasonal changes on disease prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus, gonadal condition, recruitment potential, growth of caged juvenile oysters, and habitat suitability of reefs for fishes and macrobenthic invertebrates were measured in Callos...

  7. Vision of Fish in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the focusing in fish eyes, both theoretical and experimental, by using a simple fish eye model, provides an interesting biological context for teaching the introductory principles of optics. Moreover, the students will learn concepts of biology by an approach of cause and effect.

  8. GREAT LAKES FISH CONTAMINANT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminant levels in fish generally reflect overall contaminant levels in the environment. For example, contaminant concentrations in fish at the top of the food chain reflect contaminant levels in both the surrounding water and in organisms below them in the food chain. Contami...

  9. Feeding Practices and Fish Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past three decades, the aquaculture industry has expanded rapidly throughout the world and is expected to continue to grow in the years to come due to the unpredictability and high cost of harvesting fish from the oceans as well as the increased demand for fish as a result of rapid populati...

  10. Functional amino acids in fish nutrition, health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Synne M; Waagbø, Rune; Espe, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Protein is the most expensive part of fish diets and supplies amino acids (AA) for energy, growth, protein synthesis and as substrates for key metabolic pathways. Functional AA is a term used to describe AA that are involved in cellular processes apart from protein synthesis. A deficiency, or imbalance, in functional AA may impair body metabolism and homeostasis. Recent years have seen an increased interest in AA to increase disease resistance, immune response, reproduction, behavior and more. This has led to a boost of commercially available functional fish feeds that aim to optimize fish performance and quality of the product. This review aim to collect recent findings of functional AA and of how they may improve fish health and welfare. It will focus on functional properties of some of the most studied AA, namely arginine, glutamine, glutamate, tryptophan, sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine and taurine), histidine and branched chain amino acids. Where information is not available in fish, we will point towards functions known in animals and humans, with possible translational functions to fish. PMID:26709652

  11. Levels of nutrients in relation to fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Krista Y.; Thompson, Brooke A.; Werner, Mark; Malecki, Kristen; Imm, Pamela; Anderson, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Fish are an important source of nutrients including omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce risk of adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease; however, fish may also contain significant amounts of environmental pollutants. The Wisconsin Departments of Health Services and Natural Resources developed a survey instrument, along with a strategy to collect human biological samples to assess the risks and benefits associated with long-term fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin. The target population was men aged 50 years and older, who fish Wisconsin waters and live in the state of Wisconsin. Participants provided blood and hair samples and completed a detailed (paper) questionnaire, which included questions on basic demographics, health status, location of catch and species of fish caught/eaten, consumption of locally caught and commercially purchased fish, and awareness and source of information for local and statewide consumption guidelines. Biological samples were used to assess levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); vitamin D; and selenium in blood. Quantile regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between biomarker levels and self-reported consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and other areas of concern, other locally caught fish, and commercially purchased fish (meals per year). Respondents were largely non-Hispanic white men in their 60’s with at least some college education, and about half were retired. Fish consumption was high (median of 54.5 meals per year), with most fish meals coming from locally-caught fish. Multivariate regression models showed that the effect of supplement use was much greater than that of fish consumption, on nutrient levels, although consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and areas of concern was significantly associated with higher levels of vitamin D even after controlling for supplement usage. PMID:26296180

  12. Menopause and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease. It’s a natural phase of a woman’s life cycle,” Dr. Goldberg said. “It’s important for women, as ... emphasizes: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish and nuts, while limiting red meat ...

  13. Orientation through chemo reception in fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1972-01-01

    A system designed to acquire and process data describing locomotor behavior of fish is described. Data are recorded in relation to the fish's response to olfactory stimuli. It was concluded that fish orientation is based on rheataxis or chemotropotaxis.

  14. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... from NMFS issued under § 635.32. (c) Atlantic bluefin tuna. No person aboard a U.S. fishing vessel shall fish for bluefin tuna in, or possess on board that fishing vessel a bluefin tuna taken from,...

  15. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... from NMFS issued under § 635.32. (c) Atlantic bluefin tuna. No person aboard a U.S. fishing vessel shall fish for bluefin tuna in, or possess on board that fishing vessel a bluefin tuna taken from,...

  16. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... from NMFS issued under § 635.32. (c) Atlantic bluefin tuna. No person aboard a U.S. fishing vessel shall fish for bluefin tuna in, or possess on board that fishing vessel a bluefin tuna taken from,...

  17. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... from NMFS issued under § 635.32. (c) Atlantic bluefin tuna. No person aboard a U.S. fishing vessel shall fish for bluefin tuna in, or possess on board that fishing vessel a bluefin tuna taken from,...

  18. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... from NMFS issued under § 635.32. (c) Atlantic bluefin tuna. No person aboard a U.S. fishing vessel shall fish for bluefin tuna in, or possess on board that fishing vessel a bluefin tuna taken from,...

  19. Caviars and fish roe products.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, G E; Bledsoe, C D; Rasco, B

    2003-01-01

    Fish roe products are extremely valuable and currently enjoy expanding international and domestic markets. Caviars represent the best-known form of fish roe products; however, several other product forms are also consumed, including whole skeins and formulations with oils and cheese bases. Caviars are made from fish roe after the eggs have been graded, sorted, singled-out, salted or brined, and cured. Most caviar is marketed as a refrigerated or frozen food. Several types of caviar from different fish species are marketed as shelf-stable products. Market preferences for lower salt content have raised food safety concerns. Descriptions of and processing technologies for many delightful fish roe and caviar food products are presented here. PMID:12822675

  20. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Iziumov, Iu G; Izvekov, E I; Nepomniashchikh, V A

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior. PMID:25438567

  1. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior. PMID:25508098

  2. Flapping flexible fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Robert G.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Shepherd, William; Long, John H.

    In order to analyze and model the body kinematics used by fish in a wide range of swimming behaviors, we developed a technique to separate the periodic whole-body motions that characterize steady swimming from the secular motions that characterize changes in whole-body shape. We applied this harmonic analysis technique to the study of the forward and backward swimming of lamprey. We found that in order to vary the unsteadiness of swimming, lamprey superimpose periodic and secular components of their body motion, modulate the patterns and magnitudes of those components, and change shape. These kinematic results suggest the following hydromechanical hypothesis: steady swimming is a maneuver that requires active suppression of secular body reconfigurations.

  3. Adult Neurogenesis in Fish.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Julia; Brand, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Teleost fish have a remarkable neurogenic and regenerative capacity in the adult throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. The distribution of proliferation zones shows a remarkable conservation, even in distantly related teleost species, suggesting a common teleost ground plan of proliferation zones. There are different progenitor populations in the neurogenic niches-progenitors positive for radial glial markers (dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus) and progenitors with neuroepithelial-like characteristics (ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum). Definition of these progenitors has allowed studying their role in normal growth of the adult brain, but also when challenged following a lesion. From these studies, important roles have emerged for intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic signals controlling the activation of adult neurogenesis that enable regeneration of the adult brain to occur, opening up new perspectives on rekindling regeneration also in the context of the mammalian brain. PMID:26747664

  4. [Noise in fishing vessels].

    PubMed

    Peretti, Alessandro; Nataletti, Pietro; Bonfiglio, Paolo; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua

    2013-01-01

    The present research concerns the noise analysis of five vessels during navigation and fishing activities. In locations where staff operates, sound levels (produced substantially by the engine) were close to 90 dB(A); within the rest areas the noise is also quite significant. On the basis of working time, exposure levels ranged between 80 and 90 dB(A). In order to identify interventions able to reduce the risk, reverberation times, sound insulation of the different areas and the vibrations produced by the engine were measured on the same vessels docked in port. Noise level reduction as a result of sound absorptive treatments were estimated using an analytical model. PMID:24303698

  5. Phage Therapy and Photodynamic Therapy: Low Environmental Impact Approaches to Inactivate Microorganisms in Fish Farming Plants

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Gomes, Newton C.M.; Alves, Eliana; Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the increasing importance of aquaculture to compensate for the progressive worldwide reduction of natural fish and to the fact that several fish farming plants often suffer from heavy financial losses due to the development of infections caused by microbial pathogens, including multidrug resistant bacteria, more environmentally-friendly strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed to make the aquaculture industry more sustainable. The aim of this review is to briefly present the typical fish farming diseases and their threats and discuss the present state of chemotherapy to inactivate microorganisms in fish farming plants as well as to examine the new environmentally friendly approaches to control fish infection namely phage therapy and photodynamic antimicrobial therapy. PMID:19841715

  6. Spray vaccination: a method for the immunization of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, R.W.; O'Leary, P. J.; Garrison, R. L.; Rohovec, J.S.; Fryer, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The use of immunizing agents is emerging as a complement to other methods of disease control and has been used successfully both experimentally and commercially (FRYER et al., 1977). Two problems exist in the development of fish vaccines: first, to provide efficacious preparations; and second, to provide economic methods for mass vaccination. Vaccines for fish have been delivered by several methods to include: parenteral injection; orally, through incorporation of vaccines into the animal's diet; hyperosmotic infiltration, by placing fish in a hyperosmotic solution followed by a vaccine bath; direct immersion into vaccine suspensions; or by direct addition of vaccine to water in which fish are held (CORBEL, 1975; AMEND, 1976; AMEND and FENDER, 1976; SCHACTE, 1976; ANTIPA and AMEND, 1977; CROY and AMEND, 1977; FRYER, et al., 1977). Each of these techniques has its inherent advantages and disadvantages. Although intraperitoneal injection appears to be most effective, this method is time consuming and stresses the fish being vaccinated. Oral administration is perhaps the most desirable method of vaccine delivery, but in some cases has not provided high levels of resistance (GUNNELS, et al., 1976). Hyperosmotic infil tration and direct immersion are used to vac cinate small fish but may not be economical with larger animals. Addition of vaccine to water has been used experimentally only with an attenuated viral vaccine (FRYER et al., 1976). This report describes another method for mass immunization of fish. A bacterin against Vibrio anguillarum was administered by spraying fish with antigens prepared by selected methods. This technique provided a fast efficacious means of administering vibrio bacterin. 

  7. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  8. Nanoparticles and microparticles of polymers and polysaccharides to administer fish vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Aravena, Andrea; Sandino, Ana María; Spencer, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture has become an important economic sector worldwide, but is faced with an ongoing threat from infectious diseases. Vaccination plays a critical role in protecting commercially raised fish from bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases. However, the production of effective vaccines is limited by the scarcity of knowledge about the immune system of fish. Improving vaccines implies using antigens, adjuvants and employing methods of administration that are more effective and less harmful to the fish. In this context, in recent year there have studies of methods of encapsulating antigens in matrices of different types to apply in fish vaccines. This work reviews the new methods to improve fish vaccines by encapsulating them in polymers and polysaccharides. PMID:24510143

  9. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  10. Abnormal ovarian DNA methylation programming during gonad maturation in wild contaminated fish.

    PubMed

    Pierron, Fabien; Bureau du Colombier, Sarah; Moffett, Audrey; Caron, Antoine; Peluhet, Laurent; Daffe, Guillemine; Lambert, Patrick; Elie, Pierre; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Dufour, Sylvie; Couture, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2014-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that pollutants may cause diseases via epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation participate in the regulation of gene transcription. Surprisingly, epigenetics research is still limited in ecotoxicology. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to contaminants experienced by wild female fish (Anguilla anguilla) throughout their juvenile phase can affect the DNA methylation status of their oocytes during gonad maturation. Thus, fish were sampled in two locations presenting a low or a high contamination level. Then, fish were transferred to the laboratory and artificially matured. Before hormonal treatment, the DNA methylation levels of the genes encoding for the aromatase and the receptor of the follicle stimulating hormone were higher in contaminated fish than in fish from the clean site. For the hormone receptor, this hypermethylation was positively correlated with the contamination level of fish and was associated with a decrease in its transcription level. In addition, whereas gonad growth was associated with an increase in DNA methylation in fish from the clean site, no changes were observed in contaminated fish in response to hormonal treatment. Finally, a higher gonad growth was observed in fish from the reference site in comparison to contaminated fish. PMID:25203663

  11. Current ecological understanding of fungal-like pathogens of fish: what lies beneath?

    PubMed Central

    Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Marshall, Wyth L.; Lilje, Osu; Jessop, Casey N.; Gleason, Frank H.; Andreou, Demetra

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasingly sophisticated microbiological techniques, and long after the first discovery of microbes, basic knowledge is still lacking to fully appreciate the ecological importance of microbial parasites in fish. This is likely due to the nature of their habitats as many species of fish suffer from living beneath turbid water away from easy recording. However, fishes represent key ecosystem services for millions of people around the world and the absence of a functional ecological understanding of viruses, prokaryotes, and small eukaryotes in the maintenance of fish populations and of their diversity represents an inherent barrier to aquatic conservation and food security. Among recent emerging infectious diseases responsible for severe population declines in plant and animal taxa, fungal and fungal-like microbes have emerged as significant contributors. Here, we review the current knowledge gaps of fungal and fungal-like parasites and pathogens in fish and put them into an ecological perspective with direct implications for the monitoring of fungal fish pathogens in the wild, their phylogeography as well as their associated ecological impact on fish populations. With increasing fish movement around the world for farming, releases into the wild for sport fishing and human-driven habitat changes, it is expected, along with improved environmental monitoring of fungal and fungal-like infections, that the full extent of the impact of these pathogens on wild fish populations will soon emerge as a major threat to freshwater biodiversity. PMID:24600442

  12. Survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in Iran.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Ghasempour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Hamid Reza; Shateri, Mohamad Hadi; Safian, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. In this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: Goldfish (Carassius auratus), guppy (Poecilia reticulate), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), discus (Symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of Iran during 2011 to 2012. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic infections of aquarium fish in Iran. For this purpose, fish were first examined for ectoparasites using wet mount under a light microscope. Then, the alimentary ducts of fish were observed under light and stereo microscope. In survey of different infection rates for different parasitic infections in examining fish: Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Trichodina reticulata, Capillaria sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea were collected from five species. All five fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in their skins and gills, the highest prevalence was observed in C. auratus and the lowest was in P. scalare and S. discus. Also, Capillaria sp. was reported as a first record from the abdominal cavity of P. scalare in Iran. Our findings revealed that the protozoal infections are very common among aquarium fishes. Although, no gross pathology was observed among infected fishes, but it is likely that in case of any changes in the environment, then parasitic infections could be harmful. PMID:25992255

  13. Genomic comparison of virulent and non-virulent Streptococcus agalactiae in fish.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, C M J; Zadoks, R N; Crumlish, M; Rodgers, D; Lainson, F A; Ferguson, H W; Turnbull, J; Fontaine, M C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae infections in fish are predominantly caused by beta-haemolytic strains of clonal complex (CC) 7, notably its namesake sequence type (ST) 7, or by non-haemolytic strains of CC552, including the globally distributed ST260. In contrast, CC23, including its namesake ST23, has been associated with a wide homeothermic and poikilothermic host range, but never with fish. The aim of this study was to determine whether ST23 is virulent in fish and to identify genomic markers of fish adaptation of S. agalactiae. Intraperitoneal challenge of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus), showed that ST260 is lethal at doses down to 10(2) cfu per fish, whereas ST23 does not cause disease at 10(7) cfu per fish. Comparison of the genome sequence of ST260 and ST23 with those of strains derived from fish, cattle and humans revealed the presence of genomic elements that are unique to subpopulations of S. agalactiae that have the ability to infect fish (CC7 and CC552). These loci occurred in clusters exhibiting typical signatures of mobile genetic elements. PCR-based screening of a collection of isolates from multiple host species confirmed the association of selected genes with fish-derived strains. Several fish-associated genes encode proteins that potentially provide fitness in the aquatic environment. PMID:25399660

  14. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1989-04-01

    Washington Department of Fisheries has divided the sampling and data collection into three major groups: adult analysis, juvenile analysis and database development. The adult analysis done at spawning includes screening for viral pathogens and Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD). Pre-spawning mortalities are sampled for the presence of bacterial pathogens and parasites to determine causes of pre-spawning loss. Juvenile analysis involves monthly monitoring; pre-release examinations for viral pathogens, BKD and, where appropriate, whirling disease (M. cerebralis); completion of the Organosomatic analysis on four index stocks, and midterm exams on yearling groups for BKD and M. cerebralis. Database development required constructing fish health monitoring forms and a computer based data entry and retrieval system. We have completed a full year of sampling and data collection, January, 1987 to January, 1988. This report will present and analyze this information.

  15. Histopathology of fish. IV. A granuloma of brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    In the summer of 1952, Snieszko and Griffin (1955) diagnosed kidney disease in brook trout from the Fish and Wildlife Service's station at Berlin, New Hampshire. During the examination of these fish, a peculiar lesion was observed in the vicinity of the gastric caeca. In very advanced cases, hard, glistening, white masses of tissue bearing a striking resemblance to mature testes often filled the abdominal cavity. In the initial examinations, the material was actually mistaken for normal testicular tissue. Subsequently, it was recognized as an entirely aberrant, proliferating tumor-like mass.

  16. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Ornamental Fish.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Sweeney, Helen E

    2016-09-01

    Ornamental fish represent the largest and most diverse group of exotic animals kept as pets. The specific oral anatomy of each family or selected species has evolved to suit the natural environment, feeding behaviors, food or prey type, and location of the food/prey in the water column. The anatomy can change over the life of the animal, from fry to adult. The oral cavity of fish is susceptible to many problems including infectious and parasitic diseases, trauma, and neoplasia. Diagnosis may involve wet mount preparations of exfoliative cytology from the lesion, histopathology, and bacterial or fungal culture. PMID:27497201

  17. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods.

    PubMed

    Folador, J F; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Parsons, C M; Bauer, L L; Utterback, P L; Schasteen, C S; Bechtel, P J; Fahey, G C

    2006-10-01

    An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of CP, crude fat, and total AA by 71, 79, and 71%, respectively, and GE by 4.1 kcal/g. Fish protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable (approximately 18, 14, and 17%, and 1.4 kcal/g, respectively). Biogenic amine concentrations were much higher in fish protein hydrolysates as compared with pollock by-products and fish meals. Pollock liver and viscera had the highest total fatty acid concentrations; however, red salmon hydrolysate and SMB had the highest total PUFA concentrations (49.63 and 48.60 mg/g, respectively). Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Based on calculations using immobilized digestive enzyme assay values, lysine digestibility of fish meal substrates was comparable to in vivo cecectomized rooster assay values and averaged approximately 90.3%. Also, pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by immobilized digestive enzyme assay and rooster assays. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared SMB and SPH to a whole egg meal control and showed that SMB had high protein quality (PER = 3.5), whereas SPH had poor protein quality (PER value less than 1.5). However, using whole egg meal as the reference protein, both fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential AA index of 1.0 and 0.9 for SMB and SPH, respectively. In the dog palatability experiments, a chicken-based control diet and 2 diets containing 10% of either SPH or SMB were tested. Dogs consumed more of the SPH diet compared with the control

  18. Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease is a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae. The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments to induce remission in adults with Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce and maintain remission in adults with small-bowel Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce remission in adults with colonic Crohn's disease? What are the effects of medical interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease; and to maintain remission following surgery? What are the effects of lifestyle interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 93 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aminosalicylates, antibiotics, azathioprine/mercaptopurine, ciclosporin, corticosteroids (oral), enteral nutrition, fish oil, infliximab, methotrexate, probiotics, resection, segmental colectomy, smoking cessation, and strictureplasty. PMID:21524318

  19. Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease is a long-term chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae. The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments in adults to induce remission in Crohn's disease? What are the effects of lifestyle interventions in adults with Crohn's disease to maintain remission? What are the effects of surgical interventions in adults with small-bowel Crohn's disease to induce remission? What are the effects of surgical interventions in adults with colonic Crohn's disease to induce remission? What are the effects of medical interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease; and to maintain remission following surgery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to March 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 60 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aminosalicylates, antibiotics, azathioprine/mercaptopurine, ciclosporin, corticosteroids (oral), enteral nutrition, fish oil, infliximab, methotrexate, probiotics, resection, segmental colectomy, smoking cessation, and strictureplasty. PMID:19450352

  20. 78 FR 53156 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference AGENCY: Fish... Wildlife Service (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership.... App., we announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a...

  1. Gills of antarctic fish.

    PubMed

    Rankin, J C; Tuurala, H

    1998-01-01

    We review the literature on the way the structure of icefish gills relates the physiology of these haemoglobin-less fishes. Vascular casting confirmed earlier reports that the only special feature of the gills is the large size of the blood vessels, especially the prominent and continuous marginal channels Isolated perfused gill arches were used to study the effects of changes in afferent and efferent pressure on gill resistance and tritiated water influx in Chionobathyscus dewitti. Increasing perfusion rate did not change gill resistance, but there were moderate proportional increases in water influx. Reducing efferent pressure increased gill resistance but did not affect water influx. In both C. dewitti and Cryodraco antarcticus gills perfused at constant flow rate, noradrenaline produced concentration-dependent decreases in gill resistance and, with high concentrations, increases in water influx. Fixation while perfusion continued was used to compare blood space dimensions in control, noradrenaline-treated and unperfused gills. Noradrenaline caused large increases in the thickness of the lamellar blood space and increased lamellar height, despite a greatly reduced afferent pressure. This suggests that modulation of pillar cell active tension might be involved in control of lamellar perfusion. The possible relationship between gill water fluxes and lamellar recruitment is discussed. PMID:11253779

  2. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  3. Cortisol coregulation in fish.

    PubMed

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners' physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner's cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  4. 50 CFR 300.205 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.205 Section 300.205 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....205 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... fish and fish products. Services, including the refueling and re-supplying of such fishing vessels,...

  5. 50 CFR 300.205 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.205 Section 300.205 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....205 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... fish and fish products. Services, including the refueling and re-supplying of such fishing vessels,...

  6. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Fish Creek`

    DOEpatents

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-08

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix purpurea named `Fish Creek`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 30% more woody biomass than either of its parents (`94001` and `94006`) and 20% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Fish Creek` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Fish Creek` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by beetles or sawflies.

  7. Visual direction finding by fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The use of visual orientation, in the absence of landmarks, for underwater direction finding exercises by fishes is reviewed. Celestial directional clues observed directly near the water surface or indirectly at an asymptatic depth are suggested as possible orientation aids.

  8. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1992-06-01

    Mobile hydroacoustic surveys are a recent addition to the sampling techniques available to fisheries biologists. Hydroacoustic techniques for fish stock assessment and monitoring are efficient in providingquantitative biomass estimates, absolute population estimates, fish distribution patterns, and size structure statistics. Other advantages of hydroacoustic surveys include a better method of sampling reservoir pelagic (open water) zones than is available with other techniques, collection of large amounts of data in a relatively short time allowing improved statistical interpretation and data comparisons, and non-destructive, non-invasive sampling that neither destroys the sampled fish nor disturbs the environment. The objective of this study is to use hydroacoustic techniques to estimate fish standing stocks (i.e., numbersand biomass) in several areas of selected Tennessee Valley Reservoirs as part of a base level monitoring program to assess long-term changes in reservoir water quality.

  9. To Fish in Troubled Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmon, Linda

    1980-01-01

    The effects of heavy metals on fish are being investigated by the Columbia National Fishery Research Laboratory in Missouri. This article describes the process and some techniques that are being used in the research. (SA)

  10. Habitual fish intake and clinically silent carotid atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish consumption is recommended as part of a healthy diet. However, there is a paucity of data concerning the relation between fish consumption and carotid atherosclerosis. We investigated the association between habitual fish consumption and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis, defined as the presence of plaques and/or increased intima-media thickness (≥ 0.90 mm), in non-diabetic participants. Methods Nine hundred-sixty-one (range of age: 18–89 yrs; 37.1% males) adult participants without clinically known atherosclerotic disease were randomly recruited among the customers of a shopping mall in Palermo, Italy, and cross-sectionally investigated. Each participant answered a food frequency questionnaire and underwent high-resolution ultrasonographic evaluation of both carotid arteries. Routine laboratory blood measurements were obtained in a subsample of 507 participants. Results Based on habitual fish consumption, participants were divided into three groups: non-consumers or consumers of less than 1 serving a week (24.0%), consumers of 1 serving a week (38.8%), and consumers of ≥ 2 servings a week (37.2%). Age-adjusted prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis (presence of plaques or intima media thickness ≥ 0.9 mm) was higher in the low fish consumption group (13.3%, 12.1% and 6.6%, respectively; P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis evidenced that carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.09-1.14), hypertension on pharmacologic treatment (OR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.16-2.82), and pulse pressure (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.04), while consuming ≥2 servings of fish weekly was protective compared with the condition of consumption of <1 serving of fish weekly (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.26-0.80). Conclusions High habitual fish consumption seems to be associated with less carotid atherosclerosis, though adequate interventional trials are necessary to confirm the role of fish

  11. Fish gelatin: Material properties and applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main difference between fish gelatin and mammalian gelatin is fish gelatin’s lower gelation temperature. This property limits the use of fish gelatin in applications that currently utilize mammalian gelatin. However, fish gelatin remains an attractive alterative to mammalian gelatin due to relig...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more...

  14. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  15. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  16. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more...

  18. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more...

  20. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE... fishing. Fish may be taken by local rural residents for subsistence uses in compliance with...

  1. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR FISH CONSUMPTION ADVISORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption advisories and fish tissue sampling stations are reported to EPA by the states. Sampling stations are the locations where a state has collected fish tissue data for use in advisory determinations. Fish consumption advisory locations are coded onto route.drain (...

  2. TRANSGENIC FISH: In Genomics and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM)...

  3. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future. PMID:15757476

  4. Market fish hygiene in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Binta, G. M.; Tjaberg, T. B.; Nyaga, P. N.; Valland, M.

    1982-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from 53 out of 584 samples (9.1%) of market fish. All strains were Kanagawa negative and were distributed as follows: sea fish 5 out of 370 samples (1.4%), shellfish 48 out of 214 samles (22.4%). Other fish spoilage microflora recovered were: Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio alginolyticus. Total aerobic counts and coliform counts per gram for the lake fish ranged from 2.6 X 10(2) to 6.6 X 10(7) and 10 to 1.0 X 10(2), respectively. Those from marine fish ranged from 1.0 X 10(5) to 8.8 X 10(6) and 2.0 X 10(3) to 1.6 X 10(4), respectively. Counts for marine fish gills alone ranged from 1.4 X 10(5) to 3.4 X 10(8) and 7.2 X 10(2) to 1.4 X 10(7), respectively. No high-temperature (44 degrees) coliforms were recovered from either lake or marine samples. PMID:6808058

  5. Inability to demonstrate fish-to-fish transmission of Ichthyophonus from laboratory infected Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to naïve conspecifics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Friedman, C.S.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    The parasite Ichthyophonus is enzootic in many marine fish populations of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Forage fishes are a likely source of infection for higher trophic level predators; however, the processes that maintain Ichthyophonus in forage fish populations (primarily clupeids) are not well understood. Lack of an identified intermediate host has led to the convenient hypothesis that the parasite can be maintained within populations of schooling fishes by waterborne fish-to-fish transmission. To test this hypothesis we established Ichthyophonus infections in Age-1 and young-of-the-year (YOY) Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) via intraperitoneal (IP) injection and cohabitated these donors with naïve conspecifics (sentinels) in the laboratory. IP injections established infection in 75 to 84% of donor herring, and this exposure led to clinical disease and mortality in the YOY cohort. However, after cohabitation for 113 d no infections were detected in naïve sentinels. These data do not preclude the possibility of fish-to-fish transmission, but they do suggest that other transmission processes are necessary to maintain Ichthyophonus in wild Pacific herring populations.

  6. Factors controlling the early stages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia epizootics: Low exposure levels, virus amplification and fish-to-fish transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Hart, L.M.; Roon, S.R.; Winton, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, Genogroup IVa (VHSV), was highly infectious to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), even at exposure doses occurring below the threshold of sensitivity for a standard viral plaque assay; however, further progression of the disease to a population-level epizootic required viral amplification and effective fish-to-fish transmission. Among groups of herring injected with VHSV, the prevalence of infection was dose-dependent, ranging from 100%, 75% and 38% after exposure to 19, 0.7 and 0.07 plaque-forming units (PFU)/fish, respectively. Among Pacific herring exposed to waterborne VHSV (140PFUmL-1), the prevalence of infection, geometric mean viral tissue titre and cumulative mortality were greater among cohabitated herring than among cohorts that were held in individual aquaria, where fish-to-fish transmission was prevented. Fish-to-fish transmission among cohabitated herring probably occurred via exposure to shed virus which peaked at 680PFUmL-1; shed virus was not detected in the tank water from any isolated individuals. The results provide insights into mechanisms that initiate epizootic cascades in populations of wild herring and have implications for the design of VHSV surveys in wild fish populations. ?? Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  8. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  9. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  10. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  11. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  12. A "virus" disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Epizootics among chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery have occurred periodically since 1941. A virus or virus-like filterable agent has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of this disease.

  13. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  14. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring for Washington Department of Wildlife, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kerwin, John L.; Roberts, Steve; Oman, Leni; Bolding, Bruce

    1991-04-01

    The augmented fish health monitoring project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with the mandate to collect fish health data on anadromous fish stocks of the BPA Columbia River Basin in a standardized manner. The project began in 1986 and the data reported here was collected in the fourth year. This segment of the project was carried out by the Washington Department of Wildlife and summarizes fish health findings at anadromous game fish hatcheries in Washington State operated by the BPA. Information gathered to data has provided impetus to alter facility design and management practices for improved fish health through prevention. Treatment efficacy can be better assessed due to the monthly monitoring of fish stocks and insight is being gained into disease prevention and control. The ultimate goal, of course, is to improve fish health for better survival in the wild. Tagged returns at index hatcheries within this project area will provide some indication of the impact of improving fish health on providing greater adult returns as well as an improved product for the fishery. 3 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Electrodialysis desalination of fish sauce: electrodialysis performance and product quality.

    PubMed

    Chindapan, Nathamol; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2009-09-01

    Fish sauce has a unique, pleasant flavor, but contains high levels of sodium chloride, which is nowadays not desirable for health-conscious consumers. Although many researchers have attempted to solve this problem by substituting sodium with potassium in fish sauce, potassium-based products are still unsuitable for patients with kidney disease. Thus, electrodialysis (ED) desalination of fish sauce was carried out. The rate of salt removal, evolution of total soluble solids, and electrical conductivity of the electrodialysis-treated fish sauce were investigated. Moreover, the system performance in terms of yield, energy consumption, and current efficiency were examined. Density, viscosity, ion concentrations (that is, Na(+), K(+)), total nitrogen, amino nitrogen, and color were investigated at various values of input voltage (6, 7, and 8 V) and remaining salt concentration (22%, 18%, 14%, 10%, 6%, and 2%[w/w]). The results indicated that an increase in the input voltage led to an increase in the rates of salt removal, electrical conductivity, and total soluble solids. The energy consumption increased whereas current efficiency and yield decreased significantly with an increase in input voltage and the salt removal level. Physicochemical properties of the treated fish sauce, in terms of the total soluble solids, density, viscosity, ion concentrations (that is, Na(+), K(+)), total nitrogen, and color were significantly affected by the input voltage and the salt-removal level. PMID:19895465

  16. Whole-mount single molecule FISH method for zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yuma; Sato, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    Noise in gene expression renders cells more adaptable to changing environment by imposing phenotypic and functional heterogeneity on genetically identical individual cells. Hence, quantitative measurement of noise in gene expression is essential for the study of biological processes in cells. Currently, there are two complementary methods for quantitatively measuring noise in gene expression at the single cell level: single molecule FISH (smFISH) and single cell qRT-PCR (or single cell RNA-seq). While smFISH has been developed for culture cells, tissue sections and whole-mount invertebrate organisms, the method has not been reported for whole-mount vertebrate organisms. Here, we report an smFISH method that is suitable for whole-mount zebrafish embryo, a popular vertebrate model organism for the studies of development, physiology and disease. We show the detection of individual transcripts for several cell-type specific and ubiquitously expressed genes at the single cell level in whole-mount zebrafish embryo. We also demonstrate that the method can be adapted to detect two different genes in individual cells simultaneously. The whole-mount smFISH method described in this report is expected to facilitate the study of noise in gene expression and its role in zebrafish, a vertebrate animal model relevant to human biology. PMID:25711926

  17. [Mercury in fish and its importance in health].

    PubMed

    Raimann, Ximena; Rodríguez O, Lorena; Chávez, Paulina; Torrejón, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    The contamination of fish with methylmercury (MeHg) could hamper the health promoting properties of fish. Currently, there is strong evidence about the health benefits of seafood consumption. When consumed by the mother before and during pregnancy it improves neurodevelopment of infants and toddlers. Thereafter it reduces the risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. The benefits of fish are mainly due to its content of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Other constituents, such as high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals and trace elements contribute to the benefits. On the other hand, there is also convincing evidence about the adverse effects of MeHg on neurodevelopment both during gestation and in early childhood. We herein review the effects of mercury on health. Based on international evidence and new data on the mercury content in Chilean fish, we also propose a recommendation for fish consumption for our population. PMID:25517058

  18. Fish & Wildlife Annual Project Summary, 1983.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-07-01

    BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.

  19. Strategies and hurdles using DNA vaccines to fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccinations against fish viral diseases as IHNV at commercial level in Canada against VHSV at experimental level are both success stories. DNA vaccination strategies against many other viral diseases have, however, not yet yielded sufficient results in terms of protection. There is an obvious need to combat many other viral diseases within aquaculture where inactivated vaccines fail. There are many explanations to why DNA vaccine strategies against other viral diseases fail to induce protective immune responses in fish. These obstacles include: 1) too low immunogenicity of the transgene, 2) too low expression of the transgene that is supposed to induce protection, 3) suboptimal immune responses, and 4) too high degradation rate of the delivered plasmid DNA. There are also uncertainties with regard distribution and degradation of DNA vaccines that may have implications for safety and regulatory requirements that need to be clarified. By combining plasmid DNA with different kind of adjuvants one can increase the immunogenicity of the transgene antigen – and perhaps increase the vaccine efficacy. By using molecular adjuvants with or without in combination with targeting assemblies one may expect different responses compared with naked DNA. This includes targeting of DNA vaccines to antigen presenting cells as a central factor in improving their potencies and efficacies by means of encapsulating the DNA vaccine in certain carriers systems that may increase transgene and MHC expression. This review will focus on DNA vaccine delivery, by the use of biodegradable PLGA particles as vehicles for plasmid DNA mainly in fish. PMID:24552235

  20. Fish oil N-3 fatty acids increase adiponectin and decrease leptin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Iriyoda, Tathiana Veiga Mayumi; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ˂ 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ˂ 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ˂ 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:25690094

  1. Fish Oil N-3 Fatty Acids Increase Adiponectin and Decrease Leptin Levels in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Colado Simão, Andréa Name; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Iriyoda, Tathiana Veiga Mayumi; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ˂ 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ˂ 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ˂ 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:25690094

  2. Rapid detection of Flavobacterium columnare in fish using TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare, a ubiquitous Gram-negative organism prevalent among both warm and cold water reared fish species is important from an economical perspective to the aquaculture industry, worldwide. Because, in commercial aquaculture large numbers of fish are rea...

  3. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influences Hematological and Immunological Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance were studied in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus fed a commercial diet (35.3% crude protein and 5.6% lipid) supplemented with menhaden fish oil at levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9% for 15 weeks. Dietary fish oil levels did not significa...

  4. Correlation between plasma component levels of cultured fish and resistance to bacterial infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maita, M.; Satoh, K.-I.; Fukuda, Y.; Lee, H.-K.; Winton, J.R.; Okamoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Mortalities of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata artificially infected with Lactococcus garvieae and of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss artificially infected with Vibrio anguillarum were compared with the levels of plasma components measured prior to challenge. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipid of fish surviving infection were significantly higher in both yellowtail and rainbow trout than those of fish which died during the challenge test. Mortality of yellowtail with plasma total cholesterol levels lower than 250 mg/100 ml was significantly higher than that of fish which had cholesterol levels higher than 275 mg/100 ml (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout whose cholesterol was lower than 520 mg/100 ml suffered a significantly higher mortality due to vibriosis than fish having cholesterol levels higher than 560 mg/100 ml (p < 0.005). These results indicate that low levels of plasma lipid components may be an indicator of lowered disease resistance in cultured fish.

  5. The antiviral innate immune response in fish: evolution and conservation of the IFN system.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Christelle; Aleksejeva, Elina; Passoni, Gabriella; Palha, Nuno; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Boudinot, Pierre

    2013-12-13

    Innate immunity constitutes the first line of the host defense after pathogen invasion. Viruses trigger the expression of interferons (IFNs). These master antiviral cytokines induce in turn a large number of interferon-stimulated genes, which possess diverse effector and regulatory functions. The IFN system is conserved in all tetrapods as well as in fishes, but not in tunicates or in the lancelet, suggesting that it originated in early vertebrates. Viral diseases are an important concern of fish aquaculture, which is why fish viruses and antiviral responses have been studied mostly in species of commercial value, such as salmonids. More recently, there has been an interest in the use of more tractable model fish species, notably the zebrafish. Progress in genomics now makes it possible to get a relatively complete image of the genes involved in innate antiviral responses in fish. In this review, by comparing the IFN system between teleosts and mammals, we will focus on its evolution in vertebrates. PMID:24075867

  6. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  7. Signal Cloaking by Electric Fish

    PubMed Central

    STODDARD, PHILIP K.; MARKHAM, MICHAEL R.

    2010-01-01

    Electric fish produce weak electric fields to image their world in darkness and to communicate with potential mates and rivals. Eavesdropping by electroreceptive predators exerts selective pressure on electric fish to shift their signals into less-detectable high-frequency spectral ranges. Hypopomid electric fish evolved a signal-cloaking strategy that reduces their detectability by predators in the lab (and thus presumably their risk of predation in the field). These fish produce broad-frequency electric fields close to the body, but the heterogeneous local fields merge over space to cancel the low-frequency spectrum at a distance. Mature males dynamically regulate this cloaking mechanism to enhance or suppress low-frequency energy. The mechanism underlying electric-field cloaking involves electrogenic cells that produce two independent action potentials. In a unique twist, these cells orient sodium and potassium currents in the same direction, potentially boosting their capabilities for current generation. Exploration of such evolutionary inventions could aid the design of biogenerators to power implantable medical devices, an ambition that would benefit from the complete genome sequence of a gymnotiform fish. PMID:20209064

  8. Copper sulfate is an effective, economical, multi-use compound for fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate has a long and storied history of use in aquaculture. Copper sulfate also has a wide range of uses including aquatic weed control, snail control, and treating fish diseases. A number of studies have been conducted to show copper sulfate efficacy against diseases including columnaris d...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Pf1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yulei

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industry. Here, we describe the complete genome of F. columnare strain Pf1, a highly virulent strain isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) in China. PMID:27587818

  10. Emerging problems with zoonotic bacteria in intensive warm water fish culture: facts and risks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the development of warm water aquaculture in intensive indoor recirculation systems in Europe and the United States new bacterial disease problems occur, especially in the cultured fish, and in humans. These so called zoonotic bacteria are more frequently isolated from severe disease outbreaks...

  11. Genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare genomovar II strain 94-081

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish is one of the most important commodities in Mississippi and the largest aquaculture industry in the United States. Columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, affects many commercially important freshwater fish species. F. columnare strain 94-081 was isolated from disease...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Pf1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulei; Nie, Pin; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industry. Here, we describe the complete genome of F. columnare strain Pf1, a highly virulent strain isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) in China. PMID:27587818

  13. The fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum: growth in a microaerophilic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu

    2008-02-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is the etiologic agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) occurring worldwide in salmonid fish. This bacterium has previously been regarded as a strict aerobic species. However, in this study it is shown that R. salmoninarum grows well in microaerophilic atmosphere, the colony size being larger and the colonies being more mucoid than in aerobic conditions. Microaerophilic cultivation might be one possibility to increase the sensitivity of the cultivation method for the detection of this slowly growing pathogen. PMID:17884309

  14. Emulating a Fish Swim Bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesenka, James; Meredith, Dawn; Bolker, Jessica; Schubert, Christopher; Kraut, Gertrud

    2009-10-01

    The University of New Hampshire and the University of New England are developing biologically relevant physics laboratories for their predominantly health science audiences. Buoyancy plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. We describe an inexpensive laboratory activity based on the Cartesian Diver that allows students to quantitatively emulate the swim bladder of a fish. Inflation of the ``bladder'' is externally controlled through an external gas syringe or squeezing on the plastic water containment vessel (a 2L soda bottle). The students can accurately determine the volume of a ``fish'' at the point of neutral buoyancy by visual measurement of the trapped air pocket. A simple electronic gas pressure sensor allows the hydrostatic pressure on the fish to be analyzed simultaneously.

  15. Fish and shellfish upgrading, traceability.

    PubMed

    Guérard, Fabienne; Sellos, Daniel; Le Gal, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Recognition of the limited biological resources and the increasing environmental pollution has emphasised the need for better utilisation of by-products from the fisheries. Currently, the seafood industry is dependent on the processing of the few selected fish and shellfish species that are highly popular with consumers but, from economic and nutritional points of view, it is essential to utilise the entire catch. In this review, we will focus on recent developments and innovations in the field of underutilised marine species and marine by-product upgrading and, more precisely, on two aspects of the bioconversion of wastes from marine organisms, i.e. extraction of enzymes and preparation of protein hydrolysates. We will deal with the question of accurate determination of fish species at the various steps of processing. Methods of genetic identification applicable to fresh fish samples and to derived products will be described. PMID:16566090

  16. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  17. Picornaviruses and reoviruses of fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The number of fish viruses isolated in cell culture or observed by electron microscopy continues to increase rapidly. Until recently, most viruses that were isolated from finfish and characterized were found to be members of the Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae, or Herpesviridae (Wolf and Mann 1980). In a comprehensive review of fish viruses published in 1984, there were no picornaviruses and only two reoviruses listed (Wolf 1984). The expansion of aquaculture into the rearing of new species at high density in different geographic areas, and the use of improved methods of detection that include newly developed cell lines and increased sampling effort, have led to the discovery of fish viruses representing nearly all families of animal viruses. Among the newest additions, are a member of the family Picornaviridae and several new viruses that belong within the Reoviridae.

  18. Circadian clocks: lessons from fish.

    PubMed

    Idda, M Laura; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Vallone, Daniela; Gothilf, Yoav; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and cellular organization of the circadian timing system in vertebrates has increased enormously over the past decade. In large part, progress has been based on genetic studies in the mouse as well as on fundamental similarities between vertebrate and Drosophila clocks. The zebrafish was initially considered as a potentially attractive genetic model for identifying vertebrate clock genes. However, instead, fish have ultimately proven to be valuable complementary models for studying various aspects of clock biology. For example, many fish can shift from diurnal to nocturnal activity implying specific flexibility in their clock function. We have learned much about the function of light input pathways, and the ontogeny and function of the pineal organ, the fish central pacemaker. Finally, blind cavefish have also provided new insight into the evolution of the circadian clock under extreme environmental conditions. PMID:22877658

  19. A review of fish lectins.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Fai Cheung, Randy Chi; Wing Ng, Charlene Cheuk; Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including Japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, Arabian Gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, Japanese trout, Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, white-spotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, Potca fish, Spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roach, rudd, common skate, and sea lamprey. The tissues from which the lectins were isolated comprise gills, eggs, electric organ, stomach, intestine, and liver. Lectins have also been isolated from skin, mucus serum, and plasma. The lectins differ in molecular weight, number of subunits, glycosylation, sugar binding specificity and amino acid sequence. Their activities include antimicrobial, antitumor, immunoregulatory and a role in development. PMID:25929869

  20. 50 CFR 300.206 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.206 Section 300.206 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....206 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... prohibited from landing, processing, or transshipping fish and fish products, under applicable law....

  1. 50 CFR 300.206 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.206 Section 300.206 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....206 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... prohibited from landing, processing, or transshipping fish and fish products, under applicable law....

  2. Fish, omega-3 long-chain fatty acids, and all-cause mortality in a low-income US population: results from the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, R; Takata, Y; Murff, H; Blot, WJ

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined associations between fish and n-3 LCFA and mortality in a prospective study with a large proportion of blacks with low socio-economic status. Methods and Results We observed 6,914 deaths among 77,604 participants with dietary data (follow-up time 5.5 years). Of these, 77,100 participants had available time-to-event data. We investigated associations between mortality with fish and n-3 LCFA intake, adjusting for age, race, sex, kcals/day, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, education, chronic disease, insurance coverage, and meat intake. Intakes of fried fish, baked/grilled fish and total fish, but not tuna, were associated with lower mortality among all participants. Analysis of trends in overall mortality by quintiles of intake showed that intakes of fried fish, baked/grilled fish and total fish, but not tuna, were associated with lower risk of total mortality among all participants. When participants with chronic disease were excluded, the observed association remained only between intakes of baked/grilled fish, while fried fish was associated with lower risk of mortality in participants with prevalent chronic disease. The association between n-3 LCFA intake and lower risk of mortality was significant among those with diabetes at baseline. There was an inverse association of mortality with fried fish intake in men, but not women. Total fish and baked/grilled fish intakes were associated with lower mortality among blacks while fried fish intake was associated with lower mortality among whites. Effect modifications were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest a modest benefit of fish consumption on mortality. PMID:26026210

  3. Nanodelivery Systems as New Tools for Immunostimulant or Vaccine Administration: Targeting the Fish Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jie; Torrealba, Debora; Ruyra, Àngels; Roher, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Fish disease treatments have progressed significantly over the last few years and have moved from the massive use of antibiotics to the development of vaccines mainly based on inactivated bacteria. Today, the incorporation of immunostimulants and antigens into nanomaterials provide us with new tools to enhance the performance of immunostimulation. Nanoparticles are dispersions or solid particles designed with specific physical properties (size, surface charge, or loading capacity), which allow controlled delivery and therefore improved targeting and stimulation of the immune system. The use of these nanodelivery platforms in fish is in the initial steps of development. Here we review the advances in the application of nanoparticles to fish disease prevention including: the type of biomaterial, the type of immunostimulant or vaccine loaded into the nanoparticles, and how they target the fish immune system. PMID:26492276

  4. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  5. DNA Microarrays for Identifying Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Nölte, M.; Weber, H.; Silkenbeumer, N.; Hjörleifsdottir, S.; Hreggvidsson, G. O.; Marteinsson, V.; Kappel, K.; Planes, S.; Tinti, F.; Magoulas, A.; Garcia Vazquez, E.; Turan, C.; Hervet, C.; Campo Falgueras, D.; Antoniou, A.; Landi, M.; Blohm, D.

    2008-01-01

    In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species from European seas based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Eleven commercially important fish species were selected for a first prototype. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rDNA sequences obtained from 230 individuals of 27 fish species. In addition, more than 1200 sequences of 380 species served as sequence background against which the specificity of the probes was tested in silico. Single target hybridisations with Cy5-labelled, PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from each of the 11 species on microarrays containing the complete set of probes confirmed their suitability. True-positive, fluorescence signals obtained were at least one order of magnitude stronger than false-positive cross-hybridisations. Single nontarget hybridisations resulted in cross-hybridisation signals at approximately 27% of the cases tested, but all of them were at least one order of magnitude lower than true-positive signals. This study demonstrates that the 16S rDNA gene is suitable for designing oligonucleotide probes, which can be used to differentiate 11 fish species. These data are a solid basis for the second step to create a “Fish Chip” for approximately 50 fish species relevant in marine environmental and fisheries research, as well as control of fisheries products. PMID:18270778

  6. Patterns of fish sound production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, David A.

    2003-04-01

    While vocalization and chorusing behavior has been intensively studied in frogs and birds, little has been done with fishes. This paper presents patterns of sound production in damselfish, toadfish, and spotted seatrout on seasonal, daily, and subdaily time scales. Chorus behavior ranges from highly coordinated behavior between neighboring toadfish to uncoordinated behavior in spotted seatrout. Differences in coordination of sound production (i.e., the degree of overlap in calls) can be related to differences in territoriality and modes of reproduction. Toadfish and damselfish are territorial fishes in which males guard benthic eggs laid in nests. Sciaenids (croakers and drums) spawn planktonic eggs, and form temporary aggregations of calling males.

  7. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  8. Optimizing fish sampling for fish - mercury bioaccumulation factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Knightes, Christopher D.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chasar, Lia C.; Brigham, Mark E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop Total Maximum Daily Load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to sampling and data-treatment methods. Data collected by fixed protocol from 11 streams in 5 states distributed across the US were used to assess the effects of Hgfish normalization/standardization methods and fish sample numbers on BAF estimates. Fish length, followed by weight, was most correlated to adult top-predator Hgfish. Site-specific BAFs based on length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates demonstrated up to 50% less variability than those based on non-normalized Hgfish. Permutation analysis indicated that length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates based on at least 8 trout or 5 bass resulted in mean Hgfish coefficients of variation less than 20%. These results are intended to support regulatory mercury monitoring and load-reduction program improvements.

  9. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck

    2006-01-01

    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  10. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. PMID:25612286

  11. Optimizing fish sampling for fish-mercury bioaccumulation factors.

    PubMed

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C; Riva-Murray, Karen; Knightes, Christopher D; Journey, Celeste A; Chasar, Lia C; Brigham, Mark E; Bradley, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop total maximum daily load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to sampling and data-treatment methods. Data collected by fixed protocol from 11 streams in 5 states distributed across the US were used to assess the effects of Hgfish normalization/standardization methods and fish-sample numbers on BAF estimates. Fish length, followed by weight, was most correlated to adult top-predator Hgfish. Site-specific BAFs based on length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates demonstrated up to 50% less variability than those based on non-normalized Hgfish. Permutation analysis indicated that length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates based on at least 8 trout or 5 bass resulted in mean Hgfish coefficients of variation less than 20%. These results are intended to support regulatory mercury monitoring and load-reduction program improvements. PMID:25592462

  12. Lead fishing weights and other fishing tackle in selected waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hansen, Scott P.; Creekmore, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Evers, D.C.; Duerr, A.E.; DeStefano, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1995 through 1999, 2,240 individuals of 28 species of waterbirds were examined in the United States for ingested lead fishing weights. A combination of radiography and visual examination of stomachs was used to search for lead weights and blood and liver samples from live birds and carcasses, respectively, were collected for lead analysis. Ingested lead weights were found most frequently in the Common Loon (Gavia immer) (11 of 313 = 3.5%) and Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) (10 of 365 = 2.7%), but also in one of 81 (1.2%) Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and one of 11 (9.1%) Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Birds with ingested lead fishing weights (including split shot, jig heads, and egg, bell, and pyramid sinkers) were found in California, Florida, Maine, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Wisconsin. The size and mass of ingested lead weights ranged from split shot of 7 mm in the longest dimension, weighing less than 2 g, to a 22 ?? 39 mm pyramid sinker that weighed 78.2 g. Six ingested lead weights were more than 25.4 mm in the longest dimension. Lead concentrations in the blood and liver of birds with lead fishing weights in their stomachs ranged up to 13.9 ppm and 26.0 ppm (wet weight basis), respectively. During the study, we also noted the presence of ingested or entangled fishing tackle, with no associated lead weights, in eight species.

  13. Do small efficient fish grow into large efficient fish?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is an important trait for cultured fish; more efficient animals not only grow on less feed, but they produce less waste as well. Nevertheless, because individual feed intake is hard to accurately estimate, feed efficiency is a difficult trait to measure, and many factors contribute ...

  14. microFIND(®) approach to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Andrea; Barborini, Emanuele; Carbone, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    FISH technology has gained increasing attention in the management of cancer disease, either for predictive or prognostic indications. Molecular cytogenetics has greatly improved diagnostic capability of classical cytogenetics analysis of metaphase-based chromosome for the identification of genetic aberrations. The availability of a large number of fluorescent probes, each specific for different genetic lesions, together with a robust protocol for interphase FISH, provide the pathologist with the essential tools for an accurate evaluation of patient's disease. Hemato-oncological and many of the solid tumors have been comprehensively characterized by peculiar genetic defects and are now routinely evaluated by interphase FISH. Despite the reliability of the method, which has undergone only minor changes since the 1970s, FISH assay is still hampered by reagents cost, preventing its adoption in large-scale oncological screening. In this chapter we describe a major improvement of interphase FISH assay for cytological samples through the description of the miniaturized device microFIND(®) that offers, besides reduction of cost per assay, a completely novel vision to the FISH technology, thanks to the perspective of full automation of FISH assay using a dedicated robotic platform for microFIND(®) handling, (not presently described in the chapter). PMID:23329459

  15. Windrow composting as an effective method to dispose of large numbers of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabb, L.C.I.; Starliper, C.E.; Shotts, E.B., Jr.; Everson, J.; Palmisano, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    During July 1998, at the USGS Leetown Science Center, Kearneysville, West Virginia, an epizootic occurred in 16-month-old Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The cause ofmortality was diagnosed as furunculosis, a serious disease in salmonid fishes caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida. The fish were being maintained as part ofongoing research and were held in uncovered 30-m-Iong concrete raceways, each supplied with about 757 L per minute of 12 ?C pathogen-free spring water. The means by which the fish became infected could not be determined, and there was no recent history offurunculosis in the hatchery system.

  16. Kalispel Resident Fish Project: Kalispel Tribal Hatchery Operations and Maintenance, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bluff, Stanley

    2000-12-01

    No Annual Production Goals were achieved for the year. The Kalispel Hatchery experienced two episodes of brood fish mortality. The first due to a standpipe malfunction and the second attributed to gas bubble disease caused by elevated Total Dissolved Gases (TDG's) in the reservoir. To date, the hatchery has 29 brood fish in the raceway and ready to spawn. If all things go well this spring, hatchery operations should be well underway next year.

  17. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: interspecific and locational differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24727640

  18. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring for Washington Department of Wildlife, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gearheard, Jim

    1988-10-01

    The augmented fish health monitoring project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration with the mandate to collect fish health data on anadromous fish stocks of the Columbia River Basin in a standardized manner. The project began in 1986 and the data reported here was collected in the third year. This segment of the project was carried out by the Washington Department of Wildlife and summarizes fish health findings at anadromous game hatcheries in Washington State operated by the BPA. Information gathered to date has provided impetus to alter facility design and management practices for improved fish health through prevention. Treatment efficacy can be better assessed due to the monthly monitoring of fish stocks and insight is being gained into disease prevention and control. The ultimate goal, of course, is to improve fish health for better survival in the wild. Tagged returns at index hatcheries within this project area will indicate the impact of improving fish health on providing greater adult returns as well as an improved product for the fishery. 2 refs., 3 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Why Fish Oil Fails: A Comprehensive 21st Century Lipids-Based Physiologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peskin, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The medical community suffered three significant fish oil failures/setbacks in 2013. Claims that fish oil's EPA/DHA would stop the progression of heart disease were crushed when The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group (Italy) released a conclusive negative finding regarding fish oil for those patients with high risk factors but no previous myocardial infarction. Fish oil failed in all measures of CVD prevention—both primary and secondary. Another major 2013 setback occurred when fish oil's DHA was shown to significantly increase prostate cancer in men, in particular, high-grade prostate cancer, in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) analysis by Brasky et al. Another monumental failure occurred in 2013 whereby fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to improve macular degeneration. In 2010, fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to help Alzheimer's victims, even those with low DHA levels. These are by no means isolated failures. The promise of fish oil and its so-called active ingredients EPA / DHA fails time and time again in clinical trials. This lipids-based physiologic review will explain precisely why there should have never been expectation for success. This review will focus on underpublicized lipid science with a focus on physiology. PMID:24551453

  20. 75 FR 6058 - Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... the Federal Register on August 5, 2008 (73 FR 45470). The notice of availability for the draft EIR/EIS and 45-day comment period published in the Federal Register on October 8, 2009 (74 FR 51872). The... Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game...

  1. [Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans. PMID:23243919

  2. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  3. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  4. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  5. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  6. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future. PMID:27213348

  7. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future. PMID:27213348

  8. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  9. Cardiovascular control in Antarctic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egginton, Stuart; Campbell, Hamish; Davison, William

    2006-04-01

    The capacity for synthesis and plasma levels of stress hormones in species with a range of activity patterns suggest that depressed catecholamine synthesis is typical of notothenioid fishes regardless of life style, although they are able to release extensive stores under conditions of extreme trauma. Cortisol does not appear to be an important primary stress hormone in these species. In general, vascular reactivity shows a modest α and β adrenergic tonus, but with greater potency for cholinergic and serotonergic vasoconstrictor agonists, although a dominance of vasodilatation over vasoconstriction is observed in one species. Vasomotor control mechanisms appear to be primarily a consequence of evolutionary lineage rather than low environmental temperature, but the pattern may be modified according to functional demand. These and other data confirm the cardiovascular system is dominated by cholinergic control: the heart apparently lacks adrenergic innervation, but receives inhibitory parasympathetic input that regulates heart rate (HR) by setting a resting vagal tonus. Oxygen consumption (MO 2) determined at rest and varied via specific dynamic action, in intact fish and fish that had undergone bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve, show that HR is a good predictor of MO 2, and that the major influence on HR is the degree of vagal tone—these fish work by removing the brake rather than applying the accelerator. However, whether these traits actually represent adaptation to the Antarctic environment or merely represent ancestral characteristics and their relative phylogenetic position is at present unclear.

  10. Nonnutrient Components of Fish Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the various dietary nutrients are the primary concerns of nutritionists when formulating feeds for intensively cultured tilapia, the inclusion of dietary components that do not have nutritional value can have profound effects on the performance of fish fed these diets. These components may be...

  11. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1991-03-01

    Hydroacoustics, as defined in the context of this report, is the use of a scientific sonar system to determine fish densities with respect to numbers and biomass. These two parameters provide a method of monitoring reservoir fish populations and detecting gross changes in the ecosystem. With respect to southeastern reservoirs, hydroacoustic surveys represent a new method of sampling open water areas and the best technology available. The advantages of this technology are large amounts of data can be collected in a relatively short period of time allowing improved statistical interpretation and data comparison, the pelagic (open water) zone can be sampled efficiently regardless of depth, and sampling is nondestructive and noninvasive with neither injury to the fish nor alteration of the environment. Hydroacoustics cannot provide species identification and related information on species composition or length/weight relationships. Also, sampling is limited to a minimum depth of ten feet which precludes the use of this equipment for sampling shallow shoreline areas. The objective of this study is to use hydroacoustic techniques to estimate fish standing stocks (i.e., numbers and biomass) in several areas of selected Tennessee Valley Reservoirs as part of a base level monitoring program to assess long-term changes in reservoir water quality.

  12. POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  13. Nutritional Physiology of Captive Fishes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing the health of captive fishes requires broad knowledge of environmental, physiological, and nutritional requirements for life in an aquatic realm, something no human being can fully appreciate. In spite of our lack of experience living in an aquatic environment, we can successfully manage th...

  14. Bioactive components in fish venoms.

    PubMed

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  15. Introductory Statistics and Fish Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Describes how fisheries research and management data (available on a website) have been incorporated into an Introductory Statistics course. In addition to the motivation gained from seeing the practical relevance of the course, some students have participated in the data collection and analysis for the New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. (MM)

  16. Enhancing fish performance in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture currently is the fastest growing agricultural industry and must continue to grow to meet the world’s increasing demand for seafood. Continued growth will depend upon advances in fish genetics and nutrition, and improvements in culture system design and management. The number and complexi...

  17. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  18. Forecasting Tools Point to Fishing Hotspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Private weather forecaster WorldWinds Inc. of Slidell, Louisiana has employed satellite-gathered oceanic data from Marshall Space Flight Center to create a service that is every fishing enthusiast s dream. The company's FishBytes system uses information about sea surface temperature and chlorophyll levels to forecast favorable conditions for certain fish populations. Transmitting the data to satellite radio subscribers, FishBytes provides maps that guide anglers to the areas they are most likely to make their favorite catch.

  19. Idaho Fish Screening Improvements Final Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.

    2008-11-12

    This project funds two Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) fish habitat biologists to develop, secure funding for, and implement on-the-ground fish habitat improvement projects in the lower Clearwater River drainage and the upper Salmon River drainage. This report summarizes project activity during the first year of funding. The Clearwater Region fish habitat biologist began work on January 28, 2008 and the Salmon Region habitat biologist began on February 11, 2008.

  20. Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, K.D.

    2004-01-01

    Two ecological paradigms, the trophic cascade and the host-density threshold in disease, interact in the kelp-forest ecosystem to structure the community. To investigate what happens when a trophic cascade pushes a host population over a host-threshold density, I analyzed a 20-year data set of kelp forest communities at 16 sites in the region of the Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Historically, lobsters, and perhaps other predators, kept urchin populations at low levels and kelp forests developed a community-level trophic cascade. In geographic areas where the main predators on urchins were fished, urchin populations increased to the extent that they overgrazed algae and starvation eventually limited urchin-population growth. Despite the limitation of urchin population size by food availability, urchin densities, at times, well exceeded the host-density threshold for epidemics. An urchin-specific bacterial disease entered the region after 1992 and acted as a density-dependent mortality source. Dense populations were more likely to experience epidemics and suffer higher mortality. Disease did not reduce the urchin population at a site to the density that predators previously did. Therefore, disease did not fully replace predators in the trophic cascade. These results indicate how fishing top predators can indirectly favor disease transmission in prey populations.

  1. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  2. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  3. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  4. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  5. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  6. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  7. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  8. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. July 1 to June 30, or until closed...

  9. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  10. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.13 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local rural residents for subsistence uses in compliance with...

  11. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by...

  12. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.13 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local rural residents for subsistence uses in compliance with...

  13. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.13 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local rural residents for subsistence uses in compliance with...

  14. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by...

  15. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by...

  16. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.13 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local rural residents for subsistence uses in compliance with...

  17. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local rural residents for subsistence uses in...

  18. Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture will play a major role in global food security by 2050. Production of fish will need to double by 2050 to meet global demand for this important source of protein. Proper fish nutrition is essential for the overall health and well-being of fish. Sustainable and profitable production is...

  19. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust....