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Sample records for fish oil improves

  1. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis questions claims of improved cardiac efficiency by dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Denis S; Han, June-Chiew; Goo, Eden; Chapman, Brian; Barclay, Christopher J; Hickey, Anthony J R; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Studies in the literature describe the ability of dietary supplementation by omega-3 fish oil to increase the pumping efficiency of the left ventricle. Here we attempt to reconcile such studies with our own null results. We undertake a quantitative analysis of the improvement that could be expected theoretically, subject to physiological constraints, by posing the following question: By how much could efficiency be expected to increase if inefficiencies could be eliminated? Our approach utilizes thermodynamic analyses to investigate the contributions, both singly and collectively, of the major components of cardiac energetics to total cardiac efficiency. We conclude that it is unlikely that fish oils could achieve the required diminution of inefficiencies without greatly compromising cardiac performance. PMID:27574288

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves heart rate variability and heart rate responses to exercise in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Daniel M; Hill, Alison M; Howe, Peter R; Buckley, Jonathan D; Saint, David A

    2008-11-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation and regular physical activity can improve outcomes in patients with established CVD. Exercise has been shown to improve heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiac death, but whether fish oil benefits HRV is controversial. Obese adults at risk of future coronary disease have impaired HRV and may benefit from these interventions. We evaluated the effect of DHA-rich tuna fish oil supplementation with and without regular exercise on HRV in sedentary, overweight adults with risk factors for coronary disease. In a randomised, double-blind, parallel comparison, sixty-five volunteers consumed 6 g fish oil/d (DHA 1.56 g/d, EPA 0.36 g/d) or sunflower-seed oil (placebo) for 12 weeks. Half of each oil group also undertook regular moderate physical activity (3 d/week for 45 min, at 75 % of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR)). Resting HR and the HR response to submaximal exercise were measured at weeks 0, 6 and 12. In forty-six subjects, HRV was also assessed by power spectrum analysis of 20 min electrocardiogram recordings taken supine at baseline and 12 weeks. Fish oil supplementation improved HRV by increasing high-frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, compared with placebo (P = 0.01; oil x time interaction). It also reduced HR at rest and during submaximal exercise (P = 0.008; oil x time interaction). There were no significant fish oil x exercise interactions. Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil reduced HR and modulated HRV in keeping with an improved parasympathetic-sympathetic balance in overweight adults with risk factors for future coronary disease. PMID:18339222

  4. Microencapsulation of Fish Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beindorff, Christiaan M.; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

    For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to urban consumers. For many, fresh fish and fried fish are now a part of their standard diet.

  5. Improving lipids with prescription icosapent ethyl after previous use of fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kota J; Chowdhury, Sumita

    2016-05-01

    Managing dyslipidemia can be challenging in patients with statin intolerance. We describe the lipid effects of icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (high-purity prescription omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid) in two coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance who were self-treating with fish oil dietary supplements. After initiating icosapent ethyl, improvements were noted in the first and second patients, respectively, in total cholesterol (-12%; -21%), LDL cholesterol (-3%; -24%), triglycerides (-34%; -16%), non-HDL cholesterol (-12%; -22%), the omega-3 index (+42%; +8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid levels (+275%; +138%). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. These cases demonstrated favorable lipid effects with prescription icosapent ethyl treatment that may help optimize the care of high-risk coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance. PMID:27070379

  6. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO), obese control group (Ob), coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO) and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO). Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Results Obese animals (Ob) presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt) showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO) similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30%) and triacylglycerol (TG; 33%) compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Conclusions Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms. PMID:21526994

  7. DHA- Rich Fish Oil Improves Complex Reaction Time in Female Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, José F.; Esteve, Hector; Pablos, Carlos; Pablos, Ana; Blasco, Cristina; Villegas, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) has shown to improve neuromotor function. This study examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on complex reaction time, precision and efficiency, in female elite soccer players. 24 players from two Spanish female soccer Super League teams were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental groups, then administered, in a double-blind manner, 3.5 g·day-1 of either DHA-rich fish oil (FO =12) or olive oil (OO = 12) over 4 weeks of training. Two measurements (pre- and post-treatment) of complex reaction time and precision were taken. Participants had to press different buttons and pedals with left and right hands and feet, or stop responding, according to visual and auditory stimuli. Multivariate analysis of variance displayed an interaction between supplement administration (pre/post) and experimental group (FO/OO) on complex reaction time (FO pre = 0.713 ± 0.142 ms, FO post = 0.623 ± 0.109 ms, OO pre = 0.682 ± 1.132 ms, OO post = 0.715 ± 0.159 ms; p = 0.004) and efficiency (FO pre = 40.88 ± 17.41, FO post = 57.12 ± 11.05, OO pre = 49.52 ± 14.63, OO post = 49. 50 ± 11.01; p = 0.003). It was concluded that after 4 weeks of supplementation with FO, there was a significant improvement in the neuromotor function of female elite soccer players. Key points The results obtained from the study suggest that supplementation with DHA produced perceptual-motor benefits in female elite athletes. DHA could be a beneficial supplement in sports where decision making and reaction time efficiency are of importance. PMID:24149875

  8. Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158505.html Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects Data from ... TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Omega-3 fish oil supplements may improve the effectiveness of antidepressants, ...

  9. Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158505.html Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplements Might Boost Antidepressants' Effects Data from 8 ... April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Omega-3 fish oil supplements may improve the effectiveness of antidepressants, new ...

  10. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Sarker, Pallab K; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Lanois, Alison J; Livesey, Erin D; Bernhard, Katie P; Coley, Mariah L

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  11. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  12. Fish oil improves anxiety-like, depressive-like and cognitive behaviors in olfactory bulbectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Pudell, Claudia; Vicente, Bianca A; Delattre, Ana M; Carabelli, Bruno; Mori, Marco A; Suchecki, Deborah; Machado, Ricardo B; Zanata, Sílvio M; Visentainer, Jesuí V; de Oliveira Santos Junior, Oscar; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ferraz, Anete C

    2014-01-01

    Depression is increasingly present in the population, and its pathophysiology and treatment have been investigated with several animal models, including olfactory bulbectomy (Obx). Fish oil (FO) supplementation during the prenatal and postnatal periods decreases depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors. The present study evaluated the effect of FO supplementation on Obx-induced depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment. Female rats received supplementation with FO during habituation, mating, gestation, and lactation, and their pups were subjected to Obx in adulthood; after the recovery period, the adult offspring were subjected to behavioral tests, and the hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT) and the metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) were determined. Obx led to increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, and impairment in the object location task. All behavioral changes were reversed by FO supplementation. Obx caused reductions in the levels of hippocampal BDNF and 5-HT, whereas FO supplementation restored these levels to normal values. In control rats, FO increased the hippocampal level of 5-HT and reduced that of 5-HIAA, indicating low 5-HT metabolism in this brain region. The present results indicate that FO supplementation during critical periods of brain development attenuated anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors and cognitive dysfunction induced by Obx. These results may be explained by increased levels of hippocampal BDNF and 5-HT, two major regulators of neuronal survival and long-term plasticity in this brain structure. PMID:24191918

  13. Fish oil improves gene targets of Down syndrome in C57BL and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zmijewski, Peter A; Gao, Linda Y; Saxena, Abhinav R; Chavannes, Nastacia K; Hushmendy, Shazaan F; Bhoiwala, Devang L; Crawford, Dana R

    2015-05-01

    We have considered a novel gene targeting approach for treating pathologies and conditions whose genetic bases are defined using diet and nutrition. One such condition is Down syndrome, which is linked to overexpression of RCAN1 on human chromosome 21 for some phenotypes. We hypothesize that a decrease in RCAN1 expression with dietary supplements in individuals with Down syndrome represents a potential treatment. Toward this, we used in vivo studies and bioinformatic analysis to identify potential healthy dietary RCAN1 expression modulators. We observed Rcan1 isoform 1 (Rcan1-1) protein reduction in mice pup hippocampus after a 4-week curcumin and fish oil supplementation, with only fish oil reduction being statistically significant. Focusing on fish oil, we observed a 17% Rcan1-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and 19% Rcan1-1 protein reduction in BALB/c mice after 5 weeks of fish oil supplementation. Fish oil supplementation starting at conception and in a different mouse strain (C57BL) led to a 27% reduction in hippocampal Rcan1-1 mRNA and a 34% reduction in spleen Rcan1-1 mRNA at 6 weeks of age. Hippocampal protein results revealed a modest 11% reduction in RCAN1-1, suggesting translational compensation. Bioinformatic mining of human fish oil studies also revealed reduced RCAN1 mRNA expression, consistent with the above studies. These results suggest the potential use of fish oil in treating Down syndrome and support our strategy of using select healthy dietary agents to treat genetically defined pathologies, an approach that we believe is simple, healthy, and cost-effective. PMID:25799055

  14. Response to commentary on a trial comparing krill oil versus fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Eyal, Inbal; Zchut, Sigalit; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-01-01

    Nichols et al. (Lipids Health Dis13:2, 2014) raised concern about the higher n-6 concentration in fish oil used in our recent study which is different from typical commercial fish oils (Ramprasath et al. Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013). The aim of our study was to compare the effect of consumption of similar amount of n-3 PUFA from krill and fish oil with placebo on plasma and RBC fatty acids. As the concentration of n-3 PUFA in the fish oil utilised was higher than that in krill oil, we deemed it important to keep consistent the concentration of n-3 PUFA and volumes to be administered to participants between krill versus fish oils. As such, the fish oil used in the study was diluted with corn oil. Although the n-6 PUFA concentration in fish oil was higher compared to traditionally used fish oil, consumption of the fish oil used in our study actually reduced the total n-6 PUFA in plasma and RBC to a similar extent as did krill oil. Overall, our conclusion was that the increases in plasma and RBC concentrations of EPA and DHA along with improvement in the omega-3 index observed with consumption of krill oil compared with fish oil are due to differences in absorption and bioavailability based on the structural difference of the two oils rather than their n-6 PUFA content. PMID:24447440

  15. Soy Protein Alleviates Hypertension and Fish Oil Improves Diastolic Heart Function in the Han:SPRD-Cy Rat Model of Cystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Naser H M; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Jia, Yong; Netticadan, Thomas; Aukema, Harold

    2016-05-01

    Abnormalities in cardiac structure and function are very common among people with chronic kidney disease, in whom cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death. Dietary soy protein and fish oil reduce kidney disease progression in the Han:SPRD-Cy model of cystic renal disease. However, the effects of these dietary interventions in preventing alterations in cardiac structure and function due to kidney disease (reno-cardiac syndrome) in a cystic kidney disease model are not known. Therefore, weanling Han:SPRD-Cy diseased (Cy/+) and normal (+/+) rats were given diets containing either casein or soy protein, and either soy or fish oil in a three-way design for 8 weeks. Diseased rats had larger hearts, augmented left ventricular mass, and higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to the normal rats. Assessment of cardiac function using two-dimensional guided M-mode and pulse-wave Doppler echocardiography revealed that isovolumic relaxation time was prolonged in the diseased compared to normal rats, reflecting a diastolic heart dysfunction, and fish oil prevented this elevation. Soy protein resulted in a small improvement in systolic and mean arterial pressure but did not improve diastolic heart function, while fish oil prevented diastolic heart dysfunction in this model of cystic kidney disease. PMID:26626478

  16. Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil improved folliculogenesis and IVF performance in dairy cows, similar to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Shafran, A; Zachut, M; Dekel, I; Portnick, Y; Arieli, A

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the differential incorporation of various omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) supplemented to dairy cows into ovarian compartments and assess the effects on IVF. Forty-two 256-day pregnant cows were supplemented with encapsulated fats, in treatments designated as i) SFA - saturated fat at 240 and 560 g/day per cow, prepartum and post partum (PP) respectively; ii) FLX - flaxseed oil at 300 and 700 g/day per cow prepartum and PP respectively; and iii) FO - fish oil at 300 and 700 g/day per cow prepartum and PP respectively. Commencing at 60 days in lactation, ovum pickup (OPU) was performed twice weekly (20 sessions; five cows per group) and in vitro maturation and IVF were conducted. The proportion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) was greater in follicular fluid (FF), granulosa cells, and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of FLX cows than in other groups (P<0.001). The proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was 6.7 times as great in FF of FO as in other groups (P<0.001); docosapentaenoic acid n-3 and DHA were detected in COCs of FO but not in others. The follicle number during OPU was higher in FLX and FO than in SFA (P<0.05), and the oocyte cleavage rate was higher in FLX and FO than in SFA (P<0.01). Also, the percentage of oocytes that developed to blastocysts tended to be higher in both n-3 groups than in SFA (P<0.1). In conclusion, both dietary n-3 FAs similarly improved folliculogenesis and IVF performance; therefore, ALA-rich botanical n-3 seems to be a satisfactory approach to improve oocyte quality. PMID:24062566

  17. High Doses of Fish Oil Might Help Healing After Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doses of Fish Oil Might Help Healing After Heart Attack Study found improved heart function, less scarring To ... 2, 2016 MONDAY, Aug. 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart attack patients who took high doses of fish oil ...

  18. Fish and fish oil in health promotion and disease prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  19. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  20. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  1. Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G Ed; Steegenga, Wilma

    2016-08-01

    Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains showed that fish oil can increase lifespan, affecting pathways like inflammation and oxidation thought to be involved in the regulation of aging. Could fish oil and its omega-3 fatty acids act as geroprotectors? Probably not. A new study by Strong et al. challenges the role for fish oil supplementation in aging. Using a large cohort of genetically heterogeneous mice in three sites, part of the Interventions Testing Program of the NIA, Strong et al. show that fish oil supplementation at either low or high dosages has no effect on the lifespan of male or female mice. Although it is still possible that fish oil supplementation has health benefits for specific age-related diseases, it does not appear to slow aging or have longevity benefits. PMID:27564420

  2. Commentary on a trial comparing krill oil versus fish oil.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter D; Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda

    2014-01-01

    Considerable interest exists presently in comparing the performance of krill oil (KO) and fish oil (FO) supplements. Ramprasath et al. (Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013) have recently compared use of KO and FO in a trial with healthy individuals to examine which oil is more effective in increasing n-3 PUFA, decreasing the n-6:n-3 ratio and improving the omega-3 index. The authors concluded that KO was more effective than FO for all three criteria. However, careful examination of the fatty acid profiles of the oils used showed that the FO used was not a typical FO; it contained linoleic acid as the dominant fatty acid (32%) and an n-6:n-3 ratio of >1. Due to the fatty acid profile being non-representative of typically commercially marketed FO, the conclusions presented by Ramrasath et al. (Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013) are not justified and misleading. Considerable care is needed in ensuring that such comparative trials do not use inappropriate ingredients. PMID:24383554

  3. Dietary fish oil replacement with canola oil up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 gene expression in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Jenna N; Rout-Pitt, Nathan; Bain, Peter A; Stone, David A J; Schuller, Kathryn A

    2012-08-01

    The marine carnivore yellowtail kingfish (YTK, Seriola lalandi) was fed diets containing 5% residual fish oil (from the dietary fish meal) plus either 20% fish oil (FO), 20% canola oil (CO), 20% poultry oil (PO), 10% fish oil plus 10% canola oil (FO/CO) or 10% fish oil plus 10% poultry oil (FO/PO) and the effects on fish growth and hepatic expression of two glutathione peroxidase (GPx 1 and GPx 4) and two peroxiredoxin (Prx 1 and Prx 4) antioxidant genes were investigated. Partial (50%) replacement of the added dietary fish oil with poultry oil significantly improved fish growth whereas 100% replacement with canola oil significantly depressed fish growth. The fatty acid profiles of the fish fillets generally reflected those of the dietary oils except that there was apparent selective utilization of palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1n-9) and apparent selective retention of eicospentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). The Prx 1 and 4 genes were expressed at 10- and 100-fold the level of the GPx 4 and 1 genes, respectively, and at one-tenth the level of the highly expressed β-actin reference gene. Dietary fish oil replacement with canola oil significantly up-regulated GPx 1 gene expression and there was a non-significant tendency towards down-regulation of Prx 1 and Prx 4. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of fish oil replacement on the peroxidation index of the diets and the resulting effects on the target antioxidant enzymes. PMID:22521527

  4. The role of adipose tissue in mediating the beneficial effects of dietary fish oil

    PubMed Central

    Puglisi, Michael J.; Hasty, Alyssa H.; Saraswathi, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    Fish oil improves several features of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Fish oil may mediate some of its beneficial effects by modulating the storage and/or secretory functions of adipose tissue. The storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue is regulated by the availability of free fatty acids as well as the degree of lipolysis in adipose tissue. Fish oil has been shown to reduce lipolysis in several studies indicating improved triglyceride storage. Importantly, adipose tissue secretes a variety of adipokines and fish oil feeding is associated with remarkable changes in the plasma levels of two key adipokines, adiponectin and leptin. Much attention has been focused on the contribution of adiponectin in fish oil mediated improvements in metabolic syndrome. However, emerging evidence also indicates a role of leptin in modulating the components of the metabolic syndrome upon fish oil feeding. In addition to improving the storage and secretory functions of adipose tissue, fish oil, and the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, has been shown to reduce inflammation in adipose tissue. These effects may be in part a result of activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ or inhibition of toll-like receptor 4. Thus, there is compelling evidence that fish oil mediates its beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome by improving adipose tissue storage and secretory functions and by reducing inflammation. PMID:21145721

  5. Borage and fish oils lifelong supplementation decreases inflammation and improves bone health in a murine model of senile osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Wauquier, Fabien; Barquissau, Valentin; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Mercier, Sylvie; Philippe, Claire; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Morio, Béatrice; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2012-02-01

    Fats are prevalent in western diets; they have known deleterious effects on muscle insulin resistance and may contribute to bone loss. However, relationships between fatty acids and locomotor system dysfunctions in elderly population remain controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of fatty acid quality on the age related evolution of the locomotor system and to understand which aging mechanisms are involved. In order to analyze age related complications, the SAMP8 mouse strain was chosen as a progeria model as compared to the SAMR1 control strain. Then, two months old mice were divided in different groups and subjected to the following diets : (1) standard "growth" diet - (2) "sunflower" diet (high ω6/ω3 ratio) - (3) "borage" diet (high γ-linolenic acid) - (4) "fish" diet (high in long chain ω3). Mice were fed ad libitum through the whole protocol. At 12 months old, the mice were sacrificed and tissues were harvested for bone studies, fat and muscle mass measures, inflammation parameters and bone cell marker expression. We demonstrated for the first time that borage and fish diets restored inflammation and bone parameters using an original model of senile osteoporosis that mimics clinical features of aging in humans. Therefore, our study strongly encourages nutritional approaches as relevant and promising strategies for preventing aged-related locomotor dysfunctions. PMID:21664309

  6. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt. PMID:22128889

  7. Fish oil as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Blythe, N.X.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of combustion studies performed with fish oil and fish oil/diesel fuel blends in a medium speed, two cycle, opposed piston engine. Performance and emissions results with blends from 10% to 100% fish oil in diesel fuel are presented. Combustion cycle analysis data comparisons are made between fish oil and diesel fuel operation. Component inspection results and analysis of deposits found in the engine after the tests are also presented. Finally, comparisons between fish oil and other biodiesel fuels are made.

  8. Fish Oil and Osteoarthritis: Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Boe, Chelsea; Vangsness, C Thomas

    2015-07-01

    According to the 2005 US census, osteoarthritis (OA) was the leading cause of disability in the United States, affecting more than 50 million people. Current treatments are targeted at reducing symptoms of the inflammatory reaction that occurs after destruction of essential joint cartilage. However, these treatments do not prevent significant pain and activity restriction. We reviewed the literature to address claims that fish oil supplementation can prevent or decrease severity of OA. Our extensive search of databases covered all relevant terms related to omega-3-containing supplements and their effects on OA. We hypothesized there would be insufficient clinical studies to justify recommending supplementation to patients.Laboratory studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce proinflammatory mediators and increase joint lubrication in vitro. In addition, canine trials have shown clinically significant reductions in various symptom parameters. Results of human clinical trials have not been consistently significant. Well-designed clinical trials are needed to substantiate or refute the potential benefit of fish oils in OA treatment. Long-term studies are needed to assess the possibility of prevention. In addition, standardization of the fish oil industry is needed for consistency of therapy. PMID:26161757

  9. A trial assessing N-3 as treatment for injury-induced cachexia (ATLANTIC trial): does a moderate dose fish oil intervention improve outcomes in older adults recovering from hip fracture?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Proximal femoral fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pre-existing malnutrition and weight loss amongst this patient group is of primary concern, with conventional nutrition support being largely ineffective. The inflammatory response post proximal femoral fracture surgery and the subsequent risk of cachexia may explain the inability of conventional high energy high protein management to produce an anabolic response amongst these patients. Omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oils have been extensively studied for their anti-inflammatory benefits. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, the benefit of fish oil combined with individualized nutrition support amongst proximal femoral fracture patients post surgery is an attractive potential therapeutic strategy. The aim of the ATLANTIC trial is to assess the potential benefits of an anti-inflammatory dose of fish oil within the context of a 12 week individualised nutrition program, commencing seven days post proximal femoral fracture surgery. Methods/Design This randomized controlled, double blinded trial, will recruit 150 community dwelling elderly patients aged ≥65 years, within seven days of surgery for proximal femoral fracture. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a 12 week individualized nutrition support program complemented with 20 ml/day anti-inflammatory dose fish oil (~3.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid, ~2.4 g docosahexanoic acid; intervention), or, a 12 week individualized nutrition support program complemented with 20 ml/day low dose fish oil (~0.36 g eicosapentaenoic acid, ~0.24 g docosahexanoic acid; control). Discussion The ATLANTIC trial is the first of its kind to provide fish oil combined with individualized nutrition therapy as an intervention to address the inflammatory response experienced post proximal femoral fracture surgery amongst elderly patients. The final outcomes of this trial will assist clinicians in the development of

  10. Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity. Methods 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks. Acne was assessed using an overall severity grading scale, total inflammatory lesion counts, and colorimetry. Findings There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne. Conclusion There is some evidence that fish oil supplementation is associated with an improvement in overall acne severity, especially for individuals with moderate to severe acne. Divergent responses to fish oil in our pilot study indicates that dietary and supplemental lipids are worthy of further investigation in acne. PMID:23206895

  11. Why Fish Oil Fails: A Comprehensive 21st Century Lipids-Based Physiologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peskin, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    The medical community suffered three significant fish oil failures/setbacks in 2013. Claims that fish oil's EPA/DHA would stop the progression of heart disease were crushed when The Risk and Prevention Study Collaborative Group (Italy) released a conclusive negative finding regarding fish oil for those patients with high risk factors but no previous myocardial infarction. Fish oil failed in all measures of CVD prevention—both primary and secondary. Another major 2013 setback occurred when fish oil's DHA was shown to significantly increase prostate cancer in men, in particular, high-grade prostate cancer, in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) analysis by Brasky et al. Another monumental failure occurred in 2013 whereby fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to improve macular degeneration. In 2010, fish oil's EPA/DHA failed to help Alzheimer's victims, even those with low DHA levels. These are by no means isolated failures. The promise of fish oil and its so-called active ingredients EPA / DHA fails time and time again in clinical trials. This lipids-based physiologic review will explain precisely why there should have never been expectation for success. This review will focus on underpublicized lipid science with a focus on physiology. PMID:24551453

  12. Comparing Nigella sativa Oil and Fish Oil in Treatment of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza; Khalili, Ali; Rokhafrooz, Darioush

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the autoimmune skin diseases that destroy the melanocytes of the skin. Moreover, its prevalence varies in different countries and regions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Nigella sativa and fish oil on vitiligo lesions of the patients referred to a dermatology clinic. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double blind clinical trial was conducted in the dermatology clinic of the Imam Khomeini Hospital Ahvaz, Iran, from June to December 2011. We used a randomized simple sampling. From 96 patients with vitiligo, 52 eligible patients were selected and allocated to two groups with equal size. The study medications were applied twice a day by patients on their lesions. After six months, the improvement rate of lesions was assessed by the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI). Data were analyzed using SPSS v. 15; P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: After six months, a mean score of VASI decreased from 4.98 to 3.75 in patients applying topical Nigella sativa and from 4.98 to 4.62 in those using topical fish oil. Most of the percent improvement observed in upper extremities, trunk, head, and neck of those who received Nigella sativa and head, neck, trunk, and feet of those who received fish oil. No adverse effect was reported by the patients. Conclusions: Nigella sativa oil and fish oil were effective in reduction the size of patient’s lesions; however, Nigella sativa was more effective in comparison to the fish oil. Therefore, using Nigella sativa with the major drugs in the treatment of vitiligo is recommended. PMID:25068060

  13. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important nutrition and disease management properties. Presently fish oil (FO) supplementation relies on capsular triglyceride. Flavored emulsified lipid preparations may provide an improved approach to FO del...

  14. Fish oil supplemented for 9 months does not improve glycaemic control or insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose regulation: a parallel randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Clark, Louise F; Thivierge, M C; Kidd, Claire A; McGeoch, Susan C; Abraham, Prakash; Pearson, Donald W M; Horgan, Graham W; Holtrop, Grietje; Thies, Frank; Lobley, Gerald E

    2016-01-14

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on glycaemic control are unclear, and positive effects may occur only when the phospholipid content of tissue membranes exceeds 14% as n-3 PUFA. Subjects (n 36, thirty-three completed) were paired based on metabolic parameters and allocated into a parallel double-blind randomised trial with one of each pair offered daily either 6 g of FO (3·9 g n-3 PUFA) or 6 g of maize oil (MO) for 9 months. Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic-euaminoacidaemic (HIEGEAA) clamps (with [6,6 2H2 glucose]) were performed at the start and end of the intervention. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and whole-body protein turnover (WBPT) were each measured after an overnight fast. The primary outcome involved the effect of oil type on insulin sensitivity related to glycaemic control. The secondary outcome involved the effect of oil type on WBPT. Subjects on FO (n 16) had increased erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations >14%, whereas subjects on MO (n 17) had unaltered n-3 PUFA concentrations at 9%. Type of oil had no effect on fasting EGP, insulin sensitivity or total glucose disposal during the HIEGEAA clamp. In contrast, under insulin-stimulated conditions, total protein disposal (P=0·007) and endogenous WBPT (P=0·001) were both increased with FO. In an associated pilot study (n 4, three completed), although n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes increased to >14% with the FO supplement, the enrichment in muscle membranes remained lower (8%; P<0·001). In conclusion, long-term supplementation with FO, at amounts near the safety limits set by regulatory authorities in Europe and the USA, did not alter glycaemic control but did have an impact on WBPT. PMID:26537735

  15. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils. PMID:25089687

  16. Idaho Fish Screening Improvements Final Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.

    2008-11-12

    This project funds two Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) fish habitat biologists to develop, secure funding for, and implement on-the-ground fish habitat improvement projects in the lower Clearwater River drainage and the upper Salmon River drainage. This report summarizes project activity during the first year of funding. The Clearwater Region fish habitat biologist began work on January 28, 2008 and the Salmon Region habitat biologist began on February 11, 2008.

  17. Fish Oil for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weitz, Daniel; Weintraub, Howard; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, are increasingly being used in the management of cardiovascular disease. It is clear that fish oil, in clinically used doses (typically 4 g/d of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) reduce high triglycerides. However, the role of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing mortality, sudden death, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and heart failure has not yet been established. This review will focus on the current clinical uses of fish oil and provide an update on their effects on triglycerides, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and arrhythmia. We will explore the dietary sources of fish oil as compared with drug therapy, and discuss the use of fish oil products in combination with other commonly used lipid-lowering agents. We will examine the underlying mechanism of fish oil’s action on triglyceride reduction, plaque stability, and effect in diabetes, and review the newly discovered anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. Finally, we will examine the limitations of current data and suggest recommendations for fish oil use. PMID:20699674

  18. From alga to omega; have we reached peak (fish) oil?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Paul R; Ladi, Szabolcs

    2015-09-01

    SummaryWhile the Inuit diet was highly cardio-protective and consuming oily fish within a Western diet is to a lesser degree, the case for purified fish oil supplements is less convincing. Purification of fish oil removes lipophilic polyphenols which likely contribute to the health benefits of oily fish; leaving the ω3 highly unsaturated fatty acids exposed and prone to conferring oxidative and inflammatory stress. The authors believe that due to such issues as dietary shift, it may now be inadvisable to prescribe or sell purified ω3 highly unsaturated fatty acids supplements, unless the appropriate co-factors are included. PMID:26359136

  19. Fish oil concentrate delays sensitivity to thermal nociception in mice.

    PubMed

    Veigas, Jyothi M; Williams, Paul J; Halade, Ganesh; Rahman, Mizanur M; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-05-01

    Fish oil has been used to alleviate pain associated with inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. The anti-inflammatory property of fish oil is attributed to the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Contrarily, vegetable oils such as safflower oil are rich in n-6 fatty acids which are considered to be mediators of inflammation. This study investigates the effect of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids rich oils as dietary supplements on the thermally induced pain sensitivity in healthy mice. C57Bl/6J mice were fed diet containing regular fish oil, concentrated fish oil formulation (CFO) and safflower oil (SO) for 6 months. Pain sensitivity was measured by Plantar test and was correlated to the expression of acid sensing ion channels (ASICs), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and c-fos in dorsal root ganglion cells. Significant delay in sensitivity to thermal nociception was observed in mice fed CFO compared to mice fed SO (p<0.05). A significant diminution in expression of ion channels such as ASIC1a (64%), ASIC13 (37%) and TRPV1 (56%) coupled with reduced expression of c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was observed in the dorsal root ganglion cells of mice fed CFO compared to that fed SO. In conclusion, we describe here the potential of fish oil supplement in reducing sensitivity to thermal nociception in normal mice. PMID:21345372

  20. Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin-Gelatin Colloidal Complexes on Stability and in Vitro Digestion of Fish Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Chao, An-Chong; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Tsai, Min-Lang; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2015-11-25

    The colloidal complexes composed of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and gelatin (GLT), as natural antioxidants to improve stability and inhibit lipid oxidation in menhaden fish oil emulsions, were evaluated. The interactions between GSP and GLT, and the chemical structures of GSP/GLT self-assembled colloidal complexes, were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Fish oil was emulsified with GLT to obtain an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. After formation of the emulsion, GLT was fixed by GSP to obtain the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes stabilized fish oil emulsion. Menhaden oil emulsified by GSP/GLT(0.4 wt %) colloidal complexes yielded an emulsion with smaller particles and higher emulsion stability as compared to its GLT emulsified counterpart. The GSP/GLT colloidal complexes inhibited the lipid oxidation in fish oil emulsions more effectively than free GLT because the emulsified fish oil was surrounded by the antioxidant GSP/GLT colloidal complexes. The digestion rate of the fish oil emulsified with the GSP/GLT colloidal complexes was reduced as compared to that emulsified with free GLT. The extent of free fatty acids released from the GSP/GLT complexes stabilized fish oil emulsions was 63.3% under simulated digestion condition, indicating that the fish oil emulsion was considerably hydrolyzed with lipase. PMID:26574624

  1. Discrimination of fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Dowall, J.

    1969-01-01

    Fish oil and mineral oil slicks on sea water can be discriminated by their different spreading characteristics and by their reflectivities and color variations over a range of wavelengths. Reflectivities of oil and oil films are determined using a duel beam reflectance apparatus.

  2. Transgenic plants as a sustainable, terrestrial source of fish oils

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Sarah; Haslam, Richard P.; Ruiz‐Lopez, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    1 An alternative, sustainable source of omega‐3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is widely recognized as desirable, helping to reduce pressure on current sources (wild capture fisheries) and providing a de novo source of these health beneficial fatty acids. This review will consider the efforts and progress to develop transgenic plants as terrestrial sources of omega‐3 fish oils, focusing on recent developments and the possible explanations for advances in the field. We also consider the utility of such a source for use in aquaculture, since this industry is the major consumer of oceanic supplies of omega‐3 fish oils. Given the importance of the aquaculture industry in meeting global requirements for healthy foodstuffs, an alternative source of omega‐3 fish oils represents a potentially significant breakthrough for this production system. Transgenic Camelina seeds engineered to accumulate the omega‐3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, represent a sustainable alternative to fish oils. PMID:26900346

  3. Photoenhanced Toxicity of Oil to Larval Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV), compared to toxicity elicited under conditions of minimal UV. Oil products, weathered oils, combusted oil products, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds in oil ha...

  4. Dietary fish and evening primrose oil with vitamin E effects on semen variables in cockerels.

    PubMed

    Cerolini, S; Surai, P F; Speake, B K; Sparks, N H C

    2005-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the effect of n-3 (2%, wt/wt, fish oil rich diet) and n-6 (2%, wt/wt, evening primrose oil rich diet) fatty acid dietary supplementation and their combination with two concentrations of vitamin E (40 vs 200 mg/kg) on semen variables and on fatty acid and vitamin E profiles of spermatozoa in broiler breeders at 32, 42 and 52 weeks of age. The inclusion of fish oil in the cockerel diets increased the docosahexaenoic acid proportion in the sperm phospholipid fraction, which was almost threefold higher compared to the other two groups irrespective of vitamin E supplementation. In contrast, an increase in the proportion of total n-6 polyunsaturates, mainly 22:4n-6, was observed in the evening primrose oil group compared to the control only when the dietary content of vitamin E was increased to 200 mg/kg. Sperm concentration was decreased in the fish and evening primrose oil groups if vitamin E was 40 mg/kg, but such an effect was prevented in the fish, not the evening primrose oil group, by increasing the vitamin E to 200 mg. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was improved by the increased supplementation of vitamin E in all oil treatments. PMID:15957443

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation—the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  6. Crude oil impairs cardiac excitation-contraction coupling in fish.

    PubMed

    Brette, Fabien; Machado, Ben; Cros, Caroline; Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Block, Barbara A

    2014-02-14

    Crude oil is known to disrupt cardiac function in fish embryos. Large oil spills, such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster that occurred in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, could severely affect fish at impacted spawning sites. The physiological mechanisms underlying such potential cardiotoxic effects remain unclear. Here, we show that crude oil samples collected from the DWH spill prolonged the action potential of isolated cardiomyocytes from juvenile bluefin and yellowfin tunas, through the blocking of the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)). Crude oil exposure also decreased calcium current (I(Ca)) and calcium cycling, which disrupted excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. Our findings demonstrate a cardiotoxic mechanism by which crude oil affects the regulation of cellular excitability, with implications for life-threatening arrhythmias in vertebrates. PMID:24531969

  7. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Silvers, Karen M; Woolley, Cheryl C; Hamilton, Frances C; Watts, Peter M; Watson, Rosemary A

    2005-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have aetiological importance in depression. To determine the effect of adding fish oil to existing therapy in participants who were being treated for depression in a community setting, 77 participants were randomly assigned to receive 8 g of either fish or olive oil per day in addition to their existing therapy. Fifty-nine (77%) participants completed 12 weeks of treatment. Dietary, biochemical and lifestyle factors were measured throughout the study. Mood was assessed using the Short Form Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-SF) and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sample size calculations were based on the HDRS-SF. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses were carried out using residual maximum likelihood. There was no evidence that fish oil improved mood when compared to the placebo oil, despite an increase in circulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, mood improved significantly in both groups within the first 2 weeks of the study (P<0.001) and this improvement was sustained throughout. In conclusion, fish oil was no more effective than the control as an add-on therapy for depression in this setting. PMID:15664306

  8. Effect of fish oil encapsulates incorporation on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumari, A; Janarthanan, G; Chouksey, M K; Venkateshwarlu, G

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on the various health benefits apparently associated with consumption of fish oil. The incorporation of fish oils in food products is becoming increasingly widespread and a large variety of products is being marketed. However, the use of fish oil as functional nutritional ingredients in foods has been limited by its oxidative susceptibility. In the present study, attempts were made to develop fish oil fortified cookies as healthy snack foods by incorporating fish oil microencapsulate. Microencapsulation of fish oil was done by spray drying. Commercially available milk was used to form micro sized complexes with fish oil. Fish gelatin/maltodextrin were used as a wall material for encapsulation. Fish oil was added in three forms (fish oil as such, fish oil-in-water emulsion and fish oil microencapsulate) for the preparation of cookies. Cookies prepared without incorporating fish oil was served as control. The physical, chemical and sensory attributes of cookies were evaluated. Encapsulation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid oxidation in the cookies. The sensory evaluation of cookies showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in the overall acceptability. Results from this study, demonstrated the possibility of fish oil incorporation into cookies through emulsification and microencapsulation which may increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acids for nutritional benefits. PMID:26788008

  9. Use Carum copticum essential oil for controlling the Listeria monocytogenes growth in fish model system.

    PubMed

    Rabiey, Soghra; Hosseini, Hedayat; Rezaei, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Carum copticum essential oil (Ajowan EO) against Listeria monocytogenes in fish model system. Ajowan EO chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis and the highest concentration of Carum copticum essential oil without any significant changes on sensory properties of kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) was assigned. Then the inhibitory effect of Ajowan EO at different concentrations in presence of salt and smoke component was tested on L. monocytogenes growth in fish peptone broth (FPB), kutum broth and cold smoked kutum broth at 4 °C for 12 days. Ajowan EO completely decreased the number of L. monocytogenes in FPB after 12 days of storage, however, antimicrobial effect of EO significantly reduced in kutum and cold smoked kutum broth. Addition of 4% NaCl and smoke component improved the anti-listerial activity of Ajowan EO in all fish model broths. PMID:24948918

  10. Use Carum copticum essential oil for controlling the Listeria monocytogenes growth in fish model system

    PubMed Central

    Rabiey, Soghra; Hosseini, Hedayat; Rezaei, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Carum copticum essential oil (Ajowan EO) against Listeria monocytogenes in fish model system. Ajowan EO chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectral analysis and the highest concentration of Carum copticum essential oil without any significant changes on sensory properties of kutum fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) was assigned. Then the inhibitory effect of Ajowan EO at different concentrations in presence of salt and smoke component was tested on L. monocytogenes growth in fish peptone broth (FPB), kutum broth and cold smoked kutum broth at 4 °C for 12 days. Ajowan EO completely decreased the number of L. monocytogenes in FPB after 12 days of storage, however, antimicrobial effect of EO significantly reduced in kutum and cold smoked kutum broth. Addition of 4% NaCl and smoke component improved the anti-listerial activity of Ajowan EO in all fish model broths. PMID:24948918

  11. Intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Heller, Axel R

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oils have shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases due to their pleiotropic effects on inflammatory cell signalling pathways. In a variety of experimental and clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids attenuated hyperinflammatory conditions and induced faster recovery. This chapter will shed light on the effects of intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients and will discuss clinical data and recent meta-analyses on the topic. While significant beneficial effects on infection rates and the lengths of ICU and hospital stays have concordantly been identified in three recent meta-analyses on non-ICU surgical patients, the level of evidence is not so clear for critically ill patients. Three meta-analyses published in 2012 or 2013 explored data on the ICU population. Although the present data suggest the consideration of enteral nutrition enriched with fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants in mild to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, only one of the three meta-analyses found a trend (p = 0.08) of lower mortality in ICU patients receiving intravenous omega-3 fatty acids. Two of the meta-analyses indicated a significantly shorter hospital stay (5.17-9.49 days), and one meta-analysis found a significant reduction in ICU days (1.92). As a result of these effects, cost savings were postulated. Unlike in surgical patients, the effects of fish oil on infection rates were not found to be statistically significant in ICU patients, and dose-effect relationships were not established for any cohort. Thus, obvious positive secondary outcome effects with intravenous fish oil have not yet been shown to transfer to lower mortality in critically ill patients. There is a need for adequately powered, well-planned and well-conducted randomized trials to give clear recommendations on the individual utility and dosage of intravenous omega-3 fatty acids in critical illness. PMID:25471809

  12. Fish oil: what the prescriber needs to know

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Leslie G; James, Michael J; Proudman, Susanna M

    2006-01-01

    There is a general belief among doctors, in part grounded in experience, that patients with arthritis need nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Implicit in this view is that these patients require the symptomatic relief provided by inhibiting synthesis of nociceptive prostaglandin E2, a downstream product of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase (COX), which is inhibited by NSAIDs. However, the concept of 'safe' NSAIDs has collapsed following a multiplicity of observations establishing increased risk for cardiovascular events associated with NSAID use, especially but not uniquely with the new COX-2-selective NSAIDs. This mandates greater parsimony in the use of these agents. Fish oils contain a natural inhibitor of COX, reduce reliance on NSAIDs, and reduce cardiovascular risk through multiple mechanisms. Fish oil thus warrants consideration as a component of therapy for arthritis, especially rheumatoid arthritis, in which its symptomatic benefits are well established. A major barrier to the therapeutic use of fish oil in inflammatory diseases is ignorance of its mechanism, range of beneficial effects, safety profile, availability of suitable products, effective dose, latency of effects and instructions for administration. This review provides an evidence-based resource for doctors and patients who may choose to prescribe or take fish oil. PMID:16542466

  13. 21 CFR 186.1551 - Hydrogenated fish oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogenated fish oil. 186.1551 Section 186.1551 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1551 - Hydrogenated fish oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogenated fish oil. 186.1551 Section 186.1551 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1551 - Hydrogenated fish oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogenated fish oil. 186.1551 Section 186.1551 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1551 - Hydrogenated fish oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogenated fish oil. 186.1551 Section 186.1551 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  17. 21 CFR 186.1551 - Hydrogenated fish oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogenated fish oil. 186.1551 Section 186.1551 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  18. Fish oil replacement in current aquaculture feed: is cholesterol a hidden treasure for fish nutrition?

    PubMed

    Norambuena, Fernando; Lewis, Michael; Hamid, Noor Khalidah Abdul; Hermon, Karen; Donald, John A; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fish, as with all vertebrates, are capable of synthesizing cholesterol and as such have no dietary requirement for it. Thus, limited research has addressed the potential effects of dietary cholesterol in fish, even if fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by vegetable alternatives in modern aquafeeds, resulting in progressively reduced dietary cholesterol content. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary cholesterol fortification in a vegetable oil-based diet can manifest any effects on growth and feed utilization performance in the salmonid fish, the rainbow trout. In addition, given a series of studies in mammals have shown that dietary cholesterol can directly affect the fatty acid metabolism, the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism of fish fed the experimental diets was assessed. Triplicate groups of juvenile fish were fed one of two identical vegetable oil-based diets, with additional cholesterol fortification (high cholesterol; H-Chol) or without (low cholesterol; L-Chol), for 12 weeks. No effects were observed on growth and feed efficiency, however, in fish fed H-Col no biosynthesis of cholesterol, and a remarkably decreased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation were recorded, whilst in L-Chol fed fish, cholesterol was abundantly biosynthesised and an increased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation was observed. Only minor effects were observed on the activity of stearyl-CoA desaturase, but a significant increase was observed for both the transcription rate in liver and the apparent in vivo activity of the fatty acid Δ-6 desaturase and elongase, with increasing dietary cholesterol. This study showed that the possible effects of reduced dietary cholesterol in current aquafeeds can be significant and warrant future investigations. PMID:24324720

  19. Fish Oil Replacement in Current Aquaculture Feed: Is Cholesterol a Hidden Treasure for Fish Nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Norambuena, Fernando; Lewis, Michael; Hamid, Noor Khalidah Abdul; Hermon, Karen; Donald, John A.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fish, as with all vertebrates, are capable of synthesizing cholesterol and as such have no dietary requirement for it. Thus, limited research has addressed the potential effects of dietary cholesterol in fish, even if fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by vegetable alternatives in modern aquafeeds, resulting in progressively reduced dietary cholesterol content. The objective of this study was to determine if dietary cholesterol fortification in a vegetable oil-based diet can manifest any effects on growth and feed utilization performance in the salmonid fish, the rainbow trout. In addition, given a series of studies in mammals have shown that dietary cholesterol can directly affect the fatty acid metabolism, the apparent in vivo fatty acid metabolism of fish fed the experimental diets was assessed. Triplicate groups of juvenile fish were fed one of two identical vegetable oil-based diets, with additional cholesterol fortification (high cholesterol; H-Chol) or without (low cholesterol; L-Chol), for 12 weeks. No effects were observed on growth and feed efficiency, however, in fish fed H-Col no biosynthesis of cholesterol, and a remarkably decreased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation were recorded, whilst in L-Chol fed fish, cholesterol was abundantly biosynthesised and an increased apparent in vivo fatty acid β-oxidation was observed. Only minor effects were observed on the activity of stearyl-CoA desaturase, but a significant increase was observed for both the transcription rate in liver and the apparent in vivo activity of the fatty acid Δ-6 desaturase and elongase, with increasing dietary cholesterol. This study showed that the possible effects of reduced dietary cholesterol in current aquafeeds can be significant and warrant future investigations. PMID:24324720

  20. Asphaltenes and improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    Often, asphaltene is related solely to the downstream petroleum refining aspect, the logic being that these large, refractoric molecules in heavy ends or bottoms of barrels are difficult to convert into light petroleum hydrocarbons. The refinery bottoms or residues are largely asphaltics (asphaltene, resin, and preasphaltene). This persuades many investigators to correlate and interrelate asphaltene with catalyst compositions, conversion conditions, etc., in refining operations. Few papers appearing in the literature deal with asphaltene and upstream petroleum production and recovery. To this goal, the present paper summarizes the role which petroleum asphaltene plays in production and recovery, especially to improved oil recovery (IOR).

  1. Fish oil induced increase in walking distance, but not ankle brachial pressure index, in peripheral arterial disease is dependent on both body mass index and inflammatory genotype.

    PubMed

    Madden, Jacqueline; Brunner, Andreas; Dastur, Neville D; Tan, Rebecca M; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed; Shearman, Cliff P; Calder, Philip C; Grimble, Robert F

    2007-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease. Evidence suggests that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition and long chain n-3 fatty acids, found in oily fish and fish oils, have been shown to reduce inflammation. Genetic and lifestyle factors such as body mass index (BMI) also influence inflammation. In this study we have examined the effect of fish oil in patients with claudication secondary to PAD. Fish oil supplementation, providing 1g EPA and 0.7 g DHA per day for 12 weeks, increased walking distance on a treadmill set at 3.2 km/h with a 7% incline. Walking distance to first pain increased from 76.2+/-8.5 m before fish oil to 140.6+/-25.5 m after fish oil (mean+/-SEM, p=0.004) and total distance walked increased from 160.0+/-21.5 m before fish oil to 242.1+/-34.5 m after fish oil (p=0.002). Fish oil supplementation also improved ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) from 0.599+/-0.017 before fish oil to 0.776+/-0.030 after fish oil (p<0.001). The increase in walking distance was dependent on both BMI and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (detected using amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction). Neither BMI nor any of the genotypes examined affected the ability of fish oil to increase ABPI. The mechanisms by which fish oil affects walking distance and ABPI do not appear to be the same. PMID:17600695

  2. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-09-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  3. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  4. Probing the effects of fish oil on the delivery and inflammation-inducing potential of imiquimod.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Khurram; Aluwi, Mohd Fadhlizil Fasihi Mohd; Rullah, Kamal; Wai, Lam Kok; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2015-07-25

    Imiquimod is a chemotherapeutic agent for many skin-associated diseases, but it has also been associated with inflammatory side effects. The aim of this study was to prevent the inflammatory effect of commercial imiquimod (Aldara(®)) by controlled release of imiquimod through a hydrogel/oleogel colloidal mixture (CA bigel) containing fish oil as an anti-inflammatory agent. Imiquimod permeability from Aldara® cream and bigel through mice skin was evaluated, and the drug content residing in the skin via the tape stripping technique was quantified. The fish oil fatty acid content in skin along with its lipophilic environment was also determined. An inflammation study was conducted using animal models, and Aldara(®) cream was found to potentially cause psoriasis-like inflammation, which could be owing to prolonged application and excessive drug permeation. Controlled release of imiquimod along with fish oil through CA bigel may have caused reduced imiquimod inflammation. NMR studies and computerized molecular modeling were also conducted to observe whether the fish oil and imiquimod formed a complex that was responsible for improving imiquimod transport and reducing its side effects. NMR spectra showed dose-dependent chemical shifts and molecular modeling revealed π-σ interaction between EPA and imiquimod, which could help reduce imiquimod inflammation. PMID:26003416

  5. Method for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.E.; Hass, G.R.; Sharpe, R.; Nestaas, E.; Ostrovsky, M.V.

    1987-11-17

    A non-thermal, single-well method is described for improved oil recovery from a hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir with essentially no natural drive in which: (a) a volume of a chemical surfactant/cosurfactant/brine mixture, greater than a volume required to fill the well bore an immediate vicinity thereto into a well penetrating the reservoir, which surfactant/cosurfactant/brine mixture is preformulated to produce a stable, low interfacial tension three-phase, hydrocarbon-microemulsion-brine system with a sample of the hydrocarbon of the reservoir; (b) a subterranean, intra-reservoir, low interfacial tension, three-phase, hydrocarbon-microemulsion-brine system is formed; and (c) the low interfacial tension, three-phase, hydrocarbon-microemulsion-brine system is produced from the same well into which the surfactant/cosurfactant/brine mixture is injected.

  6. Effects of dietary fish oil replacement on fillet lipids in North American Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers want fish that contain high amount of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for the health benefits. Fish producers desire to supply fish with these fatty acids while reducing the amount of fish oil included in the diet and replacing the fish oil with alternative oils. Two studies were conducte...

  7. Effects of diets with fish meal and oil replaced with plant production on spawning in Rainbow Trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of plant protein and oils on spawning rainbow trout an experiment was set up to examine 3 distinct families fed the following diets: 1) fish meal and fish oil; 2) plant meal and fish oil; 3) plant meal and plant oil. The fish were fed the diets for one year through spawning....

  8. Effect of fish oil on arrhythmias and mortality: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    León, Hernando; Shibata, Marcelo C; Sivakumaran, Soori; Dorgan, Marlene; Chatterley, Trish

    2008-01-01

    Objective To synthesise the literature on the effects of fish oil—docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)—on mortality and arrhythmias and to explore dose response and formulation effects. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Academic OneFile, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine, and LILACS. Studies reviewed Randomised controlled trials of fish oil as dietary supplements in humans. Data extraction The primary outcomes of interest were the arrhythmic end points of appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator intervention and sudden cardiac death. The secondary outcomes were all cause mortality and death from cardiac causes. Subgroup analyses included the effect of formulations of EPA and DHA on death from cardiac causes and effects of fish oil in patients with coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction. Data synthesis 12 studies totalling 32 779 patients met the inclusion criteria. A neutral effect was reported in three studies (n=1148) for appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator intervention (odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 1.46) and in six studies (n=31 111) for sudden cardiac death (0.81, 0.52 to 1.25). 11 studies (n=32 439 and n=32 519) provided data on the effects of fish oil on all cause mortality (0.92, 0.82 to 1.03) and a reduction in deaths from cardiac causes (0.80, 0.69 to 0.92). The dose-response relation for DHA and EPA on reduction in deaths from cardiac causes was not significant. Conclusions Fish oil supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in deaths from cardiac causes but had no effect on arrhythmias or all cause mortality. Evidence to recommend an optimal formulation of EPA or DHA to reduce these outcomes is insufficient. Fish oils are a heterogeneous product, and the optimal formulations

  9. Effect of fish oil supplementation and exercise on serum lipids and aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Brilla, L R; Landerholm, T E

    1990-06-01

    The effects of fish oil supplementation and exercise were investigated in healthy, previously sedentary males, ages 19-34. Thirty-two subjects were assigned to four groups: control (C), fish (F), exercise (E), fish and exercise (FE). The fish groups consumed 4 g.d-1 of omega-3 fatty acids. The exercise groups performed aerobic exercise for one hour three per week. The study was conducted for 10 weeks with pre and post values obtained for cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), percent body fat, and dietary composition of macronutrients and polyunsaturated to saturated fat (P:S) ratio. No significant differences were noted between groups for any of the blood lipid values, percent body fat or dietary variables. VO2max and VAT did exhibit significant changes among groups. VO2max was greater for the exercise groups (E, FE) as compared to the control group (p less than 0.05). E, but not FE, was significantly greater than F. VAT was significantly greater in F, E, and FE as compared to controls, however the control's VAT decreased slightly. The slight improvement, although statistically non-significant, in VO2max and VAT by the F group requires further study. This data indicates an improvement in aerobic metabolism from aerobic exercise, alone or in combination with fish oil, compared to controls. PMID:2402138

  10. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  11. Effect of a single dose of emulsified versus capsular fish oils on plasma phospholipid fatty acids over 48 hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil-in-water emulsions may offer an advantage in digestion and absorption thereby increasing the bioavailability of fatty acids. We evaluated the effect of three oil-in-water emulsified fish oils (Emulsion B, Emulsion ...

  12. Differential effects of krill oil and fish oil on the hepatic transcriptome in mice.

    PubMed

    Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; Wibrand, Karin; Berge, Rolf K; Barger, Jamie L

    2011-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ω-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil (FO) or krill oil (KO). We found that ω-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (KO) downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that KO-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from FO modulated fewer pathways than a KO-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by KO, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, FO upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill-supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose, or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low-fat diet. Further studies of KO-supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects. PMID:22303341

  13. Effects of fish oil, DHA oil and lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Ke; Wang, Wen-Qi; Li, Kui-Ran; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2002-12-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air (lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity (high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16∶0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  14. Fate of oil hydrocarbons in fish and shrimp after major oil spills in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Fayad, N.M.; El-Mubarak, A.H.; Edora, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution of the marine environment with crude oil represents one of the most serious environmental problems that confront Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. Oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf environment may affect the inhabitants through (1) human health hazard resulting from the consumption of contaminated sea food, (2) loss of food due to alteration of species productivity or elimination of some species, and (3) deterioration of recreation areas. Moreover, the problem of oil spill may be more severe in this part of the world. This is mainly because the source of drinking water in various Gulf states depends largely on sea water from which desalinated water is produced. Contamination of sea water with crude oil may adversely affect the quality of desalinated water and may badly damage desalination plants. During the last twelve years, the Arabian Gulf has been affected by two major oil spills. The first spill occurred on February 4, 1983 during the Iraq-Iran War, and the second major oil spill occured during the 1991 Gulf War. There is limited information about the level of oil hydrocarbons in edible fish, but two studies were carried out after both spills. This paper summarized the results of both studies carried out to assess the extent of contamination of various fish species of commercial value from the Arabian Gulf with oil hydrocarbons.

  15. Fish oil changes the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans via lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Soko; Honma, Taro; Ito, Junya; Kijima, Ryo; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we administered fish oil containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to senescence-accelerated mice P8 (SAMP8), in order to investigate the effects on lifespan. Surprisingly, the lifespan of SAMP8 that were fed fish oil was shortened significantly, through a mechanism that likely involved lipid peroxidation. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon in further detail. To examine whether this phenomenon occurs only in SAMP8, we investigated the effect of fish oil on the lifespan of another organism species, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). C. elegans fed fish oil were cultured and the lifespan monitored. As a consequence of the provision of large amounts of fish oil the lifespan of C. elegans was shortened significantly, whereas an appropriate amount of fish oil extended their lifespan significantly. Lipid peroxide levels in C. elegans that were fed fish oil increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. However, lipid peroxide levels in C. elegans were inhibited by the addition of fish oil and an antioxidant, α-tocopherol, and completely abrogated the changes in the lifespan. To further confirm whether the oxidation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in fish oil would change the lifespan of C. elegans, the effect of oxidized DHA was examined. Large amounts of oxidized DHA were found to shorten their lifespan significantly. Thus, fish oil changes the lifespan of C. elegans through lipid peroxidation. PMID:23526170

  16. Proceedings of the improved oil recovery conference

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.W.

    1989-03-01

    The goal of this conference was to introduce enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and other improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques to the many independent oil operators in this area. Topics of discussion included surfactant/polymer recovery, CO/sub 2/ injection, polymer augmented waterflooding, hydrocarbon leaching, control of water production, improvements in gelled acid technology, and new variations in chemical EOR. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  17. Dietary effects of fish oils on human health: a review of recent studies.

    PubMed Central

    Kantha, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    The beneficial effects in humans of ingesting fish oils have attracted much attention among medical scientists and nutritionists recently. Human studies conducted in populations of Eskimos, Japanese, and Caucasians since 1970 are reviewed in this paper. The evidence shows that a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduces plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, improves fat tolerance, prolongs bleeding times, reduces platelet counts, and decreases platelet adhesiveness. PMID:3551346

  18. Fish oil attenuates liver injury caused by LPS in weaned pigs associated with inhibition of TLR4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Liu, Yulan; Zhu, Huiling; Hong, Yu; Wu, Zhifeng; Hou, Yongqing; Li, Quan; Ding, Binying; Yi, Dan; Chen, Hongbo

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated whether fish oil exerted a hepatoprotective effect in a LPS-induced liver injury model via regulation of TLR4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD) signaling pathways. Twenty-four piglets were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and the main factors included diet (5% corn oil or 5% fish oil) and immunological challenge (LPS or saline). Fish oil resulted in enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and total (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver. Less severe liver injury was observed in pigs fed fish oil, as evidenced by improved serum biochemical parameters and less severe histological liver damage. In addition, higher expression of liver tight junction proteins, and lower hepatocyte proliferation and higher hepatocyte apoptosis were observed in pigs fed fish oil. The improved liver integrity in pigs fed fish oil was concurrent with reduced hepatic mRNA expression of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 and TNF-α receptor-associated factor 6, and NOD1, NOD2 and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2, as well as reduced hepatic protein expression of NF-κB p65, leading to reduced hepatic pro-inflammatory mediators. These results indicate that fish oil improves liver integrity partially via inhibition of TLR4 and NOD signaling pathways under an inflammatory condition. PMID:23339927

  19. Fish Oil Intake and Seizure Control in Children with Medically Resistant Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Diala Mohamed Ali; Abd-El-Fatah, Nesrin Kamal; Omar, Tarek El-Sayed Ismail; Darwish, Olfat Abdel Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is considerable evidence which suggests that Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. Aim: The study was to investigate the effect of Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (as fish oil supplementation) in reducing the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Materials and Methods: In the case-control study, a total of 70 children with medically resistant epilepsy underwent assessment of the frequency and severity of the epileptic attacks at baseline, after one month, two months and three months from the beginning of the study; 35 children received fish oil and the other 35 children received placebo. Results: The number of children who received fish oil, having 0 epileptic attacks increased from 0%, before starting the study, up to 57.1% at the end of the third month, while the improvement was minimal in the placebo group, with a significant difference in the improvement between the intervention and the control groups. There was no statistically significant difference in improvement in the severity of the seizures either between cases and control or between the beginning and the end of the study. Conclusion: Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elevated the seizure threshold in epileptic patients and may help in achieving seizure control. PMID:26258079

  20. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    PubMed

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally. PMID:25867932

  1. Fish Oil-Fed Mice Have Impaired Resistance to Influenza Infection12

    PubMed Central

    Schwerbrock, Nicole M. J.; Karlsson, Erik A.; Shi, Qing; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Beck, Melinda A.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary fish oils, rich in (n-3) PUFA, including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, have been shown to have antiinflammatory properties. Although the antiinflammatory properties of fish oil may be beneficial during a chronic inflammatory illness, the same antiinflammatory properties can suppress the inflammatory responses necessary to combat acute viral infection. Given that (n-3) fatty acid-rich fish oil supplementation is on the rise and with the increasing threat of an influenza pandemic, we tested the effect of fish oil feeding for 2 wk on the immune response to influenza virus infection. Male C57BL/6 mice fed either a menhaden fish oil/corn oil diet (4 g fish oil:1 g corn oil, wt:wt at 5 g/100 g diet) or a control corn oil diet were infected with influenza A/PuertoRico/8/34 and analyzed for lung pathology and immune function. Although fish oil-fed mice had lower lung inflammation compared with controls, fish oil feeding also resulted in a 40% higher mortality rate, a 70% higher lung viral load at d 7 post infection, and a prolonged recovery period following infection. Although splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity was suppressed in fish oil-fed mice, lung NK activity was not affected. Additionally, lungs of infected fish oil-fed mice had significantly fewer CD8+ T cells and decreased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1-α, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory properties of fish oil feeding can alter the immune response to influenza infection, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:19549756

  2. Substitution of dietary fish oil with plant oils is associated with shortened mid intestinal folds in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intestinal health in Atlantic salmon fed with different vegetable oils as partial substitutes of fish oil in the diet. A feed trial lasting for 28 weeks included one reference diet containing fish oil as the sole lipid source and three diets where 80% of the fish oil was replaced by a plant oil blend with either olive oil, rapeseed oil or soybean oil as the main lipid source. These plant oils have intermediate or low n-3/n-6-ratios compared to fish oil having a high n-3/n-6-ratio. The protein and carbohydrate fractions were identical in all the feeds. Results Morphometric measurements showed significantly shorter folds in the mid intestine in all groups fed vegetable oils compared to the group fed fish oil. In the distal intestine, the complex folds were significantly shorter in the fish fed soybean oil compared to the fish fed rapeseed oil. Histological and immunohistochemical examination did not show clear difference in the degree of inflammation or proliferation of epithelial cells related to dietary groups, which was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR which revealed only moderate alterations in the mRNA transcript levels of selected immune-related genes. Conclusions Shortened intestinal folds might be associated with reduced intestinal surface and

  3. Response of a seagrass fish assemblage to improved wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ourgaud, M; Ruitton, S; Bell, J D; Letourneur, Y; Harmelin, J G; Harmelin-Vivien, M L

    2015-01-15

    We compared the structure of a seagrass fish assemblage near a sewage outlet before and after improvements to wastewater treatment. To determine whether responses by the fish assemblage were due to changes in water quality or to other factors, comparisons were made with the structure of a fish assemblage from a nearby site unaffected by sewage effluent. Total species richness, density and biomass of fish, decreased at both sites over the 30-year period. An increase in mean trophic level near the sewage outlet following improvements in water quality indicated that wastewater treatment had another important effect. This result is consistent with the reductions in food webs supporting pelagic and benthic fishes that typically accompany decreases in nutrient inputs. Although improvements to wastewater treatment explained much of the variation in the structure of the fish assemblage at PC, our results also suggest that fishing and climate change, at both sites. PMID:25499183

  4. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  5. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  6. A systematic review of the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, M Scott; Kekic, Adrijana; Graybill, Nicole L; Lancaster, Zachary R

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the association between fish oil supplementation and the development of asthma exacerbations. Comprehensive literature reviews of recent fish oil studies were performed to evaluate alterations in asthma surrogate markers. Additionally, the relative compositions of the fish oils used in each study were analyzed. The results of the review were inconclusive, but provide a basis for future research methods.

  7. Fish oil supplementation for two generations increases insulin sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirabara, Sandro M; Folador, Alessandra; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Lambertucci, Rafael H; Rodrigues, Carlos F; Rocha, Marlene S; Aikawa, Julia; Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Martins, Amanda R; Rodrigues, Alice C; Carpinelli, Angelo R; Pithon-Curi, Tania C; Fernandes, Luiz C; Gorjão, Renata; Curi, Rui

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effect of fish oil supplementation for two consecutive generations on insulin sensitivity in rats. After the nursing period (21 days), female rats from the same prole were divided into two groups: (a) control group and (b) fish oil group. Female rats were supplemented with water (control) or fish oil at 1 g/kg body weight as a single bolus for 3 months. After this period, female rats were mated with male Wistar rats fed on a balanced chow diet (not supplemented). Female rats continued to receive supplementation throughout gestation and lactation periods. The same treatment was performed for the next two generations (G1 and G2). At 75 days of age, male offspring from G1 and G2 generations from both groups were used in the experiments. G1 rats did not present any difference with control rats. However, G2 rats presented reduction in glycemia and lipidemia and improvement in in vivo insulin sensitivity (model assessment of insulin resistance, insulin tolerance test) as well as in vitro insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle (glucose uptake and metabolism). This effect was associated with increased insulin-stimulated p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation and lower n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio, but not with activation of proteins from insulin signaling (IR, IRS-1 and Akt). Global DNA methylation was decreased in liver but not in soleus muscle. These results suggest that long-term fish oil supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in association with increased insulin-stimulated p38 activation and decreased n-6:n-3 ratio in skeletal muscle and decreased global DNA methylation in liver. PMID:23246156

  8. Fish Oil Enhances Recovery of Intestinal Microbiota and Epithelial Integrity in Chronic Rejection of Intestinal Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiurong; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Chenyang; Tang, Chun; Zhang, Yanmei; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2011-01-01

    Background The intestinal chronic rejection (CR) is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. Methods/Principal Findings The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. Conclusions/Significance Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation. PMID:21698145

  9. Influence of palm oil and glycerol on properties of fish skin gelatin-based films.

    PubMed

    Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2016-06-01

    Properties of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with palm oil at 50 and 75 % (w/w) as affected by glycerol at 0-30 % (w/w) were investigated. Increases in water vapour permeability and elongation at break along with decrease in tensile strength were noticed when levels of glycerol were increased (p < 0.05). Decrease in L*- and a*-values with coincidental increase in b*- and ΔE*-values were observed in emulsified films when amount of palm oil incorporated increased (p < 0.05). Light transmittance of all films increased as glycerol levels were increased (p < 0.05). FTIR results suggested that the protein-protein interaction in film matrix decreased when palm oil was incorporated. Films added with palm oil had lower glass transition and degradation temperatures than control films. The addition of 75 % palm oil and 10 % glycerol improved water vapour barrier property of fish skin gelatin films without drastic alteration of mechanical properties. PMID:27478227

  10. Authentication of canned fish packing oils by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Vidal, Ana; Pantoja-de la Rosa, Jaime; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; Ayora-Cañada, María José

    2016-01-01

    The authentication of packing oil from commercial canned tuna and other tuna-like fish species was examined by means of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and chemometrics. Using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), it was possible to differentiate olive oil from seed oils. Discrimination of olive oil from high-oleic sunflower oil was possible, despite the latter having a degree of unsaturation more similar to olive oil than to sunflower oil. However, in the samples analyzed, sunflower oil could not be differentiated clearly from those labeled with the generic term "vegetable oil". Furthermore, the authentication of extra virgin olive oil, although more difficult, could be achieved using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The method could be applied regardless of fish type, without interference from fish lipids. PMID:26212950

  11. Modifying shale oil to improve flow characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1982-05-01

    Shale oil, which forms a viscous, wax slurry below 25 C, was treated in several different ways to try to improve its flow characteristics as measured in a concentric cylinder viscometer. Removing the wax does not greatly improve the pumpability of the oil. Hydrotreatment of the whole oil to take out nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen can lower the viscosity by a factor of five or more, even though the pour point is not greatly affected. Apparently hydrogenolysis of the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen lowers the molecular weight of the oil without much modification of the paraffinic wax. The pour point of the shale oil can be decreased with various commercial pour improvers. Sometimes an accompanying drop in viscosity is observed, but most of this decrease is not stable to shear in the viscometer.

  12. Fish oil promotes survival and protects against cognitive decline in severely undernourished mice by normalizing satiety signals.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Yosefa; Saidian, Mayer; Burston, James J; Mevorach, Raphael; Vorobiev, Lia; Magen, Iddo; Kunkes, Eithan; Borges, Beatriz; Lichtman, Aron H; Berry, Elliot M

    2011-08-01

    Severe malnutrition resulting from anorexia nervosa or involuntary starvation leads to low weight, cognitive deficits and increased mortality rates. In the present study, we examined whether fish oil supplementation, compared with that of canola oil, would ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions by normalizing endocannabinoid and monoaminergic systems as well as other systems involved in satiety and cognitive function within the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Female Sabra mice restricted to 40% of their daily food intake exhibited decreased body weight, were sickly in appearance, displayed cognitive deficits and had increased mortality rates. Strikingly, fish oil supplementation that contains high omega-3 fatty acids levels decreased mortality and morbidity, and normalized the expression of genes and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Fish oil supplementation, but not canola oil, increased survival rates, improved general appearance and prevented cognitive decline, despite the facts that both diets contained an equivalent number of calories and that there were no differences in weight between mice maintained on the two diets in 100% but decrease in the 40%. In the hypothalamus, the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation were related to normalization of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol, serotonin (5-HT) (P<.056), dopamine, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (Camkk2). In the hippocampus, fish oil supplementation normalized 5-HT, Camkk2, silent mating type information regulation 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. In conclusion, dietary supplements of fish oil, as source of omega-3 fatty acids, may alleviate cognitive impairments associated with severe diet restriction and prolong survival independently of weight gain by normalizing neurochemical systems. PMID:21109417

  13. Fatty acid profiles, growth, and immune responses of neonatal lambs fed milk replacer and supplemented with fish oil or safflower oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets supplemented with long-chain, n-3 (e.g., marine fish oil) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have improved the health and performance of neonatal and growing animals. This study was conducted with lambs that were orphaned at approximately 1 day of age to determine whether supplementing milk re...

  14. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with fish protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Pedro J; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-07-15

    The emulsifying and antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the physical and oxidative stabilization of 5% (by weight) fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Muscle proteins from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) were hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-4-5-6% with subtilisin. Sardine hydrolysates with low DH, 3% and 4%, presented the most effective peptides to physically stabilize emulsions with smaller droplet size. This implied more protein adsorbed at the interface to act as physical barrier against prooxidants. This fact might also be responsible for the higher oxidative stability of these emulsions, as shown by their lowest peroxide value and concentration of volatiles such as 1-penten-3-one and 1-penten-3-ol. Among the hydrolysates prepared from small-spotted catshark only the hydrolysate with DH 3% yielded a physically stable emulsion with low concentration of unsaturated aldehydes. These results show the potential of FPH as alternative protein emulsifiers for the production of oxidatively stable fish oil-in-water emulsions. PMID:26948597

  15. Fish Oil Reduces Hepatic Injury by Maintaining Normal Intestinal Permeability and Microbiota in Chronic Ethanol-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiun-Rong; Chen, Ya-Ling; Peng, Hsiang-Chi; Lu, Yu-An; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Hsiao-Yun; Su, Yu-Ju; Yang, Suh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of fish oil on hepatic injury in ethanol-fed rats based on the intestinal permeability and microbiota. Rats were assigned to 6 groups and fed either a control diet or an ethanol diet such as C (control), CF25 (control with 25% fish oil), CF57 (control with 57% fish oil), E (ethanol), EF25 (ethanol with 25% fish oil), and EF57 (ethanol with 57% fish oil) groups. Rats were sacrificed at the end of 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and aminotransferase (ALT) activities, hepatic cytokines, and plasma endotoxin levels were significantly higher in the E group. In addition, hepatic histopathological analysis scores in the E group were significantly elevated. Rats in the E group also showed increased intestinal permeability and decreased numbers of fecal Bifidobacterium. However, plasma AST and ALT activities and hepatic cytokine levels were significantly lower in the EF25 and EF57 groups. Histological changes and intestinal permeability were also improved in the EF25 and EF57 groups. The fecal Escherichia coli numbers were significantly lower, but fecal Bifidobacterium numbers were significantly higher in the EF25 and EF57 groups. PMID:27143963

  16. [Thermogenesis in overfeeding with administration of olive oil and fish oil in a swine model study].

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, M; Müller, H L

    1995-09-01

    A trial on total metabolism was conducted in eight nonpregnant, nonlactating sows over eight periods, each of 16 days duration, to measure potential fatty acid induced thermogenesis. During the first and last experimental periods, the animals received a basal ration which just covered the energy maintenance requirement. In the second to seventh periods supplements of olive oil, fish oil, or puffed wheat starch as reference nutrient were added to the diet in random sequence at two levels up to 50% above the maintenance requirement. All rations were calculated with reference to the sows' initial weight and remained quantitatively unchanged throughout the experiment. The animals were fed twice daily. During each metabolism period a complete energy balance was assessed for all sows by means of collection technique (feed, feces, urine), and 48-h measurements of the gas exchange in a respiration chamber. The sows' body mass increased linearly during the course of the experiment by 5.8 kg per period. The three supplement types had no influence on the animals' final body weight, wich averaged 205.5 kg with the starch supplement, 204.8 kg with olive oil, and 205.8 kg with fish oil. Energy digestibility (DE/GE) was 100% for all three supplements, and metabolizability of energy (ME/GE) one percentage point less. Carbon and energy depositions showed a pronounced linear relationship to the level of supplementation and were also influenced by the type of supplement. Heat production was 20.9 MJ/d after feeding the basal ration alone and, taking the average of the two supplementation levels, 21.6 MJ for the starch supplement, 21.0 MJ for olive oil, and 20.6 MJ for fish oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7502542

  17. Enhanced bioavailability of EPA from emulsified fish oil preparations versus capsular triacylglycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations on phospholipid (PLFA) and chylomicron fatty ...

  18. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  19. Oxidized fish oil in rat pregnancy causes high newborn mortality and increases maternal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Lewandowski, Paul A; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2016-09-01

    Fish oil is commonly taken by pregnant women, and supplements sold at retail are often oxidized. Using a rat model, we aimed to assess the effects of supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy in mothers and offspring, focusing on newborn viability and maternal insulin sensitivity. Female rats were allocated to a control or high-fat diet and then mated. These rats were subsequently randomized to receive a daily gavage treatment of 1 ml of unoxidized fish oil, a highly oxidized fish oil, or control (water) throughout pregnancy. At birth, the gavage treatment was stopped, but the same maternal diets were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy had a marked adverse effect on newborn survival at day 2, leading to much greater odds of mortality than in the control (odds ratio 8.26) and unoxidized fish oil (odds ratio 13.70) groups. In addition, maternal intake of oxidized fish oil during pregnancy led to increased insulin resistance at the time of weaning (3 wks after exposure) compared with control dams (HOMA-IR 2.64 vs. 1.42; P = 0.044). These data show that the consumption of oxidized fish oil is harmful in rat pregnancy, with deleterious effects in both mothers and offspring. PMID:27385731

  20. Sweep improvement in enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Djabbarah, N.F.

    1987-11-03

    The method of sweep improvement in an operation involving enhanced oil recovery from a subterranean oil-bearing formation, is described, comprising: (a) injecting, through an injection well into a subterranean oil-bearing formation, an aqueous slug comprising a mixed surfactant system of (1) at least one foaming agent selected from the group consisting of anionic, nonionic, and amphoteric surfactants having foam-producing properties, and (2) a lignosulfonate foaming agent, (b) injecting displacing fluid into the formation through the injection well, with the fluid interacting with the mixed surfactant system to form foam and displacing the oil therein toward a production well, and, (c) recovering the displaced oil through the production well.

  1. Apoptosis-Mediated Chemoprevention by Different Ratios of Fish Oil in Experimental Colon Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gayatri; Rani, Isha; Bhatnagar, Archana; Agnihotri, Navneet

    2016-05-27

    Apoptosis plays an important role in prevention of colon cancer. In the present study, different ratios of fish oil and corn oil increased Fas expression in both phases and a decrease in FasL expression only in post initiation phase. Treatment with fish oil activated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by increasing Bax expression and Cyt c release and decreasing Bcl-2 levels in both phases. This suggests that intrinsic pathway is upregulated by fish oil; however, Fas-FasL activity may be involved in inhibition of reversal of immune surveillance in tumor cells. PMID:27191482

  2. Designing fish for improved human health status.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul A; McLean, Ewen; Craig, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    The time-course of accumulation of dietary organic and inorganic selenium (Se; 1.5 mg Se kg(-1) dry weight feed) was examined for muscle and hepatic tissues of hybrid striped bass (HSB) over 6 weeks. Animals, which had been fed a Se deficient diet for 2 months prior to study, were maintained in a recirculating life support system at 28 +/- 1 degrees C. PIT tagged fish were randomly assigned to one of 24 120 L aquaria (n = 5 per tank) and subsequently fed one of four diets: a fishmeal-based diet (control), soybean-casein-based feeds either supplemented with organic (SelPlex) or inorganic (sodium selenite) Se or as a basal diet, purposefully deficient in Se. Fish were fed twice daily on a 4% body weight basis. Samples taken at trial start (week 0), mid-way (3 weeks) and at trial end (6 weeks) included weight and length data, hepatosomatic (HSI) and visceral (VSI) indices, intraperitoneal fat (IPF) and muscle (MR) and feed conversion (FCR) ratios, serum protein (SP), hematocrit (PCV), and serum glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) activity and muscle and heaptic Se concentrations. Survival was also monitored throughout the study. Muscle and hepatic Se levels increased in fishmeal and Se supplemented diets throughout the study. At trail end, greatest weight gain (P < 0.05) was observed in fish fed the control, fishmeal-based diet. Comparison of tissue Se levels indicated that the liver accumulated this mineral at greater concentrations than the muscle with highest levels being observed in the inorganic Se fed fish (P < 0.05). Se accumulation in control and inorganic Se fed fish was similar, whilst Se in the liver of fish fed the Se deficient diet was lowest among groups (P < 0.05). Muscle Se accumulation was found to be greatest in organic Se containing diets (P < 0.05), whereas the basal, Se deficient diet group, returned lowest levels (P < 0.05). Plasma GP(x) activity was similar in HSB fed the fishmeal and organic Se diets. The fishmeal fed group expressed higher (P < 0

  3. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

  4. Potential of thraustochytrids to partially replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon feeds.

    PubMed

    Carter, C G; Bransden, M P; Lewis, T E; Nichols, P D

    2003-01-01

    The replacement of fish oil with a dried product made from thraustochytrid culture, a marine microorganism, in canola-oil-based diets for Atlantic salmon was investigated. Salmon (37 g) were fed for 51 days on diets containing only canola oil, canola oil and fish oil, or canola oil and the thraustochytrid. There were no significant differences in final weight (106.1 +/- 1.1 g), weight gain (69.6 +/- 1.1 g), feed consumption (16.5 +/- 0.2 mg dry matter g(-1) d(-1)), feed efficiency ratio (1.15 +/- 0.03 g (g-1)), or productive protein value (51.2% +/- 1.7%) between the diets. Nor were there any significant differences in whole-body chemical composition, organ somatic indices, or measures of immune function. However, following transfer to seawater and 2 challenges with Vibrio anguillarum, cumulative mortality was significantly lower in fish fed some fish oil than in those fed the 2 diets containing no fish oil. In conclusion, the thraustochytrid had no detrimental effects on the performance of salmon but, at the current inclusion of 10%, failed to confer the same effect as fish oil under challenging conditions. PMID:14730431

  5. Fish oils lower rat plasma and hepatic, but not immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D W; McGuire, S O; Cassity, N A; Fritsche, K L

    1995-10-01

    These studies were designed to measure the impact of different fish oil sources of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid on the alpha-tocopherol content of rat immune cells. In the first experiment, rats were fed diets containing either lard, corn oil, menhaden fish oil or cod liver oil. In the second study, sardine fish oil replaced corn oil. Dietary fat source did not significantly influence body weights or the yield of immune cells in either study. In both studies, plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid-fed rats than in rats fed lard. In the first study, immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentrations followed those observed in the plasma and liver. These concentrations closely paralleled the amount of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate added to diets and not the total vitamin E present, which was the same for all treatment groups. However, in the second study, alpha-tocopherol concentration of immune cells was not significantly different among rats fed lard, menhaden fish oil, and sardine fish oil. In that study both the amount and form of vitamin E were carefully balanced across dietary treatment groups. In conclusion, despite having similar amounts of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, two out of three fish oils tested did not lower immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration even in the face of significantly reduced plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations. PMID:7562101

  6. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; de Barros, Karina Vieira; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or lungs. Methods Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27274303

  7. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  8. Effect of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Encapsulation of Nano-Emulsified Fish Oil on Their Digestibility Ex Vivo and Skin Permeability In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun Young; Hong, Ki Bae; Son, Heung Soo; Suh, Hyung Joo; Park, Yooheon

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 rich fish oils are extremely labile, thus requiring control of oxidation and off flavor development. A recently proposed emulsification method, layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition, was found to be a plausible method to enhance the characteristics of bioactive ingredients, especially lipids. The present work was designed to test the possibility of enhancing the uptake and utilization of omega-3 fatty acids present in fish oil. The bioavailability of nano-emulsified fish oil was monitored in terms of intestinal absorption as well as skin permeability by using the everted intestinal sac model and Franz cell model. The skin permeability and intestinal absorption characteristics was significantly improved by LbL emulsification with lecithin/chitosan/low methoxypectin. Multilayer encapsulation along with nano-emulsification can be a useful method to deliver biologically active lipids and related components, such as fish oil. The protective effect of this tool from lipid oxidation still needs to be verified. PMID:27390723

  9. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Mickleborough, Timothy D; Murray, Rachael L; Ionescu, Alina A; Lindley, Martin R

    2003-11-15

    In elite athletes, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may respond to dietary modification, thereby reducing the need for pharmacologic treatment. Ten elite athletes with EIB and 10 elite athletes without EIB (control subjects) participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects entered the study on their normal diet, and then received either fish oil capsules containing 3.2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.2 g docohexaenoic acid (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA] diet; n = 5) or placebo capsules containing olive oil (placebo diet; n = 5) taken daily for 3 weeks. Diet had no effect on preexercise pulmonary function in either group or on postexercise pulmonary function in control subjects. However, in subjects with EIB, the n-3 PUFA diet improved postexercise pulmonary function compared with the normal and placebo diets. FEV1 decreased by 3 +/- 2% on n-3 PUFA diet, 14.5 +/- 5% on placebo diet, and 17.3 +/- 6% on normal diet at 15 minutes postexercise. Leukotriene (LT)E4, 9alpha, 11beta-prostaglandin F2, LTB4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, all significantly decreased on the n-3 PUFA diet compared with normal and placebo diets and after the exercise challenge. These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties. PMID:12904324

  10. Assessment of Thermal and Textural Characteristics and Consumer Preferences of Lemon and Strawberry Flavored Fish Oil Organogels.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öǧütcü, Mustafa; Arifoglu, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, strawberry and lemon flavored fish oil organogels (FOO) were prepared with beeswax as the organogelator. The physical, thermal and textural characteristics as well as the consumer preferences of the flavored organogels were determined in comparison with fish oil and FOO containing no flavor. Furthermore, the stability of the organogels was evaluated during 90 day storage at 4°C. The results revealed that, structurally stable fish oil organogels as spreadable products might be formed and that flavoring of the gels enhances consumer preference. Thus, flavoring of fish oil organogels could be a challenge in increasing the consumption of fish oil. PMID:26369597

  11. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  12. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses. PMID

  13. An early approach for the evaluation of repair processes in fish after exposure to sediment contaminated by an oil spill.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, Maria J; Jimenez-Tenorio, Natalia; Reguera, Diana F; Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Delvalls, T Angel

    2008-12-01

    A chronic bioassay was carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Solea senegalensis to determine the toxicity of contaminants from an oil spill(Prestige). Also, the repair processes in fish affected by contaminants due to oil exposure were evaluated. Over 30 days individuals were exposed to clean sediment (control) and to sediment contaminated by a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other substances. The physicochemical parameters of the tanks (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were controlled during the exposure period. Clean sediment from the Bay of Cadiz (Spain) was used as negative control and was mixed with fuel oil to prepare the dilution (0.5% w:w dry-weight). After the exposure period, fish were labeled and transferred to "clean tanks" (tanks without sediment) in order to study the recovery and the repair processes in the exposed organisms. A biomarker of exposure (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity - EROD activity) and a biomarker of effect (histopathology) were analyzed during the exposure and recovery period. After 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure, individuals showed significant induction (P < 0.05) of the EROD activity and also presented diverse histopathological damages. The analysis of both the biomarkers of exposure and effect, after the 5th and 10th day of recovery in the "clean tank", enabled a first evaluation of the repair process of the induced damages due to the fuel oil exposure. After the recovery phase, control individuals showed a more significant decrease (P < 0.05) of the alteration of the measured biomarkers than in the oil-exposed fish. While in the oil-exposed fish the EROD activity showed some recovery, the histopathological damages did hardly improve. According to our results, tissue repair processes probably need longer recovery periods to observe significant improvement of the affected organs. This will be further investigated in the future. PMID:18988095

  14. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality. PMID:26983467

  15. Over-the-counter fish oil use in a county hospital: Medication use evaluation and efficacy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tatachar, Amulya; Pio, Margaret; Yeung, Denise; Moss, Elizabeth; Chow, Diem; Boatright, Steven; Quinones, Marissa; Mathew, Annie; Hulstein, Jeffrey; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Ahmad, Zahid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the use and effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC) fish oil supplements for triglyceride (TG) lowering. OBJECTIVES To (1) perform a medication-use evaluation (MUE) and (2) assess the efficacy of OTC fish oil. METHODS Retrospective, observational cohort study using electronic medical records and the pharmacy database from Parkland Health and Hospital System in Dallas, Texas. Parkland is a tax-supported county institution that provides patients with single-brand OTC fish oil. Two separate analyses were conducted. Six hundred seventeen patients (prescribed fish oil between July 1, 2012, and August 31, 2012) were included in the MUE analysis and 235 patients (109 fish oil, 72 fenofibrate, and 54 gemfibrozil, prescribed between January 1, 2012, and July 31, 2013) were included in the efficacy analysis. The main outcome measure for the MUE was fish oil prescribing habits including dosages and patient adherence, as defined by medication possession ratio. The main outcome measure for the efficacy analysis was change in lipids measured using the last value before fish oil treatment and the first value after fish oil treatment. RESULTS MUE: 617 patients received prescriptions for OTC fish oil. Sixty-four percent were prescribed a total daily dose of 2000 mg. Only 25% of patients were adherent. Efficacy analysis: despite being prescribed suboptimal doses, fish oil reduced TGs by 29% (95% confidence interval, 34.3–22.7). Compared with fish oil therapy, fibrate therapy resulted in a greater TG reduction: 48.5% (55.1–41.0) with fenofibrate and 49.8% (57.6–40.5) with gemfibrozil (P < 0001, both medications compared with fish oil). CONCLUSIONS Health care providers prescribe suboptimal doses of fish oil, and adherence is poor. Even at low doses (2 g/d), though, fish oil lowers TGs by 29%. PMID:26073390

  16. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  17. The preventive effect of fish oil on abdominal aortic aneurysm development.

    PubMed

    Kugo, Hirona; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Mouri, Youhei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Urano, Tetsumei; Unno, Naoki; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta and high rupture-related mortality rates. AAA is histologically characterized by oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and extracellular matrix degradation in the vascular wall. We previously demonstrated that aortic hypoperfusion could cause the vascular inflammation and AAA formation. However, the preventive method for hypoperfusion-induced AAA remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of fish oil on AAA development using a hypoperfusion-induced AAA animal model. Dilation of the abdominal aorta in the fish oil administration group was smaller than in the control group. Collagen destruction and oxidative stress were suppressed in the fish oil administration group than in the control group. These results suggested that fish oil could prevent the development of AAA induced by hypoperfusion. PMID:27022887

  18. A nutritionally-enhanced oil from transgenic Camelina sativa effectively replaces fish oil as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid for fish

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, M. B.; Sprague, M.; Usher, S.; Sayanova, O.; Campbell, P. J.; Napier, J. A.; Tocher, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    For humans a daily intake of up to 500 mg omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is recommended, amounting to an annual requirement of 1.25 million metric tonnes (mt) for a population of 7 billion people. The annual global supply of n-3 LC-PUFA cannot meet this level of requirement and so there is a large gap between supply and demand. The dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, fish and seafood, is increasingly provided by aquaculture but using fish oil in feeds to supply n-3 LC-PUFA is unsustainable. Therefore, new sources of n-3 LC-PUFA are required to supply the demand from aquaculture and direct human consumption. One approach is metabolically engineering oilseed crops to synthesize n-3 LC-PUFA in seeds. Transgenic Camelina sativa expressing algal genes was used to produce an oil containing n-3 LC-PUFA to replace fish oil in salmon feeds. The oil had no detrimental effects on fish performance, metabolic responses or the nutritional quality of the fillets of the farmed fish. PMID:25632018

  19. A nutritionally-enhanced oil from transgenic Camelina sativa effectively replaces fish oil as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid for fish.

    PubMed

    Betancor, M B; Sprague, M; Usher, S; Sayanova, O; Campbell, P J; Napier, J A; Tocher, D R

    2015-01-01

    For humans a daily intake of up to 500 mg omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) is recommended, amounting to an annual requirement of 1.25 million metric tonnes (mt) for a population of 7 billion people. The annual global supply of n-3 LC-PUFA cannot meet this level of requirement and so there is a large gap between supply and demand. The dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, fish and seafood, is increasingly provided by aquaculture but using fish oil in feeds to supply n-3 LC-PUFA is unsustainable. Therefore, new sources of n-3 LC-PUFA are required to supply the demand from aquaculture and direct human consumption. One approach is metabolically engineering oilseed crops to synthesize n-3 LC-PUFA in seeds. Transgenic Camelina sativa expressing algal genes was used to produce an oil containing n-3 LC-PUFA to replace fish oil in salmon feeds. The oil had no detrimental effects on fish performance, metabolic responses or the nutritional quality of the fillets of the farmed fish. PMID:25632018

  20. Potential impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on large pelagic fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias-Torres, Sarrah; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    2011-11-01

    Biogeographical analyses provide insights on how the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted large pelagic fishes. We georeferenced historical ichthyoplankton surveys and published literature to map the spawning and larval areas of bluefin tuna, swordfish, blue marlin and whale shark sightings in the Gulf of Mexico with daily satellite-derived images detecting surface oil. The oil spill covered critical areas used by large pelagic fishes. Surface oil was detected in 100% of the northernmost whale shark sightings, in 32.8 % of the bluefin tuna spawning area and 38 % of the blue marlin larval area. No surface oil was detected in the swordfish spawning and larval area. Our study likely underestimates the extend of the oil spill due to satellite sensors detecting only the upper euphotic zone and the use of dispersants altering crude oil density, but provides a previously unknown spatio-temporal analysis.

  1. Fish oil enhances intestinal barrier function and inhibits corticotropin-releasing hormone/corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 signalling pathway in weaned pigs after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Chen, Shaokui; Wang, Xiuying; Pi, Dingan; Leng, Weibo; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jing; Kang, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Stress induces injury in intestinal barrier function in piglets. Long-chain n-3 PUFA have been shown to exhibit potential immunomodulatory and barrier protective effects in animal models and clinical trials. In addition, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)/CRH receptor (CRHR) signalling pathways play an important role in stress-induced alterations of intestinal barrier function. We hypothesised that fish oil could affect intestinal barrier function and CRH/CRHR signalling pathways. In total, thirty-two weaned pigs were allocated to one of four treatments. The experiment consisted of a 2×2 factorial design, and the main factors included immunological challenge (saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) and diet (5 % maize oil or 5 % fish oil). On d 19 of the trial, piglets were treated with saline or LPS. At 4 h after injection, all pigs were killed, and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, spleen and intestinal samples were collected. Fish oil decreased bacterial translocation incidence and the number of translocated micro-organisms in the MLN. Fish oil increased intestinal claudin-1 protein relative concentration and villus height, as well as improved the intestinal morphology. In addition, fish oil supplementation increased intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte number and prevented elevations in intestinal mast cell and neutrophil numbers induced by LPS challenge. Moreover, fish oil tended to decrease the mRNA expression of intestinal CRHR1, CRH and glucocorticoid receptors. These results suggest that fish oil supplementation improves intestinal barrier function and inhibits CRH/CRHR1 signalling pathway and mast cell tissue density. PMID:27080003

  2. Bifidobacterium lactis 420 and fish oil enhance intestinal epithelial integrity in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Mokkala, Kati; Laitinen, Kirsi; Röytiö, Henna

    2016-03-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is a predisposing factor for low-grade inflammation-associated conditions, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Dietary components may influence intestinal barrier integrity. We hypothesized that the dietary supplements Bifidobacterium lactis 420, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, and fish oil have beneficial impacts on intestinal barrier integrity. In addition, we hypothesized that the coadministration of these components results in synergistic benefits to the integrity of the intestinal barrier. To study this, we investigated the impact of cell-free culture supernatant from dietary supplements B lactis 420 and L rhamnosus HN001, and fish oil, separately and in combination, on intestinal permeability in a CaCo-2 cell model. Administered separately, both B lactis 420 supernatant and fish oil significantly increased the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier, as determined by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), whereas L rhamnosus did not. The TEER increase with B lactis 420 was dose dependent. Interestingly, a combination of B lactis 420 supernatant and fish oil negated the increase in TEER of the single components. mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, was not altered, but the mRNA expression of myosin light chain kinase increased after fish oil treatment. To conclude, single dietary components, namely, B lactis 420 and fish oil, induced beneficial effects on intestinal barrier integrity in vitro, whereas a combination of 2 beneficial test compounds resulted in a null effect. PMID:26923511

  3. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  4. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  5. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  6. Intestinal failure-associated liver disease and the use of fish oil-based lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Olivier J

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is caused by the critical reduction of functional gut mass below the minimal amount necessary for adequate digestion and absorption to satisfy body nutrient and fluid requirements for maintenance in adults and growth in children. The advent of parenteral nutrition (PN) resulted in a dramatic improvement in life expectancy of patients suffering IF, but it has its own complications, such as catheter related sepsis. In pediatric patients suffering IF, intraluminal intestinal bacterial overgrowth may cause bacterial translocation and subsequent cholestasis and liver fibrosis. With our current understanding of the genesis of intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD), it should be prevented or at least early recognized and treated especially in patients experiencing prematurity and/or sepsis. Targeting harmful cytokine responses can be expected to reduce the severity and frequency of IFALD. In that view, prevention of sepsis, appropriate management of enteral feeding, prevention and treatment of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and the effects of fish oil, as providing omega-3 fatty with anti-inflammatory effects, are promising in avoiding or reversing cholestasis. This chapter aims to review both IF and PN related factors of liver disease with special emphasize on inflammation as cause of liver injury and on the use of fish oil based lipid emulsions as a provision of both alpha-tocopherol (200 g/l of 20% emulsion), as anti-oxidant agent and long-chain PUFAs. PMID:25471806

  7. Protective effects of fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Abo-Youssef, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major aim of this work was to study the protective effects of fish oil (FO), allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in experimental rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 served as a negative control. Group 2 served as hepatic IR control injury. Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received N-acetylcysteine (standard), FO, allopurinol, and verapamil, respectively, for 3 consecutive days prior to ischemia. All animals were fasted for 12 h, anesthetized and underwent midline laparotomy. The portal triads were clamped by mini-artery clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min. Blood samples were withdrawn for estimation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities as well as hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase, and total nitrate/nitrite levels, in addition to histopathological examination. Results: Fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil reduced hepatic IR injury as evidenced by significant reduction in serum ALT and AST enzyme activities. FO and verapamil markedly reduced oxidative stress as compared to control IR injury. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers in liver were also reduced after treatment with FO, allopurinol, or verapamil. In accordance, a marked improvement of histopathological findings was observed with all of the three treatments. Conclusion: The findings of this study prove the benefits of FO, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic IR-induced liver injury and are promising for further clinical trials. PMID:26283828

  8. Fish oil and krill oil supplementations differentially regulate lipid catabolic and synthetic pathways in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Marine derived oils are rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have long been associated with health promoting effects such as reduced plasma lipid levels and anti-inflammatory effects. Krill oil (KO) is a novel marine oil on the market and is also rich in EPA and DHA, but the fatty acids are incorporated mainly into phospholipids (PLs) rather than triacylglycerols (TAG). This study compares the effects of fish oil (FO) and KO on gene regulation that influences plasma and liver lipids in a high fat diet mouse model. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HF) containing 24% (wt/wt) fat (21.3% lard and 2.3% soy oil), or the HF diet supplemented with FO (15.7% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.8% FO) or KO (15.6% lard, 2.3% soy oil and 5.7% KO) for 6 weeks. Total levels of cholesterol, TAG, PLs, and fatty acid composition were measured in plasma and liver. Gene regulation was investigated using quantitative PCR in liver and intestinal epithelium. Results Plasma cholesterol (esterified and unesterified), TAG and PLs were significantly decreased with FO. Analysis of the plasma lipoprotein particles indicated that the lipid lowering effect by FO is at least in part due to decreased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) content in plasma with subsequent liver lipid accumulation. KO lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) with a minor effect on fatty acid accumulation in the liver. In spite of a lower omega-3 fatty acid content in the KO supplemented diet, plasma and liver PLs omega-3 levels were similar in the two groups, indicating a higher bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from KO. KO more efficiently decreased arachidonic acid and its elongation/desaturation products in plasma and liver. FO mainly increased the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, while KO specifically decreased the expression of genes involved in

  9. Fish oil and argan oil intake differently modulate insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a rat model of dietary-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Samane, Samira; Christon, Raymond; Dombrowski, Luce; Turcotte, Stéphane; Charrouf, Zoubida; Lavigne, Charles; Levy, Emile; Bachelard, Hélène; Amarouch, Hamid; Marette, André; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the potential metabolic benefits of fish oil (FO) or vegetable argan oil (AO) intake in a dietary model of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Rats were fed a standard chow diet (controls), a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, or an HFHS diet in which 6% of the fat was replaced by either FO or AO feeding, respectively. The HFHS diet increased adipose tissue weight and insulin resistance as revealed by increased fasting glucose and exaggerated glycemic and insulin responses to a glucose tolerance test (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test). Fish oil feeding prevented fat accretion, reduced fasting glycemia, and normalized glycemic or insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test as compared with HFHS diet. Unlike FO consumption, AO intake failed to prevent obesity, yet restored fasting glycemia back to chow-fed control values. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in adipose tissues, skeletal muscles, and liver was greatly attenuated in HFHS rats as compared with chow-fed controls. High-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance was also confirmed in isolated hepatocytes. Fish oil intake prevented insulin resistance by improving or fully restoring insulin signaling responses in all tissues and isolated hepatocytes. Argan oil intake also improved insulin-dependent phosphorylations of Akt and Erk; and in adipose tissue, these responses were increased even beyond values observed in chow-fed controls. Taken together, these results strongly support the beneficial action of FO on diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, an effect likely explained by the ability of FO to prevent HFHS-induced adiposity. Our data also show for the first time that AO can improve some of the metabolic and insulin signaling abnormalities associated with HFHS feeding. PMID:19394055

  10. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  11. Effects of dietary fish oil and vitamin E supplementation on canine lymphocyte proliferation evaluated using a flow cytometric technique.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Casey J; Dietrich, Marilyn A; Horohov, David W; Bauer, John E; Hosgood, Giselle; Mauldin, Glenna E

    2007-10-15

    Lymphocyte proliferation and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) production of PGE(2) were assayed in 15 healthy dogs fed a basal diet supplemented with either sunflower oil (Group Sunflower oil), sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil (Group Fish oil), or sunflower oil and menhaden fish oil plus alpha-tocopherol acetate for 12 weeks (Group Fish oil + E). Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by a flow cytometric technique utilizing the fluorochrome carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The PBMC supernatant PGE(2) concentration was assayed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Group Fish oil had a significant decrease in lymphocyte proliferation at week 12. PBMC production of PGE(2) was decreased in all three groups but only significantly reduced in groups receiving fish oil supplementation. Based on these results, this level of fish oil supplementation appears to suppress the lymphoproliferative response in healthy, young dogs but this response can be attenuated by high levels of dietary vitamin E supplementation. Furthermore, fish oil-induced reduction in lymphocyte proliferation appears to manifest through a PGE(2)-independent mechanism and is not associated with increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:17658617

  12. Astaxanthin limits fish oil-related oxidative insult in the anterior forebrain of Wistar rats: putative anxiolytic effects?

    PubMed

    Mattei, Rita; Polotow, Tatiana G; Vardaris, Cristina V; Guerra, Beatriz A; Leite, José Roberto; Otton, Rosemari; Barros, Marcelo P

    2011-09-01

    The habitual consumption of marine fish is largely associated to human mental health. Fish oil is particularly rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are known to play a role in several neuronal and cognitive functions. In parallel, the orange-pinkish carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA) is found in salmon and displays important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Many neuronal dysfunctions and anomalous psychotic behavior (such as anxiety, depression, etc.) have been strongly related to the higher sensitivity of cathecolaminergic brain regions to oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the combined effect of ASTA and fish oil on the redox status in plasma and in the monoaminergic-rich anterior forebrain region of Wistar rats with possible correlations with the anxiolytic behavior. Upon fish oil supplementation, the downregulation of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities combined to increased "free" iron content resulted in higher levels of lipid and protein oxidation in the anterior forebrain of animals. Such harmful oxidative modifications were hindered by concomitant supplementation with ASTA despite ASTA-related antioxidant protection was mainly observed in plasma. Although it is clear that ASTA properly crosses the brain-blood barrier, our data also address a possible indirect role of ASTA in restoring basal oxidative conditions in anterior forebrain of animals: by improving GSH-based antioxidant capacity of plasma. Preliminary anxiolytic tests performed in the elevated plus maze are in alignment with our biochemical observations. PMID:21619892

  13. Mitigating the impact of oil-palm monoculture on freshwater fishes in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Giam, Xingli; Hadiaty, Renny K; Tan, Heok Hui; Parenti, Lynne R; Wowor, Daisy; Sauri, Sopian; Chong, Kwek Yan; Yeo, Darren C J; Wilcove, David S

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic land-cover change is driving biodiversity loss worldwide. At the epicenter of this crisis lies Southeast Asia, where biodiversity-rich forests are being converted to oil-palm monocultures. As demand for palm oil increases, there is an urgent need to find strategies that maintain biodiversity in plantations. Previous studies found that retaining forest patches within plantations benefited some terrestrial taxa but not others. However, no study has focused on aquatic taxa such as fishes, despite their importance to human well-being. We assessed the efficacy of forested riparian reserves in conserving freshwater fish biodiversity in oil-palm monoculture by sampling stream fish communities in an oil-palm plantation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forested riparian reserves maintained preconversion local fish species richness and functional diversity. In contrast, local and total species richness, biomass, and functional diversity declined markedly in streams without riparian reserves. Mechanistically, riparian reserves appeared to increase local species richness by increasing leaf litter cover and maintaining coarse substrate. The loss of fishes specializing in leaf litter and coarse substrate decreased functional diversity and altered community composition in oil-palm plantation streams that lacked riparian reserves. Thus, a land-sharing strategy that incorporates the retention of forested riparian reserves may maintain the ecological integrity of fish communities in oil-palm plantations. We urge policy makers and growers to make retention of riparian reserves in oil-palm plantations standard practice, and we encourage palm-oil purchasers to source only palm oil from plantations that employ this practice. PMID:25800305

  14. Genetic improvement of wild fish populations.

    PubMed

    Moav, R; Brody, T; Hulata, G

    1978-09-22

    A plan for the genetic improvement of commercially exploited wild animals is presented. It consists of crossing wild with domesticated breeds to produce heterotic hybrids and to upgrade the wild stocks. Empirical evidence is presented from experiments with the carp. Procedures for monitoring the manipulated populations are outlined. The suggested plan is ecologically reasonable and would counteract the negative genetic changes caused by excessive commercial exploitation of many species. PMID:17830305

  15. SURFACTANT - POLYMER INTERACTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-10-01

    The goal of this research is to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, adsorption and mobility control. Surfactant--polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation high adsorption and viscous/heterogeneity fingering. A mixture comprising a ''pseudo oil'' with appropriate surfactant and polymer has been selected to study micellar-polymer chemical flooding. The physical properties and phase behavior of this system have been determined. A surfactant-polymer slug has been designed to achieve high efficiency recovery by improving phase behavior and mobility control. Recovery experiments have been performed on linear cores and a quarter 5-spot. The same recovery experiments have been simulated using a commercially available simulator (UTCHEM). Good agreement between experimental data and simulation results has been achieved.

  16. Comparison of bioavailability of krill oil versus fish oil and health effect

    PubMed Central

    Ulven, Stine M; Holven, Kirsten B

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this review is to summarize the effects of krill oil (KO) or fish oil (FO) on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation in plasma phospholipids or membrane of red blood cells (RBCs) as shown in human and animal studies. Furthermore, we discuss the findings in relation to the possible different health effects, focusing on lipids, inflammatory markers, cardiovascular disease risk, and biological functions of these two sources of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed in January 2015. In total, 113 articles were identified, but based on selection criteria, 14 original papers were included in the review. Results Studies on bioavailability of EPA and DHA from KO and FO in humans and animals are limited and the interpretation is difficult, as different amounts of EPA and DHA have been used, duration of intervention differs, and different study groups have been included. Two human studies – one postprandial study and one intervention study – used the same amount of EPA and DHA from KO or FO, and they both showed that the bioavailability of EPA and DHA from KO seems to be higher than that from FO. Limited effects of KO and FO on lipids and inflammatory markers in human and animal studies were reported. Gene expression data from animal studies showed that FO upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite of the effect mediated by KO. KO also regulated far more metabolic pathways than FO, which may indicate different biological effects of KO and FO. Conclusion There seems to be a difference in bioavailability of EPA and DHA after intake of KO and FO, but more studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be made. It is also necessary to document the beneficial health effects of KO with more human studies and to elucidate if these effects differ from those after regular fish and FO intake. PMID:26357480

  17. Influence of formulas with borage oil or borage oil plus fish oil on the arachidonic acid status in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Demmelmair, H; Feldl, F; Horváth, I; Niederland, T; Ruszinkó, V; Raederstorff, D; De Min, C; Muggli, R; Koletzko, B

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have reported that feeding gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has resulted in no increase in arachidonic acid (AA) in newborns. This result was ascribed to the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich fish oil used in these formulas. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) sources with only minor amounts of EPA are now available, thus the addition of GLA to infant formulas might be considered an alternative to AA supplementation. Sixty-six premature infants were randomized to feeding one of four formulas [ST: no GLA, no long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; BO: 0.6% GLA (borage oil); BO + FOLOW: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.06% EPA; BO + FOHIGH: 0.6% GLA, 0.3% DHA, 0.2% EPA] or human milk (HM, nonrandomized) for 4 wk. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were obtained at study entry and after 14 and 28 d. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric measures, tocopherol, and retinol status at any of the studied time points. The AA content of plasma phospholipids was similar between groups at study start and decreased significantly until day 28 in all formulafed groups, but not in the breast-fed infants [ST: 6.6 +/- 0.2%, BO: 6.9 +/- 0.3%, BO + FOLOW: 6.9 +/- 0.4%, BO + FOHIGH: 6.7 +/- 0.2%, HM: 8.6 +/- 0.5%, where values are reported as mean +/- standard error; all formulas significantly different (P< 0.05) from HM]. There was no significant influence of GLA or fish oil addition to the diet. GLA had only a very limited effect on AA status which was too small to obtain satisfactory concentrations (concentrations similar to breast-fed babies) under the circumstances tested. The effect of GLA on AA is independent of the EPA and DHA content in the diet within the dose ranges studied. PMID:11485158

  18. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120

    PubMed Central

    Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock. PMID:26161796

  19. Effect of peppermint and citronella essential oils on properties of fish skin gelatin edible films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanwong, S.; Threepopnatkul, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with peppermint and citronella essential oils at difference concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w) were prepared by solution casting. Addition of peppermint oil contributed to a significant decrease of tensile strength and Young's modulus, while the percent elongation at break showed an obvious increase except at 30% w/w. On the other hand, addition of citronella oils promoted a great increase of tensile strength and young's modulus, but an intense decrease of the percent elongation at break. At the predetermined content, the film incorporated with citronella oils outperformed the one with peppermint oils in term of water vapor transmission and solubility in water. Thermal properties of gelatin films with citronella oils exhibited an enhancement in heat stability, while the one with peppermint oils showed slight decrease in heat stability. The additions with both of essential oils exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  20. A comparative study on the effect of algal and fish oil on viability and cell proliferation of Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    van Beelen, Vincent A; Roeleveld, Johannes; Mooibroek, Hans; Sijtsma, Lolke; Bino, Raoul J; Bosch, Dirk; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Alink, Gerrit M

    2007-05-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich micro-algal oil was tested in vitro and compared with fish oil for antiproliferative properties on cancer cells in vitro. Oils derived from Crypthecodinium cohnii, Schizochytrium sp. and Nitzschia laevis, three commercial algal oil capsules, and menhaden fish oil were used in cell viability and proliferation tests with human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. With these tests no difference was found between algal oil and fish oil. The nonhydrolysed algal oils and fish oil showed a much lower toxic effect on cell viability, and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells than the hydrolysed oils and the free fatty acids (FFAs). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) were used as samples for comparison with the tested hydrolysed and nonhydrolysed oils. The hydrolysed samples showed comparative toxicity as the free fatty acids and no difference between algal and fish oil. Oxidative stress was shown to play a role in the antiproliferative properties of EPA and DHA, as alpha-tocopherol could partially reverse the EPA/DHA-induced effects. The results of the present study support a similar mode of action of algal oil and fish oil on cancer cells in vitro, in spite of their different PUFA content. PMID:17141934

  1. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    St. Hilaire, Danny R.

    2006-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration agreements, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat conditions. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and re-construction aimed at improving fish habitat, through the restoration of stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2005 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2005), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance (O&M), and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). This report also summarizes activities associated with Program Administration, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education.

  2. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight than cod fed the FO diet (50.8 ± 10.3 g/fish). Cod fed 100CO15CM had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight (35.0 ± 8.0 g) than those fed 100CO (43.6 ± 8.9 g) and 100COSEFM (46.7 ± 10.7 g). Cod tissues in the 100COSEFM treatment were most impacted by dietary fatty acid profile. Multivariate statistics revealed that FO and 100COSEFM tissue fatty acid profiles were 21 to 31% different, depending on tissue type. The full replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P < 0.001) elongation of 18:3ω3 of 1.6%. These results suggest that excess 18:3ω3 from camelina oil caused some fatty acid

  3. Boron and fish oil have different beneficial effects on strength and trabecular microarchitecture of bone.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron deprivation would adversely affect vertebra (trabecular) bone microarchitecture, and whether any adverse effect would be modified by dietary fatty acid composition. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1mg (9 micromol) boron/kg in a factorial arrangement with variables of supplemental boron at 0 (boron-deprived) or 3 (boron-adequate) mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g safflower oil/kg or 65 g fish (menhaden)oil/kg plus 10 g linoleic acid/kg. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation, and after weaning. At age 21 weeks, the microarchitecture of the fourth lumbar vertebrae from 12 randomly selected pups from each treatment was determined by microcomputed tomography. Boron deprivation decreased bone volume fraction and increased trabecular separation and structural model index. Boron deprivation decreased trabecular thickness when the dietary oil was safflower. A three-point bending test for bone strength found that boron deprivation decreased the maximum force needed to break the femur. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil decreased connectivity density in vertebrae of boron-deficient but not in boron-adequate rats. Fish oil instead of safflower oil increased the maximum force to break and the bending moment of the femur, especially in rats fed adequate boron. The findings confirm that boron and fish oil are beneficial to cortical bone strength, and show that nutritional intakes of boron are beneficial for trabecular bone microarchitecture and influence the beneficial effects of fish oil on bone. PMID:19486829

  4. SURFACTANT - POLYMER INTERACTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1997-09-01

    The goal of this research is to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, adsorption and mobility control. Surfactant--polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation, high adsorption and viscous/heterogeneity fingering. This report contains data concerning selection of appropriate fluids for use in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. A mixture comprising a ''pseudo oil'' with appropriate surfactant and polymer is proposed. The properties of this system has been determined. The experimental set-up has been conditioned for use and experiments involving the aforementioned system have already started. A commercial simulator has been acquired for use in reproducing the experiments. A graduate student has been trained in its use. Linear stability analysis equations have been developed and phase maps for one and two-dimensions are currently computed.

  5. Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in mice.

    PubMed

    Neschen, Susanne; Morino, Katsutaro; Rossbacher, Jörg C; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Cline, Gary W; Sono, Saki; Gillum, Matthew; Shulman, Gerald I

    2006-04-01

    Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, but little is known about factors that regulate its secretion. To examine the effect of fish oil on adiponectin secretion, mice were fed either a control diet or isocaloric diets containing 27% safflower oil or 27, 13.5, and 8% menhaden fish oil. Within 15 days, fish oil feeding raised plasma adiponectin concentrations two- to threefold in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations remained approximately twofold higher for 7 days when the fish oil diet was replaced by the safflower oil diet. Within 24 h, fish oil markedly induced transcription of the adiponectin gene in epididymal adipose tissue but not in subcutaneous fat. The increase of plasma adiponectin by fish oil was completely blocked by administration of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma inhibitor bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether. In contrast, there was no effect of fish oil feeding on adiponectin secretion in PPARalpha-null mice. These data suggest that fish oil is a naturally occurring potent regulator of adiponectin secretion in vivo and that it does so through a PPARgamma-dependent and PPARalpha-independent manner in epididymal fat. PMID:16567512

  6. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, Troy S.

    1996-06-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife`s Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: (1) Flood damage assessment of project leases after the May 1995 and November 1995 floods, (2) reconstruction of 0.75 miles of riparian fence, (3) inspection and routine maintenance of 14.8 miles of fence, (4) collection of approximately 55,000 native willow and cottonwood cuttings and installation of approximately 21,600 of these material, (5) implementation of two bioengineering projects and initiation of a third project, (6) installation of approximately 30 tree/rootwads for fish habitat enhancement, (7) removal of an abandoned flood irrigation dam/fish barrier, (8) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, and (9) extensive interagency coordination.

  7. Dietary Fish Oil Blocks the Microcirculatory Manifestations of Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury in Striated Muscle in Hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hubner, Christoph; Nolte, Dirk; Kohlschutter, Alfried; Messmer, Konrad

    1991-08-01

    Epidemiologic observations and experimental studies have demonstrated a protective effect of dietary fish oil on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we used the dorsal skinfold chamber model for intravital fluorescence microscopy of the microcirculation in striated muscle of awake hamsters. In control hamsters (n = 7), reperfusion after a 4-hr pressure-induced ischemia to the muscle tissue elicited the adhesion of fluorescently stained leukocytes to the endothelium of postcapillary venules, capillary obstruction, and the breakdown of endothelial integrity. These microvascular manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury were significantly attenuated in animals (n = 7) when fed with a fish oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks prior to the experiments. In leukocyte total lipids, the fish oil diet resulted in a substantial displacement of arachidonic acid, the precursor of the potent adhesionpromoting leukotriene (LT) B_4, by fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid, the precursor of biologically less potent LTB_5, emphasizing the mediator role of LTB_4 in ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results suggest that the preservation of microvascular perfusion by dietary fish oil contributes to its protective effects on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OIL SHALE MINING AND PROCESSING. PART I. FISHES OF PICEANCE CREEK, COLORADO, PRIOR TO OIL SHALE PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish populations of Piceance Creek, Colorado, were surveyed to establish preoperational conditions prior to extensive oil shale processing in the region. Data collected in this study have been compared to data reported by earlier researchers. The mountain sucker (Catostomus p...

  9. Alteration of cardiovascular function in trained rats fed with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Lortet, S; Verger, P

    1995-11-01

    In vivo cardiovascular function of sedentary and exercise-trained rats were studied after a 3 week feeding period of diets containing either 10% fish oil, sunflower oil or lard. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: fish oil diet: sedentary (FS), exercise-trained (FT); sunflower oil diet; sedentary (SS), exercise-trained (ST); lard diet: sedentary (LS), exercise-trained (LT). The exercised rats ran on a treadmill at a speed of 16 m/min, for 60 min/d, 7 days/week during 3 weeks. There was no significant difference in body weights and heart weights among the 6 groups at the end of the study. Heart function was evaluated in closed-chest rats after catheterization of the left ventricle with an ultraminiature catheter pressure transducer. Cardiovascular function of trained rats fed on fish oil diet was significantly different from that of other rats studied (FS, SS, ST, LS, LT). There was a 20% reduction in left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), LVdP/dtmax, mean aortic pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and a 30% reduction in LVdP/dtmin. We conclude that fish oil diet might induce a change in hemodynamic parameters only when associated with stress, such as the moderate exercise protocol in our experiments. PMID:8776205

  10. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Gardner, Luke D.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Brown, Tanya L.; Esbaugh, Andrew J.; Mager, Edward M.; Stieglitz, John D.; French, Barbara L.; Labenia, Jana S.; Laetz, Cathy A.; Tagal, Mark; Sloan, Catherine A.; Elizur, Abigail; Benetti, Daniel D.; Grosell, Martin; Block, Barbara A.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster released more than 636 million L of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico. The spill oiled upper surface water spawning habitats for many commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species. Consequently, the developing spawn (embryos and larvae) of tunas, swordfish, and other large predators were potentially exposed to crude oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fish embryos are generally very sensitive to PAH-induced cardiotoxicity, and adverse changes in heart physiology and morphology can cause both acute and delayed mortality. Cardiac function is particularly important for fast-swimming pelagic predators with high aerobic demand. Offspring for these species develop rapidly at relatively high temperatures, and their vulnerability to crude oil toxicity is unknown. We assessed the impacts of field-collected Deepwater Horizon (MC252) oil samples on embryos of three pelagic fish: bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna, and an amberjack. We show that environmentally realistic exposures (1–15 µg/L total PAH) cause specific dose-dependent defects in cardiac function in all three species, with circulatory disruption culminating in pericardial edema and other secondary malformations. Each species displayed an irregular atrial arrhythmia following oil exposure, indicating a highly conserved response to oil toxicity. A considerable portion of Gulf water samples collected during the spill had PAH concentrations exceeding toxicity thresholds observed here, indicating the potential for losses of pelagic fish larvae. Vulnerability assessments in other ocean habitats, including the Arctic, should focus on the developing heart of resident fish species as an exceptionally sensitive and consistent indicator of crude oil impacts. PMID:24706825

  11. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Gardner, Luke D; Linbo, Tiffany L; Brown, Tanya L; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; French, Barbara L; Labenia, Jana S; Laetz, Cathy A; Tagal, Mark; Sloan, Catherine A; Elizur, Abigail; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2014-04-15

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster released more than 636 million L of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico. The spill oiled upper surface water spawning habitats for many commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species. Consequently, the developing spawn (embryos and larvae) of tunas, swordfish, and other large predators were potentially exposed to crude oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fish embryos are generally very sensitive to PAH-induced cardiotoxicity, and adverse changes in heart physiology and morphology can cause both acute and delayed mortality. Cardiac function is particularly important for fast-swimming pelagic predators with high aerobic demand. Offspring for these species develop rapidly at relatively high temperatures, and their vulnerability to crude oil toxicity is unknown. We assessed the impacts of field-collected Deepwater Horizon (MC252) oil samples on embryos of three pelagic fish: bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna, and an amberjack. We show that environmentally realistic exposures (1-15 µg/L total PAH) cause specific dose-dependent defects in cardiac function in all three species, with circulatory disruption culminating in pericardial edema and other secondary malformations. Each species displayed an irregular atrial arrhythmia following oil exposure, indicating a highly conserved response to oil toxicity. A considerable portion of Gulf water samples collected during the spill had PAH concentrations exceeding toxicity thresholds observed here, indicating the potential for losses of pelagic fish larvae. Vulnerability assessments in other ocean habitats, including the Arctic, should focus on the developing heart of resident fish species as an exceptionally sensitive and consistent indicator of crude oil impacts. PMID:24706825

  12. Effect of dietary Schizochytrium microalga oil and fish oil on plasma cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    Komprda, T; Škultéty, O; Křížková, S; Zorníková, G; Rozíková, V; Krobot, R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that the dietary oils with different content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affect plasma lipid level in rats in a different degree. The diets with 6% of fish oil (FO) and Schizochytrium microalga oil (SchO; EPA+DHA content in the diets 9.5 + 12.3 and 2.6 + 29.5% of the sum of total fatty acids, respectively) were used; the diet with 6% of safflower oil (high content of n-6 PUFA linoleic acid, 65.5%; EPA+DHA content 0.7 + 0.9%) was used as a control. The difference between FO and SchO was established only in the case of plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) level: plasma TAG of the FO-fed rats did not differ from the control rats (p > 0.05), while SchO decreased (p < 0.05) plasma TAG to 46% of the control. On the other hand, FO and SchO decreased (p < 0.05) total plasma cholesterol (TC) in rats in the same extent, to 73% of the control. Regarding the underlying mechanisms for the TC decrease, both SchO and FO up-regulated hepatic Insig-1 gene (181 and 133% of the control; p < 0.05), which tended (p = 0.15 and p = 0.19 respectively) to decrease the amount of hepatic nSREBP-2 protein (61 and 66% of the control). However, neither SchO nor FO influenced hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase gene expression (p > 0.05); SchO (but not FO) increased (p < 0.05) low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA in the liver. It was concluded that the decrease of total plasma cholesterol might be caused by an increased cholesterol uptake from plasma into the cells (in the case of SchO), but also by other (in the present study not tested) mechanisms. PMID:25040911

  13. Effects of dietary fish oil on leukocyte leukotriene and PAF generation and on neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Sperling, R I

    1991-01-01

    The studies of dietary fish oil supplementation in healthy volunteers demonstrate: (1) suppression of PMN LTB4 synthesis after a minimum of 4 weeks of dietary fish oil consumption at a level of 4-6 g omega 3 fatty acids daily; concomitant suppression of the other arachidonate-derived 5-lipoxygenase pathway products and decreased [3H]-arachidonic acid release may be observed under certain conditions, (2) suppression of PMN chemotactic responsiveness to LTB4 and FMLP, (3) delayed kinetics of inhibition of chemotaxis and AA metabolism relative to that of cellular lipid alteration, and (4) dietary EPA is more active than DHA in eliciting these effects. The effects of dietary EPA on monocyte function in healthy volunteers include: (1) suppression of LTB4 synthesis concomitantly with that of the other 5-lipoxygenase pathway products and decreased [3H]-arachidonic acid release, (2) suppression of PAF synthesis, and (3) delayed kinetics of inhibition of PAF generation and AA metabolism relative to that of cellular lipid alteration. The effects of dietary fish oil in RA patients include: (1) decreased arachidonate content of cellular lipids with an augmented EPA content, (2) decreased LTB4 generation by PMN as an isolated effect, indicating inhibition of the epoxide hydrolase enzyme. The decrease in LTB4 generation by PMN correlated with improvement of tender joint count in one study, (3) augmentation of depressed PMN chemotaxis to LTB4 and FMLP, and (4) suppression of monocyte PAF generation. From these studies one may conclude that: (1) omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into leukocyte cellular phospholipids with a concomitant loss in arachidonic acid, (2) the incorporation of omega 3 fatty acids into leukocyte cellular lipids suppresses two pathways of inflammatory mediator synthesis: the 5-lipoxygenase and the PAF synthesis pathways, (3) receptor-mediated PMN functions are altered by dietary omega 3 fatty acid consumption, and (4) these functional changes may be

  14. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on channel catfish performance, body composition,...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish consumption is a common method of obtaining beneficial n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), but increased use of vegetable oils in fish diets to reduce dependence on fish oil dilutes these HUFAs. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are also considered beneficial for human health. Therefore,...

  15. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Methods Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. Results The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. Conclusions The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding. PMID:24369745

  16. Bioequivalence of n-3 fatty acids from microencapsulated fish oil formulations in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann; Lockett, Trevor J; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Royle, Peter J; Mano, Mark T; Patten, Glen S

    2015-03-14

    Fish oil n-3 fatty acids (FA) have known health benefits. Microencapsulation stabilises and protects fish oil from oxidation, enabling its incorporation into foods. The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of n-3 FA delivered as two microencapsulated fish oil-formulated powders or fish oil gel capsules (FOGC) taken with a flavoured milk in healthy participants. Formulation 1 (F1) composed of a heated mixture of milk protein-sugar as an encapsulant, and formulation 2 (F2) comprised a heated mixture of milk protein-sugar-resistant starch as an encapsulant. Participants consumed 4 g fish oil (approximately 1·0 g EPA and DHA equivalent per dose). Bioavailability was assessed acutely after ingestion of a single dose by measuring total plasma FA composition over a period of 48 h (n 14) using a randomised cross-over design, and over the short term for a period of 4 weeks using an unblinded parallel design (after daily supplementation) by measuring total plasma and erythrocyte FA composition at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks (n 47). In the acute study, F1 greatly increased (% Δ) plasma EPA and total n-3 FA levels at 2 and 4 h and DHA levels at 4 h compared with FOGC. The time to reach maximal plasma values (T(max)) was shorter for F1 than for FOGC or F2. In the short-term study, increases in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 FA values were similar for all treatments and achieved an omega-3 index in the range of 5·8-6·3 % after 4 weeks. Overall, the results demonstrated human bioequivalence for microencapsulated fish oil powder compared with FOGC. PMID:25711158

  17. Photoenhanced toxicity of oil to larval fish - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV), compared to toxicity elicited under conditions of minimal UV. A variety of oil products, weathered and chemically dispersed oils, and specific polycyclic aromatic compo...

  18. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in Central Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Beschta, Robert L.; Griffith, Jack; Wesche, Thomas A.

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this field review was to provide information to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) regarding previous and ongoing fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho. On July 14, 1992, the review team met at the Sawtooth National Recreation Area office near Ketchum, Idaho, for a slide presentation illustrating several habitat projects during their construction phases. Following the slide presentation, the review team inspected fish habitat projects that have been implemented in the last several years in the Stanley Basin and adjacent valleys. At each site the habitat project was described to the field team and a brief period for project inspection followed. The review team visited approximately a dozen sites on the Challis, Sawtooth, and Boise National Forests over a period of approximately two and a half days. There are two objectives of this review namely to summarize observations for specific field sites and to provide overview commentary regarding the BPA habitat improvement program in central Idaho.

  19. Microencapsulation of fish oil by spray granulation and fluid bed film coating.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sri Haryani; Weissbrodt, Jenny; Kunz, Benno

    2010-08-01

    The stability of microencapsulated fish oil prepared with 2 production processes, spray granulation (SG) and SG followed by film coating (SG-FC) using a fluid bed equipment, was investigated. In the 1st process, 3 types of fish oil used were based on the ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (10/50, 33/22, and 18/12). Each type was emulsified with soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) and maltodextrin to produce 25% oil powders. In the 2nd process, 15% film coating of hydroxypropyl betacyclodextrin (HPBCD) was applied to the granules from the 1st process. The powder stability against oxidation was examined by measurement of peroxide values (PV) and headspace propanal after storage at room temperature and at 3 to 4 degrees C for 6 wk. Uncoated powder containing the lowest concentration of PUFA (18/12) was found to be stable during storage at room temperature with maximum PV of 3.98 +/- 0.001 meq/kg oil. The PV increased sharply for uncoated powder with higher concentration of omega-3 (in 33/22 and 10/50 fish oils) after 3 wk storage. The PVs were in agreement with the concentration of propanal, and these 2 parameters remained constant for most of the uncoated powders stored at low temperature. Unexpectedly, the outcomes showed that the coated powders had lower stability than uncoated powders as indicated by higher initial PVs; more hydroperoxides were detected as well as increasing propanal concentration. The investigation suggests that the film-coating by HPBCD ineffectively protected fish oil as the coating process might have induced further oxidation; however, SG is a good method for producing fish oil powder and to protect it from oxidation because of the "onion skin" structure of granules produced in this process. PMID:20722921

  20. Improving the assessment of instream flow needs for fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, M.J. ); Otto, R.G. and Associates, Arlington, VA )

    1991-01-01

    Instream flow requirements are one of the most frequent and most costly environmental issues that must be addressed in developing hydroelectric projects. Existing assessment methods for determining instream flow requirements have been criticized for not including all the biological response mechanisms that regulate fishery resources. A new project has been initiated to study the biological responses of fish populations to altered stream flows and to develop improved ways of managing instream flows. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Global fishmeal and fish-oil supply: inputs, outputs and markets.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, C J; Jackson, A J

    2013-10-01

    Recent data on fishmeal and fish-oil supply are presented identifying key producer countries and raw material sources and distinguishing between whole fish and by-products. The conversion of these raw materials into marine ingredients is discussed and global volumes presented. This is followed by a summary of the main countries using these marine ingredients over recent years. Uses of fishmeal and fish-oil by market segment are then presented. From this, a global mass balance of inputs and outputs is derived which allows the calculation of the input-to-output ratios (fish in:fish out; FIFO) for the main aquaculture production types to be made. Current areas of focus by the industry include the need to demonstrate sustainable practice, more strategic use of marine ingredients, greater use of fishery and land-animal by-products as well as vegetable substitutes, and novel sources of essential omega-3 fats, notably the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Implications are drawn for future supply prospects of fishmeal and fish-oil and their future role in aquaculture, agriculture and human health. PMID:24090562

  2. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Lactococcus garvieae, a fish pathogenic bacteria causing lactococcosis. Of all the tested oils, clove oil had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an intraperitoneal infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with L. garvieae was performed, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined to be 1.78x10(2) CFU/fish. For an in vivo trial, no mortality was apparent in fish fed on the fish diets supplemented with 3% (w/w) of clove oil and with 0.5% (w/w) of oxytetracycline 5 d prior to the infection with L. garvieae. These results indicate that clove oil had a protective effect on experimental L. garvieae infection in tilapia and the potential to replace antibiotics for controlling the disease. PMID:19734665

  3. Fish oil increases mitochondrial phospholipid unsaturation, upregulating reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in rat colonocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Chapkin, Robert S; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C; Turner, Nancy D; Henderson, Cara E; Sanders, Lisa M; Fan, Yang-Yi; Davidson, Laurie A; Murphy, Mary E; Spinka, Christine M; Carroll, Raymond J; Lupton, Joanne R

    2002-11-01

    We have shown that a combination of fish oil (high in n-3 fatty acids) with the butyrate-producing fiber pectin, upregulates apoptosis in colon cells exposed to the carcinogen azoxymethane, protecting against colon tumor development. We now hypothesize that n-3 fatty acids prime the colonocytes such that butyrate can initiate apoptosis. To test this, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with diets differing in the fatty acid composition (corn oil, fish oil or a purified fatty acid ethyl ester diet). Intact colon crypts were exposed ex vivo to butyrate, and analyzed for reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), translocation of cytochrome C to the cytosol, and caspase-3 activity (early events in apoptosis). The fatty acid composition of the three major mitochondrial phospholipids was also determined, and an unsaturation index calculated. The unsaturation index in cardiolipin was correlated with ROS levels (R = 0.99; P = 0.02). When colon crypts from fish oil and FAEE-fed rats were exposed to butyrate, MMP decreased (P = 0.041); and translocation of cytochrome C to the cytosol (P = 0.037) and caspase-3 activation increased (P = 0.032). The data suggest that fish oil may prime the colonocytes for butyrate-induced apoptosis by enhancing the unsaturation of mitochondrial phospholipids, especially cardiolipin, resulting in an increase in ROS and initiating apoptotic cascade. PMID:12419841

  4. Fish oil increases mitochondrial phospholipid unsaturation, upregulating reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in rat colonocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Mee Young; Chapkin, Robert S.; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C.; Turner, Nancy D.; Henderson, Cara E.; Sanders, Lisa M.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Davidson, Laurie A.; Murphy, Mary E.; Spinka, Christine M.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Lupton, Joanne R.

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that a combination of fish oil (high in n-3 fatty acids) with the butyrate-producing fiber pectin, upregulates apoptosis in colon cells exposed to the carcinogen azoxymethane, protecting against colon tumor development. We now hypothesize that n-3 fatty acids prime the colonocytes such that butyrate can initiate apoptosis. To test this, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with diets differing in the fatty acid composition (corn oil, fish oil or a purified fatty acid ethyl ester diet). Intact colon crypts were exposed ex vivo to butyrate, and analyzed for reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), translocation of cytochrome C to the cytosol, and caspase-3 activity (early events in apoptosis). The fatty acid composition of the three major mitochondrial phospholipids was also determined, and an unsaturation index calculated. The unsaturation index in cardiolipin was correlated with ROS levels (R = 0.99; P = 0.02). When colon crypts from fish oil and FAEE-fed rats were exposed to butyrate, MMP decreased (P = 0.041); and translocation of cytochrome C to the cytosol (P = 0.037) and caspase-3 activation increased (P = 0.032). The data suggest that fish oil may prime the colonocytes for butyrate-induced apoptosis by enhancing the unsaturation of mitochondrial phospholipids, especially cardiolipin, resulting in an increase in ROS and initiating apoptotic cascade.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Fibrotic Profile of Fish Oil Emulsions Used in Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Clerigues, Alfonso; Marti-Bonmati, Ezequiel; Milara, Javier; Almudever, Patricia; Cortijo, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with many complications including severe hepatobiliary dysfunction. Commercial ω-6 fatty acid-soybean based-lipid emulsions in PN may mediate long term PN associate liver disease (PNALD) whereas ω-3-fish oil parenteral emulsions have shown to reverse PNALD in children. However, its clinical effectiveness in adults has been scarcely reported. In this work, we study the role of soybean and fish oil lipid commercial emulsions on inflammatory and profibrotic liver markers in adults with long term PNALD and in in vitro cellular models. Inflammatory and profibrotic markers were measured in serum of ten adults with long term PNALD and in culture supernatants of monocytes. Liver epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) to evaluate in vitro liver fibrosis. Omegaven®, a 100% fish oil commercial emulsion, was infused during four months in two patients with severe long term PNALD reversing, at the first month, the inflammatory, profibrotic and clinical parameters of PNALD. The effect was maintained during the treatment course but impaired when conventional lipid emulsions were reintroduced. The other patients under chronic soybean oil-based PN showed elevated inflammatory and profibrotic parameters. In vitro human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide induced a strong inflammatory response that was suppressed by Omegaven®, but increased by soybean emulsions. In other experiments, TGFβ1 induced EMT that was suppressed by Omegaven® and enhanced by soybean oil lipid emulsions. Omegaven® improves clinical, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic parameters in adults with long-term home PNALD. PMID:25502575

  6. Fish oil N-3 fatty acids increase adiponectin and decrease leptin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Iriyoda, Tathiana Veiga Mayumi; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ˂ 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ˂ 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ˂ 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:25690094

  7. Fish Oil N-3 Fatty Acids Increase Adiponectin and Decrease Leptin Levels in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Colado Simão, Andréa Name; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Iriyoda, Tathiana Veiga Mayumi; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Cecchini, Rubens; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO) on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (p ˂ 0.023) in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ˂ 0.026) and decreased leptin levels (p ˂ 0.024) compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE. PMID:25690094

  8. Method and apparatus for improving oil production in oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Vogen, W.V.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a method for improving the production of oil from appropriate wells, comprising: attaching the lower end of an elastic steel column to the upper end of a liner; the upper end of the column extending to the top of the well and above; attaching the upper end of the column to a reaction mass vertically above through vertically mounted compression spring means and, in parallel with a vertically mounted servo-controlled hydraulic cylinder-piston assembly; applying a substantially constant upward load to the reactions mass; reciprocating the piston of the hydraulic cylinder under servo control to apply vertical vibration to the upper end of the column with resultant vertical displacement of the upper end of the column; developing a displacement signal while developing an electrical, pressure-differential signal corresponding to the pressure across the cylinder-piston assembly; adjusting the vertical vibration through the servo control in accordance with the displacement signal and the pressure differential signal: to seek and find an appropriate resonant frequency for the column in the range of 5 Hz to 25 Hz; and maintaining the frequency at resonance.

  9. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influences Hematological and Immunological Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance were studied in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus fed a commercial diet (35.3% crude protein and 5.6% lipid) supplemented with menhaden fish oil at levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9% for 15 weeks. Dietary fish oil levels did not significa...

  10. Occurrence of bisphenol-F-diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) in fish canned in oil.

    PubMed

    Theobald, A; Simoneau, C; Hannaert, P; Roncari, P; Roncari, A; Rudolph, T; Anklam, E

    2000-10-01

    The levels of bisphenol-F-diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) were quantified as part of a European survey on the migration of residues of epoxy resins into oil from canned fish. The contents of BFDGE in cans, lids and fish collected from all 15 Member States of the European Union and Switzerland were analysed in 382 samples. Cans and lids were separately extracted with acetonitrile. The extraction from fish was carried out with hexane followed by re-extraction with acetonitrile. The analysis was performed by reverse phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. BFDGE could be detected in 12% of the fish, 24% of the cans and 18% of the lids. Only 3% of the fish contained BFDGE in concentrations considerably above 1 mg/kg. In addition to the presented data, a comparison was made with the levels of BADGE (bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether) analysed in the same products in the context of a previous study. PMID:11103274

  11. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

  12. Biomarkers in Natural Fish Populations Indicate Adverse Biological Effects of Offshore Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Lennart; Hylland, Ketil; Hansson, Tomas; Berntssen, Marc H. G.; Beyer, Jonny; Jonsson, Grete; Melbye, Alf; Grung, Merete; Torstensen, Bente E.; Børseth, Jan Fredrik; Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora; Klungsøyr, Jarle

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. Methods and principal findings Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. Conclusion It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production. PMID:21625421

  13. Fish oil consumption prevents glucose intolerance and hypercorticosteronemy in footshock-stressed rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental stress plays an important role in the development of glucose intolerance influencing lipid and glucose metabolism through sympathetic nervous system, cytokines and hormones such as glucocorticoids, catecholamines and glucagon. Otherwise, fish oil prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms involved are not fully understood, it is known that sympathetic and HPA responses are blunted and catecholamines and glucocorticoids concentrations can be modulated by fish consumption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fish oil, on a normal lipidic diet: 1) could prevent the effect of footshock-stress on the development of glucose intolerance; 2) modified adiponectin receptor and serum concentration; and 3) also modified TNF-α, IL-6 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in adipose tissue and liver. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into four groups: no stressed (C) and stressed (CS) rats fed with control diet, and no stressed (F) and stressed (FS) rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. The stress was performed as a three daily footshock stress sessions. Results Body weight, carcass fat and protein content were not different among groups. FS presented a reduction on the relative weight of RET. Basal serum glucose levels were higher in CS and FS but 15 min after glucose load just CS remained with higher levels than other groups. Serum corticosterone concentration was increased in CS, this effect was inhibited in FS. However, 15 min after footshock-stress, corticosterone levels were similar among groups. IL-6 was increased in EPI of CS but fish oil consumption prevented IL-6 increase in FS. Similar levels of TNF-α and IL-10 in RET, EPI, and liver were observed among groups. Adipo R1 protein concentration was not different among groups. Footshock-stress did not modify AdipoR2 concentration, but fish oil diet increases AdipoR2 protein concentration. Conclusions Footshock

  14. Linking hematological, biochemical, genotoxic, and behavioral responses to crude oil in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1816).

    PubMed

    Kochhann, Daiani; de Azevedo Brust, Sandra Maristher; Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt Valdez; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2013-08-01

    Despite safety protocols, crude oil extraction and transportation in the Amazon basin has a potential for inadvertent oil spills, which can impact aquatic organisms in local rivers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of crude oil on juvenile Amazonian fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, at various biological levels. Furthermore, the effect of crude oil on response to alarm substance, an important communication system in fish, was reported for the first time. Fish exposed to crude oil showed a 90 % decrease in their response to alarm substance and a 60 % decrease in swimming activity relative to control fish. Basic hematology was not affected, although an increase of 200 % of DNA damage and an increase of GST activity were observed in animals exposed to crude oil. Inverse correlations were found between genotoxicity end points and behavioral parameters, suggesting that genotoxic end points can also reflect behavioral changes. PMID:23539120

  15. Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Stine M; Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Basu, Samar; Elind, Elisabeth; Haider, Trond; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Pedersen, Jan I

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of krill oil and fish oil on serum lipids and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and to evaluate if different molecular forms, triacylglycerol and phospholipids, of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the plasma level of EPA and DHA differently. One hundred thirteen subjects with normal or slightly elevated total blood cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels were randomized into three groups and given either six capsules of krill oil (N = 36; 3.0 g/day, EPA + DHA = 543 mg) or three capsules of fish oil (N = 40; 1.8 g/day, EPA + DHA = 864 mg) daily for 7 weeks. A third group did not receive any supplementation and served as controls (N = 37). A significant increase in plasma EPA, DHA, and DPA was observed in the subjects supplemented with n-3 PUFAs as compared with the controls, but there were no significant differences in the changes in any of the n-3 PUFAs between the fish oil and the krill oil groups. No statistically significant differences in changes in any of the serum lipids or the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation between the study groups were observed. Krill oil and fish oil thus represent comparable dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs, even if the EPA + DHA dose in the krill oil was 62.8% of that in the fish oil. PMID:21042875

  16. Oil field slim hole drilling technology improving

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Recent advances in slim hole drilling technology have improved the application of this drilling technique to oil and gas exploration and development wells. These advancements include Optimization of slim hole drilling hydraulics, Application of a small particle weighing agent to improve well control and coring operations, Use of slim hole techniques to drill horizontal wells, Use of a new polycrystalline diamond compact cutter to allow economical re-entry of small diameter wells in hard rock. Slim hole continuous coring and drilling is becoming more accepted as a viable drilling method, especially as exploration budgets become smaller. Typical applications for slim hole equipment include drilling in frontier areas where logistics can be a problem and reentry operations in which the existing well has a small diameter. Typically, slim hole drilling operations use technology borrowed from the mining industry. The rigs are smaller and drill with much higher rotational speeds. Definitions of slim holes vary from a well with 90% drilled, with a diameter of less than 7 in. To a well with 70% drilled with less than 5 in. A goal of slim hole, however it is defined, is the drilling of a well with a diameter smaller than that used on conventional wells in the area. The reduced diameter helps cut rig time and cost and reduces the cost of the tubulars. Another goal of slim hole drilling is the ability to retrieve cores from the entire well during drilling.

  17. Fish oil supplementation inhibits NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High intake of fish oil with a low omega-6 (n-6)/omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been suggested to protect against many chronic diseases. However, its preventive role against cancer remains unresolved, and particularly, the effect of different ratios of dietary n-6 and n-3...

  18. Effect of fish oil on glutathione redox system in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sorto-Gomez, Tania E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Pacheco-Moises, Fermín P; Torres-Sanchez, Erandis D; Ramirez-Ramirez, Viridiana; Macias-Islas, Miguel A; de la Rosa, Alfredo Celis; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are implicated in the induction and progression of MS. Evidence suggests that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of fish oil on the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), content of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and GSH/GSSG ratio in MS. 50 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled. The experimental group received orally 4 g/day of fish oil for 12 months. Fish oil supplementation resulted in a significant increase in n-3 fatty acids and a decrease n-6 fatty acids. No differences in glutathione reductase activity, content of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and GSH/GSSG ratio were found. Conclusion: Glutathione reductase activity was not significantly different between the groups; however, fish oil supplementation resulted in smaller increase in GR compared with control group, suggesting a possible effect on antioxidant defence mechanisms. PMID:27335704

  19. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene variants affect response to fish oil supplementation by healthy African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase gene (ALOX5) variants on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and changes in response to fish oil supplementation. We hypothesized that Sp1 variants in the ALOX5 promoter, which have previously been associated with cardiovascu...

  20. Lipid emulsions containing fish oil protect against PN-induced cholestatic liver disease in preterm piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During their first weeks of life preterm infants are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN). However, PN is associated with the development of cholestasis (PN Associated Liver Disease PNALD). Studies in children showed that fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD; whether they prevent PNALD...

  1. Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-07-01

    Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status. PMID:21512889

  2. Fish Oil Supplementation in Humans: Effects on Platelet Responses, Phospholipid Composition and Metabolism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeaff, Clark Murray

    Platelets are believed to play a significant role in the development of occlusive vascular diseases. Epidemiological reports have correlated the high intake of marine foods, rich in omega3 fatty acids, with diminished platelet responses and a low incidence of arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The activation of platelet responses is mediated by the accelerated metabolism of membrane phospholipid; therefore, it was of interest to examine, in human volunteers, the effect of a dietary fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA), enriched in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on platelet aggregation and phospholipid composition/metabolism. For the complete separation of cellular phospholipids, a one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography system using silica-gel pre-coated glass plates was developed. The solvent system consisted of CHCl_3/CH_3OH/CH _3COOH/H_2O (50/37.5/3.5/2.0, by vol), required approximately 90-120 minutes for full phospholipid separation, and was highly reproducible even under conditions of variable humidity and temperature. The consumption of a fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA) for 6 weeks (3.6 g of 20:5omega 3 and 2.4 g of 22:6omega3 per day) diminished both the collagen- and platelet activating factor-induced maximum aggregation responses in washed human platelet suspensions by 50.1% and 27.2%, respectively, as compared to initial unsupplemented baseline responses. Thrombin -induced aggregation remained unchanged. Thrombin stimulation of intact human platelets produced a significant decrease in the mass of phosphatidylinositol in plasma membrane. In platelets pre-labelled with (2-^3H) glycerol and stimulated with either thrombin or low-dose collagen, the loss of (^3H) phosphatidylinositol did not differ between those subjects consuming olive oil or fish oil. Likewise, the thrombin-stimulated accumulation of diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C, was unaffected by fish oil consumption. The ratio of collagen -induced increase in radioactivity

  3. High-resolution (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy pattern recognition of fish oil capsules.

    PubMed

    Aursand, Marit; Standal, Inger B; Axelson, David E

    2007-01-10

    13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, in conjunction with multivariate analysis of commercial fish oil-related health food products, have been used to provide discrimination concerning the nature, composition, refinement, and/or adulteration or authentication of the products. Supervised (probabilistic neural networks, PNN) and unsupervised (principal component analysis, PCA; Kohonen neural networks; generative topographic mapping, GTM) pattern recognition techniques were used to visualize and classify samples. Simple PCA score plots demonstrated excellent, but not totally unambiguous, class distinctions, whereas Kohonen and GTM visualization provided better results. Quantitative class predictions with accuracies >95% were achieved with PNN analysis. Trout, salmon, and cod oils were completely and correctly classified. Samples reported to be salmon oils and cod liver oils did not cluster with true salmon and cod liver oil samples, indicating mislabeling or adulteration. PMID:17199311

  4. A novel system for embryo-larval toxicity testing of pelagic fish: Applications for impact assessment of Deepwater Horizon crude oil.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, John D; Mager, Edward M; Hoenig, Ronald H; Alloy, Matthew; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Bodinier, Charlotte; Benetti, Daniel D; Roberts, Aaron P; Grosell, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Key differences in the developmental process of pelagic fish embryos, in comparison to embryos of standard test fish species, present challenges to obtaining sufficient control survival needed to successfully perform traditional toxicity testing bioassays. Many of these challenges relate to the change in buoyancy, from positive to negative, of pelagic fish embryos that occurs just prior to hatch. A novel exposure system, the pelagic embryo-larval exposure chamber (PELEC), has been developed to conduct successful bioassays on the early life stages (ELSs; embryos/larvae) of pelagic fish. Using this unique recirculating upwelling system, it was possible to significantly improve control survival in pelagic fish ELS bioassays compared to commonly used static exposure methods. Results demonstrate that control performance of mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos in the PELEC system, measured as percent survival after 96-hrs, significantly outperformed agitated static exposure and static exposure systems. Similar significant improvements in 72-hr control survival were obtained with yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). The PELEC system was subsequently used to test the effects of photo-induced toxicity of crude oil to mahi-mahi ELSs over the course of 96-hrs. Results indicate a greater than 9-fold increase in toxicity of Deepwater Horizon (DWH) crude oil during co-exposure to ambient sunlight compared to filtered ambient sunlight, revealing the importance of including natural sunlight in 96-hr DWH crude oil bioassays as well as the PELEC system's potential application in ecotoxicological assessments. PMID:27505137

  5. Secondary oil recovery techniques improve remediation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Ameri, S.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum industry has successfully developed sophisticated oil recovery technologies that could be used for effective contaminant removal from soil and/or groundwater. In enhanced recovery, the residual oil is mobilized through injection of a solvent that is miscible with oil. Soil vapor extraction takes advantage of the highly volatile nature of VOCs in air and the relative ease of moving air through the unsaturated zone to effectively remove VOCs from the soil. A similar approach can be used for groundwater decontamination.

  6. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  7. Oil, Floods, and Fish: The Social Role of Environmental Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesen, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    The environmental and social effects of hurricane-related flooding and the recent oil disaster in southeastern Louisiana, and the current global crisis in world fisheries, are case studies that reveal the need for scientific work that is carried out and disseminated with conscious attention paid to the important relationship between scientists,…

  8. From Fishing to Fish Processing: Separation of Fish from Crustaceans in the Norway Lobster-Directed Multispecies Trawl Fishery Improves Seafood Quality

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Junita D.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Frandsen, Rikke Petri

    2015-01-01

    Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide the opportunity to selectively reduce small low-value fish, which will reduce catch weight and sorting time onboard the vessel. For this horizontally divided test codend and a standard codend, in which the catch was mixed, quality assessments were performed on the same batches of fish during three steps of the value chain: i) aboard the fishing vessel; ii) at the Fishermen’s Collection Central, and iii) in the production plant. Four species of fish and fillets from fish caught in the upper codend of the test codend were of significantly better quality for several of the assessed parameters compared with those caught in the standard codend: i) newly caught fish showed significantly less scale loss and discolourations and had significantly better texture; ii) landed fish had significantly better skin appearance and texture and significantly fewer discolourations; and iii) fillets showed significantly fewer blood spots and had significantly better texture. There were no differences in injuries for newly caught fish or gaping and bruises for fillets between the test and standard codends. The decrease in catch-related damages in the test codend is explained by little contact between fish and animals with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper codend of the

  9. From Fishing to Fish Processing: Separation of Fish from Crustaceans in the Norway Lobster-Directed Multispecies Trawl Fishery Improves Seafood Quality.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Junita D; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Frandsen, Rikke Petri

    2015-01-01

    Fishing gears have negative impacts on seafood quality, especially on fish in the mixed trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). In this fishery, which is worth about €80 millions in Denmark alone, the quality of fish can be significantly improved by simple gear changes. A trawl codend divided into an upper and lower codend was designed to separate fish from Norway lobster during the fishing process by encourage fish to swim into the upper codend by using a frame at the entrance of the lower codend. Separate codends for fish and Norway lobster in the same gear provide the opportunity to selectively reduce small low-value fish, which will reduce catch weight and sorting time onboard the vessel. For this horizontally divided test codend and a standard codend, in which the catch was mixed, quality assessments were performed on the same batches of fish during three steps of the value chain: i) aboard the fishing vessel; ii) at the Fishermen's Collection Central, and iii) in the production plant. Four species of fish and fillets from fish caught in the upper codend of the test codend were of significantly better quality for several of the assessed parameters compared with those caught in the standard codend: i) newly caught fish showed significantly less scale loss and discolourations and had significantly better texture; ii) landed fish had significantly better skin appearance and texture and significantly fewer discolourations; and iii) fillets showed significantly fewer blood spots and had significantly better texture. There were no differences in injuries for newly caught fish or gaping and bruises for fillets between the test and standard codends. The decrease in catch-related damages in the test codend is explained by little contact between fish and animals with hard or spiny surfaces due to successful separation of fish and Norway lobster into the upper and lower codends, respectively, and by lower catch weight in the upper codend of the

  10. Fatty acid clearance by isolated perfused hindquarters of rats fed fish oil

    SciTech Connect

    Herzberg, G.R.; MacCharles, G.; Rogerson, M. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that, compared to the dietary fatty acid composition, n-3 fatty acids are underrepresented in the adipose tissue of rats consuming fish oil diets. They have also shown that in rats fed fish oil diets, lipoprotein lipase is elevated in skeletal muscle and heart but not in adipose tissue. These two observations led us to hypothesize that n-3 enriched lipoproteins and n-3 fatty acids are preferentially utilized by muscle. Rats were fed diets containing 10% by weight corn oil (CO) or 2% CO + 8% fish oil (MaxEPA) for two weeks. Skinned hindquarters were perfused using a Krebs-Henselheit buffer containing 3% albumin, 5.5 mM glucose and 0.5 mM fatty acid. Muscle ATP was unaffected by previous diet or fatty acid perfused and was approximately 6 {mu}mol/g wet weight in each group. The rate of fatty acid removal was linear for 60 minutes by which time between 30 and 50% of the fatty acid in the perfusate had been removed. They determined the removal of either {sup 14}C EPA and {sup 14}C oleate. There was a significant effect of both the type of fatty acid and the previous diet of the rats from which the hindquarters were obtained. EPA was removed more rapidly by hindquarters from MaxEPA-fed rats than corn oil fed rats. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced utilization of fatty acids by muscle contributes to the hypotriglyceridemic effect of dietary fish oils. They also suggest that n-3 fatty acids are more rapidly utilized by skeletal muscle.

  11. Using otolith microchemistry and shape to assess the habitat value of oil structures for reef fish.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Ashley M; Macreadie, Peter I; Bishop, David P; Booth, David J

    2015-05-01

    Over 7500 oil and gas structures (e.g. oil platforms) are installed in offshore waters worldwide and many will require decommissioning within the next two decades. The decision to remove such structures or turn them into reefs (i.e. 'rigs-to-reefs') hinges on the habitat value they provide, yet this can rarely be determined because the residency of mobile species is difficult to establish. Here, we test a novel solution to this problem for reef fishes; the use of otolith (earstone) properties to identify oil structures of residence. We compare the otolith microchemistry and otolith shape of a site-attached coral reef fish (Pseudanthias rubrizonatus) among four oil structures (depth 82-135 m, separated by 9.7-84.2 km) on Australia's North West Shelf to determine if populations developed distinct otolith properties during their residency. Microchemical signatures obtained from the otolith edge using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) differed among oil structures, driven by elements Sr, Ba and Mn, and to a lesser extent Mg and Fe. A combination of microchemical data from the otolith edge and elliptical Fourier (shape) descriptors allowed allocation of individuals to their 'home' structure with moderate accuracy (overall allocation accuracy: 63.3%, range: 45.5-78.1%), despite lower allocation accuracies for each otolith property in isolation (microchemistry: 47.5%, otolith shape: 45%). Site-specific microchemical signatures were also stable enough through time to distinguish populations during 3 separate time periods, suggesting that residence histories could be recreated by targeting previous growth zones in the otolith. Our results indicate that reef fish can develop unique otolith properties during their residency on oil structures which may be useful for assessing the habitat value of individual structures. The approach outlined here may also be useful for determining the residency of reef fish on artificial reefs, which would

  12. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Timothy D.; Laws, Troy S.

    1994-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife`s Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: (1) procurement of one access easement with a private landowner, (2) design, layout, and implementation of 3.36 miles of instream structure maintenance, (3) inspection and routine maintenance of 15.1 miles of fence, (4) revegetation along 3.36 miles of stream, (5) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, (6) extensive interagency coordination, and (7) environmental education activities with local high school students.

  13. Effect of replacement of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil on growth, lipid class and fatty acid composition of farmed juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2013-12-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) oil was tested as a replacement for fish oil in diets for farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Camelina differs from other plant oilseeds previously used in aquaculture with high lipid (40 %), α-linolenic acid (40 %), antioxidants and low proportions of saturated fats. Dietary treatments were fed to cod (19 g fish⁻¹ initial weight) for 9 weeks and included a fish oil control (FO), 40 % (CO40) and 80 % (CO80) replacement of fish oil with camelina oil. There was no effect of replacing fish oil with camelina oil included at levels up to 80 % on the growth performance. Cod fed CO80 stored more lipid in the liver (p < 0.01), including more neutral lipid (p < 0.05) and triacylglycerol (p < 0.05). Cod fed CO80 decreased in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in muscle compared to CO40 and FO (p < 0.05), increased in monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01), decreased in total ω3 fatty acids (FO > CO40 > CO80; p < 0.01) and increased in total ω6 fatty acids (FO < CO40 < CO80; p < 0.01). In the liver, long-chain (LC) PUFA such as 20:4ω6, 20:5ω3, 22:5ω3 and 22:6ω3 decreased when fish oil was removed from the diet (p < 0.05), and increased in 18-carbon fatty acids (p < 0.01). Camelina oil can reduce the amount of fish oil needed to meet lipid requirements, although replacing 80 % of fish oil reduced LC PUFAs in both tissues. A comparison of BF₃ and H₂SO₄ as catalysts to transmethylate cod liver and muscle lipids revealed small but significant differences in some fatty acid proportions. PMID:23584924

  14. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages. PMID:22921374

  15. Development and physical characterization of polymer-fish oil bigel (hydrogel/oleogel) system as a transdermal drug delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Khurram; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-Fish oil bigel (hydrogel/oleogel colloidal mixture) was developed by using fish oil and natural (sodium alginate) and synthetic (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) polymer for pharmaceutical purposes. The bigels were closely monitored and thermal, rheological and mechanical properties were compared with the conventional hydrogels for their potential use as an effective transdermal drug delivery vehicle. Stability of the fish oil fatty acids (especially eicosapentanoic acid, EPA and docosahexanoic acid, DHA) was determined by gas chromatography and the drug content (imiquimod) was assessed with liquid chromatography. Furthermore, in vitro permeation study was conducted to determine the capability of the fish oil-bigels as transdermal drug delivery vehicle. The bigels showed pseudoplastic rheological features, with excellent mechanical properties (adhesiveness, peak stress and hardness), which indicated their excellent spreadability for application on the skin. Bigels prepared with mixture of sodium alginate and fish oil (SB1 and SB2), and the bigels prepared with the mixture of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and fish oil (HB1-HB3) showed high cumulative permeation and drug flux compared to hydrogels. Addition of fish oil proved to be beneficial in increasing the drug permeation and the results were statistically significant (p < 0.05, one-way Anova, SPSS 20.0). Thus, it can be concluded that bigel formulations could be used as an effective topical and transdermal drug delivery vehicle for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:25252741

  16. Nano-encapsulation of fish oil in nano-liposomes and its application in fortification of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanzade, Tahere; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Akhavan, Sahar; Hadavi, Roxana

    2017-02-01

    Fish oils have many dietary benefits, but due to their strong odors and rapid deterioration, their application in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nano-liposome was used to nano-encapsulate fish oil in this study and encapsulated fish oil was utilized in fortifying yogurt. Physicochemical properties of produced yogurt including pH, acidity, syneresis, fatty acid composition, peroxide value as well as sensory tests were investigated during three weeks storage at 4°C. Nano-liposome encapsulation resulted in a significant reduction in acidity, syneresis and peroxide value. The results of gas chromatography analyses revealed that after 21days storage, yogurt fortified with nano-encapsulated fish oil had a higher DHA and EPA contents than yogurt containing free fish oil. Overall, the results of this study indicates that adding nano-encapsulated fish oil into yogurt gave closer characteristics to control sample in terms of sensory characteristics than yogurt fortified with free fish oil. PMID:27596403

  17. Improving the laboratory monitoring of absorbent oil

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; S.S. Sychev; I.V. Safina; S.A. Klykov

    2009-05-15

    The performance of absorbent coal tar oil is analyzed as a function of the constituent and group composition. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the oil that ensures the required absorbent properties is determined. Operative monitoring may be based on absorbent characteristics that permit regulation of the beginning and end of regeneration.

  18. Development of botanical and fish oil standard reference materials for fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; NguyenPho, Agnes; Betz, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3274 Botanical Oils Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids and SRM 3275 Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids in Fish Oil. SRM 3274 consists of one ampoule of each of four seed oils (3274-1 Borage (Borago officinalis), 3274-2 Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis), 3274-3 Flax (Linium usitatissimum), and 3274-4 Perilla (Perilla frutescens)), and SRM 3275 consists of two ampoules of each of three fish oils (3275-1 a concentrate high in docosahexaenoic acid, 3275-2 an anchovy oil high in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, and 3275-3 a concentrate containing 60% long-chain omega-3 fatty acids). Each oil has certified and reference mass fraction values for up to 20 fatty acids. The fatty acid mass fraction values are based on results from analyses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with mass fractions for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements. PMID:23371533

  19. Using fish biomarkers to monitor improvements in environmental quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Facey, D.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Gasper, M.M.; Turcotte, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of splenic tissue occupied by macrophage aggregates and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were evaluated in rock bass Ambloplites rupestris from Burlington Harbor, Vermont. In 1992, fish collected from the inner Burlington Harbor area had a significantly greater percentage of splenic tissue occupied by macrophage aggregates and greater HSI than did fish from reference sites. These biomarkers often are correlated with exposure to various contaminants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and some heavy metals, which were found in Burlington Harbor sediments during surveys in 1990 and 1991). Contaminants are believed to have entered Burlington Harbor through the city's main sewage treatment plant, which discharged effluent into the harbor for many years. In 1994, the city completed a significant upgrade of this treatment plant, which included an extension of the effluent pipe beyond the inner harbor area. In 1999, rock bass were again collected from Burlington Harbor as an index of whether there was any improvement in environmental quality. Our data showed a significantly lower percentage of splenic tissue occupied by macrophage aggregates and significantly lower HSI among nine age-4 rock bass in 1999 than among six age-4 rock bass in 1992. The significant changes in these biomarkers suggest decreased exposure to contaminants. Our study reinforces the value of macrophage aggregates and HSI as biomarkers of environmental contamination, and the correlation with remedial action shows their potential utility in documenting improvements in environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  20. Improved oil recovery in nanopores: NanoIOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, James Moraes; Miranda, Caetano Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Fluid flow through minerals pores occurs in underground aquifers, oil and shale gas reservoirs. In this work, we explore water and oil flow through silica nanopores. Our objective is to model the displacement of water and oil through a nanopore to mimic the fluid infiltration on geological nanoporous media and the displacement of oil with and without previous contact with water by water flooding to emulate an improved oil recovery process at nanoscale (NanoIOR). We have observed a barrier-less infiltration of water and oil on the empty (vacuum) simulated 4 nm diameter nanopores. For the water displacement with oil, we have obtained a critical pressure of 600 atm for the oil infiltration, and after the flow was steady, a water layer was still adsorbed to the surface, thus, hindering the direct contact of the oil with the surface. In addition, oil displacement with water was assessed, with and without an adsorbed water layer (AWL). Without the AWL, the pressure needed for oil infiltration was 5000 atm, whereas, with the AWL the infiltration was observed for pressures as low as 10 atm. Hence, the infiltration is greatly affected by the AWL, significantly lowering the critical pressure for oil displacement.

  1. Improved oil recovery in nanopores: NanoIOR

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, James Moraes; Miranda, Caetano Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Fluid flow through minerals pores occurs in underground aquifers, oil and shale gas reservoirs. In this work, we explore water and oil flow through silica nanopores. Our objective is to model the displacement of water and oil through a nanopore to mimic the fluid infiltration on geological nanoporous media and the displacement of oil with and without previous contact with water by water flooding to emulate an improved oil recovery process at nanoscale (NanoIOR). We have observed a barrier-less infiltration of water and oil on the empty (vacuum) simulated 4 nm diameter nanopores. For the water displacement with oil, we have obtained a critical pressure of 600 atm for the oil infiltration, and after the flow was steady, a water layer was still adsorbed to the surface, thus, hindering the direct contact of the oil with the surface. In addition, oil displacement with water was assessed, with and without an adsorbed water layer (AWL). Without the AWL, the pressure needed for oil infiltration was 5000 atm, whereas, with the AWL the infiltration was observed for pressures as low as 10 atm. Hence, the infiltration is greatly affected by the AWL, significantly lowering the critical pressure for oil displacement. PMID:27319357

  2. Improved oil recovery in nanopores: NanoIOR.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, James Moraes; Miranda, Caetano Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Fluid flow through minerals pores occurs in underground aquifers, oil and shale gas reservoirs. In this work, we explore water and oil flow through silica nanopores. Our objective is to model the displacement of water and oil through a nanopore to mimic the fluid infiltration on geological nanoporous media and the displacement of oil with and without previous contact with water by water flooding to emulate an improved oil recovery process at nanoscale (NanoIOR). We have observed a barrier-less infiltration of water and oil on the empty (vacuum) simulated 4 nm diameter nanopores. For the water displacement with oil, we have obtained a critical pressure of 600 atm for the oil infiltration, and after the flow was steady, a water layer was still adsorbed to the surface, thus, hindering the direct contact of the oil with the surface. In addition, oil displacement with water was assessed, with and without an adsorbed water layer (AWL). Without the AWL, the pressure needed for oil infiltration was 5000 atm, whereas, with the AWL the infiltration was observed for pressures as low as 10 atm. Hence, the infiltration is greatly affected by the AWL, significantly lowering the critical pressure for oil displacement. PMID:27319357

  3. Odour characteristics of seafood flavour formulations produced with fish by-products incorporating EPA, DHA and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Peinado, I; Miles, W; Koutsidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Thermal degradation of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids was investigated. As a novelty, EPA, DHA or fish oil (FO) were incorporated as ω-fatty acid sources into model systems containing fish powder produced via Maillard reactions. Aroma composition of the resulting products was determined and complemented with sensory evaluation. Heating of the oils led to a fast decrease of both, EPA and DHA, and to the development of characteristic volatile compounds including hexanal, 2,4-heptadienal and 4-heptenal, the most abundant being (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal (132±44-329±122μmol/g). EPA and DHA addition to the model systems increased the concentration of these characteristic volatile compounds. However, it did not have a considerable impact on the development of characteristic Maillard reaction products, such as pyrazines and some aldehydes. Finally, the results of the sensory evaluation illustrated that panellists would chose samples fortified with FO as the ones with a more pleasant aroma. PMID:27374575

  4. Oxidative stability of fish and algae oils containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bulk and in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Edwin N; Satué-Gracia, Teresa; Meyer, Anne S; German, J Bruce

    2002-03-27

    The oxidative stability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing fish and algae oils varies widely according to their fatty acid composition, the physical and colloidal states of the lipids, the contents of tocopherols and other antioxidants, and the presence and activity of transition metals. Fish and algal oils were initially much more stable to oxidation in bulk systems than in the corresponding oil-in-water emulsions. The oxidative stability of emulsions cannot, therefore, be predicted on the basis of stability data obtained with bulk long-chain PUFA-containing fish oils and DHA-containing algal oils. The relatively high oxidative stability of an algal oil containing 42% DHA was completely lost after chromatographic purification to remove tocopherols and other antioxidants. Therefore, this evidence does not support the claim that DHA-rich oils from algae are unusually stable to oxidation. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) prevented oxidation of both fish and algal oil emulsions without added iron and at low iron:EDTA molar concentrations. EDTA, however, promoted the oxidation of the corresponding emulsions that contained high iron:EDTA ratios. Therefore, to be effective as a metal chelator, EDTA must be added at molar concentrations higher than that of iron to inhibit oxidation of foods containing long-chain PUFA from either fish or algae and fortified with iron. PMID:11902962

  5. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Project, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Timothy D.

    1989-01-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the Funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. The major activities undertaken during this report period were: procurement of 17 cooperative lease agreements with private landowners, design and layout of 8.6 miles of Riparian enclosure fence and 3.0 miles of instream structures, development of five fencing contracts and six instream work contracts. Results include implementation of 10 miles of fencing and 3 miles of instream work. Other activities undertaken during this report period are: data collection from 90 habitat monitoring transects, collection and summarization of temperature data, photopoint establishment, coordination with numerous agencies and tribes and education of all age groups on habitat improvement and protection.

  6. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Project, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Timothy D.; Rimbach, Gregory P.

    1991-03-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the Funding source For the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. The major activities undertaken during this report period were: procurement of 6 cooperative lease agreements and one lease addendum with private landowners, design and layout of 4.4 miles of riparian exclosure fence and 1.75 miles of instream structures, development of three fencing contracts and three instream work contracts. Results include implementation of 3 miles of fencing and 3.7 miles of instream work. Other activities undertaken during this report period are: weekly inspection and maintenance of fencing projects, collection and summarization of temperature data, photopoint establishment, coordination with numerous agencies and tribes and education of high school students on habitat improvement and preservation.

  7. Effect of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on intertidal fish: A field study

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, W.E.; McDonald, L.L.; Erickson, W.P.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup activities on density, biomass, and species diversity of intertidal fishes in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Intertidal fish were sampled in a quasi-experimental, matched-pairs (oiled-cleaned versus reference sites) design stratified by three habitat types with random selection of oiled-cleaned (O-C) sites. Site pairs were sampled twice in 1990 and in 1991. Of 21 fish taxa, 5 made up 98% and 1 made up 74% of total abundance. There were no significant differences in species diversity between reference and O-C sites. Density, however, was significantly greater at reference sites for all habitats combined for both visits in 1990. In contrast, density in 1991 was about equal at reference and O-C sites. Total biomass for all habitats combined was greater at reference than O-C sites during both visits in 1990, but differences were not statistically significant. In 1991, however, the total biomass at reference and O-C sites was about equal. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression models indicated that presence of oil was a significant predictor of reduced density at mid-intertidal levels in 1990 but not in 1991. From the general pattern of lower density and biomass on O-C sites in 1990 followed by no significant differences in 1991 and corroborating evidence of multiple-regression modeling, we conclude that the presence of oil and subsequent cleanup activities had a negative impact on intertidal fishes in 1990 and that there was evidence that recovery was underway in 1991. 50 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Metabolic Engineering Plant Seeds with Fish Oil-Like Levels of DHA

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, James R.; Shrestha, Pushkar; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Mansour, Maged P.; Liu, Qing; Belide, Srinivas; Nichols, Peter D.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) have critical roles in human health and development with studies indicating that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in particular. These fatty acids are predominantly sourced from fish and algal oils, but it is widely recognised that there is an urgent need for an alternative and sustainable source of EPA and DHA. Since the earliest demonstrations of ω3 LC-PUFA engineering there has been good progress in engineering the C20 EPA with seed fatty acid levels similar to that observed in bulk fish oil (∼18%), although undesirable ω6 PUFA levels have also remained high. Methodology/Principal Findings The transgenic seed production of the particularly important C22 DHA has been problematic with many attempts resulting in the accumulation of EPA/DPA, but only a few percent of DHA. This study describes the production of up to 15% of the C22 fatty acid DHA in Arabidopsis thaliana seed oil with a high ω3/ω6 ratio. This was achieved using a transgenic pathway to increase the C18 ALA which was then converted to DHA by a microalgal Δ6-desaturase pathway. Conclusions/Significance The amount of DHA described in this study exceeds the 12% level at which DHA is generally found in bulk fish oil. This is a breakthrough in the development of sustainable alternative sources of DHA as this technology should be applicable in oilseed crops. One hectare of a Brassica napus crop containing 12% DHA in seed oil would produce as much DHA as approximately 10,000 fish. PMID:23145108

  9. Properties and antioxidant activity of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with citrus essential oils.

    PubMed

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2012-10-01

    Properties of protein-based film from fish skin gelatin incorporated with different citrus essential oils, including bergamot, kaffir lime, lemon and lime (50% based on protein) in the presence of 20% and 30% glycerol were investigated. Films containing 20% glycerol had higher tensile strength (TS) but lower elongation at break (EAB), compared with those prepared with 30% glycerol, regardless of essential oils incorporated (p<0.05). Films incorporated with essential oils, especially from lime, at both glycerol levels showed the lower TS but higher EAB than the control films (without incorporated essential oil) (p<0.05). Water vapour permeability (WVP) of films containing essential oils was lower than that of control films for both glycerol levels (p<0.05). Films with essential oils had varying ΔE(*) (total colour difference), where the highest value was observed in that added with bergamot essential oil (p<0.05). Higher glycerol content increased EAB and WVP but decreased TS of films. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that films added with essential oils exhibited higher hydrophobicity with higher amplitude at wavenumber of 2874-2926 cm(-1) and 1731-1742 cm(-1) than control film. Film incorporated with essential oils exhibited slightly lower thermal degradation resistance, compared to the control film. Varying effect of essential oil on thermal degradation temperature and weight loss was noticeable, but all films prepared using 20% glycerol had higher thermal degradation temperature with lower weight loss, compared with those containing 30% glycerol. Films added with all types of essential oils had rough cross-section, compared with control films, irrespective of glycerol levels. However, smooth surface was observed in all film samples. Film incorporated with lemon essential oil showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (p<0.05), while the other films had lower activity. Thus, the

  10. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  11. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-07

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering.

  12. Advanced Sensor Fish Device for ImprovedTurbine Design

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.

    2009-09-14

    Juvenile salmon (smolts) passing through hydroelectric turbines are subjected to environmental conditions that can potentially kill or injure them. Many turbines are reaching the end of their operational life expectancies and will be replaced with new turbines that incorporate advanced “fish friendly” designs devised to prevent injury and death to fish. To design a fish friendly turbine, it is first necessary to define the current conditions fish encounter. One such device used by biologists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was the sensor fish device to collect data that measures the forces fish experience during passage through hydroelectric projects.

  13. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela S; Cardoso, João Felipe R; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-03-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  14. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Gabriela S.; Cardoso, João Felipe R.; Calder, Philip C.; Jordão, Alceu A.; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  15. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil.

    PubMed

    Estrada, J D; Boeneke, C; Bechtel, P; Sathivel, S

    2011-12-01

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and help increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (MSO; 2% wt/vol) and evaluate its characteristics during 1 mo of storage. Unpurified salmon oil (USO) was purified (PSO) and both USO and PSO were analyzed for peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), total oxidation, free fatty acids (FFA), and moisture content. A stable emulsion was prepared with 7% PSO, 22% gum arabic, 11% maltodextrin, and 60% water. The emulsion was spray-dried to produce MSO. The MSO was added to strawberry-flavored yogurt (SYMSO) before pasteurization and homogenization, and a control (SY) without MSO was produced. Both yogurts were stored for 1 mo at 4°C and we determined the quality characteristics including acidity (pH), syneresis, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), fatty acid methyl ester composition, color, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Total oxidation (unitless) of USO, PSO, and MSO was calculated to be 20.7±1.26, 10.9±0.1, and 13.4±0.25, respectively. Free fatty acid contents were 1.61±0.19%, 0.59±0.02%, and 0.77±0.02% for USO, PSO, and MSO, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids in MSO and in SYMSO, but neither was detected in SY. Fortification of SY with MSO had no significant effect on yogurt pH or syneresis. A decrease in concentration of lactic acid bacteria was observed during the storage of all yogurts. Thiobarbituric acid values significantly increased as storage time increased and SY had a significantly lighter (higher L*) and less yellow (lower b*) color than SYMSO. Although some slight differences were observed in the color and oxidation of SYMSO compared with SY, the study demonstrated that SY could be fortified with

  16. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-er...

  17. Parasitism in marine fish after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons in the laboratory and to the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Crude oil or its water soluble components are known to induce histopathological effects in fish following chronic exposure. Fish tend to harbor a variety of parasites, most of which under natural conditions cause little or no apparent harm. However, after chronic exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, the prevalence and intensity of parasitism increases substantially. Trichodinid ciliates are mainly ectoparasitic protozoans on the fills of fish. Since a previous study showed that chronic exposure to crude oil fractions resulted in increased parasitism, a study was initiated to ascertain the relationship between trichodinid infections and exposure of fish to crude oil or its fractions in the laboratory and subsequently, in the Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  18. Insomnia and exacerbation of anxiety associated with high-EPA fish oil supplements after successful treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Lauren B; McCarter, Gordon C

    2015-03-01

    A 54-year-old male consulted his general practitioner for increasing general anxiety and mild panic attacks despite effective treatment for recurrent major depressive disorder, which included a fish oil supplement enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The patient would awaken suddenly at night with shortness of breath and overwhelming worry. During the daytime, he felt a general, nonspecific anxiety and frequently experienced sympathetic activation upon confronting routine challenges. He also experienced dyspnea-induced feelings of panic. He reported that he stopped taking the fish oil supplements after several more months of symptoms, and his anxiety and insomnia then largely disappeared. Several weeks later, he resumed consumption of high-EPA fish oil at the prior dosage for 2 days. On both nights, the patient reported nighttime awakening similar to the previous episodes, followed by daytime agitation. Since halting the fish oil supplements, the anxiety and insomnia have not returned and his depression remains in remission. PMID:26634135

  19. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  20. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  1. Metabolic Engineering Camelina sativa with Fish Oil-Like Levels of DHA

    PubMed Central

    Belide, Srinivas; Kennedy, Yoko; Lester, Geraldine; Liu, Qing; Divi, Uday K.; Mulder, Roger J.; Mansour, Maged P.; Nichols, Peter D.; Singh, Surinder P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DHA) are critical for human health and development. Numerous studies have indicated that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular, inflammatory and other diseases or disorders. EPA and DHA are predominantly sourced from marine fish although the primary producers are microalgae. Much work has been done to engineer a sustainable land-based source of EPA and DHA to reduce pressure on fish stocks in meeting future demand, with previous studies describing the production of fish oil-like levels of DHA in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Principal Findings In this study we describe the production of fish oil-like levels (>12%) of DHA in the oilseed crop species Camelina sativa achieving a high ω3/ω6 ratio. The construct previously transformed in Arabidopsis as well as two modified construct versions designed to increase DHA production were used. DHA was found to be stable to at least the T5 generation and the EPA and DHA were found to be predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions of triacylglycerols. Transgenic and parental lines did not have different germination or seedling establishment rates. Conclusions DHA can be produced at fish oil-like levels in industrially-relevant oilseed crop species using multi-gene construct designs which are stable over multiple generations. This study has implications for the future of sustainable EPA and DHA production from land-based sources. PMID:24465476

  2. Fish oil diet modulates epididymal and inguinal adipocyte metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of different high-fat diets containing fish oil on adiposity and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in mice, comparing the effects on epididymal (eWAT) and subcutaneous (sWAT) depots. For this, we used C57BL/6 male mice fed four types of diets for eight weeks: standard chow (SC), high-fat lard (HF-L), high-fat lard plus fish oil (HF-L + FO), and high-fat fish oil (HF-FO). The HF-L group had a greater body mass (BM) gain, insulin resistance, increased gene expression related to lipogenesis (CD36, aP2, SREBP1c, and FAS), decreased gene expression of perilipin in both eWAT and sWAT, and reduced expression of genes related to beta-oxidation (CPT-1a) and to mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1alpha, NRF1, and TFAM) in eWAT and sWAT. On the other hand, the HF-L + FO and HF-FO groups showed a smaller BM gain and adiposity, and normalization of insulin resistance and lipogenic genes in both eWAT and sWAT. These animals also showed decreased perilipin gene expression and elevated expression of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in eWAT and sWAT. 'Beige' adipocytes were identified in sWAT of the HF-FO animals. In conclusion, fish oil intake has anti-obesity effects through modulation of both eWAT and sWAT metabolism in mice and is relevant in diminishing the BM gain, adiposity, and insulin resistance even in combination with a high-fat lard diet in mice. PMID:26876019

  3. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, Troy S.

    1995-06-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife`s Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: 1) Flood damage assessment of project leases after the May 1994 flood, 2) reconstruction of 1.25 miles of high tensile steel fence, 3) inspection and routine maintenance of 14.8 miles of fence, 4) collection of approximately 6,600 cottonwood and willow cuttings for transplanting in spring of 1995, 5) establishment of three bioengineered habitat restoration demonstration projects, 6) Implementation of a streambank stabilization workshop (bioengineering techniques) for Umatilla Basin residents and resource agency personnel, 7) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, and 8) extensive interagency coordination.

  4. The Use of Fish Oil Lipid Emulsion in the Treatment of Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease (IFALD)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Melissa I.; Puder, Mark; Gura, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, fish oil based lipid emulsions have been used in the treatment of intestinal failure associated liver disease, with a noticeable impact on decreasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality of this often fatal condition. With this new therapy, however, different approaches have emerged as well as concerns about potential risks with using fish oil as a monotherapy. This review will discuss the experience to date with this lipid emulsion along with the rational for its use, controversies and concerns. PMID:23363993

  5. Effects of fish oil and endorphins on the cold pressor test in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G S; Ringer, T V; Francom, S F; Caswell, K C; DeLoof, M J; Spillers, C R

    1991-11-01

    The effects of fish oil and naloxone on blood pressure, catecholamines, and endorphins during the cold pressor test were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover trial of normotensive and medication-free hypertensive men (n = 13 each). Subjects were given 5 gm omega-3 fatty acids per day or placebo for 30 days with a 1-month washout between interventions. The cold pressor test (hand in ice water for 5 minutes) was done at the end of the treatment periods. Intravenous naloxone (10 mg) or placebo was given before the cold pressor test. Fish oil-treated, normotensive, or hypertensive groups had similar changes in blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, and beta-endorphins during the cold pressor test, but naloxone treatment was associated with fivefold and tenfold increases in plasma epinephrine and cortisol levels, respectively. Naloxone may modulate sympathomedullary discharge through blockade of endorphin activity. It is unlikely that endorphins are involved in the blood pressure increase during the cold pressor test or that fish oil alters this response. PMID:1934867

  6. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I.; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

  7. Fish Oil and Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis: Inhibitory Effect on Leukocyte Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Kummer, Raquel; Tronco, Rafael Prizon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, has been studied for its beneficial effects in many diseases. Recent studies have shown the robust anti-inflammatory activity of fish oil (FO), when administered orally to rats, in models of acute inflammation. Herein, we investigated if treatment with fish oil preparation (FOP) could interfere with the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats. We also evaluated the effect of treatment on rolling behavior and leukocyte adhesion in vivo and on leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. Treatment with FOP (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) initiated on the day of induction of arthritis (day 0) and maintained for 21 days reduced the total number of leukocytes recruited into the joint cavity, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in arthritic rats, and leukocyte migration in response to stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Together, our data provide evidence that FOP plays an important inhibitory role in the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats. PMID:26378008

  8. Argan oil improves surrogate markers of CVD in humans.

    PubMed

    Sour, Souad; Belarbi, Meriem; Khaldi, Darine; Benmansour, Nassima; Sari, Nassima; Nani, Abdelhafid; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Limited - though increasing - evidence suggests that argan oil might be endowed with potential healthful properties, mostly in the areas of CVD and prostate cancer. We sought to comprehensively determine the effects of argan oil supplementation on the plasma lipid profile and antioxidant status of a group of healthy Algerian subjects, compared with matched controls. A total of twenty healthy subjects consumed 15 g/d of argan oil - with toasted bread - for breakfast, during 4 weeks (intervention group), whereas twenty matched controls followed their habitual diet, but did not consume argan oil. The study lasted 30 d. At the end of the study, argan oil-supplemented subjects exhibited higher plasma vitamin E concentrations, lower total and LDL-cholesterol, lower TAG and improved plasma and cellular antioxidant profile, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we showed that Algerian argan oil is able to positively modulate some surrogate markers of CVD, through mechanisms which warrant further investigation. PMID:22082585

  9. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. PMID:27110237

  10. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally

    PubMed Central

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Bull, Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  11. Response of coastal fishes to the Gulf of Mexico oil disaster.

    PubMed

    Fodrie, F Joel; Heck, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem-level impacts of the Deepwater Horizon disaster have been largely unpredictable due to the unique setting and magnitude of this spill. We used a five-year (2006-2010) data set within the oil-affected region to explore acute consequences for early-stage survival of fish species inhabiting seagrass nursery habitat. Although many of these species spawned during spring-summer, and produced larvae vulnerable to oil-polluted water, overall and species-by-species catch rates were high in 2010 after the spill (1,989±220 fishes km-towed(-1) [μ ± 1SE]) relative to the previous four years (1,080±43 fishes km-towed(-1)). Also, several exploited species were characterized by notably higher juvenile catch rates during 2010 following large-scale fisheries closures in the northern Gulf, although overall statistical results for the effects of fishery closures on assemblage-wide CPUE data were ambiguous. We conclude that immediate, catastrophic losses of 2010 cohorts were largely avoided, and that no shifts in species composition occurred following the spill. The potential long-term impacts facing fishes as a result of chronic exposure and delayed, indirect effects now require attention. PMID:21754992

  12. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bull, Ann S

    2014-10-28

    Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway of energy flow through an ecosystem as it makes energy available to consumers, including humans. Its estimation can play a valuable role in the examination of linkages between ecosystem functions and services. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat that has been studied, about an order of magnitude higher than fish communities from other marine ecosystems. Most previous estimates have come from estuarine environments, generally regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems globally. High rates of fish production on these platforms ultimately result from high levels of recruitment and the subsequent growth of primarily rockfish (genus Sebastes) larvae and pelagic juveniles to the substantial amount of complex hardscape habitat created by the platform structure distributed throughout the water column. The platforms have a high ratio of structural surface area to seafloor surface area, resulting in large amounts of habitat for juvenile and adult demersal fishes over a relatively small footprint of seafloor. Understanding the biological implications of these structures will inform policy related to the decommissioning of existing (e.g., oil and gas platforms) and implementation of emerging (e.g., wind, marine hydrokinetic) energy technologies. PMID:25313050

  13. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R.; Turner, Glenn W.; Davis, Edward M.; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C.; Boydston, Rick A.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2011-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

  14. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

    2011-10-11

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost. PMID:21963983

  15. Bioelement status with oral administration of fish oil methyl ester and diesel fuel in male rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Laçine; Tütüncü, Hakan; Alper, Yasemin; Büyükben, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    This paper is a study on the effects on the amounts of trace elements in case of possible repeat accidental or environmental exposure with fish oil biodiesel. For this purpose, 35 male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. Rats were divided into five groups. The first group was determined as the control group. The rats in this group were gavaged orally with 250 mg/kg sunflower oil. The rats in the second and third groups were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg (D1) and 500 mg/kg (D2) diesel fuel mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil, respectively. The rats in the fourth group were administered by oral gavage of 250 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F1) and the rats in the fifth group were administered by oral gavage of 500 mg/kg fish oil biodiesel (F2), both mixed with equal amounts of sunflower oil. At the end of the study, bioelement concentrations in the serum and the kidney, lung, and liver tissues were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. It was observed that serum Ca, Mg, and Sr concentrations were significantly (p<0.001) higher and Cu concentration was significantly (p<0.01) higher in the control group than in the biodiesel groups. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the control group than in the diesel groups. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (p<0.001) lower in the D2 group than in the F2 group. Kidney Mg concentration was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the control group than in the diesel groups. Lung Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Na, and Zn concentrations were different significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups. Liver Al concentration was different significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups. Liver Ca concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the control group than in the biodiesel groups. Serum and lung tissue bioelements concentrations were lower in diesel and biodiesel groups than in control group. Due to consumption for biochemical

  16. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  17. Factors affecting the abundance of selected fishes near oil and gas platforms in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, D.R.; Wilson, C.A. )

    1991-01-01

    A logbook program was initiated to determine the relative abundance of selected fish species around oil and gas platforms off the Louisiana coast. Logbooks were maintained by 55 anglers and 10 charterboat operators from March 1987 to March 1988. A total of 36,839 fish were caught representing over 46 different species. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped the seventeen most abundant species into reef fish, pelagic fish, bluefish-red drum, Atlantic croaker-silver/sand seatrout, and cobia-shark-blue runner associations. Multiple regression analyses were used to compare PCA groupings to physical platform, temporal, geological, and angler characteristic variables and their interactions. Reef fish, Atlantic croaker, and silver/sand seatrout abundances were highest near large, structurally complex platforms in relatively deep water. High spotted seatrout abundances were correlated with small, unmanned oil and gas platforms in shallow water. Pelagic fish, bluefish, red drum, cobia, and shark abundances were not related to the physical parameters of the platforms.

  18. Fish oil intake induces UCP1 upregulation in brown and white adipose tissue via the sympathetic nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minji; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Yu, Rina; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Kano, Yuriko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a central role in regulating energy homeostasis, and may provide novel strategies for the treatment of human obesity. BAT-mediated thermogenesis is regulated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in classical brown and ectopic beige adipocytes, and is controlled by sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Previous work indicated that fish oil intake reduces fat accumulation and induces UCP1 expression in BAT; however, the detailed mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of fish oil on energy expenditure and the SNS. Fish oil intake increased oxygen consumption and rectal temperature, with concomitant upregulation of UCP1 and the β3 adrenergic receptor (β3AR), two markers of beige adipocytes, in the interscapular BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT). Additionally, fish oil intake increased the elimination of urinary catecholamines and the noradrenaline (NA) turnover rate in interscapular BAT and inguinal WAT. Furthermore, the effects of fish oil on SNS-mediated energy expenditure were abolished in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout mice. In conclusion, fish oil intake can induce UCP1 expression in classical brown and beige adipocytes via the SNS, thereby attenuating fat accumulation and ameliorating lipid metabolism. PMID:26673120

  19. Reduction of Splenic Immunosuppressive Cells and Enhancement of Anti-Tumor Immunity by Synergy of Fish Oil and Selenium Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsung-Lin; Bauer, Brent A.; Hsia, Simon; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Huang, Jen-Seng; Wang, Hung-Ming; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) abnormally increase in cancer cachectic patients. Suppressions of Tregs and MDSCs may enhance anti-tumor immunity for cancer patients. Fish oil and selenium have been known to have many biological activities such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Whether fish oil and/or selenium have an additional effect on population of immunosuppressive cells in tumor-bearing hosts remained elusive and controversial. To gain insights into their roles on anti-tumor immunity, we studied the fish oil- and/or selenium-mediated tumor suppression and immunity on lung carcinoma, whereof cachexia develops. Advancement of cachexia in a murine lung cancer model manifested with such indicative symptoms as weight loss, chronic inflammation and disturbed immune functionality. The elevation of Tregs and MDSCs in spleens of tumor-bearing mice was positively correlated with tumor burdens. Consumption of either fish oil or selenium had little or no effect on the levels of Tregs and MDSCs. However, consumption of both fish oil and selenium together presented a synergistic effect-The population of Tregs and MDSCs decreased as opposed to increase of anti-tumor immunity when both fish oil and selenium were supplemented simultaneously, whereby losses of body weight and muscle/fat mass were alleviated significantly. PMID:23349693

  20. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  1. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. )

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  2. Oxidative stability and in vitro digestibility of fish oil-in-water emulsions containing multilayered membranes.

    PubMed

    Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu; Sandra, Sandra; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2010-07-14

    The oxidative stability and lipid digestibility of fish oil-in-water emulsions (d(43); 5.26-5.71 microm) laminated by primary, secondary, and/or tertiary layers of interfacial membranes have been investigated. The primary emulsion (5 and 0.5% wt % of fish oil and Citrem in acetate buffer) was produced through a membrane homogenizer. The second and tertiary emulsions were prepared by electrostatic deposition of chitosan and sodium alginate on the surfaces of the oil droplets, respectively. The lamination of biopolymers was measured by zeta potential. The lipid oxidative stability was assessed with peroxide value, thiobabituric acid reactive substances, and headspace aldehydes of the emulsions stored at 20 degrees C for 40 days. The positively charged secondary emulsions (+56.27 +/- 2.5 mV) were more stable to lipid oxidation compared to negatively charged primary (-45.13 +/- 1.7 mV) and tertiary emulsions (-24.8 +/- 1.2 mV). An in vitro digestion model was used to study the impact of different layers on the digestibility of oil droplets. Lipid digestion was decreased with multilayer coating, and chitosan coating further reduced the digestion. These findings have implications for the design of structured emulsions to achieve better oxidative stability with more controlled digestibility of lipids. PMID:20527781

  3. The effect of an oral nutritional supplement enriched with fish oil on weight-loss in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Barber, M D; Ross, J A; Voss, A C; Tisdale, M J; Fearon, K C

    1999-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that administration of oral eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) will stabilize weight in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine if a combination of EPA with a conventional oral nutritional supplement could produce weight gain in these patients. Twenty patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma were asked to consume two cans of a fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement per day in addition to their normal food intake. Each can contained 310 kcal, 16.1 g protein and 1.09 g EPA. Patients were assessed for weight, body composition, dietary intake, resting energy expenditure (REE) and performance status. Patients consumed a median of 1.9 cans day(-1). All patients were losing weight at baseline at a median rate of 2.9 kg month(-1). After administration of the fish oil-enriched supplement, patients had significant weight-gain at both 3 (median 1 kg, P= 0.024) and 7 weeks (median 2 kg, P = 0.033). Dietary intake increased significantly by almost 400 kcal day(-1) (P = 0.002). REE per kg body weight and per kg lean body mass fell significantly. Performance status and appetite were significantly improved at 3 weeks. In contrast to previous studies of oral conventional nutritional supplements in weight-losing cancer patients, this study suggests that an EPA-enriched supplement may reverse cachexia in advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:10487616

  4. [Fish oil containing lipid emulsions in critically ill patients: Critical analysis and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Manzanares, W; Langlois, P L

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation lipid emulsions (LE) are soybean oil sparing strategies with immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory effects. Current evidence supporting the use of intravenous (i.v) fish oil (FO) LE in critically ill patients requiring parenteral nutrition or receiving enteral nutrition (pharmaconutrient strategy) mainly derives from small phase ii clinical trials in heterogenous intensive care unit patient's population. Over the last three years, there have been published different systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating the effects of FO containing LE in the critically ill. Recently, it has been demonstrated that i.v FO based LE may be able to significantly reduce the incidence of infections as well as mechanical ventilation days and hospital length of stay. Nonetheless, more robust evidence is required before giving a definitive recommendation. Finally, we strongly believe that a dosing study is required before new phase iii clinical trials comparing i.v FO containing emulsions versus other soybean oil strategies can be conducted. PMID:26403991

  5. Comparison of supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from fish and flax oil on cytokine gene expression and growth of milk-fed Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Karcher, E L; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L; Vito, N; Sordillo, L M; Vandehaar, M J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reduce incidence of disease in calves and improve early vaccination strategies is of particular interest for dairy producers. The n-3 fatty acids have been reported to reduce inflammatory diseases in humans but limited research has been done in calves. The objective of this study was to compare supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from fish and flax oil on gene expression of whole blood cells and growth of milk-fed Holstein calves. Forty-eight Holstein bull calves from a commercial dairy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets beginning at 4d old: (1) control milk replacer (MR) with all pork fat, (2) MR with 2% flax oil, and (3) MR with 2% fish oil. All MR were 17% fat, 27% crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis, with all protein from whey sources. Calves were each fed 654g DM of MR daily for the first 25d and then 327g/d for d26, 27, and 28. On d28, calves were challenged with a Pasteurella vaccine and the temperature response to the vaccine was recorded. Milk and feed intake and fecal scores were recorded daily, and body weight and hip width were recorded weekly. Blood was collected from all calves on d25. One tube of collected blood was incubated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) for 2h and frozen with a second tube of control blood. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess the effects of LPS stimulation on cytokine gene expression. During the 28 d, calves supplemented with flax oil had a greater growth rate and feed efficiency than calves fed fish oil (0.52±0.02 vs. 0.48±0.02g of gain:g of feed). Fish oil tended to decrease LPS stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-α expression. Flax oil, but not fish oil, decreased the expression of IL-4 and tended to decrease expression of osteopontin and IL-8. Flax oil tended to reduce the increase in rectal temperature in response to a Pasteurella vaccine. In conclusion, our data support the idea that supplementation with n-3 fatty acids affects cytokine gene expression. PMID:24485693

  6. Fish oil source differentially affects rat immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.

    PubMed

    McGuire, S O; Alexander, D W; Fritsche, K L

    1997-07-01

    We have previously reported that both the source of dietary fish oil and the chemical form of vitamin E supplied in the diet affect the vitamin E status of immune cells in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the effect of fish oil source on immune cell vitamin E status using free alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) at the AIN recommended level as the sole source of vitamin E. Sixty weanling female rats were fed semipurified, high fat (20 g/100 g) diets containing either tocopherol-stripped lard (LRD), menhaden fish oil (MFO), sardine fish oil (SRD) or cod liver oil (CLO) as the primary lipid source. Endogenous alpha-T concentration was measured and equalized to 150 mg/kg oil by addition of free RRR-alpha-T to each lipid source, allowing for a final concentration of alpha-T in the mixed diet of 30 mg/kg. An additional group of rats was fed LRD without supplemental vitamin E (LRD-) as a negative control. After feeding experimental diets for 5 or 10 wk, tissues were collected for alpha-T analysis by HPLC. After 5 wk, plasma and liver alpha-T (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were significantly lower in SRD- and CLO-fed rats compared with LRD-fed rats. At 10 wk, only plasma alpha-T in CLO-fed rats remained significantly depressed. Plasma and liver alpha-T concentrations (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were not significantly lower in MFO-fed rats than LRD-fed rats at either time point. Compared with LRD, feeding MFO to rats for 5 or 10 wk resulted in significantly greater alpha-T content of immune cells. In similar fashion, SRD-fed rats, compared with LRD-fed rats, also had significantly greater alpha-T content in splenocytes at both time points and greater thymocyte alpha-T at 10 wk. In all instances, the alpha-T status of rats fed CLO was indistinguishable from that of rats fed the vitamin E-free diet (LRD-). These data further demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between vitamin E status and dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). PMID:9202096

  7. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Timothy D.; Rimbach, Gregory P.

    1993-03-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. The major activities undertaken during this report period were: (1) procurement of one cooperative lease agreement and one access easement with private landowners, (2) design and layout of 1.3 miles of riparian exclosure fence and 1.4 miles of instream structure maintenance, and (3) development of one fencing contract and three instream work contracts. Results include implementation of 1.9 miles of fencing, 1.4 miles of instream maintenance work, reconstruction of 0.75 miles of flood damaged fence, inspection and routine maintenance of 13.5 miles of fence, and planting of grasses, legumes and shrubs along 4.6 miles of stream. Other activities undertaken during this report period are: collection and summarization of temperature data, establishment and data collection from habitat monitoring transects, electrofishing surveys and spawning ground counts, photopoint establishment, coordination with numerous agencies and tribes and education of high school students on habitat improvement and preservation.

  8. Enhancing highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in phase-fed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Alaskan fish oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to investigate differences in the kinetics of fatty acids (FA) deposition in fillets of market-sized (approximately 450g) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing commercial Alaskan fish oils versus menhaden oil. Comparisons were made with FA leve...

  9. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  10. Effect of supplementation with calcium salts of fish oil on n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E; de Veth, M J; Lock, A L; Dwyer, D A; Murphy, K D; Bauman, D E

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment of milk fat with n-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be advantageous because of their beneficial effects on human health. In addition, these fatty acids play an important role in reproductive processes in dairy cows. Our objective was to evaluate the protection of EPA and DHA against rumen biohydrogenation provided by Ca salts of fish oil. Four Holstein cows were assigned in a Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate low dose (CaFO-1), 2) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate high dose (CaFO-2), 3) ruminal infusion of fish oil high dose (RFO), and 4) abomasal infusion of fish oil high dose (AFO). The high dose of fish oil provided approximately 16 and approximately 21 g/d of EPA and DHA, respectively, whereas the low dose (CaFO-1) provided 50% of these amounts. A 10-d pretreatment period was used as a baseline, followed by 9-d treatment periods with interceding intervals of 10 d. Supplements were infused every 6 h, milk samples were taken the last 3 d, and plasma samples were collected the last day of baseline and treatment periods. Milk fat content of EPA and DHA were 5 to 6 times greater with AFO, but did not differ among other treatments. Milk and milk protein yield were unaffected by treatment, but milk fat yield and DM intake were reduced by 20 and 15%, respectively, by RFO. Overall, results indicate rumen biohydrogenation of long chain n-3 fatty acids was extensive, averaging >85% for EPA and >75% for DHA for the Ca salts and unprotected fish oil supplements. Thus, Ca salts of fish oil offered no protection against the biohydrogenation of EPA and DHA beyond that observed with unprotected fish oil; however, the Ca salts did provide rumen inertness by preventing the negative effects on DM intake and milk fat yield observed with unprotected fish oil. PMID:17699033

  11. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  12. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L.; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14–0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7–10.3% range), γ-cymene (5–7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8–7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50–66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8–16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12–20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5–60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240–600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0–5 and at 5–7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved

  13. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg(-1)) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  14. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg-1) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  15. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD. PMID:27213553

  16. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD. PMID:27213553

  17. Short-Term Use of Parenteral Nutrition With a Lipid Emulsion Containing a Mixture of Soybean Oil, Olive Oil, Medium-Chain Triglycerides, and Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Devlieger, Hugo; Jochum, Frank; Allegaert, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Background: For premature neonates needing parenteral nutrition (PN), a balanced lipid supply is crucial. The authors hypothesized that a lipid emulsion containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and soybean, olive, and fish oils would be as safe and well tolerated as a soybean emulsion while beneficially influencing the fatty acid profile. Methods: Double-blind, controlled study in 53 neonates (<34 weeks’ gestation) randomized to receive at least 7 days of PN containing either an emulsion of MCTs and soybean, olive, and fish oils or a soybean oil emulsion. Target lipid dosage was 1.0 g fat/kg body weight [BW]/d on days 1–3, 2 g/kg BW/d on day 4, 3 g/kg BW/d on day 5, and 3.5 g/kg BW/d on days 6–14. Results: Test emulsion vs control, mean ± SD: baseline triglyceride concentrations were 0.52 ± 0.16 vs 0.54 ± 0.19 mmol/L and increased similarly in both groups to 0.69 ± 0.38 vs 0.67 ± 0.36 on day 8 of treatment (P = .781 for change). A significantly higher decrease in total and direct bilirubin vs baseline was seen in the test group compared with the control group P < .05 between groups). In plasma and red blood cell phospholipids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were higher, and the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio was lower in the test group (P < .05 vs control). Conclusions: The lipid emulsion, based on a mixture of MCTs and soybean, olive, and fish oils, was safe and well tolerated by preterm infants while beneficially modulating the fatty acid profile. PMID:22237883

  18. Reversal of Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease by Switching From a Combination Lipid Emulsion Containing Fish Oil to Fish Oil Monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Jihye; Hong, Seul Hee; Oh, Chae-Youn; Lee, Suk-Koo; Seo, Jeong-Meen

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is a serious complication of parenteral nutrition (PN). Studies have shown that the amount and content of intravenous lipid emulsions (LEs) used is closely related to the development of IFALD. We report 2 cases of IFALD reversed by switching from a combination lipid emulsion containing fish oil to fish oil monotherapy (Omegaven; Fresenius Kabi Austria Gmbh, Graz, Austria). Patients initially received PN containing SMOFlipid 20% (SMOF; Fresenius Kabi Austria Gmbh, Graz, Austria), 2.0-3.0 g/kg/d, over 24 hours. When IFALD developed, LE was switched from SMOF to Omegaven starting at 1.0 g/kg/d over 12 hours. Case 1 was an 11-month-old girl with a diagnosis of extensive Hirschsprung disease up to the proximal jejunum. She developed direct bilirubinemia at 3 months, and the patient's LE was switched to Omegaven. A decrease in direct bilirubin was observed after 60 days on Omegaven, and IFALD was completely resolved after 90 days. Case 2 was a 1-month-old boy with a history of gastroschisis diagnosed with megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome. He could not tolerate any oral feeds and was kept on full PN. He had elevated direct bilirubin and developed IFALD since 5 weeks. Omegaven treatment was initiated at 5 months. Direct bilirubin rose to 8 mg/dL during the first month on Omegaven. Then a gradual decrease in direct bilirubin was observed, and after 5 months on Omegaven, IFALD was completely resolved. In conclusion, 2 infants with advanced IFALD showed reversal of cholestasis by switching from SMOF to Omegaven monotherapy. PMID:25560679

  19. Oil contamination of fish in the North Sea. Determination of levels and identification of sources

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, S.; Restucci, R.; Klungsoyr, J.

    1996-12-31

    Two fish species, cod and haddock have been sampled from five different regions in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, the Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea, Three of the five sampling areas were located in regions with no local oil or gas production, while the remaining two areas represented regions with high density of oil and gas production fields. A total of 25 specimen of each of the two fish species were collected, and liver (all samples) and muscle (10 samples from each group) were analyzed for the content of total hydrocarbons (THC), selected aromatic compounds (NPD and PAH) and bicyclic aliphatic decalines. The present paper outlines the results of liver samples analyses from four of the sampled regions, & northern North Sea region and the three reference regions Egersundbanken, Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea. In general, no significant difference was observed between the hydrocarbon levels within the sampled regions. The only observed exception was a moderate, but significant increase in decaline levels in haddock liver from the Northern North Sea region. The qualitative interpretation of the results showed that the sources of hydrocarbon contamination varied within the total sampling area. This observation indicates that the local discharge sources in areas with high petroleum production activity are the sources of hydrocarbons in fish from such areas. However, it was not possible to identify single discharges as a contamination source from the present results.

  20. Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-05-01

    Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

  1. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Kwon, Yun-Joong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of multilayered fish oil (FO) emulsion without or with trans-cinnamaldehyde on pork patties. Multilayered FO (-primary, -secondary, -tertiary) emulsions were prepared using a layer-by-layer deposition technique with Tween 20, chitosan, and low methoxyl pectin, and were added to pork patties at the same concentration. Pork patties were then stored for 20 d in a refrigerator (5℃) to study changes in quality. The results showed that the pH value of all samples significantly decreased but cooking loss increased during storage (p<0.05). However, water-holding capacity and moisture content showed no remarkable difference between treatments and storage periods (p>0.05). All pork patties containing multilayered FO (treated samples) showed higher values for lightness and significantly lower values for yellowness compared to control pork patties (untreated sample). Lipid oxidation was higher in treated pork patties than in control pork patties during storage. In addition, lipid oxidation and total viable bacterial count in pork patties decreased as the number of coating layers increased. However, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness of all samples showed no significant change during storage (p>0.05) as compared to fresh pork patties. Furthermore, these did not remarkable change with addition of trans-cinnamaldehyde in all pork patties. From our results, we suggest that FO emulsion did not affect the texture characteristics of fresh pork patties, indicating that it could be used to improve the quality of pork patties by contributing high-quality fat such as unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26761802

  2. Fish Oil Supplementation Enhances Pulmonary Strength and Endurance in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Suzumura, Doris Naoko; Schleder, Juliana Carvalho; Appel, Marcia Helena; Naliwaiko, Katya; Tanhoffer, Ricardo; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation, at 4 g/day, on the respiratory performance and blood lipid profile of 32 patients with breast cancer at the beginning of chemotherapy. They were randomized into two groups: control (C) and FO supplemented (S). Both groups underwent three respiratory evaluations and blood harvest (before chemotherapy-Day 0, and 30 and 60 days after supplementation). The S group showed a significant increase in the maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (P ≤ 0.05 vs. Day 0) and in the maximum voluntary ventilation (P ≤ 0.05). In the treadmill 6-min-walk test, the S group had a significant increase in the walked distance (P ≤ 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in the S group after 60 days, at rest, when compared to C (P ≤ 0.05). Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration remained the same after 60 days of supplementation, while in the C group, it decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 Day 0 vs. Day 60). Triacylglycerol (TAG) plasma concentration in the S group was lower when compared to the C group (P ≤ 0.05 Day 60S vs. Day 60). Supplementation with FO caused improvement in the respiratory muscle strength and endurance, ameliorated functional performance, and kept TAG, HDL cholesterol, and lactate plasma concentration at normal levels. PMID:27340931

  3. Evaluation of immune markers in asymptomatic AIDS patients receiving fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Virgili, N; Farriol, M; Castellanos, J M; Giró, M; Podzamczer, D; A M, P

    1997-10-01

    The effects of oral fish oil (FO) supplementation (8 g/day, capsules) on nutritional status and selected immune markers (CD4/CD8 ratio, IL-1beta, erythrocyte MDA release, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]) were studied in a homogeneous group of asymptomatic HIV-infected patients during 6 weeks. All subjects were classified clinically as A2 according to the CDC revised criteria (mean CD4 count 290 +/-123 cells/mm(3)) and were receiving zidovudine retroviral treatment. The calculated mean energy intake was 3437 +/- 372 Kcal/d, composed of 14% protein, 38% lipids and 48% carbohydrates, and was not modified during the study. The anthropometric parameters, and hematological and plasma biochemistry data showed non-significant changes after FO supplementation. Mean malonyldialdehyde (MDA) release before treatment was: unstimulated 71.5 +/- 37 and stimulated 350.9 +/- 79.8 nmol/g Hb. After FO supplementation (T(6)) MDA release showed unstimulated values of 96.1 +/- 62, and a significant increase after stimulation of 614.1 106.4 nmol/g Hb, which was, however, within the normal range. In the patient's samples, IL-1beta levels in the unstimulated blood culture showed a statistical increase with respect to the normal range before (T(0)) and after (T(6)) FO supplementation with a slight decrease after (mean 49.8 vs 40.9 pg/ml). The stimulated IL-1beta levels after treatment showed a statistically significant decrease that was maintained within the normal range (T(0): 797.7 vs T(6): 535.6 pg/ml). Taken collectively, these results suggest a tendency toward improvement in immune function. PMID:16844605

  4. Changes in tissue lipid and fatty acid composition of farmed rainbow trout in response to dietary camelina oil as a replacement of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2014-01-01

    Camelina oil (CO) replaced 50 and 100 % of fish oil (FO) in diets for farmed rainbow trout (initial weight 44 ± 3 g fish(-1)). The oilseed is particularly unique due to its high lipid content (40 %) and high amount of 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) (30 %). Replacing 100 % of fish oil with camelina oil did not negatively affect growth of rainbow trout after a 12-week feeding trial (FO = 168 ± 32 g fish(-1); CO = 184 ± 35 g fish(-1)). Lipid and fatty acid profiles of muscle, viscera and skin were significantly affected by the addition of CO after 12 weeks of feeding. However, final 22:6n-3 [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and 20:5n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)] amounts (563 mg) in a 75 g fillet (1 serving) were enough to satisfy daily DHA and EPA requirements (250 mg) set by the World Health Organization. Other health benefits include lower SFA and higher MUFA in filets fed CO versus FO. Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) confirmed that the δ(13)C isotopic signature of DHA in CO fed trout shifted significantly compared to DHA in FO fed trout. The shift in DHA δ(13)C indicates mixing of a terrestrial isotopic signature compared to the isotopic signature of DHA in fish oil-fed tissue. These results suggest that ~27 % of DHA was synthesized from the terrestrial and isotopically lighter ALA in the CO diet rather than incorporation of DHA from fish meal in the CO diet. This was the first study to use CSIA in a feeding experiment to demonstrate synthesis of DHA in fish. PMID:24264359

  5. Fish oil supplementation decreases oxidative stress but does not affect platelet-activating factor bioactivity in lungs of asthmatic rats.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, A L; Miranda, D T S Z; Dias, B C L; Campos, R M; Massaro, M C; Michelotto, P V; West, A L; Miles, E A; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2014-07-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation increases the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cellular membranes. The highly unsaturated nature of n-3 PUFA could result in an enhanced lipid peroxidation in the oxidative environment characteristic of asthma. The oxidative reaction cascade culminates in an increased production of components associated to oxidative stress and of an important proinflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipid. We evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats upon the PAF bioactivity and parameters related to oxidative stress in the lung. Fish oil supplementation of asthmatic rats resulted in lower concentrations of nitrite (1.719 ± 0.137 vs. 2.454 ± 0.163 nmol/mL) and lipid hydroperoxide (72.190 ± 7.327 vs. 120.200 ± 11.270 nmol/mg protein). In asthmatic animals, fish oil increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) (33.910 ± 2.325 vs. 24.110 ± 0.618 U/mg protein) and glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) (164.100 ± 31.250 vs. 12.590 ± 5.234 U/mg protein). However, fish oil did not affect PAF bioactivity in lung tissue of asthmatic rats (0.545 ± 0.098 340/380 vs. 0.669 ± 0.101 340/380 nm ratio). Considering the two-step process--oxidative stress and PAF bioactivity--fish oil exhibited a divergent action on these aspects of asthmatic inflammation, since the supplement lowered oxidative stress in the lungs of asthmatic rats, presenting an antioxidant effect, but did not affect PAF bioactivity. This suggests a dual effect of fish oil on oxidative stress and inflammation in asthma. PMID:24858941

  6. Improving the potential to produce oil from naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.; Nighswander, J.; Berg, R.R.; Friedman, M.; Gangi, A.F.; Poston, S.W.

    1994-12-31

    A multi-phase effort that involved geological, geophysical, and petroleum engineering studies yielded an improved understanding of naturally fractured reservoirs and potential manners to improve the incidence of oil production from such reservoirs. Maps of fracture traces on bedding planes in the Austin Chalk outcrops showed organized trends of the fracture development and a hierarchical nature within the complete fracture system. Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data has been used to estimate fracture orientation from shear-wave splitting. Well log responses in Austin Chalk wells have shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Well logs have also been used to calculate average resistivity of producing zones and to correlate resistivity with oil saturation and therefore with producing potential. Additionally, the use of carbonates water imbibition displacement processes has shown encouraging results of accelerating and increasing oil recovery of oil which do not have appreciable asphaltene contents.

  7. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Mohamed Zaidul Islam; Selamat, Jinap; Habib, Abu Sayem Md. Ahsan; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Mohamed Jahurul Haque; Jaffri, Juliana Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method. PMID:23109854

  8. Analysis of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid geometrical isomers formed during fish oil deodorization.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Véronique; Juanéda, Pierre; Destaillats, Frédéric; Dionisi, Fabiola; Lambelet, Pierre; Sébédio, Jean-Louis; Berdeaux, Olivier

    2006-09-29

    Addition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) from marine oil into food products implies preliminary refining procedures of the oil which thermal process affects the integrity of LC-PUFAs. Deodorization, the major step involving high temperatures, is a common process used for the refining of edible fats and oils. The present study evaluates the effect of deodorization temperature on the formation of LC-PUFA geometrical isomers. Chemically isomerized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were used as reference samples. Fish oil samples have been deodorized at 180, 220 and 250 degrees C for 3 h and pure EPA and DHA fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were chemically isomerized using p-toluenesulfinic acid as catalyst. FAMEs prepared from fish oil were fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Geometrical isomers produced by both processes were fractionated by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography (Ag-TLC) and silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography (Ag-HPLC). The FAME fractions were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) on a 100 m highly polar cyanopropylpolysiloxane coated capillary column, CP-Sil 88. Our results show that thermally induced geometrical isomerization appears to be a directed reaction and some ethylenic double bond positions on the hydrocarbon chain are more prone to stereomutation. Only minor changes were observed in the EPA and DHA trans isomers content and distribution after deodorization at 180 degrees C. The analyses of EPA and DHA isomer fractions revealed that it is possible to quantify EPA geometrical isomers by GC using the described conditions. However, we notice that a mono-trans isomer of DHA, formed during both chemical and thermal treatments, co-elute with all-cis DHA. This feature should be taken into consideration for the quantification of DHA geometrical isomers. PMID:16893549

  9. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. Objective: The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil–containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. Results: The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P < 0.001). Significantly lower (36–38%) blood glucose concentrations were evident in the FOH and COH mice relative to C mice (P < 0.01). Hepatic EPA concentrations were higher in all EPA groups relative to the C group (P < 0.001), with concentrations of 0.0, 0.4, 2.9, 0.2, and 3.6 g/100 g liver total lipids in the C, COL, COH, FOL, and FOH groups, respectively. Comparable dose-independent enrichments of liver DHA were observed in mice fed CO and FO diets (P < 0.001). Relative to the C group, lower fatty acid desaturase 1 (Fads1) expression (P < 0.005) was observed in the COH and FOH groups. Higher fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2), peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (Ppara), and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ (Pparg) (P < 0.005) expressions were induced by CO. No impact of treatment on liver X receptor

  10. The improvement of distortion by high-temperature oil quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, E.; Uchida, H.; Koyama, S.

    1996-12-31

    The authors think that control of quenching distortion is very important issue from the point of view of quality control. They investigated the comparison of quenching oil and salt which are one of the major factors for distortion. By those results, the following are observed. (1) In the case of small parts, the vapor blanket cooling stage does not effect the quenching ununiformty at all. (2) The main difference between quenching oil and salt is using temperature for quenching distortion. The authors found that using quenching oil around 200 C improves the amount of quenching distortion with the lower Ms point parts.

  11. Consistency of PAH concentrations in fish, mussels, and water following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, J.M.; Burns, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    A study was undertaken to determine whether elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in the tissues of pink salmon fry (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill were consistent with direct measurements of PAHs in water samples. This was accomplished by using published, laboratory derived bioconcentration (BCF) equations to estimate time-integrated PAH concentrations of the water in which the organisms lived. The resulting estimates of water PAHs compare within a factor of 2 to 5 with actual water measurements and show similar trends with time. Estimates based on salmon tissue agreed most closely with direct water measurements. The fish appear to accumulate PAH from the dissolved phase. For unoiled areas, water estimates based on mussel tissue agree with direct water measurements. However, for the spill path, water estimates based on mussel tissue are higher than direct water measurements. This is thought to result from the accumulation of small oil droplets or oiled sediment particles by filter-feeding mussels, something not done by the fish. Results of this study may be useful to mussel watch monitoring programs and ecological risk assessments.

  12. EFFECT OF CYLOOXYGENASE GENOTYPE AND DIETARY FISH OIL ON COLONIC EICOSANOIDS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Andrew P.; Djuric, Zora; Ren, Jianwei; Hong, Yu H.; Sen, Ananda; Lager, Corey; Jiang, Yan; Reuven, Shony; Smith, William L.; Brenner, Dean E.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary ω3 fatty acids can modulate substrate availability for cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, thus modulating downstream eicosanoid formation. This could be an alternative approach to using NSAIDs and other COX inhibitors for limiting PGE2 synthesis in colon cancer prevention. The aims of this study were to evaluate to what extent cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-derived products could be modulated by dietary fish oil in normal colonic mucosa, and to evaluate the role of COX-1 and COX-2 in formation of these products. Mice (wild-type, COX-1 null, or COX-2 null) were fed a diet supplying a broad mixture of fatty acids present in European/American diets, supplemented with either olive oil (oleate control diet) or menhaden (fish) oil ad libitum for 9–11 wk. Colonic eicosanoid levels were measured by LC-MS/MS, and proliferation was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Dietary alteration of colonic arachidonic acid: eicosapentaenoic ratios resulted in large shifts in formation of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites. COX-1 knockout virtually abolished PGE2 formation but interestingly 12-HETE and 15-HETE formation was increased. The large changes in eicosanoid profiles were accompanied by relatively small changes in colonic crypt proliferation, but such changes in eicosanoid formation might have greater biological impact upon carcinogen challenge. These results indicate that in normal colon, inhibition of COX-2 would have little effect on reducing PGE2 levels. PMID:21937210

  13. Oil content and seed yield improvements of Lesquerella fendleri (Brassicaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement in seed oil content and seed yield of Lesquerella fendleri (Gray) Wats. (Brassicaceae) could have a large impact on attracting new markets for commercialization of this new oilseed crop. There have been several previous germplasm releases for public use with improvements of these traits....

  14. Structural characteristics of oil-poor dilutable fish oil omega-3 microemulsions for ophthalmic applications.

    PubMed

    Lidich, Nina; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promotes synthesis of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins and relief of dry eye symptoms. However, topical ophthalmic application of DHA is difficult because of its lipophilic property. Therefore, it is important to develop aqueous-based formulation with enhanced capabilities. Novel, unique water-dilutable microemulsions (MEs) were constructed to allow loading of naturally occurring rigid long-chain triglyceride of DHA (TG-DHA). The TG-DHA serves as solubilizate and as the oil phase, therefore preparation is poor in oil. The structural transformations of MEs upon water dilution were studied by SAXS, viscosity, electrical conductivity, self-diffusion NMR, DSC, cryo-TEM, and DLS techniques. At low water content a new type of water-in-oil (W/O) structure is formed. The glycerol/water phase hydrates the headgroups of surfactants, and the oil solvates their tails, forming "ill-defined bicontinuous domains". Upon further water dilution more structured bicontinuous domains of high viscosity are formed. After additional dilution, the mesophases invert to oil-in-water (O/W) droplets of ∼8nm. In the structures composed of up to 25wt% water, the TG-DHA spaces and de-entangles the surfactant tails. Once the bicontinuous structures are formed, the surfactants and TG-DHA content decrease and their interfacial layer shrinks, leading to entanglement and buildup of viscous non-Newtonian mesophase. Above 70wt% water TG-DHA is embedded in the core of the O/W droplets, and its effect on the droplets' structure is minimal. This new dilutable ill-defined microemulsion can be a potential delivery vehicle for ophthalmic TG-DHA transport. PMID:26520814

  15. Improving Vehicle Efficiency, Reducing Dependence on Foreign Oil (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. Today, the United States spends about $400 billion each year on imported oil. To realize a secure energy future, America must break its dependence on imported oil and its volatile costs. The transportation sector accounts for about 70% of U.S. oil demand and holds tremendous opportunity to increase America's energy security by reducing oil consumption. That's why the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research and development (R and D) on vehicle technologies which can stem America's dependence on oil, strengthen the economy, and protect the environment. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles can significantly improve fuel economy, displacing petroleum. Researchers are making batteries more affordable and recyclable, while enhancing battery range, performance, and life. This research supports President Obama's goal of putting 1 million electric vehicles on the road by 2015. The program is also working with businesses to develop domestic battery and electric-drive component plants to improve America's economic competitiveness globally. The program facilitates deployment of alternative fuels (ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, electricity, propane, and natural gas) and fuel infrastructures by partnering with state and local governments, universities, and industry. Reducing vehicle weight directly improves vehicle efficiency and fuel economy, and can potentially reduce vehicle operating costs. Cost-effective, lightweight, high-strength materials can significantly reduce vehicle weight without compromising safety. Improved combustion technologies and optimized fuel systems can improve near-and mid-term fuel economy by 25% for passenger vehicles and 20% for commercial vehicles by 2015, compared to 2009 vehicles. Reducing the use of oil-based fuels and lubricants in vehicles has more potential to improve the nation's energy security than any other action

  16. Dietary flaxseed oil and fish oil ameliorates renal oxidative stress, protein glycation, and inflammation in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jangale, Nivedita M; Devarshi, Prasad P; Bansode, Sneha B; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Harsulkar, Abhay M

    2016-06-01

    Protective and prophylactic effects of omega-3 fatty acids on oxidative stress and inflammation are well known. We assessed beneficial effects of flaxseed oil and fish oil on streptozotocin (65 mg/kg; i.p.)-nicotinamide (110 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetic rats by studying renal expression of antioxidant and inflammatory genes. Diabetic rats given 10 % flaxseed oil or 10 % fish oil diet for 35 days showed significant decrease in renal lipid peroxidation. Flaxseed oil diet resulted in up-regulation of renal superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) (activity and expression) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) expression. Furthermore, both diets up-regulated catalase (CAT) (activity and expression) and down-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Both diets were able to limit the renal advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation and reduced receptor of AGE (RAGE) protein expression significantly. Expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and NF-κB p65 subunit were down-regulated significantly by flaxseed oil or fish oil diet. The histological tubular injuries were also lowered by both diets. These results suggest that dietary ω-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) associated with oxidative stress, glycation, and inflammation in the kidney. PMID:27048415

  17. Role of dietary fish oil on nitric oxide synthase activity and oxidative status in mice red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcela A; Moss, Monique B; Mendes, Iara K S; Águila, Márcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Brunini, Tatiana M C; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio Cláudio

    2014-12-01

    The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from fish oil concomitant with a reduced intake of saturated fats is associated with cardiovascular benefits, which may result from the participation of nitric oxide (NO). In contrast, PUFAs are vulnerable to peroxidation, which could affect the oxidative stability of the cell and reduce NO bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high fat diets with increasing amounts of fish oil (0-40% of energy) in place of lard on the l-arginine-NO pathway, the arginase pathway and oxidative status in mice red blood cells (RBC). We found that l-arginine transport, as well as NO synthase (NOS) expression and activity, was enhanced by the highest doses of fish oil (30 and 40%). In contrast, diets rich in lard led to NOS expression and activity impairment. Arginase expression was not significantly affected by any of the dietary regimens. No significant difference in protein and lipid oxidative markers was observed among any of the fish-oil fed mice; only lard feeding induced protein damage in addition to a decreased superoxide dismutase activity. These data suggest that a substantial dose of fish oil, but not low doses, activates the RBC l-arginine-NO pathway without resulting in oxidative damage. PMID:25317541

  18. Celecoxib and fish oil: a combination strategy for decreased inflammatory mediators in early stages of experimental mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Negi, Anjana Kumari; Renuka; Bhatnagar, Archana; Agnihotri, Navneet

    2016-02-01

    Chronic inflammation has been directly linked to cancer progression. Therefore, current study was designed to understand the mechanism of action of chemo-preventive effect of celecoxib and fish oil on inflammatory mediators in experimental mammary carcinoma. Female Wistar rats were distributed into control and DMBA treated groups and further subdivided based on pretreatment with celecoxib and/or fish oil. Inflammation was measured by assessing expression of NF-κB, COX-2 and cytokines. The results indicated an elevation in expression of NF-κB, COX-2 and cytokines' levels (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10) in DMBA group as compared to controls. On pretreatment with celecoxib and/or fish oil in DMBA treated animals, a significant reduction in expression of NF-κB, COX-2 and cytokines' levels was observed. The decrease was more pronounced with combinatorial regimen than either celecoxib or fish oil alone. To conclude, a combinatorial strategy of celecoxib and fish oil may generate an immune response against the tumor cell by altering cytokine repertoire and decrease the tendency of tumor cells to escape immune surveillance. PMID:26749133

  19. Dietary fish oil blocks the microcirculatory manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury in striated muscle in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, H A; Hübner, C; Nolte, D; Kohlschütter, A; Messmer, K

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic observations and experimental studies have demonstrated a protective effect of dietary fish oil on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we used the dorsal skinfold chamber model for intravital fluorescence microscopy of the microcirculation in striated muscle of awake hamsters. In control hamsters (n = 7), reperfusion after a 4-hr pressure-induced ischemia to the muscle tissue elicited the adhesion of fluorescently stained leukocytes to the endothelium of postcapillary venules, capillary obstruction, and the break-down of endothelial integrity. These microvascular manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury were significantly attenuated in animals (n = 7) when fed with a fish oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks prior to the experiments. In leukocyte total lipids, the fish oil diet resulted in a substantial displacement of arachidonic acid, the precursor of the potent adhesion-promoting leukotriene (LT) B4, by fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid, the precursor of biologically less potent LTB5, emphasizing the mediator role of LTB4 in ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results suggest that the preservation of microvascular perfusion by dietary fish oil contributes to its protective effects on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:1650479

  20. Formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) in fish and fish oil during dynamic gastrointestinal in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Karin; Harrysson, Hanna; Havenaar, Robert; Alminger, Marie; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Marine lipids contain a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the characteristic long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Upon peroxidation these lipids generate reactive products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), which can form covalent adducts with biomolecules and thus are regarded as genotoxic and cytotoxic. PUFA peroxidation can occur both before and after ingestion. The aim of this study was to determine what levels of MDA, HHE and HNE can evolve in the gastric and intestinal lumen after ingesting meals containing fish or fish oil using a dynamic gastrointestinal (GI) model (TIM). The impact of the fish muscle matrix, lipid content, fish species, and oven baking on GI oxidation was evaluated. MDA and HHE concentrations in gastric lumen increased for all meals during digestion, with the highest level found with herring mince; ∼ 25 μM MDA and ∼ 850 nM HHE. Aldehyde concentrations reached in intestinal lumen during digestion of fish containing meals were generally lower than in gastric lumen, while isolated herring oils (bulk and emulsified) generated higher MDA and HHE values in intestinal lumen compared to gastric lumen. Based on aldehyde levels in gastric lumen, meals containing herring lipids were ranked: raw herring (17% lipid) = baked herring (4% lipid) > raw herring (4% lipid) ≫ herring oil emulsion > herring oil. Herring developed higher concentrations of MDA and HHE during gastric digestion compared to salmon, which initially contained lower levels of oxidation products. Cooked salmon generated higher MDA concentrations during digestion than raw salmon. Low levels of HNE were observed during digestion of all test meals, in accordance with the low content of n-6 PUFA in fish lipids. PMID:26824872

  1. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    PubMed

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  2. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  3. Improved oil-off survivability of tapered roller bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, Gary E.; Lee, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this program is to improve the oil-off survivability of a tapered roller bearing when applied to a helicopter transmission, since the tapered bearing has shown a performance advantage in this application. However, the critical roller end-rib conjunction is vulnerable to damage in an oil-off condition. Three powdered metal materials were selected to use as the rib material for oil-off evaluation. These were: M2 steel to a 65% density, CBS 1000M 65% density, and CBS 1000M 75% density. The bearing styles tested were ribbed cone (inner race) and ribbed cup (outer race). Carburized solid CBS 600 was also used as a ribbed material for comparison of oil-off results. The tests were conducted at six speeds from 4000 rpm (0.26 million DN) through 37000 rpm (2.4 million DN).The ribbed cup style bearing achieved longer lives than the ribbed cone style. A standard bearing lasted only 10 minutes at 4000 rpm; however, the 30-min oil-off goal was achieved through 11000 rpm using the survivable ribbed cup bearing. The oil-off lives at 37000 rpm were less than 10 seconds. The grinding of the powder metal materials and surface preparation to achieve an open porosity is extremely critical to the oil-off performance of the powder metal component.

  4. Maternal exposure to fish oil primes offspring to harbor intestinal pathobionts associated with altered immune cell balance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, D L; Gill, S K; Brown, K; Tasnim, N; Ghosh, S; Innis, S; Jacobson, K

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that offspring from rat dams fed fish oil (at 8% and 18% energy), developed impaired intestinal barriers sensitizing the colon to exacerbated injury later in life. To discern the mechanism, we hypothesized that in utero exposure to fish oil, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), caused abnormal intestinal reparative responses to mucosal injury through differences in intestinal microbiota and the presence of naïve immune cells. To identify such mechanisms, gut microbes and naïve immune cells were compared between rat pups born to dams fed either n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA or breeder chow. Maternal exposure to either of the PUFA rich diets altered the development of the intestinal microbiota with an overall reduction in microbial density. Using qPCR, we found that each type of PUFA differentially altered the major gut phyla; fish oil increased Bacteroidetes and safflower oil increased Firmicutes. Both PUFA diets reduced microbes known to dominate the infant gut like Enterobacteriaceae and Bifidobacteria spp. when compared to the chow group. Uniquely, maternal fish oil diets resulted in offspring showing blooms of opportunistic pathogens like Bilophila wadsworthia, Enterococcus faecium and Bacteroides fragilis in their gut microbiota. As well, fish oil groups showed a reduction in colonic CD8+ T cells, CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells and arginase+ M2 macrophages. In conclusion, fish oil supplementation in pharmacological excess, at 18% by energy as shown in this study, provides an example where excess dosing in utero can prime offspring to harbor intestinal pathobionts and alter immune cell homeostasis. PMID:25559197

  5. Fish/flaxseed oil protect against nitric oxide-induced hepatotoxicity and cell death in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Khan, M W; Priyamvada, S; Khan, S A; Khan, S; Gangopadhyay, A; Yusufi, Ank

    2016-03-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is an antihypertensive drug with proven toxic effects attributed mainly to the production of nitric oxide (NO). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are widely regarded as functional foods and have been shown to ameliorate the harmful effects of many toxicants. This study examined whether feeding of fish oil (FO)/flaxseed oil (FXO) would have any protective effect against SNP-induced hepatotoxicity and cell death. Male Wistar rats were fed either on normal diet or with 15% FO/FXO for 15 days, following which SNP (1.5 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days. Animals were killed after treatment, and livers were collected for further analysis. We observed that SNP significantly elevated tissue nitrite levels and lipid peroxidation (LPO) with concomitant perturbation in antioxidant defense systems accompanied with dysregulated glucose metabolism and pronounced cellular death. FO/FXO supplementation to SNP-treated rats caused reversal of tissue injury/cell death and markedly decreased LPO and improved antioxidant defense systems. FO/FXO appear to protect against SNP-induced hepatotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanism. PMID:25964379

  6. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Timothy D.; Rimbach, Gregory P.

    1992-01-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife`s Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. In May of this year a thirty year flood event occurred in the Umatilla Basin that resulted in major changes to the year`s statement of work and to the future direction of the program. All projects in the Birch Creek drainage sustained damage to either fencing or instream work, with severe damages on about 1/3 of the project areas. As a result of flooding, and subsequent maintenance demands, all new project implementation in the Birch Creek drainage was cancelled; the entire implementation season was spent repairing flood damages in the Birch Creek drainage. The major activities undertaken during this report period were: (a) construction of O.5 miles of riparian corridor fence on Meacham Creek, (b) performing intensive instream maintenance on 7.25 miles of Mainstem Birch and East Birch creeks, (c) performing major fence maintenance on 1.8 miles of flood damaged riparian corridor fence, (d) rebuilding of O.5 miles of flood destroyed fence, and 54 stream crossing fences, (e) retrofitting of three miles of high tensile fence with an extended electric wire, and (f) spending considerable time working with landowners to resolve flood related problems and come to agreement on project maintenance activities. Other activities undertaken during this report period were: weekly inspection and maintenance of fencing projects, collection and summarization of temperature data, photopoint picture taking, procurement of instream work permits, and coordination with numerous agencies and tribes.

  7. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions prevent and reverse parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: the Boston experience.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, Vincent E; Gura, Kathleen M; Le, Hau D; Meisel, Jonathan A; Puder, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is the most prevalent and most severe complication of long-term parenteral nutrition. Its underlying pathophysiology, however, largely remains to be elucidated. The currently approved parenteral lipid emulsions in the United States contain safflower or soybean oils, both rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Mounting evidence indicates that the omega-6 PUFAs originating from plant oils in these lipid emulsions may play a role in the onset of liver injury. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions, in contrast, are primarily composed of omega-3 PUFAs, thus providing a promising alternative. The authors review the literature on the role of lipid emulsions in the onset of PNALD and discuss prevention and treatment strategies using a fish oil-based lipid emulsion. They conclude that a fish oil-based emulsion is hepatoprotective in a murine model of PNALD, and it appears to be safe and efficacious for the treatment of this type of liver disease in children. A prospective randomized trial that is currently under way at the authors' institution will objectively determine the place of fish oil monotherapy in the prevention of PNALD. PMID:19571170

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent toxicity of weathered crude oil during fish development.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Teraoka, Hiroki; Sloan, Catherine A; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2005-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived largely from fossil fuels and their combustion, are pervasive contaminants in rivers, lakes, and nearshore marine habitats. Studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill demonstrated that fish embryos exposed to low levels of PAHs in weathered crude oil develop a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects. Although mechanisms leading to these defects are poorly understood, it is widely held that PAH toxicity is linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction. Using zebrafish embryos, we show that the weathered crude oil syndrome is distinct from the well-characterized AhR-dependent effects of dioxin toxicity. Blockade of AhR pathway components with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides demonstrated that the key developmental defects induced by weathered crude oil exposure are mediated by low-molecular-weight tricyclic PAHs through AhR-independent disruption of cardiovascular function and morphogenesis. These findings have multiple implications for the assessment of PAH impacts on coastal habitats. PMID:16330359

  9. Metabolic fate (absorption, β-oxidation and deposition) of long-chain n-3 fatty acids is affected by sex and by the oil source (krill oil or fish oil) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Hermon, Karen; Turchini, Giovanni M; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2015-09-14

    The effects of krill oil as an alternative source of n-3 long-chain PUFA have been investigated recently. There are conflicting results from the few available studies comparing fish oil and krill oil. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and metabolic fate (absorption, β-oxidation and tissue deposition) of n-3 fatty acids originating from krill oil (phospholipid-rich) or fish oil (TAG-rich) in rats of both sexes using the whole-body fatty acid balance method. Sprague-Dawley rats (thirty-six male, thirty-six female) were randomly assigned to be fed either a krill oil diet (EPA+DHA+DPA=1·38 mg/g of diet) or a fish oil diet (EPA+DHA+DPA=1·61 mg/g of diet) to constant ration for 6 weeks. The faeces, whole body and individual tissues were analysed for fatty acid content. Absorption of fatty acids was significantly greater in female rats and was only minimally affected by the oil type. It was estimated that most of EPA (>90 %) and more than half of DHA (>60 %) were β-oxidised in both diet groups. Most of the DPA was β-oxidised (57 and 67 % for female and male rats, respectively) in the fish oil group; however, for the krill oil group, the majority of DPA was deposited (82-83 %). There was a significantly greater deposition of DPA and DHA in rats fed krill oil compared with those fed fish oil, not due to a difference in bioavailability (absorption) but rather due to a difference in metabolic fate (anabolism v. catabolism). PMID:26234617

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids in ileal effluent after consuming different foods containing microencapsulated fish oil powder - an ileostomy study.

    PubMed

    Sanguansri, Luz; Shen, Zhiping; Weerakkody, Rangika; Barnes, Mary; Lockett, Trevor; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LCPUFA), [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], after consuming fish oil gelatine capsules or different food products fortified with microencapsulated fish oil, was determined using human ileostomates. The total amount of ω3 LCPUFA consumed per dose of fish oil capsule was 266 mg while that for fortified orange juice, yoghurt and cereal bar was 284 mg per serving of food product. In a time course experiment ω3 LCPUFA was measured in ileal effluent over 24 h post ingestion. Only 0.58-0.73% of the total ω3 LCPUFA dose was recovered in the ileal effluent irrespective of whether the fish oil was delivered in a gelatine capsule or in the form of a microencapsulated powder incorporated into fortified foods. Excretion of ω3 LCPUFA was detected in the 2-18 h effluent collections with none detected at 0 h or 24 h. post ingestion. The transit time of the minimal amount of ω3 LCPUFA that remained in the ileal effluent was dependent on the method of delivery of the fish oil. The ω3 LCPUFA content in the ileal effluent peaked at 2-8 h and declined after 10 h after consumption of fish oil capsules and fortified orange juice. In contrast, two peaks in ω3 LCPUFA content were observed in the ileal effluent, first at 2-8 h and again at 14-16 h, after consumption of fortified yoghurt and cereal bar. The highest recovery of the small amount of ω3 LCPUFA in the ileal effluent at 14-16 h was obtained when fortified cereal bar was consumed. The results suggest that the delivery of fish oil through food products fortified with microencapsulated fish oil does not compromise the bioavailability of the ω3 LCPUFA as evidence by no statistical differences detected in the remaining portion of ω3 LCPUFA in the ileal effluent (p = 0.58). However, the food matrix in which the microencapsulated oil was delivered may alter the transit kinetics of the ω3 LCPUFA through the small intestine

  11. Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a 12 year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Suzanne; Dunstan, Janet A; Foster, Jonathan K; Simmer, Karen; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-03-01

    A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years) of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant's mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age). PMID:25803546

  12. Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant status in oral toxicity of fish oil methyl esters and diesel fuel in male rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Laçine

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of oral toxicity induced by fish oil biodiesel and diesel fuel. Diesel and fish oil biodiesel were administered by oral gavage to rats. For this purpose, 35 rats were divided into five groups. Sunflower oil of 250 mg kg(-1) was administered to the rats in the control group by oral gavage. The rats in the D250 and D500 groups were administered by oral gavage 250 mg kg(-1) and 500 mg kg(-1) of diesel fuel dissolved in equal amounts of sunflower oil, respectively. The rats in the F250 and F500 groups were administered by oral gavage 250 mg kg(-1) and 500 mg kg(-1) of fish oil biodiesel dissolved in equal amounts of sunflower oil, respectively. At the end of the study, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the whole blood; catalase (CAT) activity level was measured in erythrocytes; and nitrite (NO2) and nitrate (NO3) levels were measured in the serum. It was observed that the whole blood MDA levels of the diesel groups were considerably different from those in the control and fish oil biodiesel groups (p < 0.001). GSH levels in the control group were observed to be considerably different from those in all other groups (p < 0.001). Serum NO3 concentrations in the diesel groups were found to be considerably different from those in the control and biodiesel groups. Serum NO2 concentrations in one of the diesel groups were significantly different from those in the control and biodiesel groups (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). The CAT activity of the control group was observed to be different from that in the other groups. According to these results, both fish oil biodiesel and diesel fuel are thought to cause lipid peroxidation. It was observed that fish oil biodiesel does not induce as much oxidative damage as does the diesel fuel. It is suggested that fish oil biodiesel should be preferred as an alternative to the diesel. PMID:23406949

  13. Fish oil disrupts MHC class II lateral organization on the B-cell side of the immunological synapse independent of B-T cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Benjamin Drew; Melton, Mark; Harris, Mitchel; Bridges, Lance C; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2013-11-01

    Fish oil-enriched long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids disrupt the molecular organization of T-cell proteins in the immunological synapse. The impact of fish oil derived n-3 fatty acids on antigen-presenting cells, particularly at the animal level, is unknown. We previously demonstrated B-cells isolated from mice fed with fish oil-suppressed naïve CD4(+) T-cell activation. Therefore, here we determined the mechanistic effects of fish oil on murine B-cell major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecular distribution using a combination of total internal reflection fluorescence, Förster resonance energy transfer and confocal imaging. Fish oil had no impact on presynaptic B-cell MHC II clustering. Upon conjugation with transgenic T-cells, fish-oil suppressed MHC II accumulation at the immunological synapse. As a consequence, T-cell protein kinase C theta (PKCθ) recruitment to the synapse was also diminished. The effects were independent of changes in B-T cell adhesion, as measured with microscopy, flow cytometry and static cell adhesion assays with select immune ligands. Given that fish oil can reorganize the membrane by lowering membrane cholesterol levels, we then compared the results with fish oil to cholesterol depletion using methyl-B-cyclodextrin (MβCD). MβCD treatment of B-cells suppressed MHC II and T-cell PKCθ recruitment to the immunological synapse, similar to fish oil. Overall, the results reveal commonality in the mechanism by which fish oil manipulates protein lateral organization of B-cells compared to T-cells. Furthermore, the data establish MHC class II lateral organization on the B-cell side of the immunological synapse as a novel molecular target of fish oil. PMID:23791516

  14. Fish oil prevents oxidative stress and exerts sustained antiamnesic effect after global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Bacarin, Cristiano Correia; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; Matsushita, Makoto; Santos Previdelli, Isolde; Mori, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Transient, global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) causes hippocampal/cortical damage and the persistent loss of welltrained, long-term memory (retrograde amnesia). Fish oil (FO), a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, abolishes such amnesia in the absence of neurohistological protection. The present study investigated whether FO prevents ischemia-induced oxidative stress and whether such an action contributes to the lasting effect of FO on memory recovery. In a first experiment, FO was administered for 4 days prior to ischemia, and antioxidant status was subsequently measured after 24 h of reperfusion. In another experiment, naive rats were trained in an eight-arm radial maze until they achieved asymptotic performance and then subjected to TGCI. One group of rats received FO as in the first experiment (i.e., 4 days prior to ischemia), whereas another group received FO for 4 days prior to ischemia plus 6 days postischemia. Retrograde memory performance was assessed 2-5 weeks after ischemia. TGCI depleted the level of antioxidant enzymes and increased the amount of protein carbonylation, indicating oxidative damage. Fish oil reversed oxidative damage to control levels. The same treatment that attenuated oxidative stress after 24 h of reperfusion also prevented retrograde amnesia assessed several weeks later. This antiamnesic effect afforded by short preischemia treatment was comparable to 10 days of treatment but not as consistent. These data indicate that an antioxidant action in the hyperacute phase of ischemia/reperfusion may contribute to the long-term, antiamnesic effect of FO. PMID:25714977

  15. The Effect of Fish Oil, Vitamin D and Protein on URTI Incidence in Young Active People.

    PubMed

    Da Boit, M; Gabriel, B M; Gray, P; Gray, S R

    2015-05-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are a frequent illness among athletes. We investigated the effect of a multi-nutrient supplement (vitamin D, fish oil and protein) on the occurrence of URTI in young active people. 42 young recreational athletes were randomly assigned to receive either supplementation (550 mg DHA, 550 mg EPA, 10 µg vitamin D3 and 8 g whey protein) or placebo for 16 weeks. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected by passive drool. Samples were analysed for IgA (sIgA) concentration and the secretion rate extrapolated by multiplying concentration by saliva flow rate. Physical activity levels and URTI incidence were monitored by questionnaire. Training status was not different between the 2 groups. There were no differences in the incidence, severity and duration of URTI. However the number of symptom days was lower in the supplemented compared to the control group (1.72±1.67 vs. 2.79±1.76; P<0.05). sIgA concentration and secretion rate did not differ between groups. This study demonstrates that 16 weeks of supplementation with fish oil, vitamin D and protein did not modify the incidence, severity and duration of URTI, although the total number of symptom days was reduced, in a healthy active population. PMID:25664999

  16. Benefit-Risk Assessment of Fish Oil in Preventing Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Lands, Bill

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a preventable disease, which combines two general processes: chronic vascular inflammation and acute thrombosis. Both are amplified with positive feedback signals by n-6 eicosanoids derived from food-based n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-6 HUFA). This amplification is lessened by competing actions of n-3 HUFA. Death results from fatal interactions of the vascular wall with platelets and clotting proteins. The benefits of fish oil interventions are confounded by complex details in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, adverse events, timescale factors, topology, financial incentives and people's sense of cause and effect. Two basic aspects of n-3 HUFA that are overlooked in CVD dynamics are saturable, hyperbolic responses of the enzymes continually supplying n-6 HUFA and hard-to-control positive feedback receptor signals by excessive n-6 HUFA-based mediators. Multiple feedback loops in inflammation and thrombosis have diverse mediators, and reducing one mediator that occurs above its rate-limiting levels may not reduce the pathophysiology. Clinicians have developed some successful interventions that decrease CVD deaths in the form of secondary prevention. However, the current high CVD prevalence in the USA remains unchanged, and successful primary prevention of CVD remains uncertain. This review weighs the available evidence to help clinicians, the biomedical community and the public put the use of fish oil supplements into a balanced perspective. PMID:27412006

  17. Protective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds and oil against columnaris disease in fishes.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2016-06-01

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is currently the most frequently reported bacterial disease affecting farm-raised channel catfish in the USA. Common treatments against the disease include the use of medicated feed that has led to emergent antibiotic resistant strains of F. columnare. Nigella sativa (Black cumin) is a medicinal herb commonly used by many cultures as a natural remedy for numerous disorders. Recently, we have discovered the antibacterial activity of N. sativa and its oil extract against F. columnare. In this study, we showed N. sativa oil (NSO) strongly inhibited the growth of all of the strains of F. columnare tested and yielded significantly larger zones of inhibition than those produced by oxytetracyclin. We tested the protective effect against columnaris disease in vivo by incorporating NSO (5%) or N. sativa seeds (NSS) (5%) into fish feeds. Fishes (Ictalurus punctatus and Danio rerio) fed amended diets displayed significantly lower mortality than those fed control diets. Per cent mortalities in control groups ranged from 77% to 44% and from 70% to 18% in zebrafish and channel catfish, respectively. A dose study using different NSS concentrations showed that 5% NSS offered the most protection against columnaris disease in channel catfish. PMID:26265495

  18. Fish oil supplementation induces expression of genes related to cell cycle, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a transcriptomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Myhrstad, M C W; Ulven, S M; Günther, C-C; Ottestad, I; Holden, M; Ryeng, E; Borge, G I; Kohler, A; Brønner, K W; Thoresen, M; Holven, K B

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish oil supplementation has been shown to alter gene expression of mononuclear cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the total transcriptome profile in healthy subjects after intake of fish oil. We therefore investigated the gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after intake of fish oil for 7 weeks using transcriptome analyses. Design In a 7-week, double-blinded, randomized, controlled, parallel-group study, healthy subjects received 8 g day−1 fish oil (1.6 g day−1 eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) (n = 17) or 8 g day−1 high oleic sunflower oil (n = 19). Microarray analyses of RNA isolated from PBMCs were performed at baseline and after 7 weeks of intervention. Results Cell cycle, DNA packaging and chromosome organization are biological processes found to be upregulated after intake of fish oil compared to high oleic sunflower oil using a moderated t-test. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis identified several enriched gene sets after intake of fish oil. The genes contributing to the significantly different gene sets in the subjects given fish oil compared with the control group are involved in cell cycle, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis. Gene transcripts with common motifs for 35 known transcription factors including E2F, TP53 and ATF4 were upregulated after intake of fish oil. Conclusion We have shown that intake of fish oil for 7 weeks modulates gene expression in PBMCs of healthy subjects. The increased expression of genes related to cell cycle, ER stress and apoptosis suggests that intake of fish oil may modulate basic cellular processes involved in normal cellular function. PMID:24641624

  19. Fish oil targets PTEN to regulate NFκB for downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes in breast tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Choudhury, Triparna; Mandal, Chandi C.; Woodruff, Kathleen; Clair, Patricia St; Fernandes, Gabriel; Choudhury, Goutam G.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanism for the beneficial effect of fish oil on breast tumor growth is largely undefined. Using the xenograft model in nude mice, we for the first time report that the fish oil diet significantly increased the level of PTEN protein in the breast tumors. In addition, the fish oil diet attenuated the PI 3 kinase and Akt kinase activity in the tumors leading to significant inhibition of NFκB activation. Fish oil diet also prevented the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in the breast tumors with concomitant increase in caspase 3 activity. To extend these findings we tested the functional effects of DHA and EPA, the two active ω-3 fatty acids of fish oil, on cultured MDA MB-231 cells. In agreement with our in vivo data, DHA and EPA treatment increased PTEN mRNA and protein expression and inhibited the phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB in MDA MB-231 cells. Furthermore, DHA and EPA reduced expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. NFκB DNA binding activity and NFκB-dependent transcription of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes were also prevented by DHA and EPA treatment. Finally, we showed that PTEN expression significantly inhibited NFκB-dependent transcription of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes. Taken together, our data reveals a novel signaling pathway linking the fish oil diet to increased PTEN expression that attenuates the growth promoting signals and augments the apoptotic signals, resulting in breast tumor regression. PMID:18953692

  20. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against fish pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Woo; Wendt, Mitchell; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2016-06-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOEG) was determined against 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, S. parauberis, Lactococcus garviae, Vibrio harveyi, V. ichthyoenteri and Photobacterium damselae) obtained from farmed olive flounder. The inhibitory activity was evaluated by three methods: Disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). According to the disc diffusion test, as the concentration of EOEG (5-40 µg) rises, the inhibitory zone increases in size. Compared with amoxicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, EOEG showed similar antibacterial activity. The MIC of EOEG ranged from 7.8 to 125 mg/mL and MBC values ranged from 62 to 250 mg/mL. These results show that EOEG has antimicrobial activity against all seven bacteria, but there was no marked difference between each genus. From these results, it is suggested that EOEG can be used as an antimicrobial agent against fish bacterial diseases in the fish industry. PMID:27382376

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against fish pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Woo; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (EOEG) was determined against 7 fish pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, S. parauberis, Lactococcus garviae, Vibrio harveyi, V. ichthyoenteri and Photobacterium damselae) obtained from farmed olive flounder. The inhibitory activity was evaluated by three methods: Disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). According to the disc diffusion test, as the concentration of EOEG (5-40 µg) rises, the inhibitory zone increases in size. Compared with amoxicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, EOEG showed similar antibacterial activity. The MIC of EOEG ranged from 7.8 to 125 mg/mL and MBC values ranged from 62 to 250 mg/mL. These results show that EOEG has antimicrobial activity against all seven bacteria, but there was no marked difference between each genus. From these results, it is suggested that EOEG can be used as an antimicrobial agent against fish bacterial diseases in the fish industry. PMID:27382376

  2. The Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides to a Purified Fish Oil Based Diet Alters Inflammatory Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, SJ; Nandivada, P; Chang, MI; Mitchell, PD; O’Loughlin, A; Cowan, E; Gura, KM; Nose, V; Bistrian, B; Puder, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Materials/Methods Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. Results All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. Conclusion These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. PMID:25458829

  3. Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

  4. Cruise and turning performance of an improved fish robot actuated by piezoceramic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quang Sang; Heo, Seok; Park, Hoon Cheol; Goo, Nam Seo; Byun, Doyoung

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study is improvement of a fish robot actuated by four light-weight piezocomposite actuators (LIPCAs). In the fish robot, we developed a new actuation mechanism working without any gear and thus the actuation mechanism was simple in fabrication. By using the new actuation mechanism, cross section of the fish robot became 30% smaller than that of the previous model. Performance tests of the fish robot in water were carried out to measure tail-beat angle, thrust force, swimming speed and turning radius for tail-beat frequencies from 1Hz to 5Hz. The maximum swimming speed of the fish robot was 7.7 cm/s at 3.9Hz tail-beat frequency. Turning experiment showed that swimming direction of the fish robot could be controlled with 0.41 m turning radius by controlling tail-beat angle.

  5. Performance evaluation of an improved fish robot actuated by piezoceramic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. S.; Heo, S.; Park, H. C.; Byun, D.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents an improved fish robot actuated by four lightweight piezocomposite actuators. Our newly developed actuation mechanism is simple to fabricate because it works without gears. With the new actuation mechanism, the fish robot has a 30% smaller cross section than our previous model. Performance tests of the fish robot in water were carried out to measure the tail-beat angle, the thrust force, the swimming speed for various tail-beat frequencies from 1 to 5 Hz and the turning radius at the optimal frequency. The maximum swimming speed of the fish robot is 7.7 cm s - 1 at a tail-beat frequency of 3.9 Hz. A turning experiment shows that the swimming direction of the fish robot can be controlled by changing the duty ratio of the driving voltage; the fish robot has a turning radius of 0.41 m for a left turn and 0.68 m for a right turn.

  6. Optimization of Microencapsulation of Fish Oil with Gum Arabic/Casein/Beta-Cyclodextrin Mixtures by Spray Drying.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Xiong, Shanbai; Wang, Fang; Regenstein, Joe M; Liu, Ru

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil was encapsulated with gum arabic/casein/beta-cyclodextrin mixtures using spray drying. The processing parameters (solids concentration of the barrier solutions, ratio of oil to barrier materials, emulsifying temperature, and air inlet temperature) were optimized based on emulsion viscosity, emulsion stability, encapsulation efficiency, and yield. A suitable viscosity and high emulsion stability could increase encapsulation efficiency and yield. Encapsulation efficiency and yield were significantly affected by all the 4 parameters. Based on the results of orthogonal experiments, encapsulation efficiency and yield reached a maximum of 79.6% and 55.6%, respectively, at the optimal condition: solids concentration of 35%, ratios of oil to barrier materials of 3:7, emulsifying temperature of 55 °C, and air inlet temperature of 220 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that fish oil microcapsules were nearly spherical with a smooth surface with droplet size ranging from 1 to 10 μm. PMID:26087831

  7. A revealed preference approach to valuing non-market recreational fishing losses from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Sergio; Larkin, Sherry L; Whitehead, John C; Haab, Tim

    2014-12-01

    At an estimated 206 million gallons, the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) is the largest marine oil spill in the history of the United States. In this paper we develop a series of random utility models of site choice by saltwater anglers in the Southeast US and estimate monetary compensation for recreational losses due to the DWH oil spill. Heterogeneity in angler preferences is accounted for by using mixed logit models, and different compensation measures for shore-based, private boat, and for-hire anglers are estimated. Results indicate that willingness to pay for oil spill prevention varies by fishing mode and anglers fishing from shore and private boats exhibit heterogeneous preferences for oil spill avoidance. In addition, the total monetary compensation due to anglers is estimated at USD 585 million. PMID:25043173

  8. Dioxins, metals, and fish toxicity in ash residue from space heaters burning used motor oil.

    PubMed

    Delistraty, Damon; Stone, Alex

    2007-06-01

    Ash residue, generated from burning used motor oil, is a complex and ubiquitous waste stream. Ash samples were collected from space heaters and analyzed for dioxins (N=10), expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQ), and heavy metals (N=9). TEQ averaged 148-164 ng kg(-1) (standard deviation [SD] 385-416 ng kg(-1)), depending on methods used for non-detects (NDs) and toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). It is notable that median TEQ (2.89-3.49 ng kg(-1)) was about 50 fold lower, reflecting the influence of several high end values on the mean. The proportion of NDs among 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in each sample averaged 38.2% (range 0-94.1%). Total metals averaged 103,000 mg kg(-1) (SD 26,600 mg kg(-1)), with Zn, Cu, and Pb contributing 89.3%, 6.4%, and 3.0% of the total, respectively. Rainbow trout bioassays resulted in median mortalities of 3.2% and 42.0% (respective SD 25.3% and 43.2%) at ash concentrations of 10 and 100 mg l(-1), respectively. Nominal concentrations of several metals (e.g., Cu, Zn) in the fish bioassay exceeded their reported median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for the test species. Multiple regressions (Bonferroni P<0.05) demonstrated that most of the variance in fish mortality could be accounted for by pH, metals (e.g., As, Cd, Pb), and TEQ. Mean TEQ concentration in used oil ash ranked on the high end of TEQ content in other environmental matrices, including wood ash, cement kiln dust, biosolids, and soils. Overall, these results suggest that suitable disposal methods are needed for ash generated from burning used motor oil. PMID:17350666

  9. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation[S

    PubMed Central

    Stephensen, Charles B.; Armstrong, Patrice; Newman, John W.; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Legault, Jillian; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Kelley, Darshan; Vikman, Susanna; Hartiala, Jaana; Nassir, Rami; Seldin, Michael F.; Allayee, Hooman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo oil (5.0 g of corn/soy mixture). A total of 116 subjects (68% female, 20–59 years old) of African American ancestry enrolled, and 98 subjects completed the study. Neither ALOX5 protein nor arachidonic acid-derived LTB4, LTD4, and LTE4 varied by genotype, but 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate (5-HETE), 6-trans-LTB4, 5-oxo-ETE, 15-HETE, and 5,15-diHETE levels were higher in subjects homozygous for the ALOX5 promoter allele containing five Sp1 element tandem repeats (“55” genotype) than in subjects with one deletion (d) (three or four repeats) and one common (“d5” genotype) allele or with two deletion (“dd”) alleles. The EPA-derived metabolites 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE and the DHA-derived metabolite 17-HDoHE had similar associations with genotype and increased with supplementation; 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE increased, and 5-oxo-ETE decreased to a greater degree in the 55 than in the other genotypes. This differential eicosanoid response is consistent with the previously observed interaction of these variants with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids in predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:21296957

  10. Fish oil prevents colon cancer by modulation of structure and function of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Navneet; Sharma, Gayatri; Rani, Isha; Renuka; Bhatnagar, Archana

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cells are more susceptible to metabolic perturbations due to impaired electron transport chain (ETC) that promote uncontrolled proliferation. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in bioenergetics and apoptosis, hence are considered as a promising target in tumor cell eradication. Therefore, the present study is designed to elucidate chemopreventive action of fish oil (FO) in combination with corn oil (CO) on mitochondria in colorectal cancer (CRC). Male Wistar rats were divided into groups depending on dietary regimen-Control group, FO+CO(1:1) and FO+CO(2.5:1). These groups were further subdivided depending on whether these received a weekly intraperitoneal injection of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) or N,N-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) for a period of 4 weeks. The animals sacrificed 48h and 16 weeks after EDTA/DMH treatment constituted initiation and post-initiation phase respectively. The structural and functional alterations in mitochondria were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by assaying electron transport chain (ETC) enzymes. Mitochondrial lipid composition and cholesterol levels were also assessed. DMH treatment led to mitochondrial degeneration, disrupted cristae and a significant decrease in ETC complexes suggestive of metabolic reprogramming. Moreover, an increase in cholesterol and cardiolipin (CL) levels in post-initiation phase led to evasion of apoptosis. FO in both the ratios resulted in stabilization and increase in number of mitochondria, however, FO+CO(2.5:1)+DMH group also exhibited mitophagy and crystolysis alongwith altered dynamics in ETC which facilitated apoptosis. It also decreased cholesterol and CL levels to increase apoptosis. Fish oil targets mitochondria in a dose dependent manner that augments apoptosis and hence attenuates carcinogenesis. PMID:27470343

  11. Applying Selective Breeding And Vaccination To Improve Fish Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious disease causes substantial economic loss in aquaculture. In an effort to reduce loss, selective breeding of animals with superior disease resistance is being increasingly utilized as a component within fish health management plans. Selective breeding is especially applicable to salmonid ...

  12. Growth performance, vitamin E status, and proximate and fatty acid composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed diets containing various levels of fish oil and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chhorn; Yildirim-Aksoy, Mediha; Shelby, Richard; Li, Menghe H; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of fish oil on vitamin E requirement and their effect on growth performance, liver vitamin E status, and tissue proximate and fatty acid compositions of channel catfish. Basal purified diets (42% protein and 3,800 kcal DE/kg) supplemented with 6, 10, and 14% menhaden fish oil were each supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg vitamin E/kg (3×3 factorial experiment). Each diet was fed to juvenile channel catfish in three random aquaria to apparent satiation twice daily for 12 weeks. Weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency ratio were not affected by dietary levels of fish oil, vitamin E, or their interaction. Survival rate at the end of week 12 was significantly lower for fish fed diets containing 14% fish oil, regardless of vitamin E content. Whole-body moisture significantly decreased and lipid increased when dietary lipid levels were increased to 10 or 14%. Dietary vitamin E levels had no effect on body proximate composition. Lipid content of liver was not influenced by dietary levels of fish oil and vitamin E or their interaction. Hepatosomatic index significantly decreased with increasing lipid levels but was not affected by dietary levels of vitamin E. Liver vitamin E increased with increasing dietary vitamin E but decreased with increasing fish oil levels. Fatty acid composition of whole body and liver reflected that of dietary lipid but was not influenced by dietary levels of vitamin E. Whole-body saturates increased, whereas MUFA decreased with increasing dietary levels of fish oil. Liver saturates were not affected by fish oil levels, but MUFA and n-6 decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing fish oil levels. Total n-3 and n-3 HUFA in both tissues increased with increasing fish oil levels in diets, but liver stored much higher levels of these fatty acids. PMID:19821044

  13. Chemical systems for improved oil recovery: Phase behavior, oil recovery, and mobility control studies

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.; Gall, B.; Gao, H., Scott, L., Cook, I.

    1995-09-01

    Selected surfactant systems containing a series of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants in combination with an anionic surfactant system have been studied to evaluate phase behavior as well as oil recovery potential. These experiments were conducted to evaluate possible improved phase behavior and overall oil recovery potential of mixed surfactant systems over a broad range of conditions. Both polyacrylamide polymers and Xanthan biopolymers were evaluated. Studies were initiated to use a chemical flooding simulation program, UTCHEM, to simulate oil recovery for laboratory and field applications and evaluate its use to simulate oil saturation distributions obtained in CT-monitoring of oil recovery experiments. The phase behavior studies focused on evaluating the effect of anionic-nonionic surfactant proportion on overall phase behavior. Two distinct transition behaviors were observed, depending on the dominant surfactant in the overall system. The first type of transition corresponded to more conventional behavior attributed to nonionic-dominant surfactant systems. This behavior is manifested by an oil-water-surfactant system that inverts from a water-external (highly conducting) microemulsion to an oil-external (nonconducting) one, as a function of temperature. The latter type which inverts in an opposite manner can be attributed to the separation of the anionic-nonionic mixtures into water- and oil-soluble surfactants. Both types of transition behavior can still be used to identify relative proximity to optimal areas. Determining these transition ranges provided more insight on how the behavior of these surfactant mixtures was affected by altering component proportions. Efforts to optimize the chemical system for oil displacement experiments were also undertaken. Phase behavior studies with systems formulated with biopolymer in solution were conducted.

  14. An improved method for crude oil storage tank cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, C.T.; Goss, M.L. ); Lloyd, H.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Crude oil storage tank sludge must be handled and disposed of in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Also, tank cleaning is an expensive, time consuming and labor intensive maintenance job. An improved process has been developed for crude oil storage tank sludge removal consisting of chemicals, heat, and application technology. The process minimizes waste by recovery of valuable hydrocarbons suitable for processing through the crude unit. In addition, the process reduces maintenance costs and minimizes tank downtime. A summary of this technology is presented and applications reviewed.

  15. Effect of menhaden fish oil on plasma cholesterol in copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Koo, S.I. )

    1989-02-09

    Weanling male rats were divided into 2 groups: one fed a copper-deficient (CuD) diet and the other fed a copper-adequate (CuA) diet. Both contained 5% corn oil. At 8 wk, each of the 2 groups was divided into two subgroups: one fed the above diet supplemented with 1% refined menhaden-fish oil (FO) and the other with 1% corn oil (CO). Time-course effect of FO on plasma cholesterol (CH) were compared in CuD and CuA groups at 14, 33, 77 and 120 days. FO feeding did not affect plasma CH in CuD rats at any time point, but markedly lowered plasma CH in CuA rats at 77 and 120 days, compared with the CO-fed respective controls. The lack of hypolipidemic effect of FO in CuD rats was due to its inability to lower plasma VLDL. Plasma HDL were not affected by FO. The lipoprotein lipase activity in skeletal muscle was lowered by FO in both CuD and CuA rats, compared with CO-fed counterparts, while no such change was noted in adipose tissue. The failure of FO to lower VLDL in CuD rats suggests that the hypercholesterolemia in copper deficiency may be partly linked to a change in the rate of VLDL output and/or catabolism.

  16. Whey protein aerogel as blended with cellulose crystalline particles or loaded with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Maede; Madadlou, Ashkan; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2016-04-01

    Whey protein hydrogels blended with nanocrystalline and microcrystalline cellulose particles (NCC and MCC, respectively) were prepared, followed by freeze-drying, to produce aerogels. NCC blending increased the Young's modulus, and elastic character, of the protein aerogel. Aerogels were microporous and mesoporous materials, as characterized by the pores sizing 1.2 nm and 12.2 nm, respectively. Blending with NCC decreased the count of both microporous and mesoporous-classified pores at the sub-100 nm pore size range investigated. In contrast, MCC blending augmented the specific surface area and pores volume of the aerogel. It also increased moisture sorption affinity of aerogel. The feasibility of conveying hydrophobic nutraceuticals by aerogels was evaluated through loading fish oil into the non-blended aerogel. Oil loading altered its microstructure, corresponding to a peak displacement in Fourier-transform infra-red spectra, which was ascribed to increased hydrophobic interactions. Surface coating of aerogel with zein decreased the oxidation susceptibility of the loaded oil during subsequent storage. PMID:26593584

  17. The potential of solvent-minimized extraction methods in the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish oils.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Regueiro, Jorge; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-08-15

    Fish oil has been identified as one of the most important contributors to the level of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in feed products. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish oils is complicated due to the fat matrix, which affects both extraction efficiency and analytical quality. This article reviews and addresses two of the most relevant analytical methods for determining 11 mutagenic and carcinogenic PAHs, as well as two EPA indicator PAHs in fish oils. We discuss and critically evaluate two different extraction procedures, such as ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (USAE) and ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME). Clean-up of extracts was performed by solid-phase extraction using C18 and glass columns containing silica gel and florisil for USAE or only C18 for USAEME. Detection of the selected PAHs was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection for determination. Optimization of the variables affecting extraction by the selected extraction techniques was conducted and recoveries ranged from 70% to 100% by USAE and from 70% to 108% by USAEME with estimated quantification limits between 0.020 and 2.6 μg/kg were achieved. Moreover, the applicability of the selected methods was evaluated by the analysis of real samples. To our knowledge, this is the first time that USAEME has been applied to the determination of PAHs in food matrices, such as oil fish samples. The methods proposed were applied to the determination of the target PAHs in fish samples from different countries, and it was found that the low PAH contamination of the selected fish oils could mainly occur by atmospheric sources. PMID:23561207

  18. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  19. Stearidonic and γ-linolenic acids in echium oil improves glucose disposal in insulin resistant monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, K; Flynn, D M; Jenkins, K A; Wilson, M D; Chilton, F H

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (EO) contains stearidonic acid (18:4), a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and gamma-linolenic acids (18:3), a n-6 PUFA that can be converted to long chain (LC)-PUFAs. We aimed to compare a safflower oil (SO)-enriched diet to EO- and fish oil (FO)-enriched diets on circulating and tissue PUFAs levels and glycemic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular health biomarkers in insulin resistant African green monkeys. In a Latin-square cross-over study, eight monkeys consumed matched diets for 6 weeks with 3-week washout periods. Monkeys consuming FO had significantly higher levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs and EO supplementation resulted in higher levels of circulating n-3 LC-PUFAs and a significant increase in dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA) in red blood cells and muscle. Glucose disposal was improved after EO consumption. These data suggest that PUFAs in EO supplementation have the capacity to alter circulating, RBC and muscle LC-PUFA levels and improve glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant monkeys. PMID:23664597

  20. Does supplemental 18:0 alleviate fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes?

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2016-02-01

    Supplementation of dairy ewe diet with marine lipids may be an effective strategy for modulating milk fatty acid composition but induces milk fat depression (MFD). This syndrome has been associated with a shortage of 18:0 for uptake and Δ(9)-desaturation that may impair the capacity of the mammary gland to achieve an adequate fluidity for milk fat secretion. On this basis, it was suggested that supplemental 18:0 may contribute to alleviate marine lipid-induced MFD in sheep. To test this hypothesis, 12 lactating ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 lots and used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 28 d each and 3 experimental treatments: a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation (control) or supplemented with 20 g/kg of DM of fish oil alone (FO) or in combination with 20 g/kg of DM of 18:0 (FOSA). Diets were offered ad libitum, and animal performance and rumen and milk fatty acid composition were studied at the end of each period. After completing the Latin square trial and following a change-over design, the in vivo digestibility of supplemental 18:0 was estimated using 6 lactating sheep. As expected, diet supplementation with fish oil increased the milk content of some potentially health-promoting fatty acids (e.g., cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11 18:1, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), but reduced milk fat concentration and yield (-20% in both FO and FOSA treatments). Thus, although reductions in milk 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 output caused by FO (-81 and -51%, respectively) were partially reversed with FOSA diet (-49 and -27%, respectively), the addition of 18:0 to the diet did not prove useful to alleviate MFD. This response, which could not be fully accounted for by the low digestibility coefficient of supplemental 18:0, may challenge the theory of a shortage of this fatty acid as a mechanism to explain fish oil-induced MFD in sheep. Effects of FO and FOSA on rumen and milk fatty acid composition would support that increases in the concentration of some

  1. Dietary olive oil supplemented with fish oil, rich in EPA and DHA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, attenuates colonic inflammation in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Camuesco, Desirée; Gálvez, Julio; Nieto, Ana; Comalada, Mònica; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Concha, Angel; Xaus, Jordi; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies proposed a protective role of the dietary intake of (n-3) PUFA in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but almost no studies have been performed using olive oil. The aims of the present study were to test the beneficial effects of an olive oil-based diet with or without fish oil, rich in (n-3) PUFA, in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of rat colitis and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their potential beneficial effects, with special attention to the production of some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, such as leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO). Rats were fed the different diets for 2 wk before colitis induction and thereafter until colonic evaluation 15 d later. Colitic rats fed the olive oil-based diet had a lower colonic inflammatory response than those fed the soybean oil diet, and this beneficial effect was increased by the dietary incorporation of (n-3) PUFA. A restoration of colonic glutathione levels and lower colonic NO synthase expression occurred in all colitic rats fed an olive oil diet compared with the control colitic group that consumed the soybean oil diet. However, (n-3) PUFA incorporation into an olive oil diet significantly decreased colonic TNFalpha and LTB(4) levels compared with colitic rats that were not supplemented with fish oil. These results affirm the benefits of an olive oil diet in the management of IBD, which are further enhanced by the addition of (n-3) PUFA. PMID:15795419

  2. Use of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Choi, Yeung Joon; Hua, Yanglin; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2011-08-10

    The potential of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation was elucidated. Four strains of T. halophilus isolated from fish sauce mashes were inoculated to anchovy mixed with 25% NaCl with an approximate cell count of 10(6) CFU/mL. The α-amino content of 6-month-old fish sauce samples inoculated with T. halophilus was 780-784 mM. The addition of T. halophilus MRC10-1-3 and T. halophilus MCD10-5-10 resulted in a reduction of histamine (P < 0.05). Fish sauce inoculated with T. halophilus showed high contents of total amino acids with predominantly high glutamic acid. Major volatile compounds in fish sauce were 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and benzaldehyde. T. halophilus-inoculated fish sauce samples demonstrated the ability to reduce dimethyl disulfide, a compound contributing to a fecal note. The use of T. halophilus for fish sauce fermentation improves amino acid profiles and volatile compounds as well as reduces biogenic amine content of a fish sauce product. PMID:21710980

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in fish, seafood products and fish oil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lucía; Martínez, Aníbal; Ferreira, Martiña; Vieites, Juan; Cabado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 samples of wild and farmed fish, cephalopods and fish oils for animal feeding, traded in Spain, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 2009-2012, by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The method was optimised for screening at moderate costs, allowing PCDD/Fs determination at 1 pg World Health Organization-toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) g⁻¹ wet weight (w w) and dl-PCBs at 0.02 pg WHO-TEQ g⁻¹ w w. Concentrations in fish and cephalopods ranged from values below the limit of detection to 1.7 pg g⁻¹ WHO-TEQ sum PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, considered as safe with regard to EU legislation. Higher levels were found in cod livers (5.4-54.2) and fish oils (3.3-30.7), with one noncompliant sample in each group. PMID:24779909

  4. EFFECT OF MENHADEN FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION AND STARTER DIET COMPLEXITY ON THE PERFORMANCE AND IMMUNE RESPONSE OF NURSERY PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 d and 6.27±1.16 kg) were weaned into a SEW facility and given free access to a complex diet for...

  5. Fish oil supplements in New Zealand are highly oxidised and do not meet label content of n-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Derraik, José G B; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Tumanov, Sergey; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Garg, Manohar L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the quality and content of fish oil supplements in New Zealand. All encapsulated fish oil supplements marketed in New Zealand were eligible for inclusion. Fatty acid content was measured by gas chromatography. Peroxide values (PV) and anisidine values (AV) were measured, and total oxidation values (Totox) calculated. Only 3 of 32 fish oil supplements contained quantities of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that were equal or higher than labelled content, with most products tested (69%) containing <67%. The vast majority of supplements exceeded recommended levels of oxidation markers. 83% products exceeded the recommended PV levels, 25% exceeded AV thresholds, and 50% exceeded recommended Totox levels. Only 8% met the international recommendations, not exceeding any of these indices. Almost all fish oil supplements available in the New Zealand market contain concentrations of EPA and DHA considerably lower than claimed by labels. Importantly, the majority of supplements tested exceeded the recommended indices of oxidative markers. Surprisingly, best-before date, cost, country of origin, and exclusivity were all poor markers of supplement quality. PMID:25604397

  6. Concomitant consumption of lycopene and fish oil inhibits tumor growth and progression in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous report showed that concomitant supplementation of lycopene and eicosa-pentaenoic acid synergistically inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro. To validate our findings, the present study investigated whether consumption of lycopene and fish oil would help ...

  7. Sodium-reduced lean sausages with fish oil optimized by a mixture design approach.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, L; Argel, N; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2015-06-01

    A partial NaCl replacement by KCl and sodium tripolyphosphate on low-fat meat sausages formulated with fish oil was studied using a mixture design. Thermal behavior by modulated differential scanning calorimetry, physicochemical, and textural properties were determined; afterwards they were mathematically modeled as a function of salts content. The thermo-rheological behavior of the different formulations was also studied in a control-stress rheometer. The optimal sodium reduction was found employing a desirability function approach. This formulation was experimentally validated and employed for microstructure analysis by environmental scanning microscopy. The results obtained in this work revealed that partial sodium replacement affected the matrix microstructure, but this change had no impact on sensory acceptability. In comparison with US and Argentinean commercial sausages, our product has 58% and 70% less Na(+) respectively. PMID:25725284

  8. Adult cardiorenal benefits from postnatal fish oil supplement in rat offspring of low-protein pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Catta-Preta, Mariana; Oliveira, Daniel Alves; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2006-12-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) treatment on cardiorenal structure of adult offspring from low-protein pregnancies. Three month old offspring were assigned to eight groups (four male groups and four female groups, n=8 each) (NP=normal-protein diet, LP=low-protein diet): NP, LP, NP plus FO, and LP plus FO. Left ventricle and kidney were analyzed with light microscopy and stereology. The both sexes of LP offspring showed 30% lower birth weights than the respective NP offspring and high blood pressure (BP) levels in adulthood which was efficiently reduced by FO treatment. In the heart, FO treated the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, the vascularization impairment, and decreased the cardiomyocyte loss usually observed in adult LP offspring. In the kidney, FO treated, in the male, the imbalance of the cortex-to-medulla ratio observed in both sexes of LP offspring, and reduced the glomeruli loss in the LP offspring. The positive correlation between the number of cardiomyocyte nuclei later in life and the body mass (BM) at birth was significant only in both sexes of LP offspring and this correlation disappeared in LP plus fish oil offspring. The positive correlation between the number of glomeruli later in life and the BM at birth was significant in NP male offspring and in both sexes of LP offspring. In conclusion, FO supplement, which is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA), has beneficial effects on BP control and cardiac and renal adverse remodeling usually seen in offspring of the LP pregnancies. PMID:17020772

  9. An opinion paper: emphasis on white muscle development and growth to improve farmed fish flesh quality.

    PubMed

    Videler, J J

    2011-06-01

    Due to rapid depletion of wild stocks, the necessity to cultivate fish is eminent. Current fish farming practices seek to improve flesh quality. The notion that white muscles are the main target of the fishing industry is emphasized. A novel approach is suggested based on the development of white muscles in wild fish from eggs to adults. A compilation of facts about white muscle structure, function and ontogeny is followed by an account of the changes in swimming behaviour and performance related to the use of white muscle during growth from larva to adult. Ecological data narrate early swimming performance with white muscle development and growth, unveiling some of the important natural selection factors eliminating weak swimmers and poor growers from the breeding stock. A comparison between fish culture practise and natural conditions reveals fundamental differences. New approaches following wild breeding processes promise several important advantages regarding the quality of white muscle. PMID:21562770

  10. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    PubMed

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  11. Effects on metabolic markers are modified by PPARG2 and COX2 polymorphisms in infants randomized to fish oil.

    PubMed

    Harsløf, Laurine B S; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Hellgren, Lars I; Andersen, Anders D; Vogel, Ulla; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2014-05-01

    Long-chain n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) improve blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile in adults and improve insulin sensitivity in rodents. We have previously shown that n-3 LCPUFA reduces BP and plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in infants. Few studies have found effects on glucose homeostasis in humans. We explored possible effect modification by FADS, PPARG2, and COX2 genotypes to support potential effects of n-3 LCPUFA on metabolic markers in infants. Danish infants (133) were randomly allocated to daily supplementation with a teaspoon (~5 mL/day) of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 months of age. Before and after the intervention, we assessed BP, erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA, plasma lipid profile, insulin, and glucose in addition to functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in FADS, PPARG2, and COX2. At 18 months, plasma TAG was lower in the FO compared with SO group (p = 0.014). This effect was modified by PPARG2-Pro12Ala, as TAG only decreased among heterozygotes. FO supplemented PPARG2 Pro12Ala heterozygotes also had decreased plasma glucose compared with the SO group (p = 0.043). The effect of FO on mean arterial BP at 18 months was gender dependent (p = 0.020) and reduced in boys only (p = 0.028). Diastolic BP was, however, lower among all FO supplemented homozygous COX2-T8473C variant allele carriers compared with the SO group (p = 0.001). In conclusion, our results confirm that FO supplementation in late infancy reduces TAG and BP and indicates that the effects are mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and cyclooxygenase-2. Furthermore, FO reduced plasma glucose only in PPARG2 heterozygotes. PMID:24643342

  12. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  13. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Juey-Ming; Shih, Yao-Ming; Pai, Man-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC) group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP) after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC). The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th)1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05). Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05). Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05), at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:26999192

  14. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Juey-Ming; Shih, Yao-Ming; Pai, Man-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC) group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP) after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC). The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th)1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05). Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05). Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05), at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:26999192

  15. Dietary fish oil substitution alters the eicosanoid profile in ankle joints of mice during Lyme infection.

    PubMed

    Dumlao, Darren S; Cunningham, Anna M; Wax, Laura E; Norris, Paul C; Hanks, Jennifer Hughes; Halpin, Rachel; Lett, Kawasi M; Blaho, Victoria A; Mitchell, William J; Fritsche, Kevin L; Dennis, Edward A; Brown, Charles R

    2012-08-01

    Dietary ingestion of (n-3) PUFA alters the production of eicosanoids and can suppress chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The extent of changes in eicosanoid production during an infection of mice fed a diet high in (n-3) PUFA, however, has not, to our knowledge, been reported. We fed mice a diet containing either 18% by weight soybean oil (SO) or a mixture with fish oil (FO), FO:SO (4:1 ratio), for 2 wk and then infected them with Borrelia burgdorferi. We used an MS-based lipidomics approach and quantified changes in eicosanoid production during Lyme arthritis development over 21 d. B. burgdorferi infection induced a robust production of prostanoids, mono-hydroxylated metabolites, and epoxide-containing metabolites, with 103 eicosanoids detected of the 139 monitored. In addition to temporal and compositional changes in the eicosanoid profile, dietary FO substitution increased the accumulation of 15-deoxy PGJ(2), an antiinflammatory metabolite derived from arachidonic acid. Chiral analysis of the mono-hydroxylated metabolites revealed they were generated from primarily nonenzymatic mechanisms. Although dietary FO substitution reduced the production of inflammatory (n-6) fatty acid-derived eicosanoids, no change in the host inflammatory response or development of disease was detected. PMID:22695969

  16. Effect of fish oil on monoepoxides derived from fatty acids during cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Akintoye, Emmanuel; Wu, Jason H Y; Hou, Tao; Song, Xiaoling; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the dynamics of monoepoxides derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (MEFAs), and their response to n-3 PUFA supplementation, in the setting of acute tissue injury and inflammation (cardiac surgery) in humans. Patients (479) undergoing cardiac surgery in three countries were randomized to perioperative fish oil (EPA + DHA; 8-10 g over 2-5 days preoperatively, then 2 g/day postoperatively) or placebo (olive oil). Plasma MEFAs derived from n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured 2 days postoperatively. Based on serial measures in a subset of the placebo group, levels of all MEFAs declined substantially following surgery (at postoperative day 2), with declines ranging from 37% to 63% (P < 0.05 each). Compared with placebo at postoperative day 2, levels of EPA- and DHA-derived MEFAs were 40% and 18% higher, respectively (P ≤ 0.004). The n-3 PUFA supplementation did not significantly alter the decline in n-6 PUFA-derived MEFAs. Both enrollment level and changes in plasma phospholipid EPA and DHA were associated with their respective MEFAs at postoperative day 2 (P < 0.001). Under the acute stress of cardiac surgery, n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly ameliorated the reduction in postoperative n-3 MEFAs, but not n-6 MEFAs, and the degree of increase in n-3 MEFAs related positively to the circulating level of their n-3 PUFA precursors. PMID:26749073

  17. [Periods for growth and quality improvement of fish in context of animal welfare compliant management of commercial fish ponds--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Pietrock, Michael; Brämick, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, management of commercial fish ponds requires consideration of animal welfare legislation. In particular, it is forbidden to immediately catch fish that have recently been stocked into put-and-take fishponds. Rather, after stocking is completed, a short-term fishing ban period needs to be adhered to that allows the fishes the opportunity to grow and/or significantly improve in overall quality. The duration of the fishing ban varies considerably among German federal states. A literature review, therefore, was undertaken to identify the amount of time required by adult fish to reach changes in various parameters of quality (proximate composition, fillet colour, odour/taste, stress response), and growth.The literature search revealed that some of the selected parameters (odour/taste, stress response) can change within 24 hours, potentially resulting in improved fish flesh quality. With a time span of about four weeks, feeding-induced changes in proximate composition took the longest among the parameters tested to realize significant changes in fish flesh quality. Transportation-related reductions in body mass are overcome and succeeded by net growth within one to two weeks depending on food availability. Maintaining the fish under species-specific conditions and providing the optimal environment to meet their physiological demands, however, are critical prerequisites for growth and quality improvement. In conclusion there is science-based justification for fishing ban periods ranging from 24 hours to four weeks. Final determination of its duration, therefore, remains a careful balancing of values. PMID:27344916

  18. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  19. The effects of oil exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes and splenic melano-macrophage centers of Gulf of Mexico fishes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad Omar; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Ford, Lorelei; Dail, Mary Beth; Pruett, Stephen; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2014-02-15

    In August and November 2010 we collected and examined peripheral blood and tissues from three species of Gulf of Mexico fish. Findings were compared to non-exposed control fish. The leukocyte counts of exposed alligator gar were not significantly different from controls, while exposed Gulf killifish and sea trout had significantly decreased lymphocyte counts. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) values from sea trout were significantly greater than control sea trout EROD values, suggesting poly aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Splenic melano-macrophage centers (MMCs) from exposed sea trout and Gulf killifish showed a significant increase in number compared to non-exposed fish. Sea trout splenic MMCs were also significantly greater in size. These findings suggest that Gulf fish sampled were exposed to crude oil from the Macondo well and were in a lymphopenic or immuno-compromised state. PMID:24405733

  20. Excitation-emission matrix scan analysis of raw fish oil from coastal New Jersey menhaden collected before and after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; DeFelice, Chelsea R; Murphy, Wyatt R

    2016-06-30

    The impact of Hurricane Sandy (October 29, 2012) on PAH exposure was investigated in adult Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) collected along the NJ coast. Collections were made in August, September and/or October of 2011, 2012 and 2013. PAHs were monitored in raw fish oil using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Results showed that raw fish oils had relatively high levels of high molecular weight, PAH-like compounds (173 to 24,421ng/mL) compared to values reported for bile in other species. EEM profiles resembled that of crude oil and excluded matrix interference by some common biological molecules that also fluoresce. Concentrations and EEM profiles varied by collection; however, collection ship, month, year and fish size did not account for the data. Replicates showed that fish from the same catch had similar PAH exposure. Overall, Hurricane Sandy did not alter body burdens of PAHs in raw fish oil of menhaden. PMID:26849916

  1. An increase in reactive oxygen species by dietary fish oil coupled with the attenuation of antioxidant defenses by dietary pectin enhances rat colonocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lisa M; Henderson, Cara E; Hong, Mee Young; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C; Wang, Naisyin; Spinka, Christine M; Carroll, Raymond J; Turner, Nancy D; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2004-12-01

    We showed previously that the dietary combination of fish oil, rich in (n-3) fatty acids, and the fermentable fiber pectin enhances colonocyte apoptosis in a rat model of experimentally induced colon cancer. In this study, we propose that the mechanism by which this dietary combination heightens apoptosis is via modulation of the colonocyte redox environment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were fed 1 of 2 fats (corn oil or fish oil) and 1 of 2 fibers (cellulose or pectin) for 2 wk before determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and apoptosis in isolated colonocytes. Fish oil enhanced ROS, whereas the combination of fish oil and pectin suppressed SOD and CAT and enhanced the SOD/CAT ratio compared with a corn oil and cellulose diet. Despite this modulation to a seemingly prooxidant environment, oxidative DNA damage was inversely related to ROS in the fish oil and pectin diet, and apoptosis was enhanced relative to other diets. Furthermore, apoptosis increased exponentially as ROS increased. These results suggest that the enhancement of apoptosis associated with fish oil and pectin feeding may be due to a modulation of the redox environment that promotes ROS-mediated apoptosis. PMID:15570018

  2. Non-destructive genetic sampling in fish. An improved method for DNA extraction from fish fins and scales.

    PubMed

    Wasko, Adriane P; Martins, Cesar; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2003-01-01

    DNA-based studies have been one of the major interests in conservation biology of endangered species and in population genetics. As species and population genetic assessment requires a source of biological material, the sampling strategy can be overcome by non-destructive procedures for DNA isolation. An improved method for obtaining DNA from fish fins and scales with the use of an extraction buffer containing urea and further DNA purification with phenol-chloroform is described. The methodology combines the benefits of a non-destructive DNA sampling and its high efficiency. In addition, comparisons with other methodologies for isolating DNA from fish demonstrated that the present procedure also becomes a very attractive alternative to obtain large amounts of high-quality DNA for use in different molecular analyses. The DNA samples, isolated from different fish species, have been successfully used on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) experiments, as well as on amplification of specific ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences. The present DNA extraction procedure represents an alternative for population approaches and genetic studies on rare or endangered taxa. PMID:14641478

  3. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  4. Sucrose Counteracts the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Fish Oil in Adipose Tissue and Increases Obesity Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tao; Liaset, Bjørn; Hao, Qin; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Fjære, Even; Ngo, Ha Thi; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Ringholm, Stine; Sonne, Si Brask; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Pilegaard, Henriette; Frøyland, Livar; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed C57BL/6J mice a protein- (casein) or sucrose-based high fat diet supplemented with fish oil or corn oil for 9 weeks. Irrespective of the fatty acid source, mice fed diets rich in sucrose became obese whereas mice fed high protein diets remained lean. Inclusion of sucrose in the diet also counteracted the well-known anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue, but did not impair the ability of fish oil to prevent accumulation of fat in the liver. Calculation of HOMA-IR indicated that mice fed high levels of proteins remained insulin sensitive, whereas insulin sensitivity was reduced in the obese mice fed sucrose irrespectively of the fat source. We show that a high fat diet decreased glucose tolerance in the mice independently of both obesity and dietary levels of n-3 PUFAs and sucrose. Of note, increasing the protein∶sucrose ratio in high fat diets decreased energy efficiency irrespective of fat source. This was accompanied by increased expression of Ppargc1a (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, gamma, coactivator 1 alpha) and increased gluconeogenesis in the fed state. Conclusions/Significance The background diet influence the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against development of obesity, glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation. High levels of dietary sucrose counteract the anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue and increases obesity development in mice. PMID:21738749

  5. Dietary Fish Oil Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory and ER Stress Signalling Pathways in the Liver of Sows during Lactation.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Denise K; Gröne, Birthe; Couturier, Aline; Rosenbaum, Susann; Hillen, Sonja; Becker, Sabrina; Erhardt, Georg; Reiner, Gerald; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Lactating sows have been shown to develop typical signs of an inflammatory condition in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Hepatic inflammation is considered critical due to the induction of an acute phase response and the activation of stress signaling pathways like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), both of which impair animal's health and performance. Whether ER stress-induced UPR is also activated in the liver of lactating sows and whether dietary fish oil as a source of anti-inflammatory effects n-3 PUFA is able to attenuate hepatic inflammation and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of sows is currently unknown. Based on this, two experiments with lactating sows were performed. The first experiment revealed that ER stress-induced UPR occurs also in the liver of sows during lactation. This was evident from the up-regulation of a set of genes regulated by the UPR and numerically increased phosphorylation of the ER stress-transducer PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB. The second experiment showed that fish oil inhibits ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of lactating sows. This was demonstrated by decreased mRNA levels of a number of UPR-regulated genes and reduced phosphorylation of PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB in the liver of the fish oil group. The mRNA levels of various nuclear factor-κB-regulated genes encoding inflammatory mediators and acute phase proteins in the liver of lactating sows were also reduced in the fish oil group. In line with this, the plasma levels of acute phase proteins were reduced in the fish oil group, although differences to the control group were not significant. In conclusion, ER stress-induced UPR is present in the liver of lactating sows and fish oil is able to inhibit inflammatory signaling pathways and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver. PMID:26351857

  6. Dietary Fish Oil Inhibits Pro-Inflammatory and ER Stress Signalling Pathways in the Liver of Sows during Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Denise K.; Gröne, Birthe; Couturier, Aline; Rosenbaum, Susann; Hillen, Sonja; Becker, Sabrina; Erhardt, Georg; Reiner, Gerald; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Lactating sows have been shown to develop typical signs of an inflammatory condition in the liver during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Hepatic inflammation is considered critical due to the induction of an acute phase response and the activation of stress signaling pathways like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), both of which impair animal´s health and performance. Whether ER stress-induced UPR is also activated in the liver of lactating sows and whether dietary fish oil as a source of anti-inflammatory effects n-3 PUFA is able to attenuate hepatic inflammation and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of sows is currently unknown. Based on this, two experiments with lactating sows were performed. The first experiment revealed that ER stress-induced UPR occurs also in the liver of sows during lactation. This was evident from the up-regulation of a set of genes regulated by the UPR and numerically increased phosphorylation of the ER stress-transducer PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB. The second experiment showed that fish oil inhibits ER stress-induced UPR in the liver of lactating sows. This was demonstrated by decreased mRNA levels of a number of UPR-regulated genes and reduced phosphorylation of PERK and PERK-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α and IκB in the liver of the fish oil group. The mRNA levels of various nuclear factor-κB-regulated genes encoding inflammatory mediators and acute phase proteins in the liver of lactating sows were also reduced in the fish oil group. In line with this, the plasma levels of acute phase proteins were reduced in the fish oil group, although differences to the control group were not significant. In conclusion, ER stress-induced UPR is present in the liver of lactating sows and fish oil is able to inhibit inflammatory signaling pathways and ER stress-induced UPR in the liver. PMID:26351857

  7. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg

    2003-10-31

    The second annual report of ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovery Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'' presents results of laboratory studies with related analytical models for improved oil recovery. All studies have been undertaken with the intention to optimize utilization and extend the practice of CO{sub 2} flooding to a wider range of reservoirs. Many items presented in this report are applicable to other interest areas: e.g. gas injection and production, greenhouse gas sequestration, chemical flooding, reservoir damage, etc. Major areas of studies include reduction of CO{sub 2} mobility to improve conformance, determining and understanding injectivity changes in particular injectivity loses, and modeling process mechanisms determined in the first two areas. Interfacial tension (IFT) between a high-pressure, high-temperature CO{sub 2} and brine/surfactant and foam stability are used to assess and screen surfactant systems. In this work the effects of salinity, pressure, temperature, surfactant concentration, and the presence of oil on IFT and CO{sub 2} foam stability were determined on the surfactant (CD1045{trademark}). Temperature, pressure, and surfactant concentration effected both IFT and foam stability while oil destabilized the foam, but did not destroy it. Calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) can be used as a sacrificial and an enhancing agent. This work indicates that on Berea sandstone CLS concentration, brine salinity, and temperature are dominant affects on both adsorption and desorption and that adsorption is not totally reversible. Additionally, CLS adsorption was tested on five minerals common to oil reservoirs; it was found that CLS concentration, salinity, temperature, and mineral type had significant effects on adsorption. The adsorption density from most to least was: bentonite > kaolinite > dolomite > calcite > silica. This work demonstrates the extent of dissolution and precipitation from co-injection of CO{sub 2} and brine in limestone core

  8. Effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oil blend on digestive enzymes and tissue histomorphology of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Serra, Cláudia R; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Fernandes, Rui; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-02-01

    The impact of replacing circa 70% fish oil (FO) by a vegetable oil (VO) blend (rapeseed, linseed, palm oils; 20:50:30) in diets for European sea bass juveniles (IBW 96 ± 0.8 g) was evaluated in terms of activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and total alkaline proteases) in the anterior (AI) and posterior (PI) intestine and tissue morphology (pyloric caeca-PC, AI, PI, distal intestine-DI and liver). For that purpose, fish were fed the experimental diets for 36 days and then liver and intestine were sampled at 2, 6 and 24 h after the last meal. Alkaline protease characterization was also done in AI and PI at 6 h post-feeding. Dietary VO promoted higher alkaline phosphatase activity at 2 h post-feeding in the AI and at all sampling points in the PI. Total alkaline protease activity was higher at 6 h post-feeding in the PI of fish fed the FO diet. Identical number of bands was observed in zymograms of alkaline proteases of fish fed both diets. No alterations in the histomorphology of PC, AI, PI or DI were noticed in fish fed the VO diets, while in the liver a tendency towards increased hepatocyte vacuolization due to lipid accumulation was observed. Overall, and with the exception of a higher intestine alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% FO replacement by a VO blend in diets for European sea bass resulted in no distinctive alterations on the postprandial pattern of digestive enzyme activities and intestine histomorphology. PMID:26364216

  9. Improved Quantum Artificial Fish Algorithm Application to Distributed Network Considering Distributed Generation.

    PubMed

    Du, Tingsong; Hu, Yang; Ke, Xianting

    2015-01-01

    An improved quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (IQAFSA) for solving distributed network programming considering distributed generation is proposed in this work. The IQAFSA based on quantum computing which has exponential acceleration for heuristic algorithm uses quantum bits to code artificial fish and quantum revolving gate, preying behavior, and following behavior and variation of quantum artificial fish to update the artificial fish for searching for optimal value. Then, we apply the proposed new algorithm, the quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (QAFSA), the basic artificial fish swarm algorithm (BAFSA), and the global edition artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA) to the simulation experiments for some typical test functions, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can escape from the local extremum effectively and has higher convergence speed and better accuracy. Finally, applying IQAFSA to distributed network problems and the simulation results for 33-bus radial distribution network system show that IQAFSA can get the minimum power loss after comparing with BAFSA, GAFSA, and QAFSA. PMID:26447713

  10. Improved Quantum Artificial Fish Algorithm Application to Distributed Network Considering Distributed Generation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Tingsong; Hu, Yang; Ke, Xianting

    2015-01-01

    An improved quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (IQAFSA) for solving distributed network programming considering distributed generation is proposed in this work. The IQAFSA based on quantum computing which has exponential acceleration for heuristic algorithm uses quantum bits to code artificial fish and quantum revolving gate, preying behavior, and following behavior and variation of quantum artificial fish to update the artificial fish for searching for optimal value. Then, we apply the proposed new algorithm, the quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (QAFSA), the basic artificial fish swarm algorithm (BAFSA), and the global edition artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA) to the simulation experiments for some typical test functions, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can escape from the local extremum effectively and has higher convergence speed and better accuracy. Finally, applying IQAFSA to distributed network problems and the simulation results for 33-bus radial distribution network system show that IQAFSA can get the minimum power loss after comparing with BAFSA, GAFSA, and QAFSA. PMID:26447713

  11. Supporting decision-making for improving longitudinal connectivity for diadromous and potamodromous fishes in complex catchments.

    PubMed

    Brevé, Niels W P; Buijse, Anthonie D; Kroes, Martin J; Wanningen, Herman; Vriese, Frederik T

    2014-10-15

    Preservation and restoration of Europe's endangered migratory fish species and habitats are high on the international river basin policy agenda. Improvement through restoration of longitudinal connectivity is seen as an important measure, but although prioritization of in-stream barriers has been addressed at local and regional levels the process still lacks adequate priority on the international level. This paper introduces a well-tested method, designed to help decision makers achieve the rehabilitation of targeted ichthyofauna more successfully. This method assesses artificial barriers within waters designated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), Europe's main legislative driver for ecological improvement of river basins. The method aggregates migratory fish communities (both diadromous and potamodromous) into functional biological units (ecological fish guilds) and defines their most pressing habitat requirements. Using GIS mapping and spatial analysis of the potential ranges (fish zonation) we pin-point the most important barriers, per guild. This method was developed and deployed over a 12 year period as a practical case study, fitting data derived from the 36 regional water management organisations in the Netherlands. We delivered national advice on the prioritization of a total of 2924 barriers located within WFD water bodies, facilitating migration for all 18 indigenous migratory fish species. Scaling up to larger geographical areas can be achieved using datasets from other countries to link water body typologies to distribution ranges of migratory fish species. PMID:25084228

  12. n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies on the relation between dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) and cardiovascular disease vary in quality, and the results are inconsistent. A systematic review of the literature on the effects of n-3 FAs (consumed as fish or fish oils rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid or as alph...

  13. Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Kegang; Zeng, Zhengwen; He, Jun; Pei, Peng; Zhou, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Huang, Luke; Ostadhassan, Mehdi; Jabbari, Hadi; Blanksma, Derrick; Feilen, Harry; Ahmed, Salowah; Benson, Steve; Mann, Michael; LeFever, Richard; Gosnold, Will

    2013-12-31

    On October 1, 2008 US DOE-sponsored research project entitled “Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery” under agreement DE-FC26-08NT0005643 officially started at The University of North Dakota (UND). This is the final report of the project; it covers the work performed during the project period of October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. The objectives of this project are to outline the methodology proposed to determine the in-situ stress field and geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA to increase the success rate of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing so as to improve the recovery factor of this unconventional crude oil resource from the current 3% to a higher level. The success of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing depends on knowing local in-situ stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks. We propose a proactive approach to determine the in-situ stress and related geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in representative areas through integrated analysis of field and well data, core sample and lab experiments. Geomechanical properties are measured by AutoLab 1500 geomechanics testing system. By integrating lab testing, core observation, numerical simulation, well log and seismic image, drilling, completion, stimulation, and production data, in-situ stresses of Bakken formation are generated. These in-situ stress maps can be used as a guideline for future horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing design to improve the recovery of Bakken unconventional oil.

  14. Oxidized omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil inhibit leukocyte-endothelial interactions through activation of PPAR alpha.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sanjeev; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana; Ni, Heyu; Wagner, Denisa D; Plutzky, Jorge; Mayadas, Tanya N

    2002-08-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are abundant in fish oil, improve the prognosis of several chronic inflammatory diseases although the mechanism for such effects remains unclear. These fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are highly polyunsaturated and readily undergo oxidation. We show that oxidized, but not native unoxidized, EPA significantly inhibited human neutrophil and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro by inhibiting endothelial adhesion receptor expression. In transcriptional coactivation assays, oxidized EPA potently activated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha), a member of the nuclear receptor family. In vivo, oxidized, but not native, EPA markedly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion to venular endothelium of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. This occurred via a PPAR alpha-dependent mechanism because oxidized EPA had no such effect in LPS-treated PPAR alpha-deficient mice. Therefore, the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids may be explained by a PPAR alpha-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of oxidized EPA. PMID:12149216

  15. Micro-Employees Employment, Enhanced Oil-Recovery Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahtavakoli, M.; Allahtavakoli, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Employment of Micro-organisms, as profitable micro-employees in improvement of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), leads us to a famous method named "MEOR". Applying micro-organisms in MEOR makes it more lucrative than other EOR ways because feeding these micro-employees is highly economical and their metabolic processes require some cheap food-resources such as molasses. In addition, utilizing the local micro-organism in reservoirs will reduce the costs effectively; Furthermore these micro-organisms are safety and innocuous to some extent. In MEOR, the micro-organisms are always employed for two purposes, "Restoring pressure to reservoir" and "Decreasing Oil-Viscosity". As often as more, the former is achievable by In-Situ Mechanism or by applying the micro-organisms producing Biopolymers and the latter is also reachable by applying the micro-organisms producing Bio-surfactants. This paper as a proposal which was propounded to National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) is an argument for studying and reviewing "Interaction between Micro-organisms and Reservoir physiochemical properties", "Biopolymer producers and Bio-Surfactant Producers", "In-Situ Mechanism", "Proposed Methods in MEOR" and their limitations.

  16. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages. PMID:18565937

  18. MiL-FISH: Multilabeled Oligonucleotides for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Improve Visualization of Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wetzel, Silke; Liebeke, Manuel; Dubilier, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a vital tool for environmental and medical microbiology and is commonly used for the identification, localization, and isolation of defined microbial taxa. However, fluorescence signal strength is often a limiting factor for targeting all members in a microbial community. Here, we present the application of a multilabeled FISH approach (MiL-FISH) that (i) enables the simultaneous targeting of up to seven microbial groups using combinatorial labeling of a single oligonucleotide probe, (ii) is applicable for the isolation of unfixed environmental microorganisms via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and (iii) improves signal and imaging quality of tissue sections in acrylic resin for precise localization of individual microbial cells. We show the ability of MiL-FISH to distinguish between seven microbial groups using a mock community of marine organisms and its applicability for the localization of bacteria associated with animal tissue and their isolation from host tissues using FACS. To further increase the number of potential target organisms, a streamlined combinatorial labeling and spectral imaging-FISH (CLASI-FISH) concept with MiL-FISH probes is presented here. Through the combination of increased probe signal, the possibility of targeting hard-to-detect taxa and isolating these from an environmental sample, the identification and precise localization of microbiota in host tissues, and the simultaneous multilabeling of up to seven microbial groups, we show here that MiL-FISH is a multifaceted alternative to standard monolabeled FISH that can be used for a wide range of biological and medical applications. PMID:26475101

  19. Dispersants have limited effects on exposure rates of oil spills on fish eggs and larvae in shelf seas.

    PubMed

    Vikebø, Frode B; Rønningen, Petter; Meier, Sonnich; Grøsvik, Bjørn Einar; Lien, Vidar S

    2015-05-19

    Early life stages of fish are particularly vulnerable to oil spills. Simulations of overlap of fish eggs and larvae with oil from different oil-spill scenarios, both without and with the dispersant Corexit 9500, enable quantitative comparisons of dispersants as a mitigation alternative. We have used model simulations of a blow out of 4500 m(3) of crude oil per day (Statfjord light crude) for 30 days at three locations along the Norwegian coast. Eggs were released from nine different known spawning grounds, in the period from March 1st until the end of April, and all spawning products were followed for 90 days from the spill start at April first independent of time for spawning. We have modeled overlap between spawning products and oil concentrations giving a total polycyclic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentration of more than 1.0 or 0.1 ppb (μg/l). At these orders of magnitude, we expect acute mortality or sublethal effects, respectively. In general, adding dispersants results in higher concentrations of TPAHs in a reduced volume of water compared to not adding dispersants. Also, the TPAHs are displaced deeper in the water column. Model simulations of the spill scenarios showed that addition of chemical dispersant in general moderately decreased the fraction of eggs and larvae that were exposed above the selected threshold values. PMID:25875213

  20. Combination Studies of Oreganum Vulgare Extract Fractions and Volatile Oil along with Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole against Common Fish Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Dhuhan, Joginder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study is aimed at finding new antibiotic therapy for aquaculture due to potential of bacteria to develop resistance to the existing therapies. Use of large quantities of synthetic antibiotics in aquaculture thus has the potential to be detrimental to fish health, to the environment and wildlife and to human health. Methods: Antimicrobial potential of volatile oil and fractions of chloroform extract of Oreganum vulgare was evaluated alone and in the presence of standard antimicrobials against common fish pathogens by disc-diffusion, agar well assay and two fold microdilution method by nanodrop spectrophotometric method. Results: The best results were represented by volatile oil followed by phenolic fraction by disc-diffusion, agar well and microdilution assays (Minimum inhibitory concentration). By the interaction studies, it was observed that the volatile oil and phenolic fraction were able to inhibit the pathogens at very low concentration compared to standard drugs. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated and volatile oil and phenolic fractions were found to be synergistic against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. Conclusion: The experimental data suggests the use of volatile oil and phenolic fraction in combination with standard antimicrobials to maintain healthy aquaculture with lesser adverse effects as compared to synthetic antibiotic therapy. PMID:24312842

  1. Pediatric Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease is Reversed with Six Months of Intravenous Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Kara L.; Dunn, James C.Y.; Shew, Stephen B.; Reyen, Laurie; Farmer, Douglas; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Venick, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that when intravenous (IV) soybean oil (SO) is replaced with fish oil (FO), direct hyperbilirubinemia is more likely to resolve. The necessary duration of FO has not been established. This study seeks to determine if 24 weeks of FO is an effective and safe therapy for intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Materials and Methods This is a clinical trial using patients with IFALD between the ages of 2 weeks and 18 years. SO was replaced with FO (1 g/kg/day) in 10 subjects who were receiving the majority of their calories from parenteral (PN). Subjects were compared to 20 historical controls receiving SO. SO for both groups was prescribed by the primary medical team at variable doses. The primary outcome was time to reversal of cholestasis. Secondary outcomes were death, transplant, and full enteral feeds. Safety measurements included growth, essential fatty acid deficiency, and laboratory markers to assess bleeding risk. Results The Kaplan-Meier method estimates that 75% in the FO group will experience resolution of cholestasis by 17 weeks vs. 6% in the SO group (p < 0.0001). When compared to the SO group, the FO group had decreased serum direct bilirubin concentrations at weeks 8 (p=0.03), 12, 16, 20 and 24 (p< 0.0001). While length Z-score at the end of the study increased in the FO group compared to baseline (p=0.03), there were no significant differences in other outcomes. Conclusions A limited duration of FO appears to be safe and effective in reversing IFALD. PMID:23894176

  2. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. PMID:25557903

  3. Oil shale processing as a source of aquatic pollution: monitoring of the biologic effects in caged and feral freshwater fish.

    PubMed Central

    Tuvikene, A; Huuskonen, S; Koponen, K; Ritola, O; Mauer, U; Lindström-Seppä, P

    1999-01-01

    The biologic effects of the oil shale industry on caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as well as on feral perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) were studied in the River Narva in northeast Estonia. The River Narva passes the oil shale mining and processing area and thus receives elevated amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and sulfates. The effects of the chemical load were monitored by measuring cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-dependent monooxygenase (MO) activities [7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)] as well as conjugation enzyme activities [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase] in the liver of fish. CYP1A induction was further studied by detecting the amount and occurrence of the CYP1A protein. Histopathology of tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, and intestine) and the percentage of micronuclei in fish erythrocytes were also determined. Selected PAHs and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) were measured from fish muscle and liver. In spite of the significant accumulation of PAHs, there was no induction of MO activities in any studied fish species. When compared to reference samples, AHH activities were even decreased in feral fish at some of the exposed sites. Detection of CYP1A protein content and the distribution of the CYP1A enzyme by immunohistochemistry also did not show extensive CYP1A induction. Instead, GST activities were significantly increased at exposed sites. Detection of histopathology did not reveal major changes in the morphology of tissues. The micronucleus test also did not show any evidence of genotoxicity. Thus, from the parameters studied, GST activity was most affected. The lack of catalytic CYP1A induction in spite of the heavy loading of PAHs was not studied but has been attributed to the elevated content of other compounds such as heavy metals, some of which can act as inhibitors for MOs. Another possible explanation of this lack of

  4. Addition of aspirin to a fish oil-rich diet decreases inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Alexander V; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil-enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) female mice were fed for 13weeks one of the four following diets: omega-3 FA deficient (OD), omega-3 FA rich (OR) (1.8g omega-3 FAs/kg·diet per day), omega-3 FA rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1g ASA/kg·diet per day) or an omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Proinflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50%-70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic proinflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA vs. just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692

  5. Spatial variability of biochemical responses in resident fish after the M/V Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (Taean, Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Eunsic; Shim, Won Joon

    2012-09-01

    This study describes the spatial variation and the duration of the impacts from the Hebei Spirit oil spill using specific biochemical indices in resident benthic fish. Enzymatic activities and biliary PAHs metabolites were higher at the site closer to the spill area in four months after spill incident. Regarding our results of detoxification response, markers of Phase I followed a similar trend in accordance with levels of biliary metabolites, while markers of phase II and GST appeared relatively unchanged.

  6. [Determination of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls in fish oil by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Shushu; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Shoulin; Li, Lei

    2015-08-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish oil was developed. PCBs were extracted from fish oil with n-hexane, purified by sulfuric acid and determined by using gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) in selected ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. A good linear relationship (r > 0.99) was observed with the PCBs concentrations from 0.01 µg/L to 10 µg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) were between 3 pg/g and 67 pg/g for different kinds of PCBs. The average recoveries ranged from 62.3% to 121.8% with the relative standard deviations ( RSDs, n = 3) smaller than 12%. Compared with the traditional pre-treatment of multiple material solid phase extraction, this new method is simple, rapid and less organic solvent usage. Meanwhile the method has good selectivity and sensitivity, and it is suitable for the determination of multiple trace PCBs in fish oil. PMID:26749866

  7. A Study on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Using Fish Oil Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesha, D. K.; Thimmannachar, Rajiv K.; Simhasan, R.; Nagappa, Manjunath; Gowda, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    Bio-fuel is a clean burning fuel made from natural renewable energy resource; it operates in C. I. engine similar to the petroleum diesel. The rising cost of diesel and the danger caused to the environment has led to an intensive and desperate search for alternative fuels. Among them, animal fats like the fish oil have proven to be a promising substitute to diesel. In this experimental study, A computerized 4-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine was operated on fish oil-biodiesel of different blends. Three different blends of 10, 20, and 30 % by volume were used for this study. Various engine performance, combustion and emission parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, Peak Pressure, Exhaust Gas Temperature, etc. were recorded from the acquired data. The data was recorded with the help of an engine analysis software. The recorded parameters were studied for varying loads and their corresponding graphs have been plotted for comparison purposes. Petroleum Diesel has been used as the reference. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that fish oil biodiesel is a better replacement for diesel without any engine modification.

  8. Konjac-based oil bulking system for development of improved-lipid pork patties: technological, microbiological and sensory assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Carballo, José; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2015-03-01

    Improved-lipid pork patties were manufactured following two different reformulation strategies: fat reduction by replacement of pork backfat with konjac gel (KG), and fat reduction/lipid improvement by replacement of pork backfat with an improved oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils) bulking system based on konjac gel (O-KG). Technological, microbiological and sensory properties were analyzed as affected by the type of formulation and by chilled storage (9days, 2°C). Fat was reduced by between 30 and 86%. In the cases where O-KG was incorporated, 12 and 41% of total fat in patties came from the oil combination. There was no observable effect on color parameters in samples with O-K. Higher KG levels produced harder cooked patties. Animal fat replacement in patties promoted an increase in lipid oxidation, which was more pronounced in samples with an oil combination. In general, during chilled storage no major changes were observed in the studied properties as a result of the different treatments. PMID:25485511

  9. Method for improving the removal of oil from surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, P.E.

    1980-11-18

    A method is claimed for facilitating the removal or preventing the adherence of residual oil in oil tankers and other vessels or containers, on the surfaces of oil spill cleanup equipment such as skimmers and booms, and on sucker rods or other surfaces in oil wells, by coating surfaces contacting the oil with a film of a polymer that prevents or reduces oil adherence. Materials effective in reducing oil adherence are oleophobic films formed by complexing a polyacrylamide or carboxymethylcellulose with salts of polyvalent metals such as aluminum, chromium and iron.

  10. Responses of Growth Performance and Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression to Fish Oil Supplementation in Lactation Sows' and/or Weaned Piglets' Diets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Huang, Feiruo; Xiao, Chenglin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P < 0.05) than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P < 0.05) during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) towards lower ADG and higher feed : gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P < 0.01) in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression. PMID:24078926

  11. Effect of Dietary Combination of Methionine and Fish Oil on Cellular Immunity and Plasma Fatty Acids in Infectious Bursal Disease Challenged Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Azhar; Yong Meng, Goh; Teck Chwen, Loh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that the birds fed with 5.5% fish oil had higher total protein, white blood cell count, and IL-2 concentration than those of other groups at 7 days after IBD challenge. Inclusion of fish oil in diet had no effect on IFN-γ concentration. However, supplementation of methionine twice the recommendation enhanced the serum IFN-γ and globulin concentration. Neither of fish oil nor methionine supplementation affected the liver enzymes concentration. It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens. PMID:24198724

  12. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    St. Hilaire, Danny R.

    2006-02-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and reconstruction aimed at improving fish habitat, by restoring stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2004 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2004), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance, and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation. This report also summarizes Program Administrative, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education activities.

  13. Appearance traits in fish farming: progress from classical genetics to genomics, providing insight into current and potential genetic improvement

    PubMed Central

    Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Appearance traits in fish, those external body characteristics that influence consumer acceptance at point of sale, have come to the forefront of commercial fish farming, as culture profitability is closely linked to management of these traits. Appearance traits comprise mainly body shape and skin pigmentation. Analysis of the genetic basis of these traits in different fish reveals significant genetic variation within populations, indicating potential for their genetic improvement. Work into ascertaining the minor or major genes underlying appearance traits for commercial fish is emerging, with substantial progress in model fish in terms of identifying genes that control body shape and skin colors. In this review, we describe research progress to date, especially with regard to commercial fish, and discuss genomic findings in model fish in order to better address the genetic basis of the traits. Given that appearance traits are important in commercial fish, the genomic information related to this issue promises to accelerate the selection process in coming years. PMID:25140172

  14. Appearance traits in fish farming: progress from classical genetics to genomics, providing insight into current and potential genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Colihueque, Nelson; Araneda, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Appearance traits in fish, those external body characteristics that influence consumer acceptance at point of sale, have come to the forefront of commercial fish farming, as culture profitability is closely linked to management of these traits. Appearance traits comprise mainly body shape and skin pigmentation. Analysis of the genetic basis of these traits in different fish reveals significant genetic variation within populations, indicating potential for their genetic improvement. Work into ascertaining the minor or major genes underlying appearance traits for commercial fish is emerging, with substantial progress in model fish in terms of identifying genes that control body shape and skin colors. In this review, we describe research progress to date, especially with regard to commercial fish, and discuss genomic findings in model fish in order to better address the genetic basis of the traits. Given that appearance traits are important in commercial fish, the genomic information related to this issue promises to accelerate the selection process in coming years. PMID:25140172

  15. Dietary fats and oils: technologies for improving cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Flickinger, Brent D; Huth, Peter J

    2004-11-01

    The role of dietary lipids in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to evolve as we gain a better understanding of the metabolic effects of individual fatty acids and their impact on surrogate markers of risk. A recent meta-analysis of 60 human studies suggests that for each 1% energy replacement of carbohydrates in the diet with saturated fat or trans fat, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations increase by 0.032 (1.23 mg/dL) and 0.04 mmol/L (1.54 mg/dL), respectively. Current dietary recommendations to keep saturated fat and trans fat intake as low as possible, and to increase the intake of cis mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as growing recognition of these recommendations by consumers and food regulatory agencies in the United States, have been major driving forces for the edible oil industry and food manufacturers to develop alternative fats and oils with nutritionally improved fatty acid compositions. As solutions for use of trans fatty acids are being sought, oilseeds with modified fatty acid compositions are being viewed as a means to provide such solutions. Additionally, oilseeds with modified fatty acid composition, such as enhanced content of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or conjugated linoleic acid, have been developed as a way to increase delivery of these fatty acids directly into the food supply or indirectly as use for feed ingredients for livestock. New processing technologies are being utilized around the world to create dietary fats and oils with specific physiologic functions relevant to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:15485593

  16. Influence of protein type on oxidation and digestibility of fish oil-in-water emulsions: gliadin, caseinate, and whey protein.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2015-05-15

    The influence of three surface-active proteins on the oxidative stability and lipase digestibility of emulsified ω-3 oils was examined: deamidated wheat gliadin (gliadin); sodium caseinate (CN); whey protein isolate (WPI). Gliadin and WPI were more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation (hydroperoxides and TBARS) of fish oil-in-water emulsions than CN. Protein oxidation during storage was determined by measuring the loss of tryptophan fluorescence. The CN-emulsions exhibited the highest loss of tryptophan fluorescence during aging, as well as the highest amount of lipid oxidation. Potential reasons for the differences in oxidative stability of the emulsions with different proteins include differences in interfacial film thickness, protein chelating ability, and antioxidant amino acids profiles. During in vitro digestion, gliadin-stabilized emulsions had the lowest digestion rate of the three proteins. These results have important implications for using proteins to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for ω-3 oils. PMID:25577077

  17. Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, 'Lean' or 'Fat'. Results Metabolism, particularly of lipid and energy, was the functional category most affected by diet. Important effects were also measured in ribosomal proteins and signalling. The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis pathway, assessed by fatty acid composition and gene expression, was influenced by genotype. Intestinal tissue contents of docosahexaenoic acid were equivalent in Lean salmon fed either a FO or VO diet and expression of LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes was up-regulated in VO-fed fish in Fat salmon. Dietary VO increased lipogenesis in Lean fish, assessed by expression of FAS, while no effect was observed on β-oxidation although transcripts of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated, suggesting less active energetic metabolism in fish fed VO. In contrast, dietary VO up-regulated genes and proteins involved in detoxification, antioxidant defence and apoptosis, which could be associated with higher levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in this diet. Regarding genotype, the following pathways were identified as being differentially affected: proteasomal proteolysis, response to oxidative and cellular stress (xenobiotic and oxidant metabolism and heat shock proteins), apoptosis and structural proteins particularly associated with tissue contractile properties. Genotype effects were accentuated by dietary VO. Conclusions Intestinal metabolism was affected by diet and genotype. Lean fish may have

  18. Development of rice bran oil blends for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Monika; Grover, Kiran; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2015-04-15

    Six rice bran oil (RBO) blends were prepared in two ratios i.e., 80:20 and 70:30 and analysed for physicochemical properties, and antioxidants and fatty acid composition. Among all the RBO blends, rice bran oil+groundnut oil (70:30) had the highest smoke point (204 °C) and rice bran oil+olive oil (70:30) was the most stable blend in terms of chemical parameters. The highest value of total antioxidants was observed in rice bran oil+sunflower oil (70:30) (2568.7 mg/kg). Fatty acid composition (SFA:MUFA:PUFA) (1:1.5:2) of rice bran oil+palm oil (80:20), and products prepared using this RBO blend, were close to the recommended intake. Boiling with sautéing was a better cooking method in terms of maintaining fatty acid ratios. PMID:25466088

  19. Protein-Protein Multilayer Oil-in-Water Emulsions for the Microencapsulation of Flaxseed Oil: Effect of Whey and Fish Gelatin Concentration.

    PubMed

    Fustier, Patrick; Achouri, Allaoua; Taherian, Ali R; Britten, Michel; Pelletier, Marylène; Sabik, Hassan; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Mondor, Martin

    2015-10-28

    The impact of whey protein isolate (WPI) and fish gelatin (FG) deposited sequentially at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.75% on the surface of primary oil-in-water emulsions containing 5% flaxseed oil stabilized with either 0.5% fish gelatin or whey protein, respectively, was investigated. The results revealed that the adsorption of WPI/FG or FG/WPI complexes to the emulsion interface led to the formation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions with different stabilities and different protection degrees of the flaxseed oil. Deposition of FG on the WPI primary emulsion increased the particle size (from 0.53 to 1.58 μm) and viscosity and decreased electronegativity (from -23.91 to -11.15 mV) of the complexes. Different trends were noted with the deposition of WPI on the FG primary emulsion, resulting in decreasing particle size and increasing electronegativity and viscosity to a lower extent. Due to the superior tension-active property of WPI, the amount of protein load in the WPI primary emulsion as well as in WPI/FG complex was significantly higher than the FG counterparts. A multilayer emulsion made with 0.5% WPI/0.75% FG exhibited the lowest oxidation among all of the multilayered emulsions tested (0.32 ppm of hexanal) after 21 days, likely due to the charge effect of FG that may prevent pro-oxidant metals to interact with the flaxseed oil. PMID:26457588

  20. Viscosity index improver-dispersant additive useful in oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, J.B.; Dick, M.N.

    1988-10-25

    A process comprising grafting in the substantial absence of solvent a hydrocarbon polymer of C/sub 2/ to C/sub 28/ olefin, the polymer having a number average molecular weight in the range of about 5,000 to 500,000 with an unsaturated material selected from the group consisting of: (A) ethylenically unsaturated C/sub 3/ to C/sub 10/ carboxylic acid having 1 to 2 carboxylic acid groups or an anhydride group, and (B) nitrogen-containing ethylenically unsaturated monomers containing 6 to 30 carbon atoms and 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms, in the presence of a free radical initiator and a chain stopping agent comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of alphatic mercaptans having 4 to 24 carbon atoms, deithyl hydroxyl amine cumene and phenols, the grafting being conducted in a manner and under conditions sufficient to form a substantially oil soluble graft copolymer useful as a viscosity index improver-dispersant additive for lubricating oil compositions.

  1. The development of advanced hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F.

    2001-09-01

    Recent efforts to improve the survival of hydroelectric turbine-passed juvenile fish have explored modifications to both operation and design of the turbines. Much of this research is being carried out by power producers in the Columbia River basin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the public utility districts), while the development of low impact turbines is being pursued on a national scale by the U.S. Department of Energy. Fisheries managers are involved in all aspects of these efforts. Advanced versions of conventional Kaplan turbines are being installed and tested in the Columbia River basin, and a pilot scale version of a novel turbine concept is undergoing laboratory testing. Field studies in the last few years have shown that improvements in the design of conventional turbines have increased the survival of juvenile fish. There is still much to be learned about the causes and extent of injuries in the turbine system (including the draft tube and tailrace), as well as the significance of indirect mortality and the effects of turbine passage on adult fish. However, improvements in turbine design and operation, as well as new field, laboratory, and modeling techniques to assess turbine-passage survival, are contributing toward resolution of the downstream fish passage issue at hydroelectric power plants.

  2. Full substitution of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil, with partial substitution of fish meal with camelina meal, in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and its effect on tissue lipids and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2014-08-15

    Camelina oil (CO) and meal (CM) are potential replacements of fish meal (FM) and oil (FO) in aquaculture feeds. CO is high in α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3, ALA) (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio >1. This study tested diets with 100% CO, solvent extracted FM (SEFM) and partially substituted FM with 10% CM, in a 16 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon (initial weight 240 g fish(-1)). Final weight (529-691 g fish(-1)) was not affected by using 100% CO; however it was lower in groups fed SEFM and 10% CM diets. Total lipid in salmon flesh fed a diet with CO, SEFM and CM (22% ww(-1)) was significantly higher than FO flesh (14% ww(-1)). There was no difference in the sensory quality of salmon fillets that were fed either FO or 100% CO diets. This was the first study to use CO as a complete FO replacement in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:24679751

  3. Improved water-soluble polymers for enhanced recovery of oil

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.; Hatch, M.J.; Shepitka, J.S.; Ward, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two principal types of polymers have been used extensively for enhanced recovery of crude oil: partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and xanthan gum. Because of its lower cost, HPAM is being used in a majority of the field projects when water-soluble polymers are applied. However, HPAM does lose viscosity in brines, particularly when divalent ions are present, and is susceptible to mechanical degradation under high shear conditions. Although many different polymer structures were evaluated in the laboratory tests, the main focus consisted of modifying the structure of HPAM and observing the effects on brine and shear stability. Testing of these analogs provided a systematic correlation of polymer structure with polymer performance so that improved compounds could be developed. 33 references.

  4. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 1996-2003 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    St. Hilaire, Danny R.; Montgomery, Michael; Bailey, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The last Annual Program Report was submitted in 1997, and described projects undertaken in 1995. This report describes Program activities carried out in 2003, along with a summary of projects undertaken during the years 1996 through 2002. The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration agreements, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and re-construction aimed at improving fish habitat, by restoring stable channel function. This report provides a summary table of past projects (1996-2002), along with a text description of more extensive habitat improvement projects, including: (1) Implementation of a four-phased project on the Lobato property (Birch Creek) beginning in 1996 and involving a demonstration bioengineering site and riparian improvements (fencing, planting), (2) Implementation of stable channel design/instream structure placement on the Houser property, East Birch Creek, beginning in 1998, an (3) Implementation of a joint, US Army Corps of Engineers/ODFW (cost share) project beginning in 2001 on the Brogoitti property, East Birch Creek, which involved implementation of stable channel design/construction and riparian improvement treatments.

  5. DEPLOYMENT CONFIGURATIONS FOR IMPROVED OIL CONTAINMENT WITH SELECTED SORBENT BOOMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance tests on three catenary oil containment configurations using sorbent booms sections alone and in conjunction with a conventional containment boom, were conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tan...

  6. Prevention of liver ischemia reperfusion injury by a combined thyroid hormone and fish oil protocol.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Marcelo; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Romanque, Pamela; Covarrubias, Natalia; Anghileri, Fiorella; Fernández, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Tapia, Gladys

    2012-09-01

    Several preconditioning strategies are used to prevent ischemia-reperfusion (IR) liver injury, a deleterious condition associated with tissue resection, transplantation or trauma. Although thyroid hormone (T₃) administration exerts significant protection against liver IR injury in the rat, its clinical application is controversial due to possible adverse effects. Considering that prevention of liver IR injury has also been achieved by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to rats, we studied the effect of n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation plus a lower dose of T₃ against IR injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving fish oil (300 mg/kg) for 3 days followed by a single intraperitoneal dose of 0.05 mg T₃/kg were subjected to 1 h of ischemia followed by 20 h of reperfusion. Parameters of liver injury (serum transaminases, histology) and oxidative stress (liver contents of GSH and oxidized proteins) were correlated with fatty acid composition, NF-κB activity, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and haptoglobin expression. IR significantly modified liver histology; enhanced serum transaminases, TNF-α response or liver oxidative stress; and decreased liver NF-κB activity and haptoglobin expression. Although IR injury was not prevented by either n-3 PUFA supplementation or T₃ administration, substantial decrease in liver injury and oxidative stress was achieved by the combined protocol, which also led to increased liver n-3 PUFA content and decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios, with recovery of NF-κB activity and TNF-α and haptoglobin expression. Prevention of liver IR injury achieved by a combined protocol of T₃ and n-3 PUFA supplementation may represent a novel noninvasive preconditioning strategy with potential clinical application. PMID:22137030

  7. Preparation of human milk fat analogue by enzymatic interesterification reaction using palm stearin and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Moumita; Sengupta, Avery; Bhattacharyya, D K; Ghosh, Mahua

    2016-04-01

    Palm stearin fractionate (PSF), obtained from palm stearin by further fractionation with solvents and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) rich fish oil (FO) were subjected to interesterification at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 substrate molar ratio and catalyzed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa for obtaining a product with triacylglycerol (TAG) structure similar to that of human milk fat (HMF). The parameters (molar ratio and time) of the interesterification reaction were standardized. The temperature of 60 °C and enzyme concentration of 10 % (w/w) were kept fixed as these parameters were previously optimized. The reactions were carried out in a stirred tank reactor equipped with a magnetic stirrer for 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The blends were analyzed for fatty acid (FA) composition of both total FAs and those at the sn-2 position after pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. All the blended products were subjected to melting point determination and free fatty acid content. Finally, blend of PSF and FO at 2:1 molar ratio with 69.70 % palmitic acid (PA) content and 12 h of reaction produced the desired product with 75.98 % of PA at sn-2 position, 0.27 % arachidonic acid (AA), 3.43 % eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 4.25 % docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and with melting point of 42 °C. This study portrayed a successful preparation of TAG containing unique FA composition i.e. ≥ 70 % of the PA, by weight, were esterified at the sn-2 position which could be used in infant formulation with health benefits of n-3 PUFAs. PMID:27413229

  8. Exposure to hydrocarbons 10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: evidence from cytochrome P4501A expression and biliary FACs in nearshore demersal fishes.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Stephen C; Dean, Thomas A; Woodin, Bruce R; Hoberg, Max K; Stegeman, John J

    2002-01-01

    Three biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure, CYP1A in liver vascular endothelium, liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), and biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), were examined in the nearshore fishes, masked greenling (Hexagrammos octogrammus) and crescent gunnel (Pholis laeta), collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 7-10 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). All biomarkers were elevated in fish collected from sites originally oiled, in comparison to fish from unoiled sites. In 1998, endothelial CYP1A in masked greenling from sites that were heavily oiled in 1989 was significantly higher than in fish collected outside the spill trajectory. In 1999, fishes collected from sites adjacent to intertidal mussel beds containing lingering Exxon Valdez oil had elevated endothelial CYP1A and EROD, and high concentrations of biliary FACs. Fishes from sites near unoiled mussel beds, but within the original spill trajectory, also showed evidence of hydrocarbon exposure, although there were no correlations between sediment petroleum hydrocarbon and any of the biomarkers. Our data show that 10 years after the spill, nearshore fishes within the original spill zone were still exposed to residual EVOS hydrocarbons. PMID:12148943

  9. Performance Evaluation of an Improved GC-MS Method to Quantify Methylmercury in Fish.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Rieko; Hayashi, Tomoko; Akaki, Koichi; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    Here, we set out to improve our previously developed methylmercury analytical method, involving phenyl derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the improved method, phenylation of methylmercury with sodium tetraphenylborate was carried out in a toluene/water two-phase system, instead of in water alone. The modification enabled derivatization at optimum pH, and the formation of by-products was dramatically reduced. In addition, adsorption of methyl phenyl mercury in the GC system was suppressed by co-injection of PEG200, enabling continuous analysis without loss of sensitivity. The performance of the improved analytical method was independently evaluated by three analysts using certified reference materials and methylmercury-spiked fresh fish samples. The present analytical method was validated as suitable for determination of compliance with the provisional regulation value for methylmercury in fish, set in the Food Sanitation haw. PMID:26156161

  10. Short-Term, High-Dose Fish Oil Supplementation Increases the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid–Derived Mediators in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (the OMEGA-PAD I Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Grenon, S Marlene; Owens, Christopher D; Nosova, Emily V; Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Alley, Hugh F; Chong, Karen; Perez, Sandra; Yen, Priscilla K; Boscardin, John; Hellmann, Jason; Spite, Matthew; Conte, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) experience significant morbidity and mortality. The OMEGA-PAD I Trial, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, addressed the hypothesis that short-duration, high-dose n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) oral supplementation improves endothelial function and inflammation in PAD. Methods and Results Eighty patients with stable claudication received 4.4 g of fish oil or placebo for 1 month. The primary end point was endothelial function as measured by brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Secondary end points included biomarkers of inflammation, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolome changes, lipid profile, and walking impairment questionnaires. Although there was a significant increase in FMD in the fish oil group following treatment (0.7±1.8% increase from baseline, P=0.04), this response was not different then the placebo group (0.6±2.5% increase from baseline, P=0.18; between-group P=0.86) leading to a negative finding for the primary endpoint. There was, however, a significant reduction in triglycerides (fish oil: −34±46 mg/dL, P<0.001; placebo −10±43 mg/dL, P=0.20; between-group differential P-value: 0.02), and an increase in the omega-3 index of 4±1% (P<0.001) in the fish oil group (placebo 0.1±0.9%, P=0.49; between-group P<0.0001). We observed a significant increase in the production of pathway markers of specialized pro-resolving mediators generated from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the fish oil group. Conclusions High-dose, short-duration fish oil supplementation did not lead to a different response in the primary end point of endothelial function between the treatment and placebo group, but improved serum triglycerides and increased the production of downstream n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids–derived products and mediators in patients with PAD. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01310270. PMID

  11. High-Temperature Natural Antioxidant Improves Soy Oil for Frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5%...

  12. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on bottomfish and shellfish in Prince William Sound. Fish/shellfish study 18

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Trawl surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound and adjacent waters in 1989 and 1990 to assess impacts of the Exxon Valdex oil spill on commercial species of bottomfish and shellfish. The surveys (1) determined abundance, distribution, and year-class strength of important bottomfish and shellfish species and (2) assessed the incidence and distribution of oil contamination in fish bile.

  13. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec

    2002-12-20

    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in evaluating the efficacy

  14. Influence of fish oil supplementation and strength training on some functional aspects of immune cells in healthy elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Nahhas Rodacki, Cintia; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Krause, Maressa; Bonatto, Sandro; Naliwaiko, Katya; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2015-07-14

    Immune function changes with ageing and is influenced by physical activity (strength training, ST) and diet (fish oil, FO). The present study investigated the effect of FO and ST on the immune system of elderly women. Forty-five women (64 (sd 1.4) years) were assigned to ST for 90 d (ST; n 15), ST plus 2 g/d FO for 90 d (ST90; n 15) or 2 g/d FO for 60 d followed by ST plus FO for 90 d (ST150; n 15). Training was performed three times per week, for 12 weeks. A number of innate (zymosan phagocytosis, lysosomal volume, superoxide anion, peroxide of hydrogen) and adaptive (cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), CD8, TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 produced by lymphocytes) immune parameters were assessed before supplementation (base), before (pre-) and after (post-) training. ST induced no immune changes. FO supplementation caused increased phagocytosis (48 %), lysosomal volume (100 %) and the production of superoxide anion (32 %) and H₂O₂(70 %) in the ST90. Additional FO supplementation (ST150) caused no additive influence on the immune system, as ST150 and ST90 did not differ, but caused greater changes when compared to the ST (P< 0·05). FO increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the ST150, which remained unchanged when training was introduced. The combination of ST and FO reduced TNF-α in the ST150 from base to post-test. FO supplementation (ST150, base-pre) when combined with exercise (ST150, pre-post) increased IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 production. The immune parameters improved in response to FO supplementation; however, ST alone did not enhance the immune system. PMID:26059004

  15. Combination of conjugated linoleic acid with fish oil prevents age-associated bone marrow adiposity in C57Bl/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Halade, Ganesh V; Rahman, Md M; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The inverse relationship between fat in bone marrow and bone mass in the skeleton of aging subjects is well-known. However, there is no precise therapy for the treatment of bone marrow adiposity. We investigated the ability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fish oil (FO), alone or in combination, to modulate bone loss using 12 months old C57Bl/6J mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) diet as control or supplemented with 0.5% CLA or 5% FO or 0.5% CLA+5% FO for 6 months. We found, CLA fed mice exhibited reduced body weight, body fat mass (BFM), and enhanced hind leg lean mass (HLLM) and bone mineral density (BMD) in different regions measured by DXA; however, associated with fatty liver and increased insulin resistance; whereas, FO fed mice exhibited enhanced BMD, improved insulin sensitivity, with no changes in BFM and HLLM. Interestingly, CLA+FO fed mice exhibited reduced body weight, BFM, PPARγ and cathepsin K expression in bone marrow with enhanced BMD and HLLM. Moreover, CLA+FO supplementation reduced liver hypertrophy and improved insulin sensitivity with remarkable attenuation of bone marrow adiposity, inflammation and oxidative stress in aging mice. Therefore, CLA with FO combination might be a novel dietary supplement to reduce fat mass and improve BMD. PMID:20656466

  16. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae. PMID:27503614

  17. Fish Oil Supplementation does not Reduce Risks of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension, or Pre-Eclampsia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing; Ji, Xinran; Zhang, Lei; Hou, Zhaohui; Li, Chundong; Tong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of gestational supplementation with fish oil on risks for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and pre-eclampsia (PE) have not been confirmed. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation on these gestational complications. Material/Methods Randomized controlled human trials that investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnant women were identified by a systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane’s Library, and references of related reviews and studies up to December 2014. Relative risks (RRs) for GDM, PIH, and PE were the outcomes of interest. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were applied according to the heterogeneity. Results Thirteen comparisons from 11 published articles, including more than 5000 participants, were included. The results showed that fish oil supplementation was not associated with reduced risks for GDM (RR=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85–1.32, p=0.60), PIH (RR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.89–1.20, p=0.66), or PE (RR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.74–1.16, p=0.51). No statistically significant heterogeneity was detected for the comparison of each outcome. The effects of fish oil on these gestational complications were consistent between women with low-risk and high-risk pregnancies. Conclusions Gestational supplementation with fish oil during the second or third trimester of pregnancy is not associated with reduced risks for GDM, PIH, or PE. Other possible benefits of fish oil supplementation during pregnancy warrant further evaluation. PMID:26256041

  18. Acute and subchronic toxicity of metal complex azo acid dye and anionic surfactant oil on fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Amwele, Hilma Rantilla; Papirom, Pittaya; Chukanhom, Kanit; Beamish, Fredrick Henry William; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-01-01

    The acute toxicity study of metal complex dark green azo acid dye, anionic surfactant oil and their mixture determined the 96 hr LC50, and fish behaviours. Subchronic toxicity determined haematology parameters and concentrations of copper and chromium in blood. The 96 hr LC50 was determined by probit analysis and subchronic toxicity was conducted in 90 days. No mortalities were observed in control and anionic surfactant oil treatments. The 96 hr LC50 value of mixture was 26.7 mg I(-1) (95% CL = 20.7 - 46.8) and that of metal complex dark green azo acid dye was not met as the percentage of dead was below 50% of tested organisms. In a treatment of anionic surfactant oil and that of mixture observed behaviours were respiration response, uncoordinated movement, loss of equilibrium, erratic posture and loss of responsiveness. Subchronic toxicity indicated fluctuations in number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes in all chemical treatments. Erythrocyte morphology such as anisocytosis, erythrocytes hypertrophy, karyolysis, cytoplasm vacuolation, ghost cell were observed in fish blood in all chemical treatments. An inverse relation was observed between total copper and chromium concentration in blood. However, the toxicity effect was chemical dose dependent and length of exposure. PMID:26536793

  19. Supplementation of postmenopausal women with fish oil does not increase overall oxidation of LDL ex vivo compared to dietary oils rich in oleate and linoleate.

    PubMed

    Higdon, J V; Du, S H; Lee, Y S; Wu, T; Wander, R C

    2001-03-01

    Although replacement of dietary saturated fat with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA) has been advocated for the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk, diets high in PUFA could increase low density lipoprotein (LDL) susceptibility to oxidation, potentially contributing to the pathology of atherosclerosis. To investigate this possibility, 15 postmenopausal women in a blinded crossover trial consumed 15 g of sunflower oil (SU) providing 12.3 g/day of oleate, safflower oil (SA) providing 10.5 g/day of linoleate, and fish oil (FO) providing 2.0 g/day of eicosapentaenoate (EPA) and 1.4 g/day of docosahexaenoate (DHA). During CuSO(4)-mediated oxidation, LDL was depleted of alpha-tocopherol more rapidly after FO supplementation than after supplementation with SU (P = 0.0001) and SA (P = 0.05). In LDL phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fractions, loss of n-3 PUFA was greater and loss of n-6 PUFA less after FO supplementation than after SU and SA supplementation (P < 0.05 for all), but loss of total PUFA did not differ. The lag phase for phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) formation was shorter after FO supplementation than after supplementation with SU (P = 0.0001) and SA (P = 0.006), whereas the lag phase for cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide (CE18:2OOH) formation was shorter after FO supplementation than after SU (P = 0.03) but not SA. In contrast, maximal rates of PCOOH and CE18:2OOH formation were lower after FO supplementation than after SA (P = 0.02 and 0.0001, respectively) and maximal concentrations of PCOOH and CE18:2OOH were lower after FO supplementation than after SA (P = 0.03 and 0.0006, respectively). Taken together, our results suggest that FO supplementation does not increase the overall oxidation of LDL ex vivo, especially when compared with SA supplementation. Consequently, health benefits related to increased fish consumption may not be offset by increased LDL oxidative susceptibility.-- Higdon, J. V., S. H. Du, Y

  20. Antioxidant activity of gallic acid and methyl gallate in triacylglycerols of Kilka fish oil and its oil-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali

    2014-09-15

    The anti-DPPH radical effect as well as anti-peroxide activity of gallic acid, methyl gallate, and α-tocopherol in a bulk Kilka fish oil and its oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by soy protein isolate at 55°C were investigated. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active antiradical agent (IC50=29.5 μM), followed by methyl gallate (IC50=38.0 μM, log P=-0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50=105.3 μM, log P=0.70). The anti-peroxide activity in the bulk oil system decreased in the order of methyl gallate>gallic acid>α-tocopherol. In the emulsion system, methyl gallate still behaved better than gallic acid, but the highest activity belonged to α-tocopherol. Based on the calculation of a number of kinetic parameters, the antioxidants, in general, showed better performances in the bulk oil system than in the emulsion system. PMID:24767079

  1. Field experiments to improve the efficacy of gargoor (fish trap) fishery in Kuwait's waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weizhong; Al-Baz, Ali; Bishop, James M.; Al-Husaini, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    Fish traps were investigated to understand the effects of season, bait type, trap size, and trap soak time on catch rates, catch composition, and trap loss rates from March 2004 to September 2005, to improve the performance and management of Kuwait's gargoor (cage style fish trap) fishery, which used to be the nation's most important one in terms of value and landings volume. Catch rates were the highest in April/May (5-8 kg/trap haul) and again in December (7 kg/trap haul). Bait type and trap size also affected catch rates and species composition. Of the seven baits tested, the best catch rates, >5 kg/trap haul, occurred with cuttlefish ( Sepia pharaonis), but wolf-herring ( Chirocentrus dorab) and mullet ( Liza klunzingeri) also produced good results (4-5 kg/trap haul). Within the five tested sizes, the two largest-sized traps captured more fish and larger size fish. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences of catch rate among traps with different baits as well as among traps of different sizes. Duncan test further revealed these differences between two specific baits and sizes. Cluster Analysis of species composition showed more differences among different baits than among different trap sizes. Longer soak times did not result in larger catch rates, but increased trap loss. About 10-day soak time resulted in trap loss 7%, while 40-day soak time could result in a loss of around 20%. Consequently, it is recommended that the gargoor be checked every 10 or fewer days. The average overall catch rate during the study period was lower than that of 1980s (4.5 vs. 5.8 kg/trap haul), indicating a possible decline of fish abundance in Kuwait's waters. It is recommended that the number of gargoor fishing boats and gargoors from each boat should be limited to allow stock rehabilitation.

  2. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given...

  3. Dispersant use as a response to oil spills: toxicological effects on fish cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Lefrançois, Christel; Imbert, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Dispersant use is a controversial technique used to respond to oil spills in nearshore areas. In order to assess the toxicity of this technique, this study evaluated the cardiac toxicological effects on juvenile golden grey mullets Liza aurata exposed for 48 h to either dispersant alone, chemically dispersed oil, mechanically dispersed oil, the water-soluble fraction of oil or a control condition. Following exposure, the positive inotropic effects of adrenaline were assessed in order to evaluate a potential impairment on the cardiac performance. The results revealed an impairment of the positive inotropic effects of adrenaline for all the contaminants (single dispersant, dispersed and undispersed oil, water-soluble fraction of oil). This suggests that: (1) cardiac performance is a valuable parameter to study the physiopathological effects of dispersed oil; (2) dispersant application is likely to impair cardiac performance. PMID:22976195

  4. An Estuarine Fish Bioassay for Sensitive Biomonitoring of Oil-related Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    An embryonic and larval bioassay using the estuarine fish, Fundulus heteroclitus, was modified for the rapid detection of bioavailable compounds that act through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The early development of fishes is particularly sensitive to AhR agonists, such ...

  5. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria Pina; Sica, Raffaella; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Putti, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:24562331

  6. Efficacy of Fish Oil on Serum of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 Oxidative Stress Markers in Multiple Sclerosis Treated with Interferon Beta-1b

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Ramirez, V.; Macias-Islas, M. A.; Ortiz, G. G.; Pacheco-Moises, F.; Torres-Sanchez, E. D.; Sorto-Gomez, T. E.; Cruz-Ramos, J. A.; Orozco-Aviña, G.; Celis de la Rosa, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to focal plaques of demyelination and tissue injury in the central nervous system. Oxidative stress is also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Current research findings suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapenta-enoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contained in fish oil may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of fish oil supplementation on serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative stress markers, and disease progression in MS. 50 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled. The experimental group received orally 4 g/day of fish oil for 12 months. The primary outcome was serum TNFα levels; secondary outcomes were IL-1β 1b, IL-6, nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides, progression on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), and annualized relapses rate (ARR). Fish oil treatment decreased the serum levels of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide metabolites compared with placebo group (P ≤ 0.001). There was no significant difference in serum lipoperoxide levels during the study. No differences in EDSS and ARR were found. Conclusion. Fish oil supplementation is highly effective in reducing the levels of cytokines and nitric oxide catabolites in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. PMID:23861993

  7. Influence of surfactant composition on physical and oxidative stability of Quillaja saponin-stabilized lipid particles with encapsulated ω-3 fish oil.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Hanna; Aulbach, Susanne; Leuenberger, Bruno H; Tedeschi, Concetta; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a saponin-rich extract of Quillaja saponaria to replace bile salts in the surfactant formulations for stabilization of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The influence of Quillaja extract and/or high-melting lecithin at different concentrations on physical and oxidative stability was evaluated in (i) NLC containing tristearin and ω-3 fish oil, (ii) ω-3 fish oil-in-water emulsion, and (iii) solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing tristearin. Best physical, polymorphic and oxidative stability of NLC were achieved with a surfactant combination of 2.4% (w/w) Quillaja extract and 0.6% (w/w) high-melting lecithin. The results showed that encapsulation of ω-3 fish oil into NLC inhibited the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, propanal and hexanal by 72, 53 and 57%, respectively, compared to the fish oil-in-water emulsion prepared with the same surfactants. This indicated that the low oxidation observed in NLC cannot be due to potential antioxidative effects of the surfactant combination itself. Evidence is accumulating that tristearin is able to form a protective shell around the ω-3 fish oil, when crystallization is induced via high-melting phospholipids in the solidified interfacial layer. PMID:25016544

  8. Dams in the Mekong River Basin: Options for Improved Sediment and Fish Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, T. B.; Loucks, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong River and its tributaries comprise one of the most productive fish habitats in the world today. The economic value of the Mekong fishery in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam is among the highest in the world, providing income and food security to tens of millions of people. However, the construction of multiple dams in the basin will reduce sediment discharge, which will adversely impact nutrient transport and habitat quality and availability, and disrupt fish migration routes. Thus, of considerable interest is the identification of alternatives to the location, design and operation of planned hydropower dams that could improve sediment passage, enable migratory fish passage, and sustain fish production for local use. This paper describes the results of simulation studies designed to identify and evaluate such alternatives, as well as their potential impact on hydropower production. Dam sites in Cambodia and Lao PDR on tributaries and on the mainstream Mekong River will be discussed. Evaluations of sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing and bypassing will be discussed. This study is intended to inform decision makers in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam about potential alternatives to current plans as they prepare decisions regarding the development of over 100 hydropower dams throughout the basin.

  9. Protective role of fish oil (Maxepa) on early events of rat mammary carcinogenesis by modulation of DNA-protein crosslinks, cell proliferation and p53 expression

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Sangita; Chakraborty, Tridib; Damodaran, Suresh; Samanta, Kartick; Rana, Basabi; Chatterjee, Malay

    2007-01-01

    Background Fish oil is known to protect from many types of cancers of the colon, liver, breast, prostate and lung [1-3]. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of fish oil [Maxepa, supplemented at a dose of 0.5 ml is equivalent to 90 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 60 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] on cell proliferation, expression of p53 tumor suppressor protein and DNA protein crosslinks (DPCs) in a defined model of chemical rat mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary carcinogenesis was initiated by a single, intravenous (i.v.) tail vein injection of 7,12 dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) at a dose of 5 mg DMBA/2 ml corn oil/kg body weight in female Sprague-Dawley rats at 7 weeks of age. Fish oil supplementation was started daily, 2 weeks prior to DMBA injection and continued for 24 (31 weeks of animal age) weeks and 35 (42 weeks of animal age) weeks of post DMBA injection, for histopathological and immunohistochemical and for morphological studies, respectively. Results Our results indicate the chemopreventive effect of fish oil (Maxepa) on DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Administration of fish oil further showed a prominent reduction of cell proliferation (24.34%, P = 0.001); DPCs (25%, P < 0.001) and an increased expression of p53 protein (4.636 ± 0.19, P < 0.001) in preneoplastic mammary tissue when compared to carcinogen control counterpart. Histopathological and morphological analyses were carried out as end-point biomarkers. Conclusion Our study thus provides evidence for the anticarcinogenic effect of fish oil (Maxepa) in limiting mammary preneoplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:17470299

  10. Summer and winter plankton fish assemblages around offshore oil and gas platforms in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Francisco J.

    2005-06-01

    Opportunistic plankton surveys were conducted within a 5-nmi radius of nine offshore oil and gas platforms in Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia, in February 1998 and 1999 (summer) and August 1998 (winter). The 108 day-night samples collected alongside (vertical tows) and nearby (surface and oblique tows) platforms yielded 1526 larval and early juvenile fishes representing 55 taxa from 45 families. Epipelagic/mesopelagic taxa dominated the catches, whereas hard/soft habitat-associated taxa were uncommon. Carangidae (36.2%) and Myctophidae (31.5%) dominated in summer and winter, respectively. The most abundant taxon was Trachurus declivis (Carangidae, 35.1%), followed by Bovichtus angustifrons (Bovichtidae, 8.7%), Scomberesox saurus (Scomberesocidae, 3.7%), Centroberyx affinis (Berycidae, 3.0%) and Arripis trutta (Arripidae, 1.7%). Fish concentrations (nos. per 100 m 3) alongside platforms did not differ significantly between day and night across all surveys. Likewise, concentrations nearby platforms in February 1999, including those of T. declivis, did not vary significantly by tow type (surface vs. oblique) or day vs. night. The far greater diversity and abundance recorded in February 1999 are likely the result of upwelling conditions over the eastern Bass Strait shelf during the sampling period, and which were not detected in February 1998. In the absence of data on adult fishes associated with the Bass Strait platforms, and given the limited availability of reefs directly around the area, it could be argued that some of the taxa caught may originate from spawning around neighboring natural reefs, particularly those off the Gippsland coastline and the south-east corner of mainland Australia. However, the prime position of the platforms almost right in the center of a productivity "hotspot" would have a confounding effect on the potential source(s) of larval fishes in that region of south-eastern Australia. The role of platforms as potential de-facto reefs for

  11. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder. PMID:25893282

  12. Transgenic Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM) ...

  13. The effect of ZnO nanoparticles on improved oil recovery in spontaneous imbibition mechanism of heavy oil production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajmiri, M.; Ehsani, M. R.; Mousavi, S. M.; Roayaei, E.; Emadi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous imbibition (SI) gets a controversial subject in oil- wet carbonate reservoirs. The new concept of nanoparticles applications in an EOR area have been recently raised by researches about oil viscosity reduction and generate emulsion without surfactant. But a lot of questions have been remained about which nanoparticles can alter wettability from oil- wet to water- wet to improve oil recovery. This study introduces the new idea of adding ZnO nanoparticles (0.2%wt concentration) by experimental work on oil recovery. The main goals of this research were to prove that ZnO nanoparticles have the ability to reduce viscosity and also alter wettability. The ultimate objective was to determine the potential of these nanoparticles to imbibe into and displace oil. Through the use of Amott- cell, laboratory tests were conducted in two experiments on four cylindrical core samples (three sandstones and one carbonate) were taken from real Iranian heavy oil reservoir. In the first experiment, core samples were saturated by crude oil and in the second experiment, nanoparticles were flooding into core samples and then saturated by crude oil for about two weeks and after that they were immersed in distilled water and the amount of recovery was monitored during 30 days for both tests. We expected that ZnO nanoparticles decreased the surface tension which reduced the capillary forces through SI and wettability alteration took place towards a more water-wet system and caused the oil relative permeability to increase which dominated the gravitational forces to pull out the oil. Our results proved this expectation from ZnO nanoparticles clearly because carbonate core was oil- wet and the capillary pressure was high and negative to push water into the core so the original oil in place (OOIP) was zero whereas by adding ZnO nanoparticles OOIP was increased to 8.89%. SI yielded recovery values from 17.3, 2 and 15 without nanoparticles to 20.68, 17.57 and 36.2 % OOIP with

  14. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  15. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. PMID:24342180

  16. Determination of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds (dechlorane 602, 603 and 604) in fish and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Von Eyken, Annie; Pijuan, Lluís; Martí, Ramon; Blanco, Ma José; Díaz-Ferrero, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) is a flame retardant used as a substitute of Mirex since 1970s, but it was not detected in the environment until 2006. Since then, this compound and its main relatives, Dechlorane 602, 603 and 604, have been mainly studied in environmental matrices for monitoring purposes, but the dietary exposure to them has been hardly investigated so far. In the present study, we determined this family of compounds in fish and vegetable oil samples from Catalonia (Spain), most of them used as health supplements. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), after a clean up in a multilayer silica column and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a pyrenyl(ethyl) column. Concentrations of Dechlorane compounds were between below the limit of detection and 384.2 pg g(-1). Although there are only few studies about the presence of these pollutants in food or feed, concentrations obtained indicated that these compounds are in the same order in fish and vegetable oil health supplements as the few other food and feed studies. PMID:26476047

  17. Effects of increase in fish oil intake on intestinal eicosanoids and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases affecting about 1% of western populations. New eating behaviors might contribute to the global emergence of IBD. Although the immunoregulatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been well characterized in vitro, their role in IBD is controversial. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the impact of increased fish oil intake on colonic gene expression, eicosanoid metabolism and development of colitis in a mouse model of IBD. Rag-2 deficient mice were fed fish oil (FO) enriched in omega-3 fatty acids i.e. EPA and DHA or control diet for 4 weeks before colitis induction by adoptive transfer of naïve T cells and maintained in the same diet for 4 additional weeks. Onset of colitis was monitored by colonoscopy and further confirmed by immunological examinations. Whole genome expression profiling was made and eicosanoids were measured by HPLC-MS/MS in colonic samples. Results A significant reduction of colonic proinflammatory eicosanoids in FO fed mice compared to control was observed. However, neither alteration of colonic gene expression signature nor reduction in IBD scores was observed under FO diet. Conclusion Thus, increased intake of dietary FO did not prevent experimental colitis. PMID:23725086

  18. Metabolic phenotyping of an adoptive transfer mouse model of experimental colitis and impact of dietary fish oil intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Lichti, Pia; Bosco, Nabil; Brahmbhatt, Viral; Oliveira, Manuel; Haller, Dirk; Benyacoub, Jalil

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are acute and chronic disabling inflammatory disorders with multiple complex etiologies that are not well-defined. Chronic intestinal inflammation has been linked to an energy-deficient state of gut epithelium with alterations in oxidative metabolism. Plasma-, urine-, stool-, and liver-specific metabonomic analyses are reported in a naïve T cell adoptive transfer (AT) experimental model of colitis, which evaluated the impact of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet. Metabolic profiles of AT animals and their controls under chow diet or fish oil supplementation were compared to describe the (i) consequences of inflammatory processes and (ii) the differential impact of n-3 fatty acids. Inflammation was associated with higher glycoprotein levels (related to acute-phase response) and remodeling of PUFAs. Low triglyceride levels and enhanced PUFA levels in the liver suggest activation of lipolytic pathways that could lead to the observed increase of phospholipids in the liver (including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins). In parallel, the increase in stool excretion of most amino acids may indicate a protein-losing enteropathy. Fecal content of glutamine was lower in AT mice, a feature exacerbated under fish oil intervention that may reflect a functional relationship between intestinal inflammatory status and glutamine metabolism. The decrease in Krebs cycle intermediates in urine (succinate, α-ketoglutarate) also suggests a reduction in the glutaminolytic pathway at a systemic level. Our data indicate that inflammatory status is related to this overall loss of energy homeostasis. PMID:25751005

  19. Supplemental fish oil does not alter immune competence or the pathophysiological response to an intramammary infusion of endotoxin in peri-partum multiparous Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Michael A; Gomes, Rodrigo C; DePeters, Edward J

    2009-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of supplementing the diet with fish oil during the peri-partum period on the immune competence and the pathophysiological response to a lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis challenge. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=30) were completely randomized to one of two treatments at 3 weeks pre-partum. Treatments differed only in the source of supplemental lipid and included either Energy Booster or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d post partum. Treatments were fed as a bolus prior to the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid during the pre-partum period was 250 g/d, whereas the amount of lipid supplemented post partum was adjusted to the level of intake, approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake. Ex-vivo analyses of immune competence were measured including the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans as well as the production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cultures. At 7 days in milk cows were infused with 100 microg of Esch. coli lipopolysaccharide into one rear quarter. Supplementing fish oil increased plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, but had no affect on the proportions of arachidonic acid at calving. Fish oil did not influence the production of interferon-gamma or the antimicrobial activity of whole blood against any of the microorganisms. Furthermore, fish oil had no ameliorative effect on either the local or the systemic acute phase response following an intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge in early lactating Holstein cows. Supplementing fish oil in the diet of peri-partum cows will not protect them from deleterious effects of an excessive acute phase response. PMID:19121237

  20. The Antidepressant-Like Effect of Fish Oil: Possible Role of Ventral Hippocampal 5-HT1A Post-synaptic Receptor.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, Bruno; Delattre, Ana Marcia; Pudell, Claudia; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Suchecki, Deborah; Machado, Ricardo B; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Piazzetta, Sílvia Regina; Hammerschmidt, Ivilim; Zanata, Sílvio M; Lima, Marcelo M S; Zanoveli, Janaína Menezes; Ferraz, Anete Curte

    2015-08-01

    The pathophysiology of depression is not completely understood; nonetheless, numerous studies point to serotonergic dysfunction as a possible cause. Supplementation with fish oil rich docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) during critical periods of development produces antidepressant effects by increasing serotonergic neurotransmission, particularly in the hippocampus. In a previous study, the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors was demonstrated and we hypothesized that fish oil supplementation (from conception to weaning) alters the function of post-synaptic hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors. To test this hypothesis, female rats were supplemented with fish oil during habituation, mating, gestation, and lactation. The adult male offspring was maintained without supplementation until 3 months of age, when they were subjected to the modified forced swimming test (MFST) after infusion of vehicle or the selective 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY100635, and frequency of swimming, immobility, and climbing was recorded for 5 min. After the behavioral test, the hippocampi were obtained for quantification of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and for 5-HT1A receptor expression by Western blotting analysis. Fish oil-supplemented offspring displayed less depressive-like behaviors in the MFST reflected by decreased immobility and increased swimming and higher 5-HT hippocampal levels. Although there was no difference in the expression of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors, intra-hippocampal infusion of a sub-effective dose of 8-OH-DPAT enhanced the antidepressant effect of fish oil in supplemented animals. In summary, the present findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of fish oil supplementation are likely related to increased hippocampal serotonergic neurotransmission and sensitization of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:25139282

  1. Does Fish Oil Have an Anti-Obesity Effect in Overweight/Obese Adults? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shichun; Jin, Jie; Fang, Wenjun; Su, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Context Accumulating evidence has suggested favorable effects of fish oil on weight loss in animal experiments; however, findings remain inconsistent in humans. Objects The meta-analysis was performed to investigate the influence of fish oil on some parameters of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Design Human randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified by a systematic search of Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, web of science and reference lists of related reviews and articles. The random-effects model was used to estimate the calculated results. Results In total, 21 studies with 30 study arms were included in this analysis. Calculated results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that fish oil had no effect on reducing body weight (overall SMD = -0.07, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.07, P = 0.31) and BMI (overall SMD = -0.09, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.03, P = 0.14) whether alone or combined with life modification intervention in overweight/obese subjects. However, waist circumference was significantly reduced (SMD = -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.06, P = 0.008) in those with fish oil supplementation combined with life modification intervention. Waist hip ratio (WHR) was significantly reduced (overall SMD = -0.52 95% CI -0.76 to -0.27, P < 0.0005) in fish oil supplemented individuals with or without combination life modification intervention. Conclusion Current evidence cannot support an exact anti-obesity role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in overweight/obese subjects. However, these subjects may benefit from reducing abdominal fat with fish oil supplementation especially when combined with life modification intervention. Further large-scale and long-term clinical trials are needed to gain definite conclusions. PMID:26571503

  2. Dietary Enrichment with Fish Oil Prevents High Fat-Induced Metabolic Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Philp, Lisa K.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Janovska, Alena; Wittert, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    High saturated fat (HF-S) diets increase intramyocellular lipid, an effect ameliorated by omega-3 fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, though little is known about sex- and muscle fiber type-specific effects. We compared effects of standard chow, HF-S, and 7.5% HF-S replaced with fish oil (HF-FO) diets on the metabolic profile and lipid metabolism gene and protein content in red (soleus) and white (extensor digitorum longus) muscles of male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 9-12/group). Weight gain was similar in HF-S- and HF-FO-fed groups. HF-S feeding increased mesenteric fat mass and lipid marker, Oil Red O, in red and mixed muscle; HF-FO increased interscapular brown fat mass. Compared to chow, HF-S and HF-FO increased expression of genes regulating triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid transport, HF-S suppressed genes and proteins regulating fatty acid oxidation, whereas HF-FO increased oxidative genes, proteins and enzymes and lipolytic gene content, whilst suppressing lipogenic genes. In comparison to HF-S, HF-FO further increased fat transporters, markers of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial content, and reduced lipogenic genes. No diet-by-sex interactions were observed. Neither diet influenced fiber type composition. However, some interactions between muscle type and diet were observed. HF-S induced changes in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipogenic genes in red, but not white, muscle, and mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative genes were suppressed by HF-S and increased by HF-FO in red muscle only. In conclusion, HF-S feeding promotes lipid storage in red muscle, an effect abrogated by the fish oil, which increases mediators of lipolysis, oxidation and thermogenesis while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Greater storage and synthesis, and lower oxidative genes in red, but not white, muscle likely contribute to lipid accretion encountered in red muscle. Despite several gender-dimorphic genes, both sexes exhibited a similar HF-S-induced metabolic and gene

  3. DHA derivatives of fish oil as dietary supplements: a nutrition-based drug discovery approach for therapies to prevent metabolic cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yonggang; Lindsey, Merry L.; Halade, Ganesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction During the early 1970s, Danish physicians Jorn Dyerberg and colleagues observed that Greenland Eskimos consuming fatty fishes exhibited low incidences of heart disease. Fish oil is now one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements. In 2004, concentrated fish oil was approved as a drug by the FDA for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Fish oil contains two major omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). With advancements in lipid concentration and purification techniques, EPA- or DHA-enriched products are now commercially available, and the availability of these components in isolation allows their individual effects to be examined. Newly synthesized derivatives and endogenously discovered metabolites of DHA exhibit therapeutic utility for obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Areas covered This review summarizes our current knowledge on the distinct effects of EPA and DHA to prevent metabolic syndrome and reduce cardiotoxicity risk. Since EPA is an integral component of fish oil, we will briefly review EPA effects, but our main theme will be to summarize effects of the DHA derivatives that are available today. We focus on using nutrition-based drug discovery to explore the potential of DHA derivatives for the treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Expert opinion The safety and efficacy evaluation of DHA derivatives will provide novel biomolecules for the drug discovery arsenal. Novel nutritional-based drug discoveries of DHA derivatives or metabolites may provide realistic and alternative strategies for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22724444

  4. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zhengwen Zeng; Baojun Bai; Yi Liu

    2004-09-27

    The third annual report of ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovery Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'' presents results of laboratory studies with related analytical models for improved oil recovery. All studies were designed to optimize utilization and extend the practice of CO{sub 2} flooding to a wider range of reservoirs. Chapter 1 describes the behavior at low concentrations of the surfactant Chaser International CD1045{trademark} (CD) versus different salinity, pressure and temperature. Results of studies on the effects of pH and polymer (hydrolyzed polyacrylamide?HPAM) and CO{sub 2} foam stability after adsorption in the core are also reported. Calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) transport mechanisms through sandstone, description of the adsorption of CD and CD/CLS onto three porous media (sandstone, limestone and dolomite) and five minerals, and the effect of adsorption on foam stability are also reported. In Chapter 2, the adsorption kinetics of CLS in porous Berea sandstone and non-porous minerals are compared by monitoring adsorption density change with time. Results show that adsorption requires a much longer time for the porous versus non-porous medium. CLS adsorption onto sandstone can be divided into three regions: adsorption controlled by dispersion, adsorption controlled by diffusion and adsorption equilibrium. NaI tracer used to characterize the sandstone had similar trends to earlier results for the CLS desorption process, suggesting a dual porosity model to simulate flow through Berea sandstone. The kinetics and equilibrium test for CD adsorption onto five non-porous minerals and three porous media are reported in Chapter 3. CD adsorption and desorption onto non-porous minerals can be established in less than one hour with adsorption densities ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 mg of CD per g of mineral in decreasing order of montmorillonite, dolomite, kaolinite, silica and calcite. The surfactant adsorption onto three porous media takes much longer than one

  5. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Sarah; Haslam, Richard P.; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. PMID:27066395

  6. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  7. Improved biobased lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils possess a number of desirable properties for lubricant application such as excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, they also have a number of weaknesses that make them less desira...

  8. The effect of partial-fat substitutions with encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Smyth, Thomas J; Botinestean, Cristina; Lefranc, Célio; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fat substitution (≤ 15%) with commercial encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage [modified atmosphere packs (80% O2:20% CO2); constantly illuminated retail display at 4 °C; for 15 days] were studied using design of experiment (DOE). Burger formulations comprised beef shin (59.5%), salt (0.5%), vitamin E (0.015%) combined with varying levels of beef-fat/fish oils depending on the treatment. Increasing amounts of encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils in burgers increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P < 0.001). Storage decreased (P < 0.001) a* values, which was in agreement with oxymyoglobin data. Vitamin E inclusion in burgers resulted in higher (P < 0.01) oxymyoglobin values. TBARS values increased (P < 0.001) over storage as expected. Fat substitution with unencapsulated oils increased cook loss (P < 0.001) and decreased hardness (P < 0.05) compared to other treatments. Optimisation predicted a burger formulation with 7.8% substitution in beef-fat with encapsulated fish oil. Panellists scored the optimised burger formulation (P < 0.05) lower than controls for overall acceptability. PMID:25965966

  9. High-temperature natural antioxidant improves soy oil for frying.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kathleen; Gehring, Marta Meta

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the frying stability of soybean oil (SBO) treated with a natural citric acid-based antioxidant, EPT-OILShield able to withstand high temperatures and to establish the oxidative stability of food fried in the treated oil. Soybean oil with 0.05% and 0.5% EPT-OILShield and an untreated control SBO were used for intermittent batch frying of tortilla chips at 180 degrees C for up to 65 h. Oil frying stability was measured by free fatty acids (FFA) and total polar compounds (TPC). Chips were aged for up to 4 mo at 25 degrees C and evaluated for rancid flavor by a 15-member, trained, experienced analytical sensory panel and for hexanal content as an indicator of oxidation. Oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield had significantly less FFA and TPC than the control. The effect of EPT-OILShield was apparently retained in aged chips because hexanal levels were significantly lower in chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in chips fried in the control. Tortilla chips fried in the control were rancid after 2 mo at 25 degrees C at sampling times evaluated from 25 to 65 h; however, chips fried in oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield and used for 65 h were described as only slightly rancid after 4 mo. Gamma tocopherol levels were significantly higher in the chips fried in the oil with 0.05% EPT-OILShield than in the control, helping to inhibit oxidation in the tortilla chips during storage. PMID:19723188

  10. Radiation dose and risk to recreational fishermen from ingestion of fish caught near eight oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Effect of dietary fish oil on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Gröne, B; Rosenbaum, S; Most, E; Hillen, S; Becker, S; Erhardt, G; Reiner, G; Eder, K

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of fish oil as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences the expression of target genes of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and (SREBP)-2 involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism in the liver, and moreover activates the expression of target genes of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)-α involved in TAG and fatty acid catabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. Twenty lactating sows were fed a control diet or a fish oil diet with either 50 g of a mixture of palm oil and soya bean oil (4:1, w/w) or fish oil per kg. The diet of the fish oil group contained 19.1 g of n-3 PUFA (mainly 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3) per 100 g of total fatty acids, while the diet of the control group contained 2.4 g of n-3 PUFA (mainly 18:3 n-3) per 100 g of total fatty acids. The fish oil group had reduced relative mRNA concentrations of various target genes of SREBP-1 involved in fatty acid and TAG synthesis in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). Relative mRNA concentrations of target genes of PPARα involved in fatty acid catabolism in both liver and muscle, and mRNA concentrations of target genes of SREBP-2 involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake were not influenced by fish oil supplementation. Concentrations of cholesterol and TAG in plasma, fat content of milk and weight gains of litters during the suckling period were not different between the two groups of sows. In conclusion, this study suggests that fish oil has only minor effects on hepatic lipid metabolism, which are non-critical with respect to milk production in sows. PMID:25865806

  12. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Mølgaard, Christian; Hellgren, Lars Ingvar; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holst, Jens Juul; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13–15 y with whole-body fat% of 30 ± 9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO) (1.5 g n-3 LCPUFA/d) or vegetable oil for 16 weeks. All boys were counselled to improve diet and exercise habits. Results. Lifestyle counselling resulted in decreased sugar intake but did not change the physical activity level. Whole-body fat% decreased 0.7 ± 2.5% and 0.6 ± 2.2%, resting metabolic rate after the intervention was 7150 ± 1134 kJ/d versus 7150 ± 1042 kJ/d, and the respiratory quotient was 0.89 ± 0.05 versus 0.88 ± 0.05, in the FO and control group, respectively. No group differences were significant. Conclusion. FO-supplementation to slightly overweight teenage boys did not result in beneficial effects on RMR, lipid oxidation, or body composition. PMID:21773017

  13. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Injury to demersal rockfish and shallow reef habitats in Prince William Sound, 1989-1991. Subtidal study number 6. Fish/shellfish study number 17. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Demersal rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in Prince William Sound were studied from 1989 through 1991 to assess injury due to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Injury was assessed by establishing the exposure of rockfish to petroleum hydrocarbons and then determining if any histopathological lesions occurred with increased frequency in fish from sites with oil-exposed fish.

  14. Does herbivorous fish protection really improve coral reef resilience? A case study from new caledonia (South Pacific).

    PubMed

    Carassou, Laure; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Parts of coral reefs from New Caledonia (South Pacific) were registered at the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2008. Management strategies aiming at preserving the exceptional ecological value of these reefs in the context of climate change are currently being considered. This study evaluates the appropriateness of an exclusive fishing ban of herbivorous fish as a strategy to enhance coral reef resilience to hurricanes and bleaching in the UNESCO-registered areas of New Caledonia. A two-phase approach was developed: 1) coral, macroalgal, and herbivorous fish communities were examined in four biotopes from 14 reefs submitted to different fishing pressures in New Caledonia, and 2) results from these analyses were challenged in the context of a global synthesis of the relationship between herbivorous fish protection, coral recovery and relative macroalgal development after hurricanes and bleaching. Analyses of New Caledonia data indicated that 1) current fishing pressure only slightly affected herbivorous fish communities in the country, and 2) coral and macroalgal covers remained unrelated, and macroalgal cover was not related to the biomass, density or diversity of macroalgae feeders, whatever the biotope or level of fishing pressure considered. At a global scale, we found no relationship between reef protection status, coral recovery and relative macroalgal development after major climatic events. These results suggest that an exclusive protection of herbivorous fish in New Caledonia is unlikely to improve coral reef resilience to large-scale climatic disturbances, especially in the lightly fished UNESCO-registered areas. More efforts towards the survey and regulation of major chronic stress factors such as mining are rather recommended. In the most heavily fished areas of the country, carnivorous fish and large targeted herbivores may however be monitored as part of a precautionary approach. PMID:23577123

  15. Does Herbivorous Fish Protection Really Improve Coral Reef Resilience? A Case Study from New Caledonia (South Pacific)

    PubMed Central

    Carassou, Laure; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Parts of coral reefs from New Caledonia (South Pacific) were registered at the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2008. Management strategies aiming at preserving the exceptional ecological value of these reefs in the context of climate change are currently being considered. This study evaluates the appropriateness of an exclusive fishing ban of herbivorous fish as a strategy to enhance coral reef resilience to hurricanes and bleaching in the UNESCO-registered areas of New Caledonia. A two-phase approach was developed: 1) coral, macroalgal, and herbivorous fish communities were examined in four biotopes from 14 reefs submitted to different fishing pressures in New Caledonia, and 2) results from these analyses were challenged in the context of a global synthesis of the relationship between herbivorous fish protection, coral recovery and relative macroalgal development after hurricanes and bleaching. Analyses of New Caledonia data indicated that 1) current fishing pressure only slightly affected herbivorous fish communities in the country, and 2) coral and macroalgal covers remained unrelated, and macroalgal cover was not related to the biomass, density or diversity of macroalgae feeders, whatever the biotope or level of fishing pressure considered. At a global scale, we found no relationship between reef protection status, coral recovery and relative macroalgal development after major climatic events. These results suggest that an exclusive protection of herbivorous fish in New Caledonia is unlikely to improve coral reef resilience to large-scale climatic disturbances, especially in the lightly fished UNESCO-registered areas. More efforts towards the survey and regulation of major chronic stress factors such as mining are rather recommended. In the most heavily fished areas of the country, carnivorous fish and large targeted herbivores may however be monitored as part of a precautionary approach. PMID:23577123

  16. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  17. Cuphea oil as a potential biodiesel feedstock to improve fuel properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the approaches to improving the fuel properties of biodiesel, a fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or other triacylglycerol-containing materials, is to use a feedstock with an inherently different fatty acid profile than most common feedstocks such as commodity vegetable oils. Cup...

  18. Increasing gamma- and delta-tocopherols in oils improves oxidative stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past two decades, plant geneticists have revolutionized how fatty acid compositions of vegetable oils are optimized to improve oxidative stability and functionality. Now, the expertise of plant geneticists is reaching beyond altering fatty acids to changing other oil components such as toc...

  19. Glycerol Tri-Ester Derivatives as Diluents to Improve Low Temperature Properties of Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale production of biodiesel has led to a surplus of glycerol, so new commercial uses of this co-product are being sought. Twenty four vegetable oils were screened using glycerol tris (2-ethylhexanoate) [GTEH] as a diluent to improve the low temperature properties. Epoxidized soybean oil (E...

  20. Effects of herbal essential oils used to extend the shelf life of freshwater-reared Asian sea bass fish (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Harpaz, S; Glatman, L; Drabkin, V; Gelman, A

    2003-03-01

    Sensory and microbiological characteristics of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fish raised in a freshwater pond were evaluated during cold storage for 33 days. Whole fish (averaging 400 g each) were stored in a cold storage room at 0 to 2 degrees C. Essential oils of herbs--thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare)--added at 0.05% (vol/vol) were used as preservatives. On the basis of the sensory test results as well as the bacteriological tests, the addition of oregano and thyme essential oils can considerably slow the process of spoilage. The fish treated with these oils were still fit for human consumption after 33 days of storage. The results obtained through sensory tests are corroborated to a great extent by the chemical (hypoxanthine) tests and to a lesser extent by the physical (Cosmos units) tests. The initial total bacteriological counts were 1.7 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and <10(2) CFU/g in the fish flesh, and in the control treatment (without preservatives), these counts rose continuously, reaching around 10(7) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and 10(3) CFU/g in the flesh after 33 days of storage at 0 to 2 degrees C. The use of herbal essential oils as preservatives, on the other hand, resulted in a maximal count of 10(5) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface, while the bacterial count in the flesh remained <10(2) CFU/g by the end of the 33-day storage period at 0 to 2 degrees C. PMID:12636293

  1. Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs) from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to test whether gene expression of selected inflammatory genes was altered following an n-3 PUFA supplementation and to test for gene–diet interactions modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. (2) Methods: 191 subjects completed a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil. Gene expression of TNF-α and IL6 was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using the TaqMan technology. Genotyping of 20 SNPs from the TNF-LTA gene cluster, IL1β, IL6 and CRP genes was performed. (3) Results: There was no significant reduction of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after the 6-week fish oil supplementation. TNF-α and IL6 were slightly overexpressed in PBMCs after the supplementation (fold changes of 1.05 ± 0.38 and 1.18 ± 0.49, respectively (n = 191)), but relative quantification (RQ) within the −0.5 to 2.0 fold are considered as nonbiologically significant. In a MIXED model for repeated measures adjusted for the effects of age, sex and BMI, gene by supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs1143627, rs16944, rs1800797, and rs2069840 on IL6 levels, for rs2229094 on TNF-α levels and for rs1800629 on CRP levels (p < 0.05 for all). (4) Conclusions: This study shows that a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil did not alter gene expression levels of TNF-α and IL6 in PBMCs and did not have an impact on inflammatory biomarker levels. However, gene–diet interactions were observed between SNPs within inflammation-related genes modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. PMID:26999109

  2. Fish Oil Contaminated with Persistent Organic Pollutants Reduces Antioxidant Capacity and Induces Oxidative Stress without Affecting Its Capacity to Lower Lipid Concentrations and Systemic Inflammation in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mee Young; Lumibao, Jan; Mistry, Prashila; Saleh, Rhonda; Hoh, Eunha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have investigated the benefits of fish, fish oil, and ω-3 (n–3) polyunsaturated fatty acids against cardiovascular diseases. However, concern surrounding contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) prompts caution in the recommendation to consume fish and fish oil. Objective: The present study compared the effects of fish oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) on serum lipid profiles, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Methods: Twenty eight-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) consumed diets of unmodified fish oil (FO) consisting of 15% fat by weight, persistent organic pollutant–contaminated fish oil (POP FO) (PCBs at 2.40 μg/g; OCs at 3.80 μg/g FO), or corn oil (control; CO) for 9 wk. Lipid profiles and C-reactive protein concentrations were assessed. Hepatic gene expression related to lipid metabolism was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Results: After 9 wk of feeding, accumulation of PCBs and OCs in the fat tissue of the POP FO group compared with the other 2 groups was confirmed (P < 0.01). Both fish oil groups showed greater HDL cholesterol (FO 53 ± 5.3 and POP FO 55 ± 7.7 vs. CO 34 ± 2.3 mg/dL), but lower triglycerides (24 ± 2.8 and 22 ± 3.0 vs. 43 ± 5.6 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (38 ± 14 and 34 ± 9.2 vs. 67 ± 4.4 mg/dL), and C-reactive protein (113 ± 20 and 120 ± 26 vs. 189 ± 22 μg/dL) compared with the CO group (P < 0.05). Gene expression of fatty acid synthase in both fish oil groups was also less than in the CO group (P < 0.05). However, the POP FO group showed greater lipid peroxidation (5.1 ± 0.7 vs. 2.9 ± 0.9 and 2.6 ± 0.6 μM) and less antioxidant capacity (0.08 ± 0.06 vs. 0.5 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1 mM) than the CO and FO groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings indicate that, despite exhibiting benefits on serum lipid concentrations and inflammation, contamination with PCBs and OCs

  3. Milk and cheese from cows fed calcium salts of palm and fish oil alone or in combination with soybean products.

    PubMed

    Allred, S L; Dhiman, T R; Brennand, C P; Khanal, R C; McMahon, D J; Luchini, N D

    2006-01-01

    Twenty cows were used in a randomized block design experiment for 6 wk to determine the influence of feeding partial ruminally inert Ca salts of palm and fish oil (Ca-PFO), alone or in combination with extruded full-fat soybeans or soybean oil, on milk fatty acid (FA) methyl esters composition and consumer acceptability of milk and Cheddar cheese. Cows were fed either a diet containing 44% forage and 56% concentrate (control) or a diet supplemented with 2.7% Ca-PFO (FO), 5% extruded full-fat soybeans + 2.7% Ca-PFO (FOESM), or 0.75% soybean oil + 2.7% Ca-PFO (FOSO). Total dietary FA content in the control, FO, FOESM, and FOSO diets were 4.61, 6.28, 6.77, and 6.62 g/100 g, respectively. There was no difference in nutrient intake, milk yield, or milk composition among treatments. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) C(18:2) cis-9, trans-11 isomer, C(18:1) trans-11 (VA), and total n-3 FA in milk from cows on the control, FO, FOESM, and FOSO treatments were 0.56, 1.20, 1.36, and 1.74; 3.29, 4.66, 6.34, and 7.81; 0.62, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.67 g/100 g of FA, respectively. Concentrations of CLA, VA, and total n-3 FA in cheese were similar to milk. A trained sensory panel detected no difference in flavors of milk and cheese, except for acid flavor below a slightly perceptible level in cheese from all treatments. Results suggest that feeding Ca-PFO alone or in combination with extruded full-fat soybeans or soybean oil enhanced the CLA, VA, total unsaturated and n-3 FA in milk and cheese without negatively affecting cow performance and consumer acceptability characteristics of milk and cheese. PMID:16357287

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil consumption modulates immunoglobulin responses to and clearance of enteric reovirus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Beli, Eleni; Li, Maoxiang; Cuff, Christopher; Pestka, James J

    2008-04-01

    We hypothesized that consumption of the (n-3) PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), modulates the mucosal immune response to enteric infection with respiratory enteric orphan virus (reovirus), a model intestinal pathogen. Mice were fed either AIN-93G control diet, containing 10 g/kg corn oil and 60 g/kg high oleic acid safflower oil, or AIN-93G, containing 10 g/kg corn oil and 60 g/kg DHA-enriched fish oil, for 4 wk and then orally gavaged with reovirus strain Type 1 Lang, (T1/L). Reovirus-specific IgA antibody was first detectable in the feces of mice fed a control diet at 6 d postinfection (PI) and was further elevated at 8 and 10 d PI. IgA responses in DHA-fed mice were similar at 6 and 8 d PI but greater at 10 d PI (P < 0.05). Both reovirus-specific serum IgA and IgG(2a) were comparably induced in mice fed control or DHA diets. Reovirus-specific IgA and IgG(2a) secretion by ex vivo Peyer's patch, lamina propria, and spleen cultures derived from control and DHA groups were comparable. Although both groups carried similar numbers of reovirus plaque forming units per intestine, DHA-fed mice shed nearly 10 times more viral RNA in feces than control mice at 2, 4, and 6 d PI (P < 0.05). However, viral RNA was not detectable in either group at 8 and 10 d. Taken together, these data suggest that DHA consumption did not markedly alter mucosal or systemic Ig responses to reovirus but delayed clearance of the virus from the intestinal tract. PMID:18356340

  5. Improving palm oil quality through identification and mapping of the lipase gene causing oil deterioration.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, F; Cros, D; Billotte, N; Ngando-Ebongue, G-F; Domonhédo, H; Pizot, M; Cuéllar, T; Espéout, S; Dhouib, R; Bourgis, F; Claverol, S; Tranbarger, T J; Nouy, B; Arondel, V

    2013-01-01

    The oil palm fruit mesocarp contains high lipase activity that increases free fatty acids and necessitates post-harvest inactivation by heat treatment of fruit bunches. Even before heat treatment the mesocarp lipase activity causes consequential oil losses and requires costly measures to limit free fatty acids quantities. Here we demonstrate that elite low-lipase lines yield oil with substantially less free fatty acids than standard genotypes, allowing more flexibility for post-harvest fruit processing and extended ripening for increased yields. We identify the lipase and its gene cosegregates with the low-/high-lipase trait, providing breeders a marker to rapidly identify potent elite genitors and introgress the trait into major cultivars. Overall, economic gains brought by wide adoption of this material could represent up to one billion dollars per year. Expected benefits concern all planters but are likely to be highest for African smallholders who would be more able to produce oil that meets international quality standards. PMID:23857501

  6. Use of passive samplers for improving oil toxicity and spill effects assessment.

    PubMed

    Letinski, Daniel; Parkerton, Thomas; Redman, Aaron; Manning, Ryan; Bragin, Gail; Febbo, Eric; Palandro, David; Nedwed, Tim

    2014-09-15

    Methods that quantify dissolved hydrocarbons are needed to link oil exposures to toxicity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers can serve this purpose. If fibers are equilibrated with oiled water, dissolved hydrocarbons partition to and are concentrated on the fiber. The absorbed concentration (Cpolymer) can be quantified by thermal desorption using GC/FID. Further, given that the site of toxic action is hypothesized as biota lipid and partitioning of hydrocarbons to lipid and fibers is well correlated, Cpolymer is hypothesized to be a surrogate for toxicity prediction. To test this method, toxicity data for physically and chemically dispersed oils were generated for shrimp, Americamysis bahia, and compared to test exposures characterized by Cpolymer. Results indicated that Cpolymer reliably predicted toxicity across oils and dispersions. To illustrate field application, SPME results are reported for oil spills at the Ohmsett facility. SPME fibers provide a practical tool to improve characterization of oil exposures and predict effects in future lab and field studies. PMID:25096583

  7. Comparison of natural antioxidants and their effects on omega-3 fatty acid oxidation in fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been found to offer a variety of health benefits including cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory effect and human development. It is known that fish and algae o...

  8. Recent improvements in optimizing use of dispersants as a cost-effective oil spill countermeasure technique

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.S.; Indrebo, G.

    1996-12-31

    Several oil spill incidents during recent years have demonstrated that the physico-chemical properties of spilled oil and the effectiveness of available combat methods are, in addition to the prevailing environmental and weather conditions, key factors that determine the consequences of an oil spill. Pre-spill analyses of the feasibility and effectiveness of different response strategies, such as mechanical recovery and dispersants, for actual oils under various environmental conditions should therefore be an essential part of any oil spill contingency planning to optimize the overall {open_quotes}Net Environmental Benefit{close_quotes} of a combat operation. During the four-year research program ESCOST ({open_quotes}ESSO-SINTEF Coastal Oil Spill Treatment Program{close_quotes}), significant improvements have been made in oil spill combat methods and in tools for use in contingency planning and decision-making during oil spill operations. This paper will present an overview of the main findings obtained with respect to oil weathering and oil spill dispersant treatment.

  9. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  10. EFFECTS OF FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE AS WELL AS IMMUNOLOGICAL, ADRENAL, AND SOMATOTROPHIC RESPONSES OF WEANED PIGS AFTER ESCHERICHIA COLI LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE CHALLENGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-two crossbred pigs (7.58 +/- 0.3 kg BW) weaned at 28 days of age were used to investigate the effects of fish oil supplementation on pig performance and immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses following Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in a 2 x 2 factorial desig...

  11. Growth performance, vitamin E status, and proximate and fatty acid composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed diets containing various levels of fish oil and vitamin E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of fish oil on vitamin E requirement and their effect on growth performance, liver vitamin E status, and tissue proximate and fatty acid compositions of channel catfish. Basal purified diets (42% protein and 3,800 kcal DE/kg)...

  12. Toward Discovery Support Systems: A Replication, Re-examination, and Extension of Swanson's Work on Literature-Based Discovery of a Connection between Raynaud's and Fish Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael D.; Lindsay, Robert K.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of computer-based searching methods to support literature-based discoveries in medical literature through a replication of the discovery of a connection between Raynaud's disease and dietary fish oil. Topics include the logic of literature-based discovery, information retrieval methods for text analysis, and statistics…

  13. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant. PMID:25328205

  14. High rates of resolution of cholestasis in parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease with fish oil-based lipid emulsion monotherapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research was conducted to determine factors leading to resolution of cholestasis in patients with parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease treated with fish-oil-based lipid emulsion (FOLE). We used a prospective observational study of 57 infants <6 months of age with parenteral nutrition-as...

  15. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  16. Procedure-Authoring Tool Improves Safety on Oil Rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Dark, cold, and dangerous environments are plentiful in space and on Earth. To ensure safe operations in difficult surroundings, NASA relies heavily on procedures written well ahead of time. Houston-based TRACLabs Inc. worked with Ames Research Center through the SBIR program to create an electronic procedure authoring tool, now used by NASA and companies in the oil and gas industry.

  17. Skeletal muscle atrophy is attenuated in tumor-bearing mice under chemotherapy by treatment with fish oil and selenium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Li, Tsung-Lin; Hsia, Simon; Su, I-Li; Chan, Yi-Lin; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy can cause cachexia, which is manifested by weight loss, inflammation and muscle atrophy. However, the mechanisms of tumor and chemotherapy on skeletal muscle proteolysis, remained unclear. In this report, we demonstrated that tumor-induced myostatin in turn induced TNF-α, thus activating calcium-dependent and proteasomal protein degradation. Chemotherapy activated myostatin-mediated proteolysis and muscle atrophy by elevating IL-6. In tumor-bearing mice under chemotherapy, supplementation with fish oil and selenium prevented a rise in IL-6, TNF-α and myostatin and muscle atrophy. The findings presented here allow us to better understand the molecular basis of cancer cachexia and potentiate nutrition supplementation in future cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25797259

  18. Riboflavin-induced oxidation in fish oil-in-water emulsions: Impact of particle size and optical transparency.

    PubMed

    Uluata, Sibel; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-12-15

    The influence of particle size and optical properties on the stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions to riboflavin-induced oxidation by blending different combinations of small (d=44nm) and large (d=216nm) lipid droplets was examined. Emulsion turbidity increased with increasing mean droplet diameter due to greater light scattering by larger particles. The influence of droplet size on the stability of the emulsions to riboflavin-induced lipid oxidation during storage at 20 or 37°C was measured. At 37°C, the rate of lipid hydroperoxide formation increased with decreasing droplet diameter, but there were no significant differences in propanal concentrations. At 20°C, both peroxide and propanal values indicated that the rate of oxidation increased with decreasing droplet size. These data show that riboflavin was more effective at promoting oxidation in nanoemulsions containing small droplets because light was able to penetrate more easily and generate reactive oxygen species. PMID:27451204

  19. A computational search for lipases that can preferentially hydrolyze long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Md Zahid; Barrow, Colin J; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2015-04-15

    Consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is known to decrease the risk of major cardiovascular events. Lipases, a class of triacylglycerol hydrolases, have been extensively tested to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids from fish oils, under mild enzymatic conditions. However, no lipases with preference for omega-3 fatty acids selectivity have yet been discovered or developed. In this study we performed an exhaustive computational study of substrate-lipase interactions by docking, both covalent and non-covalent, for 38 lipases with a large number of structured triacylglycerols containing omega-3 fatty acids. We identified some lipases that have potential to preferentially hydrolyze omega-3 fatty acids from structured triacylglycerols. However omega-3 fatty acid preferences were found to be modest. Our study provides an explanation for absence of reports of lipases with omega-3 fatty acid hydrolyzing ability and suggests methods for developing these selective lipases. PMID:25466121

  20. Dietary fish oil and the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Walton, A J; Snaith, M L; Locniskar, M; Cumberland, A G; Morrow, W J; Isenberg, D A

    1991-01-01

    A prospective, double blind, cross over study assessing the effects of a low fat, high marine oil diet in 27 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus has been performed. The patients were given 20 g daily of MaxEPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) or 20 g of olive oil (placebo) in matching capsules added to a standardised isoenergetic low fat diet. When individual outcome measures of the 17 patients who completed the full 34 week study were considered 14 who were receiving MaxEPA achieved useful or ideal status, whereas 13 receiving placebo were rated as worse or no change. The difference between the two types of capsule was statistically significant. No major side effects were noted, and it is suggested that dietary modification with additional marine oil may be a useful way of modifying disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:1877851

  1. Influence of fish oil on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics and lipid metabolites during high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Johnson, Matthew L.; Schimke, Jill M.; Jakaitis, Daniel R.; Lebrasseur, Nathan K.; Jensen, Michael D.; Sreekumaran Nair, K.; Zabielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in rodent models of insulin resistance. These beneficial effects have been linked with anti-inflammatory properties, but emerging data suggest that the mechanisms may also converge on mitochondria. We evaluated the influence of dietary n-3 PUFAs on mitochondrial physiology and muscle lipid metabolites in the context of high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Mice were fed control diets (10% fat), HFD (60% fat), or HFD with fish oil (HFD+FO, 3.4% kcal from n-3 PUFAs) for 10 wk. Body mass and fat mass increased similarly in HFD and HFD+FO, but n-3 PUFAs attenuated the glucose intolerance that developed with HFD and increased expression of genes that regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Despite similar muscle triglyceride levels in HFD and HFD+FO, long-chain acyl-CoAs and ceramides were lower in the presence of fish oil. Mitochondrial abundance and oxidative capacity were similarly increased in HFD and HFD+FO compared with controls. Hydrogen peroxide production was similarly elevated in HFD and HFD+FO in isolated mitochondria but not in permeabilized muscle fibers, likely due to increased activity and expression of catalase. These results support a hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs protect glucose tolerance, in part by preventing the accumulation of bioactive lipid mediators that interfere with insulin action. Furthermore, the respiratory function of skeletal muscle mitochondria does not appear to be a major factor in sphingolipid accumulation, glucose intolerance, or the protective effects of n-3 PUFAs. PMID:23632634

  2. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    George W. Huber; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments

  3. Fish oil, melatonin and vitamin E attenuates midbrain cyclooxygenase-2 activity and oxidative stress after the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Gómez-Rodríguez, Víctor M; González-Renovato, Erika D; Torres-Sánchez, Erandhis D; Ramírez-Anguiano, Ana C

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark pathological features include a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Ciclooxygenase-2 activity induction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the aetiology of Parkinson's disease and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) animal model of Parkinson disease. Upon administration of fish oil, melatonin and vitamin E, neuroprotective effects on MPTP-induced neurotoxicity have been indicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and compare the potency of these agents alone, on several parameters such as COX-2 and lipid peroxides (LPO) products associated with MPTP neurotoxicity in midbrain homogenates of C57BL/6 mice. Using fish oil (0.0368 g EPA and 0.0184 g DHA, per day), melatonin (10 mg/kg/day), and vitamin E (50 mg/Kg/day) we have now shown that COX-2 activity, LPO and nitrite/nitrate levels were significantly increased in MPTP treated mice (p < 0.001) while fish oil, melatonin and vitamin E treatment were capable of decreasing significantly the outcome of all above noted parameters (p < 0.05). The effect of fish oil on COX-2 activity and nitrite/nitrate levels was more profound than that of vitamin E or melatonin while the latter was more effective on reducing the LPO levels compared to fish oil and vitamin E. In conclusion, the outcome of the neuroprotective effects of these agents is long lasting and of variable potency indicating a different anti-inflammatory mode of action. PMID:23703110

  4. Independent and interactive effects of plant sterols and fish oil n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the plasma lipid profile of mildly hyperlipidaemic Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Demonty, Isabelle; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukherjee, Rajat; Gupta, Ruby; Snehi, Uma; Niveditha, Devasenapathy; Singh, Yogendra; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Passi, Santosh J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath

    2009-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of a once-a-day yoghurt drink providing 2 g plant sterols/d and capsules providing 2 g fish oil n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA/d on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and LDL particle size. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults aged 35-55 years were randomised into one of four groups of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind controlled trial. The 4-week treatments consisted of (1) control yoghurt drink and control capsules, (2) control yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules, (3) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and control capsules, or (4) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules. Blood was drawn before and after the 4-week intervention. Changes in health status, lifestyle and dietary habits, and daily compliance were recorded. The main effects of plant sterols were a 4.5 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol and a 15 % reduction in TAG without a significant change in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA did not significantly affect cholesterol concentrations but reduced TAG by 15 % and increased HDL-cholesterol by 5.4 %. The combination significantly lowered TAG by 15 % v. control. No significant interaction between plant sterols and n-3 LC-PUFA was observed on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, once-a-day intake of 2 g plant sterols/d in a yoghurt drink, 2 g fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA/d in capsules, and their combination had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults. The potent hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect of plant sterols observed in the present study and this population warrants additional investigation. PMID:19296875

  5. Survey of Alaskan subsistence fish, marine mammal, and invertebrate samples collected 1989-91 for exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Volume 1. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Brown, D.W.; Hom, T.; Burrows, D.G.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska on March 24, 1989, spilling millions of gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). During the weeks following the spill, large amounts of oil flowed towards southwestern Prince William Sound, and as a result, many shorelines were oiled. In the study, edible flesh of fish, marine mammals, and shellfish from 22 native subsistence food collection areas and from two reference areas (Angoon and Yakutat) were analyzed for aromatic compounds (ACs). Vertebrates can readily biotransform ACs to metabolites that are concentrated in bile for excretion. This process greatly limits the accumulation of ACs in tissues such as edible flesh. Thus, for fish and marine mammals, bile was first analyzed for the presence of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) as an indication of exposure to petroleum.

  6. Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (basal diet), (ii) VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral), (iii) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) (5HPO), and (iv) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral) (5HPO + VCO). Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. PMID:23861707

  7. Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (basal diet), (ii) VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral), (iii) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) (5HPO), and (iv) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) and VCO (1.42 mL/kg, oral) (5HPO + VCO). Blood pressure was significantly increased in the group that was given the 5HPO diet compared to the control group. Blood pressure in the 5HPO + VCO group was significantly lower than the 5HPO group. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) level in the 5HPO group was significantly lower compared to the control group, whereas in the 5HPO + VCO group, the plasma NO level was significantly higher compared to the 5HPO group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO group exhibited attenuated relaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as increased vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the control group. Aortic rings from the 5HPO + VCO group showed only attenuated vasoconstriction to phenylephrine compared to the 5HPO group. In conclusion, VCO prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. PMID:23861707

  8. Antioxidant activity of sesamol and omega-oryzanol towards fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two natural antioxidants, sesamol and omega-oryzanol, were examined for their antioxidant activity towards omega-3 oil. Sesamol and omega-oryzanol have been known to provide antioxidant effects at high temperatures such as those used for frying. In this study, the effects of 0.84 mM and 8.4 mM oryza...

  9. Effect of blueberry extract from blueberry pomace on the microencapsulated fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the addition of blueberry extract (BE) obtained from blueberry pomace on lipid oxidation of pollock liver oil (PO) during microencapsulation was evaluated. An emulsion containing PO and BE (EBE) was prepared and spray dried in a pilot scale spray dryer. Thiobarbituric acids (TBARS) of ...

  10. Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids and cardio-metabolic health, alone or with statins.

    PubMed

    Minihane, Anne Marie

    2013-05-01

    The impact