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Sample records for fish total diet

  1. TOTAL DIET STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...

  2. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  3. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402

  4. Nonnutrient Components of Fish Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the various dietary nutrients are the primary concerns of nutritionists when formulating feeds for intensively cultured tilapia, the inclusion of dietary components that do not have nutritional value can have profound effects on the performance of fish fed these diets. These components may be...

  5. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  6. Natural arsenic contaminated diets perturb reproduction in fish.

    PubMed

    Boyle, David; Brix, Kevin V; Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nic R

    2008-07-15

    The toxicological effect of natural diets elevated in metals on reproduction in fish is poorly understood. The reproductive output of zebrafish fed the polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from a metal-impacted estuary, Restronguet Creek, Cornwall, UK, was compared to fish fed N. diversicolor collected from a nonmetal impacted estuary, Blackwater, Essex, UK. Fish fed the metal laden N. diversicolorfor 68 days showed reduced reproductive output, characterized by reduced cumulative egg production (47%), cumulative number of spawns (30%), as well as reduced average number of eggs produced per spawn and % hatch rate. The mRNA transcript levels of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin was also reduced 1.5 fold in the livers of female fish fed metal-laden N. diversicolor. No difference was seen between the lipid, protein, or moisture content of the two diets and no difference in growth was seen between the two fish populations. The Restronguet Creek polychaetes have elevated arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and silver body burdens, but the only element found to accumulate in the tissues of zebrafish fed this diet was As. The As in these N. diversicolor was found to be predominantly potentially toxic inorganic As species, 58% of total As content, which is unusual for aquatic organisms where arsenic is typically biotransformed into less toxic organoarsenical compounds. These results demonstrate that reproduction in fish is a sensitive target of exposure to a natural diet contaminated with As and this exposure route could be of significance to the health of fish populations. PMID:18754393

  7. Effects on growth and body composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as total replacement of fish meal without amino acid supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal (FM) is the main protein source in numerous aquaculture diets due to its palatability and quality. Quantities of FM have remained constant for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in diets used for the global aquaculture industry. Ther...

  8. The response of fish to immunostimulant diets.

    PubMed

    Vallejos-Vidal, Eva; Reyes-López, Felipe; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    In order to maintain fish health and to improve performance immunostimulants have been used as dietary additives to improve weight gain, feed efficiency, and/or disease resistance in cultured fish. In aquaculture, non-specific immunostimulants have been widely used probably due to the limited knowledge of the immune response in fish and the ease of their application. Many studies have been carried out to assess the effect of dietary immunostimulants in fish including algal derivatives, herb and plant extract containing diets using a wide range of downstream analytical techniques. Many immunostimulants are based upon tradition and folklore transferred through generations and specific to certain geographical regions rather than known biological properties. However, there are studies in which it is possible to observe a clear and direct dose-dependent stimulatory effect upon the immune system. Other dietary supplements used contain PAMPs (Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns) as immunostimulants whose recognition depends upon PRR (pathogen recognition receptor) interactions including the TLRs (Toll-like receptor). Despite the growing interest in the use of immunostimulants across the aquaculture industry the underlying mechanisms of ligand recognition, extract composition and activation of the fish immune response remains fragmented. In this review we focus upon the last 15 years of studies addressing the assessment of: (1) plant, herb and algae extracts; and (2) PAMPs, upon non-specific immune parameters of activation and immunostimulant diet efficacy. PMID:27389620

  9. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  10. Feed of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, (Regan, 1910) in open pond: live and formulated diets.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Appoloni, A M; Fernandes, J B K; Millan, R N

    2016-06-01

    The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet); live food diet (plankton) and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton). The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton) treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0.01) from those in formulated diet and live food treatments. The gut contents of B. splendens in mixed diet and live food treatments comprised, Rotifera and Bacillariophyceae species in high percentages or rather, over 78% of total organisms. Lecane sp. was the most ingested zooplankton species by B. splendens in both treatments (mixed diet and live food), with the phytoplankton species Asterionella sp. and Melosira sp. respectively in mixed diet and in live food, respectively. Results indicated that the formulated diet influenced the water parameters dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and pH. The live food in the open pond was not enough to improve the growth rate and percent survival of B. splendens. The growth performance of B. splendens; had the best results with mixed diet which was capable of maintaining species's survival (82%) and development in artificial conditions, benefiting the culture management of ornamental fish. PMID:27097088

  11. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high quality senior dog diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibility and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets cont...

  12. Deleterious effects in mice of fish-associated methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Western populations' average fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Fujimura, Masatake; Laclau, Muriel; Sawada, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. Only a few contradictory epidemiological studies are currently available examining the impact of fish consumption on human populations. In the present study, we wanted to address whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Western populations could result in observable adverse effects in mice, and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of MeHg, if any. In Europe and the United States, fish consumption varies widely between countries, from 11 to 100 g fish/day. A mid-range value of 25 g fish/day corresponds to a fish contribution to the total diet of 1.25% on a dry weight basis. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mouse diet with 1.25% of lyophilized salmon flesh (SAL diet), or 1.25% of a blend of lyophilized cod, tuna, and swordfish (CTS diet). Total mercury contents were 1.15±0.15, 2.3±0.1 and 35.75±0.15 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control, SAL and CTS diets, respectively. After two months feeding, the CTS diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and SAL diets, encompassing decreased body growth, altered behavioral performance and increased anxiety level, modification of mitochondrial respiratory protein subunit concentrations in kidney and brain structures, modified gene expression patterns in kidneys, liver and muscles, and a decrease of dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamus and striatum. Our findings have health implications, firstly because 1.25% of CTS flesh in the diet corresponds to an average exposure to MeHg below the WHO provisory tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) (1.6 μg MeHg/kg of body weight/week), and secondly because many people in Western populations, among them women of child-bearing age, are exceeding the PTWI value (for instance, 35% of the French population inhabiting the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts). PMID

  13. Diet niches of major forage fish in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, B.M.; Savino, J.F.; Ogilvie, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    A large complex of coregonine species historically dominated the fish community of Lake Michigan. The current species complex is simplified with one remaining coregonine, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and two dominant invaders, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). To better understand the diet relationships of the major offshore forage fishes now in Lake Michigan, diets of bloater, alewife, rainbow smelt, deepwater sculpin, and slimy sculpin were compared. The three sites, chosen to represent northern, central, and southern components of the lake, were sampled during spring, summer, and fall in 1994, and spring and fall in 1995. Forage fishes had diverse and variable diets, with niches differentiated by prey type or location. Diporeia hoyi, Mysis relicta, and zooplankton were the major diet items. The index of relative importance showed benthic (slimy and deepwater sculpins) and pelagic (alewife, rainbow smelt) feeding strategies with opportunistic bloaters incorporating both feeding strategies. Highest diet overlaps were between species of sculpin, and between large and small bloaters; both groups partitioned food by size. Though competition for food may be minimized by spatial segregation of potential competitors, the forage fish in Lake Michigan apparently partition food resources. Fishery management models incorporating food habits of pelagic forage fish would need to take into account diet variation associated with location and season. ?? 2007 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  14. Distribution and Diet of 0+ Fish within a Canyon-Shaped European Reservoir in Late Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaek, Mojmír; Kubeka, Jan; Matna, Josef; Sea, Jaromír

    2006-05-01

    The distribution and diet of age 0+ fish were studied in the deep canyon-shaped ímov Reservoir (Czech Republic), which is characterized by a longitudinal trophic gradient. During late summer of two years, 0+ fish were sampled from inshore and offshore habitats along the longitudinal reservoir axis. Offshore catches of 0+ fish from the surface layer were dominated by roach (Rutilus rutilus ), bream (Abramis brama ) and perch (Perca fluviatilis ), whereas in the deeper open water perch predominated. Inshore catches of 0+ fish were constituted mainly by perch and roach. The proportions of roach in the inshore catches were highest at the upper and most eutrophic part of the reservoir, whereas the proportions of perch in the inshore catches were higher at the downstream areas. Total catches of both inshore and offshore 0+ fish increased upstream in the reservoir. Offshore 0+ perch were of consistently smaller size than inshore 0+ perch. Inshore 0+ perch had significantly smaller size at the upstream reservoir part than at the downstream, more lacustrine regions. The diet of both inshore and offshore 0+ fish consisted predominantly of crustacean zooplankton. Perch diet was generally dominated both by cladocerans and copepods, whereas roach diet consisted chiefly of cladocerans.

  15. A comparison of Oregon pellet and fish-meat diets for administration of sulfamethazine to Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1967-01-01

    The absorption of sulfamethazine by yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was compared when administered in the Oregon Pellet and a fish-meat diet. The pelleted diet delivered the drug to the fish approximately twice as efficiently as the fish-meat diet. Dosage levels are recommended for both diets, and the efficacy of administering drugs in fish feed is discussed.

  16. Legume-, fish-, or high-protein-based hypocaloric diets: effects on weight loss and mitochondrial oxidation in obese men.

    PubMed

    Abete, Itziar; Parra, Dolores; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2009-02-01

    The nutritional composition of dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables such as mitochondrial oxidation, whose understanding could contribute to apply more individualized weight-lowering strategies. This study assessed the effects of four hypocaloric diets with high protein content or different food distribution on metabolic changes and mitochondrial oxidation accompanying weight loss. Thirty-five obese men (body mass index of 31.8 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2) and 38 +/- 7 years old) were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (8 weeks): control diet (C-diet); legume diet (L-diet); fatty fish diet (FF-diet); or high-protein diet (HP-diet). Body composition, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure, mitochondrial oxidation, blood biomarkers, and dietary intake were assessed. The HP-diet and L-diet achieved the greater body weight reduction (-8.4 +/- 1.2% and -8.3 +/- 2.9%, respectively), as compared to the C-diet (-5.5 +/- 2.5%; P = .042). The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were reduced in all dietary groups except for the FF-diet. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly improved by the L-diet (P < .05), while the homeostatic model assessment index of insulin resistance value was significantly reduced in those men following the HP-diet. Mitochondrial oxidation was specifically activated by the HP-diet and L-diet at the end of the study. Interestingly, a lineal regression model explained about 25% (P = .029) of the mitochondrial oxidation variability as influenced by the diet changes once adjusted by resting energy expenditure. The specific consumption of legumes or high protein content within a hypocaloric diet could activate mitochondrial oxidation, which could involve additional benefits to those associated with the weight reduction. PMID:19298202

  17. Bioaccumulation and assimilation efficiency of hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) in yellow perch as a function of both fish and diet lipid level

    SciTech Connect

    Dabrowska, H.; Fisher, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluation of factors which control the uptake and bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants by fish and terrestrial animals is critical to the implementation of bioenergetics-based food web models used to ecological risk assessment. Among these factors some of the most important are feeding and egestion rates, lipid content of both an animal and its diet as well as chemical and food assimilation efficiencies. In this study, groups of juvenile yellow perch were fed lab-formulated low and high-lipid diet for a period of 3 months in order to establish a significant difference in body total lipid content. After that period fish were divided into subgroups and offered either low or high-lipid diet spiked with {sup 14}C-HCBP. Fish were fed contaminated diet for 1 month followed by 1 month of elimination period. Feeding rates during both periods were quantified. Fish (5 specimens) were collected at the beginning of the dietary exposure and every 10 days thereafter and analyzed for {sup 14}C-HCBP and lipid content. Bioaccumulation and assimilation efficiency related to the lipid level in fish and in the diets as well as to contaminant concentration in the diet will be discussed.

  18. Diets and diet overlap of nonindigenous gobies and small benthic native fishes co-inhabiting the St. Clair River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Jude, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus), after successfully reproducing in the early 1990s, decimated populations of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and possibly logperch (Percina caprodes) in the St. Clair River. Studies were conducted during 1994 to determine whether diets of round and tubenose (Proterorhinus marmoratus) gobies overlapped with those of native forage fishes. In the nearshore zone (depth ≤ 1 m), round and tubenose gobies, logperch, and rainbow darters (Etheostoma caeruleum) of similar sizes (total lengths < 75 mm) consumed mainly small-sized macroinvertebrates (dipterans, Caenis, and amphipods) during June 1994. Logperch and rainbow darters were present in the nearshore zone only during this month. At the crest of the channel slope (depth = 3 m), round gobies and northern madtoms (Noturus stigmosus) ate mostly ephemeropteran nymphs (Hexagenia and Baetisca), while predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and other mollusks by round gobies was minimal. Northern madtoms did not feed on mollusks. Diet overlap between round gobies and native fishes was not observed at the channel slope (depth = 5 m and 7 m) due to heavy predation on mollusks by round gobies. Young-of-the-year (YOY) round gobies migrated to deeper water in autumn and became prey of mottled sculpins and northern madtoms. Eggs and YOY of mottled sculpins may have become vulnerable to predation by both round gobies and native fishes in deeper water, since adult mottled sculpins were apparently confined to the channel with limited home range because aggressive round gobies occupied preferred shallow habitat, including spawning sites.

  19. [Diet and reproduction of the main fish species from the Mesay river (Colombian Amazon region) during the flooding season].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Parra, María del Pilar; Bejarano-Rodríguez, Ivonne

    2006-09-01

    The diet and reproduction of fish communities in three biotopes (river, stream, and lake) of the Mesay floodplain-river complex (Puerto Abeja, Serrania de Chiribiquete National Natural Park, Caquetá, Colombia) were sampled during the "high water" level or flooding period. A total of 79 species of fishes from 15 families and four orders were collected between July and September 2000. The most important items in their diet were fruits and seeds. Approximately 46 % of captured fish were near maturity, and 35 % were mature. The feeding and reproductive behavior of these fish were consistent with other studies on migratory Amazonian species during the high water period, when the floodplain plays an important role in the availability of food and refuge. During this period the fish make use of the vast food availability to accumulate fat reserves that later produce the energy needed for gonadal maturation and breeding migrations. PMID:18491626

  20. A purified diet for medaka (Oryzias latipes): refining a fish model for toxicological research

    SciTech Connect

    DeKoven, D.L.; Nunez, J.M.; Lester, S.M.; Conklin, D.E.; Marty, G.D.; Parker, L.M.; Hinton, D.E. )

    1992-04-01

    The overall nutritional adequacy of a purified casein-based diet (PC-diet) for the medaka (Oryzias latipes) was evaluated and compared with three diets: commercially available flaked fish food (FL-diet), live newly hatched Artemia (A-diet), and a combination of FL-diet plus A-diet (F/A-diet). Survival, growth, reproductive success, general and liver histopathology, and selected hepatic enzyme activities were compared in medaka from first feeding through reproductive maturity. The PC-diet proved adequate in all of the above criteria. When compared with fish fed F/A-diet, an initial lag in early growth rates (i.e., 0 to 30 days) occurred with the fish fed PC-diet. The FL-diet alone was not nutritionally adequate for medaka, resulting in poor growth, reduced reproductive success, lower survival, and emaciation. A significant number of spinal deformities (5.4%) were noted in medaka fed the F/A diet. Ethoxycoumarin 0-deethylase and glutathione S-transferase activities were monitored and a trend toward increasing activity with age was noted. This suggests that PC- and F/A-diets provide adequate nutrition for development of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes necessary for detoxification and activation of endogenous and foreign compounds. The PC-diet supported good survival, growth, reproduction, and normal histology. This diet provides a standardized, nutritionally adequate, and consistent alternative to undefined conventional diets and is less likely to contain the range of xenobiotics possible in whole, live food.

  1. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  2. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  3. Diet variability of forage fishes in the Northern California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew D.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    As fisheries management shifts to an ecosystem-based approach, understanding energy pathways and trophic relationships in the Northern California Current (NCC) will become increasingly important for predictive modeling and understanding ecosystem response to changing ocean conditions. In the NCC, pelagic forage fishes are a critical link between seasonal and interannual variation in primary production and upper trophic groups. We compared diets among dominant forage fish (sardines, anchovies, herring, and smelts) in the NCC collected in May and June of 2011 and June 2012, and found high diet variability between and within species on seasonal and annual time scales, and also on decadal scales when compared to results of past studies conducted in the early 2000s. Copepoda were a large proportion by weight of several forage fish diets in 2011 and 2012, which differed from a preponderance of Euphausiidae found in previous studies, even though all years exhibited cool ocean conditions. We also examined diet overlap among these species and with co-occurring subyearling Chinook salmon and found that surf smelt diets overlapped more with subyearling Chinook diets than any other forage fish. Herring and sardine diets overlapped the most with each other in our interdecadal comparisons and some prey items were common to all forage fish diets. Forage fish that show plasticity in diet may be more adapted to ocean conditions of low productivity or anomalous prey fields. These findings highlight the variable and not well-understood connections between ocean conditions and energy pathways within the NCC.

  4. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87% of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries. PMID:26706926

  5. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    PubMed Central

    Suma, N.; Reddy, B. S. Venkatarami; Gloridoss, R. G.; Prabhu, T. M.; Kumar, C. Basavanta; Suresh, B. N.; Shilpa, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05) at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6) to 0.383 (T4). Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics. PMID:27047079

  6. Effects of diets with fish meal and oil replaced with plant production on spawning in Rainbow Trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of plant protein and oils on spawning rainbow trout an experiment was set up to examine 3 distinct families fed the following diets: 1) fish meal and fish oil; 2) plant meal and fish oil; 3) plant meal and plant oil. The fish were fed the diets for one year through spawning....

  7. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  8. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety. PMID:26483881

  9. Individuals' diet diversity influences gut microbial diversity in two freshwater fish (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch)

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Snowberg, Lisa K; Hirsch, Philipp E; Lauber, Christian L; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard; Post, David

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates' diets profoundly influence the composition of symbiotic gut microbial communities. Studies documenting diet-microbiota associations typically focus on univariate or categorical diet variables. However, in nature individuals often consume diverse combinations of foods. If diet components act independently, each providing distinct microbial colonists or nutrients, we expect a positive relationship between diet diversity and microbial diversity. We tested this prediction within each of two fish species (stickleback and perch), in which individuals vary in their propensity to eat littoral or pelagic invertebrates or mixtures of both prey. Unexpectedly, in most cases individuals with more generalised diets had less diverse microbiota than dietary specialists, in both natural and laboratory populations. This negative association between diet diversity and microbial diversity was small but significant, and most apparent after accounting for complex interactions between sex, size and diet. Our results suggest that multiple diet components can interact non-additively to influence gut microbial diversity. PMID:24847735

  10. Use of fish hydrolysates and fishmeal by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry in diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of four fish hydrolysates and two fishmeals derived from by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry, as menhaden fishmeal replacements in shrimp diets was determined. A control diet (30% crude protein and 8.5% crude lipid) was produced with menhaden meal (13% of diet). Experimental ...

  11. A method for measuring total thiaminase activity in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Brown, S.B.; Fitzsimons, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate, quantitative, and rapid method for the measurement of thiaminase activity in fish samples is required to provide sufficient information to characterize the role of dietary thiaminase in the onset of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines. A radiometric method that uses 14C-thiamine was optimized for substrate and co-substrate (nicotinic acid) concentrations, incubation time, and sample dilution. Total thiaminase activity was successfully determined in extracts of selected Great Lakes fishes and invertebrates. Samples included whole-body and selected tissues of forage fishes. Positive control material prepared from frozen alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in Lake Michigan enhanced the development and application of the method. The method allowed improved discrimination of thiaminolytic activity among forage fish species and their tissues. The temperature dependence of the thiaminase activity observed in crude extracts of Lake Michigan alewives followed a Q10 = 2 relationship for the 1-37??C temperature range, which is consistent with the bacterial-derived thiaminase I protein. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  12. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2015-09-25

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  13. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2015-09-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 - 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  14. Mucus: a new tissue fraction for rapid determination of fish diet switching using stable isotope analysis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable isotope analysis of diet switching by fishes is often hampered by slow turnover rates of the tissues analyzed (usually muscle or fins). We examined epidermal mucus as a potentially faster turnover “tissue” that might provide a more rapid assessment of diet switching. In a controlled hatchery...

  15. Mucus: A new tissue fraction for rapid determination of fish diet switching using stable isotope analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope analysis of diet switching by fishes often is hampered by slow turnover rates of the tissues analyzed (usually muscle or fins). We examined epidermal mucus as a potentially faster turnover “tissue” that might provide a more rapid assessment of diet switching. In a ...

  16. Total Mercury in Carnivorous Fish from Brazilian Southeast.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M S; Marques, A N; Ribeiro, R O R; Conte, C A; Carneiro, C S; Santelli, R E; Freire, A S; São Clemente, S C; Mársico, E T

    2015-07-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in muscle tissue of two commercially important species of carnivorous fishes croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) caught in Itaipu estuary, Rio de Janeiro. In this study, whitemouth croaker presented more mercury than Atlantic cutlassfish. Bioaccumulation differences can be explained by the biological behavior of juveniles whitemouth croaker, that remain in the estuary up to maturity, which makes them good indicators of local environmental impacts (0.110 mg Kg(-1) HgT). It also can be explained by differences in nutritional requirements between the different life stages of two species. The analysis showed the presence of low levels of the metal. However, our results suggest a possible risk to human health, depending on the level of fish consumption. PMID:25666565

  17. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  18. Use of meatpacking by-products in fish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since fish meal is of limited supply and more expensive than most other protein sources, reducing its use in fish feeds will increase profits and improve sustainability of the aquaculture industry. Meat meal, meat and bone meal, and blood meal are by-products of the animal rendering industry and ar...

  19. Growth performance, vitamin E status, and proximate and fatty acid composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed diets containing various levels of fish oil and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chhorn; Yildirim-Aksoy, Mediha; Shelby, Richard; Li, Menghe H; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of fish oil on vitamin E requirement and their effect on growth performance, liver vitamin E status, and tissue proximate and fatty acid compositions of channel catfish. Basal purified diets (42% protein and 3,800 kcal DE/kg) supplemented with 6, 10, and 14% menhaden fish oil were each supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg vitamin E/kg (3×3 factorial experiment). Each diet was fed to juvenile channel catfish in three random aquaria to apparent satiation twice daily for 12 weeks. Weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency ratio were not affected by dietary levels of fish oil, vitamin E, or their interaction. Survival rate at the end of week 12 was significantly lower for fish fed diets containing 14% fish oil, regardless of vitamin E content. Whole-body moisture significantly decreased and lipid increased when dietary lipid levels were increased to 10 or 14%. Dietary vitamin E levels had no effect on body proximate composition. Lipid content of liver was not influenced by dietary levels of fish oil and vitamin E or their interaction. Hepatosomatic index significantly decreased with increasing lipid levels but was not affected by dietary levels of vitamin E. Liver vitamin E increased with increasing dietary vitamin E but decreased with increasing fish oil levels. Fatty acid composition of whole body and liver reflected that of dietary lipid but was not influenced by dietary levels of vitamin E. Whole-body saturates increased, whereas MUFA decreased with increasing dietary levels of fish oil. Liver saturates were not affected by fish oil levels, but MUFA and n-6 decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing fish oil levels. Total n-3 and n-3 HUFA in both tissues increased with increasing fish oil levels in diets, but liver stored much higher levels of these fatty acids. PMID:19821044

  20. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality. PMID:26983467

  1. Diet overlap of introduced rainbow trout and three native fishes in an Ozark stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenner, D.B.; Walsh, M.G.; Winkelman, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Private angling groups in Oklahoma have requested permission to stock rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into streams of northeastern Oklahoma although little is known regarding interactions between introduced rainbow trout and native fishes in these systems. Our study objectives were to assess diet overlap between introduced rainbow trout and native smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, shadow bass Ambloplites ariommus, and bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus in Brush Creek, Oklahoma, a small spring-fed Ozark stream. Rainbow trout diet composition differed from that of all three native fishes in the 2 months of comparison (March and May 2001), and rainbow trout diets contained relatively low numbers of prey. It is unlikely that exploitative competition for food resources occurred between rainbow trout and these three native fishes. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  2. Diet dynamics of the juvenile piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA, 1997-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelham, M.E.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    We assessed temporal dynamics and variation among species and age-classes in the diets of age 0 and age 1 piscivorous fish species in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA during 1997 and 1998. Species included walleye Stizostedion vitreum, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white bass Morone chrysops. Thirty taxa were identified in diets, including 12 species of fish. We found dramatic differences in diets among species, among age-classes within species and over time. Walleye, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and white bass were piscivorous at age 0. Black crappie began piscivory at age 1. Yellow perch also began piscivory at age 1, but fish were a very small fraction of age-1 diets. The primary temporal pattern, seen in several species and age- classes, was an increase in piscivory from spring to fall. This pattern was due to the lack of small, age-0 prey fish in spring. Although some patterns were evident, the taxonomic composition of the diets of all species was highly variable over time, making generalizations difficult. A surprising result was the absence of yellow perch in the diet of age-0 walleye, despite their abundance in Spirit Lake and prominence in diets of age-1 walleye and other age 1-piscivores. Age-0 yellow perch were consistently too large to be eaten by age-0 piscivores, which preyed primarily on invertebrates and smaller fish such as johnny darters Etheostoma nigrum and age 0 bluegill Lepomis macrochirus. This finding suggests that predator-prey interactions and resulting population dynamics may be quite different in Spirit Lake than in other systems dominated by walleye and yellow perch.

  3. Evaluation of fruit-vegetable and fish wastes as alternative feedstuffs in pig diets.

    PubMed

    Esteban, M B; García, A J; Ramos, P; Márquez, M C

    2007-01-01

    Fruit-vegetable and fish wastes were evaluated as potential feedstuffs for growing-finishing pigs. Wastes were collected from shops in the city of Salamanca (Spain) and their nutritional composition, mineral content and digestibility were determined. The dry matter of the wastes under study was relatively low (12% for fruit-vegetable waste and 26% for fish waste), but they presented all of the nutrient requirements for swine diets. The fish waste contained 58% crude protein, 22% ash, 19% ether extract and 1% crude fibre, whereas the fruit-vegetable waste contained 65% nitrogen free extract, 13% crude fibre, 12% crude protein, 8% ash and 2% ether extract. Waste digestibility decreased with temperature, and hence temperatures over 65 degrees C for fruit-vegetable waste and 105 degrees C for fish waste should not be used in the treatment to reduce the moisture and to ensure the microbiology quality. Therefore, two diets were formulated using linear programming. The analysed waste was included in approximately 20% of one of the diets, while another diet was formulated without any type of waste. These data showed that this part of biodegradable municipal waste could be managed as alternative feedstuffs in swine diets, reducing the amount of biodegradable municipal waste going to landfills. PMID:16510272

  4. Investigation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Fish and Sediment of Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores and fish collected between 1994 and 1996 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of the fish analyses are being used to describe total and methyl mercury concentrations in forage fish and lake trout, re...

  5. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect...

  6. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect...

  7. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect...

  8. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect...

  9. Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W.; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Geurden, Inge

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that fish fed to satiation with iso-energetic diets differing in macronutrient composition will have different digestible energy intakes (DEI) but similar total heat production. Four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design) were formulated having a contrast in i) the ratio of protein to energy (P/E): high (HP/E) vs. low (LP/E) and ii) the type of non-protein energy (NPE) source: fat vs. carbohydrate which were iso-energetically exchanged. Triplicate groups (35 fish/tank) of rainbow trout were hand-fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 6 weeks under non-limiting water oxygen conditions. Feed intake (FI), DEI (kJ kg−0.8 d−1) and growth (g kg−0.8 d−1) of trout were affected by the interaction between P/E ratio and NPE source of the diet (P<0.05). Regardless of dietary P/E ratio, the inclusion of carbohydrate compared to fat as main NPE source reduced DEI and growth of trout by ∼20%. The diet-induced differences in FI and DEI show that trout did not compensate for the dietary differences in digestible energy or digestible protein contents. Further, changes in body fat store and plasma glucose did not seem to exert a homeostatic feedback control on DEI. Independent of the diet composition, heat production of trout did not differ (P>0.05). Our data suggest that the control of DEI in trout might be a function of heat production, which in turn might reflect a physiological limit related with oxidative metabolism. PMID:22496852

  10. [Spatial and temporal variation in diet composition of invertivore fishes in a tropical stream, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ortaz, Mario; Martín, Ricardo; López-Ordaz, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Invertivores fishes are an important component of neotropical streams and they represent a link between aquatic invertebrates and piscivorous species. This study evaluated the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap of nine invertivores fish species during three consecutive hydrological phases: falling (December/07, January/08, February/08 and March/08), low (April/08) and rising waters (June/08), in two sections of a Venezuelan neotropical stream, which were located at different elevation, high watershed (HW) and low watershed (LW). The fishes were collected with a beach seine (5mm mesh) between 8:00 and 11:00 hours. The diet of each species was evaluated using an index of relative importance (IRI), which includes as variables the number, weight and occurrence frequency of food items consumed. The Levin' index (B ) and Morisita (IM) were used to estimate the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap, respectively. All estimations were made using the numeric proportion of preys. Nine fish species were captured, eight Characiformes, of which three were captured in HW (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari and C. melasma) and five in LW (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus and Aphyocharax alburnus), and one Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata), which was also found in HW. In HW aquatic insects were the main resource consumed by fishes while plant material and terrestrial arthropods were secondary resources. In LW the fishes ingested all of these items in addition to zooplankton (Copepoda, Cladocera and larval stages of Decapoda). However, there was a temporal replacement with a predominance of zooplankton in falling and low water. In general, the breadth diet decreased during the falling water in both sections and increased in rising water. However, the average breadth diet was higher in HW. The interspecific food overlap was high in HW while low values were more frequent in LW and its temporal

  11. Effects of fish oil, DHA oil and lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Ke; Wang, Wen-Qi; Li, Kui-Ran; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2002-12-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air (lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity (high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16∶0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  12. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  13. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  14. Insect Protein as a partial Replacement of Fishmeal in the Diets of Juvenile Fish and Crustaceans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for produc...

  15. Insect protein as a partial replacement of fishmeal in the diets of juvenile fish and crustaceans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for produc...

  16. Insect protein as a partical replacement of fishmeal in the diets of juvenile fish and crustaceans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for prod...

  17. Empirical assessment of indices of prey importance in the diets of predacious fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the importance of prey taxa in the diets of predacious species is a frequent objective in fisheries research. Various indices of prey importance are in common use, and all give different results because of their emphasis on different aspects of fish diets. We explored these differences by empirically comparing four well-known indices-percent weight (%W), percent occurrence (%O), percent number (%N), and percent index of relative importance (%IRI)-as well as a modified %IRI (%MIRI), as applied to an extensive data set on the diets of six fish species in Spirit Lake, Iowa. Correlations among all indices were positive but were weaker among component indices (%W, %O, and %N) than between the two compound indices (%IRI and %MIRI); correlations among component indices were also weaker than correlations of compound with component indices. Correlation strength of %MIRI with the three component indices varied greatly (%N %O %W), whereas the correlation strength of %IRI with component indices was similar. Importance values based on %W, %MIRI, and %N depend more on prey size than those based on %IRI and %O. The %W and %MIRI emphasized the importance of large prey taxa, whereas %N emphasized small prey in diets; %IRI and %O were similarly unbiased with respect to prey size. The %O yielded substantially higher importance values than all other indices. Thus, for use as a general index of dietary importance, we believe %IRI provides the optimal balancing of frequency of occurrence, numerical abundance, and abundance by weight of taxa in fish diets.

  18. Feeding diets and significance of coral feeding among Chaetodontid fishes in Moorea (French Polynesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmelin-Vivien, M. L.; Bouchon-Navaro, Y.

    1983-06-01

    The feeding diets of 18 Chaetodontid fishes from a coral reef of Moorea (French Polynesia) were studied by quantitative analysis of their stomach contents. Three major types of feeding behaviours were distinguished. Sixteen species essentially ingested coral polyps. Among these species, 5 were exclusive coral browsers and the others displayed more heterogeneous diets. One species was a plankton feeder and the other consumed benthic invertebrates other than corals. The importance of coral consumption on the reef by Chaetodontid fishes was estimated knowing the feeding diets and density of species in the various biota. Moreover, the species which were previously observed as quantitatively dominant in the different reef zones, were found to be exclusive coral browsers. Besides, the proportion between obligative and facultative coral feeders was found to be relatively constant on the reef, emphasizing that a balance is established among the Chaetodontid species occupying the same habitat for the resource partitioning.

  19. Diet shifts by planktivorous and benthivorous fishes in northern Lake Michigan in response to ecosystem changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, David B.; Davis, Bruce M.; Chriscinske, Margret Ann; Keeler, Kevin M.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    In Lake Michigan, diets of planktivorous and benthivorous fishes have varied over the past decades, in part owing to food web changes. To update diet information and compare them to a similar effort in 1994–1995, we analyzed the diets of seven benthivorous and planktivorous fish species collected along two northern Lake Michigan transects that spanned nearshore (18 m), intermediate (46 m), and offshore (91, 110, 128 m) bottom depths during spring, summer, and autumn of 2010. Calanoid copepods (e.g., Limnocalanus macrurus, Leptodiaptomus sicilis, and Senecella calanoides) comprised a majority of the diets in at least one season for all sizes of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Similarly, Mysis diluviana was the highest proportion in at least one season for large sizes of alewife, bloater, and rainbow smelt, as well as slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii). The diets of the remaining two species, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), were dominated by herbivorous cladocerans or dreissenid mussels, respectively. Interspecific diet overlap was minimal at 18 and 46 m. In offshore waters, however, overlap was relatively high, driven by frequent consumption of Mysis. Relative to 1994–1995, 2010 diets revealed increased feeding on calanoid copepods and Mysis, with corresponding declining consumption of Diporeia spp. and herbivorous cladocerans. Relative diet weight was also higher in 1994–1995 than in 2010 for small and large bloater and both sculpin species. We hypothesize that the shifts in diets are reflective of community-level changes in invertebrate prey availability.

  20. Diet and Diversification in the Evolution of Coral Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, Fabio L.; Barneche, Diego R.; Siqueira, Alexandre C.; Liedke, Ana M. R.; Lindner, Alberto; Pie, Marcio R.; Bellwood, David R.; Floeter, Sergio R.

    2014-01-01

    The disparity in species richness among evolutionary lineages is one of the oldest and most intriguing issues in evolutionary biology. Although geographical factors have been traditionally thought to promote speciation, recent studies have underscored the importance of ecological interactions as one of the main drivers of diversification. Here, we test if differences in species richness of closely related lineages match predictions based on the concept of density-dependent diversification. As radiation progresses, ecological niche-space would become increasingly saturated, resulting in fewer opportunities for speciation. To assess this hypothesis, we tested whether reef fish niche shifts toward usage of low-quality food resources (i.e. relatively low energy/protein per unit mass), such as algae, detritus, sponges and corals are accompanied by rapid net diversification. Using available molecular information, we reconstructed phylogenies of four major reef fish clades (Acanthuroidei, Chaetodontidae, Labridae and Pomacentridae) to estimate the timing of radiations of their subclades. We found that the evolution of species-rich clades was associated with a switch to low quality food in three of the four clades analyzed, which is consistent with a density-dependent model of diversification. We suggest that ecological opportunity may play an important role in understanding the diversification of reef-fish lineages. PMID:25029229

  1. Effects of Feeding Diets With or Without Fish Meal on Production of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus, Stocked at Varying Densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal protein, generally fish meal, has traditionally been used in the diet of channel catfish. However, our previous research indicates that animal protein is not needed for growing stocker size catfish to food fish when the fish are stocked at densities typical of those used in commercial catfish...

  2. Incorporation of magnesium into fish otoliths: Determining contribution from water and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, S. H.; Munro, A. R.; Crook, D. A.; Gillanders, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    Magnesium is a commonly measured element in otolith chemistry analysis and is often included in the suite of elements used to discriminate fish from different environments. Poor relations between Mg in water and otolith chemistry are, however, often found. We examined the uptake of Mg into the otoliths of a freshwater fish (silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus), to determine the extent to which this element can be used to record previous environmental conditions. Silver perch fingerlings were reared for 30 days in water with four concentrations of Mg (14.5, 36.6, 52.1 and 69.6 mg L-1) and fed on a diet supplemented with a combination of natural Mg and enriched 26Mg at five concentrations (1496, 1626, 1902, 2005 and 2036 μg g-1). Enriched 26Mg was added to the diet to achieve a 26Mg/25Mg ratio that was different from the natural ratio, such that the relative contribution of water and diet to Mg incorporated into otoliths could be determined. Enriching the diet with 26Mg resulted in an isotope shift in the otolith of silver perch from the natural 26Mg/25Mg ratio of 1.10-1.42; however, this was not as high as the ratio in the diet (> 3.7) suggesting that the fish did not fully incorporate Mg from the diet. Water was the primary source of otolith Mg, contributing on average > 80% to otolith Mg (range 74-95%). The fact that Mg concentrations in the otolith did not change in response to Mg concentrations in the water or diet, indicates that Mg is likely physiologically regulated and therefore is not a reliable environmental indicator.

  3. Total and Methyl Mercury in 1994-5 Lake Michigan Lake Trout and Forage Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total and methyl mercury were analyzed in Lake Michigan fish collected in 1994 and 1995 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance project (LMMB). One predator fish species and five forage fish species were analyzed to determine the bioaccumulative nature of mercury. These data ...

  4. [Diet of the tropical freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata (Haeckel) and Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes (Cyprinidontiformes: Poeciliidae)].

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Jiménez, Patricia; Beto, Héctor Toledo

    2007-06-01

    We analyzed the diet and feeding habits of the fishes Heterandria bimaculata and Poecilia sphenops. Specimens were captured monthly in "Los Carros" damp, Morelos, Mexico (18 degrees 37' N, 98 degrees 43' W). We quantified gut content by the numerical method and by the frequency of occurrence method; and used the MacArthur and Levin's indices for niche overlap. The diet of H. bimaculata was composed by 16 prey categories, mainly dipterans (Culicidae predominated), independently of sex, size and season. The index of niche overlap was high, from 0.74 to 0.99. The diet of P. sphenops consisted of 11 items, detritus being the most consumed, also independently of sex, size and season. The niche overlap index was high (0.99), indicating overlapping for all analyses. There was little diet overlap (0.26) between the two species. PMID:19069770

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation—the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  6. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; de Barros, Karina Vieira; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or lungs. Methods Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27274303

  7. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela S; Cardoso, João Felipe R; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-03-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  8. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Gabriela S.; Cardoso, João Felipe R.; Calder, Philip C.; Jordão, Alceu A.; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  9. Ontogenetic development of intestinal length and relationships to diet in an Australasian fish family (Terapontidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the most widely accepted ecomorphological relationships in vertebrates is the negative correlation between intestinal length and proportion of animal prey in diet. While many fish groups exhibit this general pattern, other clades demonstrate minimal, and in some cases contrasting, associations between diet and intestinal length. Moreover, this relationship and its evolutionary derivation have received little attention from a phylogenetic perspective. This study documents the phylogenetic development of intestinal length variability, and resultant correlation with dietary habits, within a molecular phylogeny of 28 species of terapontid fishes. The Terapontidae (grunters), an ancestrally euryhaline-marine group, is the most trophically diverse of Australia’s freshwater fish families, with widespread shifts away from animal-prey-dominated diets occurring since their invasion of fresh waters. Results Description of ontogenetic development of intestinal complexity of terapontid fishes, in combination with ancestral character state reconstruction, demonstrated that complex intestinal looping (convolution) has evolved independently on multiple occasions within the family. This modification of ontogenetic development drives much of the associated interspecific variability in intestinal length evident in terapontids. Phylogenetically informed comparative analyses (phylogenetic independent contrasts) showed that the interspecific differences in intestinal length resulting from these ontogenetic developmental mechanisms explained ~65% of the variability in the proportion of animal material in terapontid diets. Conclusions The ontogenetic development of intestinal complexity appears to represent an important functional innovation underlying the extensive trophic differentiation seen in Australia’s freshwater terapontids, specifically facilitating the pronounced shifts away from carnivorous (including invertebrates and vertebrates) diets evident across the

  10. Stable Isotopes in Ecological Sceinces: Bird and Fish Diet and Migration in Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Dias, R. F.; Ake, R.; Jones, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    The preservation of ecologically sensitive habitats for birds and fishes in Virginia requires a detailed understanding of the important changes in diet and migration over the life span of the animal. Stable isotope analysis offers the potential to assess migration and trophic level variability in birds and fishes from southeastern Virginia and the greater Chesapeake Bay. Fish of various species and ages from different locations throughout the Chesapeake Bay were analyzed for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 bulk natural abundance. Of particular note, blue fish were found to have significantly higher d15N values than striped bass which are believed to be trophic competitors. Observations are discussed relative to the maturity of the different fish, variation in water-mass chemistry (N-inputs), local environmental habitats, trophic relationships and migratory habits. In conjunction with banding studies being conducted by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries in the Great Dismal Swamp (VA), breast feathers from Carolina Wren, Common Yellowthroat, Northern Cardinal, Ovenbird, and Prothonotary Warbler were analyzed for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 bulk natural abundance. Given the preliminary nature of this work our ability to identify trends between species was less than satisfying, thus highlighting the need for larger sample populations over more than one breeding season. However, within a given species (most notably the Prothonotary Warbler) we are able to discern a change in diet. The hatching year Prothonotary warbler were more enriched in both carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 than the after-hatching-year (AHY) birds, indicating a change in food sources between the two age groups. By sampling over time and at various sample sites, isotopic analyses allow a more detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal variation in the diets and migratory habits of fishes and birds in Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.

  11. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B; Johnson, Brett M

    2012-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems. PMID:22699411

  12. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  13. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). 600.516 Section 600.516 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level...

  14. Seasonal diet shifts of seven fish species in an Atlantic rainforest stream in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Deus, C P; Petrere-Junior, M

    2003-11-01

    We analyzed the stomach contents of 116 individuals belonging to seven fishes species in order to investigate seasonal changes in feeding strategy and how trophic interactions between species affect community structure in an Atlantic rainforest stream in Southeastern Brazil. Oligosarcus hepsetus and Pimelodus sp. consumed fewer items during the winter. Phalloceros caudimaculatus switched feeding habits from detritus during summer to algae during winter. These examples are related to variations in food availability and species feeding selectivity. The highest diet overlap values, for most species, as measured using Schoener's index, were observed in summer, along with a species tendency to be more generalist. Feeding pattern variation may influence the fish community structure. PMID:15029369

  15. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish ( Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad ( Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine δ13C value, over 8‰ higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean δ13C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The δ13C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for δ13C.

  16. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system.

    PubMed

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish (Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad (Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine delta(13)C value, over 8 per thousand higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean delta(13)C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The delta(13)C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for delta(13)C. PMID:19214467

  17. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  18. Full substitution of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil, with partial substitution of fish meal with camelina meal, in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and its effect on tissue lipids and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2014-08-15

    Camelina oil (CO) and meal (CM) are potential replacements of fish meal (FM) and oil (FO) in aquaculture feeds. CO is high in α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3, ALA) (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio >1. This study tested diets with 100% CO, solvent extracted FM (SEFM) and partially substituted FM with 10% CM, in a 16 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon (initial weight 240 g fish(-1)). Final weight (529-691 g fish(-1)) was not affected by using 100% CO; however it was lower in groups fed SEFM and 10% CM diets. Total lipid in salmon flesh fed a diet with CO, SEFM and CM (22% ww(-1)) was significantly higher than FO flesh (14% ww(-1)). There was no difference in the sensory quality of salmon fillets that were fed either FO or 100% CO diets. This was the first study to use CO as a complete FO replacement in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:24679751

  19. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mount, D.R.; Highland, T.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Dawson, T.D.; Lott, K.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  20. Distribution of total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment, and fish from South Florida estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Smith, R.G., Jr.; Lee, R.F.; Windom, H.L.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Summers, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and methyl mercury were determined in sediment and fish collected from estuarine waters of Florida to understand their distribution and partitioning. Total mercury concentrations in sediments ranged from 1 to 219 ng/g dry wt. Methyl mercury accounted for, on average, 0.77% of total mercury in sediment. Methyl mercury concentrations were not correlated with total mercury or organic carbon content in sediments. The concentrations of total mercury in fish muscle were between 0.03 and 2.22 (mean: 0.31) ??g/g, wet wt, with methyl mercury contributing 83% of total mercury. Methyl mercury concentrations in fish muscle were directly proportional to total mercury concentrations. The relationship of total and methyl mercury concentrations in fish to those of sediments from corresponding locations was fish-species dependent, in addition to several abiotic factors. Among fish species analyzed, hardhead catfish, gafftopsail catfish, and sand seatrout contained the highest concentrations of mercury. Filtered water samples from canals and creeks that discharge into the Florida Bay showed mercury concentrations of 3-7.4 ng/L, with methyl mercury accounting for <0.03-52% of the total mercury. Consumption of fish containing 0.31 ??g mercury/g wet wt, the mean concentration found in this study, at rates greater than 70 g/day, was estimated to be hazardous to human health.

  1. Angler-caught piscivore diets reflect fish community changes in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Schaeffer, Jeff; Bright, Ethan; Fielder, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of angler-caught piscivore stomachs revealed that Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and Walleyes Sander vitreus altered theirdiets in response to unprecedented declines in Lake Huron's main-basin prey fish community.Diets varied by predator species, season, and location but were nearly always dominated numerically by some combination of Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus, or terrestrial insects. Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead), Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar had varied diets that reflected higher contributions of insects. Compared with an earlier (1983–1986) examination of angler-caught predator fishes from Lake Huron, the contemporary results showed an increase in consumption of nontraditional prey (including conspecifics), use of smaller prey, and an increase in insects in the diet, suggesting that piscivores were faced with chronic prey limitation during this study. The management of all piscivores in Lake Huron will likely require consideration of the pervasive effects of changes in food webs, especially if prey fish remain at low levels.

  2. Influence of host diet and phylogeny on parasite sharing by fish in a diverse tropical floodplain.

    PubMed

    Lima, L B; Bellay, S; Giacomini, H C; Isaac, A; Lima-Junior, D P

    2016-03-01

    The patterns of parasite sharing among hosts have important implications for ecosystem structure and functioning, and are influenced by several ecological and evolutionary factors associated with both hosts and parasites. Here we evaluated the influence of fish diet and phylogenetic relatedness on the pattern of infection by parasites with contrasting life history strategies in a freshwater ecosystem of key ecological importance in South America. The studied network of interactions included 52 fish species, which consumed 58 food types and were infected with 303 parasite taxa. Our results show that both diet and evolutionary history of hosts significantly explained parasite sharing; phylogenetically close fish species and/or species sharing food types tend to share more parasites. However, the effect of diet was observed only for endoparasites in contrast to ectoparasites. These results are consistent with the different life history strategies and selective pressures imposed on these groups: endoparasites are in general acquired via ingestion by their intermediate hosts, whereas ectoparasites actively seek and attach to the gills, body surface or nostrils of its sole host, thus not depending directly on its feeding habits. PMID:26647725

  3. Parasites of the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso, 1810) from the NW Mediterranean Sea and relationship with fish diet and enzymatic biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallarés, Sara; Constenla, María; Padrós, Francesc; Cartes, Joan E.; Solé, Montse; Carrassón, Maite

    2014-10-01

    Specimens of Mora moro were collected in two seasons and three localities of the Balearic Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) and parasitological, dietary (to prey-species level), enzymatic and histological data were obtained, alongside with environmental information (T, S, O2). The relationships among fish parasite load, condition indices, diet, enzymatic activity of muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intensity of splenic melano-macrophage centres (MMC) and hepatic granulomas were tested. M. moro showed a rich and abundant parasite fauna, and was a new host record for 17 out of the 18 different endoparasite taxa found. Significant differences were detected among locality-season groups, in turn related to different environmental variables, for Anisakidae gen. sp., Anisakis Type II and Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp.; thus, they are proposed as potentially useful as biological tags for geographical discrimination of M. moro in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Detailed relationships were found between parasite taxa and prey ingested (e.g. Anisakidae gen. sp. related with meso-bathypelagic crustaceans; Anisakis Type I with benthopelagic squids). Most parasites were linked to samples with highest levels of near-bottom O2, which is consistent with direct relationships found between near-bottom O2 and zooplankton biomass in the Balearic Basin. Total parasite abundance and the abundance of Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp. showed a significant relationship with the activity of AChE and the abundance of Anisakis Type II with LDH. AChE was associated with hepatosomatic index (HSI) and condition factor (K); LDH with gonadosomatic index (GSI), K and fish total length (TL). LDH activity showed differences among sampling groups. Splenic MMC and hepatic granulomas were not associated with fish parasite load. A positive relationship was found between MMC area and fish TL and LDH activity.

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information.

    PubMed

    Nitzke, Susan; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne

    2007-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of a healthful eating style. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity. The American Dietetic Association strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize a balance of foods, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies that support the total diet approach include the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, MyPyramid, the DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Dietary Reference Intakes, and nutrition labeling. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthful eating behaviors. Alternative approaches may be necessary in some health conditions. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, lifestyle, time challenges, economics, environment, attitudes and beliefs, social/cultural influences, media, food technology, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, food and nutrition professionals should utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. A focus on moderation and proportionality in the context of a healthful lifestyle, rather than specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes. PMID:17682300

  5. High variability in stable isotope diet-tissue discrimination factors of two omnivorous freshwater fishes in controlled ex situ conditions.

    PubMed

    Busst, Georgina M A; Britton, J Robert

    2016-04-01

    Diet-tissue discrimination factors (Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N) are influenced by variables including the tissues being analysed and the taxon of the consumer and its prey. Whilst differences in Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N are apparent between herbivorous and piscivorous fishes, there is less known for omnivorous fishes that consume plant and animal material. Here, the omnivorous cyprinid fishes Barbus barbus and Squalius cephalus were held in tank aquaria and exposed to three diets that varied in their constituents (plant based to fishmeal based) and protein content (13% to 45%). After 100 days and isotopic replacement in fish tissues to 98%, samples of the food items, and dorsal muscle, fin tissue and scales were analysed for δ(13)C and δ(15)N. For both species and all diets, muscle was always enriched in δ(15)N and depleted in δ(13)C compared with fin tissue and scales. Across the different diets, Δ(13)C ranged between 2.0‰ and 5.6‰ and Δ(15)N ranged between 2.0‰ and 6.9‰. The diet based on plant material (20% protein) always resulted in the highest discrimination factors for each tissue, whilst the diet based on fishmeal (45% protein) consistently resulted in the lowest. The discrimination factors produced by non-fish diets were comparatively high compared with values in the literature, but were consistent with general patterns for some herbivorous fishes. These outputs suggest that the diet-tissue discrimination factors of omnivorous fishes will vary considerably between animal and plant prey, and these specific differences need consideration in predictions of their diet composition and trophic position. PMID:26896544

  6. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  7. EFFECT OF MENHADEN FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION AND STARTER DIET COMPLEXITY ON THE PERFORMANCE AND IMMUNE RESPONSE OF NURSERY PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 d and 6.27±1.16 kg) were weaned into a SEW facility and given free access to a complex diet for...

  8. Evaluation of family growth response to fish meal and plant protein-based diets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both environmental and economic concerns have led to the development of fish-meal free diets for salmonids. The ability of rainbow trout to efficiently utilize plant-based diets for growth and reproduction, and the genetic variation within populations for these traits, has not been thoroughly examin...

  9. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Kilham, Susan S; Reznick, David N

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large. PMID:26360601

  10. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K.; Kilham, Susan S.; Reznick, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large. PMID:26360601

  11. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influences Hematological and Immunological Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance were studied in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus fed a commercial diet (35.3% crude protein and 5.6% lipid) supplemented with menhaden fish oil at levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9% for 15 weeks. Dietary fish oil levels did not significa...

  12. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  13. Fish oil diet modulates epididymal and inguinal adipocyte metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of different high-fat diets containing fish oil on adiposity and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in mice, comparing the effects on epididymal (eWAT) and subcutaneous (sWAT) depots. For this, we used C57BL/6 male mice fed four types of diets for eight weeks: standard chow (SC), high-fat lard (HF-L), high-fat lard plus fish oil (HF-L + FO), and high-fat fish oil (HF-FO). The HF-L group had a greater body mass (BM) gain, insulin resistance, increased gene expression related to lipogenesis (CD36, aP2, SREBP1c, and FAS), decreased gene expression of perilipin in both eWAT and sWAT, and reduced expression of genes related to beta-oxidation (CPT-1a) and to mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1alpha, NRF1, and TFAM) in eWAT and sWAT. On the other hand, the HF-L + FO and HF-FO groups showed a smaller BM gain and adiposity, and normalization of insulin resistance and lipogenic genes in both eWAT and sWAT. These animals also showed decreased perilipin gene expression and elevated expression of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in eWAT and sWAT. 'Beige' adipocytes were identified in sWAT of the HF-FO animals. In conclusion, fish oil intake has anti-obesity effects through modulation of both eWAT and sWAT metabolism in mice and is relevant in diminishing the BM gain, adiposity, and insulin resistance even in combination with a high-fat lard diet in mice. PMID:26876019

  14. Characterization of the genomic responses in early Senegalese sole larvae fed diets with different dietary triacylglycerol and total lipids levels.

    PubMed

    Hachero-Cruzado, I; Rodríguez-Rua, A; Román-Padilla, J; Ponce, M; Fernández-Díaz, C; Manchado, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the genomic responses of premetamorphic sole larvae (9 days post-hatching, dph) fed diets with different lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) content. For this purpose, two diets with high (rotifers enriched with a fish oil-based emulsion; referred to as HTAG) and low (rotifers enriched with a krill oil-based emulsion; LTAG) levels of total lipids and TAG were evaluated. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) profiles, histological characterization of intestine, liver and pancreas and expression patterns using RNA-seq were determined. Discriminant analysis results showed that larvae could be clearly differentiated on the basis of their FA profile as a function of the diet supplied until 9dph although no difference in growth was observed. RNA-seq analysis showed that larvae fed HTAG activated coordinately the transcription of apolipoproteins (apob, apoa4, apoc2, apoe, and apobec2) and other related transcripts involved in chylomicron formation, likely to facilitate proper lipid absorption and delivery. In contrast, larvae fed LTAG showed higher mRNA levels of several pancreatic enzymes (try1a, try2, cela1, cela3, cela4, chym1, chym2, amy2a and pnlip) and appetite modulators (agrp1) and some intra- and extracellular lipases. Moreover, KEGG analysis also showed that several transcripts related to lipid metabolism and glycolysis were differentially expressed with a higher abundance in larvae fed LTAG diet. All these data suggest that early larvae were able to establish compensatory mechanisms for energy homeostasis regulating key molecules for FA and TAG biosynthesis, FA uptake and intracellular management of TAG and FA to warrant optimal growth rates. PMID:25463059

  15. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  16. Application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry: determination of ochratoxin A in the Canadian Total Diet Study

    PubMed Central

    Tam, J.; Pantazopoulos, P.; Scott, P.M.; Moisey, J.; Dabeka, R.W.; Richard, I.D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods are generally developed and optimized for specific commodities. Total Diet Studies, representing typical food products ‘as consumed’, pose an analytical challenge since every food product is different. In order to address this technical challenge, a selective and sensitive analytical method was developed suitable for the quantitation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Canadian Total Diet Study composites. The method uses an acidified solvent extraction, an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for identification and quantification, and a uniformly stable isotope-labelled OTA (U-[13C20]-OTA) as an internal recovery standard. Results are corrected for this standard. The method is accurate (101% average recovery) and precise (5.5% relative standard deviation (RSD)) based on 17 duplicate analysis of various food products over 2 years. A total of 140 diet composites were analysed for OTA as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study. Samples were collected at retail level from two Canadian cities, Quebec City and Calgary, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The results indicate that 73% (102/140) of the samples had detectable levels of OTA, with some of the highest levels of OTA contamination found in the Canadian bread supply. PMID:21623499

  17. Trophic structure of a coastal fish community determined with diet and stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Malek, A J; Collie, J S; Taylor, D L

    2016-09-01

    A combination of dietary guild analysis and nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) stable-isotope analysis was used to assess the trophic structure of the fish community in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds, an area off southern New England identified for offshore wind energy development. In the autumn of 2009, 2010 and 2011, stomach and tissue samples were taken from 20 fish and invertebrate species for analysis of diet composition and δ(15) N and δ(13) C signatures. The food chain in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds comprises approximately four trophic levels within which the fish community is divided into distinct dietary guilds, including planktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and piscivores. Within these guilds, inter-species isotopic and dietary overlap is high, suggesting that resource partitioning or competitive interactions play a major role in structuring the fish community. Carbon isotopes indicate that most fishes are supported by pelagic phytoplankton, although there is evidence that benthic production also plays a role, particularly for obligate benthivores such as skates Leucoraja spp. This type of analysis is useful for developing an ecosystem-based approach to management, as it identifies species that act as direct links to basal resources as well as species groups that share trophic roles. PMID:27406117

  18. Feeding a Modified Fish Diet to Bottlenose Dolphins Leads to an Increase in Serum Adiponectin and Sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Sobolesky, Philip M; Harrell, Tyler S; Parry, Celeste; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Janech, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however, insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24 weeks. Serum FGF21 was quantified by ELISA with an observed range of 129-1599 pg/ml, but did not significantly change over the 24-week study period. Total adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) significantly increased from 776 ± 400 pmol/ml at week 0 to 1196 ± 467 pmol/ml at week 24. The percent unmodified adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) decreased from 23.8 ± 6.0% at week 0 to 15.2 ± 5.2% at week 24. Interestingly, although FGF21 levels did not change, there was a good correlation between FGF21 and total adiponectin (ρ = 0.788, P < 0.001). We quantified the abundances of serum ceramides and sphingosines (SPH) because adiponectin has a defined role in sphingolipid metabolism through adiponectin receptor-mediated activation of ceramidases. The most abundant ceramide in dolphin sera was Cer 24:1 comprising 49% of the ceramides measured. Significant reductions were observed in the unsaturated Cer 18:1, Cer 20:1, and Cer 24:1, whereas significant increases were observed in saturated Cer 22:0, Cer 24:0, and Cer 26:0. However, total serum ceramides did not change. Significant elevations were detected for total sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate. Proteomic analysis of the serum proteins revealed few changes in serum proteins over the study period. In conclusion

  19. Feeding a Modified Fish Diet to Bottlenose Dolphins Leads to an Increase in Serum Adiponectin and Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Sobolesky, Philip M.; Harrell, Tyler S.; Parry, Celeste; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Janech, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however, insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24 weeks. Serum FGF21 was quantified by ELISA with an observed range of 129–1599 pg/ml, but did not significantly change over the 24-week study period. Total adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) significantly increased from 776 ± 400 pmol/ml at week 0 to 1196 ± 467 pmol/ml at week 24. The percent unmodified adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) decreased from 23.8 ± 6.0% at week 0 to 15.2 ± 5.2% at week 24. Interestingly, although FGF21 levels did not change, there was a good correlation between FGF21 and total adiponectin (ρ = 0.788, P < 0.001). We quantified the abundances of serum ceramides and sphingosines (SPH) because adiponectin has a defined role in sphingolipid metabolism through adiponectin receptor-mediated activation of ceramidases. The most abundant ceramide in dolphin sera was Cer 24:1 comprising 49% of the ceramides measured. Significant reductions were observed in the unsaturated Cer 18:1, Cer 20:1, and Cer 24:1, whereas significant increases were observed in saturated Cer 22:0, Cer 24:0, and Cer 26:0. However, total serum ceramides did not change. Significant elevations were detected for total sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate. Proteomic analysis of the serum proteins revealed few changes in serum proteins over the study period. In conclusion

  20. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL MERCURY IN FISH TISSUES USING PYROLYSIS ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY WITH GOLD AMALGAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid procedure for measuring total mercury in fish tissues is evaluated and
    compared with conventional techniques. Using an automated instrument incorporating combustion, preconcentration by amalgamation with gold, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), mill...

  1. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I.; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

  2. Diet-Induced Alterations in Total and Metabolically Active Microbes within the Rumen of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lettat, Abderzak; Benchaar, Chaouki

    2013-01-01

    DNA-based techniques are widely used to study microbial populations; however, this approach is not specific to active microbes, because DNA may originate from inactive and/or dead cells. Using cDNA and DNA, respectively, we aimed to discriminate the active microbes from the total microbial community within the rumen of dairy cows fed diets with increasing proportions of corn silage (CS). Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square (32-d period; 21-d adaptation) design to investigate diet-induced shifts in microbial populations by targeting the rDNA gene. Cows were fed a total mixed ration with the forage portion being either barley silage (0% CS), a 50∶50 mixture of barley silage and corn silage (50% CS), or corn silage (100% CS). No differences were found for total microbes analyzed by quantitative PCR, but changes were observed within the active ones. Feeding more CS to dairy cows was accompanied by an increase in Prevotella rRNA transcripts (P = 0.10) and a decrease in the protozoal rRNA transcripts (P<0.05). Although they were distributed differently among diets, 78% of the amplicons detected in DNA- and cDNA-based fingerprints were common to total and active bacterial communities. These may represent a bacterial core of abundant and active cells that drive the fermentation processes. In contrast, 10% of amplicons were specific to total bacteria and may represent inactive or dead cells, whereas 12% were only found within the active bacterial community and may constitute slow-growing bacteria with high metabolic activity. It appears that cDNA-based analysis is more discriminative to identify diet-induced shifts within the microbial community. This approach allows the detection of diet-induced changes in the microbial populations as well as particular bacterial amplicons that remained undetected using DNA-based methods. PMID:23593365

  3. High diet overlap between native small-bodied fishes and nonnative fathead minnow in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seegert, Sarah E. Zahn; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Baxter, Colden V.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O., Jr.; Cross, Wyatt F.

    2014-01-01

    River regulation may mediate the interactions among native and nonnative species, potentially favoring nonnative species and contributing to the decline of native populations. We examined food resource use and diet overlap among small-bodied fishes in the Grand Canyon section of the Colorado River as a first step in evaluating potential resource competition. We compared the diets of the predominant small-bodied fishes (native Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus, juvenile Flannelmouth Sucker Catostomus latipinnis, and juvenile Bluehead Sucker C. discobolus, and nonnative Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas) across seasons at four sites downstream of Glen Canyon Dam using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and Schoener's similarity index. The diets of these fishes included diatoms, amorphous detritus, aquatic invertebrates (especially simuliid and chironomid larvae), terrestrial invertebrates, and terrestrial vegetation. Diets varied with season and were affected by high turbidity. Fish consumed more amorphous detritus and terrestrial vegetation during the summer monsoon season (July–September), when turbidity was higher. The diets of all species overlapped, but there was large variation in the degree of overlap. The diets of juvenile suckers and Fathead Minnows were most similar, while Speckled Dace had relatively distinct diets. The differences took the form of higher proportions of diatoms and amorphous detritus in the diets of Bluehead Suckers and Fathead Minnows and higher proportions of simuliids and chironomids in those of Speckled Dace. If food resources are or become limiting, diet overlap suggests that competition may occur among native and nonnative species, which could have implications for the population dynamics of these fishes and for the management of the Colorado River ecosystem in Grand Canyon.

  4. Variability in Isotope Discrimination Factors in Coral Reef Fishes: Implications for Diet and Food Web Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Alex S. J.; Waite, Anya M.; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Interpretation of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) is generally based on the assumption that with each trophic level there is a constant enrichment in the heavier isotope, leading to diet-tissue discrimination factors of 3.4‰ for 15N (ΔN) and ∼0.5‰ for 13C (ΔC). Diet-tissue discrimination factors determined from paired tissue and gut samples taken from 152 individuals from 26 fish species at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia demonstrate a large amount of variability around constant values. While caution is necessary in using gut contents to represent diet due to the potential for high temporal variability, there were significant effects of trophic position and season that may also lead to variability in ΔN under natural conditions. Nitrogen enrichment increased significantly at higher trophic levels (higher tissue δ15N), with significantly higher ΔN in carnivorous species. Changes in diet led to significant changes in ΔN, but not tissue δ15N, between seasons for several species: Acanthurus triostegus, Chromis viridis, Parupeneus signatus and Pomacentrus moluccensis. These results confirm that the use of meta-analysis averages for ΔN is likely to be inappropriate for accurately determining diets and trophic relationships using tissue stable isotope ratios. Where feasible, discrimination factors should be directly quantified for each species and trophic link in question, acknowledging the potential for significant variation away from meta-analysis averages and, perhaps, controlled laboratory diets and conditions. PMID:21060681

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. PMID:25557903

  6. Total and organic mercury in Barents sea pelagic fish

    SciTech Connect

    Joiris, C.R.; Ali, I.B.; Hoisbeek, L. Bossicart, M.; Tapia, G.

    1995-11-01

    One of the main questions, when studying mercury levels in natural samples, is to define how far the measured concentrations correspond to natural- or background-levels or to actual contamination due to human activities. To establish background pristine levels of Hg in the marine environment, areas of very low human activities are often proposed. Arctic and Antarctic waters, together with deep oceans waters, are best suited and provide themselves for such studies. Barents Sea areas were used in this study, even if the existence of an important atmospheric transport of Hg probably caused an increase of Hg levels at a global scale. Instead of analyzing mercury from the very low concentrations in sea water, it is much easier to identify it from the higher concentrations which organisms, used as bioindicators, have built up in their tissues. By using these bioindicators to study the bioavailable fraction of the stable residues, one also integrates small scale temporal and spatial variations. Pelagic fish were used in this work to study the ecotoxicology of Hg in the Barents Sea. This study has been made possible due to recent access of the Barents Sea to western scientists and it is to serve as a complement to existing studies by the same team in the Greenland and Norwegian seas, and the southwestern part of the Barents Sea. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Diet of fishes in Passa Cinco stream, Corumbataí River sub-basin, São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rondineli, G; Gomiero, L M; Carmassi, A L; Braga, F M S

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and classify the food preference of fish species in Passa Cinco stream. The grade of feeding preference was applied to stomachs considered replete. This method consists of attributing values to food items found in certain species, according to the participation of each item in the analysed stomach. We analysed 576 full stomachs of 28 species. The autochthonous insects were the main constituents of the diets of these species, and the majority of ingested items classified as occasional. Allochthonous items such as plant debris, seeds and earthworms were associated with higher-order site. Of the total possible combination pairs of species, 29.4% showed high overlap, which occurred mainly within species that consumed aquatic insect larvae. However, those species showed significant differences in the exploitation of food resources. Omnivory was common, showing the plasticity of the required species that inhabit environments as found in streams. PMID:21437413

  8. Diets of emerald and spottail shiners and potential interactions with other western Lake Erie planktivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Kyle J.; Vondracek, Bruce; Parrish, Donna L.; Muth, Kenneth M.

    1992-01-01

    Emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) and spottail shiner (N. hudsonius) were abundant historically in western Lake Erie. Recent changes in the fish community suggest that shiners may not compete favorably with the invading white perch (Morone americana) or the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). We examined the diets of emerald and spottail shiner and compared them to other planktivores in western Lake Erie. Emerald and spottail shiner ate cladocerans such as Daphnia spp.,Leptodora, and Bythotrephes. Biologically significant overlaps (Schoener 1970 index ≥ 0.6) among zooplanktivores occurred from July through September, but most occurred during July. The frequency of significant diet overlaps among planktivores declined since an earlier study in the mid-1970s (Muth and Busch 1989) possibly indicating that competitive interactions have eased since 1975. In addition to competitive interactions, other factors such as increased eutrophication and predator mediated mortality likely played a role in planktivore community changes since the early 1970s.

  9. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: total diet approach to healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Nitzke, Susan

    2013-02-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies and dietary patterns that support the total diet approach include the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet, MyPlate, Let's Move, Nutrition Facts labels, Healthy People 2020, and the Dietary Reference Intakes. In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as good or bad is overly simplistic and can foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Alternative approaches are necessary in some situations. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, time and convenience, environment, abundance of foods, economics, media/marketing, perceived product safety, culture, and attitudes/beliefs. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, skilled food and nutrition practitioners utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. Focusing on variety, moderation, and proportionality in the context of a healthy lifestyle, rather than targeting specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion and prevent unnecessary reliance on supplements. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes. PMID:23351634

  10. [Risk-benefit of some mollusks and processed fishes in the renal patient's diet].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, M I; Miranda-Becerra, D; Pérez-Gil, R F

    2010-03-01

    The renal diet must include limited amounts of high quality protein, phosphorus P and potassium K. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA EPA and DHA), present in fishes and mollusks, render beneficial properties against progression of renal damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein PR, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and n-3PUFA in processed fishes and mollusks as an alimentary option for renal patients. Canned tuna (water AA and oil AC), sardine in tomate sauce ST and chipotle SC and smoked salmon SA, fresh jumbo flying squid CA, common octopus PU and oyster OS were evaluated. Significant difference was detected (p <.0.05) for K between different types of fish. SA contained 38g/100g PR, 307 mg/100g of P, 371 mg/ 100g K and 106 mg/100g n-3PUFA. Sardines contained (279-304 mg/100g of P and 283-322 mg/100g K and tunas 142-160 mg/100g P and 141-154 mg/100g K. Tunas and sardines had elevated concentration of n-3PUFA (4114 and 4790 mg/ 100g respectively), P:n-3PUFA and K:n-3PUFA ratio was low in tunas (0.03) and sardines (0.06). AA and AC contained (10.1 and 11.1 mgP/gPR), while ST and SC provided 26.4-19.1 mg/P/gPR. n-3PUFA/gPR were similar for tunas and sardines (302-424mg/gPR). Mollusks: CA presented the highest values of P and PR (2.4 mg/100g and 18.4g/100g). n-3PUFA ranged from 4.3 to 79 mg/100g in PU and OS respectively. Among processed fishes, only canned tunas are recommended for the diet of renal patients, in an individualized basis. The risk-benefit ratio of sardines in the renal diet should be evaluated, due to their high content of P and n-3PUFA. Salmon and mollusks are not recommended for the renal diet. PMID:21090278

  11. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Lactococcus garvieae, a fish pathogenic bacteria causing lactococcosis. Of all the tested oils, clove oil had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an intraperitoneal infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with L. garvieae was performed, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined to be 1.78x10(2) CFU/fish. For an in vivo trial, no mortality was apparent in fish fed on the fish diets supplemented with 3% (w/w) of clove oil and with 0.5% (w/w) of oxytetracycline 5 d prior to the infection with L. garvieae. These results indicate that clove oil had a protective effect on experimental L. garvieae infection in tilapia and the potential to replace antibiotics for controlling the disease. PMID:19734665

  12. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  13. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  14. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  15. A total diet study to estimate PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs intake from food in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-Sheng; Hsu, Kuang-Yi; Wang, Shih-Min; Chou, Ukai; Chen, Shih-Yun; Huang, Nai-Chun; Liao, Chia-Yi; Yu, Tsae-Pyng; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2007-04-01

    Concentrations of 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in total diet study samples of 14 food groups of animal origin from 11 locations in Taiwan, collected in 2003. Pork meat possessed the lowest background concentration level of 0.058 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs+dl-PCBs)/g fresh weight. The dl-PCBs contribution were 31%, 59%, 36%, 46%, and 13% for meat and meat products, muscle meat of fish, milk and dairy products, fat and oil, and egg, respectively. The estimated monthly intake (EMI) was 44.7 and 39.5 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs+dl-PCBs)/kg b.w./month for a male and female adult weighing 64.8 kg and 56.3 kg, respectively. Muscle meat of fish contributes 46% to the mean EMI. Factors affecting the EMI, in order of increasing importance are analytical method uncertainty, sample compositional difference, and food consumption data. In addition to the continuous efforts to identify and reduce the source of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs releases into the environment and the food-chain, the practice of a healthy dietary habit, i.e., eating foods of lower TEQ levels, was suggested to effectively reduce human exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. PMID:17215025

  16. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. PMID:25707598

  17. Total mercury, methylmercury and ethylmercury in marine fish and marine fishery products sold in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Sung; Jung, So-Young; Son, Yeo-Joon; Choi, Su-Jeong; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jeong-Gon; Park, So-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Me; Chae, Young-Zoo; Kim, Min-Young

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a survey of 177 samples of fish and fishery products from the markets in Seoul was carried out to investigate total mercury and organic mercury (methylmercury) concentrations and to establish a correlation, if any, between total and organic mercury levels. Concentrations of total and organic mercury in canned tuna ranged 0.001-2.581 and 0.003-1.307 mg/kg, respectively; those for fish, such as cod or salmon, ranged 0.012-2.529 and 0.021-0.507 mg/kg, respectively. Ethylmercury was not detected. More than 50% of total mercury in the samples existed as organic mercury. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between total mercury and methylmercury concentrations of fish and fishery products found to have methylmercury were 0.844 and 0.976, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was a higher correlation in fishery products than in fish. Although there was no product in which mercury exceeded the standard set by the Food Code in 2008, with the exception of marlin steak, a processed food, which contained 1.307 mg/kg methylmercury. None exceeded the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for mercury. Collectively, the results indicate that fish or fishery products marketed in Seoul, with the exception of marlin, have low levels of total or organic mercury and, thus, intake of these products is not a risk to public health. PMID:24786250

  18. Growth and Feed Efficiency of Juvenile Channel Catfish Reared at Different Water Temperatures and Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Fish Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus do not feed well at low temperatures. It is thought that a diet containing fish meal may enhance feed palatability at low temperatures since fish meal is highly palatable to the fish. There is a lack of information on effects of fish meal levels on growth perfor...

  19. A history of total mercury in edible muscle of fish from lakes in northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, W L; Stern, G A; Low, G; Hendzel, M; Boila, G; Roach, P; Evans, M S; Billeck, B N; DeLaronde, J; Friesen, S; Kidd, K; Atkins, S; Muir, D C G; Stoddart, M; Stephens, G; Stephenson, S; Harbicht, S; Snowshoe, N; Grey, B; Thompson, S; DeGraff, N

    2005-12-01

    Subsistence fishing has been an important source of food for Native People in northern Canada since prehistoric time. Measurements of the levels of mercury in edible muscle of northern fish have been undertaken for over three decades in efforts to evaluate the risks of consuming northern fish. This report summarizes the data obtained from 7974 fish of 25 species from sites distributed from the Yukon to Labrador. The most abundant species were lake trout, lake whitefish, arctic char, walleye, northern pike and burbot. The question being asked was essentially "Are the fish safe to eat?" The results were used to support decisions on fishing and consumption of fish. They were sorted in several ways, into concentration ranges corresponding to human consumption guidelines, into political jurisdictions and into types of bedrock geology. Overall walleye, northern pike and lake trout, usually exceeded the subsistence consumption guideline of 0.2 microg g-1 total mercury and often exceeded the higher guideline of 0.5 microg g-1 total mercury for commercial sales of fish. Mercury in burbot, another facultative predator, was often lower but several still exceeding a guideline. Arctic char collections were mostly from anadromous populations and these had very low levels of mercury, presumably reflecting marine food sources. Lake whitefish were among the cleanest fish examined with 69 of 81 collections falling in the lowest range. Most collections were from sites in sedimentary rock. However a few sites were in metamorphic, intrusive or volcanic rocks and these, taken together, tended to have a higher proportion of sites in the higher ranges of mercury. These results indicate a widespread problem with mercury in subsistence fisheries for predator species of fish with the problem being most problematic for Nunavut. PMID:16169059

  20. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  1. Effects of low carbohydrate diets high in red meats or poultry, fish and shellfish on plasma lipids and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Bridget A; Charboneau, Nicole L; Brys, Emily E; Crouse, Kristin A; Beitz, Donald C; Wilson, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Background Low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been demonstrated to be effective tools for promoting weight loss and an improved plasma lipid profile. Such diets are often associated with increased meat consumption, either poultry, fish, and shellfish (PFS), which are generally high in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or red meats (RM), generally high in saturated fat (SFA). The fatty acid profile and content of a diet may influence the plasma lipid profile of humans. This study examined whether the type of meat consumed could influence the outcome of an LCD. Methods Moderately obese subjects consumed two different LCDs as part of a weight loss regimen: 1) a diet high in foods of mammalian origin (RM) intended to contain more SFA, or 2) a diet high in PFS intended to contain more PUFA. Diet dependent changes in body weight, nutritional intake, and plasma lipids were evaluated during a 28 day study period. Results Both diets were associated with significant weight loss after 28 days, -5.26 ± 0.84 kg and -5.74 ± 0.63 kg for RM and PFS groups, respectively. The PFS diet was associated with a significantly higher intake of PUFA and cholesterol. Despite high cholesterol and fat intakes, neither diet was associated with significant changes in plasma cholesterol or the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. While plasma triglycerides were reduced in both groups, the effect was only statistically significant for the PFS diet. PMID:17974023

  2. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. )

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  3. Unexpected depletion of plasma arachidonate and total protein in cats fed a low arachidonic acid diet due to peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Amy; Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Bigley, Karen; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    An opportunity to investigate a low-arachidonic acid (AA) feline diet possibly related to elevated peroxide value (PV) during storage on plasma phospholipid (PL) and reproductive tissue fatty acid (FA) profiles presented itself in the present study. Cats (nine animals per group) had been fed one of three dry extruded, complete and balanced diets for 300 d before spaying. The diets contained adequate AA (0.3 g/kg), similar concentration of antioxidants and were stored at ambient temperature, but differed in FA composition. The diets were designated as follows: diet A (high linoleic acid), diet B (high γ-linolenic acid) and diet C (adequate linoleic acid). Diet samples that were obtained the week before spaying revealed an elevated PV of diet A v. diets B and C (135 v. 5.80 and 2.12 meq/kg fat, respectively). Records revealed decreased food consumption of diet A cats beginning at 240 d but without weight loss; thus an opportunity presented to investigate diet PV effects. Total plasma protein and PL-AA concentrations in group A were significantly decreased at 140 and 300 d. Uterine and ovarian tissues collected at surgery revealed modest decrements of AA. Diet A was below minimum standards at 0.015 % (minimum 0.02 %), probably due to oxidation. The time at which diet A became unacceptable may have occurred between 60 and 140 d because plasma PL-AA was within our normal colony range (approximately 4-7 % relative) after 56 d of feeding. High-linoleic acid-containing diets may be more likely to be oxidised requiring additional antioxidants. The findings suggest that reduced plasma protein in combination with plasma AA concentrations may serve as biomarkers of diet peroxidation in cats before feed refusal, weight loss or tissue depletion. PMID:22005409

  4. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  5. Contributions of allochthonous inputs of food to the diets of benthopelagic fish over the northwest Mediterranean slope (to 2300 m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Soler-Membrives, A.; Stefanescu, C.; Lombarte, A.; Carrassón, M.

    2016-03-01

    The contributions of allochthonous inputs of food (food falls, plastics and other anthropogenic remains) in the diets of large fish (6 teleosteans, 3 sharks) were analyzed for depths between 500 and 2300 m in the deep Balearic basin (western Mediterranean). The analyses were based on gut contents. The identification was based on a multi-analytic approach, comprising morphological features (including morphometric analysis) and molecular genetics (DNA barcoding method). Remains of a number of anthropogenic, inorganic materials (microplastic fibres, plastic bags and cartons) appeared regularly in the guts of deep-sea fish (e.g., in Trachyrhynchus scabrus and Mora moro), though always at low occurrence (9.1% of fish at most) and negligible weights (< 2%W of diet). In our sampling, covering an area of ca. 12 km2, large food falls contribute only a little to fish diets by weight, W, e.g., in shark diets they represented 4.5%W for Centroscymnus coelolepis and 11%W for Galeus melastomus. However, the importance of food falls (e.g., cetacean blubber and carcharhinid shark remains) was substantial locally (up to 70.8%W of C. coelolepis diet) particularly near canyons. The arrival of livestock remains (beef flesh, goat ribs and vertebrae) was shown by molecular analyses to contributed to deep-sea shark diets (ca. 5.5%W) comparably to natural food falls. These remains, which originate from human activity, may locally alter the food webs of oligotrophic environments like that of the deep Mediterranean. Food falls of both natural and anthropogenic origin were mainly found in fish collected close to canyon axes. The only cetacean fall documented in the deep Balearic Basin was also near a canyon, the carcass of a small (ca. 1.2 m) striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, collected in a haul at 1750 m off Barcelona.

  6. Fish diets in a freshwater-deprived semiarid estuary (The Coorong, Australia) as inferred by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, S.; Deegan, B. M.; Aldridge, K. T.; Brookes, J. D.; Geddes, M. C.

    2016-09-01

    In 2007, high rates of water extraction combined with a regional drought stopped freshwater discharge to the Coorong, a ∼120 km estuarine and coastal lagoon system at the outlet of the River Murray (Australia). The sources of organic matter sustaining the Coorong food web in the absence of river-borne organic matter and nutrient inputs were evaluated by measuring δ13C, δ15N and δ34S in large-bodied fish and their prey. In general, the δ34S of the food web (mean = 11.3‰; range = 4.32-18.9‰) suggested a comparable contribution from autochthonous pelagic (∼21‰) and benthic (<5‰) primary production. A relatively high δ13C in all organisms (-20 to -9.2‰) was also consistent with a dominant contribution from autochtonous sources to the food web. A Bayesian mixing model framework (SIMMR) was used to estimate the diet of large-bodied fish for statistically-determined prey groups based on their similarity in isotopic composition. Argyrosomus japonicus preyed primarily on Fish Group 1 (small pelagic fish like galaxiids and Hyperlophus vittatus), Rhombosolea tapirina on Invertebrate Group 2 (polychaetes like Capitella spp.) but Acanthopagrus butcheri fed on a wide variety of fish and invertebrate groups. A partial switch in diet to other prey groups suggested larger Ar. japonicus fed on larger prey, such as crabs and adult Aldrichetta forsteri. Despite being numerically abundant at the time, Fish Group 2 (benthic species) was a relatively low proportion of large-bodied fish diets. This probably reflected the tendency of some salt-tolerant members of this group (such as Atherinosoma microstoma) to prefer hypersaline habitats, which the large-bodied fish avoided. As the heavily preyed-on Fish Group 1 included species with a marine component to their life-cycle, marine productivity may also help to maintain this estuarine ecosystem in the absence of river-borne organic matter inputs.

  7. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1 694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians, and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and HDL cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. RESULTS Vegans had the lowest BMI, and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 nmol/L lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 nmol/L. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.60 nmol/L, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet. PMID:24346473

  8. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  9. Three-Year Breeding Cycle of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Plant-Based Diet, Totally Free of Marine Resources: Consequences for Reproduction, Fatty Acid Composition and Progeny Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  10. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  11. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  12. Total Diet Study: For a Closer-to-real Estimate of Dietary Exposure to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Kwon, Sungok; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendment on the Food Sanitation Act in Korea mandated the Minister of Food & Drug Safety to secure the scientific basis for management and reevaluation of standards and specifications of foods. Especially because the current food safety control is limited within the scope of ‘Farm to Market’ covering from production to retail in Korea, safety control at the plane of true ‘Farm to Fork’ scope is urgently needed and should include ‘total diet’ of population instead of individual food items. Therefore, ‘Total Diet Study (TDS)’ which provides ‘closer-to-real’ estimates of exposure to hazardous materials through analysis on table-ready (cooked) samples of foods would be the solution to more comprehensive food safety management, as suggested by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Although the protection of diets from hazards must be considered as one of the most essential public health functions of any country, we may need to revisit the value of foods which has been too much underrated by the meaningless amount of some hazardous materials in Korea. Considering the primary value of foods lies on sustaining life, growth, development, and health promotion of human being, food safety control should be handled not only by the presence or absence of hazardous materials but also by maximizing the value of foods via balancing with the preservation of beneficial components in foods embracing total diet. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview on TDS by describing procedures involved except chemical analysis which is beyond our scope. Also, details on the ongoing TDS in Korea are provided as an example. Although TDS itself might not be of keen interest for most readers, it is the main user of the safety reference values resulted from toxicological research in the public health perspective. PMID:26483882

  13. USE OF THE OLIGOCHAETE, LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS, AS A PREY ORGANISM FOR THE TOXICANT EXPOSURE OF FISH THROUGH THE DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish, but its sufficiency as a stand alone diet has not been evaluated. We conducted 21-d and 30-d experiments with young fa...

  14. A harmonised approach for identifying core foods for total diet studies.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Niamh F C; McNulty, Breige A; Turrini, Aida; Tlustos, Christina; Hearty, Aine P; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Kelleher, Cecily C; Nugent, Anne P

    2014-01-01

    Total diet studies (TDS) are used to gather information on chemical substances in food, thereby facilitating risk assessments and health monitoring. Candidate foods for inclusion in a TDS should represent a large part of a typical diet to estimate accurately the exposure of a population and/or specific population groups. There are currently no harmonised guidelines for the selection of foods in a TDS, and so the aim of this study was to explore the possibility of generating a harmonised approach to be used across Europe. Summary statistics data from the European Food Safety Authority's (EFSA) Comprehensive Food Consumption Database were used in this research, which provided data from national food consumption surveys in Europe. The chosen methodology for the selection of foods was based on the weight of food consumed and consumer rate. Using the available data, 59 TDS food lists were created, representing over 51 000 people across 17 countries and seven population groups. All TDS food lists represented > 85% of the populations' diets (85.9-96.3%), while the number of foods in the TDS food lists ranged from 15 to 102. Comparison of the TDS food lists indicated that the most commonly consumed foods included wheat bread and rolls, pastries and cakes, tomatoes, apples, bananas, and chicken, while cow's milk, tap water and orange juice were the most commonly consumed beverages across Europe. This work was complete to support EFSA and other institutions in the development of harmonised TDS into the future. PMID:24893144

  15. Effects of therapeutic lifestyle change diets high and low in dietary fish-derived fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in middle-aged and elderly subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diets, low and high in dietary fish on apolipoprotein metabolism were examined. Subjects were provided with a Western diet for 6-weeks followed by 24-weeks of either of two TLC diets (10/group). Apolipoprotein kinetics were determined in the fed stat...

  16. Changes in total body calcium and diet of breeding house sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Ankney, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    We collected House Sparrows Passer domesticus around London, Ontario, estimated their total body calcium masses, food habits and egg production to test for the effects of endogenous calcium levels on control of clutch size. Before egg production began, calcium levels increased significantly and remained high through the end of egg laying, and then declined significantly after egg laying. We found no evidence that clutch size was related to endogenous calcium levels. Upon first ovulation, House Sparrows greatly increased consumption of calciferous materials such as snail shells, bird eggshells and calciferous grit. Their diet returned to normal after the final egg was ovulated. Daily calcium intake was sufficient to meet eggshell calcium needs.

  17. Ecosystem fragmentation drives increased diet variation in an endemic livebearing fish of the Bahamas

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Márcio S; Langerhans, R Brian; Giery, Sean T; Layman, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    One consequence of human-driven habitat degradation in general, and habitat fragmentation in particular, is loss of biodiversity. An often-underappreciated aspect of habitat fragmentation relates to changes in the ecology of species that persist in altered habitats. In Bahamian wetlands, ecosystem fragmentation causes disruption of hydrological connectivity between inland fragmented wetlands and adjacent marine areas, with the consequent loss of marine piscivores from fragmented sections. We took advantage of this environmental gradient to investigate effects of ecosystem fragmentation on patterns of resource use in the livebearing fish Gambusia hubbsi (Family Poeciliidae), using both population- and individual-level perspectives. We show that fragmentation-induced release from predation led to increased G. hubbsi population densities, which consequently led to lower mean growth rates, likely as a result of higher intraspecific competition for food. This was accompanied by a broadening of dietary niches via increased interindividual diet variation, suggesting a negative effect of predation and a positive effect of intraspecific competition on the degree of diet variation in natural populations. Our results therefore indicate that habitat fragmentation can greatly impact the ecology of resilient populations, with potentially important ecological and evolutionary implications. PMID:25473482

  18. Ecosystem fragmentation drives increased diet variation in an endemic livebearing fish of the Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Márcio S; Langerhans, R Brian; Giery, Sean T; Layman, Craig A

    2014-08-01

    One consequence of human-driven habitat degradation in general, and habitat fragmentation in particular, is loss of biodiversity. An often-underappreciated aspect of habitat fragmentation relates to changes in the ecology of species that persist in altered habitats. In Bahamian wetlands, ecosystem fragmentation causes disruption of hydrological connectivity between inland fragmented wetlands and adjacent marine areas, with the consequent loss of marine piscivores from fragmented sections. We took advantage of this environmental gradient to investigate effects of ecosystem fragmentation on patterns of resource use in the livebearing fish Gambusia hubbsi (Family Poeciliidae), using both population- and individual-level perspectives. We show that fragmentation-induced release from predation led to increased G. hubbsi population densities, which consequently led to lower mean growth rates, likely as a result of higher intraspecific competition for food. This was accompanied by a broadening of dietary niches via increased interindividual diet variation, suggesting a negative effect of predation and a positive effect of intraspecific competition on the degree of diet variation in natural populations. Our results therefore indicate that habitat fragmentation can greatly impact the ecology of resilient populations, with potentially important ecological and evolutionary implications. PMID:25473482

  19. Diet of juvenile lake trout in southern Lake Ontario in relation to abundance and size of prey fishes, 1979-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We examined the diet of juvenile lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (<450 mm, total length) in Lake Ontario during four sampling periods (April–May, June, July–August, and October 1979–1987) in relation to changes in prey fish abundance in the depth zone where we caught the lake trout. Over all years combined, slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus contributed the most (39–52%) by wet weight to the diet, followed by alewives Alosa pseudoharengus(3–38%), rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax (17–43%), and johnny darters Etheostoma nigrum(2–10%). Over 90% of alewives eaten during April–May and June were age 1, and 98% of those eaten during October were age 0 (few alewives were eaten in July–August). Mean lengths of rainbow smelt and slimy sculpins in stomachs increased with size of lake trout. Juvenile lake trout generally fed opportunistically—seasonal and annual changes in diet usually reflected seasonal and annual changes in abundance of prey fishes near bottom where we captured the lake trout. Furthermore, diet within a given season varied with depth of capture of lake trout, and changes with depth in proportions of prey species in lake trout stomachs mirrored changes in proportions of the prey species in trawl catches at the same depth. Alewives (ages 0 and 1) were the only prey fish eaten in substantial quantities by both juvenile lake trout and other salmonines, and thus are a potential focus of competition between these predators.

  20. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A D; Forsyth, D S

    2011-06-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g(-1), range) were: sea bass 329 (38-1367), red snapper 148 (36-431), orange roughy 543 (279-974), fresh water trout 55 (20-430), grouper 360 (8-1060), black cod 284 (71-651), Arctic char 37 (28-54), king fish 440 (42-923), tilefish 601 (79-1164) and marlin 854 (125-2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fish sold at the retail level is 1000 ng g(-1) for shark, swordfish, marlin, orange roughy, escolar and both fresh and frozen tuna. The standard is 500 ng g(-1) for all other types of fish. In this study, despite the small number of samples of each species, the 1000 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded in five samples of marlin (28%). The 500 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded by six samples of sea bass (20%), four of tilefish (50%), five of grouper (24%), six of king fish (40%) and one of black cod (13%). PMID:21623497

  1. Addition of aspirin to a fish oil-rich diet decreases inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Alexander V; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil-enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) female mice were fed for 13weeks one of the four following diets: omega-3 FA deficient (OD), omega-3 FA rich (OR) (1.8g omega-3 FAs/kg·diet per day), omega-3 FA rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1g ASA/kg·diet per day) or an omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Proinflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50%-70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic proinflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA vs. just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692

  2. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg(-1)) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  3. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg-1) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  4. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  5. Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja; Egeberg, Rikke; Halkjær, Jytte; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Health-promoting effects of the Mediterranean diet have been in focus for decades, whereas less interest has been given to existing healthy dietary habits within other Western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a food index based on traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects and relate this to all-cause mortality in a cohort of Danes. Detailed information about diet, lifestyle, and anthropometry was provided by 57,053 Danes aged 50-64 y. During 12 y of follow-up, 4126 of the cohort participants died. A healthy Nordic food index, consisting of traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects (fish, cabbages, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables), was extracted and associated with mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% CI were used to associate the index to mortality. In an adjusted model, a 1-point higher index score was associated with a significantly lower MRR for both men [0.96 (0.92-0.99)] and women [0.96 (0.92-1.00)] (P = 0.03). When the index components were evaluated separately, whole grain rye bread intake was the factor most consistently associated with lower mortality in men. In conclusion, an index based on traditional healthy Nordic foods was found to be related to lower mortality among middle-aged Danes, in particular among men. This study indicates that traditional, healthy food items should be considered before public recommendations for major dietary changes are made. PMID:21346102

  6. [Effects of a low-fat diet including vegetables on total blood cholesterol levels in the aged].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Bertoncini, P; Laghi, G; Del Corso, L; Giuliano, G

    1990-11-30

    High total serum cholesterol and low HDL levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease before the age of 65. Currently in older populations their role has not yet been defined. In the elderly a low-cholesterol diet is therefore preferable to pharmacological treatment, in view of the absence of collateral effects. In this study 40 elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia were divided at random into two groups. They were respectively fed their usual diet and a legume-supplemented normal caloric diet for 8 weeks. Total serum cholesterol levels significantly decreased in the latter group from the 2nd week onward. PMID:2150025

  7. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: A review of nine years of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russ D.

    2002-01-01

    The diet of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Little Galloo Island (LGI) in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario has been quantified since 1992. Over the past nine years considerable information has been generated on cormorant feeding ecology through the examination of approximately 12,000 pellets collected on LGI, where three distinct cormorant feeding periods, pre-chick, chick, and post-chick, are delineated by differences in diet composition and daily fish consumption. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were the major prey during pre-chick and post-chick feeding periods. Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), which move inshore to spawn in mid-June, dominated (>60%) cormorant diets during the chick feeding period. Mean daily fish consumption (14.6) during the pre-chick feeding period was significantly greater than during the chick feeding (9.3) or post-chick feeding (8.0) periods. The proportion of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the diet increased over the season (0.8% to 7.2%), while the size of bass consumed declined (214 mm to 143 mm). Forage fish (mainly alewife, three-spine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus] and minnows) comprised 58% of the diet of LGI cormorants, followed by panfish (37%) (yellow perch, pumpkinseed [Lepomis gibbosus], rock bass [Ambloplites rupestris]) and gamefish (5%) (mostly smallmouth bass). On the average LGI cormorants consumed about 32.8 million fish annually, weighing about 1.4 million kilograms. Cormorants from LGI consumed more biomass of smallmouth bass and yellow perch annually than is taken by sport (bass and yellow perch) and commercial (perch) fishermen.

  8. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  9. Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, J-C; Tard, A; Volatier, J-L; Verger, P

    2005-07-01

    This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in the French diet (as consumed), 456 composite samples were prepared from 2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, children and vegetarians. The results showed that contaminant levels observed in the foods examined 'as consumed' complied fully with current European legislation. However, particular attention needs to be paid to the exposure of specific population groups, such as children and vegans/macrobiotics, who could be exposed to certain mycotoxins in quantities that exceed the tolerable or weekly daily intake levels. This observation is particularly relevant with respect to ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For these mycotoxins, cereals and cereal products were the main contributors to high exposure. PMID:16019841

  10. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins and health risk assessment in the second French total diet study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Fremy, Jean-Marc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2013-02-01

    Mycotoxins are produced in plants by micro-fungi species, and naturally contaminated the food chain. In the second French total diet study (TDS), mycotoxins were analyzed in 577 food samples collected in mainland France to be representative of the population diet and prepared ((as consumed)). Highest mean concentrations were found in wheat and cereal-based products (bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, pastries, pizzas and savoury pastries…). Exposure of adult and child populations was assessed by combining national consumption data with analytical results, using lowerbound (LB) and upperbound (UB) assumptions for left-censorship management. Individual exposures were compared with available health-based guidance values (HBGV). Only the exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives was found to significantly exceed the HBGV in LB in adults (0.5% [0.1; 0.8]) and children (5% [4; 6]). HBGV was exceeded in UB only for T-2 and HT-2 toxins by, respectively, 0.2% [0.02; 0.05] and 4% [3; 5] of adults, and 11% [9; 12] and 35% [32; 37] of children. Although the exposures assessed were generally lower than the previous French TDS, the results indicated a health concern for trichothecenes and a need to reduce dietary exposure as well as analytical limits. PMID:23137957

  11. A model for determining total ketogenic ratio (TKR) for evaluating the ketogenic property of a weight-reduction diet.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I A

    2009-09-01

    Ketogenic weight-reduction dieting methods have existed since antiquity. Recent research has demonstrated their value in controlling type 2 diabetes. Although research done in the 1920s provided a mathematical model of non-weight-reduction ketogenic clinical diets using the concept of a ketogenic ratio (KR), little has been done to evaluate the ketogenic nature of purported ketogenic weight-reduction diets. The mathematical model of Woodyatt is valid only under isocaloric conditions where dietary energy intake is balanced by energy use. It is hypothesised that under certain conditions of weight loss, energy deficit can predict utilization of stored lipid so that a modified formula for total ketogenic ratio (TKR) may be derived. Such a predictive mathematical model may be a useful tool in predicting the efficacy of weight-reduction diets and adapting such diets to individual patient needs. PMID:19410378

  12. Determination of PCBs and total lipids in edible fish and crab tissue using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gavlor, M.; Hale, R.; Smith, C.; Thames, J.; Mothershead, R.

    1995-12-31

    An offline supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method has been developed to determine PCB congeners and total tissue lipid content in edible fish and crab tissues collected from several river systems in Virginia. The method is rapid and safe, requiring only 40 minutes per sample and uses nonorganic solvents for total lipid extraction and only 1.5 mL isooctane for PCB extraction. The SFE approach compares favorably with soxhlet extraction, ASE and column elution. Over 800 fish and crab tissue samples were analyzed successfully, thus demonstrating the robustness of the method. Total lipid values obtained using SFE showed considerable spatial and interspecies variability ranging from 1.8% in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) to 36.4% in striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Total PCB concentrations also varied greatly by site and species. These ranged from below the quantitation limit (1.0 {micro}1 g/kg) to 9,910 {micro}g/kg on a dry weight basis using GCELCD. Dominant PCB congeners detected were in good agreement with those reported by other researchers. Mean total PCB concentrations did not correlate well with total tissue lipid content.

  13. Assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals: the French Total Diet Study design.

    PubMed

    Hulin, M; Bemrah, N; Nougadère, A; Volatier, J L; Sirot, V; Leblanc, J C

    2014-01-01

    As part of the previous French Total Diet Studies (TDS) focusing on exposure to food chemicals in the population aged 3 years and older, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) launched a specific TDS on infants to complete its overall chemical food safety programme for the general population. More than 500 chemical substances were analysed in food products consumed by children under 3 years old, including nutrients, several endocrine disruptors resulting from human activities (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pesticide residues, etc.) or migrating from food contact materials such as bisphenol A or phthalates, but also natural substances such as mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and steroids. To obtain a representative and general view of infant food consumption, food items were selected based on results of a national consumption survey conducted specifically on this population. Moreover, a specific study on food was conducted on 429 households to determine which home-cooking practices are employed to prepare food consumed by infants. Overall, the targeted chemical substances were analysed in more than 450 food samples, representing the purchase and home-cooking practices of over 5500 food products. Foods included common foods such as vegetables, fruit or cakes as well as specific infant foods such as infant formula or jarred baby food. The sampling plan covered over 80% of the total diet. Specificities in infant food consumption and habits were therefore considered to define this first infant TDS. This study, conducted on a large scale and focusing on a particularly sensitive population, will provide accurate information on the dietary exposure of children under 3 years to food chemicals, especially endocrine disruptors, and will be particularly useful for risk assessment analysis under the remit of ANSES' expert committees. PMID:24827474

  14. Food Selectivity and Diet Switch Can Explain the Slow Feeding of Herbivorous Coral-Reef Fishes during the Morning

    PubMed Central

    Khait, Ruth; Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-01-01

    Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean. PMID:24358178

  15. Development of thiamine deficiencies and early mortality syndrome in lake trout by feeding experimental and feral fish diets containing thiaminase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Brown, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory investigation on the consequences of feeding predatory saimonids either experimental diets low in thiamine or diets containing alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. In experiment 1, adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were fed experimental diets containing bacterial thiaminase. In experiment 2, adult lake trout were fed natural prey species, alewives, and bloaters Coregonus hoyi. The diets consisted of four combinations of alewives and bloaters from Lake Michigan (100% alewives, 65% alewives-35% bloaters, 35% alewives-65% bloaters, and 100% bloaters), alewives from Cayuga Lake, a casein bacterial thiaminase, and a commercial trout diet. We assessed the effects of each diet on egg thiamine concentration and incidence of an embryonic early mortality syndrome (EMS). In experiment 1, incidence of EMS ranged from 0% to 100%. Significant relationships were found between the incidence of EMS and thiamine. In experiment 2, adult lake trout fed 100% alewives from either Lake Michigan or Cayuga Lake or fish fed the casein bacterial thiaminase diet produced eggs with low thiamine and swim-up fry with EMS. At either 35% or 65% alewives in the diet, egg thiamine was significantly lowered. The number of females that produced offspring that died from EMS were low but demonstrated the negative potential if feral lake trout foraged on either 35% or 65% alewives. Depleted egg thiamine and the onset of EMS required diets containing thiaminase for a minimum of 2 years in lake trout initially fully thiamine replete. We conclude that EMS can be caused by extensive feeding on 100% alewives and dietary levels of 35% or greater may prove detrimental to sustainable reproduction of salmonids in the Great Lakes. The data are consistent with that observed in feral lake trout, and it is concluded that EMS is the result of a thiamine deficiency. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  16. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt. PMID:22128889

  17. A New Model For Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in the Rat Utilizing Total Enteral Nutrition to Overfeed a High Polyunsaturated Fat Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have used total enteral nutrition (TEN) to moderately overfeed rats high polyunsaturated fat diets to develop a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by TEN a 187 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet containing 5% (total calories) corn oil or a 220 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet i...

  18. Discovering hidden biodiversity: the use of complementary monitoring of fish diet based on DNA barcoding in freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyunbin; Ventura, Marc; Vidal, Nicolas; Gim, Jeong-Soo; Buchaca, Teresa; Barmuta, Leon A; Jeppesen, Erik; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Ecological monitoring contributes to the understanding of complex ecosystem functions. The diets of fish reflect the surrounding environment and habitats and may, therefore, act as useful integrating indicators of environmental status. It is, however, often difficult to visually identify items in gut contents to species level due to digestion of soft-bodied prey beyond visual recognition, but new tools rendering this possible are now becoming available. We used a molecular approach to determine the species identities of consumed diet items of an introduced generalist feeder, brown trout (Salmo trutta), in 10 Tasmanian lakes and compared the results with those obtained from visual quantification of stomach contents. We obtained 44 unique taxa (OTUs) belonging to five phyla, including seven classes, using the barcode of life approach from cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Compared with visual quantification, DNA analysis showed greater accuracy, yielding a 1.4-fold higher number of OTUs. Rarefaction curve analysis showed saturation of visually inspected taxa, while the curves from the DNA barcode did not saturate. The OTUs with the highest proportions of haplotypes were the families of terrestrial insects Formicidae, Chrysomelidae, and Torbidae and the freshwater Chironomidae. Haplotype occurrence per lake was negatively correlated with lake depth and transparency. Nearly all haplotypes were only found in one fish gut from a single lake. Our results indicate that DNA barcoding of fish diets is a useful and complementary method for discovering hidden biodiversity. PMID:26811787

  19. 18S rRNA V9 metabarcoding for diet characterization: a critical evaluation with two sympatric zooplanktivorous fish species.

    PubMed

    Albaina, Aitor; Aguirre, Mikel; Abad, David; Santos, María; Estonba, Andone

    2016-03-01

    The potential of the 18S rRNA V9 metabarcoding approach for diet assessment was explored using MiSeq paired-end (PE; 2 × 150 bp) technology. To critically evaluate the method's performance with degraded/digested DNA, the diets of two zooplanktivorous fish species from the Bay of Biscay, European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus), were analysed. The taxonomic resolution and quantitative potential of the 18S V9 metabarcoding was first assessed both in silico and with mock and field plankton samples. Our method was capable of discriminating species within the reference database in a reliable way providing there was at least one variable position in the 18S V9 region. Furthermore, it successfully discriminated diet between both fish species, including habitat and diel differences among sardines, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional visual-based diet analysis methods. The high sensitivity and semi-quantitative nature of the 18S V9 metabarcoding approach was supported by both visual microscopy and qPCR-based results. This molecular approach provides an alternative cost and time effective tool for food-web analysis. PMID:27087935

  20. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied. PMID:16341415

  1. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Meyer, Christopher P; Mills, Suzanne C

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus). One hundred forty-nine (51%) of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity) while 76 additional OTUs (26%) could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators' diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding approach

  2. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christopher P.; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus). One hundred forty-nine (51%) of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity) while 76 additional OTUs (26%) could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators’ diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding approach

  3. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

    2006-03-31

    Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2

  4. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products May include lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts Goes easy on saturated fats, trans fat, cholesterol, ...

  5. Proficiency testing pilot for determination of total mercury in fresh fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A proficiency-testing scheme concerning total mercury determination in fish tissue involved 10 laboratories as participants, who used their regular in-house analytical methods, and the assigned value and the standard deviation used in proficiency testing program was derived from calibration against the certified reference values of the CRMs. The majority of participants obtained satisfactory Z-scores, and laboratories that need to revise their procedures were singled out. The objective these exercises were makes a useful contribution towards the production of proficiency test in Brazil. The uncertainty expanded calculated for the reference material was 22%.

  6. Fishmeal-free Atlantic salmon feed formulation shows promise - Joint research between TCFFI, USDA and EWOS uses new diet for post-smolt to food-size fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2 MT/week of Atlantic salmon that The Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute provided to market in March and April of 2016 were fed a custom diet during nearly 90% of their growth that met the following sustainability criteria: - Fishmeal free - GMO free - Zero wild fish in: fish out according t...

  7. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO) rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF) rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005), epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005), fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P < 0.05), HOMA-IR (5.0 vs 13.6; P < 0.019), and serum cholesterol (167 vs 94 mg/dL; P < 0.05). When challenged with LPS, FO-fed mice had significantly lower serum IL-1β compared to SF-fed mice (2.0 vs 30.0 pg/mL; P < 0.001). After LPS-challenge, SF-fed mice had higher mortality, lost more body weight, and had greater decrease in blood glucose compared to FO-fed mice. Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice. PMID:21388548

  8. Total mercury concentrations in human hair from 13 countries in relation to fish consumption and location.

    PubMed

    Airey, D

    1983-11-01

    Five hundred and fifty nine samples of human head hair from 32 locations in 13 countries were analysed for mercury. Tests of different techniques for cleaning and storing samples showed that at ambient air mercury concentrations contamination of samples is undetectable. Arithmetic mean mercury concentrations for people who ate fish 1-4 times each month were: Australia, 2.5 ppm; Canada, 1.2 ppm; China, 0.9 ppm; West Germany, 0.5 ppm; Hong Kong, 3.0 ppm; Italy, 1.5 ppm; Japan, 3.9 ppm; Monaco, 1.7 ppm; New Zealand, 1.3 ppm; Papua New Guinea, 1.8 ppm; South Africa, 1.9 ppm; U.K., 1.6 ppm and USA, 2.4 ppm. The differences are believed to be due to diet and environment. Mean hair mercury concentrations were significantly different for the group that ate fish once or less a month (1.4 ppm) once a fortnight (1.9 ppm) once a week (2.5 ppm) and once or more a day (11.6 ppm). Simplified models of mercury pathways in the environment and man are presented. Hair mercury concentrations measured here and those reported in the literature suggested that the weighted mean hair mercury concentration of people living in both northern and southern hemispheres at latitudes greater than 40 degrees had hair mercury concentrations which were significantly lower than at other latitudes, even in industrialized countries. It is suggested that lower soil temperatures could retard mercury volatilization and inhibits its movement into pathways which get back to man. PMID:6658448

  9. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI. PMID:21099058

  10. Dietary exposure to pesticide residues in Yaoundé: the Cameroonian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Gimou, M-M; Charrondiere, U R; Leblanc, J-C; Pouillot, R

    2008-04-01

    Dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed in Yaoundé, Cameroon, using the total diet study (TDS) method. Sixty-three composite samples, representative of the foods as consumed in Yaoundé, were collected, prepared, and analysed for residues of pesticides including organochlorine, organophosphorous, and pyrethroids. A multi-residue method was used with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.005 mg kg(-1). Additional analyses were performed for dithiocarbamates (LOD=0.050 mg kg(-1)), glyphosate (LOD=0.005 mg kg(-1)) and chlordecone (LOD=0.0008 mg kg(-1)) on certain composites samples. The overall contamination was low with 37 out of 46 pesticides below the LOD in all samples. The estimated upper bound (for values less than the LOD equal the LOD; and values less than the LOQ equal the LOQ) of the mean dietary exposures ranged from 0.24% (cypermethrin) to 3.03% (pirimiphos-methyl) of the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for pesticides for which at least one analysis was greater than the LOD. This study suggests a low dietary exposure to pesticide residues in Yaoundé. PMID:18348045

  11. Dietary exposure and health risk assessment for 11 minerals and trace elements in Yaoundé: the Cameroonian Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Gimou, M-M; Charrondière, U R; Leblanc, J-C; Noël, L; Guérin, T; Pouillot, R

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to 11 elements was assessed by the Total Diet Study (TDS) method. Sixty-four pooled samples representing 96.5% of the diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were prepared as consumed before analysis. Consumption data were sourced from a household budget survey. Dietary exposures were compared with nutritional or health-based guidance values (HBGV) and to worldwide TDS results. Elevated prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated for calcium (71.6%), iron (89.7%), magnesium (31.8%), zinc (46.9%) and selenium (87.3%). The percentage of the study population exceeding the tolerable upper intake levels was estimated as <3.2% for calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and cobalt; 19.1% of the population exceeded the HBGV for sodium. No exceedance of the HBGV for inorganic mercury was predicted in the population. The margin of exposure ranged from 0.91 to 25.0 for inorganic arsenic depending on the reference point. The "Fish" food group was the highest contributor to intake for calcium (65%), cobalt (32%) and selenium (96%). This group was the highest contributor to the exposure to total arsenic (71%) and organic mercury (96%). The "Cereals and cereal products" highly contributed to iron (26%), zinc (26%) and chromium (25%) intakes. The "Tubers and starches" highly contributed to magnesium (39%) and potassium (52%) intakes. This study highlights the dietary deficiency of some essential elements and a low dietary exposure to toxic elements in Yaoundé. PMID:23863038

  12. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb. PMID:25070289

  13. A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total and LDL-cholesterol in older adults.

    PubMed

    Abeysekara, Saman; Chilibeck, Philip D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Zello, Gordon A

    2012-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effects of a pulse-based diet in individuals 50 years or older for reducing CVD risk factors. A total of 108 participants were randomised to receive pulse-based foods (two servings daily of beans, chickpeas, peas or lentils; about 150 g/d dry weight) or their regular diet for 2 months, followed by a washout of 1 month and a cross-over to the other diet for 2 months. Anthropometric measures, body composition and biochemical markers (i.e. serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), as the primary outcome, and other lipids, glucose, insulin and C-reactive protein) were assessed before and after each diet phase. A total of eighty-seven participants (thirty males and fifty-seven females; 59·7 (sd 6·3) years, body mass 76 (sd 16) kg) completed the study. Compared with the regular diet, the pulse-based diet decreased total cholesterol by 8·3 % (pulse, 4·57 (sd 0·93) to 4·11 (sd 0·91) mmol/l; regular, 4·47 (sd 0·94) to 4·39 (sd 0·97) mmol/l; P < 0·001) and LDL-C by 7·9 % (pulse, 2·93 (sd 0·84) to 2·55 (sd 0·75) mmol/l; regular, 2·96 (sd 0·86) to 2·81 (sd 0·83) mmol/l; P = 0·01). In a sub-analysis of individuals with high lipid levels at baseline (twenty individuals with high cholesterol), the pulse-based diet reduced cholesterol by 6 % compared with the regular diet (pulse, 5·62 (sd 0·78) to 5·26 (sd 0·68) mmol/l; regular, 5·60 (sd 0·91) to 5·57 (sd 0·85) mmol/l; P = 0·05). A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total cholesterol and LDL-C in older adults and therefore reduces the risk of CVD. PMID:22916805

  14. Utilization of soybean products in non-salmonid marine fish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current feeds for marine finfish are heavily dependend on fish meal and fish oil to meet their critical protein and lipid requirements. Due to the increased demand, uncertain availability, and rising costs of fish meal and oil, however, several ingredients of plant origin have been evaluated as pote...

  15. Contribution of different functional groups to the diet of major predatory fishes at a seagrass meadow in northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Katsumasa; Hori, Masakazu; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We examined the variation in habitat use and diet of three dominant fish species ( Myoxocephalus brandti, Pholidapus dybowskii, and Pholis crassispina) in a seagrass meadow in the Akkeshi-ko estuary in northeastern Japan, where broad and dense Zostera marina beds exist, using a semi-quantitative census of the fishes and analyses of their stomach contents. Differences among the three fish species in the temporal variation in abundance of each age class (mainly 1- and 2-year age classes) indicated that the temporal pattern of utilization of the seagrass meadow were different among them. In the semi-quantitative dietary analysis, two prey categories, i.e., taxonomic group (order and suborder) and functional group, were used to explain the variation in prey composition with size-dependent changes. The six prey functional groups were classified based on the ecological traits of the prey, i.e., trophic level, size, and life type (habitat and behavior). Ontogenetic shifts in prey of the three fish species could be fully explained by a combination of the two prey categories, and not by the use of only one category (taxonomic or functional group). The pattern of ontogenetic shifts in prey differed among the fish species and size (age) classes. These results indicate that segregation of habitat (seagrass meadow) and prey group (taxonomic and functional group) is performed among the three species, which may contribute to their coexistence in this estuary.

  16. Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

    2013-10-01

    Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

  17. The Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides to a Purified Fish Oil Based Diet Alters Inflammatory Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, SJ; Nandivada, P; Chang, MI; Mitchell, PD; O’Loughlin, A; Cowan, E; Gura, KM; Nose, V; Bistrian, B; Puder, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Materials/Methods Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. Results All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. Conclusion These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. PMID:25458829

  18. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria Pina; Sica, Raffaella; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Putti, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:24562331

  19. The effect of fixative on total length of small-bodied stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinkley, P.D.; Fischer, John R.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were fixed in 5% and 10% formalin and 70% and 95% ethyl alcohol to determine fixative effects on total length (TL). Total length reduced over the first 24h for all species (P<0.0001) but then stabilized. Longnose dace and green sunfish TL reduction was less for 5% formalin than for either 70% or 95% ethanol (both P<0.0001), whereas the fixative solution had no effect on red shiner TL (P=0.347). A greater percentage of change in TL was observed in green sunfish and red shiner than in longnose dace, suggesting that body form (compressiform vs. fusiform) may affect shrinkage rate among adult stream fishes.

  20. Total and inorganic arsenic in freshwater fish and prawn in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saipan, Piyawat; Ruangwises, Suthep; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2012-10-01

    Total and inorganic arsenic levels were determined in 120 samples of eight freshwater animal species collected from five distribution centers in the central region of Thailand between January and March 2011. Eight species with the highest annual catch, consisting of seven fish species and one prawn species, were analyzed. Concentrations of inorganic arsenic (on a wet weight basis) ranged from 0.010 μg/g in giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) to 0.230 μg/g in striped snakehead (Channa striata). Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) exhibited the highest mean concentrations of total arsenic (0.459 ± 0.137 μg/g), inorganic arsenic (0.121 ± 0.044 μg/g), and percentage of inorganic arsenic (26.2%). Inorganic arsenic levels found in freshwater animals in this study were much lower than the Thai regulatory standard of 2 μg/g. PMID:23043844

  1. Low-carbohydrate diets and cardiovascular and total mortality in Japanese: a 29-year follow-up of NIPPON DATA80.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okuda, Nagako; Okamura, Tomonori; Kadota, Aya; Miyagawa, Naoko; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kita, Yoshikuni; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Nagai, Masato; Takashima, Naoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2014-09-28

    Long-term safety of consuming low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) in Asian populations, whose carbohydrate intake is relatively high, is not known. In the present study, the association of LCD with CVD and total mortality was assessed using data obtained in the NIPPON DATA80 (National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and Its Trends in the Aged 1980) during 29 years of follow-up. At baseline in 1980, data were collected from study participants aged ≥ 30 years from randomly selected areas in Japan. LCD scores were calculated based on the percentage of energy as carbohydrate, fat and protein, estimated by 3 d weighed food records. A total of 9200 participants (56% women, mean age 51 years) were followed up. During the follow-up, 1171 CVD deaths (52% in women) and 3443 total deaths (48% in women) occurred. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for CVD mortality using the Cox model comparing the highest v. lowest deciles of LCD score was 0·60 (95% CI 0·38, 0·94; P(trend) = 0·021) for women and 0·78 (95% CI 0·58, 1·05; P(trend) = 0·079) for women and men combined; the HR for total mortality was 0·74 (95% CI 0·57, 0·95; P(trend) = 0·029) for women and 0·87 (95% CI 0·74, 1·02; P(trend) = 0·090) for women and men combined. None of the associations was statistically significant in men. No differential effects of animal-based and plant-fish-based LCD were observed. In conclusions, moderate diets lower in carbohydrate and higher in protein and fat are significantly inversely associated with CVD and total mortality in women. PMID:25201302

  2. Environmental mercury concentrations in cultured low-trophic-level fish using food waste-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Lam, Cheung Lung; Choi, Wai Ming; Nie, Xiang Ping; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, different types of food wastes were used as the major source of protein to replace the fish meal in fish feeds to produce quality fish (polyculture of different freshwater fish). During October 2011-April 2012, the concentrations of Hg in water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment of the three experimental fish ponds located in Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm were monitored, and the results were similar to or lower than those detected in commercial fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region (by comparing data of previous and present studies). Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), a herbivore which fed food waste feed pellets would be safer than other fish species: mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and largemouth bass (Lepomis macrochirus). Due to the lower species diversity and substantially shorter food chains of the polyculture system consisting of only three fish species, the extent of Hg biomagnification was significantly lower than other polyculture ponds around PRD. Furthermore, the use of food waste instead of fish meal (mainly consisted of contaminated trash fish) further reduced the mercury accumulation in the cultured fish. PMID:25087497

  3. Trait-based diet selection: prey behaviour and morphology predict vulnerability to predation in reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephanie J; Côté, Isabelle M

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how predators select their prey can provide important insights into community structure and dynamics. However, the suite of prey species available to a predator is often spatially and temporally variable. As a result, species-specific selectivity data are of limited use for predicting novel predator-prey interactions because they are assemblage specific. We present a method for predicting diet selection that is applicable across prey assemblages, based on identifying general morphological and behavioural traits of prey that confer vulnerability to predation independent of species identity. We apply this trait-based approach to examining prey selection by Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles), invasive predators that prey upon species-rich reef fish communities and are rapidly spreading across the western Atlantic. We first generate hypotheses about morphological and behavioural traits recurring across fish species that could facilitate or deter predation by lionfish. Constructing generalized linear mixed-effects models that account for relatedness among prey taxa, we test whether these traits predict patterns of diet selection by lionfish within two independent data sets collected at different spatial scales: (i) in situ visual observations of prey consumption and availability for individual lionfish and (ii) comparisons of prey abundance in lionfish stomach contents to availability on invaded reefs at large. Both analyses reveal that a number of traits predicted to affect vulnerability to predation, including body size, body shape, position in the water column and aggregation behaviour, are important determinants of diet selection by lionfish. Small, shallow-bodied, solitary fishes found resting on or just above reefs are the most vulnerable. Fishes that exhibit parasite cleaning behaviour experience a significantly lower risk of predation than non-cleaning fishes, and fishes that are nocturnally active are at significantly

  4. Total iron concentrations in waters and fish tissues in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir area (Lao PDR).

    PubMed

    Cottet, Maud; Descloux, Stéphane; Guédant, Pierre; Godon, Arnaud; Cerdan, Philippe; Vigouroux, Régis

    2015-08-01

    Data on total iron concentrations in waters and freshwater fish tissues in man-made reservoirs are scarce, especially in Southeast Asia. Changes in total iron concentrations in water and in fish tissues were studied after the impoundment of the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (central Lao PDR). Water quality parameters were monitored at 11 stations (reservoir, upstream area and downstream areas) from 2008 to 2010. In 2009 and 2010, total iron concentrations were measured in three different fish tissues (viscera, gills and flesh) from 14 species belonging to the omnivorous and carnivorous feeding groups. The results indicated that iron concentrations in the water were influenced by the reservoir impoundment during the first year after the creation of the reservoir. Intra-annual variations of the total iron concentration in these waters appeared to be driven by the soil leaching processes mainly during the wet season. In fish, total iron accumulated preferentially in viscera, followed by gills and flesh. Iron concentration was highly species dependant and related to the ecology of the species whereas feeding habits (omnivorous or carnivorous) did not influence total iron concentration in fish tissues. Finally, reservoir impoundment did not affect iron concentrations in fish from the reservoir and from both downstream areas. PMID:26215825

  5. Total and Methyl Mercury Distribution in Water, Sediment, and Fish tissue in New England Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, A. T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

    2001-05-01

    Conditions that are conducive to the methylation of mercury are of particular concern because methyl mercury (MeHg) is the most toxic mercury species and is rapidly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in wildlife and man. The New England Coastal Basins study unit, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment program, has evaluated relations between concentrations of total mercury (HgT) and MeHg in stream water and bed sediment, and HgT in fish tissue at sites with a variety of watershed characteristics. Fifty-five stream sites from Rhode Island to Maine were sampled for water and bed sediment during 1998 - 2000. A subset of 27 sites was sampled for fish tissue. Sediment, water, and fish tissue samples were collected during summer low flow conditions within a week of each other to show patterns of MeHg accumulation and partitioning relative to site and watershed conditions. Concentrations of HgT in water and bed sediment ranged from 1 to 13 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and from 7 to 3,100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) dry weight, respectively. Concentrations of MeHg in water and sediment ranged from 0.04 to 1.8 ng/L and from 1 to 38 ng/g dry weight, respectively, and were positively correlated with concentrations of organic carbon. Methylation efficiency, as estimated by MeHg/HgT, ranged from 0.003 to 0.282 for sediment and water samples, with a median value of 0.071. Methylation efficiency was highest at sampling sites with low urbanization and high organic carbon concentrations. HgT concentrations in fish tissue (mixed sunfish species) ranged from 42 to 349 ng/g wet weight and were positively correlated with concentrations of MeHg in water and bed sediment. A positive relation was not observed between HgT concentrations in fish tissue and HgT concentrations in water and bed sediment. These preliminary results indicate a high potential for mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms in New England streams.

  6. Kuwait's total diet study: dietary intake of organochlorine, carbamate, benzimidazole and phenylurea pesticide residues.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, W N; al-Awadhi, F A; Saeed, T; al-Omair, A; Ahmad, N; Husain, A; Khalafawi, S; al-Omirah, H; Dashti, B; al-Amiri, H; al-Saqer, J

    1999-01-01

    The State of Kuwait in cooperation with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a Total Diet Study (TDS) to estimate intakes of pesticide residues by the population. The levels of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, carbamates, benzimidazoles, and phenylureas in the TDS core list are reported here. The TDS core list was established through a national food consumption survey. All food items (140 for the Kuwaiti adult) were prepared as eaten and analyzed for the pesticides mentioned above. The FDA's multiresidue methods in Volume I of the Pesticide Analytical Manual were used in gas, liquid, and gel permeation chromatographic analyses. Only vegetable and fruit samples contained pesticide residues (mg/kg), including the carbamates 1-naphthol (1.4) and 3H-carbofuran (0.94) in carrots; the OC pesticide vinclozolin (0.47), 3H-carbofuran (0.66), and fenuron (0.6) in kiwi fruit; the OC pesticide procymidone (0.32) and carbendazim (0.5) in grapes; 3H-carbofuran (5.0) in apricots; the OC pesticides captan (0.013) and thiabendazole (0.63) in pears; captan (0.035) in plums; and carbendazim (0.4) in mandarin oranges. The levels of 3H-carbofuran found in both apricots and kiwi fruit exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) of the United Nations. The daily intakes of pesticides by the different population groups are discussed in light of the FAO/WHO acceptable daily intakes. PMID:10589497

  7. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (< 1%) of liver cancer cases when compared with 1222 liver cancer cases per year in Hong Kong. The percentage contributions of the estimated 95th percentile dietary exposures (lower and upper bound) to the health-based guidance values of individual mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population. PMID:27144988

  8. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. Y.; Piao, X. S.; Li, P.; Yi, J. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Li, Q. Y.; Liu, J. D.; Wang, G. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide) replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of 30.8±2.6 kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 20% of the corn in diet 1 with one of the three protein feeds (fish meal, Prosin and Protide), and the DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 25.6±3.2 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the protein feeds as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, one hundred and eighty piglets (initial BW of 7.95±1.59 kg) weaned at 28±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of five treatments for a 28-d growth performance study, each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. The five treatments consisted of the control group (CON), which was a corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fish meal, and the other four treatments, which replaced a set amount of fish meal with either Prosin (2.5% or 5%) or Protide (2.5% or 5%). The diets were formulated to provide same nutrient levels. The results showed that on a DM basis, both of the DE and ME contents were lower in Prosin and Protide than that of fish meal (p<0.05). The SID of CP and all essential AA were greater in fish meal than in Prosin and Protide (p<0.05). The pigs fed CON diet had greater weight gain and lower feed conversion rate (FCR) than pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05). The digestibility of CP was greater in pigs fed CON, 2

  9. Dietary exposure to metals and other elements in the 2006 UK Total Diet Study and some trends over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Baxter, M; Brereton, N; Baskaran, C

    2010-10-01

    Concentrations of 24 elements including metals in the 2006 UK Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured and dietary exposures estimated. Composite samples for the 20 TDS food groups (bread, fish, fruit, etc.) were collected from 24 UK towns and analysed for their levels of aluminium, antimony, arsenic, barium, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, copper, germanium, indium, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, selenium, strontium, thallium, tin, and zinc. Concentrations of each of the elements in the food groups were lower than or similar to those reported in the previous TDS survey, conducted in 2000, with the exception of aluminium, barium, and manganese. Dietary exposures to the 24 elements were estimated for UK consumers and compared with previous estimates made over the last 30 years in order to examine any trends in exposure to these elements in the typical UK diet. Population exposures to the elements have generally declined over time, and exposures to most of these elements remain at low levels. The independent UK Government scientific Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) commented on the estimated dietary exposures, taking into account their previous evaluations (in 2003 and 2008), and identified no major concerns for the health of consumers, but did advise that there was a need for more information on aluminium and barium, and also commented that dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and to lead should continue to be reduced. PMID:20628929

  10. Levels and temporal trend of bisphenol A in composite food samples from Canadian Total Diet Study 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Perez-Locas, Carolina; Robichaud, André; Clement, Genevieve; Popovic, Svetlana; Dufresne, Guy; Dabeka, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Food composite samples from the Canadian Total Diet Study which was conducted each year from 2008 to 2012 rotating between different cities were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA). The overall levels of BPA in the composite food samples from each of the five years from 2008 to 2012 were similar in general with averages (range) of 7.7 ng/g (0.20-106 ng/g), 7.8 ng/g (0.26-110 ng/g), 6.9 ng/g (0.20-84 ng/g), 7.7 ng/g (0.20-105 ng/g) and 9.0 ng/g (0.15-90 ng/g) for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Levels of BPA in most of the non-canned food composite samples were low and no particular trends were observed. In contrast, the trend of BPA levels in canned food composite samples over the five years (2008-2012) varies. BPA levels in most of the canned food composite samples from 2008 to 2012 were consistent in general (e.g. canned luncheon meat: 10-18 ng/g, canned baked beans: 18-25 ng/g). While BPA levels over the five years were found to decrease for some canned food composite samples (e.g., canned fish: 109 ng/g in 2009 vs. 51 ng/g in 2012), they were also found to increase for some other canned food composite samples (e.g. canned meat soups: 90-104 ng/g in 2011-2012 vs. 29 ng/g in 2008). Thus, recent changes in can coating for food packaging to BPA-free alternatives may have not been fully reflected in all canned food products over the period from 2008 to 2012. Continued monitoring is necessary to more fully assess the potential impact on dietary exposure by the use of BPA alternatives in food contact materials. PMID:26372889

  11. From yellow perch to round goby: A review of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption at three St. Lawrence River colonies, 1999–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Farquhar, James F; Klindt, Rodger M; Mazzocchi, Irene; Mathers, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The number of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the upper St. Lawrence River has increased markedly since the early 1990s. In 1999, a binational study was initiated to examine the annual diet composition and fish consumption of cormorants at colonies in the upper river. Since 1999, 14,032 cormorant pellets, collected from May through September each year, have been examined from St. Lawrence River colonies to estimate fish consumption and determine temporal and spatial variation in diet. Seasonal variation in diet composition within a colony was low. Prior to 2006 yellow perch was the primary fish consumed by cormorants in the upper St. Lawrence River. Round goby were first observed in cormorant diets in 2003 and by 2006 were the main fish consumed at two of the three colonies. The time interval it took from the first appearance of round goby in the diet at a colony to when goby were the dominant prey species varied by island, ranging from two to five years. Daily fish consumption at each cormorant colony increased significantly from the pre-round goby to post-round goby period. The mean annual biomass of yellow perch consumed decreased significantly during the post-round goby period at the three colonies. Reduced consumption of yellow perch by cormorants may alleviate suspected localized impacts on perch near some of the larger river colonies.

  12. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: Two decades of studies on the diet, fish consumption, and management of double-crested cormorants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Farquhar, James F.; Mazzocchi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colony at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario has been a Great Lakes focal point of controversy regarding cormorant–fish interactions for over two decades. We examined cormorant diet and fish consumption at the colony from 1992 to 2013. During this time period, two events, management actions and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) invasion, occurred that affected the number of fish consumed by cormorants and their diet composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of round goby on the feeding ecology of cormorants and evaluate the efficacy of management actions on meeting cormorant population targets at the colony. Round goby first appeared in the diet in 2004 (0.8%) and within one year were the primary prey (29.3%). The presence of round goby in the diet of cormorants: (1) eliminated seasonal variability in diet composition, (2) reversed seasonal trends in the number of fish consumed daily, (3) increased daily fish consumption, and (4) significantly reduced the consumption of other species including yellow perch and smallmouth bass. Management actions, such as egg oiling and culling, were also effective in reducing nesting activity and the number of cormorant feeding days at the Little Galloo Island colony. There is evidence that the combination of management actions and round goby may have allowed some population recovery of yellow perch and smallmouth bass in eastern Lake Ontario.

  13. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours or others). All measures of MF and SF showed positive associations with energy intake, except for MF based on energy contribution in children. Irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of soft drinks, confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity. PMID:26568443

  14. Total arsenic in water, fish, and sediments from Lake Xolotlan, Managua, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lacayo, M.L.; Cruz, A.; Calero, S.; Lacayo, J.; Fomsgaard, I. )

    1992-09-01

    In recent years there has been increasing concern over arsenic in aquatic environments from such sources as arsenical pesticides, smelters, coal-fired power plants and erosion caused by extensive land use. Another important contribution to As in the environment is the release associated with volcanic activity and hot springs. Lake Xolotlan has a surface area of 1000 km[sup 2]. The content of arsenic in Lake Xolotlan has different origins, such as volcanic activity in the area, waste water from a geothermal plant situated in the Momotombo Volcano on the northwest coast of the lake and a high number of hot springs. The objective of the present study was to determine total As in water, sediments and fish in Lake Xolotlan at different sampling sites. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Responses of Growth Performance and Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression to Fish Oil Supplementation in Lactation Sows' and/or Weaned Piglets' Diets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Huang, Feiruo; Xiao, Chenglin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P < 0.05) than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P < 0.05) during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) towards lower ADG and higher feed : gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P < 0.01) in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression. PMID:24078926

  16. Occurrence of 13 volatile organic compounds in foods from the Canadian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Sparling, Melissa; Dabeka, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate

  17. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  18. Fish-Free Diet in Patients with Phenylketonuria Is Not Associated with Early Atherosclerotic Changes and Enhanced Platelet Activation

    PubMed Central

    Htun, Patrik; Nee, Jens; Ploeckinger, Ursula; Eder, Klaus; Geisler, Tobias; Gawaz, Meinrad; Bocksch, Wolfgang; Fateh-Moghadam, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Since patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong restriction of natural protein to lower phenylalanine-intake, they never eat fish. This diet may lead to a chronic deficit of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with the risk of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the study was to analyse the fatty acid profile of PKU patients and to correlate the results with surrogate markers of early atherosclerotic changes [enhanced carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ß-stiffness index] and platelet activation. Methods In 43 PKU patients and in 58 healthy controls we prospectively examined the fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index and platelet activation (flow cytometric determination of markers of platelet activation). CIMT was measured bilaterally by ultrasound. CIMT mean was defined as the mean value of the sum of CIMT left and CIMT right. Results Despite of lower HDL-cholesterol and higher triglyceride concentrations in the PKU group, there was no significant difference in the omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index between both groups. Platelet activation was not enhanced in the PKU group. Conclusions Fish-free diet does not induce early atherosclerotic changes or enhanced platelet activation in PKU patients. PMID:26291823

  19. Effects of totally synthetic, low phenylalanine diet on adolescent phenylketonuric patients

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Charles M.

    1971-01-01

    The long-term responses of 5 adolescent phenylketonuric patients to chemically-defined, synthetic diets with normal and low phenylalanine content were determined. The synthetic preparations were found capable of sustaining good health and rapid growth in this group of profoundly retarded, behaviourally disturbed patients over a 3½-year period without clinical or biochemical evidence of nutritional inadequacy. 4 of these patients who were treated for 6 months on a comparable diet, in which 80% of the phenylalanine was replaced by tyrosine, continued to show weight maintenance and height increases. There was no evidence of poor acceptability of the imbalanced diet, whether the blood phenylalanine concentrations were at phenylketonuric or treatment levels. The phenylalanine intake required to maintain blood phenylalanine concentrations of 3-5 mg/100 ml in these 4 patients was well below normal requirements, and ranged between 6·8 and 20·1 mg/kg per day. Predictably, the phenylalanine requirement varied with individual growth rates. All 4 treated patients had objective signs of improved central nervous system function during the six-month period on the phenylalanine-restricted diet. These electrophysiological and behavioural improvements were manifest after blood phenylalanine concentrations fell below 12 mg/100 ml in 3 cases and below 5 mg/100 ml in the fourth. PMID:5118048

  20. Changes in forage fish community indicated by the diet of the Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) in the central California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Meredith L.; Bradley, Russell W.; Robinette, Dan P.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    The population, productivity and diet of two Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) colonies located in the central California Current were compared. The offshore colony on Southeast Farallon Island has experienced a declining population over time and anomalously low productivity in recent years. The nearshore colony near Point Arguello has been increasing and its productivity has remained stable. The diets of cormorants at the two colonies elucidated by analysis of regurgitated pellets, while different, have shown similar decreases in the consumption of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) since 2008, followed by increased consumption of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and flatfish (order Pleuronectiformes). By using the diet results from another seabird nesting in central California, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and one from which whole fish can be obtained, we found that the rockfish species assemblage has changed with offshore rockfish species decreasing while nearshore ones have increased. This change in the rockfish species has negatively impacted Brandt's cormorants at the offshore colony by forcing them to make longer foraging trips to meet energy needs of themselves and their chicks; this has led to low breeding success and a declining population at this site. On the other hand, the nearshore colony has abundant nearby food resources, and it has prospered. These results underscore the value of using seabird data from multiple colonies to better understand changes occurring in the marine environment.

  1. You are what you eat: diet-induced chemical crypsis in a coral-feeding reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rohan M.; Munday, Philip L.; Chivers, Douglas P.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of research into the mechanisms of camouflage has focused on forms that confound visual perception. However, many organisms primarily interact with their surroundings using chemosensory systems and may have evolved mechanisms to ‘blend in’ with chemical components of their habitat. One potential mechanism is ‘chemical crypsis' via the sequestration of dietary elements, causing a consumer's odour to chemically match that of its prey. Here, we test the potential for chemical crypsis in the coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris, by examining olfactory discrimination in obligate coral-dwelling crabs and a predatory cod. The crabs, which inhabit the corals consumed by O. longirostris, were used as a bioassay to determine the effect of coral diet on fish odour. Crabs preferred the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral over the odour of filefish fed a non-preferred coral, suggesting coral-specific dietary elements that influence odour are sequestered. Crabs also exhibited a similar preference for the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral and odour directly from that coral, suggesting a close chemical match. In behavioural trials, predatory cod were less attracted to filefish odour when presented alongside the coral it had been fed on, suggesting diet can reduce detectability. This is, we believe, the first evidence of diet-induced chemical crypsis in a vertebrate. PMID:25621328

  2. Can diet-dependent factors help explain fish-to-fish variation in thiamine-dependent early mortality syndrome?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.B.; Arts, M.T.; Brown, L.R.; Brown, M.; Moore, K.; Villella, M.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Wolgamood, M.; Hnath, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    To provide insight into the reasons why offspring of certain salmonine females exhibit early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the Great Lakes whereas others do not, we measured the egg concentrations of potential biochemical markers (stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon, fatty acid signatures, and lipid-soluble carotenoids and vitamins) that are indicative of differing food web and trophic structure. To corroborate the presence of EMS, we also measured the egg content of thiamine vitamers. For all the stocks of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha we studied, there was a very high correspondence between EMS and low concentrations of unphosphorylated thiamine in unfertilized eggs. For salmonine stocks in the Platte River, Thompson Creek, and the Swan River, Michigan, small but significant shifts occurred in measures of egg carotenoids, retinoids, ??15N depletion, and fatty acid profiles of fish producing normal offspring relative to those exhibiting EMS. Egg thiamine concentrations in Chinook salmon from the Little Manistee River, Michigan, in the low-EMS group were only marginally above the threshold for EMS induction. Along with this small thiamine differential, there was no evidence of differing food web or dietary factors between EMS-positive and normal Chinook salmon from the Little Manistee River. Further investigations are required to determine the potential dietary sources for the observed differences in biochemical markers between EMS-positive and normal fish. These findings are generally consistent with the hypothesis that a more diverse forage base may help to limit overall dietary content of species that contain thiaminase, such as alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and may lead to improved embryonic survival for feral salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  3. A macadamia nut-rich diet reduces total and LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Griel, Amy E; Cao, Yumei; Bagshaw, Deborah D; Cifelli, Amy M; Holub, Bruce; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2008-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that the unique fatty acid profile of nuts beneficially affects serum lipids/lipoproteins, reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Nuts are low in SFA and high in PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Macadamia nuts are a rich source of MUFA. A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study (5-wk diet periods) compared a Macadamia nut-rich diet [42.5 g (1.5 ounces)/8.79 MJ (2100 kcal)] [MAC; 33% total fat (7% SFA, 18% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] vs. an average American diet [AAD; 33% total fat (13% SFA, 11% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] on the lipid/lipoprotein profile of mildly hypercholesterolemic (n = 25; 15 female, 10 male) subjects. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) following the MAC (4.94 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.14 +/- 0.14 mmol/L) were lower than the AAD (5.45 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.44 +/- 0.14 mmol/L; P < 0.05). The serum non-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and the ratios of TC:HDL-C and LDL-C:HDL-C were reduced following consumption of the MAC diet (3.83 +/- 0.17, 4.60 +/- 0.24, and 2.91 +/- 0.17, respectively) compared with the AAD (4.26 +/- 0.17, 4.89 +/- 0.24, and 3.09 +/- 0.18, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no change in serum triglyceride concentration. Thus, macadamia nuts can be included in a heart-healthy dietary pattern that reduces lipid/lipoprotein CVD risk factors. Nuts as an isocaloric substitute for high SFA foods increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and decrease SFA, thereby lowering CVD risk. PMID:18356332

  4. [Estimation of dietary intake of radioactive materials by total diet methods].

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive contamination in foods is a matter of great concern after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. In order to estimate human intake and annual committed effective dose of radioactive materials, market basket and duplicate diet samples from various areas in Japan were analyzed for cesium-134 ((134)Cs), -137 ((137)Cs), and natural radionuclide potassium-40 ((40)K) by γ-ray spectroscopy. Dietary intake of radioactive cesium around Fukushima area was somewhat higher than in other areas. However, maximum committed effective doses obtained by the market basket and duplicate diet samples were 0.0094 and 0.027 mSv/year, respectively, which are much lower than the maximum permissible dose (1 mSv/year) in foods in Japan. PMID:25212819

  5. An evaluation of extraction techniques for arsenic in staple diets (fish and rice) utilising both classical and enzymatic extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic extraction methods were evaluated with classical extraction approaches for the determination of arsenic in food. The extraction efficiency for total arsenic was determined by analysing CRM materials DORM-3 fish protein, NIES 106 rice flour and GBW10015 spinach. These were compared with total arsenic concentration determined using microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICP-MS. The total arsenic concentrations in the CRM materials were in good agreement with the certified values. Enzymatic hydrolysis using trypsin has been successfully employed to extract arsenic species in DORM-3 and fish samples. Whilst this method of hydrolysing the proteins worked well for the fish samples, an alternative approach was required to facilitate the digestion of cellulose in plant materials. However, enzymatic extraction using cellulase was found to give unsatisfactory results for both the NIES and GBW10015 CRM materials. Dilute nitric acid (1% HNO3) was found to give a more efficient extraction for arsenic species in the same CRM materials and rice samples. The study was extended to evaluate a range of real samples. Total arsenic concentrations in 13 different types of fish tissue were determined following microwave-assisted acid digestion using nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide, followed by measurement using HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. The results obtained for fish were in the range of 3.53-98.80 µg g(-1) As (dry weight). Similarly, the results of 17 rice samples were in the range of 0.054-0.823 µg g(-1). This study demonstrates the importance of selecting an appropriate extraction technique for the quantitative measurement of arsenic species in food. PMID:26760914

  6. EFFECT OF FISH-MEAL REPLACEMENT WITH POULTRY BY-PRODUCT MEAL ON THE GROWTH, TISSUE COMPOSITION AND HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF LARGEMOUTH BASS (MICROPTERUS SALMOIDES) FED DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT LIPIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that growth of largemouth bass (LMB) fed a diet containing different lipid (canola, chicken, or fish oil) or combination of lipids (canola + chicken oil (1:1) or menhaden fish oil + chicken oil (1:1)) was comparable to growth of LMB fed a commercial trout diet when protein in th...

  7. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  8. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding a fish meal-free grain-based diet (GB) was compared to feeding a fish meal-based diet (FM) relative to water quality criteria, waste production, water treatment process performance, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within six replicated water recirculating aquaculture system...

  9. Analysis of stable isotopes in fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  10. Stable isotope analysis of fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  11. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  12. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  13. A reusable and sensitive biosensor for total mercury in canned fish based on fluorescence polarization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tongfei; Yue, Qiaoli; Jiang, Xiuxiu; Wang, Lei; Xu, Shuling; Li, Haibo; Gu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shuqiu; Liu, Jifeng

    2013-12-15

    In this work, we developed a sensitive and selective sensor technique for total mercury (Hg) detection in canned fish samples based on the fluorescence polarization (FP) method. The detection principle was that ssDNA containing thymine (T) bases was modified on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which were used as enhancement probe. In the presence of Hg(2+), the ssDNA on MNPs can hybridize with the fluorophore labeled aptamer owing to the specific interaction between T bases and Hg(2+). The formation of thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) complexes leads to the molar mass increase of fluorophore molecules, resulting in the enhancement of FP signal. The increase of FP was in a good linearity with the concentration of Hg(2+) in range of 2.0 nM-1.0 mM and the limit of detection was 0.49 nM (3.29 SB/m, according to the recent recommendation of IUPAC). Moreover, the proposed biosensor can be reused for 6 cycling times and was successfully applied in monitoring Hg(2+) in real samples. PMID:24209314

  14. Phosphorus utilization and characterization of excreta from swine fed diets containing a variety of cereal grains balanced for total phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Thacker, P A

    2010-05-01

    Intrinsic phytase in swine feeds may increase phytate utilization and alter the solubility of the excreted P. The objective of this experiment was to quantify changes in fecal P composition from swine fed a variety of cereal grains containing a range of phytate concentrations and endogenous phytase activities. Twenty-five crossbred barrows (89.3 +/- 6.8 kg) were fed 1 of 5 dietary treatments that were based on wheat, corn, barley, low-phytate barley, or high-fat-low-lignin oats. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 75% of the test grain and were fed for a 7-d acclimation period followed by a 3-d fecal collection period. Total-tract apparent digestibility coefficients were determined for DM, P, and phytate using an indicator method. Fecal P was characterized using solution-state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Water-soluble P (WSP) and WSP-to-total P (TP) ratio were determined in the feces. Apparent total-tract digestibility coefficients for P and phytate ranged from 0.33 (barley) to 0.45 (low-phytate barley) and from 0.20 (corn) to 0.79 (oats), respectively. The majority of P excreted in the feces was in the form of phosphate (>47% of TP), and phytate degradation was not related to the endogenous phytase activity in the diet. There was a positive linear relationship between dietary NDF and apparent total-tract phytate digestibility (r(2) = 0.82; P = 0.03), indicating that greater dietary fiber content may enhance microbial breakdown of phytate in the hindgut. There was a negative relationship between the fecal WSP-to-TP ratio and the percentage of TP that was in the form of phytate in the feces. In summary, our results indicate that the majority of P in the feces of pigs fed diets based on cereal grains is present in the form of phosphate and relatively small amounts of phytate were contained in the excreta. The exception to this was the corn diet, for which 45% of the total fecal P was in the form of phytate. Hydrolysis of phytate in the

  15. Changing technologies, ingredients and formulations to replace fish meal in salmonid diets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the search for alternatives to fish meal in aquafeeds has been active for the last 30 years, efforts in the last decade have been intensified on a world wide scale. Multiple factors are driving these efforts and include regulatory concerns on the environmental effects of nutrient release, ...

  16. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  17. Influence of fish oil on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics and lipid metabolites during high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Johnson, Matthew L.; Schimke, Jill M.; Jakaitis, Daniel R.; Lebrasseur, Nathan K.; Jensen, Michael D.; Sreekumaran Nair, K.; Zabielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in rodent models of insulin resistance. These beneficial effects have been linked with anti-inflammatory properties, but emerging data suggest that the mechanisms may also converge on mitochondria. We evaluated the influence of dietary n-3 PUFAs on mitochondrial physiology and muscle lipid metabolites in the context of high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Mice were fed control diets (10% fat), HFD (60% fat), or HFD with fish oil (HFD+FO, 3.4% kcal from n-3 PUFAs) for 10 wk. Body mass and fat mass increased similarly in HFD and HFD+FO, but n-3 PUFAs attenuated the glucose intolerance that developed with HFD and increased expression of genes that regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Despite similar muscle triglyceride levels in HFD and HFD+FO, long-chain acyl-CoAs and ceramides were lower in the presence of fish oil. Mitochondrial abundance and oxidative capacity were similarly increased in HFD and HFD+FO compared with controls. Hydrogen peroxide production was similarly elevated in HFD and HFD+FO in isolated mitochondria but not in permeabilized muscle fibers, likely due to increased activity and expression of catalase. These results support a hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs protect glucose tolerance, in part by preventing the accumulation of bioactive lipid mediators that interfere with insulin action. Furthermore, the respiratory function of skeletal muscle mitochondria does not appear to be a major factor in sphingolipid accumulation, glucose intolerance, or the protective effects of n-3 PUFAs. PMID:23632634

  18. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  19. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  20. Evaluation of supplemental fish bone meal made from Alaska seafood processing byproducts and dicalcium phosphate in plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a balanced dietary mix of plant-proteins supplemented with either fish bone meal (FBM) derived from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts or dicalcium phosphate. Seven experimental diets were formulated to contain two levels of dicalci...

  1. Growth performance, vitamin E status, and proximate and fatty acid composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed diets containing various levels of fish oil and vitamin E

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary levels of fish oil on vitamin E requirement and their effect on growth performance, liver vitamin E status, and tissue proximate and fatty acid compositions of channel catfish. Basal purified diets (42% protein and 3,800 kcal DE/kg)...

  2. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  3. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g-1.

  4. Growth, Feed Utilization and Blood Metabolic Responses to Different Amylose-amylopectin Ratio Fed Diets in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Yao; Ye, Ji-Dan; Yang, Wei; Wang, Kun

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted in tilapia to determine the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzymes, and postprandial blood metabolites in response to different dietary amylose-amylopectin ratios. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing an equal starch level with different amylose-amylopectin ratios of 0.11 (diet 1), 0.24 (diet 2), 0.47 (diet 3), 0.76 (diet 4) and 0.98 (diet 5) were formulated using high-amylose corn starch (as the amylose source) and waxy rice (as the amylopectin source). Each diet was hand-fed to six tanks of 15 fish each, three times a day over a 6-wk period. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood metabolic test was carried out. Fish fed diet 2 exhibited the highest percent weight gain and feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, whereas fish fed with diet 5 showed the lowest growth and feed utilization among treatments. The digestibility for starch in fish fed diet 1 and 2 was higher than those in fish fed with other diets (p<0.05). The highest activities for protease, lipase and amylase were found in fish fed the diet 2, diet 1, and diet 1 respectively among dietary treatments, while the lowest values for these indexes were observed in fish fed the diet 3, diet 5 and diet 4, respectively. The liver glycogen concentrations in fish fed diets 4 and 5 were found higher than in fish fed other diets (p<0.05). The feeding rate, hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and plasma parmeters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) did not differ across treatments. In terms of postprandial blood responses, peak blood glucose and triglycerides were lower after 3 or 6 h in the fish fed with diets 3–5 than in the fish fed diet 1, but delayed peak blood total amino acid time was observed in fish fed with the diets 1 or 2. The lowest peak values for each of the three blood metabolites were observed in fish fed diet 5. The results

  5. Application of DNA barcoding for identification of freshwater carnivorous fish diets: Is number of prey items dependent on size class for Micropterus salmoides?

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyunbin; Gim, Jeong-An; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk; Kim, Heui-Soo; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Understanding predator-prey interactions is a major challenge in ecological studies. In particular, the accurate identification of prey is a fundamental requirement in elucidating food-web structure. This study took a molecular approach in determining the species identity of consumed prey items of a freshwater carnivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), according to their size class. Thirty randomly selected gut samples were categorized into three size classes, based on the total length of the bass. Using the universal primer for the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) region, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed on unidentified gut contents and then sequenced after cloning. Two gut samples were completely empty, and DNA materials from 27 of 28 gut samples were successfully amplified by PCR (success rate: 96.4%). Sequence database navigation yielded a total of 308 clones, containing DNA from 26 prey items. They comprised four phyla, including seven classes, 12 orders, and 12 families based on BLAST and BOLD database searches. The results indicate that largemouth bass show selective preferences in prey item consumption as they mature. These results corroborate a hypothesis, presence of ontogenetic diet shift, derived through other methodological approaches. Despite the practical limitations inherent in DNA barcoding analysis, high-resolution (i.e., species level) identification was possible, and the predation patterns of predators of different sizes were identifiable. The utilization of this method is strongly recommended for determining specific predator-prey relationships in complex freshwater ecosystems. PMID:24558577

  6. Application of DNA barcoding for identification of freshwater carnivorous fish diets: Is number of prey items dependent on size class for Micropterus salmoides?

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyunbin; Gim, Jeong-An; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk; Kim, Heui-Soo; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Understanding predator–prey interactions is a major challenge in ecological studies. In particular, the accurate identification of prey is a fundamental requirement in elucidating food-web structure. This study took a molecular approach in determining the species identity of consumed prey items of a freshwater carnivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), according to their size class. Thirty randomly selected gut samples were categorized into three size classes, based on the total length of the bass. Using the universal primer for the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) region, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed on unidentified gut contents and then sequenced after cloning. Two gut samples were completely empty, and DNA materials from 27 of 28 gut samples were successfully amplified by PCR (success rate: 96.4%). Sequence database navigation yielded a total of 308 clones, containing DNA from 26 prey items. They comprised four phyla, including seven classes, 12 orders, and 12 families based on BLAST and BOLD database searches. The results indicate that largemouth bass show selective preferences in prey item consumption as they mature. These results corroborate a hypothesis, presence of ontogenetic diet shift, derived through other methodological approaches. Despite the practical limitations inherent in DNA barcoding analysis, high-resolution (i.e., species level) identification was possible, and the predation patterns of predators of different sizes were identifiable. The utilization of this method is strongly recommended for determining specific predator–prey relationships in complex freshwater ecosystems. PMID:24558577

  7. A chemoprotective fish oil/pectin diet enhances apoptosis via Bcl-2 promoter methylation in rat azoxymethane-induced carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youngmi; Turner, Nancy D; Davidson, Laurie A; Chapkin, Robert S; Carroll, Raymond J; Lupton, Joanne R

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that diets containing fish oil and pectin (FO/P) reduce colon tumor incidence relative to control (corn oil and cellulose [CO/C]) in part by inducing apoptosis of DNA-damaged colon cells. Relative to FO/P, CO/C promotes colonocyte expression of the antiapoptotic modulator, Bcl-2, and Bcl-2 promoter methylation is altered in colon cancer. To determine if FO/P, compared with CO/C, limits Bcl-2 expression by enhancing promoter methylation in colon tumors, we examined Bcl-2 promoter methylation, mRNA levels, colonocyte apoptosis and colon tumor incidence in azoxymethane (AOM)-injected rats. Rats were provided diets containing FO/P or CO/C, and were terminated 16 and 34 weeks after AOM injection. DNA isolated from paraformaldehyde-fixed colon tumors and uninvolved tissue was bisulfite modified and amplified by quantitative reverese transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to assess DNA methylation in Bcl-2 cytosine–guanosine islands. FO/P increased Bcl-2 promoter methylation (P = 0.009) in tumor tissues and colonocyte apoptosis (P = 0.020) relative to CO/C. An inverse correlation between Bcl-2 DNA methylation and Bcl-2 mRNA levels was observed in the tumors. We conclude that dietary FO/P promotes apoptosis in part by enhancing Bcl-2 promoter methylation. These Bcl-2 promoter methylation responses, measured in vivo, contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in chemoprevention of colon cancer by diets containing FO/P. PMID:23354397

  8. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Bellance, Nadège; Bénard, Giovani; Brèthes, Daniel; Fujimura, Masatake; Gonzalez, Patrice; Marighetto, Aline; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Mormède, Cécile; Pédron, Vanessa; Philippin, Jean-Nicolas; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Rostène, William; Sawada, Masumi; Laclau, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g). To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination. PMID:18959803

  9. Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to fish oil and sunflower oil in the diet of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shingfield, K J; Reynolds, C K; Hervás, G; Griinari, J M; Grandison, A S; Beever, D E

    2006-02-01

    Based on the potential benefits of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for human health, there is a need to develop effective strategies for enhancing milk fat CLA concentrations. Levels of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk can be increased by supplements of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO), but there is considerable variation in the response. Part of this variance may reflect time-dependent ruminal adaptations to high levels of lipid in the diet, which lead to alterations in the formation of specific biohydrogenation intermediates. To test this hypothesis, 16 late lactation Holstein-British Friesian cows were used in a repeated measures randomized block design to examine milk fatty acid composition responses to FO and SO in the diet over a 28-d period. Cows were allocated at random to corn silage-based rations (8 per treatment) containing 0 (control) or 45 g of oil supplement/kg of dry matter consisting (1:2; wt/wt) of FO and SO (FSO), and milk composition was determined on alternate days from d 1. Compared with the control, the FSO diet decreased mean dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 17.9 kg/d), milk fat (47.7 vs. 32.6 g/kg), and protein content (36.1 vs. 33.3 g/kg), but had no effect on milk yield (27.1 vs. 26.4 kg/d). Reductions in milk fat content relative to the FSO diet were associated with increases in milk trans-10 18:1, trans-10, cis-12 CLA, and trans-9, cis-11 CLA concentrations (r(2) = 0.74, 0.57, and 0.80, respectively). Compared with the control, the FSO diet reduced milk 4:0 to 18:0 and cis 18:1 content and increased trans 18:1, trans 18:2, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 concentrations. The FSO diet caused a rapid elevation in milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content, reaching a maximum of 5.37 g/100 g of fatty acids on d 5, but these increases were transient, declining to 2.35 g/100 g of fatty acids by d 15. They remained relatively constant thereafter. Even though concentrations of trans-11 18:1 followed the same pattern of temporal

  10. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120

    PubMed Central

    Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock. PMID:26161796

  11. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on channel catfish performance, body composition,...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish consumption is a common method of obtaining beneficial n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), but increased use of vegetable oils in fish diets to reduce dependence on fish oil dilutes these HUFAs. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are also considered beneficial for human health. Therefore,...

  12. Total mercury concentrations in fillets of bluegill, redear sunfish, largemouth bass, and other fishes from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.; May, T.W.; Alpers, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted during September-October 2002 to verify preliminary findings of elevated total mercury concentrations in skinless fillets of sportfishes inhabiting Lake Natoma. Although we measured total mercury concentrations, most mercury in fish flesh occurs in the methylated form. In August 2000, other investigators collected a small number of fish containing mercury concentrations that exceeded 0.30 ??g/g wet weight, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) tissue residue criterion derived from a reference dose for methylmercury that may cause undesirable neurological abnormalities in human infants exposed in utero when pregnant women consume mercury-contaminated foods. During our study, skinless fillets of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, contained as much as 0.19 ??g Hg/g wet weight (1.06 ??g Hg/g dry weight); redear sunfish, L. microlophus, contained as much as 0.39 ??g Hg/g wetweight (1.99 ??g Hg/g dry weight); and largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, contained as much as 0.86 ??g Hg/g wet weight (3.85 ??g Hg/g dry weight). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.097 ??g/g wet weight (0.537 ??g/g dry weight) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to 0.56 ??g/g wet weight (3.07 ??g/g dry weight) in white catfish, Ameiurus catus. Altogether, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 14 of 61 largemouth bass, 1 of 1 brown builhead, A. nebulosus, 2 of 3 spotted bass, M. punctulatus, and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA fish tissue methylmercury residue criterion. Only bluegill and largemouth bass exhibited significant correlations between fish total length (TL), weight, and age, and total mercury concentration in fillets. Judging from a best-fit power-curve equation, largemouth bass measuring 273 mm TL (roughly 292g) or larger are estimated to contain total mercury concentrations in their fillets that exceed the USEPA fish tissue methylmercury criterion. These results confirmed that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma

  13. DASH Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products. Includes whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limits sodium, sweets, sugary beverages, ...

  14. Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived N-3 fatty acid enrichment.

    PubMed Central

    Meydani, S N; Lichtenstein, A H; Cornwall, S; Meydani, M; Goldin, B R; Rasmussen, H; Dinarello, C A; Schaefer, E J

    1993-01-01

    Reductions in dietary fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol have been recommended to reduce the risk of heart disease in our society. The effects of these modifications on human cytokine production and immune responses have not been well studied. 22 subjects > 40 yr of age were fed a diet approximating that of the current American (14.1% of calories as saturated fatty acids, [SFA], 14.5% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFA], 6.1% [n-6] polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA], 0.8% [n-3] PUFA, and 147 mg cholesterol/1,000 calories) for 6 wk, after which time they consumed (11 in each group) one of the two low-fat, low-cholesterol, high-PUFA diets based on National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP) Step 2 recommendations (4.0-4.5% SFA, 10.8-11.6% MUFA, 10.3-10.5% PUFA, 45-61 mg cholesterol/1,000 calories) for 24 wk. One of the NCEP Step 2 diets was enriched in fish-derived (n-3) PUFA (low-fat, high-fish: 0.54% or 1.23 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] [121-188 g fish/d]) and the other low in fish-derived (n-3) PUFA (low-fat, low-fish [0.13% or 0.27 g/d EPA and DHA] [33 g fish/d]). Measurements of in vivo and in vitro indexes of immune responses were taken after each dietary period. Long-term feeding of low-fat, low-fish diet enriched in plant-derived PUFA increased blood mononuclear cell mitogenic response to the T cell mitogen Con A, IL-1 beta, and TNF production and had no effect on delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response, IL-6, GM-CSF, or PGE2 production. In contrast, the low-fat, high-fish diet significantly decreased the percentage of helper T cells whereas the percentage of suppressor T cells increased. Mitogenic responses to Con A and delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response as well as the production of cytokines IL-1 beta, TNF, and IL-6 by mononuclear cells were significantly reduced after the consumption of the low-fat, high-fish diet (24, 40, 45, 35, and 34%, respectively; P < 0.05 by two-tailed Student's t test except for IL-1

  15. The response of the diets of four carnivorous fishes to variations in the Yellow Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xianshi; Zhang, Bo; Xue, Ying

    2010-06-01

    The stomach contents of Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus niphonius), snailfish ( Liparis tanakae), anglerfish ( Lophius litulon), and Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus) from the Yellow Sea during 1985-1987 and 2000-2002 were analyzed. The diets of these four carnivorous species changed over time, showing that the importance of the previous major prey, Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), had greatly decreased, owing to its declining abundance, and that intake of Crangon affinis had increased. Spanish mackerel foraged for more food, particularly for other small pelagic species in addition to Japanese anchovy, causing an increase in its niche width in recent years, whereas the other three demersal carnivorous species had mainly targeted the small benthic shrimp C. affinis, and their niche widths had reduced in the later years. This phenomenon may be an adaptive response to changes in the food availability of the ecosystem, indicating a change in the food web and community structure of the Yellow Sea ecosystem. Changes in the composition of the diet of major predators may be an indicator of changes in a marine ecosystem.

  16. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    PubMed

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low. PMID:21623504

  17. Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Partanen, K

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a thermotolerant 6-phytase produced by Trichoderma reesei on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 192 weaned piglets (randomized block design; 16 replicates; 2 piglets each). Diets based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) meal, and whey protein with adequate [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] Ca and P levels were fed for 46 d after weaning. The PC and NC diets contained 8.0 and 6.4 g/kg Ca and 2.9 and 1.9 g/kg digestible P, respectively. Pelleted diets contained 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Growth performance and G:F were measured during starter (25 d) and weaner pig (21 d) periods. The ATTD of Ca and P was determined by spot sampling at the end of the weaner pig period (8 pens per treatment over 5 consecutive d). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with random block effect and fixed effect of dietary P and phytase level and their interaction. Dietary P level did not affect ADG or G:F of piglets over the entire feeding period (P > 0.10) whereas phytase increased G:F (P < 0.05). During the starter period, phytase linearly enhanced (P < 0.05) ADG (258, 266, and 292 g) and G:F (639, 677, and 664 g gain/kg feed DM) without further increase in the weaner pig period (P > 0.10). A P × phytase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for ATTD of P, more so for NC (48, 61, and 68%, respectively) than PC diets (52, 62, and 61%). The ATTD of Ca was higher (P < 0.05) for PC than NC diets (68 vs. 58%) and increased quadratically by phytase (61, 65, and 63%). In conclusion, the phytase tested enhanced piglet performance during the postweaning period and increased ATTD of P and Ca. PMID:23365327

  18. Forage fish of the Pacific Rim as revealed by diet of a piscivorous seabird: Synchrony and relationships with sea surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, J.A.; Bertram, D.F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Hipfner, M.J.; Slater, L.; Sydeman, W.J.; Watanuki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis of synchronous interannual changes in forage fish dynamics around the North Pacific Rim. To do this, we sampled forage fish communities using a seabird predator, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), at six coastal study sites from Japan to California. We investigated whether take of forage fishes was related to local marine conditions as indexed by sea surface temperature (SST). SST was concordant across sites in the eastern Pacific, but inversely correlated between east and west. Forage fish communities consisted of anchovy (Engraulis spp.), sandlance (Ammodytes spp.), capelin (Mallotus spp.), and juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.), among others, and take of forage fish varied in response to interannual and possibly lower-frequency oceanographic variability. Take of primary forage species were significantly related to changes in SST only at the eastern sites. We found synchrony in interannual variation of primary forage fishes across several regions in the eastern Pacific, but no significant east-west correlations. Specifically in the Japan Sea, factors other than local SST or interannual variability may more strongly influence forage fishes. Predator diet sampling offers a fishery-independent, large-scale perspective on forage fish dynamics that may be difficult to obtain using conventional means of study. ?? 2008 NRC.

  19. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Total Bacteria, Cellulolytic Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea in the Rumen of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05) in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats. PMID:24756125

  20. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05) in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats. PMID:24756125

  1. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  2. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  3. A Mediterranean Diet Enriched with Olive Oil Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Osteocalcin Levels in Elderly Men at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José Maria; Ricart, Wifredo; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intake of olive oil has been related to the prevention of osteoporosis in experimental and in in vitro models. Very few prospective studies have evaluated the effects of olive oil intake on circulating osteocalcin (OC) in humans. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal effects of a low-fat control diet (n = 34), a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts (MedDiet+nuts, n = 51), or a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil (MedDiet+VOO, n = 42) on circulating forms of OC and bone formation markers in elderly men at high cardiovascular risk. Design: Longitudinal associations between baseline and follow-up (2 yr) measurements of total OC, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) concentrations were examined in 127 elderly men randomized to three healthy dietary interventions. Results: Baseline characteristics (age, body mass index, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting insulin levels, and bone formation and resorption markers) were similar in all intervention groups. The total osteocalcin concentration increased robustly in the MedDiet+VOO group (P = 0.007) in parallel to increased P1NP levels (P = 0.01) and homeostasis model assessment-β-cell function (P = 0.01) but not in subjects on the MedDiet+nuts (P = 0.32) or after the control diet (P = 0.74). Interestingly, the consumption of olives was associated positively with both baseline total osteocalcin (r = 0.23, P = 0.02) and the 2-yr osteocalcin concentrations (r = 0.21, P = 0.04) in the total cohort. Conclusions: Consumption of a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil for 2 years is associated with increased serum osteocalcin and P1NP concentrations, suggesting protective effects on bone. PMID:22855341

  4. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  5. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P < 0.001) from 64 to 242% of the daily requirement (4.59 g/d of STTD P). Fecal and total excretion of P and Ca were linearly associated with mineral intake (P < 0.001). Constant urinary P excretion of 0.03 g/d P was observed, but at 4.96 g/d of STTD P intake, the urinary P excretion increased (P < 0.001). In contrast, Ca excretion in urine decreased (P < 0.001) with Ca intake, but constant excretion of 0.40 g/d Ca was reached at 17.97 g/d of Ca intake. The daily intakes of STTD P and Ca moderately explained the variation in urinary excretion of P (R2= 0.41) and Ca (R2= 0.64). The absorption and retention of P increased linearly (P< 0.001) with dietary P intake, whereas absorption and retention of Ca showed a quadratic response (P < 0.001). Absorption and retention of P and Ca were highly predictable from the STTD P and Ca intakes, with of 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The femur mineral content (FMC) increased by 2.71 g with STTD P intake (P < 0.001) but reached a plateau (29.54 g of FMC) at 8.84 g/d of STTD P intake. The FMC was highly predictable from the STTD P intake (R2 = 0.89). The FMC affected the urinary P excretion ( P< 0.01), but moderately (R2= 0.19) explained the variation in urinary P. In conclusion, constant excretion of P in urine

  6. Ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of dogs as affected by soybean protein inclusion in dry, extruded diets.

    PubMed

    Clapper, G M; Grieshop, C M; Merchen, N R; Russett, J C; Brent, J L; Fahey, G C

    2001-06-01

    Plant-based protein sources are generally less variable in chemical composition than animal-based protein sources. However, relatively few data are available on the nutrient digestibilities of plant-based protein sources by companion animals. The effects of including selected soybean protein sources in dog diets on nutrient digestion at the ileum and in the total tract, as well as on fecal characteristics, were evaluated. Six protein sources were used: soybean meal (SBM), Soyafluff 200W (soy flour), Profine F (traditional aqueous-alcohol extracted soy protein concentrate [SPC 1]), Profine E (extruded SPC [SPC 2]), Soyarich I (modified molecular weight SPC [SPC 3]), and poultry meal (PM). All diets were extruded and kibbled. Test ingredients varied in CP and fat contents; however, diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Nutrient intakes were similar, except for total dietary fiber (TDF), which was lower (P < 0.01) for dogs fed the PM diet. Apparent ileal digestibilities of DM, OM, fat, and TDF were not different among treatments; however, CP digestibility at the terminal ileum was higher (P < 0.01) for diets containing soy protein sources than for PM. Total tract CP digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) for soy protein-containing diets than for PM. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, fat, and TDF were not different among treatments. Apparent amino acid digestibilities at the terminal ileum, excluding methionine, threonine, alanine, and glycine, were higher (P < 0.01) for soy protein-containing diets than for PM. Dogs fed SPC diets had lower (P < 0.01) fecal outputs (g asis feces/g DMI) than dogs fed the SF diet, and dogs fed SBM tended (P < 0.11) to have lower fecal outputs than dogs fed the SF diet. However, dogs fed the PM diet had lower (P < 0.03) fecal outputs than dogs fed SPC-containing diets. Fecal outputs and scores reflected the TDF and nonstructural carbohydrate contents of the soy protein fraction. Soy protein sources are

  7. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY IN 1994-5 LAKE MICHIGAN FORAGE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project, forage fish samples were collected in 1994-5 from three regions within Lake Michigan: Saugatuck, Michigan and Port Washington and Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin by the USGS Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Species of ...

  8. TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN 1994-5 LAKE MICHIGAN FORAGE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forage fish samples were collected between 1194 and 1995 by the USGS Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor, MI. Samples of bloater, slimy sculpin, deep water sculpin, alewife, and rainbow smelt were collected from regions of the lake near Saugatuck, MI and Port Washington and S...

  9. Determination of Total Mercury in Fillets of Sport Fishes Collected from Folsom Reservoir, California, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom Reservoir in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fillets ranged from 0.031 to 0.20 micrograms per gram wet weight in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) samples and 0.071 to 0.16 micrograms per gram wet weight in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) samples. Mercury concentration was 0.98 microgram per gram wet weight in a single spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus) sample, which was the only one in the sample set which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  10. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    PubMed Central

    Janle, Elsa M.; Freiser, Helene; Manganais, Christopher; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Craig, Bruce A.; Santerre, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose. PMID:26301246

  11. Exploring the nature of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish community: morphology, diet and foraging microhabitat use.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Simon J; Robbins, William D; Bellwood, David R

    2015-09-22

    Patterns of ecological specialization offer invaluable information about ecosystems. Yet, specialization is rarely quantified across several ecological niche axes and variables beyond the link between morphological and dietary specialization have received little attention. Here, we provide a quantitative evaluation of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish assemblage (f. Acanthuridae) along one fundamental and two realized niche axes. Specifically, we examined ecological specialization in 10 surgeonfish species with regards to morphology and two realized niche axes associated with diet and foraging microhabitat utilization using a recently developed multidimensional framework. We then investigated the potential relationships between morphological and behavioural specialization. These relationships differed markedly from the traditional ecomorphological paradigm. While morphological specialization showed no relationship with dietary specialization, it exhibited a strong relationship with foraging microhabitat specialization. However, this relationship was inverted: species with specialized morphologies were microhabitat generalists, whereas generalized morphotypes were microhabitat specialists. Interestingly, this mirrors relationships found in plant-pollinator communities and may also be applicable to other ecosystems, highlighting the potential importance of including niche axes beyond dietary specialization into ecomorphological frameworks. On coral reefs, it appears that morphotypes commonly perceived as most generalized may, in fact, be specialized in exploiting flat and easily accessible microhabitats. PMID:26354935

  12. High-Lard and High-Fish-Oil Diets Differ in Their Effects on Function and Dynamic Behaviour of Rat Hepatic Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria Pina; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Sica, Raffaella; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Gaita, Marcello; De Filippo, Chiara; Zorzano, Antonio; Putti, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that frequently undergo fission and fusion processes, and imbalances in these processes may be involved in obesity and insulin resistance. Aims The present work had the following aims: (a) to evaluate whether the mitochondrial dysfunction present in the hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet is associated with changes in mitochondrial dynamics and morphology; (b) to evaluate whether effects on the above parameters differ between high-lard and high-fish-oil diets, as it has been suggested that fish oil may have anti-obesity and anti-steatotic effects by stimulating fatty acids utilisation. Methods The development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance was monitored in rats fed a high-lard or high-fish-oil diet. Immunohistochemical and electronic microscopic observations were performed on liver sections. In isolated liver mitochondria, assessments of fatty acids oxidation rate, proton conductance and oxidative stress (by measuring H2O2 release and aconitase activity) were performed. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the presence of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics (i.e., fusion and fission processes). To investigate the fusion process, mitofusin 2 and autosomal dominant optic atrophy-1 (OPA1) were analysed. To investigate the fission process, the presence of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and fission 1 protein (Fis1) was assessed. Results High-lard feeding elicited greater hepatic lipid accumulation, insulin resistance with associated mitochondrial dysfunction, greater oxidative stress and a shift towards mitochondrial fission processes (versus high-fish-oil feeding, which had an anti-steatotic effect associated with increased mitochondrial fusion processes). Conclusions Different types of high-fat diets differ in their effect on mitochondrial function and dynamic behaviour, leading to different cellular adaptations to over-feeding. PMID:24663492

  13. Alterations in plasma total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hyperlipidemic rats fed diets with varied content of selenium and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Boylan, L M

    1994-07-01

    The effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on plasma total (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was evaluated in 54 Sprague Dawley rats fed cholesterol/cholic acid enriched diets. Diets 1, 2, and 3 had no added selenium (low Se) and 0 (low), 60 (adequate), and 600 (high) mg/kg dL alpha tocopheryl acetate added respectively. Sodium selenite at 0.2 mg/kg (adequate Se) was added to diets 4, 5, and 6 and at 4.0 mg/kg (toxic Se) to diet 7, 8, and 9 with the same pattern of vitamin E added to the diet as described above. TC and HDLC were measured using the Kodak Ectachem system. Rats in the low and adequate Se groups fed high vitamin E had lower TC values than rats fed lower vitamin E levels but differences were not significant. In the toxic Se groups, rats fed high vitamin E had significantly (p < 0.05) higher plasma TC values than did lower Vitamin E groups. Rats on the high vitamin E diets with low or adequate Se had significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean plasma HDLC values when compared to rats fed low or adequate vitamin E diets. HDLC values for animals on Se toxic diets were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in rats fed a low vitamin E diet. In rats fed Se deficient and adequate diets, a high vitamin E intake resulted in a decrease in TC and an increase in HDLC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7986664

  14. Antioxidant-chemoprevention diet ameliorates late effects of total-body irradiation and supplements radioprotection by MnSOD-plasmid liposome administration.

    PubMed

    Epperly, Michael W; Wang, Hong; Jones, Jeffrey A; Dixon, Tracy; Montesinos, Carlos A; Greenberger, Joel S

    2011-06-01

    Abstract Many acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, which deplete antioxidant stores, leading to cellular apoptosis, stem cell depletion and accelerated aging. C57BL/6NHsd mice receiving intravenous MnSOD-PL prior to 9.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) show increased survival from the acute hematopoietic syndrome, and males demonstrated improved long-term survival (Epperly et al., Radiat. Res. 170, 437-444, 2008). We evaluated the effect of an antioxidant-chemopreventive diet compared to a regular diet on long-term survival in female mice. Twenty-four hours before the LD(50/30) dose of 9.5 Gy TBI, subgroups of mice were injected intravenously with MnSOD-PL (100 μg plasmid DNA in 100 μl of liposomes). Mice on either diet treated with MnSOD-PL showed decreased death after irradiation compared to irradiated mice on the house diet alone (P = 0.031 for the house diet plus MnSOD-PL or 0.015 for antioxidant diet plus MnSOD-PL). The mice on the antioxidant-chemoprevention diet alone or with MnSOD-PL that survived 30 days after irradiation had a significant increase in survival compared to mice on the regular diet (P = 0.04 or 0.01, respectively). In addition, mice treated with MnSOD-PL only and surviving 30 days after radiation also had increased survival compared to those on the regular diet alone (P = 0.02). Survivors of acute ionizing radiation damage have ameliorated life shortening if they are fed an antioxidant-chemopreventive diet. PMID:21466381

  15. Antioxidant-Chemoprevention Diet Ameliorates Late Effects of Total-Body Irradiation and Supplements Radioprotection by MnSOD-Plasmid Liposome Administration

    PubMed Central

    Epperly, Michael W.; Wang, Hong; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Dixon, Tracy; Montesinos, Carlos A.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Many acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, which deplete antioxidant stores, leading to cellular apoptosis, stem cell depletion and accelerated aging. C57BL/6NHsd mice receiving intravenous MnSOD-PL prior to 9.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI) show increased survival from the acute hematopoietic syndrome, and males demonstrated improved long-term survival (Epperly et al., Radiat. Res. 170, 437–444, 2008). We evaluated the effect of an antioxidant-chemopreventive diet compared to a regular diet on long-term survival in female mice. Twenty-four hours before the LD50/30 dose of 9.5 Gy TBI, subgroups of mice were injected intravenously with MnSOD-PL (100 μg plasmid DNA in 100 μl of liposomes). Mice on either diet treated with MnSOD-PL showed decreased death after irradiation compared to irradiated mice on the house diet alone (P = 0.031 for the house diet plus MnSOD-PL or 0.015 for antioxidant diet plus MnSOD-PL). The mice on the antioxidant-chemoprevention diet alone or with MnSOD-PL that survived 30 days after irradiation had a significant increase in survival compared to mice on the regular diet (P = 0.04 or 0.01, respectively). In addition, mice treated with MnSOD-PL only and surviving 30 days after radiation also had increased survival compared to those on the regular diet alone (P = 0.02). Survivors of acute ionizing radiation damage have ameliorated life shortening if they are fed an antioxidant-chemopreventive diet. PMID:21466381

  16. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  17. Establishing a food list for a Total Diet Study: how does food consumption of specific subpopulations need to be considered?

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; De Henauw, S; Dofkova, M; Ruprich, J; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M C; Pinchen, H; Blume, K; Lindtner, O; Brantsaeter, A L; Meltzer, H M; Sioen, I

    2015-01-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and analysing commonly consumed foods to obtain concentration data of different chemical compounds in foods as eaten. A TDS food list summarises the most consumed foods and represents the dietary habits of the general population of the country under study. The work reported here investigated whether TDS food lists that were initially designed for the whole population of the country under study also sufficiently cover the dietary pattern of specific subpopulations that are extra vulnerable for certain contaminants. The work was performed using data of three European countries: the Czech Republic, France and the UK. Each national food consumption database was combined with the corresponding national TDS food list (containing 336, 212 and 119 food items for the Czech Republic, France and the UK, respectively). The data were aggregated on the highest level of hierarchy of FoodEx-1, a pan-European food classification system, including 20 main FoodEx-1 groups. For the group 'milk and dairy products', the coverage of the consumption by the food list was investigated for more refined subgroups. For each food group or subgroup and country, the average percentage of coverage of the diet by the national TDS food list was calculated for different subpopulations, including children versus adults, women versus men, vegetarians versus non-vegetarians, and women of child-bearing age versus older women. The average diet of the different subpopulations was sufficiently covered by the food list of the Czech Republic and France. For the UK the average coverage was low due to a different food-coding approach and because food lists were not derived directly from national food consumption data. At the level of the 20 main food groups, differences between the subpopulations with respect to the average coverage of consumption by the TDS food list were minimal. The differences were more pronounced when looking in detail at the

  18. Development of a new method for determination of total haem protein in fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Chaijan, Manat; Undeland, Ingrid

    2015-04-15

    Using classic haem protein quantification methods, the extraction step in buffer or acid acetone often becomes limiting if muscle is oxidised and/or stored; haem-proteins then tend to bind to muscle components like myofibrils and/or biomembranes. The objective of this study was to develop a new haem protein determination method for fish muscle overcoming such extractability problems. The principle was to homogenise and heat samples in an SDS-containing phosphate buffer to dissolve major muscle components and convert ferrous/ferric haem proteins to hemichromes with a unique absorption peak at 535 nm. Hb-recovery tests with the new and classic methods showed that the new method and Hornsey's method performed significantly better on fresh Hb-enriched cod mince than Brown's and Drabkin's methods; recovery was ⩾98%. However, in highly oxidised samples and in cod protein isolates made with acid pH-shift processing, the new method performed better than Hornsey's method (63% and 87% vs. 50% and 68% recovery). Further, the new method performed well in fish muscle with ⩽30% lipid, <5% NaCl and pH 5.5-7.0; it was also unaffected by freezing/frozen storage. PMID:25466135

  19. Upregulation of lymphocyte apoptosis as a strategy for preventing and treating autoimmune disorders: a role for whole-food vegan diets, fish oil and dopamine agonists.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2001-08-01

    Induced apoptosis of autoreactive T-lymphocyte precursors in the thymus is crucial for the prevention of autoimmune disorders. IGF-I and prolactin, which are lymphocyte growth factors, may have the potential to suppress apoptosis in thymocytes and thus encourage autoimmunity; conversely, dietary fish oil rich in omega-3 fats appears to upregulate apoptosis in lymphocytes. Since whole-food vegan diets may downregulate systemic IGF-I activity, it is proposed that such a diet, in conjunction with fish oil supplementation and treatment with dopamine agonists capable of suppressing prolactin secretion, may have utility for treating and preventing autoimmune disorders. This prediction is consistent with the extreme rarity of autoimmune disorders among sub-Saharan black Africans as long as they followed their traditional quasi-vegan lifestyles, and with recent ecologic studies correlating risks for IDDM and for multiple sclerosis mortality with animal product and/or saturated fat consumption. Moreover, there is evidence that vegan or quasi-vegan diets are useful in the management of rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and possibly SLE. The dopamine agonist bromocryptine exerts anti-inflammatory effects in rodent models of autoimmunity, and there is preliminary evidence that this drug may be clinically useful in several human autoimmune diseases; better tolerated D2-specific agonists such as cabergoline may prove to be more practical for use in therapy. The moderate clinical utility of supplemental fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis and certain other autoimmune disorders is documented. It is not unlikely that extra-thymic anti-inflammatory effects contribute importantly to the clinical utility of vegan diets, bromocryptine, and fish oil in autoimmunity. The favorable impact of low latitude or high altitude on autoimmune risk may be mediated by superior vitamin D status, which is associated with decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone; there are theoretical grounds

  20. Diet of double-crested cormorants wintering in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campo, J.J.; Thompson, B.C.; Barron, J.C.; Telfair II, R. C.; Durocher, P.; Gutreuter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The diets of 420 Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were studied during November 1986-March 1987 on eight public reservoirs in Texas. Prey included 29 fish species and the mean live weight of fish per bird was 122 g. Fishes a??415 mm long were ingested, but those a??125 mm accounted for 90% of cormorant food contents by number. Shad (Dorosoma spp.) and sunfishes (Lepomis spp.) accounted for 90% of the total food items by number. Consumption of fishes (percent by weight) was different for male vs. female and adult vs. juvenile cormorants. Total consumption of fish by weight was consistent throughout the period; however, fewer but much larger fish were consumed after 15 February. Cormorants ate fishes that were most abundant in reservoirs. Sport fishes made up a substantial portion of cormorant food by weight, but not by number on some reservoirs. Cormorants ate very few large sport fish, however.

  1. Growth performance, and proximate and fatty acid composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed for different duration with a commercial diet supplemented with various levels of menhaden fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental menhaden fish oil at levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9% to a commercial diet and feeding duration on growth performance, proximate body and tissue fatty acid (FA) composition of juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Each diet was fed to ...

  2. Microencapsulation of Fish Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beindorff, Christiaan M.; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

    For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to urban consumers. For many, fresh fish and fried fish are now a part of their standard diet.

  3. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to pesticide residues: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yau, Arthur T C; Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-ho; Ma, Stephanie; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The use of pesticides and other chemicals has become a common practice in modern agriculture to enhance and stabilise crop yield, protect the nutritional integrity of food, facilitate food storage to assure year-round supplies, and provide attractive and appealing food products. With the adoption of strict good agricultural practice (GAP), only minimal amounts of pesticide residues should remain on the crops or in connected foods of animal origin up the food chain. To assess their associated health risk to local people, the dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to residues of four groups of pesticides or their metabolites - organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), carbamates, pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and dithiocarbamate (DTC) metabolites - is estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS). A total of 150 commonly consumed food items were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 600 composite food samples were analysed for 85 pesticides or their metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These pesticides were primarily found at low levels (highest mean = 350 μg kg⁻¹) in food samples of plant origin such as vegetables and fruits. Dietary exposures to pesticide residues were estimated based on the analytical results and the food consumption data of the local residents. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to all individual pesticides were well below their respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). The percentage contributions of the estimated mean and 95th percentile dietary exposures to the ADIs of individual pesticides were <6% and <24% for the OPPs, <1% for the carbamates and pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and <1% and <4% for the DTC metabolites, respectively. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the pesticide residues analysed in this study were unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks to the Hong Kong population. PMID:24588687

  4. Zinc in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Animal proteins are a good source of zinc. Beef, pork, and lamb contain more zinc than fish. The ... use by the body as the zinc from animal proteins. Therefore, low-protein diets and vegetarian diets tend ...

  5. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    PubMed Central

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng g−1), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g−1), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g−1). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g−1 in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84–2.46 ng g−1 in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g−1), baking powder (0.64 ng g−1), some cheeses (0.68–2.24 ng g−1), breads and some cereals (0.40–1.73 ng g−1), and fast foods (1.1–10.9 ng g−1). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age–sex groups, with 0.17–0.33 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for infants, 0.082–0.23 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052–0.081 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low. PMID:21623504

  6. Effect of a low-fat fish oil diet on proinflammatory eicosanoids and cell-cycle progression score in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Galet, Colette; Gollapudi, Kiran; Stepanian, Sevan; Byrd, Joshua B; Henning, Susanne M; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Heber, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Aronson, William J

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a 4- to 6-week low-fat fish oil (LFFO) diet did not affect serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (primary outcome) but resulted in lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in prostate tissue and lower prostate cancer proliferation (Ki67) as compared with a Western diet. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of the LFFO intervention on serum pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 15-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE], and the cell-cycle progression (CCP) score were investigated. Serum fatty acids and eicosanoids were measured by gas chromatography and ELISA. CCP score was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Associations between serum eicosanoids, Ki67, and CCP score were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. BLT1 (LTB4 receptor) expression was determined in prostate cancer cell lines and prostatectomy specimens. Serum omega-6 fatty acids and 15(S)-HETE levels were significantly reduced, and serum omega-3 levels were increased in the LFFO group relative to the Western diet group, whereas there was no change in LTB4 levels. The CCP score was significantly lower in the LFFO compared with the Western diet group. The 15(S)-HETE change correlated with tissue Ki67 (R = 0.48; P < 0.01) but not with CCP score. The LTB4 change correlated with the CCP score (r = 0.4; P = 0.02) but not with Ki67. The LTB4 receptor BLT1 was detected in prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer specimens. In conclusion, an LFFO diet resulted in decreased 15(S)-HETE levels and lower CCP score relative to a Western diet. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the LFFO diet antiproliferative effects are mediated through the LTB4/BLT1 and 15(S)-HETE pathways. PMID:24169960

  7. Fruit and vegetable intakes, sources and contribution to total diet in very young children (1-4 years): the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Laura; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2016-06-01

    Although the importance of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intakes in the prevention of chronic diseases is well established, there are limited data on intakes in very young children. This study estimates F&V intakes and sources and the contribution to the total diet using data from the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative sample (n 500) of Irish children aged 1-4 years. A 4-d weighed food record was used to collect food intake data. Of 1652 food codes consumed, 740 had a fruit/vegetable component. The percentage of edible fruits and/or vegetables in each food code was calculated. Intakes (g/d), sources (g/d) and the contribution of F&V to the weight of the total diet (%) were estimated, split by age. All children consumed F&V. Intakes of total fruits, in particular fruit juice, increased with age. The contribution to total fruit intake was discrete fruits (47-56 % range across age), 100 % fruit juice, smoothies and pureés (32-45 %) as well as fruits in composite dishes (7-13 %). Total vegetable intake comprised of discrete vegetables (48-62 % range across age) and vegetables in composite dishes (38-52 %). F&V contributed on average 20 % (15 % fruit; 5 % vegetables) to the weight of the total diet and was <10 % in sixty-one children (12 %). F&V contributed 50 % of vitamin C, 53 % of carotene, 34 % of dietary fibre and 42 % of non-milk sugar intakes from the total diet. F&V are important components of the diet of Irish pre-school children; however, some aspects of F&V intake patterns could be improved in this age group. PMID:27102717

  8. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods.

    PubMed

    Folador, J F; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Parsons, C M; Bauer, L L; Utterback, P L; Schasteen, C S; Bechtel, P J; Fahey, G C

    2006-10-01

    An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of CP, crude fat, and total AA by 71, 79, and 71%, respectively, and GE by 4.1 kcal/g. Fish protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable (approximately 18, 14, and 17%, and 1.4 kcal/g, respectively). Biogenic amine concentrations were much higher in fish protein hydrolysates as compared with pollock by-products and fish meals. Pollock liver and viscera had the highest total fatty acid concentrations; however, red salmon hydrolysate and SMB had the highest total PUFA concentrations (49.63 and 48.60 mg/g, respectively). Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Based on calculations using immobilized digestive enzyme assay values, lysine digestibility of fish meal substrates was comparable to in vivo cecectomized rooster assay values and averaged approximately 90.3%. Also, pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by immobilized digestive enzyme assay and rooster assays. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared SMB and SPH to a whole egg meal control and showed that SMB had high protein quality (PER = 3.5), whereas SPH had poor protein quality (PER value less than 1.5). However, using whole egg meal as the reference protein, both fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential AA index of 1.0 and 0.9 for SMB and SPH, respectively. In the dog palatability experiments, a chicken-based control diet and 2 diets containing 10% of either SPH or SMB were tested. Dogs consumed more of the SPH diet compared with the control

  9. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (p<0.05) in commercial feeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (p<0.05) when animal and fish were integrated together. PMID:18622714

  10. Development of sensitive and rapid analytical methodology for food analysis of 18 mycotoxins included in a total diet study.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; Ripollés, Cristina; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Yusà, Vicent; Marín, Silvia; Hernández, Félix

    2013-06-14

    A rapid and sensitive method for the determination of 18 mycotoxins in 24 different food matrices has been developed and validated. With the exception of beverages and oil samples, a simple extraction with acetonitrile:water 80:20 (0.1% formic acid) was applied. Fruit juice, wine and beer samples were simply diluted with water containing 0.1% formic acid. Oil samples were partitioned with acetonitrile/hexane in order to remove fats. Analyses were made by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole. Validation was carried out in all selected matrices using blank samples spiked at two analyte concentrations. Extraction recoveries between 70 and 120% and relative standard deviations lower than 20% were obtained for the wide majority of analyte-matrix combinations. Matrix-matched calibration was used for a correct quantification in order to compensate for matrix effects. Limits of quantification were lower than maximum permitted levels for every regulated mycotoxin-matrix combination. The acquisition of three SRM transitions per compound allowed the unequivocal confirmation of positive samples, supported by the accomplishment of ion intensity ratios and retention time when compared with reference standards. The developed methodology was applied to the analysis of 240 samples within a total diet study performed at Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). The most frequently found mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone at low μg kg(-1) levels, mainly in bread, breakfast cereals and beer. PMID:23726098

  11. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  12. A method for determination of unoxidized and total methionine in protein concentrates, with special reference to fish meals.

    PubMed

    Njaa, L R

    1980-03-01

    1. An automated colorimetric method for determination of methionine using an iodoplatinate reagent is described. Methionine sulphoxide does not react under the chosen conditions. 2. The method may be used to distinguish between unoxidized and total methionine by doing one determination without and one determination with previous reduction of a portion of the sample with titanium trichloride. Methionine sulphoxide is then obtained by difference. 3. The method has been used with protein concentrates, mainly fish meals, after hydrolysis with barium hydroxide. Interference from cysteine-cystine is eliminated by adding a small amount of cadmium acetate to the sample before hydrolysis. 4. Results obtained for total methionine and for methionine sulphoxide by independent methods show good agreement with results obtained with the iodoplatinate method. PMID:7378341

  13. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the

  14. Effects of methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Wayana Amerindians contamination through fish consumption: mercury accumulation, metallothionein induction, gene expression variations, and role of the chemokine CCL2.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the

  15. Diet-tissue discrimination factors (Δ(13) C and Δ(15) N) and turnover rate in somatic tissues of a neotropical detritivorous fish on C3 and C4 diets.

    PubMed

    Sacramento, P A; Manetta, G I; Benedito, E

    2016-07-01

    In this study, diet-tissue discrimination factors and turnover rates were determined from the somatic tissues of a detritivorous fish Prochilodus lineatus. The carbon (Δ(13) C) and nitrogen (Δ(15) N) diet-tissue discrimination factors varied for all feed rations with a range of Δ(13) C values between -1·9 and 3·6‰ and Δ(15) N between 3·3 and 5·7‰. Carbon turnover rate in the blood was 23·1 days for the C3 ration and 34·7 days for the C4 ration, in the liver was 9·9 days under the C3 ration and nitrogen turnover rate was the same (23·1 days) in the liver for both C4 and C3 -C4 rations, and 13·9 days in the muscle for C3 -C4 ration. PMID:26728338

  16. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides

  17. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  18. Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the diet of US children and adolescents using the US Department of Agriculture definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from children 4-8 years of age [y] (n=2474), 9-13 y (n=32...

  19. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: A reanalysis of the data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that an exclusively human-milk-based diet is beneficial for extremely premature infants who are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, no significant difference in the other primary study endpoint, the length of time on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), was fo...

  20. The effect of diet on dorsal fin erosion in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lellis, W.A.; Barrows, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    A 2 X 2 factorial experiment of diet type (krill vs. fish meal) and steroid supplementation (0 vs. 30 ??g 17??-methyltestosterone kg-1) was conducted to determine the effects on dorsal fin erosion in steelhead trout. Triplicate tanks of 250 fry were fed one of the four diets at a rate calculated to produce 115 g fish in 34 weeks. Fish were transferred to larger tanks when mean density index reached 0.40. Dorsal fin index (DFI, measured as mean dorsal fin height X 100/total fish length) was greater (P < 0.001) among fish fed krill-based diets than for fish fed fish-based diets at weeks 12, 22, and 34 of the trial. Added testosterone decreased (p = 0.04) DFI among fish fed the krill diet at week 12 but otherwise had no effect on fin condition. Addition of testosterone to either diet type decreased (P = 0.02) critical thermal maximum, which is a measure of fish resistance to thermal stress. The results suggest that diet composition can influence the rate of dorsal fin erosion in steelhead trout through a metabolic, behavioral, or combined change.

  1. Total and methylmercury residues in tuna-fish from the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Stuffler, R Giacominelli; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2002-08-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of total mercury and methylmercury in the muscle tissue of albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) caught in the Mediterranean sea with the purpose of ascertaining whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision. Total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.84 to 1.45 mg kg(-1) w.w. (av. 1.17 mg kg(-1) w.w.) and from 0.16 to 2.59 mg kg(-1) (av. 1.18 mg kg(-1) w.w.) in the muscle of albacore and bluefin tuna, respectively. In 78.6% of albacore and in 61.1% of bluefin tuna analysed, total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision (Hg = 1 micro g g(-1) wet wt). In the two species, mercury was present almost completely in the methylated form, with percentages between 77 and 100% (av. 91.3%) in albacore and between 75 and 100% (av. 91%) in bluefin-tuna. In order to assess the potential health impact, the estimated weekly intake was calculated. The estimated weekly intake was far above the established Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for both species. PMID:12227935

  2. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and total length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities. PMID:21318735

  3. Sensory quality and chemical composition of meat from lambs fed diets enriched with fish and rapeseed oils, carnosic acid and seleno-compounds.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Danuta; Czauderna, Marian; Przybylski, Wiesław; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, Agnieszka J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate longissimus muscle quality in lambs fed diets including fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), carnosic acid (CA) and seleno-compounds. Lambs were fed one of diets: Group I - the basal diet (BD) with 3% RO; Group II - BD with 2% RO and 1% FO; Group III - BD with 2% RO, 1% FO and 0.1% CA; Group IV - BD with 2% RO, 1% FO, 0.1% CA and 0.35ppm Se as selenized-yeast; Group V - BD with 2% RO, 1% FO, 0.1% CA and 0.35ppm Se as selenate. The addition of FO and FO, CA and selenium in the inorganic form was characterized by lowest tenderness and juiciness (P<0.05). The lowest concentration of fatty acids (ΣFAs), atherogenic-FAs (A(SFA)) and thrombogenic-FAs (T(SFA)) in the muscle was found for Group V (P<0.05). Experimental diets decreased indexes of A(SFA) and T(SFA) in muscle. The lowest ratio (P<0.05) of n-6polyunsaturated-FAs to n-3polyunsaturated-FAs was obtained for Group III. PMID:27214277

  4. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  5. Determination of sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, and N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine in fish muscle plus skin by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Withdrawal-time calculation after in-feed administration in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed two different diets.

    PubMed

    Zonaras, V; Tyrpenou, A; Alexis, M; Koupparis, M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a depletion study for sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in muscle plus skin of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). N(4) -acetyl-sulfadiazine, the main metabolite of sulfadiazine (SDZ), was also examined. The fish were held in seawater at a temperature of 24-26 °C. SDZ and trimethoprim (TMP) were administered orally with medicated feed for five consecutive days at daily doses of 25 mg SDZ and 5 mg TMP per kg of fish body weight per day. Two different diets, fish oil- and plant oil-based diets, were investigated. Ten fish were sampled at each of the days 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 after the start of veterinary medicine administration. However for the calculation of the withdrawal periods, sampling day 1 was set as 24 h after the last dose of the treatment. Fish samples were analyzed for SDZ, TMP, and acetyl-sulfadiazine (AcSDZ) residues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. SDZ and TMP concentrations declined rapidly from muscle plus skin. Considering a maximum residue limit of 100 μg/kg for the total of sulfonamides and 50 μg/kg for TMP residues in fish muscle plus skin, the withdrawal periods of the premix trimethoprim-sulfadiazine 50% were calculated as 5 and 6 days, at 24-26 °C, in fish oil (FO) and plant oil (PO) groups, respectively. The investigation of this work is important to protect consumers by controlling the undesirable residues in fish. PMID:26987772

  6. Concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic in fresh fish, mollusks, and crustaceans from the Gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruangwises, Suthep; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2011-03-01

    Concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic were determined in 120 samples of eight marine animals collected from the Gulf of Thailand between March and May 2008. Two species with the highest annual catch from each of four marine animal groups were analyzed: fish (Indo-Pacific mackerel and goldstripe sardine), bivalves (green mussel and blood cockle), cephalopods (pharaoh cuttlefish and Indian squid), and crustaceans (banana prawn and swimming crab). Concentrations of inorganic arsenic based on wet weight ranged from 0.012 μg/g in Indian squids to 0.603 μg/g in blood cockles. Average percentages of inorganic arsenic with respect to total arsenic ranged from 1.2% in banana prawns to 7.3% in blood cockles. Blood cockles also exhibited the highest levels of total arsenic (5.26 ± 2.01 μg/g) and inorganic arsenic (0.352 ± 0.148 μg/g). The levels of inorganic arsenic in the study samples were much lower than the Thai regulatory limit of 2 μg/g (wet wt) and hence are safe for human consumption. PMID:21375883

  7. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys☆

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carla J.; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E.; Johnson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. PMID:23207191

  8. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. PMID:25952887

  9. Rapid Stable Isotope Turnover of Larval Fish in a Lake Superior Coastal Wetland: Implications for Diet and Life History Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trophic linkages of larval fish in Lake Superior coastal wetlands, rivers and embayments can be identified using naturally occurring differences in the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (15N:14N, ?15N) and carbon (13C:12C, ?13C). We sampled pelagic fish larvae weekly during sprin...

  10. Optimizing zinc supplementation levels of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed practical type fish meal and plant based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal (FM) is the primary protein source used in commercial feeds for rainbow trout. However, FM is a finite resource and availability is increasingly limited due to continued expansion of fish culture worldwide. Limited availability has caused a significant increase in the price of FM. Therefor...

  11. Formulation of plant based Rainbow trout feeds on an Ideal Protein Basis can reduce total dietary protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal has been a primary protein source in trout feeds and any changes that can reduce fish meal levels and total costs are beneficial. Replacing fish meal with plant protein is a first step, but amino acid content of plant based diets can be limiting. Amino acids are needed for many metabolic...

  12. Effect of endurance training and/or fish oil supplemented diet on cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein in rat skeletal muscles and heart.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Stéphan; Farout, L; Briand, M; Briand, Y; Jouanel, P

    2002-07-01

    Endurance training and/or a fish oil supplemented diet affect cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein (FABP(c)) content in rat skeletal muscles and heart. After 8 weeks of swimming, trained rats exhibited higher FABP(c) content in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and in the gastrocnemius than did control rats (30%). The FABP(c) increase was associated with an increase of citrate synthase activity (85% and 93%, respectively, in the two muscles), whereas lactate dehydrogenase activity decreased significantly. In contrast, in the soleus and in the heart we did not observe any effect of exercise either on FABP(c) or on the metabolic profile. Therefore, increasing oxidative capacities of muscle by exercise resulted in a concomitant increase of the FABP(c) content. Giving a polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3) supplemented diet for eight weeks induced a large rise of the FABP(c) in EDL (300%), gastrocnemius (250%), soleus (50%) and heart (15%) without a concurrent accumulation of intramuscular triglycerides or modification of the citrate synthase activity, suggesting that polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase FABP(c) content by up-regulating fatty acid metabolism genes via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation. Endurance trained rats fed with an omega-3 diet had similar FABP(c) content in the gastrocnemius muscle when compared to sedentary omega-3 fed rats, whereas an additive effect of exercise and diet was observed in the EDL. The FABP(c) in the soleus and in the heart of rats fed with omega-3 supplements remained constant whether rats performed exercise or not. As a result, both exercise and omega-3-enriched diet influenced FABP(c) content in muscle. These two physiological treatments presumably acted on FABP(c) content by increasing fatty acid flux within the cell. PMID:12111278

  13. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.

  14. [Evaluation of ten fish species to be included as part of renal diet, due to their protein, phosphorus and fatty acids content].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Maria Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Because renal disease is highly complex, its nutritional treatment is complicated and many foods are restricted, including fish because its phosphorus content. The aim of the present study was to analyze ten fillet fish species, commonly consumed in Mexico (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Ophichthus rex, Symphurus elongatus, Eucinostomus entomelas, Chirostoma patzcuaro, Bairdiella chrysoura, Salmo salar Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Sphyraena guachancho, Istiophorus albicans), to determine their phosphorus (P), protein (Pr), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamins D3 and E, and n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) according to the AOAC techniques, in order to identify which species could be included in renal diet; particularly because of their risk:benefit relations (calculated with those results). Protein values ranged from 16.5 to 33.5g/100 g of fillet; the specie with the highest phosphorus contest was Salmo salar, and with the lowest, Symphurus elongatus. EPA+DHA quantity ranged from 79.64 mg/100 g to 1,381.53 mg/100 g. Considering de P/Pr relation recommended to renal patients, all analyzed species (except Salmo salar, Ophichthus rex and Istiophorus albicans) could be included in their diet. As for the P/EPA+DHA relation, the species most recommended to renal patients are Symphurus elongatus, Bairdiella chrysoura and Sphyraena guachancho. PMID:23610899

  15. Effects of alfalfa hay particle size in high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat: chewing behavior, total-tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kahyani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of increasing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) intake of lactating dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat on intake, eating behavior, diet sorting, chewing activity, total-tract digestibility, and milk production and composition. Diets contained 24% alfalfa hay (AH), 16% corn silage, 58% concentrate, and 2% yellow grease [dry matter (DM) basis], and dietary peNDF content was increased by varying the particle size (PS) of the AH. Nine multiparous cows averaging 87.8 ± 14.8d in milk and weighing 653 ± 53 kg were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-d period, cows were offered 1 of 3 total mixed rations that varied in PS of AH: fine, medium, and long, with a geometric mean particle length of 3.00, 3.57 and 3.87 mm, respectively. Increasing PS quadratically affected DM intake (DMI; 24.7, 25.4, and 23.7 kg/d, for fine, medium, and long, respectively), but cumulative DMI at 2, 4, and 6h after feeding was similar across treatments, averaging 23.4, 35.6 and 46.4% of total DMI for the 3 time points, respectively. Increased peNDF intake did not affect feed sorting, but increased daily eating time, and eating and total chewing time per kilogram of DMI. Daily rumination time exhibited a quadratic response, with highest rumination time for the medium diet. Dietary PS had no effects on digestibility in the total tract, but we observed, for fine, medium, and long diets, quadratic responses in milk production (41.5, 43.3, and 40.4 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk production, and milk protein yield. Milk fat content decreased linearly with increasing PS, but milk fat content and fat:protein ratio were low for all treatments, likely due to adding unsaturated fat to a diet containing a high level of nonfiber carbohydrates (42.2% of DM). The composition, degree of saturation, and total conjugated linoleic acid content of fatty acids in milk fat were not affected by

  16. Diet and lung cancer risk from a 14-year population-based prospective study in Japan: with special reference to fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Takezaki, Toshiro; Inoue, Manami; Kataoka, Hiroki; Ikeda, Syuhei; Yoshida, Miyako; Ohashi, Yoko; Tajima, Kazuo; Tominaga, Suketami

    2003-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil exhibit a variety of health benefits, and there is evidence that they can inhibit the development of human lung mucoepidermoid and other carcinomas. To examine the hypothesis that fish consumption reduces the risk of lung cancer, we conducted a population-based prospective study, following 5,885 residents for 14 yr. Person-years were used to calculate the relative risk (RR) by the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. A total of 51 incident lung cancer cases were observed, and we found linearly decreasing RRs for lung cancer with increased frequency of consumption of fish and shellfish (RRs = 1.00, 0.99, and 0.32, P for trend = 0.003) but not with intake of dried/salted fish. Decreased RRs were apparent with both broiling and boiling cooking methods, but reduction with raw and deep-fried fish consumption was not statistically significant. We conclude that frequent fresh fish consumption, irrespective of the cooking method, may reduce the risk of lung cancer. PMID:12881009

  17. Method validation for the determination of total mercury in fish muscle by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nascimento Neto, A P; Costa, L C S Magalhães; Kikuchi, A N S; Furtado, D M S; Araujo, M Q; Melo, M C C

    2012-01-01

    A method was validated for the determination of total Hg in fish muscle using continuous flow cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS) after microwave digestion in closed vessels. The method was validated according to European Union Regulations 333/2007 and 657/2002, considering the maximum level for the metal in fish, established by European Union regulation 1881/2006. The procedure for determining linear range, selectivity, recovery, precision, trueness, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), measurement uncertainty and robustness of the method is reported. The results of the validation process demonstrate the method fulfils the provisions of the Commission Regulation. The selectivity study indicated that there was no matrix effect on the calibration curve between the concentration range of 1.0 and 30.0 µg Hg l(-1). The mean recovery calculated at six levels of fortification was in the range of 94-104%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were 4.90 and 15.7 µg kg(-1), while the CCα and CCβ values were 0.517 and 0.533 mg kg(-1), respectively, for the maximum contaminant level of 0.500 mg kg(-1). The relative expanded measurement uncertainty of the method was 0.055 mg kg(-1). The method was not affected by slight variations of some critical factors (ruggedness minor changes) as sample mass and volume of the HNO(3) and H(2)O(2) used in the digestion step. The method allowed accurate confirmation analyses of the CRM DORM 3. In fact, the Z-scores attained in a proficiency test round were well below the reference value of 2.0, proving the excellent performance of the laboratory. PMID:22250927

  18. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight than cod fed the FO diet (50.8 ± 10.3 g/fish). Cod fed 100CO15CM had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight (35.0 ± 8.0 g) than those fed 100CO (43.6 ± 8.9 g) and 100COSEFM (46.7 ± 10.7 g). Cod tissues in the 100COSEFM treatment were most impacted by dietary fatty acid profile. Multivariate statistics revealed that FO and 100COSEFM tissue fatty acid profiles were 21 to 31% different, depending on tissue type. The full replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P < 0.001) elongation of 18:3ω3 of 1.6%. These results suggest that excess 18:3ω3 from camelina oil caused some fatty acid

  19. High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri (Tanzania): targets for infant formulae close to our ancient diet?

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Remko S; Fokkema, M Rebecca; Smit, Ella N; van der Meulen, Jan; Boersma, E Rudy; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2005-04-01

    Current recommendations for arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in infant formulae are based on milk of Western mothers. Validity may be questioned in view of the profound dietary changes in the past 100 years, as opposed to our slowly adapting genome. Hominin evolution occurred in the proximity of East-African freshwater lakes and rivers and early homo sapiens had higher intakes of AA and DHA from a predominantly lacustrine-based diet. In search of milk AA and DHA contents of our African ancestors, we investigated the milk of 29 lactating women living in Doromoni near lake Kitangiri (Tanzania). They consumed sunflower oil-fried local fish as only animal lipid sources, maize and local vegetables. AA and DHA contents of Doromoni milk may be close to that of early homo sapiens, because of the similarity of their life-long consumption of East-African lacustrine-based foods. Human milk fatty acid relationships from our historical worldwide database and the literature revealed that disparities between the Doromoni diet and the presumed ancient diet (i.e. higher carbohydrate and linoleic acid intakes) are unlikely to affect milk AA and DHA contents. Doromoni milk had high contents of AA (median 0.70 mol%), DHA (0.75) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.17), and low AA/DHA ratios (median 0.91; 0.55-2.61). This tracks down to consumption of fish with high AA and DHA contents, and AA/EPA ratios. We conclude that the milk AA, DHA and EPA contents of Doromoni women might provide us with clues to optimize infant formulae and perhaps the milk of Western women. PMID:15763440

  20. The contribution of diet to total Bisphenol A body burden in humans: results of a 48 hour fasting study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human biomonitoring studies measuring BPA in urine have shown widespread exposure in the general population. Diet is thought to be a major route of exposure. We studied urinary BPA patterns in five individuals over a 48-hr period of fasting (bottled water only). Personal acti...

  1. Offshore wind farms as productive sites or ecological traps for gadoid fishes?--impact on growth, condition index and diet composition.

    PubMed

    Reubens, Jan T; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Zenner, Annemie N; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    With the construction of wind farms all across the North Sea, numerous artificial reefs are created. These windmill artificial reefs (WARs) harbour high abundances of fish species which can be attracted from elsewhere or can be the result of extra production induced by these wind farms. To resolve the attraction-production debate in suddenly altered ecosystems (cf. wind farms), the possible consequences of attraction should be assessed; thereby bearing in mind that ecological traps may arise. In this paper we investigated whether the wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea act as ecological traps for pouting and Atlantic cod. Length-at-age, condition and diet composition of fish present at the windmill artificial reefs was compared to local and regional sandy areas. Fish data from the period 2009-2012 were evaluated. Mainly I- and II-group Atlantic cod were present around the WARs; while the 0- and I-group dominated for pouting. For Atlantic cod, no differences in length were observed between sites, indicating that fitness was comparable at the WARs and in sandy areas. No significant differences in condition index were observed for pouting. At the WARs, they were slightly larger and stomach fullness was enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. Also diet differed considerably among the sites. The outcome of the proxies indicate that fitness of pouting was slightly enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. No evidence was obtained supporting the hypothesis that the WARs act as an ecological trap for Atlantic cod and pouting. PMID:23800713

  2. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N

  3. Aspects of horizontal distribution and diet of myctophid fish in the Arabian Sea with reference to the deep water oxygen deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzer, Johannes; Böttger-Schnack, Ruth; Schulz, Knud

    Horizontal distribution of myctophid fishes were studied from two transects in the Arabian Sea in 1987. Species numbers exhibited a south-north decline in diversity, with only half of the fish taxa occupying the northeastern region. Diaphus arabicus was the dominant species both in the south and north. All recorded myctophid fish species migrate in a diel pattern, residing during daytime at depths of extremely low oxygen levels (<0.1 ml O 2 1 -1) and foraging in the oxygen-rich surface layer at night. Feeding patterns were determined for the six most abundant myctophid species. All species appeared to be opportunistic predators that prey on a comparatively narrow food spectrum consisting principally of small to medium sized copepods. Numerically, non-calanoid copepods (with Oncaea conifera and O. venusta dominating) made up to 70% of the diet of D. arabicus and Bolinichthys longipes. Of the 26 calanoid copepod species identified from the six myctophid taxa, the genera Euchaeta, Pleuromamma and Candacia generally dominated in the stomachs, with P. indica constituting between 21 and 95% (by numbers) of the calanoid copepod prey.

  4. Effect of six different cooking techniques in the nutritional composition of two fish species previously selected as optimal for renal patient's diet.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Benefits of fish consumption are widely known, but there is little information about nutrient values of raw and cooked fish. The aim was to study the impact that six cooking techniques have on the nutritional composition of two fish species with low content of adverse nutrients in renal diet. Raw and steamed, foiled with aluminum, foiled with banana leaf, gas oven-baked, microwave oven-coked and fried lightly samples were chemically analyzed to determine their protein, phosphorus and lipid content. Crevalle jack: all methods increased lipid and protein content and fatty acids (FA) varied in all cooking methods. Phosphorus decreased in the steamed and microwave oven-cooked samples. Red drum: foiled and fried lightly increased lipid content compared to the raw sample. FA concentration changed in all cooking methods. Protein increased with every technique and phosphorus decreased in the steamed and gas oven-baked samples. Renal patients should preferably consume crevalle jack steamed or microwave oven-cooked and red drum steamed or gas oven-baked. PMID:26139884

  5. Determination of Total Mercury in Whole-Body Fish and Fish Muscle Plugs Collected from the South Fork of the Humboldt River, Nevada, September 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in whole-body fish and fish muscle plugs from the South Fork of the Humboldt River near Elko in the Te-Moak Indian Reservation. A single muscle plug was collected from beneath the dorsal fin area in each of the three whole-body fish samples. After homogenization and lyophilization of the muscle plugs and whole-body fish samples, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in whole-body fish ranged from 0.048 to 0.061 microgram per gram wet weight, and 0.061 to 0.082 microgram per gram wet weight in muscle plugs. All sample mercury concentrations were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  6. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  7. Determination of Total Mercury in Fillets of Sport Fishes Collected from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs, California, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir ranged from 0.09 to 1.16 micrograms per gram wet weight, and from New Melones Reservoir ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 microgram per gram wet weight. Most of the fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir (87 percent) and 27 percent of the fillets from New Melones Reservoir exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  8. The effect of an exogenous amylase on performance and total-tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows fed a high-byproduct diet.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Engstrom, M A; Azem, E; Gressley, T F

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the performance and digestibility response of lactating dairy cows fed a reduced-starch diet containing a commercial amylase product. Treatments consisted of a normal-starch total mixed ration (NS-), a reduced-starch total mixed ration (RS-), and a reduced-starch total mixed ration with exogenous amylase (RS+) added to the concentrate. Treatments were assigned according to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Twenty-three cows completed the study. Starch concentrations in NS-, RS-, and RS+ total mixed rations were 27.7, 23.5, and 22.7%, respectively. Effects of treatment on intake, milk production, milk composition, and total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility were evaluated during the last week of each period. Effects of amylase on in vitro starch digestibility of the NS- and RS- grain mixes were also measured. We hypothesized that the reduction in dietary starch in the RS- ration would decrease diet digestibility and limit milk production compared with NS- due to a decrease in available energy, and that RS+ would alleviate some of this decrease by increasing nutrient digestibility. Contrary to this hypothesis, the RS- diet did not affect intake or milk production relative to the NS- diet, except for increased milk urea nitrogen and a tendency for a decrease in milk protein yield. This lack of response is attributed to both low milk fat concentrations across treatments and greater than predicted dietary energy content preventing the energy deficit that was intended to occur with the reduced-starch rations. Cows fed the RS+ ration had the lowest production performance, with reduced milk, fat-corrected milk, protein, and lactose yields relative to cows fed NS-. Cows fed RS+ also had reduced lactose yield and tended to have reduced milk and fat-corrected milk relative to cows fed RS-. Despite the negative effects of the RS+ treatment on performance, exogenous amylase did increase both in vitro

  9. Double-crested cormorant studies at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario in 2008: Diet composition, fish consumption and the efficacy of management activities in reducing fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Farquhar, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The year 2008 marked the seventeenth consecutive year of study of the food habits and fish consumption of LGI cormorants, and represented the tenth consecutive year evaluating the efficacy of management activities to control the reproductive success of cormorants nesting at LGI. The program consists mainly of spraying cormorant eggs with oil as well as the culling of adult and immature birds.This paper reports the findings of work carried outin 2008 at LGI.

  10. Total antioxidant performance is associated with diet and serum antioxidants in participants of the diet and physical activity substudy of the jackson heart study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total antioxidant performance (TAP) measures antioxidant capacities in both hydrophilic and lipophilic compartments of serum and interactions known to exist between them. Our objective was to assess TAP levels in a subset of Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants and to examine associations with die...

  11. The effect of fish meal replacement by soyabean products on fish growth: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, James

    2009-12-01

    Meta-analysis was applied to quantify the effect of replacement of fish meal by soyabean products in diets on fish growth. Measurement of growth in different units among studies required the use of a standardised effect size (Hedges' d). From a total of ninety-nine studies concentrating on fish meal replacement by defatted soyabean meal, 53 % were eliminated due to, among others, absence of a fish meal control diet (n 18), or no statistical differences or measurement of dispersion (n 6) indicated. Replacement of 4 to 40 % fish meal by soyabean meal (inclusion levels of 71-366 g/kg) resulted in a mean effect size of - 0.1142 (95 % CI - 0.4665, 0.2382) obtained in forty-eight comparisons evaluated with seventeen different fish species. However, at higher fish meal replacement levels the 95 % CI calculated for combined effect sizes did not overlap with zero. With soya protein concentrate replacing 25 to 100 % of fish meal in diets for seven fish species, methionine supplementation (mean - 2.4373 (95 % CI - 3.9004, - 0.9742); n 10) did not have a substantial influence on the magnitude of cumulative effect sizes relative to no supplementation (mean - 2.7306 (95 % CI - 3.7991, - 1.6620); n 16). Information on other soyabean products (full-fat soyabeans, soya flour) used as protein sources in fish diets was found as too limited for analysis and definite conclusions. The present study contributes by putting a numerical value to the magnitude of growth differences in fish when replacing dietary fish meal by soyabean products. PMID:20003609

  12. Defatted avocado pulp reduces body weight and total hepatic fat but increases plasma cholesterol in male rats fed diets with cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Naveh, Einat; Werman, Moshe J; Sabo, Edmond; Neeman, Ishak

    2002-07-01

    The potential use of avocado as a fiber source was evaluated. The total dietary fiber content of fresh avocado fruit of the Ettinger variety was 5.2 g/100 g. Approximately 75% was insoluble, and 25% soluble. The water-holding capacity of dry defatted avocado pulp was similar to that of cellulose, and trypsin inhibitors were not detected. The dietary and metabolic consequences of the avocado pulp were studied in male rats fed normal and hypercholesterolemic diets. Rats consumed semipurified diets containing either avocado pulp as the dietary fiber source or cellulose (control) with or without 10 g/kg cholesterol and 5 g/kg cholic acid. Food consumption and body weight gain were lower in rats fed avocado compared with those fed cellulose. Relative cecum weight was higher in avocado-fed rats. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels did not differ in rats fed diets without cholesterol, but plasma cholesterol was greater in avocado-fed than in cellulose-fed rats that consumed cholesterol. Regardless of dietary cholesterol, hepatic total fat levels, as evaluated histologically, but not directly, were lower in avocado-fed rats. These data suggest the presence of an appetite depressant in avocado and that avocado pulp interferes with hepatic fat metabolism. PMID:12097685

  13. Menhaden-fish oil in a vitamin E-deficient diet: protection against chloroquine-resistant malaria in mice.

    PubMed

    Levander, O A; Ager, A L; Morris, V C; May, R G

    1989-12-01

    Feeding a vitamin E-deficient diet containing 5% menhaden oil to mice affords significant protection against both a chloroquine-sensitive and a chloroquine-resistant line of the malarial parasite. Nutritional manipulation may offer a new approach to the problem of drug-resistant malaria, a rapidly emerging global threat to public health. PMID:2688393

  14. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  15. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (-1.39% change; 95% CI = -2.56 to -0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (-2.03% change; 95% CI = -3.45 to -0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (-1.37% change; 95% CI = -2.64 to -0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-1.57% change; 95% CI = -3.02 to -0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (-0.83% change; 95% CI = -1.29 to -0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk. PMID:26742057

  16. Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. Results The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL−1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g−1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24752974

  17. Quantification of total and specific gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria species in fish using an MPN real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Jones, Jessica L; Benner, Ronald A; Burkhardt, William

    2011-10-01

    Quantification of histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) is necessary in order to elucidate the role that HPB play in scombrotoxin (histamine) fish poisoning. We report here the evaluation of a real-time PCR method for the quantification of total and specific Gram-negative HPB species in fish using a most probable number (MPN) format. The species-specific real-time PCR assay was 100% inclusive for independently detecting Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella planticola/ornithinolytica and Photobacterium damselae and did not cross react with other histamine- or non- histamine-producing bacteria. The efficiency of the reactions in the absence and presence of Spanish mackerel enrichment containing 1 × 10(6) CFU/ml of background microflora were 93-104 and 92-99%, respectively. The MPN-real-time PCR assay accurately quantified total and specific HPB in spiked mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculates) samples. These methods were used to quantify total and specific HPB in naturally contaminated, decomposing mahi-mahi, Spanish mackerel and tuna (Thunnus albacares) samples. The results of this study indicate that MPN-real-time PCR assays can be used to accurately enumerate total and specific HPB in fish samples. These assays can be applied to assess the effectiveness of mitigation strategies and understand the relationship between HPB and histamine production in decomposing fish. PMID:21839377

  18. Replacement of fish meal in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets using a yeast-derived protein source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of a yeast-derived protein source (NuPro) as a replacement for menhaden fish meal on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), whole-body composition, and disease resistance in juvenile channel catfish. NuPro replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% o...

  19. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  20. Growth parameters of rainbow trout at differenct life stages reared on either a fish meal or plant protein based diet.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of growth parameters have been researched in a number of aquaculture species with rainbow trout having received a significant amount of attention. Typically most growth studies have evaluated changes in plasma hormone levels or expression in growth genes in fish at a certain life stage. It ...

  1. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  2. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  3. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  4. EFFECT OF MENHADEN FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE EXPOSURE ON NURSERY PIGS: II. EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE AXIS WHEN FED SIMPLE OR COMPLEX DIETS CONTAINING NO SPRAY-DRIED PLASMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial using 64 weanling pigs (TR4 x PIC C22) was conducted to determine the effects of menhaden fish-oil supplementation and diet complexity on performance and immune response of nursery pigs. Pigs (17 d and 6.27 +/- 1.16 kg) were weaned into a segregated early wean facility and given free access...

  5. Dietary burden calculations relating to fish metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Schlechtriem, Christian; Pucher, Johannes; Michalski, Britta

    2016-03-30

    Fish farming is increasingly dependent on plant commodities as a source of feed leading to an increased risk for pesticide residues in aquaculture diets and consequently their transfer into aquaculture food products. The European pesticide regulation requires fish metabolism and fish feeding studies where residues in fish feed exceed 0.1 mg kg(-1) of the total diet (dry weight basis) to enable the setting of appropriate maximum residue levels in fish commodities. Fish dietary burden calculation is therefore an important prerequisite to decide on further experimental testing as part of the consumer risk assessment. In this review, the different aquaculture production systems are compared with regard to their specific feeding practices and the principles of dietary burden calculation are described. PMID:26749492

  6. Diet of a piscivorous seabird reveals spatiotemporal variation in abundance of forage fishes in the Monterey Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Lisa A.; Harvey, James T.

    2015-06-01

    Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) diet was investigated using regurgitated pellets (n = 285) collected on 19 sampling days at three locations during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 nonbreeding seasons in the Monterey Bay region. The efficacy of using nested sieves and the all-structure technique to facilitate prey detection in the pellets was evaluated, but this method did not increase prey enumeration and greatly decreased efficiency. Although 29 prey species were consumed, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) dominated and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus) also was important in the diet. Few rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) and market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) were consumed compared with great prevalence in previous studies during the 1970s. El Niño and La Niña during the study provided a unique opportunity to examine predator response to variation in prey availability. Patterns of prey number and diversity were not consistent among locations. Greatest number and diversity of prey occurred at locations within Monterey Bay during La Niña, results not evident at the outer coast location. Short-term specialization occurred but mean prey diversity indicated a generalist feeding mode. This study demonstrated the importance of periodic sampling at multiple locations within a region to detect spatiotemporal variability in the diet of opportunistic generalists.

  7. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels. PMID:26449161

  8. Effects of an High-Fat Diet Enriched in Lard or in Fish Oil on the Hypothalamic Amp-Activated Protein Kinase and Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Mollica, Maria Pina; Lionetti, Lillà; Cavaliere, Gina; Trinchese, Giovanna; De Filippo, Chiara; Chieffi, Sergio; Gaita, Marcello; Barletta, Antonio; De Luca, Bruno; Crispino, Marianna; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-01-01

    The high fat diet (HFD) rich in lard induces obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and the deregulation of hypothalamic nuclei plays an important role in this mechanism. One important factor involved in the food intake and inflammation is adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase activated by phosphorylation. Omega (ω)3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds known to attenuate the obesity-related diseases, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions in the hypothalamus are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of PUFA may be mediated by AMPK in the hypothalamus. To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD), or isocaloric HFD containing either fish oil (FD; rich in ω3-PUFA) or lard for 6 weeks, and the activation of AMPK, inflammatory state (IKKβ, TNF-α) and oxidative stress were analyzed in the hypothalamus. In addition, we also studied serum lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and pro-inflammatory parameters. Our results showed, at the hypothalamic level of LD-fed rats, an increase of AMPK activation, inflammation and oxidative stress, while no modifications were detected in FD-fed animals compared to CD. In addition body weight gain, serum lipid profile, pro-inflammatory parameters and insulin resistance were reduced in FD animals compared to LD. In conclusion, our data indicate that the substitution of saturated by unsaturated fatty acids in the diet has beneficial effects on modulation of hypothalamic inflammation and function in obesity, underlying, at hypothalamic level, the interaction among insulin and/or leptin resistance, AMPK activation and hyperphagia. PMID:27375435

  9. Diet Quality, Nutrient Intake, Weight Status, and Feeding Environments of Girls Meeting or Exceeding Recommendations for Total Dietary Fat of the American Academy of Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonna; Mitchell, Diane C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To compare the diet quality and weight status of girls consuming diets meeting the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics for dietary fat with those of girls consuming >30% of energy from fat and to examine relationships between girls’ dietary fat intake, mothers’ nutrient intakes, and mothers’ child-feeding practices. Design Participants were 192 white girls and their mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: >30% of energy from fat (high fat [HF]) or ≤30% of energy from fat (low fat [LF]), based on girls’ 3-day dietary recalls. Girls’ food group and nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index, body mass index, and mothers’ nutrient intakes and child-feeding practices were compared. Results Girls with HF diets consumed fewer fruits, more meat, and more fats and sweets and had lower Healthy Eating Index scores than did the girls in the LF group. Mothers of girls in the HF group had higher fat intakes than did those in the LF group. Girls and mothers in the HF group had lower intakes of fiber and vitamins A, C, B6, folate, and riboflavin. Mothers in the HF group reported using more restriction and pressure to eat in feeding their daughters. Girls in the HF group showed greater increase in body mass index and skinfold thickness from age 5 to 7 years. Conclusion These findings provide additional support for the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics to limit total dietary fat. Findings reveal that mothers’ use of controlling feeding practices are not effective in fostering healthier diets among girls and that mothers’ own eating may be more influential than their attempts to control the intake of their daughters. PMID:11389293

  10. Effect of dietary meat and fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Kap, Lisanne; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis. However, their association with colorectal cancer incidence is not conclusive. We investigated the influence of isocaloric replacement of red meat with fatty fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water in apparently healthy human volunteers on controlled diets. Fourteen volunteers consumed a high red meat, a combined red meat/fish and a high fish diet for 8 days each. Faecal homogenates were analysed for haem, nitroso compounds (NOC) and calprotectin and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Both faecal NOC and haem excretion decreased with more fish and less meat in the diet. Nitrosyl iron (FeNO) was the main contributor to total NOC on all diets. The proportion of other NOC increased with more fish and less meat in the diet (P = 0.01), resulting in a non-statistically significant decrease in the proportion of FeNO on the fish diet. There was no statistically significant difference in faecal calprotectin (P = 0.54) and faecal water-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines between the diets (P > 0.36). Increasing fish intake and reducing the intake of red meat does not seem to have an effect on inflammation and faecal water-induced (oxidative) DNA damage; however, it does reduce the formation of mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic NOC and may as such beneficially affect colorectal risk. PMID:20106932

  11. Fish Oil Diet Associated with Acute Reperfusion Related Hemorrhage, and with Reduced Stroke-Related Sickness Behaviors and Motor Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Michaela C.; Howells, David W.; Crewther, David P.; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M.; Rewell, Sarah S.; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  12. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related hemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviors and motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M; Rewell, Sarah S; Turchini, Giovanni M; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  13. Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Zanovec, Michael; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the diet of US children and adolescents using the US Department of Agriculture definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from children 4-8 years of age [y] (n=2474), 9-13 y (n=3273), and adolescents 14-18 y (n=4044) participating in the NHANES 1999-2004 were assessed. LB was defined as beef with ≤9.28 grams [g] fat/100 g (excess was discretionary fat). Means and standard errors were determined using appropriate sample weights. Consumption of LB contributed significantly to intake of protein and many key nutrients such as vitamins B6 and B12, zinc, iron, niacin, phosphorus, and potassium by US children and adolescents without providing significantly to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, or sodium. PMID:21093990

  14. Replacement of Soybean Meal in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Diets with Cottonseed Meal and Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two pond experiments were conducted to evaluate cottonseed meal (CSM), distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and supplemental lysine as replacements for soybean meal (SBM) in channel catfish diets. In Experiment 1, fish fed diets in which SBM was totally replaced with CSM gained similar wei...

  15. Polyphenol-Rich Bilberry Ameliorates Total Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol when Implemented in the Diet of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Lea; Overgaard, Ann; Christensen, Lars P.; Jeppesen, Per B.; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bilberries and blackcurrants are nutrient sources rich in bioactive components, including dietary fibers, polyphenols, and anthocyanins, which possess potent cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies investigating the cardio-protective effects of natural components have focused on whole bilberries or blackcurrants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate whether a diet enriched with bilberries or blackcurrants has beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, blood pressure, and expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats (n = 48) were randomly assigned to either a control, bilberry-enriched, blackcurrant-enriched, or fiber-enriched diet for 8 weeks ad libitum. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed on liver, adipose, and muscle tissue. Berry polyphenol content was determined by HPLC and LC-MS analysis. RESULTS: Bilberry enrichment reduced total (-21%, p = 0.0132) and LDL-cholesterol (-60%, p = 0.0229) levels, but increased HDL-cholesterol to a lesser extent than in controls. This may partly be due to the altered hepatic liver X receptor-α expression (-24%, p < 0.001). Neither bilberries nor blackcurrants influenced glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Nevertheless, transcriptional analysis implied a better conservation of hepatic and adipocyte insulin sensitivity by bilberry enrichment. Anthocyanins constituted 91% and 87% of total polyphenol content in bilberries and blackcurrants, respectively. However, total anthocyanin content (3441 mg/100 g) was 4-fold higher in bilberries than in blackcurrants (871 mg/100 g). CONCLUSIONS: Bilberry consumption ameliorated total and LDL-cholesterol levels, but not HDL-cholesterol levels in ZDF rats. Neither bilberry nor blackcurrant enrichment delayed the development of diabetes or hypertension. Thus, in rats, bilberries may be valuable as a dietary preventive agent against hypercholesterolemia, probably by

  16. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Williams, G.E.; Nico, L.; Robins, R.

    1999-09-01

    The authors estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish, though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and they found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. The authors estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. They estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish. The authors estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. They estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledgling mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  17. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, Peter C; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Sepalveda, Maria S.; Williams, Gary E.; Nico, Leo G.; Robins, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish (>95% of biomass), though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and we found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. We estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. We estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish (4-year mean = 0.41 mg/kg). We estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. We estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledging mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  18. Validation of an approach to predict total-tract fiber digestibility using a standardized in vitro technique for different diets fed to high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Ruh, K; Combs, D K

    2015-04-01

    The experimental objective was to validate an in vitro model to predict total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility in dairy cattle. Twenty-one diets from 7 studies conducted at University of Wisconsin-Madison were analyzed for in vitro fiber digestibility. Forages varied among diets (corn, alfalfa, tall and meadow fescue, and wheat straw silages) and nutrient composition (ranges: NDF = 22.5 to 33.8%; crude protein = 15.8 to 18.9%; nonfiber carbohydrates = 38.0 to 51.0%). Total-tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD) observed in in vivo trials was determined using different markers as described in the individual studies. The in vitro TTNDFD model predicted total-tract fiber digestibility from the proportion of total NDF potentially digestible (pdNDF), rate of pdNDF degradation, and rate of passage of pdNDF. The model predicted TTNDFD similar to in vivo measurements. The relationship between TTNDFD measured in vivo and TTNDFD predicted by the in vitro assay was significant (R(2) = 0.68). The relationship between in vitro 30-h NDF digestibility values and in vivo total-tract NDF digestibility values was not significant, whereas in vitro 48-h NDF digestibility values were correlated (R(2) = 0.30) with in vivo TTNDFD measurements. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) showed a negative relationship (R(2) = 0.40) with TTNDFD in vivo. Each 1-percentage-unit increase of iNDF resulted in a decrease of 0.96 percentage units of total-tract NDF digestibility; however, iNDF by itself was not a good predictor of TTNDFD because of the difference among the means. This study showed that an in vitro TTNDFD model that uses iNDF, pdNDF, and rates of pdNDF digestion and passage can predict (R(2) = 0.68) total-tract NDF digestibility. Most importantly, we demonstrated the ability to predict total-tract fiber digestibility from a model based on in vitro NDF degradation, which could improve our ability to optimize forage utilization and milk production. PMID:25648802

  19. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk. PMID:26742057

  20. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  1. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  2. Measurement of haem and total iron in fish, shrimp and prawn using ICP-MS: Implications for dietary iron intake calculations.

    PubMed

    Wheal, Matthew S; DeCourcy-Ireland, Emma; Bogard, Jessica R; Thilsted, Shakuntala H; Stangoulis, James C R

    2016-06-15

    Twenty-five species of fish, shrimp and prawn from local markets in Bangladesh were analysed for concentrations of total Fe, haem Fe and non-haem Fe by ICP-MS. Total Fe and non-haem Fe concentrations were measured in nitric acid-digested samples and haem Fe was extracted using acidified 80% acetone for 60 min. Total Fe concentrations ranged from 0.55-14.43 mg/100 g FW, and haem Fe% ranged from 18%-93% of total Fe. Repeat extractions with 80% acetone recovered additional haem Fe, suggesting that previous measurement by this technique may have underestimated haem Fe content. Calculation of Fe balance (summing Fe in acetone extracts and Fe in the residue after haem Fe extraction) was not significantly different from total Fe, indicating the two processes recovered the different forms of Fe with similar effectiveness. PMID:26868569

  3. Summary of total mercury concentrations in fillets of selected sport fishes collected during 2000-2003 from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Slotton, Darrell G.; May, Thomas W.; Ayers, Shaun M.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes results of total mercury measurements in skinless fillets of sport fishes collected during August 2000, September?October 2002, and July 2003 from Lake Natoma, a small (8,760 acre-feet) afterbay for Folsom Dam on the lower American River. The primary objective of the study was to determine if mercury concentrations in fillets approached or exceeded guidelines for human consumption. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) human-health action level for methylmercury in commercially caught fish is 1.0 ?g/g (microgram per gram); the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human-health criterion for methylmercury residue in fish tissue is 0.30 ?g/g. Wet weight concentrations of total mercury in skinless fillets were as high as 0.19 ?g/g in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), 0.39 ?g/g in redear sunfish (L. microlophus), 1.02 ?g/g in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and 1.89 ?g/g in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.10 ?g/g in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 0.56 ?g/g in white catfish (A-meiurus catus). Altogether, 1 of 86 largemouth bass and 11 of 11 channel catfish exceeded the FDA human-health action level. In addition, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 26 of 86 largemouth bass, 2 of 3 spotted bass (M. punctulatus), 1 of 1 brown bullhead (A. nebulosus), and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA human-health criterion. These results indicate that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma contain undesirably high concentrations of mercury in their skinless fillets.

  4. Effectiveness of Annealing Blocking Primers versus Restriction Enzymes for Characterization of Generalist Diets: Unexpected Prey Revealed in the Gut Contents of Two Coral Reef Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Leray, Matthieu; Agudelo, Natalia; Mills, Suzanne C.; Meyer, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of predator-prey interactions is challenging as researchers have to rely on indirect methods that can be costly, biased and too imprecise to elucidate the complexity of food webs. DNA amplification and sequencing techniques of gut and fecal contents are promising approaches, but their success largely depends on the ability to amplify the taxonomic array of prey consumed and then match prey amplicons with reference sequences. When little a priori information on diet is available or a generalist predator is targeted, versatile primer sets (also referred to as universal or general primers) as opposed to group- or species-specific primer sets are the most powerful to unveil the full range of prey consumed. However, versatile primers are likely to preferentially amplify the predominant, less degraded predator DNA if no manipulation is performed to exclude this confounding DNA template. In this study we compare two approaches that eliminate the confounding predator template: restriction digestion and the use of annealing blocking primers. First, we use a preliminary DNA barcode library provided by the Moorea BIOCODE project to 1) evaluate the cutting frequency of commercially available restriction enzymes and 2) design predator specific annealing blocking primers. We then compare the performance of the two predator removal strategies for the detection of prey templates using two versatile primer sets from the gut contents of two generalist coral reef fish species sampled in Moorea. Our study demonstrates that blocking primers should be preferentially used over restriction digestion for predator DNA removal as they recover greater prey diversity. We also emphasize that a combination of versatile primers may be required to best represent the breadth of a generalist's diet. PMID:23579925

  5. Influence of body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical activity on total body and forearm bone mass in Chinese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Foo, Leng Huat; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Kun; Ma, Guansheng; Greenfield, Heather; Fraser, David R

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine association between body composition, muscle strength, diet and physical exercise with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA) in 283 Chinese adolescent girls aged 15 years in Beijing, China. Body composition, pubertal stage, physical activity and dietary intakes were assessed using standard validated protocols. Total body and forearm bone, lean body mass (LBM) and fat body mass (FBM) were determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate linear regression analyses were carried out to examine the predictors of BMC and BA, after controlling for potential confounders. The subjects had a mean age of 15.0 (sd 0.9) years and 99.6 % of them had reached menarche. Multivariate analyses showed that LBM, FBM, handgrip muscle strength and milk intake were significant independent determinants of BMC and BA of the total body and/or forearm sites. LBM was found to be a stronger independent determinant than FBM of BMC and BA, whereas handgrip muscle strength was only found as significant determinant of BMC and BA at the forearm sites than in total body BMC and BA. Further, total physical activity level had a significant positive association with handgrip and LBM. This suggested that greater muscle strength and higher LBM may reflect higher levels of physical activity. Therefore, continuous healthy lifestyle practices such as adequate intake of milk and continuous participation in physical activity should be encouraged throughout adolescence to optimise bone growth during this period. PMID:17640423

  6. Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Zhang, Xi; Long, Xiaowen; Tao, Linli; Wang, Zhen; Niu, Guoyi; Kang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout. PMID:25119853

  7. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  8. Diet inequality prevails among consumers interested and knowledgeable in nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Andreas; Andersson, Håkan S.; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between diet cost and adherence to nutritional recommendations among consumers in general. This has adverse effects on diet and health inequality. It could be hypothesized that consumers knowledgeable in nutrition escape this correlation. Objective Investigate whether the previously observed relationship between diet cost and nutritional quality prevails among consumers with an above-average interest in and knowledge of nutrition. Design Full open diet registrations of 330 students taking a basic university-level course in nutrition over a total of 780 days. Results The consumers with the highest daily average diet cost differ from the lowest cost quartile: The diets had higher micronutrient density, more fruits and vegetables, and lower energy density. The highest cost daily diet quartile had a significantly higher energy adjusted intake of the micronutrients that were on average consumed below the recommendation (vitamin D, folate, and iron for women). On the other hand, alcohol intake was significantly higher among the high diet cost group. The highest diet cost respondents consumed more fish, meat, coffee, and spreads, whereas the lowest diet cost respondents had a higher consumption of cereals, bread, jam, sausage, and milk. Conclusions Dietary differences prevail even in the above-average interested and knowledgeable group. The respondents did not use their higher level of knowledge to break this commonly observed relationship. This suggests that an increased minimum level of knowledge in nutrition may not by itself eliminate dietary inequality. PMID:26610274

  9. The Hypolipidemic Effect of Total Saponins from Kuding Tea in High-Fat Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Mice and Its Composition Characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengwu; Yu, Qingsong; Li, Xiaohua; Jin, Shuna; Li, Sen; Zhang, Yang; Jia, Shuailong; Chen, Cheng; Xiang, Yi; Jiang, Hongliang

    2016-05-01

    Kuding tea are used as a traditional tea material and widely consumed in China. In this study, total saponins (TS) from water extract of Kuding tea was prepared by D101 macroporous resins and analyzed by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Then the hypolipidemic effect of TS extract was investigated in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice. For comprehensive identification or characterization of saponins in TS extract, 3 major saponins of Kudinoside A, Kudinoside F, and Kudinoside D were isolated and used as standards to investigate the MS/MS fragmentation pattern. As a result, 52 saponins were identified or characterized in TS extract from Kuding tea. In addition, the increased levels of mice serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and atherogenic index (AI) were significantly reduced after the treatment of TS extract. Also, the liver protective effect of TS extract was obviously judged from the photographs stained with oil red-O staining. Meanwhile, TS extract significantly upregulated the expression of hepatic scavenger receptors including SR-AI, SR-BI, and CD36. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the overexpression of hepatic scavenger receptors was involved in the hypolipidemic effect of Kuding tea on the high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice. The TS extract could influence these scavenger receptors, and this could be the potential mechanism of TS extract from Kuding tea in the treatment of lipid disorders. These results give the evidence that the saponins in Kuding tea could provide benefits in managing hypercholesterolemia and may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical. PMID:27074384

  10. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

  11. Effects of olive and fish oil Ca soaps in ewe diets on milk fat and muscle and subcutaneous tissue fatty-acid profiles of suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, B; Gómez-Cortés, P; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; Manso, T; de la Fuente, M A

    2014-07-01

    Enhancing healthy fatty acids (FAs) in ewe milk fat and suckling lamb tissues is an important objective in terms of improving the nutritional value of these foods for the consumer. The present study examined the effects of feeding-protected lipid supplements rich in unsaturated FAs on the lipid composition of ewe milk, and subsequently in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of lambs suckling such milk. Thirty-six pregnant Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were assigned to one of three experimental diets (forage/concentrate ratio 50 : 50), each supplemented with either 3% Ca soap FAs of palm (Control), olive (OLI) or fish (FO) oil. The lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling for the whole experimental period. When the lambs reached 11 kg BW, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous fat depots. Although milk production was not affected by lipid supplementation, the FO diet decreased fat content (P0.05) and other trans-FAs between Control and FO treatments would indicate that FO treatment does not alter rumen biohydrogenation pathways under the assayed conditions. Changes in dam milk FA composition induced differences in the FA profiles of meat and fat depots of lambs, preferentially incorporated polyunsaturated FAs into the muscle rather than storing them in the adipose tissue. In the intramuscular fat of the FO treatment, all the n-3 FAs reached their highest concentrations: 0.97 (18:3 n-3), 2.72 (20:5 n-3), 2.21 (22:5 n-3) and 1.53% (22:6 n-3). In addition, not only did FO intramuscular fat have the most cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (1.66%) and trans-11 18:1 (3.75%), but also the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (1.80) and saturated FA content were not affected. Therefore, FO exhibited the best FA profile from a nutritional point of view. PMID:24576480

  12. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Lamot, D M; van der Klein, S A S; van de Linde, I B; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H; Lammers, A

    2016-09-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g

  13. Organic, inorganic and total mercury determination in fish by chemical vapor generation with collection on a gold gauze and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Fábio Andrei; Bizzi, Cezar Augusto; Antes, Fabiane Goldschmidt; Dressler, Valderi Luiz; Flores, Érico Marlon de Moraes

    2009-06-01

    A method for organic, inorganic and total mercury determination in fish tissue has been developed using chemical vapor generation and collection of mercury vapor on a gold gauze inside a graphite tube and further atomization by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. After drying and cryogenic grinding, potassium bromide and hydrochloric acid solution (1 mol L - 1 KBr in 6 mol L - 1 HCl) was added to the samples. After centrifugation, total mercury was determined in the supernatant. Organomercury compounds were selectively extracted from KBr solution using chloroform and the resultant solution was back extracted with 1% m/v L-cysteine. This solution was used for organic Hg determination. Inorganic Hg remaining in KBr solution was directly determined by chemical vapor generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury vapor generation from extracts was performed using 1 mol L - 1 HCl and 2.5% m/v NaBH 4 solutions and a batch chemical vapor generation system. Mercury vapor was collected on the gold gauze heated resistively at 80 °C and the atomization temperature was set at 650 °C. The selectivity of extraction was evaluated using liquid chromatography coupled to chemical vapor generation and determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The proposed method was applied for mercury analysis in shark, croaker and tuna fish tissues. Certified reference materials were used to check accuracy and the agreement was better than 95%. The characteristic mass was 60 pg and method limits of detection were 5, 1 and 1 ng g - 1 for organic, inorganic and total mercury, respectively. With the proposed method it was possible to analyze up to 2, 2 and 6 samples per hour for organic, inorganic and total Hg determination, respectively.

  14. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part I: the offshore fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed diet linkages within the offshore (> 80 m bathymetric depth) food web of Lake Superior are currently not well identified. We used analyses of fish stomach contents to create an empirically based food web model of the Lake Superior offshore fish community. Stomachs were collected seasonally (spring, summer, and fall) from nine offshore locations in 2005, using bottom and midwater trawls. In total, 2643 stomachs representing 12 fish species were examined. The predominant fish species collected were deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), kiyi (Coregonus kiyi), and cisco (Coregonus artedi). Mysis diluviana was the most common prey item, indicating that changes in Mysis abundance could have a profound impact on the entire offshore food web. Mysis was the primary diet item of deepwater sculpin (≥ 53% by mass) and kiyi (≥ 96% by mass) regardless of depth or season. The invasive Bythotrephes was an important diet component of the pelagic cisco in summer and fall. Deepwater sculpin were the primary diet item of siscowet (≥ 52% by mass), with coregonines appearing in the diet of larger (> 400 mm) siscowet. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant seasonal or site-specific differences in diets of deepwater sculpin, cisco, or kiyi. Site was the primary structuring factor in siscowet diets. Generally, in Lake Superior, the diet items of the dominant offshore species did not appear to be in danger from those types of major ecological shifts occurring in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes.

  15. Headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of naphthalene in the composite food samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study in Ottawa.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Hierlihy, Tara; Popovic, Svetlana; Dabeka, Bob

    2012-12-01

    A method based on isotope dilution headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, was developed for the determination of naphthalene in foods. Optimum method sensitivity was achieved by the addition of NaCl in water at saturation and with the sample solution incubated at 30°C for 15 min. The method had good repeatability, with relative standard deviations of 3.5 and 1.5% at 5 and 30 ng/ml, respectively. This method was used to determine naphthalene in 159 food composite samples collected from the 2011 Canadian Total Diet Study. Naphthalene was detected in 93 (58.9%) food composite samples, mostly in products of meat and cereal, fast food, and miscellaneous foods. Among the 93 samples, only 51 (54.8%) samples were found to contain naphthalene at levels above 1 ng/g, with a maximum of 35 ng/g found in the herbs and spices composite sample. Method detection limits, estimated for each one of the food composite samples by using the lower-abundance ionm/z 127, varied considerably because of the matrix effect, ranging from as low as 0.0022 ng/g for water to as high as 16 ng/g for fatty sample, with an average of 1.6 ng/g. PMID:23212013

  16. Master Amino acid Pattern as sole and total substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N; Karbalai, M; Valente, C; Moras, G

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a sole and total substitute of dietary proteins to 500 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' body nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP regimen, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, the sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also prevented were those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, and decreased libido. The use of MAP in conjunction with the ANC/OMP also allowed for mean weight loss of 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) per week, achieved through reduction of excessive fat tissue and elimination of excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment. PMID:14964347

  17. TDS exposure project: application of the analytic hierarchy process for the prioritization of substances to be analyzed in a total diet study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, A; Sioen, I; Cubadda, F; Ozer, H; Basegmez, H I Oktay; Turrini, A; Lopez Esteban, M T; Fernandez San Juan, P M; Sokolić-Mihalak, D; Jurkovic, M; De Henauw, S; Aureli, F; Vin, K; Sirot, V

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a general method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology to rank the substances to be studied in a Total Diet Studies (TDS). This method was tested for different substances and groups of substances (N = 113), for which the TDS approach has been considered relevant. This work was performed by a group of 7 experts from different European countries representing their institutes, which are involved in the TDS EXPOSURE project. The AHP methodology is based on a score system taking into account experts' judgments quantified assigning comparative scores to the different identified issues. Hence, the 10 substances of highest interest in the framework of a TDS are trace elements (methylmercury, cadmium, inorganic arsenic, lead, aluminum, inorganic mercury), dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some additives (sulfites and nitrites). The priority list depends on both the national situation (geographical variations, consumer concern, etc.) and the availability of data. Thus, the list depends on the objectives of the TDS and on reachable analytical performances. Moreover, such a list is highly variable with time and new data (e.g. social context, vulnerable population groups, emerging substances, new toxicological data or health-based guidance values). PMID:25478735

  18. Exposure assessment within a Total Diet Study: a comparison of the use of the pan-European classification system FoodEx-1 with national food classification systems.

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; Van Klaveren, J; De Henauw, S; Van Donkersgoed, G; Van Gorcum, T; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M; Pinchen, H; Ruprich, J; Rehurkova, I; Perelló, G; Sioen, I

    2015-04-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and preparing commonly consumed foods purchased at retail level and analysing them for harmful and/or beneficial chemical substances. A food classification system is needed to link food consumption data with the contaminant concentration data obtained in the TDS for the exposure assessment. In this study a comparison was made between the use of a national food classification systems and the use of FoodEx-1, developed and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The work was performed using data of six European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. For each population, exposure to contaminant A (organic compounds) and/or contaminant B (inorganic compound) was assessed by the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software using the national classification system and FoodEx-1 for food consumption data and for TDS laboratory results. Minimal differences between both approaches were observed. This observation applied for both contaminant A and contaminant B. In general risk assessment will be similar for both approaches; however, this is not guaranteed. FoodEx-1 proved to be a valuable hierarchic classification system in order to harmonise exposure assessment based on existing TDS results throughout Europe. PMID:25662864

  19. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  20. Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet: a healthy cardiovascular diet for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Background Ketogenic diets are an effective healthy way of losing weight since they promote a non-atherogenic lipid profile, lower blood pressure and decrease resistance to insulin with an improvement in blood levels of glucose and insulin. On the other hand, Mediterranean diet is well known to be one of the healthiest diets, being the basic ingredients of such diet the olive oil, red wine and vegetables. In Spain the fish is an important component of such diet. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary effects of a protein ketogenic diet rich in olive oil, salad, fish and red wine. Methods A prospective study was carried out in 31 obese subjects (22 male and 19 female) with the inclusion criteria whose body mass index and age was 36.46 ± 2.22 and 38.48 ± 2.27, respectively. This Ketogenic diet was called "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet" (SKMD) due to the incorporation of virgin olive oil as the principal source of fat (≥30 ml/day), moderate red wine intake (200–400 ml/day), green vegetables and salads as the main source of carbohydrates and fish as the main source of proteins. It was an unlimited calorie diet. Statistical differences between the parameters studied before and after the administration of the "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet" (week 0 and 12) were analyzed by paired Student's t test. Results There was an extremely significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in body weight (108.62 kg→ 94.48 kg), body mass index (36.46 kg/m2→31.76 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (125.71 mmHg→109.05 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (84.52 mmHg→ 75.24 mmHg), total cholesterol (208.24 mg/dl→186.62 mg/dl), triacylglicerols (218.67 mg/dl→113.90 mg/dl) and glucose (109.81 mg/dl→ 93.33 mg/dl). There was a significant (p = 0.0167) reduction in LDLc (114.52 mg/dl→105.95 mg/dl) and an extremely significant increase in HDLc (50.10 mg/dl→54.57 mg/dl). The most affected parameter was the triacylglicerols (47.91% of reduction). Conclusion The

  1. The Mediterranean diets: What is so special about the diet of Greece? The scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    2001-11-01

    The term "Mediterranean diet," implying that all Mediterranean people have the same diet, is a misnomer. The countries around the Mediterranean basin have different diets, religions and cultures. Their diets differ in the amount of total fat, olive oil, type of meat and wine intake; milk vs. cheese; fruits and vegetables; and the rates of coronary heart disease and cancer, with the lower death rates and longer life expectancy occurring in Greece. Extensive studies on the traditional diet of Greece (the diet before 1960) indicate that the dietary pattern of Greeks consists of a high intake of fruits, vegetables (particularly wild plants), nuts and cereals mostly in the form of sourdough bread rather than pasta; more olive oil and olives; less milk but more cheese; more fish; less meat; and moderate amounts of wine, more so than other Mediterranean countries. Analyses of the dietary pattern of the diet of Crete shows a number of protective substances, such as selenium, glutathione, a balanced ratio of (n-6):(n-3) essential fatty acids (EFA), high amounts of fiber, antioxidants (especially resveratrol from wine and polyphenols from olive oil), vitamins E and C, some of which have been shown to be associated with lower risk of cancer, including cancer of the breast. These findings should serve as a strong incentive for the initiation of intervention trials that will test the effect of specific dietary patterns in the prevention and management of patients with cancer. PMID:11694649

  2. Mercury and stable isotope signatures in caged marine fish and fish feeds.

    PubMed

    Onsanit, Sarayut; Chen, Min; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-02-15

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in four species of marine caged carnivorous fish, one species of herbivorous fish and three types of fish feeds (dried pellet feed, forage fish and fish viscera), collected from five cage sites in the rural areas along Fujian coastline, China. For the carnivorous fish, the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 μg/g and from 0.02 to 0.30 μg/g on wet weight basis, respectively. The concentrations were lower for the herbivorous fish with both within the range of 0.01-0.03 μg/g. Out of the three tested fish feeds, tuna viscera contained the highest level of mercury (0.20 μg/g THg and 0.13 μg/g MeHg), with pellet feed containing the lowest level (0.05 μg/g THg and 0.01 μg/g MeHg). The calculated trophic transfer factor of MeHg was the highest (12-64) for fish fed on pellet feeds, and was the lowest for fish fed on tuna viscera. A significant relationship was found between Hg concentrations in caged fish and in fish feeds, thus Hg was primarily accumulated from the diet. Furthermore, the stable isotope δ(15)N was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in two caged sites, indicating that δ(15)N may be a suitable tool for tracking mercury in caged fish. We conclude that fish farming may be a good way of reducing the human exposure to Hg because mercury levels can be carefully controlled in such farming systems. PMID:22195524

  3. SITE AND EXENT OF DIGESTION, DUODENAL FLOW, AND INTESTINAL DISAPPEARANCE OF TOTAL AND ESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS IN SHEEP FED A HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of ...

  4. Energy intake and macronutrient selection in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) challenged with fat dilution and fat deprivation using encapsulated diets.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; Seco-Rovira, V; Hernández, M D; Madrid, J A; De Costa, J; Mendiola, P

    2008-02-27

    Sharpsnout seabream fed pure macronutrient capsules were challenged to fat dilution and fat deprivation in order to investigate the effects of fat level on energy intake regulation and macronutrient selection by fish, as they lack oropharyngeal chemosensory information from the diet. During the control phase, the fish were fed three individually encapsulated macronutrients, from which they composed a diet containing 67.36% protein (P), 19.08% carbohydrates (CH) and 13.57% fat (F), in terms of macronutrient weight intake percentage. During the second phase of the experiment, a lipid content reduction in F capsules from 55.0% to 13.4% did not significantly modify this selection pattern, energy ingestion or the number of capsules ingested of each macronutrient. During the third phase, in which they were subjected to fat deprivation, starting on almost the first day, the fish increased their total energy intake and total ingested number of capsules. These results reveal that fish are capable of distinguishing and selecting each of the three macronutrients contained in gelatine capsules, and that fish selection of a balanced diet from pure macronutrients is remarkably stable. Fish are capable of sustaining their macronutrient selection pattern and energy intake with very low amounts of fat in their diets (Phase 2). A certain instability in the initial P, CH and energy intake was only observed when fat was totally deprived (Phase 3), which resulted in higher values than those observed in Phase 1. In order to examine any possible effects of diet encapsulation, digestibility assays were performed in a second experiment. The fish were divided into two experimental groups and fed the same complete commercial diet, the only difference being the way it was presented to each group (pelleted or encapsulated). No statistical differences between the experimental groups were found with regards to both apparent digestibility coefficients and fish growth. PMID:17997462

  5. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  6. Sodium diformate and extrusion temperature affect nutrient digestibility and physical quality of diets with fish meal and barley protein concentrate for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of ingredient, extrusion temperature, and the acid salt sodium diformate (NaDF) in diets for rainbow trout on apparent nutrient digestibility and physical quality of the diets. The experiment was arranged in a 23 factorial design with two...

  7. Dietary exposure and trends of exposure to nutrient elements iodine, iron, selenium and sodium from the 2003-4 New Zealand Total Diet Survey.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Barbara M; Vannoort, Richard W; Haslemore, Roger M

    2008-03-01

    The mean dietary exposure to the nutrient elements iodine, Fe, Se and Na by eight age-sex groups of the New Zealand population was estimated from foods purchased and prepared as for consumption. A total of 968 samples comprising 121 foods were collected and analysed. Mean daily exposures were calculated from mean concentration levels of the selected nutrients in each food combined with simulated diets for a 25+-year-old male and female, a 19-24-year-old male, a 11-14-year-old boy and girl, a 5-6-year-old child, a 1-3-year-old toddler and a 6-12-month-old infant. Food concentrations and dietary exposures are reported and compared with nutrient reference values (for example, recommended daily intakes, adequate intakes or upper limits). Dietary iodine exposures for all age-sex groups were well below recommended levels and have steadily decreased since 1982, raising concern especially for the physical and mental development of infants and young children. Fe exposures meet the recommended daily intake for the average male and 11-14 year olds but are only about half that recommended for adult females. Se exposure is about 20 % less than optimal for females. Na exposures, excluding discretionary salt, are above the acceptable exposure level for all age-sex groups, and exceed the upper intake limits for 25+-year-old males, 19-24-year-old young males, and 11-14-year-old boys and girls by up to 125 % for an average consumer. PMID:17925056

  8. Total antioxidant capacity of the diet is inversely and independently related to plasma concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in adult Italian subjects.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, Furio; Valtueña, Silvia; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Ardigò, Diego; Del Rio, Daniele; Salvatore, Sara; Piatti, PierMarco; Serafini, Mauro; Zavaroni, Ivana

    2005-05-01

    Inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is associated with low plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins. In addition to vitamins, other antioxidants modulate the synthesis of inflammatory markers in vitro and contribute to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of a diet. However, the relationship between dietary TAC and markers of inflammation has never been evaluated in vivo. We investigated the relationship between dietary TAC and markers of systemic (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leucocytes) and vascular (soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1) inflammation in 243 non-diabetic subjects. General Linear Model (GLM) analysis showed a significant (P=0.005) inverse relationship between hs-CRP and quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary TAC, even when recognized modulating factors of inflammation, namely alcohol, fibre, vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, hypertension, insulin sensitivity and plasma beta-carotene, were included in the model as covariates (P=0.004). The relationship was stronger for subjects with hypertension (P=0.013 v. P=0.109 for normotensive individuals). Among dietary factors, TAC was significantly higher (5.3 (sd 3.0) v. 4.9 (sd 2.7) mmol Trolox/d; P=0.026) in subjects with low plasma hs-CRP (range: 0.0-4.1 mg/l) than in subjects with high plasma hs-CRP (range: 4.2-27.8 mg/l). We conclude that dietary TAC is inversely and independently correlated with plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and this could be one of the mechanisms explaining the protective effects against CVD of antioxidant-rich foods such as fruits, whole cereals and red wine. This could be of particular significance for subjects with high blood pressure. PMID:15975160

  9. Selection of diet for culture of juvenile silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiangang

    2012-03-01

    Juvenile silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus, was grown in culture tanks for 9 weeks on four different diets, and their effects on fish growth, digestive enzyme activity, and body composition were assessed. The feeding regime was as follows: Diet 1: fish meat; Diet 2: fish meat+artificial feed; Diet 3: fish meat+artificial feed+Agamaki clam meat; Diet 4: fish meat+artificial feed+Agamaki clam+copepods. The greatest weight gain was associated with Diet 4, while the lowest weight gain was associated with Diet 1. No significant difference was observed in weight gain between fish receiving Diet 2 and Diet 3. Specific growth rate followed similar trends as weight gain. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish fed Diet 1 was significantly higher than the other fish groups, but no significant differences were observed in FCRs of fish fed Diet 2, Diet 3 or Diet 4. There was also no significant difference in the hepatosomatic index (HSI) between the four diets. For fish that received Diets 2-4, containing artificial feed, higher protease activities were detected. A higher lipid content of the experimental diets also significantly increased lipase activities and body lipid content. No significant differences in amylase activity or body protein content were found between Diets 1-4. In conclusion, a variety of food components, including copepods and artificial feed, in the diet of silver pomfret significantly increased digestive enzyme activity and could improve growth performance.

  10. Diet of mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales Mesoplondon bidens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, J. N.; Neves, V. C.; Prieto, R.; Silva, M. A.; Cascão, I.; Oliveira, C.; Cruz, M. J.; Medeiros, J. V.; Barreiros, J. P.; Porteiro, F. M.; Clarke, D.

    2011-11-01

    The first mid-Atlantic diet of Mesoplodon beaked whales is presented, from ten Sowerby's Mesoplodon bidens stranded in the Azores region between 2002 and 2009. This doubles the worldwide number of stomachs sampled, and reveals new feeding habits for this species. The mean number of prey items per stomach was 85±89 (range: 12-238), with fish accounting for 99.3% and cephalopods contributing less than 1% of total prey. Fish otoliths from 15 families and cephalopod lower mandibles from three families were identified, representing 22 taxa. The diet consisted mainly of small mid-water fish, the most numerous being Diaphus sp., Lampanyctus sp. and Melamphaidae species. Myctophids were present in all stranded individuals, followed by Diretmidae, Melamphaidae and Opisthoproctus soleatus, while the remaining fish species were scarce or single occurrences. Consistency of diet in four different years reveals a divergence from all previous records in continental areas, where mainly neritic and shelf-break benthopelagic fish species have been reported. Mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales' showed dietary plasticity, feeding on the most abundant mid-water groups occurring between 0 and750 m. Trophic level from prey numerical frequency was estimated at 4.4±0.46.

  11. High levels of vegetable oils in plant protein-rich diets fed to gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata L.): growth performance, muscle fatty acid profiles and histological alterations of target tissues.

    PubMed

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Bell, J Gordon; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2008-11-01

    The feasibility of fish oil (FO) replacement by vegetable oils (VO) was investigated in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in a growth trial conducted for the duration of 8 months. Four isolipidic and isoproteic diets rich in plant proteins were supplemented with L-lysine (0.55 %) and soya lecithin (1 %). Added oil was either FO (control) or a blend of VO, replacing 33 % (33VO diet), 66 % (66VO diet) and 100 % (VO diet) of FO. No detrimental effects on growth performance were found with the partial FO replacement, but feed intake and growth rates were reduced by about 10 % in fish fed the VO diet. The replacement strategy did not damage the intestinal epithelium, and massive accumulation of lipid droplets was not found within enterocytes. All fish showed fatty livers, but signs of lipoid liver disease were only found in fish fed the VO diet. Muscle fatty acid profiles of total lipids reflected the diet composition with a selective incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids in polar lipids. The robustness of the phospholipid fatty acid profile when essential fatty acid requirements were theoretically covered by the diet was evidenced by multivariate principal components analysis in fish fed control, 33VO and 66VO diets. PMID:18377678

  12. Selection for Adaptation to Dietary Shifts: Towards Sustainable Breeding of Carnivorous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Le Boucher, Richard; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Vandeputte, Marc; Kerneïs, Thierry; Goardon, Lionel; Labbé, Laurent; Chatain, Béatrice; Bothaire, Marie Josée; Larroquet, Laurence; Médale, Françoise; Quillet, Edwige

    2012-01-01

    Genetic adaptation to dietary environments is a key process in the evolution of natural populations and is of great interest in animal breeding. In fish farming, the use of fish meal and fish oil has been widely challenged, leading to the rapidly increasing use of plant-based products in feed. However, high substitution rates impair fish health and growth in carnivorous species. We demonstrated that survival rate, mean body weight and biomass can be improved in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after a single generation of selection for the ability to adapt to a totally plant-based diet (15.1%, 35.3% and 54.4%, respectively). Individual variability in the ability to adapt to major diet changes can be effectively used to promote fish welfare and a more sustainable aquaculture. PMID:23028667

  13. A Preliminary Estimate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water and Some Commercially Important Fish Species in the Amba Estuary, West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Nageswar Rao, M; Ram, Anirudh; Rokade, M A; Raja, P; Rakesh, P S; Chemburkar, Parul; Gajbhiye, S N

    2016-07-01

    Amba Estuary, which receives effluent from several industries including a petrochemical complex, opens to the southern limits of the Mumbai Harbor. The study was conducted to find out the level of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in water and their bioconcentration in ten commercially important fishes from Amba Estuary during different months. In water high concentration of TPHs (39.7 μg/L) was obtained during December (middle of estuary) and minimum value (7.2 μg/L) was observed in September (lower estuarine). The maximum concentration of TPHs was found to be in Trichiurus savala (3.2 µg/g) during December and minimum in Boleophthalmus sp (0.4 µg/g) during May. Irrespective of the monthly variations, TPHs accumulation in all the species was considerably lower than hazardous levels. Although there was no statistical significance between TPHs and total length/weight, the T. savala recording maximum concentration during all months and it can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in this region. PMID:27216736

  14. Feeding behavior and ruminal pH of corn silage, barley grain, and corn dried distillers' grain offered in a total mixed ration or in a free-choice diet to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K

    2014-08-01

    Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar

  15. [Effect of a diet containing calcium pantothenate on urinary vitamin excretion and on the liver and kidney total pantothenic acid level in rats].

    PubMed

    Lhuissier, M; Bringer, M

    1988-01-01

    Four groups of five adult rats weighing 310 g received during 20 days a diet containing 0, 1.68, 16.8 or 168 mumol of pantothenic acid per kg of diet. The daily urinary vitamin excretion was, in nmol per day: 32 +/- 8, 32 +/- 4, 180 +/- 23 and 2,100 +/- 91, respectively (mean +/- SEM). Liver and kidney pantothenic acid content was the same in all groups, in nmol per g of fresh tissue: 300 +/- 36 and 190 +/- 6, respectively (mean +/- SEM, n = 20). PMID:2978017

  16. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying) which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123). Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %), however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4) but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in

  17. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    PubMed

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. PMID:26880127

  18. Monetary Diet Cost is Associated with not only Favorable but also Unfavorable Aspects of Diet in Pregnant Japanese Women: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    While several observational studies in European countries have shown that higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier diets, information on the relationship of cost to diet quality in other countries is sparse, including Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary diet cost and dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 596 pregnant Japanese housewives. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Monetary diet cost was calculated using retail food prices. Values of monetary diet cost and nutrient and food intake were energy-adjusted using the density method. Monetary diet cost was associated positively with the intake of protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins A, D, E, C, and folate, and inversely with that of carbohydrate. For foods, cost was associated positively with the intake of potatoes, pulses and nuts, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and inversely with that of rice and bread. No association was seen for noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, or eggs. Cost was also associated inversely with dietary energy density. In conclusion, monetary diet cost was associated with not only favorable aspects of diet, including a higher intake of dietary fiber, key vitamins and minerals, fruits, and vegetables and lower dietary energy density, but also unfavorable aspects, including a higher intake of fat and sodium and lower intake of carbohydrate and rice, in a group of pregnant Japanese women. PMID:20508755

  19. A simulation study of the potenial effects of healthy food and beverage substitutions on diet quality and total energy intake in lower Mississippi Delta adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less...

  20. Long-term feeding a plant-based diet devoid of marine ingredients strongly affects certain key metabolic enzymes in the rainbow trout liver.

    PubMed

    Véron, Vincent; Panserat, Stéphane; Le Boucher, Richard; Labbé, Laurent; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term. PMID:26746847

  1. Suitability of monotypic and mixed diets for Anopheles hermsi larval development.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Donald A; Walton, William E

    2016-06-01

    The developmental time and survival to eclosion of Anopheles hermsi Barr & Guptavanij fed monotypic and mixed diets of ten food types were examined in laboratory studies. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing animal detritus (freeze-dried rotifers, freeze-dried Daphnia pulicaria, and TetraMin® fish food flakes) and the mixotrophic protistan Cryptomonas ovata developed faster and survived better than larvae that were fed other monotypic diets. Survival to adulthood of larvae fed several concentrations of the diatom Planothidium (=Achnanthes) lanceolatum was poor (<13%) and larval development time was approximately twice that of larvae fed TetraMin® fish food flakes, the standard laboratory diet. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing prokaryotes (bacteria [Bacillus cereus] and cyanobacteria [Oscillatoria prolifera]) and brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) failed to survive beyond the 1(st) and 2(nd) instar, respectively. Larvae fed only chlorophytes, single-celled Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and filamentous Spirogyra communis, failed to complete larval development, regardless of the concentration tested. Cohorts fed a combination of food types (mixed diets) usually developed better than cohorts fed monotypic diets. Food types that failed to support complete development when fed alone often facilitated development to adulthood when fed in combination with food types containing >1% C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids as total fat, but regardless of essential fatty acid content, algae that produced mucilage and filaments that sank out of the feeding zone were poor quality diets. PMID:27232128

  2. High diversity of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance in salmonid fish farm pond water as determined by molecular identification employing 16S rDNA PCR, gene sequencing and total antibiotic susceptibility techniques.

    PubMed

    Moore, John E; Huang, Junhua; Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Moore, Peter Ja; Millar, Beverley C; Goldsmith, Colin E; Xu, Jiru

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the microbiological and related parameters (antibiotic resistance and pathogen identification) of water at two salmonid fish farms in Northern Ireland. Total Bacterial Counts at the Movanagher Fish Farm was 1730 colony forming units (cfu)/ml water (log10 3.24cfu/ml) and 3260cfu/ml (log10 3.51cfu/ml) at the Bushmills Salmon Station. Examination of resulting organisms revealed 10 morphological phenotypes, which were subsequently sequenced to determine their identification. All these organisms were Gram-negative and no Gram-positive organisms were isolated from any water sample. From these phenotypes, eight different genera were identified including Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Chryseobacterium, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Rheinheimera. One unnamed novel taxon was identified from water at the Movanagher Fish Farm, belonging to the genus Acinetobacter and has been tentatively named Acinetobacter movanagherensis. No other novel taxa were observed. All but one of these environmental organisms (Erwinia) are potential pathogens of fish disease. Total antibiotic resistance was observed to varying degrees in water specimens. The most resistant populations were observed in water taken from the Bushmills Salmon Station inlet, followed by water from the Movanagher Fish Farm. No resistance was observed against tetracycline and there was only one occurrence of resistance against ciprofloxacin. Overall, this study indicates that potential fish pathogens made up the majority of environmental organisms identified, even in the absence of recorded fish disease. There was also relatively high levels of total antibiotic resistance in the bacterial water populations examined, where tetracycline was the only antibiotic with zero resistance. These data indicate that the threat of bacterial disease is relatively close due to the indigenous colonization of farm water and that husbandry standards should be maintained at a high standard to avert

  3. Organic and total mercury levels in bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, harvested by Taiwanese fishing vessels in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Teng, P Y; Chen, C Y; Hsu, C C

    2011-01-01

    Muscle samples of 121 and 110 bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) caught by Taiwanese long-line fishing vessels in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, respectively, were used to analyze total mercury (THg) and organic mercury (OHg) content. The overall THg and OHg concentrations were 0.786 ± 0.386 (0.214-3.133) and 0.595 ± 0.238 (0.143-2.222) mg kg⁻¹ wet weight, respectively, similar to the results of previous studies. Our findings, however, reflected the highest THg and OHg concentrations for the species in each ocean among the published data. Mean THg and OHg concentrations in Atlantic tuna were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in Indian tuna. Two of 121 samples of tuna from the Atlantic Ocean, but no samples from the Indian Ocean, had levels of OHg above 2 mg kg⁻¹ wet weight set by the Department of Health Taiwan, and 13 of 121 samples of tuna from the Atlantic Ocean and three of 110 samples from the Indian Ocean had levels of OHg above 1 mg kg⁻¹ wet weight set by US FDA and WHO. Accordingly, for adult Taiwanese men and women with average body weight of 65 and 55 kg, respectively, the maximum allowable weekly intake of bigeye tuna is suggested to be 170 and 145 g, respectively. PMID:24779657

  4. Comparison of Bioavailability and Biotransformation of Inorganic and Organic Arsenic to Two Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Dietary uptake could be the primary route of arsenic (As) bioaccumulation in marine fish, but the bioavailability of inorganic and organic As remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the trophic transfer and bioavailability of As in herbivorous rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens and carnivorous seabass Lateolabrax japonicus. Rabbitfish were fed with one artificial diet or three macroalgae, whereas seabass were fed with one artificial diet, one polychaete, or two bivalves for 28 days. The six spiked fresh prey diets contained different proportions of inorganic As [As(III) and As(V)] and organic As compounds [methylarsenate (MMA), dimethylarsenate (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)], and the spiked artificial diet mainly contained As(III) or As(V). We demonstrated that the trophic transfer factors (TTF) of As in both fish were negatively correlated with the concentrations of inorganic As in the diets, while there was no relationship between TTF and the AsB concentrations in the diets. Positive correlation was observed between the accumulated As concentrations and the AsB concentrations in both fish, suggesting that organic As compounds (AsB) were more trophically available than inorganic As. Furthermore, the biotransformation ability of seabass was higher than that in rabbitfish, which resulted in higher As accumulation in seabass than in rabbitfish. Our study demonstrated that different prey with different inorganic/organic As proportions resulted in diverse bioaccumulation of total As in different marine fish. PMID:26835720

  5. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for each fishing year... MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is...

  6. Total Fat, n-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D3 in Selected Fish Species Sampled Under USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP), new analytical data were determined for the 20 most frequently consumed raw fish identified for FDA’s voluntary nutrition labeling. Samples of 21 fish species were purchased from 12 supermarkets nationwide according to a sta...

  7. Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environments

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, Cheryl D; Kause, Antti; Koskela, Juha; Ritola, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM). This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G × E) interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency (FE) were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G × E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use. PMID:17612482

  8. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Márquez, Lorenzo; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Tomás-Vidal, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino acids. Diets FM 25 and FM 0 also contained krill meal at 47 g/kg in order to improve palatability. At the end of the trial (after 158 d), fish survival was above 90%. Final weight and the specific growth rate were statistically lower in fish fed the Control diet (361 g and 0.64%/d), compared with 390-396 g and 0.69-0.70%/d after feeding vegetal diets. No significant differences were found regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The digestibility of protein and amino acids (determined with chromium oxide as indicator) was similar in all diets. The blood parameters were not significantly affected by treatments. The activity of trypsin and pepsin was significantly reduced after feeding Diet FM 0. In the distal intestine, the villi length in fish fed Diet FM 25 was significantly longer and the intestine of the fish fed the FM 100 diet showed a smaller number of goblet cells. In conclusion, a total FM substitution by a vegetal mix supplemented with synthetic amino acids in on-growing sea bream is feasible. PMID:26880503

  9. Effects of diet switching on growth and immunity in Nile tilapia fed a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with ß-glucan.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia were fed either a basal, control diet or a diet supplemented with 1 g/kg ß -glucan for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, half the fish were continued on the same diet or switched to the other diet for 2 weeks. Tilapia were then challenged with Streptococcus iniae by intraperi...

  10. Fish meal replacement with solvent extracted soybean meal or soy protein isolate in a practical diet formulation for Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus, L.) reared in low salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two eight-week growth trials were conducted with juvenile Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, fed 0 to 100% replacement of FM protein with soybean meal (SBM) or soy protein isolate (SPI). Practical-type diets were formulated with at least 360 g kg1 digestible protein and 24 mg kJ-1 digestible p...

  11. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  12. Vegetarian diets, chronic diseases and longevity.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E

    2008-01-01

    Vegetarians form a non-homogenous group consisting of semivegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs and fish), lacto-ovo vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs) and vegans (plant food only). According to pure vegetarian ideologists, people consuming vegetarian diet have better health and live longer than nonvegetarians, because persons consuming milk, dairy products, meat, eggs and fish are at health risk. In fact the most healthy people in Europe are inhabitants of Iceland, Switzerland and Scandinavia, consuming great amounts of food of animal origin. Meta-analysis of several prospective studies showed no significant differences in the mortality caused by colorectal, stomach, lung, prostate or breast cancers and stroke between vegetarians and "health-conscious" nonvegetarians. In vegetarians, a decrease of ischemic heart disease mortality was observed probably due to lower total serum cholesterol levels, lower prevalence of obesity and higher consumption of antioxidants. Very probably, an ample consumption of fruits and vegetables and not the exclusion of meat make vegetarians healthful. Now, the largest cohort study of diet and health on more than half million of persons, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, will bring new data on the relationships between diet, lifestyle and environmental factors and the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Vegetarianism is a form of food restriction; and in our overfed society, food restriction is a plus unless it results in a nutritional deficiency (Fig. 1, Tab. 2, Ref. 18). PMID:19166134

  13. Effect of stocking density and different diets on growth of Percula Clownfish, Amphiprion percula (Lacepede, 1802).

    PubMed

    Chambel, João; Severiano, Vera; Baptista, Teresa; Mendes, Susana; Pedrosa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of stocking density (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 fishL(-1)) and commercial marine fish diets (diet A, B, C and D) over four months on specific growth rate, condition factor, percentage without anomalous pigmentation (partial or total lack of white bands -miss-band) and survival of juvenile Amphiprion percula. Results showed that at 0.5 fishL(-1) densities induced the best survival (100%) and also the maximum percentage of fish without miss-band (58.33 +/-4.417%). The maximum SGR was obtained for the 0.5 fishL(-1) (0.459 ± 0.023% cm/day). However, the best condition factor (2.53 +/- 0.27) was achieved for 2 fishL(-1) densities. There were no significant differences in survival (68.9 to 84.5%), fish without miss-bands (18.03 to 26.92%) and condition factor (1.92 to 2.1) among diets during the experimental period. On the other hand, diet C (with 41% crude protein) supported the best SGR (0.485 ± 0.001% cmday(-1)). The results suggested that stocking density are critical and more relevant when compared with the different diet tested, namely on specific growth rate, condition factor, the miss-band and survival of juvenile percula clownfish. This study has particular significance with regards to anemonefishes husbandry in terms of survival and production efficiency. PMID:26069869

  14. Growth and fatty acid composition of two strains of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) on diets formulated with low fish oil inclusion in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly desirable species to culture due to their fast growth, culture conditions and reputation as a sustainably produced fish due to closed containment culture. A study was conducted to evaluate two Arctic charr stocks (one commercial stock and one from the ...

  15. The use of food waste-based diets and Napier grass to culture grass carp: growth performance and contaminants contained in cultured fish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Choi, Wai-Ming; Man, Yu-Bon; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The present study used commercial feeds, food waste feeds, Napier grass, and mixed feeds (food waste feed to Napier grass ratio, 1:10) to feed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The results indicated that grass carp fed with food waste feeds and mix feeds achieved growth performance (based on specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio) that was similar to commercial feeds (p > 0.05). Concentrations of metalloid/metals in food waste feeds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Napier grass were relatively higher than other types of fish feeds (p < 0.05). However, most of the metalloid/metals and PAH levels in fish fed with four types of fish feeds were not significantly different (p > 0.05). These findings show that food waste feeds are suitable for using in the production of fish feed and Napier grass can be served as supplemental feeds for grass carp, and hence reducing the production cost. PMID:26289329

  16. Gene expression analysis between rainbow trout strains with different susceptibility to enteritis when reared on plant-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In aquaculture, fish-based feed ingredients are rapidly becoming unsustainable due to increased demand and diminishing supply. However, total replacement of fishmeal with plant proteins in diets causes severe intestinal enteritis, leading to reduced growth and lower feed efficiency. Through selectiv...

  17. Postprandial kinetics of gene expression of proteins involved in the digestive process in rainbow trout (O. mykiss) and impact of diet composition.

    PubMed

    Borey, Marion; Panserat, Stephane; Surget, Anne; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Herman, Alexandre; Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Médale, Françoise; Lauga, Beatrice; Burel, Christine

    2016-08-01

    The impact of increased incorporation of plant ingredients on diets for rainbow trout was evaluated in terms of gene expression of gastric (gastric lipase, pepsinogen) and intestinal (prolidase, maltase, phospholipase A2) digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters (peptide and glucose transporters), as well as of postprandial levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides and total free amino acids. For that purpose, trout alevins were fed from the start of exogenous feeding one of three different experimental diets: a diet rich in fish meal and fish oil (FM-FO), a plant-based diet (noFM-noFO) totally free from fish meal and fish oil, but containing plant ingredients and a Mixed diet (Mixed) intermediate between the FM-FO and noFM-noFO diets. After 16 months of rearing, all fish were left unfed for 72 h and then given a single meal to satiation. Blood, stomach and anterior intestine were sampled before the meal and at 2, 6 and 12 h after this meal. The postprandial kinetics of gene expression of gastric and intestinal digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters were then followed in trout fed the FM-FO diet. The postprandial profiles showed that the expression of almost all genes studied was stimulated by the presence of nutrients in the digestive tract of trout, but the timing (appearance of peaks) varied between genes. Based on these data, we have focused on the molecular response to dietary factors in the stomach and the intestine at 6 and 12 h after feeding, respectively. The reduction in FM and FO levels of dietary incorporation induced a significant decrease in the gene expression of gastric lipase, GLUT2 and PEPT1. The plasma glucose and triglycerides levels were also reduced in trout fed the noFM-noFO diet. Consequently, the present study suggests a decrease in digestive capacities in trout fed a diet rich in plant ingredients. PMID:26920536

  18. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased. PMID:22952356

  19. Seasonality, Dietary Overlap and the Role of Taxonomic Resolution in the Study of the Diet of Three Congeneric Fishes from a Tropical Bay

    PubMed Central

    Pombo, Maíra; Denadai, Márcia Regina; Turra, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Not only seasonality but also taxonomic resolution of prey categories has been shown to affect diet studies. We analyzed the stomach contents of three sympatric species, Stellifer rastrifer, S. brasiliensis and S. stellifer, sampled monthly from August 2003 to October 2004 in Caraguatatuba Bay, southeastern Brazil. General characteristics and similarities among their diets were evaluated by considering high taxonomic ranks of all prey groups, and also the lower taxonomic ranks of the main prey groups. Dietary similarity was relatively high among species and low between seasons, and both evaluation criteria gave the equivalent results. The rare items, however, provided information about resource partition, and the species compositions of the most important groups were apparently good indicators of food availability. PMID:23405256

  20. Immune-enhancing diet and cytokine expression during chronic sepsis: an immune-enhancing diet containing L-arginine, fish oil, and RNA fragments promotes intestinal cytokine expression during chronic sepsis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; Matheson, Paul J; Mays, Michael P; Garrison, R Neal

    2006-01-01

    Chronic feeding with enteral immune-enhancing diets (IEDs) provides benefits based on composition of the diet, route of feeding, and timing of feeding in relation to timing of trauma or surgery. Our prior studies of acute feeding in naïve rats demonstrated that IED promotes blood flow and proinflammatory cytokines in the ileum. We hypothesized that chronic feeding with IED would shift gut immune status to an anti-inflammatory state during chronic sepsis, resulting in an altered state of cytokine expression in the gut. Five days prior to feeding, gauze was implanted subcutaneously in the backs of male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were fed for 3 days with either control diet (CD, Boost; Mead-Johnson, Evansville, IL) or IED (Impact; Novartis) and randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control (NS) + control diet (CD), sepsis (EC) + CD, NS + IED, or EC + IED. EC rats were inoculated with 10(9) CFU Escherichia coli and 10(9) CFU Bacteroides fragilis in 2 ml normal saline into the back sponge while NS rats received 2 mL normal saline alone. After 3 days, animals were anesthetized and gut tissue samples were harvested and frozen at -80 degrees C. Tissue protein was extracted and ELISA was performed for interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. In saline controls, IED feeding decreased IL-1beta, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma and increased IL-10 compared with CD-fed animals. In septic animals, IED feeding increased IL-5 and IL-6, while decreasing IFN-gamma and IL-10 in the distal third of the small intestine compared with CD-fed septic rats, whereas IL-1beta and TNF-alpha levels were unchanged. Chronic IED feeding produced a anti-inflammatory state via decreased IFN-gamma and increased IL-5 and IL-6, which both promote gut IgA class switching, suggesting that the gut is shifted toward humoral immunity during chronic IED feeding in septic rats. PMID:16368490

  1. The nutritional background of the host alters the disease course in a fish-myxosporean system.

    PubMed

    Estensoro, Itziar; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2011-01-10

    The aim of the present work was to determine if a practical plant protein-based diet containing vegetable oils (VO) as the major lipid source could alter the disease course when challenged with the myxosporean Enteromyxum leei, a wide-spread parasite in the Mediterranean basin causing heavy economic losses. Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fed for 9 months either a fish oil (FO) diet or a blend of VOs at 66% of replacement (66VO diet) were challenged by exposure to parasite-contaminated water effluent. All fish were periodically and non-lethally sampled to obtain biometrical data and to know their infection status. After 102 days of exposure, fish were euthanized and haematological, biometrical, histological, immunological, glutathione and anti-oxidant data were obtained from tissue, blood and serum samples. Anorexia appeared in both exposed groups, but feed intake reduction was higher in 66VO fish. The signs of disease (lower growth, condition factor, specific growth rate, haematocrit) as well as the disease course were worse in fish from 66VO group, with a higher prevalence and intensity of infection, a higher percentage of fish harbouring the parasite in the entire intestinal tract, and a faster establishment of the parasite. Parasite intensity of infection was negatively correlated with growth parameters and haematocrit in both groups, and with complement, lysozyme and hepatic total glutathione in 66VO fish. PMID:20947256

  2. Identifying across-system sources of variation in a generalist freshwater fish: Correlates of total and size-specific abundance of yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, M.P.; Mather, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in fish abundance across systems presents a challenge to our understanding of fish populations because it limits our ability to predict and transfer basic ecological principles to applied problems. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an ideal species for exploring environmental and biotic correlates across system because it is widely distributed and physiologically tolerant. In 16 small, adjacent systems that span a wide range of environmental and biotic conditions, yellow perch were sampled with a standard suite of gear. Water quality, morphometry, vegetation, invertebrates and fish communities were concurrently measured. Multimodel inference was used to prioritise regressors for the entire yellow perch sample and three size groups (35-80, 81-180, ???181 mm TL). Across systems, pH and fish richness were identified as the key drivers of yellow perch abundance. At very low pH (4.8) had many other species and few yellow perch. Similar patterns for pH and fish community were observed for the two largest-size classes. Negative interactions were observed between the medium- and large-sized yellow perch and between the largest and smallest yellow perch, although interspecific interactions were weaker than expected. This examination of variability for an indicator species and its component-size classes provides ecological understanding that can help frame the larger-scale sampling programs needed for the conservation of freshwater fish. ?? 2008 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  3. Fish oil supplementation of maternal rats on an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet prevents depletion of maternal brain regional docosahexaenoic acid levels and has a postpartum anxiolytic effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Feng; Su, Hui-Min

    2012-03-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the neuronal membrane. Most DHA and AA accumulation in the brain occurs during the perinatal period via placenta and milk. This study examined whether maternal brain levels of DHA and AA are depleted during pregnancy and lactation due to meeting the high demand of the developing nervous system in the offspring and evaluated the effects of the reproductive cycle on serotonin metabolism and of fish oil (FO) on postpartum anxiety. Pregnant rats were fed during pregnancy and lactation with a sunflower oil-based n-3 PUFA-deficient diet without or with FO supplementation, which provided 0.37% of the energy source as n-3 PUFA, and the age-matched virgin rats were fed the same diets for 41 days. In both sets of postpartum rats, decreased DHA levels compared to those in virgin females were seen in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, frontal cortex, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and retina, while AA depletion was seen only in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Serotonin levels were decreased and turnover increased in the brainstem and frontal cortex in postpartum rats compared to virgin rats. FO supplementation during pregnancy and lactation prevented the decrease in maternal brain regional DHA levels, inhibited monoamine oxidase-A activity in the brainstem and decreased anxiety-like behavior. We propose that the reproductive cycle depletes maternal brain DHA levels and modulates maternal brain serotonin metabolism to cause postpartum anxiety and suggest that FO supplementation may be beneficial for postpartum anxiety in women on an n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. PMID:21543216

  4. First-limiting amino acids in soybean-based diets for white seabass Atractoscion nobilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study aims to identify the limiting amino acids in low fish meal, soy-based diets in juvenile white seabass. Two 8-week trials were conducted. The first trial evaluated three diets containing 36, 18 and 9% fish meal in the diet (FM36, FM18, FM9, respectively), with the last two diets bei...

  5. Moorea BIOCODE barcode library as a tool for understanding predator-prey interactions: insights into the diet of common predatory coral reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, M.; Boehm, J. T.; Mills, S. C.; Meyer, C. P.

    2012-06-01

    Identifying species involved in consumer-resource interactions is one of the main limitations in the construction of food webs. DNA barcoding of prey items in predator guts provides a valuable tool for characterizing trophic interactions, but the method relies on the availability of reference sequences to which prey sequences can be matched. In this study, we demonstrate that the COI sequence library of the Moorea BIOCODE project, an ecosystem-level barcode initiative, enables the identification of a large proportion of semi-digested fish, crustacean and mollusks found in the guts of three Hawkfish and two Squirrelfish species. While most prey remains lacked diagnostic morphological characters, 94% of the prey found in 67 fishes had >98% sequence similarity with BIOCODE reference sequences. Using this species-level prey identification, we demonstrate how DNA barcoding can provide insights into resource partitioning, predator feeding behaviors and the consequences of predation on ecosystem function.

  6. Effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn in diets containing wet corn gluten feed on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ponce, C H; Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Schutz, J S; Gautam, K K; Galyean, M L

    2013-07-01

    The effects of varying bulk density of steam-flaked corn (SFC) in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) have not been defined. In Exp. 1, yearling steers (n = 108; initial BW = 367 ± 1.18 kg) were housed in 27 pens (4 steers/pen) and received 1 of 3 different SFC bulk density treatments in a randomized complete block design. Bulk density treatments were 283, 335, or 386 g/L SFC in diets containing 25% WCGF (% of DM). Steers were fed once daily to provide ad libitum access to feed for an average of 163 d. For a 5-d period before d 70 of the experiment, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected from each pen for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. Varying bulk densities of SFC did not affect (P ≥ 0.233) overall DMI, ADG, or G:F on a live- or carcass-adjusted basis. Dressing percent and LM area increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as bulk density increased, but other carcass traits were not affected by treatments. Intake of DM, OM, and CP during the 5-d digestion phase did not differ among bulk densities; however, starch intake increased linearly (P = 0.004) as bulk density of SFC increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP tended (P ≤ 0.065) to decrease and starch digestibility decreased (P = 0.002) linearly as bulk density of SFC increased. In Exp. 2, a 3 × 3 Latin square design was used for collection of ruminal fluid from 3 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers adapted to the same diets used in Exp. 1. Bulk density did not affect NH3 concentrations, VFA molar proportions, ruminal fluid osmolality, and IVDMD of the diets. Total gas production increased linearly (P = 0.003) as bulk density of SFC increased from 283 to 335 g/L, but it decreased (P = 0.002) at 386 g/L. Present data suggest that bulk density can be increased up to 386 g/L in finishing diets containing 25% (DM basis) WCGF without affecting cattle performance and with limited effects on ruminal

  7. Fish losses to double-crested cormorant predation in Eastern Lake Ontario, 1992-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Robert M.; Johnson, James H.

    1999-01-01

    We examined 4,848 regurgitated digestive pellets of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) over a 6-year period (1992–97) to estimate annual predation on sport and other fishes in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. We found more than 51,000 fish of 28 species. Using a model that incorporates annual colony nest counts; fledgling production rates; adult, immature, and young-of-year residence times (seasonal); estimates of mean number of fish per pellet and mean fish size; and a fecal pathway correction factor (4.0 percent), we estimate total annual number of fish consumed by cormorants in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario to range from 37 million to 128 million fish for 1993–97. This fish loss equates to an estimated 0.93 million to 3.21 million kg (mean 2.07 million kg) of fish consumed per year, principally alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus, 42.3 percent) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens, 18.4 percent). Forage fish (alewife, cyprinids, trout-perch [Percopsis omiscomaycus], and other minor components) accounted for 65 percent of the diet, and panfish contributed 34 percent of the diet for the 5-year period. Game fish were minor components of the diet, in view of an average estimated annual consumption of 900,000 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui, 1.1 percent) and 168,000 salmonines (mostly lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, 0.2 percent). Cormorant predation on lake trout fingerlings stocked in May 1993 and June 1994 was estimated through the use of coded wire tag recoveries from pellets collected on Little Galloo Island 1 and 4 days after stocking events. We estimated losses of 13.6 percent and 8.8 percent, respectively, of the fish stocked for the two events, an average of 11.2 percent. Such losses may be reduced through alteration of existing stocking practices.

  8. Regional, but not total, body composition changes in overweight and obese adults consuming a higher protein, energy-restricted diet are sex specific.

    PubMed

    Tang, Minghua; Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2013-08-01

    Secondary analyses of data from 2 studies were used to assess the effects of protein intake and sex on diet-induced changes in body composition. The primary hypothesis was that the changes of body composition via energy restriction (ie, lean body mass [LBM], fat mass [FM], and bone) would be sex and diet specific. For 12 weeks, 43 male (study 1) and 45 female (study 2) overweight and obese adults consumed an energy-deficit diet (750 kcal/d less than energy needs) containing either 0.8 (normal protein [NP], 21 men and 23 women) or 1.4 g protein∙kg(-1)∙d(-1) (high protein [HP], 22 men and 22 women). Body composition measurements were performed at preintervention and postintervention. Over time, all research participants lost weight, LBM, and FM. Independent of protein intake, the men lost more LBM in the trunk (-0.9 vs -0.5 kg) and less in the legs (-1.5 vs -1.1 kg) compared with the women (P < .05). Independent of sex, the HP group lost less LBM in the trunk and legs than the NP group. These sex and protein intake responses resulted in the NP men losing the most LBM in the legs and the NP women losing the most LBM in the trunk. Over time, men lost more FM (-5.0 vs -3.9 kg) from the trunk and less from legs (-1.7 vs -2.1 kg) than women (P < .05), which resulted in a greater decrease of the android-to-gynoid fat ratio for the men. Protein intake did not influence these sex-specific responses or have any independent effects on changes in FM. In addition, protein intake did not influence bone mineral density responses over time; bone mineral density was reduced in women, but not in men. These findings indicate that higher protein intake during weight loss promotes the retention of LBM in both the trunk and legs despite the sex-specific changes in these body regions. PMID:23890352

  9. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for measurement of acesulfame-K in diet foods.

    PubMed

    Shim, J Y; Cho, I K; Khurana, H K; Li, Q X; Jun, S

    2008-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was investigated as a method for analysis of acesulfame-K content after a simple extraction procedure for certain commercial diet food samples. Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed for prediction of acesulfame-K using select spectral ranges on the basis of relevant IR absorption bands associated with acesulfame-K. The acesulfame-K content of test food samples was predicted accurately in the fingerprint region between 1100 and 1300 cm(-1) with a maximum prediction error of 9.82% when compared with conventional HPLC method. The PLS was found to be a consistently better predictor when both PLS and principal component regression (PCR) analyses were used for quantification of acesulfame-K. The developed procedure was further validated by comparing with HPLC results as well as recovery studies. As a quick tool, the method developed is expected to be used for routine estimation of acesulfame-K in commercial products. PMID:18576989

  10. Source apportionment of DDTs in maricultured fish: a modeling study in South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Ming; Bao, Lian-Jun; Yiruhan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-04-01

    Fish is one of the most important nutrition sources for humanity. Contaminant exposure risk in fish farming will eventually deliver to the crowd through diet. China is the largest fish producing as well as exporting country, where mariculture plays an important role in fish production, especially in South China. Previous investigations indicated that a variety of compartments in farming areas of South China Sea were polluted by persistent organic pollutants, including DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its derivatives, some of which is designated as DDTs. In the present study, Hailing Bay and Daya Bay of Guangdong Province, China, were selected as the study sites and DDTs as the target compounds. A fish enrichment model was developed to assess the relative contributions of various pathways to the mass loadings of DDTs in the fish. Average concentrations (and concentration ranges) of DDTs in various environmental compartments of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay were included in modeling and analysis. Modeling results indicated that fish food and seawater contributed approximately the same proportions for the DDTs in maricultured fish. Antifouling paint was supposed to be the primary source of water DDTs in mariculture zone of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay, which contributed 69 % of the total DDTs to the mariculture water. We suggest that in order to protect people from consuming highly contaminated maricuture zone fish, the most effective and feasible methods are using environment-friendly antifouling paint and applying less polluted fish food in the fish reproduction process. PMID:26081772

  11. Bioavailability of a natural lead-contaminated invertebrate diet to zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Boyle, David; Amlund, Heidi; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nic R

    2010-03-01

    Dietary metals are increasingly recognized as key determinants of total metal burdens in fish, yet their ecotoxicological significance remains unclear. In this study, a pairwise experimental design was used to assess reproductive performance of zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed diets supplemented with a natural Pb-enriched polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Zebrafish were fed 1% flake food (dry wt diet/wet wt fish/d), 1% brine shrimp, and 1% N. diversicolor collected from either Gannel estuary, Cornwall, United Kingdom (UK), an estuary with legacy Pb contamination, or Blackwater estuary, Essex, UK, a reference site with low background metal concentrations, for 63 d. Mean daily dietary doses of Pb were 0.417 and 0.1 mg/kg/d (dry wt feed:wet wt fish) for fish fed N. diversicolor from Gannel and Blackwater estuaries, respectively. With the exception of Ag, which was higher for fish fed N. diversicolor from Gannel estuary, there were no differences in daily dietary exposures to other metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn) between treatment groups. Fish fed Pb-enriched Gannel N. diversicolor exhibited no significant impairment to incidence of spawning, numbers of eggs per breeding pair or hatch rate of embryos compared with pre-exposure levels, when N. diversicolor was omitted from the dietary regimen. Nevertheless, metal analysis revealed significant increases in whole-body Pb burdens of male fish fed polychaetes from Gannel estuary, Ag in female fish fed Gannel worms, and Ag and Cd in male fish fed the Blackwater worms. These data demonstrate that Pb naturally incorporated in N. diversicolor is bioavailable to fish, and fish exhibit sex-dependent dietary metal accumulation patterns, but after 63 d of the experimental feeding regimen, reproductive performance was unaffected. PMID:20821498

  12. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the following ...

  13. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  14. Dietary self-selection of protein-unbalanced diets supplemented with three essential amino acids in Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Silva, R; Rosa, P V; Zamora, S; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2012-02-01

    Animals do not eat whatever food item they encounter, but choose different foods that best match their requirements. Fish exhibit such "nutritional wisdom" and adapt their feeding behaviour and food intake according to their needs and the nutritional properties of diets. In this paper, we tested the ability of Nile tilapia to select between diets with a balanced or unbalanced composition of essential amino acids. To this end, three different diets were prepared: a gelatine based diet (D(1)), a gelatine diet supplemented with three essential amino acids (EAA, l-tryptophane, l-methionine, l-threonine) (D(2)), and a diet containing only cellulose and the three crystalline EAA (D(3)). In addition, the putative role of both orosensorial factors (using pellets vs capsules) and social interactions (single vs groups of ten fish) was investigated. To this end, a total of 68 male tilapia of about 141±48 g (mean±S.D.) were challenged, individually or in groups, to select between D(1)vs D(2) using pellets dispensed by self-feeders (exp. 1). In another experiment (exp. 2), 11 individual fish were challenged to select encapsulated diets with non flavour or smell proprieties (D(1)vs D(2)), and in exp. 3 fish were challenged to self-supplementation in EAA (D(1)vs D(3)). The results showed the ability of tilapia to avoid the EAA-deficient diet, choosing 82.2% D(2) in the case of individual fish, and 80.8% D(2) in the case of fish groups. Dietary selection was not directly driven by the orosensorial characteristics of food, since tilapia sustained a higher preference for D(2) when fed with encapsulated diets. Finally, in exp. 3 tilapia self-supplemented the EAA deficiency by selecting a synchronised combination of D(1) and D(3) that matched their nutritional requirements. These findings highlighted the capacity of fish to make dietary selection based on the EAA content, which should be considered when discussing food intake regulation mechanisms, and diet formulation and

  15. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation. PMID:16208206

  16. Stable isotope evidence of ontogenetic changes in the diet of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum.

    PubMed

    De Brabandere, L; Catalano, M J; Frazer, T K; Allen, M S

    2009-01-01

    Stable sulphur isotopic composition (delta(34)S) of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum was used to investigate the seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of young and adult fish. This study evaluated fish from a hypereutrophic lake that had recently undergone a 40% reduction of large (>300 mm total length, L(T)) D. cepedianum biomass as part of a biomanipulation experiment, which aimed at reducing internal nutrient loading. Dorosoma cepedianum delta(34)S values showed evidence of ontogenetic changes with young fish (<200 mm L(T)) depending more on benthic food sources than adults (>200 mm L(T)). The delta(34)S composition of the adult fish suggested an increasing importance of zooplankton in the diet, although benthic food sources remained part of the diet of all D. cepedianum collected in this study. The results indicated that benthic feeding is used by D. cepedianum of all sizes, suggesting that biomanipulation efforts may need to target all sizes of fish to realize benefits. PMID:20735527

  17. Diet and health.

    PubMed

    Gotto, A M; Scott, L W; Foreyt, J P

    1984-12-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862

  18. Migratory fish, a problem of interstate cooperation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Adams, William C.; Finley, William L.; Westerman, Fred A.

    1939-01-01

    Bobwhite quail chicks, when given a choice of balanced diets in which the essential difference was the protein supplement, showed preferences for one diet containing 49 per cent peanut oil meal, another containing a mixture of 9 per cent meat and bone scraps (50% protein) with 38 per cent soybean oil meal, and a third (control) diet containing a mixture of 16 per cent dried buttermilk with 42 per cent soybean oil meal, in contrast to diets containing sardine meal or menhaden fish meal. ....Feeding tests during the first five weeks of life showed that diets containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal consistently gave high live weights, low mortality, and high efficiency of feed utilization. Diets with 9 to 10 per cent menhaden meal produced nearly as good results....Live weights, survival, and efficiency of feed utilization were markedly better on a diet containing 9 per cent meat and bone scrap (50% protein) than on one with 9 per cent meat scrap (55% protein), but not as good as with diets containing fish meal without meat....The chicks grew and survived more successfully on diets containing either soybean oil meal or peanut oil meal as the sole protein supplement, than on diets containing either linseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, or dried buttermilk as the sole protein concentrate. None of these was as satisfactory as the diets containing fish meal.....All chicks died on diets containing either linseed oil meal, cottonseed oil meal, or dried buttermilk as the sole source of protein. All three of these concentrates, however, gave satisfactory results, when used as 10 per cent of the diet. In fact, survival and efficiency of feed utilization were nearly as good on a diet containing 10 per cent dried buttermilk, 10 per cent linseed oil meal, 10 per cent peanut oil meal, and 27 per cent soybean oil meal, as on diets containing fish meal.

  19. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver, Michele; Ayers, David; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (< 4%) of their diet. We also evaluated the condition of SMB and WAL by determining relative weights (Wr) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI). Mean Wr for SMB greater than 300 mm ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in

  20. Glutathione peroxidase response in tissues of rats fed diets containing fish protein concentrate prepared from shark flesh of known mercury and selenium contents

    SciTech Connect

    Thrower, S.J.; Andrewartha, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies have been reported using experimental animals and synthetic diets containing selenium and mercury compounds to demonstrate detoxification of mercury by selenium. The mechanism of detoxification remains obscure. Most experiments have involved the use of high levels of both elements and relied on the observation of gross symptoms. The measurement of enzyme systems may be useful in detecting effects of mercury at a lower, subclinical level and in elucidating the biochemistry of mercury/selenium interactions. The activity of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rats is dependent on dietary selenium and attempts have been made to use this enzyme as an indicator of mercury/selenium interactions. The research described in this paper was designed to investigate the effect of mercury, in the form and amounts which occur naturally in seafood, on the availability of selenium at levels approximating the nutritional requirement. In anticipation of mercury lowering the GSH-Px response a range of selenium concentrations was used, from nutritional deficiency to three times the nutritional requirement.

  1. Body Fat Accumulation in Zebrafish Is Induced by a Diet Rich in Fat and Reduced by Supplementation with Green Tea Extract

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets. PMID:25785691

  2. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  3. Fish Intake and Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Diet plays an important role in modulating the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. Several lines of evidence attest that consumption of fish and its compounds, especially omega-3 fatty acids, may be effective to decrease the cardiovascular risk. Since the pathogenesis of arterial and venous thrombosis share some common aspects, we performed a systematic review of published clinical studies that investigated the association between fish intake and venous thrombosis. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science using the key words "fish" OR "seafood" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism", with no language or date restriction. Overall, 6 studies (5 prospective and 1 case-control) were finally identified. In only 1 small case-control study, a larger intake of total fish was found to be negatively associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism. No association was found in 4 large prospective studies, whereas a positive association was observed in the remaining. No substantial difference was also noticed between intake of fatty or lean fish. Taken together, the current epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of a significant effect of total fish consumption on the risk of venous thromboembolism. PMID:25962392

  4. Short communication: Intake, milk production, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2016-03-01

    To establish the effects of access time to high-quality temperate fresh forage (FF) on intake and performance of cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 9 Holstein cows were assigned to three 3 × 3 Latin squares with 20-d periods with sampling in the last 10 d. The following treatments were evaluated: 0 (T0), 4 (T4), and 8 (T8) h of daily access to FF. Forage (Lolium multiflorum) was cut daily and offered ad libitum beginning at 0800 h in individual stalls, and a TMR was offered ad libitum during the period when cows had no access to FF. Fresh forage dry matter intake (DMI) increased and TMR DMI decreased with the access time to FF, whereas total DMI was 3.0 kg higher for T4 than for T8; no differences were detected with T0. Compared with T0, 8h/d of access to FF decreased milk, protein, and casein yields, and tended to decrease fat and lactose yields, but treatment had no effect on milk composition or feed efficiency. The milk fatty acid profile in T8 had a higher content of rumenic, vaccenic, and linolenic acids compared with T0. We concluded that cows with 4h of access to high-quality FF had similar DMI and milk yields as cows fed only the TMR, but more than 4h of access reduced DMI and performance without changes in feed efficiency, although milk fat had enhanced levels of beneficial fatty acids. PMID:26778319

  5. Use of fish-otolith-length regressions to infer size of double-crested cormorant prey fish from recovered otoliths in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Robert M.; Johnson, James H.; Adams, Connie M.

    2005-01-01

    To provide a method for estimating fish size from fish otoliths for forensic applications or other predictive uses, morphometric measurements were obtained from three centrarchid fishes (pumpkinseed [Lepomis gibbosus], rock bass [Ambloplites rupestris], and smallmouth bass [Micropterus dolomieu]), two percids (yellow perch [Perca flavescens] and walleye [Stizostedion vitreum]), and one clupeid (alewife [Alosa pseudoharengus]) from the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. These species are the principal or economically important prey of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), whose diet can be determined from regurgitated digestive pellets containing fish otoliths. A fuller understanding of the ecosystem roles of cormorants requires estimation of prey-fish size, obtainable from regressions of otolith length on fish length. Up to 100 fish of each species were collected from eastern Lake Ontario and measured for total length and otolith length. Least-squares regressions of otolith length on fish length were calculated for all species, covering life-stage ranges of immature fish to large adults near maximum known size. The regressions with 95% confidence intervals may be applicable outside the Lake Ontario ecosystem if used with caution.

  6. Interacting effects of diet and environmental temperature on biochemical parameters in the liver ofLeuciscus idus melanotus (Cyprinidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Rafael, J; Braunbeck, T

    1988-03-01

    One year old golden ide (Leuciscus idus melanotus) were starved for 2 weeks at 20°C (time zero) and then they were fed either freeze-dried mosquito larvae (natural diet) or a commercial fish chow (artificial diet) at an ambient temperature of 14°C and 20°C, respectively. Growth parameters and biochemical data in the liver were measured at time zero and after 3 and 7 weeks of specific regimen. If compared to natural food, the artificial diet caused transient increase in anabolic activity of the liver, but prevented long-lasting hepatocyte proliferation (increase of total liver DNA). After 3 weeks on artificial diet, the body weight was significantly higher and the liver mass doubled compared to ide kept on the natural regimen; tissue DNA content indicated that the hepatocyte volume increased mainly by increased protein content and corresponding uptake of water; lipid and glycogen contents were increased by a factor of 3-6, and the RNA∶DNA ratio was increased accordingly. The growth of the ide, as reflected by the condition factor and hepatosomatic index (HSI), was virtually stopped when the artificial regimen was maintained for 7 weeks, whereas on natural food the condition factor was increased and liver weight and DNA were doubled. Growth of the fish maintained at 14°C was significantly lower than that of fish maintained at 20°C, though the total liver DNA was still increased on the natural regimen during the experiment. Less lipid was stored by fish maintained at 14°C, whereas protein and glycogen deposits were enlarged, if compared to fish maintained at 20°C. The specific activity of cytochrome oxidase in liver mitochondria and of NADPH cytochrome c reductase in the microsomal fraction were found independent of diet and ambient temperature. Oxidative capacity of hepatocytes (mitochondrial protein/mg DNA) remained unchanged, and microsomal protein/cell appeared reduced in response to the artificial food. However, reduction of cell number on this diet

  7. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, α-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01-P = 0.04). Both groups experienced mild reductions in weight, BMI, and WC during the study (P = 0.01-P = 0.03), however there were no differences between the two groups in these measurements or in FBG, HbA1c or blood lipids. For each kilogram of weight loss in the entire cohort there were associations for reductions in WC of 0.48 cm (P < 0.01), FBG of 0.11 mmol/l (P = 0.01) and HbA1c of 0.07% (P < 0.01). Conclusions Daily

  8. The Changing United States Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Louise; Friend, Berta

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the United States diet has changed markedly in this century. We are using more meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products; sugars and other sweeteners; fats and oils; and processed fruits and vegetables. We are using fewer grain products, potatoes, fresh fruits and vegetables, and eggs. (BB)

  9. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  10. Total Analysis of Microcystins in Fish Tissue Using Laser Thermal Desorption-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-HRMS).

    PubMed

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Sinotte, Marc; Deblois, Christian; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-08-26

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyanobacterial toxins encountered in aquatic environments worldwide. Over 100 MC variants have been identified and have the capacity to covalently bind to animal tissue. This study presents a new approach for cell-bound and free microcystin analysis in fish tissue using sodium hydroxide as a digestion agent and Lemieux oxidation to obtain the 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB) moiety, common to all microcystin congeners. The use of laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with Q-Exactive mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-HRMS) led to an analysis time of approximately 10 s per sample and high-resolution detection. Digestion/oxidation and solid phase extraction recoveries ranged from 70 to 75% and from 86 to 103%, respectively. Method detection and quantification limits values were 2.7 and 8.2 μg kg(-1), respectively. Fish samples from cyanobacteria-contaminated lakes were analyzed, and concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 13.2 μg kg(-1) were reported. PMID:26211936

  11. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes. PMID:23186839

  12. Ileostomy and your diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... ileostomy - diet; Abdominal pouch - diet; End ileostomy - diet; Ostomy - diet ... odor: Eating parsley, yogurt, and buttermilk Keeping your ostomy devices clean Using special deodorants or adding vanilla ...

  13. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  14. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, A; Hamamdzic, M; Gagic, A; Mihaljevic, M; Vegara, M; Krnic, J; Pasic Juhas, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dietary palm olein, in comparison to fish oil and lard, on lipid levels in egg yolk and blood plasma, the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, and various production parameters were studied. Brown Lohman laying hens (n=45) were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 birds, and treated with experimental diets with either 3% palm olein (PO), fish oil (FO) or lard (L) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed the PO diet, except week 6 of the experiment. The concentration of plasma triglycerides was increased by all experimental diets, whereas there were no significant increases of plasma total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations only in the PO group. For yolk lipids a decrease in triglycerides in the FO and L groups was observed, while total cholesterol and total lipid were significantly decreased in the PO group. Feeding with the PO diet resulted in the lowest concentrations of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acid, as well as in the highest concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid in the yolk total lipid. It was concluded that the composition of yolk lipids did not closely match the concentrations of lipids observed in experimental diets or plasma. Based on the current work it seems that the PO diet modulates egg yolk lipid content best. PMID:18540201

  15. Effect of regular consumption of oily fish compared with white fish on chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Collier, P M; Ursell, A; Zaremba, K; Payne, C M; Staughton, R C; Sanders, T

    1993-04-01

    The influence of dietary advice on the severity of chronic plaque psoriasis was studied in 18 patients. Medication was standardized in all patients who were advised to eat 170 g white fish daily for a 4 week run-in period. Then the patients were randomized either to continue with the white fish diet or to substitute 170 g oily fish daily for 6 weeks. At the end of this second period the diets were reversed for a further 6 weeks. The oily fish but not the white fish diet led to a modest clinical improvement (11% and 15%, P < 0.01) which was accompanied by a rise in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) concentrations. It is concluded that dietary advice to increase the daily intake of oily fish is a useful adjunct in the treatment of psoriasis. The fish that should be recommended include mackerel, sardine, salmon, pilchard, kipper and herring. PMID:8491161

  16. STABLE ISOTOPE SIGNATURES OF MUCUS OF STEELHEAD TROUT IN A CONTROLLED DIET SWITCH EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our work has shown that fish mucus can serve as a very rapid indicator of diet switching in fish. We performed diet switching studies of steelhead trout in a controlled hatchery setting using specially formulated low delta 15N signature and high delta 15N signature diets. To ou...

  17. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  18. Simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study by isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yang, Xin; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Wei; Wu, Yongning

    2013-06-01

    A selective and sensitive isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Isotope Dilution-HPLC-LIT-MS(3)) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study (TDS). The method integrated the addition of isotope internal standards, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), clean-up with MCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and HPLC-LIT-MS(3) analysis with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2)≥0.9940) verified by applying the Mandel's fitting test (p>0.087) performed at the 95% confidence level. Decision limits (CCαs) and detection capabilities (CCβs) of the 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products fell in the ranges of 0.0020-0.4200 μg kg(-1) and 0.0024-0.4500 μg kg(-1), respectively. Recoveries ranged from 70.1% to 112.8%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.5% to 13.5%. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied to analyzing the proposed cereal samples from the fourth Chinese TDS. Eleven triazines were detected in six cereal samples with the concentrations ranging from 0.013 to 0.987 μg kg(-1). This method can also be used for the further determination of the triazines in other food group composites, and ultimately served as a methodological foundation for assessing the triazines in the average Chinese diet in the general population. PMID:23684466

  19. LAKE HERRING (COREGONUS ARTEDI) AND RAINBOW SMELT (OSMERUS MORDAX) DIETS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports on the diets of lake herring and rainbow smelt, currently the two dominant forage fish species (fish that are food for game fishes) in western Lake Superior. Despite the pelagic nature of both these species, they have substantially different diets and henc...

  20. [Acne and diet].

    PubMed

    Melnik, B C

    2013-04-01

    In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish. PMID:23529682

  1. Effect of creatine supplementation and a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on muscle creatine concentration.

    PubMed

    Lukaszuk, Judith M; Robertson, Robert J; Arch, Judith E; Moore, Geoffrey E; Yaw, Kenneth M; Kelley, David E; Rubin, Joshua T; Moyna, Niall M

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of preceding oral creatine monohydrate with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on muscle creatine concentration. Thirty-two healthy men, who regularly consumed an omnivorous diet, were randomly assigned to consume a weight maintaining, lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV; n = 16) or omnivorous (Omni; n = 16) diet for 26 days. In addition to their assigned diet, on day 22 of the study, subjects were assigned in a double-blind manner to receive either creatine monohydrate (CM; 0.3 g kg d 1 + 20 g Polycose) or an equivalent dose of placebo (PL) for 5 days. There were no significant differences between the LOV and Omni groups at baseline with respect to age, height, and weight. The results demonstrated that consuming a LOV diet for 21 days was an effective procedure to decrease muscle creatine concentration (p <.01) in individuals who normally consume meat and fish in their diet. However, muscle total creatine (TCr) following creatine supplementation did not differ statistically between LOV and Omni diet groups (148.6 4.5 vs. 141.7 4.5 mmol kg-1 d.m.). PMID:12432177

  2. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Fermented By-product of Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, as a Fish Meal Replacer in Juvenile Amur Catfish, Silurus asotus: Effects on Growth, Serological Characteristics and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Katya, Kumar; Yun, Yong-hyun; Park, Gunhyun; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yoo, Gwangyeol; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary fermented by-product of mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, (FBPM) as a fish meal (FM) replacer in juvenile Amur catfish, Silurus asotus. A total number of 225 fish averaging 5.7±0.1 g (mean±standard deviation) were fed one of the five experimental diets formulated to replace FM with FBPM at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (FBPM0, FBPM5, FBPM10, FBPM20, and FBPM30, respectively). At the end of eight weeks of the experiment, average weight gain (WG) of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). However, there was no significant differences in WG among the fish fed FBPM0, FBPM5 or FBPM10, and between fish fed FBPM10 or FBPM20, and also between those fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets. Lysozyme activity of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM10, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). The chemiluminescent response of fish fed FBPM5 was significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM0, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). Broken line regression analysis of WG suggested that the maximal dietary inclusion level for FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% without any adverse effects on whole body composition and on serological characteristics. Therefore, these results may indicate that the maximal dietary inclusion level of FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% in juvenile Amur catfish. PMID:25178300

  3. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared. PMID:20307350

  4. Including independent estimates and uncertainty to quantify total abundance of fish migrating in a large river system: walleye (Sander vitreus) in the Maumee River, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Weimer, Eric J.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Erie is a valuable and migratory species that spawns in tributaries. We used hydroacoustic sampling, gill net sampling, and Bayesian state-space modeling to estimate the spawning stock abundance, characterize size and sex structure, and explore environmental factors cuing migration of walleye in the Maumee River for 2011 and 2012. We estimated the spawning stock abundance to be between 431,000 and 1,446,000 individuals in 2011 and between 386,400 and 857,200 individuals in 2012 (95% Bayesian credible intervals). A back-calculation from a concurrent larval fish study produced an estimate of 78,000 to 237,000 spawners for 2011. The sex ratio was skewed towards males early in the spawning season but approached 1:1 later, and larger individuals entered the river earlier in the season than smaller individuals. Walleye migration was greater during low river discharge and intermediate temperatures. Our approach to estimating absolute abundance and uncertainty as well as characterization of the spawning stock could improve assessment and management of this species, and our methodology is applicable to other diadromous populations.

  5. Korean mistletoe enriched diet enhances innate immune response in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Philasterides dicentrarchi.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-12-29

    The present study investigated the immunostimulatory effect of Korean mistletoe Viscum album extract (KM-E) on innate immune response in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Philasterides dicentrarchi. Kelp grouper were divided into four groups of 25 each and fed with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% enriched diets with Korean mistletoe extract (KM-E). After feeding for 30 days, the fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 100 μl of P. dicentrarchi (4.2 × 10(7)ciliates/ml) to study the immune responses at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The respiratory burst activity did not significantly enhance when fed with 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on week 1 when compared to control diet. On weeks 2 and 4, the respiratory burst activity significantly increased with 1.0% and 2.0% diets. The phagocytic activity significantly enhanced with 1.0% and 2.0% diets, but not with 0.5% diet at any time. When fed with 1.0% KM-E-diet the lysozyme activity did not significantly vary at any week whereas with 1.0% and 2.0% diets it was significantly enhanced. The total protein level significantly increased with 1.0% and 2.0% KM-E-diets from weeks 1 to 4 as compared to control. The present study suggests that 1.0% or 2.0% KM-E-supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune response in E. bruneus against P. dicentrarchi infection. PMID:21807463

  6. Habitat-Specific Density and Diet of Rapidly Expanding Invasive Red Lionfish, Pterois volitans, Populations in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Kristen A.; Patterson, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans, were first reported in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) in summer 2010. To examine potential impacts on native reef fish communities, lionfish density and size distributions were estimated from fall 2010 to fall 2013 with a remotely operated vehicle at natural (n = 16) and artificial (n = 22) reef sites. Lionfish (n = 934) also were sampled via spearfishing to examine effects of habitat type, season, and fish size on their diet and trophic ecology. There was an exponential increase in lionfish density at both natural and artificial reefs over the study period. By fall 2013, mean lionfish density at artificial reefs (14.7 fish 100 m−2) was two orders of magnitude higher than at natural reefs (0.49 fish 100 m−2), and already was among the highest reported in the western Atlantic. Lionfish diet was significantly different among habitats, seasons, and size classes, with smaller (<250 mm total length) fish consuming more benthic invertebrates and the diet of lionfish sampled from artificial reefs being composed predominantly of non-reef associated prey. The ontogenetic shift in lionfish feeding ecology was consistent with δ15N values of white muscle tissue that were positively related to total length. Overall, diet results indicate lionfish are generalist mesopredators in the nGOM that become more piscivorous at larger size. However, lionfish diet was much more varied at artificial reef sites where they clearly were foraging on open substrates away from reef structure. These results have important implications for tracking the lionfish invasion in the nGOM, as well as estimating potential direct and indirect impacts on native reef fish communities in this region. PMID:25170922

  7. Habitat-specific density and diet of rapidly expanding invasive red lionfish, Pterois volitans, populations in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kristen A; Patterson, William F

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans, were first reported in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) in summer 2010. To examine potential impacts on native reef fish communities, lionfish density and size distributions were estimated from fall 2010 to fall 2013 with a remotely operated vehicle at natural (n = 16) and artificial (n = 22) reef sites. Lionfish (n = 934) also were sampled via spearfishing to examine effects of habitat type, season, and fish size on their diet and trophic ecology. There was an exponential increase in lionfish density at both natural and artificial reefs over the study period. By fall 2013, mean lionfish density at artificial reefs (14.7 fish 100 m(-2)) was two orders of magnitude higher than at natural reefs (0.49 fish 100 m(-2)), and already was among the highest reported in the western Atlantic. Lionfish diet was significantly different among habitats, seasons, and size classes, with smaller (<250 mm total length) fish consuming more benthic invertebrates and the diet of lionfish sampled from artificial reefs being composed predominantly of non-reef associated prey. The ontogenetic shift in lionfish feeding ecology was consistent with δ15N values of white muscle tissue that were positively related to total length. Overall, diet results indicate lionfish are generalist mesopredators in the nGOM that become more piscivorous at larger size. However, lionfish diet was much more varied at artificial reef sites where they clearly were foraging on open substrates away from reef structure. These results have important implications for tracking the lionfish invasion in the nGOM, as well as estimating potential direct and indirect impacts on native reef fish communities in this region. PMID:25170922

  8. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  9. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  10. Effects of feed grade poultry by-product meal, soybean meal and protein level in the diet on the performance and immune status of pond-grown sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two primary ways to achieve low-cost, nutritionally efficacious diets for sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis) are to decrease crude protein levels and use alternative animal or plant ingredients to partially, or totally, replace fish meal. A 459-day feeding trial was conducted with juven...

  11. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fruits Whole grains Legumes Seeds Nuts May include eggs and milk A vegetarian diet contains no animal ... animal proteins or animal by-products such as eggs, milk, or honey. Lacto-vegetarian: includes plant foods ...

  12. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... grains Legumes Seeds Nuts May include eggs and milk A vegetarian diet contains no animal proteins. A ... proteins or animal by-products such as eggs, milk, or honey. Lacto-vegetarian: includes plant foods plus ...

  13. IBS Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... often conflicting advice is available, especially on the Internet. Much of it is associated with a considerable cost. Video with Peter Whorwell, MD Diet, Eating and IBS Symptoms There are a variety of ...

  14. Fish oils lower rat plasma and hepatic, but not immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D W; McGuire, S O; Cassity, N A; Fritsche, K L

    1995-10-01

    These studies were designed to measure the impact of different fish oil sources of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid on the alpha-tocopherol content of rat immune cells. In the first experiment, rats were fed diets containing either lard, corn oil, menhaden fish oil or cod liver oil. In the second study, sardine fish oil replaced corn oil. Dietary fat source did not significantly influence body weights or the yield of immune cells in either study. In both studies, plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid-fed rats than in rats fed lard. In the first study, immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentrations followed those observed in the plasma and liver. These concentrations closely paralleled the amount of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate added to diets and not the total vitamin E present, which was the same for all treatment groups. However, in the second study, alpha-tocopherol concentration of immune cells was not significantly different among rats fed lard, menhaden fish oil, and sardine fish oil. In that study both the amount and form of vitamin E were carefully balanced across dietary treatment groups. In conclusion, despite having similar amounts of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, two out of three fish oils tested did not lower immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration even in the face of significantly reduced plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations. PMID:7562101

  15. Dietary Lipid Type, Rather Than Total Number of Calories, Alters Outcomes of Enteric Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    DeCoffe, Daniella; Quin, Candice; Gill, Sandeep K; Tasnim, Nishat; Brown, Kirsty; Godovannyi, Artem; Dai, Chuanbin; Abulizi, Nijiati; Chan, Yee Kwan; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Gibson, Deanna L

    2016-06-01

    Dietary lipids modulate immunity, yet the means by which specific fatty acids affect infectious disease susceptibility remains unclear. Deciphering lipid-induced immunity is critical to understanding the balance required for protecting against pathogens while avoiding chronic inflammatory diseases. To understand how specific lipids alter susceptibility to enteric infection, we fed mice isocaloric, high-fat diets composed of corn oil (rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids [n-6 PUFAs]), olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids), or milk fat (rich in saturated fatty acids) with or without fish oil (rich in n-3 PUFAs). After 5 weeks of dietary intervention, mice were challenged with Citrobacter rodentium, and pathological responses were assessed. Olive oil diets resulted in little colonic pathology associated with intestinal alkaline phosphatase, a mucosal defense factor that detoxifies lipopolysaccharide. In contrast, while both corn oil and milk fat diets resulted in inflammation-induced colonic damage, only milk fat induced compensatory protective responses, including short chain fatty acid production. Fish oil combined with milk fat, unlike unsaturated lipid diets, had a protective effect associated with intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity. Overall, these results reveal that dietary lipid type, independent of the total number of calories associated with the dietary lipid, influences the susceptibility to enteric damage and the benefits of fish oil during infection. PMID:27067195

  16. [The histamine-free diet].

    PubMed

    Wantke, F; Götz, M; Jarisch, R

    1993-08-01

    Food intolerance is not IgE-mediated but caused by histamine. A diminished histamine degradation based on a deficiency of diaminoxidase is suspected to be the reason. The therapeutic efficacy of a histamine-free diet was evaluated in 100 patients with food intolerance and allergic diseases, who were required to avoid fish, cheese, hardcured sausage, pickled cabbage, wine and beer for 4 weeks. Considerable improvement was observed in 57 patients, 15 of whom had total remission. The most striking treatment results were obtained in food or wine intolerance (80% P < 0.05; treatment of choice), bronchial asthma (80%), headache (64%) and urticaria (58%). After ingestion of food rich in histamine clearcut recurrence of atopic eczema was seen in 50% of the patients affected. Histamine plays a major part in food and wine intolerance. Histamine in food causes worsening of symptoms in atopics and patients suffering from headache. The results obtained indicate a deficiency of diaminoxidase in patients with intolerance to food or wine. Histamine levels in alcoholic beverages should be displayed on the labels. PMID:8376104

  17. Feline pansteatitis revisited: hazards of unbalanced home-made diets.

    PubMed

    Niza, M M R E; Vilela, C L; Ferreira, L M A

    2003-10-01

    Pansteatitis is caused by the consumption of high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and/or the insufficient intake of vitamin E, leading to inflammation of adipose tissue. This disease has been related to fish-based diets. However, non-conventional diets must also be considered. The authors present case records of two cats with pansteatitis, for which diet consisted mostly of pig's brain, comparing them with eight cases of disease in cats eating mainly oily fish. Cats fed pig's brain did not show clinical signs, while cats eating oily fish presented inappetence, depression, reluctance to move and subcutaneous nodules painful on palpation. Cats eating pig's brain did not show any change in blood parameters, while cats fed oily fish presented leukocytosis and anaemia. Histological examination confirmed pansteatitis in all cats, independently of the diet. All animals except one of the cats eating oily fish recovered after medical treatment and change of the feeding regime. PMID:12948502

  18. Levels of direct-acting mutagens, total N-nitroso compounds in nitrosated fermented fish products, consumed in a high-risk area for gastric cancer in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, C S; Pignatelli, B; Malaveille, C; Bouvier, G; Shuker, D; Hautefeuille, A; Zhang, R F; Bartsch, H

    1992-02-01

    A high gastric cancer mortality in Fujian province (Peoples Republic of China) has been associated with the consumption of certain salted fermented fish products such as fish sauce (FS). We have investigated the levels and nature of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and genotoxins present, before and after nitrosation, in 49 FS samples collected from villages in this high-risk area, pooled into six samples. The concentrations of total NOC before nitrosation ranged from 0.2 to 16 mumoles/l, and after nitrosation at pH 2 and pH 7, they rose by up to 4800- and 100-fold, respectively. In nitrosated samples, 40-50% of total NOC was not extractable into organic solvents; volatile N nitrosamines accounted for 1-2% and N-nitrosamino acids for 8-16% of total NOC. None of the FS samples exhibited genotoxic activity, but after nitrosation all were weakly active in the SOS chromotest. The highest SOS-inducing potency was observed with nitrosated ethyl acetate extracts of most samples. The formation of methylating agents was measured by incubation of nitrosated FS with DNA and subsequent analysis of 7-methylguanine adduct. 2 of the 6 nitrosated FS samples caused a slight increase in DNA methylation. 1 pooled home-made FS sample (the only one tested) contained tumour promoter-like substances, as measured by expression of certain EBV genes in Raji cells. HPLC fractionation of ethyl acetate extracts of FS samples allowed identification of three UV-absorbing peaks that, upon nitrosation, produced direct-acting genotoxins. This genotoxicity was partly ascribed to the formation of nitrite-derived arene diazonium cations that were characterized by a coupling reaction with N-ethyl-1-naphthylamine and thin-layer chromatography. PMID:1370720

  19. Hulled and hull-less barley grains with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent total-tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine.

    PubMed

    Veum, T L; Raboy, V

    2016-03-01

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an initial average BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled or hull-less barley in isocaloric diets. Hulled barleys were the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington and the near-isogenic LPA mutant 955 (M955) with P availabilities of 36 and 95%, respectively. Hull-less lines were produced by crossing NB and the LPA mutant 422 line with a hull-less line, producing hull-less NB (HNB) and hull-less mutant 422 (HM422) with P availabilities of 41 and 66%, respectively. Pigs were in individual metabolism cages or pens for Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and Phase 2 (d 14 to 35). Diets defined as NB, HNB, HM422, or M955 with no added inorganic P (iP) had available P (aP) concentrations of 0.27, 0.28, 0.35, and 0.40% for Phase 1 and 0.15, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.31% for Phase 2, respectively. Only diet M955 was adequate in aP. Therefore, iP was added to the P-deficient diets to make diets NB + iP, HNB + iP, and HM422 + iP with aP equal to that in diet M955. Overall (d 0 to 35), ADG and G:F were greater ( < 0.01) for pigs fed diet M955 or the diets with added iP than for pigs fed the NB diet. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity on d 34 was greater ( < 0.01) for pigs fed the NB or HNB diets than for pigs fed the other diets. Bone breaking strength and P absorption (g/d) were greater ( < 0.01) for pigs fed diet M955 or the diets with iP than for pigs fed the NB or HNB diets. Pigs fed diet M955 absorbed greater ( < 0.01) percentages of P and Ca and had less ( < 0.01) fecal excretion of P (g/d and %) and Ca (%) than pigs fed the other diets. In conclusion, the LPA genetic trait was effective in hulled and hull-less barley in isocaloric diets fed to young pigs. Pigs fed the diet with LPA M955 consumed 31% less P and excreted 78% less fecal P and 30% less fecal Ca than pigs fed the diet with NB + iP that was equal to diet M955 in a

  20. Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Willett, W C; Sacks, F; Trichopoulou, A; Drescher, G; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Helsing, E; Trichopoulos, D

    1995-06-01

    We present a food pyramid that reflects Mediterranean dietary traditions, which historically have been associated with good health. This Mediterranean diet pyramid is based on food patterns typical of Crete, much of the rest of Greece, and southern Italy in the early 1960s, where adult life expectancy was among the highest in the world and rates of coronary heart disease, certain cancers, and other diet-related chronic diseases were among the lowest. Work in the field or kitchen resulted in a lifestyle that included regular physical activity and was associated with low rates of obesity. The diet is characterized by abundant plant foods (fruit, vegetables, breads, other forms of cereals, potatoes, beans, nuts, and seeds), fresh fruit as the typical daily dessert, olive oil as the principal source of fat, dairy products (principally cheese and yogurt), and fish and poultry consumed in low to moderate amounts, zero to four eggs consumed weekly, red meat consumed in low amounts, and wine consumed in low to moderate amounts, normally with meals. This diet is low in saturated fat (< or = 7-8% of energy), with total fat ranging from < 25% to > 35% of energy throughout the region. The pyramid describes a dietary pattern that is attractive for its famous palatability as well as for its health benefits. PMID:7754995

  1. Designing fish for improved human health status.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul A; McLean, Ewen; Craig, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    The time-course of accumulation of dietary organic and inorganic selenium (Se; 1.5 mg Se kg(-1) dry weight feed) was examined for muscle and hepatic tissues of hybrid striped bass (HSB) over 6 weeks. Animals, which had been fed a Se deficient diet for 2 months prior to study, were maintained in a recirculating life support system at 28 +/- 1 degrees C. PIT tagged fish were randomly assigned to one of 24 120 L aquaria (n = 5 per tank) and subsequently fed one of four diets: a fishmeal-based diet (control), soybean-casein-based feeds either supplemented with organic (SelPlex) or inorganic (sodium selenite) Se or as a basal diet, purposefully deficient in Se. Fish were fed twice daily on a 4% body weight basis. Samples taken at trial start (week 0), mid-way (3 weeks) and at trial end (6 weeks) included weight and length data, hepatosomatic (HSI) and visceral (VSI) indices, intraperitoneal fat (IPF) and muscle (MR) and feed conversion (FCR) ratios, serum protein (SP), hematocrit (PCV), and serum glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) activity and muscle and heaptic Se concentrations. Survival was also monitored throughout the study. Muscle and hepatic Se levels increased in fishmeal and Se supplemented diets throughout the study. At trail end, greatest weight gain (P < 0.05) was observed in fish fed the control, fishmeal-based diet. Comparison of tissue Se levels indicated that the liver accumulated this mineral at greater concentrations than the muscle with highest levels being observed in the inorganic Se fed fish (P < 0.05). Se accumulation in control and inorganic Se fed fish was similar, whilst Se in the liver of fish fed the Se deficient diet was lowest among groups (P < 0.05). Muscle Se accumulation was found to be greatest in organic Se containing diets (P < 0.05), whereas the basal, Se deficient diet group, returned lowest levels (P < 0.05). Plasma GP(x) activity was similar in HSB fed the fishmeal and organic Se diets. The fishmeal fed group expressed higher (P < 0

  2. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on reproduction, kit growth, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.R.J.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and survival. Diets contained 0.22-3.54% HR fish, providing 0.34-3.7 ??g total PCBs (TPCB)/g feed wet wt (3.5-68.5 pg toxic equivalence [TEQ]/g). Female mink were fed diets before breeding through weaning of kits. Twelve kits from each treatment were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. Dietary PCBs had no effect on the number of offspring produced, gestation period, or other measures of adult reproductive performance. Mink kits exposed to 3.7 ??g TPCB/g feed (68.5 pg TEQ/g) in utero and during lactation had reduced survivability between three and six weeks of age. The lethal concentrations to 10 and 20% of the population (LC10 and LC20, respectively) were estimated to be 0.231 and 0.984 ??g TPCB/g feed, respectively. Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish that composed approximately 1% of the diet would reduce mink kit survival by 20% or more, it is likely that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would have an adverse effect on wild mink populations. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  3. Transgenic Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish into which foreign DNA is artificially introduced and integrated into their genome are called transgenic fish. Since the development of the first transgenic fish in 1985, techniques to produce transgenic fish have improved tremendously, resulting in the production of genetically modified (GM) ...

  4. Effects of fish protein hydrolysate on growth performance and humoral immune response in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)* §

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong-gang; Wu, Tian-xing; Zhao, Zhan-yu; Pan, Xiao-dong

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) on growth performance and humoral immune response of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.). One thousand and two hundred large yellow croakers [initial average weight: (162.75±23.85) g] were divided into four groups and reared in floating sea cages (3 m×3 m×3 m). The animals were fed with 4 diets: basal diet only (control) or diets supplemented with 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w) FPH. The results show that dietary FPH levels significantly influenced the growth and immunity of the large yellow croaker. Compared with the control group, total weight gain (TWG) in all treatment groups, relative weight gain (RWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) in fish fed with diets supplemented with 10% and 15% FPH were significantly increased (P<0.05). Similar results were observed in immune parameters [lysozyme activity, serum complements, immunoglobulin M (IgM)]. Lysozyme activity, complement C4 and IgM were also significantly increased (P<0.05) in fish fed with diets supplemented with 10% and 15% FPH, while complement C3 level was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all treatment groups. In general, with the supplementation of FPH, particularly at dose of 10%, the growth performance and immunity of the large yellow croaker can be improved effectively. PMID:18763300

  5. Effects of fish protein hydrolysate on growth performance and humoral immune response in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Hong-gang; Wu, Tian-xing; Zhao, Zhan-yu; Pan, Xiao-dong

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effects of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) on growth performance and humoral immune response of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.). One thousand and two hundred large yellow croakers [initial average weight: (162.75+/-23.85) g] were divided into four groups and reared in floating sea cages (3 m x 3 m x 3 m). The animals were fed with 4 diets: basal diet only (control) or diets supplemented with 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w) FPH. The results show that dietary FPH levels significantly influenced the growth and immunity of the large yellow croaker. Compared with the control group, total weight gain (TWG) in all treatment groups, relative weight gain (RWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) in fish fed with diets supplemented with 10% and 15% FPH were significantly increased (P<0.05). Similar results were observed in immune parameters [lysozyme activity, serum complements, immunoglobulin M (IgM)]. Lysozyme activity, complement C4 and IgM were also significantly increased (P<0.05) in fish fed with diets supplemented with 10% and 15% FPH, while complement C3 level was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all treatment groups. In general, with the supplementation of FPH, particularly at dose of 10%, the growth performance and immunity of the large yellow croaker can be improved effectively. PMID:18763300

  6. Dietary β-glucan improved growth performance, Vibrio counts, haematological parameters and stress resistance of pompano fish, Trachinotus ovatus Linnaeus, 1758.

    PubMed

    Do Huu, Hoang; Sang, Huynh Minh; Thanh Thuy, Nguyen Thi

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of graded levels of dietary β-glucan (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 g kg(-1)) on growth performance, haematological parameters, intestinal Vibrio counts, dose requirement and salinity stress resistance in pompano fish Trachinotus ovatus (6.45 g ± 0.06 (SEM)). After 8-weeks of diet feeding, growth was significantly higher in fish fed diets with 0.10% β-glucan compared to fish fed control diet (no β-glucan). Survival increased significantly in fish fed 0.05 and 0.10% β-glucan compared to control diet. There were significant increases in red blood cells (in 0.20% β-glucan diet), in total leukocytes (in 0.05-0.20% β-glucan diet), in both lymphocyte and monocyte count in fish fed 0.10%-0.40% β-glucan diet. However, dietary β-glucan did not affect neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil counts. Intestinal Vibrio counts were reduced in fish fed any level of β-glucan compared to control. In addition, dietary β-glucan levels highly correlated with growth, survival, intestinal Vibrio counts and haematological index. Optimal β-glucan levels for maximal growth of fish were predicted to be 0.122% at day 21 (R(2) = 98.53%), 0.120% at day 28 (R(2) = 78.55%), 0.115% at day 42 (R(2) = 62.21%) and 0.090% at day 56 (R(2) = 75.18%), showing a decreasing β-glucan requirement with increasing fish size. Furthermore, optimal β-glucan levels for maximal haematological parameters based on lymphocyte count, was estimated to be 0.120% (R(2) = 98.53%) at day 56. Also, fish fed 0.05%-0.20% β-glucan showed better resistance against salinity stress. In conclusion, β-glucan supplementation is effective for improving growth, intestinal Vibrio counts and boosted stress resistance of the pompano fish, T. ovatus. PMID:27036404

  7. Effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oil blend on digestive enzymes and tissue histomorphology of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Serra, Cláudia R; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Fernandes, Rui; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-02-01

    The impact of replacing circa 70% fish oil (FO) by a vegetable oil (VO) blend (rapeseed, linseed, palm oils; 20:50:30) in diets for European sea bass juveniles (IBW 96 ± 0.8 g) was evaluated in terms of activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and total alkaline proteases) in the anterior (AI) and posterior (PI) intestine and tissue morphology (pyloric caeca-PC, AI, PI, distal intestine-DI and liver). For that purpose, fish were fed the experimental diets for 36 days and then liver and intestine were sampled at 2, 6 and 24 h after the last meal. Alkaline protease characterization was also done in AI and PI at 6 h post-feeding. Dietary VO promoted higher alkaline phosphatase activity at 2 h post-feeding in the AI and at all sampling points in the PI. Total alkaline protease activity was higher at 6 h post-feeding in the PI of fish fed the FO diet. Identical number of bands was observed in zymograms of alkaline proteases of fish fed both diets. No alterations in the histomorphology of PC, AI, PI or DI were noticed in fish fed the VO diets, while in the liver a tendency towards increased hepatocyte vacuolization due to lipid accumulation was observed. Overall, and with the exception of a higher intestine alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% FO replacement by a VO blend in diets for European sea bass resulted in no distinctive alterations on the postprandial pattern of digestive enzyme activities and intestine histomorphology. PMID:26364216

  8. Dietary fish and evening primrose oil with vitamin E effects on semen variables in cockerels.

    PubMed

    Cerolini, S; Surai, P F; Speake, B K; Sparks, N H C

    2005-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the effect of n-3 (2%, wt/wt, fish oil rich diet) and n-6 (2%, wt/wt, evening primrose oil rich diet) fatty acid dietary supplementation and their combination with two concentrations of vitamin E (40 vs 200 mg/kg) on semen variables and on fatty acid and vitamin E profiles of spermatozoa in broiler breeders at 32, 42 and 52 weeks of age. The inclusion of fish oil in the cockerel diets increased the docosahexaenoic acid proportion in the sperm phospholipid fraction, which was almost threefold higher compared to the other two groups irrespective of vitamin E supplementation. In contrast, an increase in the proportion of total n-6 polyunsaturates, mainly 22:4n-6, was observed in the evening primrose oil group compared to the control only when the dietary content of vitamin E was increased to 200 mg/kg. Sperm concentration was decreased in the fish and evening primrose oil groups if vitamin E was 40 mg/kg, but such an effect was prevented in the fish, not the evening primrose oil group, by increasing the vitamin E to 200 mg. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was improved by the increased supplementation of vitamin E in all oil treatments. PMID:15957443

  9. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  10. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  11. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.I.; Al-Asgah, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  12. Healthy fish consumption and reduced mercury exposure

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Vanderlinden, Loren D.; Scott, Fran; Archbold, Josephine A.; Brown, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a practical, evidence-based approach to counseling women about healthy fish eating. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched for articles published between 1999 and 2008. Most studies described in this article provide level II or III evidence. Main message Fish is an important component of a healthy diet for women in their reproductive years owing to the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the neurologic development of the fetus. However, some fish species contain considerable methylmercury, which crosses the placenta and has harmful effects on neurobehavioural development. As many jurisdictions have issued fish consumption advisories, which can be confusing, women would benefit from individualized assistance from a trusted source, their family physicians, to clarify the risks and benefits of eating fish. Conclusion We recommend that family physicians counsel women in their reproductive years about healthy choices regarding fish in their diet, and provide appropriate resources. PMID:21322285

  13. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, and organic matter of two fish meals, two poultry by-product meals, soybean meal, and distiller's grains with solubles in practical diets for sunshine bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available on the digestibility of nutrients in various practical ingredients used in diets for commercially-important finfish species. This information is especially needed for sunshine bass, Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis, to improve least-cost diet formulations and to allow ...

  14. Biogeographic provinces of total and methyl mercury in zooplankton and fish from the Beaufort and Chukchi seas: results from the SHEBA drift.

    PubMed

    Stern, G A; MacDonald, R W

    2005-07-01

    Samples of copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) and arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) were collected along the SHEBA (Surface HEat Budget of the Arctic) drift track, which commenced in the Canada Basin (October 1997) and finished in the Mendeleev Basin (October 1998). Here, we report total mercury (HgT) and CH3Hg concentrations in these biological samples and examine concentration variability along the drift track in the context of trophic variation, inputs from land, spring mercury depletion events (MDEs), and oceanographic provinces. We find background concentrations of HgT in C. hyperboreus as low as 0.02 microg/g (dw), with the Canada Basin samples exhibiting approximately 2-fold higher mercury concentrations than those from the Chukchi Plateau and Mendeleev Abyssal Plain. This east-to-west trend in mercury concentration is punctuated by two and possibly three intervals of elevated mercury (HgT, 0.10-0.12 microg/g (dw); CH3Hg, 0.023-0.028 microg/g (dw)) along the drift track. One interval of elevated HgT and CH3-Hg levels occurred during and shortly after melt. %CH3Hg reached a maximum of 60% during this time period, three times higher than any other time during the drift. This transient rise in C. hyperboreus CH3Hg concentration seems to strongly point to mercury accumulated in snow during MDEs. However, the alignment of elevated mercury samples with oceanographic fronts and the observed regional differences between basins suggest that variation of mercury concentration is primarily a consequence of ocean structure. Given that large animals such as whales selectively forage in regions of higher food concentration such as fronts, recent change in the ice climate of the western Arctic Ocean, perhaps mediated by changes in heat storage, may provide the means to change their exposure to mercury thus explaining observed increases in mercury concentrations in western beluga whales during the 1990s. PMID:16053067

  15. Assessment of dietary exposure to annatto (E160b), nitrites (E249-250), sulphites (E220-228) and tartaric acid (E334) in the French population: the second French total diet study.

    PubMed

    Bemrah, N; Vin, K; Sirot, V; Aguilar, F; Ladrat, A-C; Ducasse, C; Gey, J-L; Rétho, C; Nougadere, A; Leblanc, J-C

    2012-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the dietary exposure to annatto, nitrites, tartaric acid and sulphites within the framework of the second French total diet study (TDS) are reported. These 4 additives were selected from the Bemrah et al. study [Bemrah N, Leblanc JC, Volatier JL. 2008. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners. Food Addit Contam B. 1(1):2-14] on 13 food additives which identified a possible health risk for annatto, sulphites and nitrites and a lack of data for tartaric acid. Among the composite samples selected for the whole TDS, 524 were analysed for additives (a sample was analysed for a given additive when it was identified as a major contributor for this additive only): 130 for tartaric acid, 135 for nitrites, 59 for annatto and 200 for sulphites. Estimated concentrations (minimum lower bound to maximum upper bound) vary nationally from 0 to 9 mg/kg for annatto, 0 to 420 mg/kg for tartaric acid, 0 to 108 mg/kg for sulphites and 0 to 3.4 mg/kg for nitrites. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure was calculated for adults and children, separately, using lower bound and upper bound assumptions. The European ADIs for these 4 additives were not exceeded except for the dietary exposure for sulphites among 2.9% of the adult population, where the major contributors were alcoholic drinks and especially wine under both hypotheses (lower and upper bound). PMID:22380884

  16. Indicators for the evaluation of diet quality.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ángel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio; Olza, Josune

    2015-01-01

    The role of diet quality and physical activity in reducing the progression of chronic disease is becoming increasingly important. Dietary Quality Indices or Indicators (DQIs) are algorithms aiming to evaluate the overall diet and categorize individuals according to the extent to which their eating behaviour is "healthy". Predefined indexes assess dietary patterns based on current nutrition knowledge and they have been developed primarily for nutritional epidemiology to assess dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There are many different types of DQIs. There are three major categories of DQIs: a) nutrient-based indicators; b) food/food group based indicators; and c) combination indexes, the vast majority of DQIs, which often include a measure of diet variety within and across food groups, a measure of adequacy i.e. nutrients (compared to requirements) or food groups (quantities or servings), a measure of nutrients/foods to consume in moderation, and an overall balance of macronutrients. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Diet Quality Index (DQI), the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) are the four 'original' diet quality scores that have been referred to and validated most extensively. Several indexes have been adapted and modified from those originals. In particular, many variations on the MDS have been proposed, included different alternate MDS and Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS). Primary data source of DQI's are individual dietary data collection tools, namely 24 h quantitative intake recalls, dietary records and food frequency questionnaires. Nutrients found in many scores are total fat, saturated fatty acids or the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids or the latter SFA to polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cholesterol, protein content and quality, complex carbohydrates, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fibre and sodium are also found in various scores. All DQIs, except those that

  17. Use of pet food-grade poultry by-product meal as an alternate protein source in weanling pig diets.

    PubMed

    Zier, C E; Jones, R D; Azain, M J

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate pet food-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a replacement protein source for fish meal (FM), blood meal (BM), and spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) in weanling pig diets. In the first study, 200 crossbred pigs (initial BW = 6.5 kg) were weaned (21 d) and randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments, which included a control and three test diets where PBM was substituted for FM, blood products, or both. Experimental diets were fed during Phase I (d 0 to 5 postweaning) and Phase II (d 5 to 19), and a common Phase III diet was fed from d 19 to 26. Overall (d 0 to 26), there was no difference in performance of pigs fed PBM in place of the other ingredients. However, during Phase I, BW (P < 0.05), ADG (P < 0.02), and intake (P < 0.001) in pigs fed diets containing SDPP were greater than those fed diets with PBM. In Exp. 2, the performance of pigs (n = 100, initial BW = 6.5 kg) fed diets containing 20% PBM (as-fed basis, replacing SDPP, BM, FM, and a portion of the soybean meal) in all phases of the nursery diet was compared with a group fed conventional diets without PBM. There were no differences in overall performance (d 0 to 26); however, ADG (P < 0.10) and feed intake were higher (P < 0.01) for pigs fed the conventional diet than for pigs fed the 20% PBM diet during Phase I (d 0 to 5). Experiment 3 was a slope-ratio assay to determine the ability of PBM to replace SDPP. A total of 320 pigs (initial BW = 7.32 kg) was weaned (21 d) and allotted to five treatment groups in three trials in a blocked design with product (SDPP or PBM) as the first factor, and lysine