Science.gov

Sample records for fisheries stream habitat

  1. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys: Cowlitz River Basin, 1934-1942 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in the Cowlitz River basin, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1938-1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead. The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, [open quotes]to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes[close quotes]. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946. Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin.

  2. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys : Willamette River Basin, 1934-1942, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat-surveys, conducted in the Willamette River basin, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1934-1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead (Rich, 1948). The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, 'to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes'. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946 (Bryant, 1949; Bryant and Parkhurst, 1950; Parkhurst, 1950a-c; Parkhurst et al., 1950). Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin (Fulton, 1968, 1970; Thompson, 1976; NPPC, 1986). Recently, the field notebooks from the BOF surveys were discovered. The data is now archived and stored in the Forest Science DataBank at Oregon State University (Stafford et al., 1984; 1988). These records are the earliest and most comprehensive documentation available of the condition and extent of anadromous fish habitat before hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin. They provide the baseline data for quantifying changes and setting a benchmark for future restoration of anadromous fish habitat throughout the Basin. The summaries contained in this book are exact replicates of the originals. Due to discrepancies between the field data and the summaries, the database should be used to assess pool and substrate conditions. This data is available from the Bonneville Power

  3. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys : Yakima River Basin, 1934-1942, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in the Yakima River basin, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1934-1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead (Rich, 1948). The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, 'to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes'. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946 (Bryant, 1949; Bryant and Parkhurst, 1950; Parkhurst, 1950a-c; Parkhurst et al., 1950). Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin (Fulton, 1968, 1970; Thompson, 1976; NPPC, 1986). Recently, the field notebooks from the BOF surveys were discovered. The data is now archived and stored in the Forest Science DataBank at Oregon State University (Stafford et al., 1984; 1988). These records are the earliest and most comprehensive documentation available of the condition and extent of anadromous fish habitat before hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin. They provide the baseline data for quantifying changes and setting a benchmark for future restoration of anadromous fish habitat throughout the Basin. The summaries in this book are exact replicates of the originals. Due to discrepancies between the field data and the summaries, the database should be used to assess pool and substrate conditions. This data is available from the Bonneville Power Administration. The Bureau

  4. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys : Umatilla, Tucannon, Asotin, and Grande Ronde River Basins, 1934-1942, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in the Umatilla and Grande Ronde River basins, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1938-1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead (Rich, 1948). The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, 'to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes'. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946 (Bryant, 1949; Bryant and Parkhurst, 1950; Parkhurst, 1950a-c; Parkhurst et al 1950). Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin (Fulton, 1968, 1970; Thompson, 1976; NPPC, 1986). Recently, the field notebooks from the BOF surveys were discovered. The data is now archived and stored in the Forest Science DataBank at Oregon State University (Stafford et al., 1984; 1988). These records are the earliest and most comprehensive documentation available of the condition and extent of anadromous fish habitat before hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin. They provide the baseline data for quantifying changes and setting a benchmark for future restoration of anadromous fish habitat throughout the Basin. The summaries contained in this book are exact replicates of the originals. Due to discrepancies between the field data and the summaries, the database should be used to assess pool and substrate conditions. This data is available from the Bonneville Power

  5. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys : Clearwater, Salmon, Weiser, and Payette River Basins, 1934-1942, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in Idaho, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1938-1942.. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead (Rich, 1948). The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, 'to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes'. The Idaho portion of the survey consisted of extensive surveys of the Clearwater, Salmon, Weiser, and Payette River Subbasins. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946 (Bryant, 1949; Bryant and Parkhurst, 1950; Parkhurst, 1950a-c; Parkhurst et al., 1950). Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin (Fulton, 1968, 1970; Thompson, 1976; NPPC, 1986). Recently, the field notebooks from the BOF surveys were discovered. The data is now archived and stored in the Forest Science DataBank at Oregon State University (Stafford et al., 1984; 1988). These records are the earliest and most comprehensive documentation available of the condition and extent of anadromous fish habitat before hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin. They provide the baseline data for quantifying changes and setting a benchmark for future restoration of anadromous fish habitat throughout the Basin. The summaries contained in this book are exact replicates of the originals. Due to discrepancies between the field data and the summaries, the database should be

  6. Contributions of Estuarine Habitats to Major Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries provide unique habitat conditions that are essential to the production of major fisheries throughout the world, but quantitatively demonstrating the value of these habitats to fisheries presents some difficult problems. The questions are important, because critical hab...

  7. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume III, Fish and Habitat Inventory of Tributary Streams, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leathe, Stephen A.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of the fisheries of the Swan River drainage in relation to potential small hydro development. This information was collected in order to obtain a reliable basin-wide database which was used to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of a number of proposed small hydro developments on the fisheries of the drainage. For each named tributary stream there is a reach-by-reach narrative summary of general habitat characteristics, outstanding features of the stream, and fish populations and spawning use. An attempt was made to rank many of the measured parameters relative to other surveyed stream reaches in the drainage. 3 refs.

  8. Connecting fishery sustainability to estuarine habitats and nutrient loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production of several important fishery species depends on critical estuarine habitats, including seagrasses and salt marshes. Relatively simple models can be constructed to relate fishery productivity to the extent and distribution of these habitats by linking fishery-depend...

  9. Dynamic habitat models: using telemetry data to project fisheries bycatch.

    PubMed

    Zydelis, Ramūnas; Lewison, Rebecca L; Shaffer, Scott A; Moore, Jeffrey E; Boustany, Andre M; Roberts, Jason J; Sims, Michelle; Dunn, Daniel C; Best, Benjamin D; Tremblay, Yann; Kappes, Michelle A; Halpin, Patrick N; Costa, Daniel P; Crowder, Larry B

    2011-11-01

    Fisheries bycatch is a recognized threat to marine megafauna. Addressing bycatch of pelagic species however is challenging owing to the dynamic nature of marine environments and vagility of these organisms. In order to assess the potential for species to overlap with fisheries, we propose applying dynamic habitat models to determine relative probabilities of species occurrence for specific oceanographic conditions. We demonstrate this approach by modelling habitats for Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) using telemetry data and relating their occurrence probabilities to observations of Hawaii-based longline fisheries in 1997-2000. We found that modelled habitat preference probabilities of black-footed albatrosses were high within some areas of the fishing range of the Hawaiian fleet and such preferences were important in explaining bycatch occurrence. Conversely, modelled habitats of Laysan albatrosses overlapped little with Hawaii-based longline fisheries and did little to explain the bycatch of this species. Estimated patterns of albatross habitat overlap with the Hawaiian fleet corresponded to bycatch observations: black-footed albatrosses were more frequently caught in this fishery despite being 10 times less abundant than Laysan albatrosses. This case study demonstrates that dynamic habitat models based on telemetry data may help to project interactions with pelagic animals relative to environmental features and that such an approach can serve as a tool to guide conservation and management decisions. PMID:21429921

  10. An interpolation method for stream habitat assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpolation of stream habitat can be very useful for habitat assessment. Using a small number of habitat samples to predict the habitat of larger areas can reduce time and labor costs as long as it provides accurate estimates of habitat. The spatial correlation of stream habitat variables such as substrate and depth improves the accuracy of interpolated data. Several geographical information system interpolation methods (natural neighbor, inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging) were used to predict substrate and depth within a 210.7-m2 section of a second-order stream based on 2.5% and 5.0% sampling of the total area. Depth and substrate were recorded for the entire study site and compared with the interpolated values to determine the accuracy of the predictions. In all instances, the 5% interpolations were more accurate for both depth and substrate than the 2.5% interpolations, which achieved accuracies up to 95% and 92%, respectively. Interpolations of depth based on 2.5% sampling attained accuracies of 49–92%, whereas those based on 5% percent sampling attained accuracies of 57–95%. Natural neighbor interpolation was more accurate than that using the inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging approaches. Our findings demonstrate the effective use of minimal amounts of small-scale data for the interpolation of habitat over large areas of a stream channel. Use of this method will provide time and cost savings in the assessment of large sections of rivers as well as functional maps to aid the habitat-based management of aquatic species.

  11. Physical habitat in the national wadeable streams assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective environmental policy decisions require stream habitat information that is accurate, precise, and relevant. The recent National Wadeable Streams Assessment (NWSA) carried out by the U.S. EPA required physical habitat information sufficiently comprehensive to facilitate i...

  12. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of

  13. Waste streams in a crewed space habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Golub, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    A judicious compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste feed streams in a typical crewed space habitat was made in connection with the waste-management aspect of NASA's Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Program. Waste composition definitions are needed for the design of waste-processing technologies involved in closing major life support functions in future long-duration human space missions. Tables of data for the constituents and chemical formulas of the following waste streams are presented and discussed: human urine, feces, hygiene (laundry and shower) water, cleansing agents, trash, humidity condensate, dried sweat, and trace contaminants. Tables of data on dust generation and pH values of the different waste streams are also presented and discussed.

  14. Perceptions of fish habitat conditions in Oklahoma tailwater fisheries: a survey of fisheries managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.

    2011-01-01

    While the downstream effects of dams on fish habitat have long been recognized, broad-scale assessments of tailwater fish habitat have rarely been conducted. In this paper, I report on the status of tailwater fisheries in Oklahoma as determined through a web-based survey of fisheries biologists with the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation conducted in July 2010. Respondents addressed 38 tailwaters, encompassing all major areas of the state. The majority of fish species comprising these fisheries included blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), followed by white bass (Morone chrysops), channel catfish (I. punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris). Most respondents indicated no or low concerns with fish habitat in tailwaters under their management supervision; only two tailwaters (Tenkiller Ferry and Fort Gibson) had the majority of concerns with fish habitat identified as high to moderately high. Principal components analysis and subsequent correlation analysis showed that tailwaters that scored high for issues related to shoreline erosion, change in water depth, flow fluctuations, and flow timing were associated with dams with large maximum discharge ability. No other factors related to fish habitat condition in tailwaters were found. In Oklahoma, dams with maximum discharge of at least 6,767.5 m3 sec–1 were more likely to have flow-related fish habitat concerns in the tailwater.

  15. Introduction to stream network habitat analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, John M.; Waddle, Terry J.

    1986-01-01

    Increasing demands on stream resources by a variety of users have resulted in an increased emphasis on studies that evaluate the cumulative effects of basinwide water management programs. Network habitat analysis refers to the evaluation of an entire river basin (or network) by predicting its habitat response to alternative management regimes. The analysis principally focuses on the biological and hydrological components of the riv er basin, which include both micro- and macrohabitat. (The terms micro- and macrohabitat are further defined and discussed later in this document.) Both conceptual and analytic models are frequently used for simplifying and integrating the various components of the basin. The model predictions can be used in developing management recommendations to preserve, restore, or enhance instream fish habitat. A network habitat analysis should begin with a clear and concise statement of the study objectives and a thorough understanding of the institutional setting in which the study results will be applied. This includes the legal, social, and political considerations inherent in any water management setting. The institutional environment may dictate the focus and level of detail required of the study to a far greater extent than the technical considerations. After the study objectives, including species on interest, and institutional setting are collectively defined, the technical aspects should be scoped to determine the spatial and temporal requirements of the analysis. A macro level approach should be taken first to identify critical biological elements and requirements. Next, habitat availability is quantified much as in a "standard" river segment analysis, with the likely incorporation of some macrohabitat components, such as stream temperature. Individual river segments may be aggregated to represent the networkwide habitat response of alternative water management schemes. Things learned about problems caused or opportunities generated may

  16. Urbanization effects on stream habitat characteristics in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, T.M.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Relations between stream habitat and urban land-use intensity were examined in 90 stream reaches located in or near the metropolitan areas of Salt Lake City, Utah (SLC); Birmingham, Alabama (BIR); and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urban intensity was based on a multi-metric index (urban intensity index or UII) that included measures of land cover, socioeconomic organization, and urban infrastructure. Twenty-eight physical variables describing channel morphology, hydraulic properties, and streambed conditions were examined. None of the habitat variables was significantly correlated with urbanization intensity in all three study areas. Urbanization effects on stream habitat were less apparent for streams in SLC and BIR, owing to the strong influence of basin slope (SLC) and drought conditions (BIR) on local flow regimes. Streamflow in the BOS study area was not unduly influenced by similar conditions of climate and physiography, and habitat conditions in these streams were more responsive to urbanization. Urbanization in BOS contributed to higher discharge, channel deepening, and increased loading of fine-grained particles to stream channels. The modifying influence of basin slope and climate on hydrology of streams in SLC and BIR limited our ability to effectively compare habitat responses among different urban settings and identify common responses that might be of interest to restoration or water management programs. Successful application of land-use models such as the UII to compare urbanization effects on stream habitat in different environmental settings must account for inherent differences in natural and anthropogenic factors affecting stream hydrology and geomorphology. The challenge to future management of urban development is to further quantify these differences by building upon existing models, and ultimately develop a broader understanding of urbanization effects on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  17. Small mammal habitat use within restored riparian habitats adjacent to channelized streams in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian zones of channelized agricultural streams in northwestern Mississippi typically consist of narrow vegetative corridors low in habitat diversity and lacking riparian wetlands. Land clearing practices and stream channelization has led to the development of gully erosion and further fragmenta...

  18. Habitat-based polymorphism is common in stream fishes.

    PubMed

    Senay, Caroline; Boisclair, Daniel; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2015-01-01

    Morphological differences (size and shape) across habitats are common in lake fish where differences relate to two dominant contrasting habitats: the pelagic and littoral habitat. Repeated occurrence of littoral and pelagic morphs across multiple populations of several lake fish species has been considered as important evidence that polymorphism is adaptive in these systems. It has been suggested that these habitat-based polymorphic differences are due to the temporal stability of the differences between littoral and pelagic habitats. Although streams are spatially heterogeneous, they are also more temporally dynamic than lakes and it is still an open question whether streams provide the environmental conditions that promote habitat-based polymorphism. We tested whether fish from riffle, run and pool habitats, respectively, differed consistently in their morphology. Our test compared patterns of morphological variation (size and shape) in 10 fish species from the three stream habitat types in 36 separate streams distributed across three watersheds. For most species, body size and shape (after controlling for body size) differed across riffle, run and pool habitats. Unlike many lake species, the nature of these differences was not consistent across species, possibly because these species use these habitat types in different ways. Our results suggest that habitat-based polymorphism is an important feature also in stream fishes despite the fact that streams are temporally variable in contrast to lake systems. Future research is required to assess whether the patterns of habitat-based polymorphism encountered in streams have a genetic basis or they are simply the result of within generation phenotypic plasticity. PMID:25041645

  19. Measurement of stream channel habitat using sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flug, M.; Seitz, H.; Scott, J.

    1998-01-01

    An efficient and low cost technique using a sonar system was evaluated for describing channel geometry and quantifying inundated area in a large river. The boat-mounted portable sonar equipment was used to record water depths and river width measurements for direct storage on a laptop computer. The field data collected from repeated traverses at a cross-section were evaluated to determine the precision of the system and field technique. Results from validation at two different sites showed average sample standard deviations (S.D.s) of 0.12 m for these complete cross-sections, with coefficient of variations of 10%. Validation using only the mid-channel river cross-section data yields an average sample S.D. of 0.05 m, with a coefficient of variation below 5%, at a stable and gauged river site using only measurements of water depths greater than 0.6 m. Accuracy of the sonar system was evaluated by comparison to traditionally surveyed transect data from a regularly gauged site. We observed an average mean squared deviation of 46.0 cm2, considering only that portion of the cross-section inundated by more than 0.6 m of water. Our procedure proved to be a reliable, accurate, safe, quick, and economic method to record river depths, discharges, bed conditions, and substratum composition necessary for stream habitat studies. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. STREAM FISH HABITAT SUITABILITY AND THE RISK OF POPULATION DECLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  1. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation in Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward-Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Skillingstad, Tami; Scholz, Allan T.

    1993-10-01

    In 1987 the Northwest Power Planning Council amended the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, directing the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund, ``a baseline stream survey of tributaries located on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation to compile information on improving spawning habitat, rearing habitat, and access to spawning tributaries for bull trout, cutthroat trout, and to evaluate the existing fish stocks. ff justified by the results of the survey, fund the design, construction and operation of a cutthroat and bull trout hatchery on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation; necessary habitat improvement projects; and a three year monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. If the baseline survey indicates a better alternative than construction of a fish hatchery, the Coeur d`Alene Tribe will submit an alternative plan for consideration in program amendment proceeding.`` This report contains the results of the third year of the study and the Coeur d`Alene Indian Tribes` preliminary recommendations for enhancing the cutthroat and bull trout fishery on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation. These recommendations are based on study results from year three data and information obtained in the first two years of the study.

  2. Influence of riparian habitat on aquatic macroinvertebrate community colonization within riparian zones of agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about aquatic macroinvertebrate colonization of aquatic habitats within riparian zones of headwater streams in the Midwestern United States. Many headwater streams and their riparian habitats in this region have been modified for agricultural drainage. Riparian habitat modifications ...

  3. MWSA's physical habitat approach - combining knowledge of habitat requirements with mechanisms of geomorphic and anthropogenic influence on stream channel form

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective environmental policy decisions benefit from stream habitat information that is accurate, precise, and relevant. The recent National Wadeable Streams Assessment (NWSA) carried out by the U.S. EPA required physical habitat information sufficiently comprehensive to facilit...

  4. Relationships of field habitat measurements, visual habitat indices, and land cover to benthic macroinvertebrates in urbanized streams of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, S.V.; Carter, J.L.; Kearns, F.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated several approaches for measuring natural and anthropogenic habitat characteristics to predict benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages over a range of urban intensity at 85 stream sites in the Santa Clara Valley, California. Land cover was summarized as percentage urban land cover and impervious area within upstream buffers and the upstream subwatersheds. Field measurements characterized water chemistry, channel slope, sediment, and riparian canopy. In . addition to applying the visual-based habitat assessment in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's rapid bioassessment protocol, we developed a simplified urban habitat assessment index based on turbidity, fine sediment deposition, riparian condition, and channel modification. Natural and anthropogenic habitat variables covaried along longitudinal stream gradients and were highly correlated with elevation. At the scale of the entire watershed, benthic macroinvertebrate measures were equally correlated with variables expressing natural gradients and urbanization effects. When natural gradients were reduced by partitioning sites into ecoregion subsection groupings, habitat variables most highly correlated with macroinvertebrate measures differed between upland and valley floor site groups. Among the valley floor sites, channel slope and physical modification of channel and riparian habitats appeared more important than upstream land cover or water quality in determining macroinvertebrate richness and ordination scores. Among upland sites, effects of upstream reservoir releases on habitat quality appeared important. Rapid habitat evaluation methods appeared to be an effective method for describing habitat features important to benthic macroinvertebrates when adapted for the region and the disturbance of interest. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  5. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : Annual Report [1991].

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward-Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Johnson, D. Chad; Scholz, Allan T.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct physical and biological surveys of streams located on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Surveys were designed to collect information on improving spawning habitat, rearing habitat, and access to spawning tributaries for bull trout and cutthroat trout and to evaluate the existing fish stocks. The objectives of the second year of the study were to: (1) Develop a stream ranking system to select the five streams of primary fisheries potential; (2) Conduct physical field surveys; (3) Determine population dynamics; (4) Determine growth rates of existing trout species; (5) Determine macroinvertebrate densities and diversities; and (6) Determine baseline angler utilization. The Missouri method of evaluating stream reaches was modified and utilized to rank the ten tributaries (as determined by Graves et al. 1990) associated with reservation lands. The method incorporated such data as stream bank and bed stability, condition of riparian vegetation, land use, degree of urbanization, passage barriers, water quality, flow and temperature regimes, as well as the overall habitat suitability for all life history stages of cutthroat and bull trout. This data was then combined with relative abundance data, growth rates and invertebrate densities to choose five streams, which offer the best potential habitat, for further study. Relative abundance estimates resulted in the capture of 6,138 fish from June, August, and October, 1991. A total of 427 cutthroat trout were collected from all sampled tributaries. Relative abundance of cutthroat trout for all tributaries was 6.7%. Fighting Creek had the highest abundance of cutthroat trout at 93.1%, followed by Evans Creeks at 30.8%, Lake Creek at 12.1%, Hell's Gulch at 11.1%, Alder Creek at 3.3%, Benewah Creek at 2.1% and Plummer/Little Plummer creeks at 5%. Population estimates were conducted in Benewah, Alder, Evans and Lake creeks. Estimates were: 23.5 {+-} 2.3 fish/l,922.6 m2 in Benewah Creek

  6. Stream Crayfish Distribution Patterns and Habitat Associations in northern Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, S. B.; Warren, M. L.

    2005-05-01

    Distribution patterns and habitat associations of crayfishes in Mississippi are largely unexplored. During summers 1999-2003, we sampled crayfishes, fishes and habitat in 119 stream sites in northern Mississippi. We captured over 1,200 crayfish of 9 species from 3 genera. Species co-occurrence analyses and principal components analyses (PCA) of species abundances indicated significant species structuring among crayfish assemblages. We infer from co-occurrence patterns that both competitive interactions and historic processes led to present distributions. Mantel tests and PCA both indicated that crayfish assemblage characteristics are significantly related to stream size, but not to other habitat variables. In contrast to the nearly-universal rule for aquatic taxa that species richness increases with stream size, crayfish richness, abundance, and density were inversely related to stream size. Crayfish densities dropped precipitously when watershed area exceeded about 2,500 hectares. The low richness and abundance of crayfishes in medium and large streams may be due, in part, to the extreme disturbance from channelization and incisement in middle to lower reaches of most of the drainages we studied. Intermittent and very small perennial streams are sometimes regarded as biologically unimportant by land managers, but are primary strongholds of stream crayfishes in northern Mississippi.

  7. Accuracy of stream habitat interpolations across spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Stream habitat data are often collected across spatial scales because relationships among habitat, species occurrence, and management plans are linked at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, scale is often a factor limiting insight gained from spatial analysis of stream habitat data. Considerable cost is often expended to collect data at several spatial scales to provide accurate evaluation of spatial relationships in streams. To address utility of single scale set of stream habitat data used at varying scales, we examined the influence that data scaling had on accuracy of natural neighbor predictions of depth, flow, and benthic substrate. To achieve this goal, we measured two streams at gridded resolution of 0.33 × 0.33 meter cell size over a combined area of 934 m2 to create a baseline for natural neighbor interpolated maps at 12 incremental scales ranging from a raster cell size of 0.11 m2 to 16 m2 . Analysis of predictive maps showed a logarithmic linear decay pattern in RMSE values in interpolation accuracy for variables as resolution of data used to interpolate study areas became coarser. Proportional accuracy of interpolated models (r2 ) decreased, but it was maintained up to 78% as interpolation scale moved from 0.11 m2 to 16 m2 . Results indicated that accuracy retention was suitable for assessment and management purposes at various scales different from the data collection scale. Our study is relevant to spatial modeling, fish habitat assessment, and stream habitat management because it highlights the potential of using a single dataset to fulfill analysis needs rather than investing considerable cost to develop several scaled datasets.

  8. DIATOM SPECIES RICHNESS IN STREAMS OF THE EASTERN US: STREAM SIZE AND HABITAT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed the relationship between benthic diatom assemblages, stream size, and habitat characteristics in 445 first through seventh order streams in the Mid-Atlantic (n=230), South Atlantic (n=61), Ohio (n=140), and Tennessee (n=14) hydrologic regions. Diatom samples were col...

  9. Secure & Restore Critical Fisheries Habitat, Flathead Subbasin, FY2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DuCharme, Lynn; Tohtz, Joel

    2008-11-12

    moderating water temperatures, stabilizing banks and protecting the integrity of channel dimension, improving woody debris recruitment for in-channel habitat features, producing terrestrial insects and leaf litter for recruitment to the stream, and helping to accommodate and attenuate flood flows. The purpose of this project is to work with willing landowners to protect the best remaining habitats in the Flathead subbasin as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan. The target areas for land protection activities follow the priorities established in the Flathead subbasin plan and include: (1) Class 1 waters as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan; (2) Class 2 watersheds as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan; and (3) 'Offsite mitigation' defined as those Class 1 and Class 2 watersheds that lack connectivity to the mainstem Flathead River or Flathead Lake. This program focuses on conserving the highest quality or most important riparian or fisheries habitat areas consistent with program criteria. The success of our efforts is subject to a property's actual availability and individual landowner negotiations. The program is guided using biological and project-based criteria that reflect not only the priority needs established in the Flathead subbasin plan, but also such factors as cost, credits, threats, and partners. The implementation of this project requires both an expense and a capital budget to allow work to be completed. This report addresses accomplishments under both budgets during FY08 as the two budgets are interrelated. The expense budget provided pre-acquisition funding to conduct activities such as surveys, appraisals, staff support, etc. The capital budget was used to purchase the interest in each parcel including closing costs. Both the pre-acquisition contract funds and the capital funds used to purchase fee title or conservation easements were spent in accordance with the terms negotiated within the FY08 through FY09 MOA between the

  10. Physical Stream Habitat Dynamics in Lower Bear Creek, Northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the roles of geomorphic and hydrologic dynamics in determining physical stream habitat in Bear Creek, a stream with a 239 km2 drainage basin in the Ozark Plateaus (Ozarks) in northern Arkansas. During a relatively wet 12-month monitoring period, the geomorphology of Bear Creek was altered by a series of floods, including at least four floods with peak discharges exceeding a 1-year recurrence interval and another flood with an estimated 2- to 4-year recurrence interval. These floods resulted in a net erosion of sediment from the study reach at Crane Bottom at rates far in excess of other sites previously studied in the Ozarks. The riffle-pool framework of the study reach at Crane Bottom was not substantially altered by these floods, but volumes of habitat in riffles and pools changed. The 2- to 4-year flood scoured gravel from pools and deposited it in riffles, increasing the diversity of available stream habitat. In contract, the smaller floods eroded gravel from the riffles and deposited it in pools, possibly flushing fine sediment from the substrate but also decreasing habitat diversity. Channel geometry measured at the beginning of the study was use to develop a two-dimensional, finite-element hydraulic model at assess how habitat varies with hydrologic dynamics. Distributions of depth and velocity simulated over the range of discharges observed during the study (0.1 to 556 cubic meters per second, cms) were classified into habitat units based on limiting depths and Froude number criteria. The results indicate that the areas of habitats are especially sensitive to change to low to medium flows. Races (areas of swift, relatively deep water downstream from riffles) disappear completely at the lowest flows, and riffles (areas of swift, relatively shallow water) contract substantially in area. Pools also contract in area during low flow, but deep scours associated with bedrock outcrops sustain some pool area even at the lowest modeled flows. Modeled

  11. Use of a seagrass residency index to apportion commercial fishery landing values and recreation fisheries expenditure to seagrass habitat service.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Emma L; Rees, Siân E; Wilding, Catherine; Attrill, Martin J

    2015-06-01

    Where they dominate coastlines, seagrass beds are thought to have a fundamental role in maintaining populations of exploited species. Thus, Mediterranean seagrass beds are afforded protection, yet no attempt to determine the contribution of these areas to both commercial fisheries landings and recreational fisheries expenditure has been made. There is evidence that seagrass extent continues to decline, but there is little understanding of the potential impacts of this decline. We used a seagrass residency index, that was trait and evidence based, to estimate the proportion of Mediterranean commercial fishery landings values and recreation fisheries total expenditure that can be attributed to seagrass during different life stages. The index was calculated as a weighted sum of the averages of the estimated residence time in seagrass (compared with other habitats) at each life stage of the fishery species found in seagrass. Seagrass-associated species were estimated to contribute 30%-40% to the value of commercial fisheries landings and approximately 29% to recreational fisheries expenditure. These species predominantly rely on seagrass to survive juvenile stages. Seagrass beds had an estimated direct annual contribution during residency of €58-91 million (4% of commercial landing values) and €112 million (6% of recreation expenditure) to commercial and recreational fisheries, respectively, despite covering <2% of the area. These results suggest there is a clear cost of seagrass degradation associated with ineffective management of seagrass beds and that policy to manage both fisheries and seagrass beds should take into account the socioeconomic implications of seagrass loss to recreational and commercial fisheries. PMID:25581593

  12. Fishery Resources and Threatened Coastal Habitats in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have explored relationships between selected fishery species of the northern Gulf of Mexico and important features of their habitats. The principal goal of our research is to predict the cumulative effects of habitat alterations on coastal resources and ecosystems. Pink shrimp...

  13. Effects of habitat availability on dispersion of a stream cyprinid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Grossman, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed temporal changes in the dispersion of the rosyside dace,Clinostomus funduloides, (family Cyprinidae) in a headwater stream, to assess the role of habitat availability in promoting fish aggregation. The dace foraged alone and in groups of up to about 25 individuals, and dispersion varied significantly among monthly censuses conducted from May through December. In two of three study pools, dace aggregated during July, October and/or December, but spread out during other months, especially during September when dispersion did not differ significantly from random. Dispersion was not significantly correlated with the total amount of suitable habitat available to foraging dace, but during summer, corresponded to the availability of depositional areas adjacent to rapid currents. Foragers aggregated in eddies or depositional areas during high stream discharge in July, and shifted out of depositional areas when current velocities declined from July to September. During late autumn, however, aggregations formed independently of changes in habitat conditions, and dace dispersion did not vary significantly among months in a third pool. The study suggests that dace dispersion cannot be predicted from the overall availability of suitable habitat as estimated from point measurements of depth and velocity; both the occurrence of a specific habitat feature (i.e., eddies adjacent to high velocity currents) and seasonal differences in behavior more strongly influenced the spatial distribution of foragers.

  14. Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2008-12-02

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety

  15. Effects of stream acidification and habitat on fish populations of a North American river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2001-01-01

    Water quality, physical habitat, and fisheries at sixteen reaches in the Neversink River Basin were studied during 1991-95 to identify the effects of acidic precipitation on stream-water chemistry and on selected fish-species populations, and to test the hypothesis that the degree of stream acidification affected the spatial distribution of each fish-species population. Most sites on the East Branch Neversink were strongly to severely acidified, whereas most sites on the West Branch were minimally to moderately acidified. Mean density of fish populations ranged from 0 to 2.15 fish/m2; biomass ranged from 0 to 17.5 g/m2. Where brook trout were present, their population density ranged from 0.04 to 1.09 fish/m2, biomass ranged from 0.76 to 12.2 g/m2, and condition (K) ranged from 0.94 to 1.07. Regression analyses revealed strong relations (r2 ?? 0.41 to 0.99; p ??? 0.05) between characteristics of the two most common species (brook trout and slimy sculpin) populations and mean concentrations of inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim), pH, Si, K+, NO3/-, NH4/+, DOC, Ca2+, and Na+; acid neutralizing capacity (ANC); and water temperature. Stream acidification may have adversely affected fish populations at most East Branch sites, but in other parts of the Neversink River Basin these effects were masked or mitigated by other physical habitat, geochemical, and biological factors.

  16. Habitat selection and overlap of Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass juveniles in nursery streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wathen, G.; Coghlan, S.M., Jr.; Zydlewski, J.; Trial, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have invaded much of the historic freshwater habitat ofAtlantic salmon Salmo salar in North America, yet little is known about the ecological interactions between the two species.We investigated the possibility of competition for habitat between age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 and age-1 smallmouth bass by means of in situ observations and a mesocosm experiment.We used snorkel observation to identify the degree and timing of overlap in habitat use in our in situ observations and to describe habitat shifts by Atlantic salmon in the presence of smallmouth bass in our mesocosm experiments. In late July 2008, we observed substantial overlap in the depths and mean water column velocities used by both species in sympatric in situ conditions and an apparent shift by age-0 Atlantic salmon to shallower water that coincided with the period of high overlap. In the mesocosm experiments, we detected no overlap or habitat shifts by age-0 Atlantic salmon in the presence age-1 smallmouth bass and low overlap and no habitat shifts of Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in fall 2009. In 2009, summer floods with sustained high flows and low temperatures resulted in the nearly complete reproductive failure of the smallmouth bass in our study streams, and we did not observe a midsummer habitat shift by Atlantic salmon similar to that seen in 2008. Although this prevented us from replicating our 2008 experiments under similar conditions, the virtual year-class failure of smallmouth bass itself is enlightening. We suggest that future studies incorporate the effects of varying temperature and discharge to determine how abiotic factors affect the interactions between these species and thus mediate the outcomes of potential competition. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  17. Similarities in fish-habitat relationships within channelized agricultural headwater streams in Ohio and Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channelized agricultural headwater streams are common throughout agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Understanding the fish-habitat relationships within these streams will provide information that can assist with developing restoration strategies for these degraded streams. We...

  18. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : 1993, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward-Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo; Peters, Ronald L.

    1996-09-01

    Bull trout and cutthroat trout are two salmonid species native to the Lake Coeur d`Alene drainage. Historically these species were a critical component of the Coeur d`Alene Tribe`s annual subsistence requirements. Since 1932, the cutthroat trout population has declined significantly in the Coeur d`Alene system. The present ecosystem bears little resemblance to habitat composition, diversity and structure of the historic ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to conduct baseline stream and biological surveys of four drainages located within the Coeur d`alene Reservation and make recommendations on ways to increase the westslope cutthroat and bull trout populations on the Reservation. Data indicated that habitat degradation, specifically, water quantity and lack of habitat complexity, was limiting westslope cutthroat and bull trout populations on the Reservation. Population data indicated that cutthroat trout populations were low when compared to other similar drainages. Surveys revealed a conspicuous absence of bull trout. Recommendations included: conducting extensive habitat restoration in the study drainages; developing alternate harvest opportunities to reduce pressure on wild stocks; purchasing critical watershed areas for fisheries habitat protection; constructing and operating a trout production facility; and, implementing a five-year monitoring program to evaluate the program effectiveness.

  19. The relative influence of nutrients and habitat on stream metabolism in agricultural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankforter, J.D.; Weyers, H.S.; Bales, J.D.; Moran, P.W.; Calhoun, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Stream metabolism was measured in 33 streams across a gradient of nutrient concentrations in four agricultural areas of the USA to determine the relative influence of nutrient concentrations and habitat on primary production (GPP) and respiration (CR-24). In conjunction with the stream metabolism estimates, water quality and algal biomass samples were collected, as was an assessment of habitat in the sampling reach. When data for all study areas were combined, there were no statistically significant relations between gross primary production or community respiration and any of the independent variables. However, significant regression models were developed for three study areas for GPP (r 2 = 0.79-0.91) and CR-24 (r 2 = 0.76-0.77). Various forms of nutrients (total phosphorus and area-weighted total nitrogen loading) were significant for predicting GPP in two study areas, with habitat variables important in seven significant models. Important physical variables included light availability, precipitation, basin area, and in-stream habitat cover. Both benthic and seston chlorophyll were not found to be important explanatory variables in any of the models; however, benthic ash-free dry weight was important in two models for GPP. ?? 2009 The Author(s).

  20. The Pelagics Habitat Analysis Module (PHAM): Decision Support Tools for Pelagic Fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Harrison, D. P.; Kiefer, D.; O'Brien, F.; Hinton, M.; Kohin, S.; Snyder, S.

    2009-12-01

    PHAM is a project funded by NASA to integrate satellite imagery and circulation models into the management of commercial and threatened pelagic species. Specifically, the project merges data from fishery surveys, and fisheries catch and effort data with satellite imagery and circulation models to define the habitat of each species. This new information on habitat will then be used to inform population distribution and models of population dynamics that are used for management. During the first year of the project, we created two prototype modules. One module, which was developed for the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, is designed to help improve information available to manage the tuna fisheries of the eastern Pacific Ocean. The other module, which was developed for the Coastal Pelagics Division of the Southwest Fishery Science Center, assists management of by-catch of mako, blue, and thresher sharks along the Californian coast. Both modules were built with the EASy marine geographic information system, which provides a 4 dimensional (latitude, longitude, depth, and time) home for integration of the data. The projects currently provide tools for automated downloading and geo-referencing of satellite imagery of sea surface temperature, height, and chlorophyll concentrations; output from JPL’s ECCO2 global circulation model and its ROM California current model; and gridded data from fisheries and fishery surveys. It also provides statistical tools for defining species habitat from these and other types of environmental data. These tools include unbalanced ANOVA, EOF analysis of satellite imagery, and multivariate search routines for fitting fishery data to transforms of the environmental data. Output from the projects consists of dynamic maps of the distribution of the species that are driven by the time series of satellite imagery and output from the circulation models. It also includes relationships between environmental variables and recruitment. During

  1. Estimating Fish Exploitation and Aquatic Habitat Loss across Diffuse Inland Recreational Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    de Kerckhove, Derrick Tupper; Minns, Charles Kenneth; Chu, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The current state of many freshwater fish stocks worldwide is largely unknown but suspected to be vulnerable to exploitation from recreational fisheries and habitat degradation. Both these factors, combined with complex ecological dynamics and the diffuse nature of inland fisheries could lead to an invisible collapse: the drastic decline in fish stocks without great public or management awareness. In this study we provide a method to address the pervasive knowledge gaps in regional rates of exploitation and habitat degradation, and demonstrate its use in one of North America’s largest and most diffuse recreational freshwater fisheries (Ontario, Canada). We estimated that 1) fish stocks were highly exploited and in apparent danger of collapse in management zones close to large population centres, and 2) fish habitat was under a low but constant threat of degradation at rates comparable to deforestation in Ontario and throughout Canada. These findings confirm some commonly held, but difficult to quantify, beliefs in inland fisheries management but also provide some further insights including 1) large anthropogenic projects greater than one hectare could contribute much more to fish habitat loss on an area basis than the cumulative effect of smaller projects within one year, 2) hooking mortality from catch-and-release fisheries is likely a greater source of mortality than the harvest itself, and 3) in most northern management zones over 50% of the fisheries resources are not yet accessible to anglers. While this model primarily provides a framework to prioritize management decisions and further targeted stock assessments, we note that our regional estimates of fisheries productivity and exploitation were similar to broadscale monitoring efforts by the Province of Ontario. We discuss the policy implications from our results and extending the model to other jurisdictions and countries. PMID:25875790

  2. Effects of urbanization on physical habitat for trout in streams

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.J.; Wells, J.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1983-10-01

    Non-urban were more favorable than urban stream sections as habitat for trout and held more trout. The major habitat difference was amount of instream solid overhead hiding cover. Urban land modifications had created unnaturally straight, narrow channels with high, unstable banks with little of the undercuts and woody debris that provide shelter for fish. Urban and non-urban sections did not differ significantly with respect to water velocity, dissolved nitrate, or amount of pools or water turbulence. Per unit stream length, non-urban sections averaged 54% more trout larger than 20 (8 inches) and 74% greater total trout biomass than urban sections. In both urban and non-urban areas, trout abundance as kg/ha was generally below the level predicted by the Wyoming Habitat Quality Index (HQI). This could have been due to effects of angling or other unmeasured factors, to measurement errors or to inapplicability of the HQI method to the areas studied. There is evidence that altering the HQI method to consider solid overhead hiding cover and pool-turbulence hiding cover as separate variables rather than as a total cover index will enhance predictiveness.

  3. FISHERY RESOURCES AND THREATENED HABITATS IN THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Jordan, Steve and Darrin Dantin. 2004. Fishery Resources and Threatened Habitats in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Abstract). Presented at the Aquatic Stressors All-Investigators Meeting, 9-11 March 2004, Washington, DC. 1 p. (ERL,GB R996).

    We have explored relationships be...

  4. 77 FR 66564 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Essential Fish Habitat Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... period that ended on October 9, 2012 (77 FR 47356). NMFS did not receive any comments on these proposed... proposed with Amendments 10 and 12 to the Salmon FMP (77 FR 19605, April 2, 2012). The Secretary of... Management Council; Essential Fish Habitat Amendments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  5. Beaver dams maintain fish biodiversity by increasing habitat heterogeneity throughout a low-gradient stream network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joseph M.; Mather, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    In summary, within a stream network, beaver dams maintained fish biodiversity by altering in-stream habitat and increasing habitat heterogeneity. Understanding the relationship between habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity can advance basic freshwater ecology and provide science-based support for applied aquatic conservation

  6. Waste streams in a crewed space habitat. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Wydeven, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    An update is presented of a compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat which was reported in the NASA Technical Memorandum. New topics under consideration include data obtained from Soviet literature on life support issues and data on various minor human body wastes not presented previously (saliva, Flatus, hair, finger- and toenails, dried skin and skin secretions, tears and semen). Attention is also given to the latest information on the environmental control and life support system design parameters for SSF.

  7. Waste streams in a crewed space habitat II.

    PubMed

    Golub, M A; Wydeven, T

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat, reported in a prior NASA Technical Memorandum and a related journal article, has been updated. This paper augments that compilation by the inclusion of the following new data: those uncovered since completion of the prior report; those obtained from Soviet literature relevant to life support issues; and those for various minor human body wastes not presented previously (saliva, flatus, hair, finger- and toenails, dried skin and skin secretions, tears and semen), but included here for purposes of completeness. These waste streams complement those discussed previously: toilet waste (urine, feces, etc.), hygiene water (laundry, shower/handwash, dishwash water and cleansing agents), trash, humidity condensate, perspiration and respiration water, trace contaminants and dust generation. This paper also reproduces the latest information on the environmental control and life support system design parameters for Space Station Freedom. PMID:11537495

  8. Waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat, reported in a prior NASA Technical Memorandum and a related journal article, was updated. This report augments that compilation by the inclusion of the following new data: those data uncovered since completion of the prior report; those obtained from Soviet literature relevant to life support issues; and those for various minor human body wastes not presented previously (saliva, flatus, hair, finger- and toenails, dried skin and skin secretions, tears, and semen), but included here for purposes of completeness. These waste streams complement those discussed previously: toilet waste (urine, feces, etc.), hygiene water (laundry, shower/handwash, dishwasher water and cleansing agents), trash, humidity condensate, perspiration and respiration water, trace contaminants, and dust generation. This report also reproduces the latest information on the environmental control and life support system design parameters for Space Station Freedom.

  9. The habitats exploited and the species trapped in a Caribbean island trap fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.; Rogers, C.S.; Beets, J.; Friedlander, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    We visually observed fish traps in situ to identify the habitats exploited by the U.S. Virgin Islands fishery and to document species composition and abundance in traps by habitat. Fishers set more traps in algal plains than in any other habitat around St. John. Coral reefs, traditionally targeted by fishers, accounted for only 16% of traps. Traps in algal plain contained the highest number of fishes per trap and the greatest numbers of preferred food species. Traps on coral reefs contained the most species, 41 of the 59 taxa observed in the study. Acanthurus coeruleus was the most abundant species and Acanthuridae the most abundant family observed in traps. Piscivore numbers were low and few serranids were observed. Traps in algal plain contained the most fishes as a result of: ecological changes such as shifts in habitat use, mobility of species and degradation of nearshore habitat (fishery independent); and, catchability of fishes and long-term heavy fishing pressure (fishery dependent). The low number of serranids per trap, dominance of the piscivore guild by a small benthic predator, Epinephelus guttatus, and dominance of trap contents overall by a small, fast-growing species of a lower trophic guild, Acanthurus coeruleus, all point to years of intense fishing pressure.

  10. Stream geomorphology, bank vegetation, and three-dimensional habitat hydraulics for fish in midwestern agricultural streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, Bruce L.; Schwartz, John S.; Porter, Stacey

    2003-08-01

    Past work on physical habitat in streams has not explicitly considered how differences in channel planform and bank vegetation influence the three-dimensionality of habitat hydraulics. This study statistically compares frequency distributions of bed elevations, a stage-independent index of variability in flow depth, and three-dimensional velocity components for four stream reaches in east central Illinois that have different geomorphological conditions and types of bank vegetation. The analysis shows that bed elevations in a straight channelized reach are significantly less variable than bed elevations in the other three reaches. Distributions of downstream velocities do not differ significantly for two reaches with similar bank vegetation but substantially different channel morphologies, whereas distributions of cross-stream and vertical velocities are sensitive to differences both in channel planform and bank vegetation. Channel curvature enhances the variance of cross-stream and vertical velocity distributions through the production of large-scale helical motion. Conditions that result in net cross-stream flow, such as abrupt changes in curvature or deflection of the flow laterally, systematically influence the mean of cross-stream velocity distributions. Corresponding fish studies indicate that the straight, channelized reach has the lowest biotic integrity of the four sites. A detailed comparison of fish population characteristics between this reach and an unmodified reach immediately upstream reveals that the unmodified reach has significantly greater species richness, species diversity, and total biomass than the channelized reach. Thus geomorphological complexity, through its influence on the three-dimensionality of habitat hydraulics, appears to significantly influence fish community characteristics.

  11. A prepositioned areal electrofishing apparatus for sampling stream habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, William L.; Brown, Marshall E.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the design, use, and sampling characteristics ofan electrofishing apparatus used to sample fish in stream habitats. The apparatus uses two prepositioned areal electrofishing devices (PAED) of different designs, a bottom parallel electrode PAED and a suspended dropper electrode PAED. To determine the effective immobilization ranges of the PAEDs, we evaluated intensities and shapes of the PAEDs' electrical fields, and the electroshock responses of fish in cages in concrete tanks and in four streams in Alabama with different water conductivities. Electroshock responses indicated that complete immobilization occurred at voltage gradients of 1.0 V/cm or higher (voltage drop, 400 V AC), as far as 35 cm from the PAED electrodes, although some fish were immobilized up to 65 cm away at 0.3 V/cm. We estimated the immobilization (stun) power density threshold to be about 10 μW/cm3. Stream evaluations of the PAEDs revealed that higher voltages were needed to immobilize fish at lower (35 μS/cm) and higher (120 and 125 μS/cm) water conductivities, whereas lower voltages were required at an intermediate conductivity (60 μS/cm). These results conformed with the predictions of power transfer theory and underscored the need to calibrate PAEDs to stream conductivities to standardize the effective sampling range.

  12. Ontogenetic and diel variation in stream habitat use by brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a headwater stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.; Redell, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable information exists on habitat use by stream salmonids, only a small portion has quantitatively examined diurnal and nocturnal habitat variation. We examined diel variation in habitat use by age-0 and age-1+ brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) during summer and autumn in a headwater stream in northern Pennsylvania. Habitat variables measured included cover, depth, substrate, and velocity. The most pronounced diel variation occurred in the use of cover during both seasons. Both age-0 brook trout and age-1+ trout were associated with less cover at night. Age-0 brook trout occupied swifter water during the day than at night during both seasons, but the difference was not significant. Increased cover, depth, and substrate size governed the habitat of age-1+ brook trout. Our findings support the need for a better understanding of diel differences in habitat use of stream salmonids when considering habitat enhancement and protection.

  13. Terrestrial laser scanning for delineating in-stream boulders and quantifying habitat complexity measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate stream topography measurement is important for many ecological applications such as hydraulic modeling and habitat characterization. Habitat complexity measures are often made using total station surveying or visual approximation, which can be subjective and have spatial resolution limitati...

  14. QUANTIFYING STREAM STRUCTURAL PHYSICAL HABITAT ATTRIBUTES USING LIDAR AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structural physical habitat attributes include indices of stream size, channel gradient, substrate size, habitat complexity and cover, riparian vegetation cover and structure, anthropogenic disturbances and channel-riparian interaction.

  15. Simple measures of channel habitat complexity predict transient hydraulic storage in streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream thalweg depth profiles (along path of greatest channel depth) and woody debris tallies have recently become components of routine field procedures for quantifying physical habitat in national stream monitoring efforts. Mean residual depth, standard deviation of thalweg dep...

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF SUBURBAN LAND USE ON HABITAT AND BIOTIC INTEGRITY OF COASTAL RHODE ISLAND STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed land use in suburban areas can affect stream biota through degradation of instream habitat, water quality, and riparian vegetation. By monitoring stream biotic communities in various geographic regions, we can better understand and conserve our watershed ecosystems. The...

  17. Regulated flushing in a gravel-bed river for channel habitat maintenance: A Trinity River fisheries case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. Wayne; Dwyer, John R.; Greenberg, Wendy E.

    1987-08-01

    The operation of Trinity and Lewiston Dams on the Trinity River in northern California in the United States, combined with severe watershed erosion, has jeopardized the existence of prime salmonid fisheries. Extreme streamflow depletion and stream sedimentation below Lewiston have resulted in heavy accumulation of coarse sediment on riffle gravel and filling of streambed pools, causing the destruction of spawning, nursery, and overwintering habitat for prized chinook salmon ( Salmo gairdnerii) and steelhead trout ( Oncorhynchus tschawytscha). Proposals to restore and maintain the degraded habitat include controlled one-time remedial peak flows or annual maintenance peak flows designed to flush the spawning gravel and scour the banks, deltas, and pools. The criteria for effective channel restoration or maintenance by streambed flushing and scouring are examined here, as well as the mechanics involved. The liabilities of releasing mammoth scouring-flushing flows approximating the magnitude that preceded reservoir construction make this option unviable. The resulting damage to fish habitat established under the postproject streamflow regime, as well as damage to human settlements in the floodplain, would be unacceptable, as would the opportunity costs to hydroelectric and irrigation water users. The technical feasibility of annual maintenance flushing flows depends upon associated mechanical and structural measures, particularly instream maintenance dredging of deep pools and construction of a sediment control dam on a tributary where watershed erosion is extreme. The cost effectiveness of a sediment dam with a limited useful economic life, combined with perpetual maintenance dredging, is questionable.

  18. Pelagic Habitat Analysis Module (PHAM) for GIS Based Fisheries Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, D. A.; Armstrong, Edward M.; Harrison, D. P.; Hinton, M. G.; Kohin, S.; Snyder, S.; O'Brien, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled a system that integrates satellite and model output with fisheries data We have developed tools that allow analysis of the interaction between species and key environmental variables Demonstrated the capacity to accurately map habitat of Thresher Sharks Alopias vulpinus & pelagicus. Their seasonal migration along the California Current is at least partly driven by the seasonal migration of sardine, key prey of the sharks.We have assembled a system that integrates satellite and model output with fisheries data We have developed tools that allow analysis of the interaction between species and key environmental variables Demonstrated the capacity to accurately map habitat of Thresher Sharks Alopias vulpinus nd pelagicus. Their seasonal migration along the California Current is at least partly driven by the seasonal migration of sardine, key prey of the sharks.

  19. Methods for characterizing stream habitat as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, Michael R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1993-01-01

    Stream habitat is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation?s water quality. The goal of stream habitat characterization is to relate habitat to other physical, chemical, and biological factors to describe water-quality conditions. To accomplish this goal, environmental settings are described at sites selected for water-quality assessment. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in habitat are examined at local, regional, and national levels. Although habitat characterization is an important component of a number of Federal, State, and local water-quality assessment programs, no current set of habitat evaluation procedures meets the objectives of the habitat assessment component of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Evaluation of stream habitat is based on a spatially hierarchical framework that incorporates habitat data at basin, segment, reach, and microhabitat scales. This framework provides a basis for national consistency in collection techniques while allowing flexibility in habitat assessment within individual study units. Procedures are described for collecting habitat data at basin and stream segment scales that include use of geographic information system data bases, maps, and aerial photographs. Data collected at the stream reach scale include more than 34 riparian and instream habitat characteristics evaluated during onetime site visits, and surveys of the channel and riparian area during repeated sampling.

  20. Assessing patterns of fish demographics and habitat in stream networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective habitat restoration planning requires correctly anticipating demographic responses to altered habitats. New applications of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to fish-habitat research have provided critical insights into fish movement, growth, and surv...

  1. Influence of Riparian Habitat and Nutrients on Aquatic Communities Within Riparian Zones of Headwater Streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Headwater streams are the smallest streams in a watershed. Their small size and high frequency of occurrence make them susceptible to anthropogenic habitat alterations. Many headwater streams in the Midwestern United States have been channelized to drain agricultural fields. Aquatic macroinvertebrat...

  2. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Suzy

    1992-02-01

    Ranking criteria were developed to rate 19 tributaries on the Coeur d`Alene Indiana Reservation for potential of habitat enhancement for westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, and bull trout, Salvelinus malma. Cutthroat and bull trout habitat requirements, derived from an extensive literature review of each species, were compared to the physical and biological parameters of each stream observed during an aerial -- helicopter survey. Ten tributaries were selected for further study, using the ranking criteria that were derived. The most favorable ratings were awarded to streams that were located completely on the reservation, displayed highest potential for improvement and enhancement, had no barriers to fish migration, good road access, and a gradient acceptable to cutthroat and bull trout habitation. The ten streams selected for study were Bellgrove, Fighting, Lake, Squaw, Plummer, Little Plummer, Benewah, Alder, Hell`s Gulch and Evans creeks.

  3. Development of a stream habitat index for the Northern Lakes and Forest Ecoregions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Robert M.; Wang, Lizhu; Simon, Thomas P.; Stewart, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    Physical habitat was quantified in 105 randomly selected streams across the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion during 1998 and 1999 to develop a stream habitat index for the region. Physical habitat measures (106) were classified into four groups: substrate, instream cover, riparian zone–land use, and geomorphology–hydrology. Variable reduction procedures yielded seven variables: sinuosity, percent of substrate gravel or larger, percent substrate as detritus or muck, percent of bank with forested cover, amount of bank erosion, number of large logs per 100 m, and mean length of pools. Streams were separated by a gradient value of 3 m/km (low N = 70; high N = 35) and assigned to model and test data sets. For low-gradient streams in the model data set, the seven habitat variables explained 47% of the variation in index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores. To produce the habitat index, the coefficients in the regression were used to weight each of the seven variables. For low-gradient streams in the test data set, the habitat index explained 20% of the variation in IBI scores. A habitat index could not be developed for high-gradient sites, probably due to the low number of sites. Comparison of habitat to IBI scores provides resource managers with a method to evaluate the contribution of habitat quality to the IBI score.

  4. Amazonian freshwater habitats experiencing environmental and socioeconomic threats affecting subsistence fisheries.

    PubMed

    Alho, Cleber J R; Reis, Roberto E; Aquino, Pedro P U

    2015-09-01

    Matching the trend seen among the major large rivers of the globe, the Amazon River and its tributaries are facing aquatic ecosystem disruption that is affecting freshwater habitats and their associated biodiversity, including trends for decline in fishery resources. The Amazon's aquatic ecosystems, linked natural resources, and human communities that depend on them are increasingly at risk from a number of identified threats, including expansion of agriculture; cattle pastures; infrastructure such as hydroelectric dams, logging, mining; and overfishing. The forest, which regulates the hydrological pulse, guaranteeing the distribution of rainfall and stabilizing seasonal flooding, has been affected by deforestation. Flooding dynamics of the Amazon Rivers are a major factor in regulating the intensity and timing of aquatic organisms. This study's objective was to identify threats to the integrity of freshwater ecosystems, and to seek instruments for conservation and sustainable use, taking principally fish diversity and fisheries as factors for analysis. PMID:25572836

  5. Revised Methods for Characterizing Stream Habitat in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Waite, Ian R.; D'Arconte, Patricia J.; Meador, Michael R.; Maupin, Molly A.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1998-01-01

    Stream habitat is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The goal of stream habitat characterization is to relate habitat to other physical, chemical, and biological factors that describe water-quality conditions. To accomplish this goal, environmental settings are described at sites selected for water-quality assessment. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in habitat are examined at local, regional, and national scales. This habitat protocol contains updated methods for evaluating habitat in NAWQA Study Units. Revisions are based on lessons learned after 6 years of applying the original NAWQA habitat protocol to NAWQA Study Unit ecological surveys. Similar to the original protocol, these revised methods for evaluating stream habitat are based on a spatially hierarchical framework that incorporates habitat data at basin, segment, reach, and microhabitat scales. This framework provides a basis for national consistency in collection techniques while allowing flexibility in habitat assessment within individual Study Units. Procedures are described for collecting habitat data at basin and segment scales; these procedures include use of geographic information system data bases, topographic maps, and aerial photographs. Data collected at the reach scale include channel, bank, and riparian characteristics.

  6. Comparison of macroinvertebrate-derived stream quality metrics between snag and riffle habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stepenuck, K.F.; Crunkilton, R.L.; Bozek, Michael A.; Wang, L.

    2008-01-01

    We compared benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure at snag and riffle habitats in 43 Wisconsin streams across a range of watershed urbanization using a variety of stream quality metrics. Discriminant analysis indicated that dominant taxa at riffles and snags differed; Hydropsychid caddisflies (Hydropsyche betteni and Cheumatopsyche spp.) and elmid beetles (Optioservus spp. and Stenemlis spp.) typified riffles, whereas isopods (Asellus intermedius) and amphipods (Hyalella azteca and Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) predominated in snags. Analysis of covariance indicated that samples from snag and riffle habitats differed significantly in their response to the urbanization gradient for the Hilsenhoff biotic index (BI), Shannon's diversity index, and percent of filterers, shredders, and pollution intolerant Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) at each stream site (p ??? 0.10). These differences suggest that although macroinvertebrate assemblages present in either habitat type are sensitive to detecting the effects of urbanization, metrics derived from different habitats should not be intermixed when assessing stream quality through biomonitoring. This can be a limitation to resource managers who wish to compare water quality among streams where the same habitat type is not available at all stream locations, or where a specific habitat type (i.e., a riffle) is required to determine a metric value (i.e., BI). To account for differences in stream quality at sites lacking riffle habitat, snag-derived metric values can be adjusted based on those obtained from riffles that have been exposed to the same level of urbanization. Comparison of nonlinear regression equations that related stream quality metric values from the two habitat types to percent watershed urbanization indicated that snag habitats had on average 30.2 fewer percent EPT individuals, a lower diversity index value than riffles, and a BI value of 0.29 greater than riffles. ?? 2008 American Water

  7. Anthropogenic habitat alteration induces rapid morphological divergence in a native stream fish

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Nathan R

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat alteration creates novel environments that can alter selection pressures. Construction of reservoirs worldwide has disturbed riverine ecosystems by altering biotic and abiotic environments of impounded streams. Changes to fish communities in impoundments are well documented, but effects of those changes on native species persisting in reservoirs, which are presumably subjected to novel selective pressures, are largely unexplored. I assessed body shape variation of a native stream fish in reservoir habitats and streams from seven reservoir basins in the Central Plains of the USA. Body shape significantly and consistently diverged in reservoirs compared with stream habitats within reservoir basins; individuals from reservoir populations were deeper-bodied and had smaller heads compared with stream populations. Individuals from reservoir habitats also exhibited lower overall shape variation compared with stream individuals. I assessed the contribution of genotypic divergence and predator-induced phenotypic plasticity on body shape variation by rearing offspring from a reservoir and a stream population with or without a piscivorous fish. Significant population-level differences in body shape persisted in offspring, and both populations demonstrated similar predator-induced phenotypic plasticity. My results suggest that, although components of body shape are plastic, anthropogenic habitat modification may drive trait divergence in native fish populations in reservoir-altered habitats. PMID:25568023

  8. Using Video to Communicate Scientific Findings -- Habitat Connections in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harned, D. A.; Moorman, M.; Fitzpatrick, F. A.; McMahon, G.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film examining effects of urbanization on stream habitat. "Habitat Connections in Urban Streams" explores how urbanization changes some of the physical features that provide in-stream habitat and examines examples of stream restoration projects designed to improve stream form and function. The "connections" theme is emphasized, including the connection of in-stream habitats from the headwaters to the stream mouth; connections between stream habitat and the surrounding floodplains, wetlands and basin; and connections between streams and people-- resource managers, public officials, scientists, and the general public. Examples of innovative stream restoration projects in Baltimore Maryland; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Portland Oregon are shown with interviews of managers, engineers, scientists, and others describing the projects. The film is combined with a website with links to extended film versions of the stream-restoration project interviews. The website and films are an example of USGS efforts aimed at improving science communication to a general audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website: http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html. Additional films are

  9. The importance of instream habitat modifications for restoring channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Science based information on the influence of restoration practices on fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the Midwestern United States is currently lacking. Understanding fish-habitat relationships and fish responses to specific restoration practices will provide informatio...

  10. HOW MUCH OF STREAM HABITAT IS PREDETERMINED BY NATURAL GEOMORPHIC CONTROLS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed pre- and post-disturbance research has demonstrated the ability of human activities to alter stream channel characteristics, including the amounts of deep pool habitat and fine substrate. However, it is often difficult to demonstrate consistent associations between the...

  11. Intermittent Streams and Habitats Function as Refugia for Fish and Crayfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magoulick, D. D.; Bare, C. M.; Dekar, M. P.; Hodges, S. W.; Flinders, C. A.; Dick, A.

    2005-05-01

    Drought and summer drying can be important disturbance events in many small streams leading to intermittent or isolated habitats. We examined the influence of stream permanence on fish and crayfish population and community dynamics in multiple streams over several years. We found total crayfish densities and densities of some crayfish species were significantly greater in intermittent than in permanent streams, whereas crayfish species richness did not differ significantly between the two stream types. There was a significant relationship between crayfish relative abundance and abiotic environmental variables for permanent, but not intermittent streams. Fish densities were high in intermittent streams, especially for small species-size classes. Fish moved at large spatial and temporal scales to use intermittent streams, especially for spawning, and fish moved at smaller spatial and temporal scales to avoid drying habitats, especially riffles. During drying events fish survival was greater in pools than in riffles, and pools were more likely to remain permanent habitats. Intermittent streams and permanent pools within dry portions of stream appear to function as refugia for some species and size classes of fish and crayfish. Understanding this relationship will allow natural resource managers to implement effective conservation strategies for fish and crayfish in intermittent streams.

  12. RESPONSE OF FISHES AND AQUATIC HABITATS TO SAND-BED STREAM RESTORATION USING LARGE WOODY DEBRIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large woody debris structures hold promise as cost-effective stream corridor rehabilitation measures. Pre- and post construction data are presented that describe effects of habitat rehabilitation of Little Topashaw Creek, a sinuous, fourth-order sand-bed stream draining 37 km2 in northwest Mississip...

  13. HYDROLOGIC AND STREAM TEMPERATURE MODELING FOR ANADROMOUS FISH HABITAT RESTORATION IN A WILDLAND WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reduction or removal of streamside vegetation by logging and grazing can alter stream temperatures by reducing riparian shading. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States and other parts of the world, elevated stream temperatures in summer are a major fish habitat degradatio...

  14. Orangethroat Darter Population Responses to Habitat Differences within a Central Ohio Headwater Stream

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity and abundance of darters are often used as an indicator of habitat quality in streams. The orangethroat darter (Etheostoma spectabile) is a common fish in small to medium sized streams within portions of the midwest and southeast United States. Qualitative observations of orangethroat ...

  15. Intense Habitat-Specific Fisheries-Induced Selection at the Molecular Pan I Locus Predicts Imminent Collapse of a Major Cod Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Árnason, Einar; Hernandez, Ubaldo Benitez; Kristinsson, Kristján

    2009-01-01

    Predation is a powerful agent in the ecology and evolution of predator and prey. Prey may select multiple habitats whereby different genotypes prefer different habitats. If the predator is also habitat-specific the prey may evolve different habitat occupancy. Drastic changes can occur in the relation of the predator to the evolved prey. Fisheries exert powerful predation and can be a potent evolutionary force. Fisheries-induced selection can lead to phenotypic changes that influence the collapse and recovery of the fishery. However, heritability of the phenotypic traits involved and selection intensities are low suggesting that fisheries-induced evolution occurs at moderate rates at decadal time scales. The Pantophysin I (Pan I) locus in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), representing an ancient balanced polymorphism predating the split of cod and its sister species, is under an unusual mix of balancing and directional selection including current selective sweeps. Here we show that Pan I alleles are highly correlated with depth with a gradient of 0.44% allele frequency change per meter. AA fish are shallow-water and BB deep-water adapted in accordance with behavioral studies using data storage tags showing habitat selection by Pan I genotype. AB fish are somewhat intermediate although closer to AA. Furthermore, using a sampling design covering space and time we detect intense habitat-specific fisheries-induced selection against the shallow-water adapted fish with an average 8% allele frequency change per year within year class. Genotypic fitness estimates (0.08, 0.27, 1.00 of AA, AB, and BB respectively) predict rapid disappearance of shallow-water adapted fish. Ecological and evolutionary time scales, therefore, are congruent. We hypothesize a potential collapse of the fishery. We find that probabilistic maturation reaction norms for Atlantic cod at Iceland show declining length and age at maturing comparable to changes that preceded the collapse of northern cod at

  16. Microbial Biogeography of Arctic Streams: Exploring Influences of Lithology and Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Larouche, Julia R.; Bowden, William B.; Giordano, Rosanna; Flinn, Michael B.; Crump, Byron C.

    2012-01-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to explore the community composition of bacterial communities in biofilms on sediments (epipssamon) and rocks (epilithon) in stream reaches that drain watersheds with contrasting lithologies in the Noatak National Preserve, Alaska. Bacterial community composition varied primarily by stream habitat and secondarily by lithology. Positive correlations were detected between bacterial community structure and nutrients, base cations, and dissolved organic carbon. Our results showed significant differences at the stream habitat, between epipssamon and epilithon bacterial communities, which we expected. Our results also showed significant differences at the landscape scale that could be related to different lithologies and associated stream biogeochemistry. These results provide insight into the bacterial community composition of little known and pristine arctic stream ecosystems and illustrate how differences in the lithology, soils, and vegetation community of the terrestrial environment interact to influence stream bacterial taxonomic richness and composition. PMID:22936932

  17. Effects of habitat fragmentation on a stream-dwelling species, the flattened musk turtle Sternotherus depressus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The flattened musk turtle Sternotherus depressus has disappeared from more than half of its former range because of habitat modifications to stream and river channels in the Warrior River Basin, Alabama. Only 6·9% of its probable historic range contains relatively healthy populations, and most populations are fragmented by extensive areas of unsuitable habitat. Turtles in the best remaining habitats continue to be vulnerable to disease and human-related disturbance, collecting and habitat modification. These factors lead to population declines and abnormal population structure. Habitat fragmentation, especially in small populations, increases vulnerability to human-caused catastrophes and demographic accidents, and could lead to eventual extinction. The threats facing fragmented populations of this turtle probably parallel those affecting many other stream-dwelling species throughout the southeastern United States.

  18. Tucannon Stream/Riparian Restoration : Fiscal Year 1998 Habitat Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bruegman, Terry; Nordheim, Debbie

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 the Tucannon River was selected by the Bonneville Power Administration to be one of the three Washington Model Watersheds. This plan was developed to identify, protect, and restore fish habitat by utilizing sound technical information and citizen input.

  19. Downstream Warming and Headwater Acidity May Diminish Coldwater Habitat in Southern Appalachian Mountain Streams.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, T C; Sloat, M R; Sullivan, T J; Dolloff, C A; Hessburg, P F; Povak, N A; Jackson, W A; Sams, C

    2015-01-01

    Stream-dwelling species in the U.S. southern Appalachian Mountains region are particularly vulnerable to climate change and acidification. The objectives of this study were to quantify the spatial extent of contemporary suitable habitat for acid- and thermally sensitive aquatic species and to forecast future habitat loss resulting from expected temperature increases on national forest lands in the southern Appalachian Mountain region. The goal of this study was to help watershed managers identify and assess stream reaches that are potentially vulnerable to warming, acidification, or both. To our knowledge, these results represent the first regional assessment of aquatic habitat suitability with respect to the combined effects of stream water temperature and acid-base status in the United States. Statistical models were developed to predict July mean daily maximum water temperatures and air-water temperature relations to determine potential changes in future stream water temperatures. The length of stream considered suitable habitat for acid- and thermally sensitive species, based on temperature and acid neutralizing capacity thresholds of 20°C and 50 μeq/L, was variable throughout the national forests considered. Stream length displaying temperature above 20°C was generally more than five times greater than the length predicted to have acid neutralizing capacity below 50 μeq/L. It was uncommon for these two stressors to occur within the same stream segment. Results suggested that species' distributional shifts to colder, higher elevation habitats under a warming climate can be constrained by acidification of headwater streams. The approach used in this study can be applied to evaluate climate change impacts to stream water resources in other regions. PMID:26247361

  20. Downstream Warming and Headwater Acidity May Diminish Coldwater Habitat in Southern Appalachian Mountain Streams

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, W. A; Sams, C.

    2015-01-01

    Stream-dwelling species in the U.S. southern Appalachian Mountains region are particularly vulnerable to climate change and acidification. The objectives of this study were to quantify the spatial extent of contemporary suitable habitat for acid- and thermally sensitive aquatic species and to forecast future habitat loss resulting from expected temperature increases on national forest lands in the southern Appalachian Mountain region. The goal of this study was to help watershed managers identify and assess stream reaches that are potentially vulnerable to warming, acidification, or both. To our knowledge, these results represent the first regional assessment of aquatic habitat suitability with respect to the combined effects of stream water temperature and acid-base status in the United States. Statistical models were developed to predict July mean daily maximum water temperatures and air-water temperature relations to determine potential changes in future stream water temperatures. The length of stream considered suitable habitat for acid- and thermally sensitive species, based on temperature and acid neutralizing capacity thresholds of 20°C and 50 μeq/L, was variable throughout the national forests considered. Stream length displaying temperature above 20°C was generally more than five times greater than the length predicted to have acid neutralizing capacity below 50 μeq/L. It was uncommon for these two stressors to occur within the same stream segment. Results suggested that species’ distributional shifts to colder, higher elevation habitats under a warming climate can be constrained by acidification of headwater streams. The approach used in this study can be applied to evaluate climate change impacts to stream water resources in other regions. PMID:26247361

  1. Macroinvertebrate Communities and Benthic Organic Matter in Sand Habitats of 15 Northern Michigan Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamuro, A. M.; Miesbauer, J. M.; Lamberti, G. A.

    2005-05-01

    Relationships between benthic organic matter (BOM) and macroinvertebrates have been well studied in streams with coarse substrates, but such relationships have been little studied in sand habitats, despite the abundance of sand in many streams. These relationships were investigated in sand habitats of 15 streams in three watersheds of the Ottawa National Forest, Michigan. Sand habitats in the 15 streams varied widely in mean total BOM quantity (112 to 1814 g AFDM·m-2) and size composition [very fine BOM (VFBOM, 0.45-250 μm), 0-58%; fine BOM (FBOM, 250 μm-1 mm), 11-27%; coarse BOM (CBOM, >1 mm), 27-81%] but differences were still detected among watersheds (VFBOM, ANOVA, F2,11 = 8.69, p = 0.005; CBOM, F2,11 = 11.15, p = 0.002). Sand-dwelling invertebrates were dominated by gathering-collectors, primarily Chironomidae (relative abundance = 73.6±15.4%; mean±SE; n = 15). Invertebrate biomass and mean body size differed among watersheds (biomass, F2,12 = 3.89, p = 0.050; body size, F2,12 = 6.12, p = 0.015). However, at this broad spatial scale, BOM quantity and quality had little effect on invertebrate community metrics in sand habitats. BOM content of sand habitats likely represents one factor, among many components of this dynamic habitat, which shapes overall macroinvertebrate communities.

  2. Assessing the Effects of Water Right Purchases on Stream Temperatures and Fish Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, L.; Null, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Warm stream temperature and low flow conditions are limiting factors for native trout species in Nevada's Walker River. Water rights purchases are being considered to increase instream flow and improve habitat conditions. However, the effect of water rights purchases on stream temperatures and fish habitat have yet to be assessed. Manipulating flow conditions affect stream temperatures by altering water depth, velocity, and thermal mass. This study uses the River Modeling System (RMSv4), an hourly, physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality model, to estimate flows and stream temperatures in the Walker River. The model is developed for two wet years (2010-2011). Study results highlight reaches with cold-water habitat that is suitable for native trout species. Previous research on the Walker River has evaluated instream flow changes with water rights purchases. This study incorporates stream temperatures as a proxy for trout habitat, and thus explicitly incorporates water quality and fish habitat into decision-making regarding water rights purchases. Walker River

  3. Simulating riparian disturbance: Reach scale impacts on aquatic habitat in gravel bed streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, S. L.; Eaton, B. C.

    2015-09-01

    Large wood governs channel morphology, as well as the availability of in-stream habitat, in many forested streams. In this paper, we use a stochastic, physically based model to simulate wood recruitment and in-stream geomorphic processes, in order to explore the influence of disturbance history on the availability of aquatic habitat. Specifically, we consider the effects of fire on a range of stream sizes by varying the rate of tree toppling over time in a simulated forest characterized by a tree height of 30 m. We also consider the effects of forest harvesting with various riparian buffer sizes, by limiting the lateral extent of the riparian stand. Our results show that pulsed inputs of wood increase the availability and variability of physical habitat in the postfire period; reach-averaged pool area and deposit area double in small streams, while side channels increase by over 50% in intermediate-sized channels. By contrast, forest harvesting reduces the availability of habitat within the reach, though the effects diminish with increasing buffer size or stream width; in laterally stable streams the effects are minimal so long as buffer width is large enough for key pieces to be recruited to the reach. This research emphasizes the importance of natural disturbance in creating and maintaining habitat heterogeneity and shows that scenario-based numerical modeling provides a useful tool for assessing the historical range of variability associated with natural disturbance, as well as changes in habitat relevant to fish. It can be also used to inform forest harvesting and management.

  4. HARSHNESS: CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERMITTENT STREAM HABITAT OVER SPACE AND TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Frequently disturbed environments, such as intermittent streams, are ecologically useful for studying how disturbance characteristics (e.g., frequency, magnitude) affect community structure and succession. A harshness index summarizing spatial and temporal characteristics of pra...

  5. Relative importance of water chemistry and habitat to fish communities in headwater streams influenced by agricultural land use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channelized headwater streams are common throughout agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Understanding the relative impacts of agricultural contaminants and habitat degradation on the aquatic biota within agricultural headwater streams will provide information that can assist wi...

  6. An annotated bibliography of selected guides for stream habitat improvement in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keim, R.F.; Price, A.B.; Hardin, T. S.; Skaugset, Arne E.; Bateman, D.S.; Gresswell, R.E.; Tesch, S. D.

    2004-01-01

    This annotated bibliography is a response to widespread interest in stream habitat improvement in the Pacific Northwest by land managers, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and the lay public. Several guides to stream habitat improvement have been written in the past, but may not be easily accessible to people from diverse backgrounds. This annotated bibliography reviews 11 guides to stream habitat improvement so that readers can find literature appropriate to their needs. All reviews begin with summaries of the contents, stated audiences, and goals of each guide. Reviews also include subjective comments on the strengths and weaknesses of each guide. Finally, this bibliography includes recommendations of guides and combinations of guides judged most useful for a range of purposes. 

  7. Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.; Belt, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media

  8. Habitat evaluation using suitability index and habitat type diversity: a case study involving a shallow forest stream in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Chieh; Chuang, Ming-De

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has strongly promoted the concept of ecological engineering in the hope that doing so will encourage the maintenance of the ecosystem and its integrity. As a result, the riprap spur dike is one of the most commonly used measures for protecting stream banks. Traditionally, a spur dike is used at concave banks to prevent their scouring and/or to increase their stabilization. An additional benefit of deflector structures, like spur dikes, may be to increase the weighted usable area (WUA) for aquatic life survival during periods of increased flow (examples include typhoon, flood, etc.). A two-dimensional river habitat simulation program (River2D) coupled with a developed shallow water habitat type diversity module was used for the case study at a headwater stream in central Taiwan. The habitat suitability index for this study was established using substrate, depth, and velocity from field surveys for the fish family Cyprinidae by prepositioned area electrofisher. The ungauged flood conditions were calculated using digital elevation models within a watershed delineation and hydrological modeling system in accordance with local regulations. Simulated results indicate that the spur dikes currently in use on the stream in this study need be improved from a WUA point of view more effectively handle a flood event. PMID:20376557

  9. Coral habitat in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska: depth distribution, fine-scale species associations, and fisheries interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. P.

    2006-05-01

    The first in situ exploration of Aleutian Island coral habitat was completed in 2002 to determine the distribution of corals, to examine fine-scale associations between targeted fish species and corals, and to investigate the interaction between the areas’ diverse fisheries and coral habitat. Corals, mostly gorgonians and hydrocorals, were present on all 25 seafloor transects and at depths between 27 and 363 m, but were most abundant between 100 and 200 m depth. Mean coral abundance (1.23 colonies m-2) far exceeded that reported for other high-latitude ecosystems and high-density coral gardens (3.85 colonies m-2) were observed at seven locations. Slope and offshore pinnacle habitats characterized by exposed bedrock, boulders, and cobbles generally supported the highest abundances of coral and fish. Overall, 85% of the economically important fish species observed on transects were associated with corals and other emergent epifauna. Disturbance to the seafloor from bottom-contact fishing gear was evident on 88% of the transects, and approximately 39% of the total area of the seafloor observed had been disturbed. Since cold-water corals appear to be a ubiquitous feature of seafloor habitats in the Aleutian Islands, fisheries managers face clear challenges integrating coral conservation into an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  10. Stream Physical Characteristics Impact Habitat Quality for Pacific Salmon in Two Temperate Coastal Watersheds.

    PubMed

    Fellman, Jason B; Hood, Eran; Dryer, William; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming is likely to cause both indirect and direct impacts on the biophysical properties of stream ecosystems especially in regions that support societally important fish species such as Pacific salmon. We studied the seasonal variability and interaction between stream temperature and DO in a low-gradient, forested stream and a glacial-fed stream in coastal southeast Alaska to assess how these key physical parameters impact freshwater habitat quality for salmon. We also use multiple regression analysis to evaluate how discharge and air temperature influence the seasonal patterns in stream temperature and DO. Mean daily stream temperature ranged from 1.1 to 16.4°C in non-glacial Peterson Creek but only 1.0 to 8.8°C in glacial-fed Cowee Creek, reflecting the strong moderating influence glacier meltwater had on stream temperature. Peterson Creek had mean daily DO concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 14.1 mg L(-1) suggesting future climate changes could result in an even greater depletion in DO. Mean daily stream temperature strongly controlled mean daily DO in both Peterson (R2=0.82, P<0.01) and Cowee Creek (R2=0.93, P<0.01). However, DO in Peterson Creek was mildly related to stream temperature (R2=0.15, P<0.01) and strongly influenced by discharge (R2=0.46, P<0.01) on days when stream temperature exceeded 10°C. Moreover, Peterson Creek had DO values that were particularly low (<5.0 mg L(-1)) on days when discharge was low but also when spawning salmon were abundant. Our results demonstrate the complexity of stream temperature and DO regimes in coastal temperate watersheds and highlight the need for watershed managers to move towards multi-factor risk assessment of potential habitat quality for salmon rather than single factor assessments alone. PMID:26222506

  11. Stream Physical Characteristics Impact Habitat Quality for Pacific Salmon in Two Temperate Coastal Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Fellman, Jason B.; Hood, Eran; Dryer, William; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming is likely to cause both indirect and direct impacts on the biophysical properties of stream ecosystems especially in regions that support societally important fish species such as Pacific salmon. We studied the seasonal variability and interaction between stream temperature and DO in a low-gradient, forested stream and a glacial-fed stream in coastal southeast Alaska to assess how these key physical parameters impact freshwater habitat quality for salmon. We also use multiple regression analysis to evaluate how discharge and air temperature influence the seasonal patterns in stream temperature and DO. Mean daily stream temperature ranged from 1.1 to 16.4°C in non-glacial Peterson Creek but only 1.0 to 8.8°C in glacial-fed Cowee Creek, reflecting the strong moderating influence glacier meltwater had on stream temperature. Peterson Creek had mean daily DO concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 14.1 mg L−1 suggesting future climate changes could result in an even greater depletion in DO. Mean daily stream temperature strongly controlled mean daily DO in both Peterson (R2=0.82, P<0.01) and Cowee Creek (R2=0.93, P<0.01). However, DO in Peterson Creek was mildly related to stream temperature (R2=0.15, P<0.01) and strongly influenced by discharge (R2=0.46, P<0.01) on days when stream temperature exceeded 10°C. Moreover, Peterson Creek had DO values that were particularly low (<5.0 mg L−1) on days when discharge was low but also when spawning salmon were abundant. Our results demonstrate the complexity of stream temperature and DO regimes in coastal temperate watersheds and highlight the need for watershed managers to move towards multi-factor risk assessment of potential habitat quality for salmon rather than single factor assessments alone. PMID:26222506

  12. Influence of instream habitat and water quality on aggressive behavior in crayfish of channelized headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agricultural drainage ditches that border farm fields of the Midwestern United States are degraded headwater streams that possess communities of crayfish. We hypothesized that crayfish communities at sites with low instream habitat diversity and poor water quality would show greater evidence of...

  13. Evaluating the Effect of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices on New England Stream Habitat

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is evaluating the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) stormwater best management practices (BMPs) on stream habitat at the small watershed (< HUC12) scale in New England. Predictive models for thermal regime and substrate characteristics (substrate size, % em...

  14. DETECTING PERSISTENT CHANGE IN THE HABITAT OF SALMON-BEARING STREAMS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the northwestern United States, there is considerable interest in the recovery of salmon populations listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. A critical component of any salmon recovery effort is the improvement of stream habitat that supports vario...

  15. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE IMPACTS ON STREAM CHANNEL HABITAT IN THE MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many human land uses and land cover modifications (e.g., logging, grazing, roads) tend to increase erosion, leading to an increase in fine sediment supplied to streams and potentially degrading aquatic habitat for benthic organisms. This study evaluated potential human impacts o...

  16. Integrating geomorphic and habitat assessments to classify streams using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Mathon, B. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Stevens, L.; Morrissey, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Environmental managers are increasingly required to forecast long-term effects and/or the resilience and vulnerability of biophysical systems to human-generated stresses. We research and develop a classification tool to be used by decision-makers to identify how channel, floodplain and watershed scale stressors affect hydrological processes and in doing so, alter the physical structure and habitat values of streams. In the development of this work, we are using the rapid geomorphic assessment protocols (RGA), as well as, the rapid habitat assessment protocols (RHA) from over 800 Vermont stream reaches assessed by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources (VTANR). We extend previous work focused on RGA to include RHA because natural communities are directly and/or indirectly affected by land use history, stream geomorphology and disturbance regime history. Our approach integrates spatial statistics with artificial neural networks (ANNs) visualized in GIS to examine the effect of land use and geomorphology on biodiversity. A specific data-driven ANN, known as a counterpropagation neural network originally developed by Hecht-Nielsen [1987] will be used to: (1) provide a standardized, expert-trained approach for classifying the sensitivity of river networks in various contexts (erosion hazard mitigation, habitat restoration and conservation) and (2) document the weights experts place on various parameters when classifying stream geomorphic condition, inherent vulnerability, and overall sensitivity at the reach-scale. The procedure is data-driven, and therefore does not require the development of site-specific, process-based stream models, or sets of if-then-else rules associated with expert systems. The ANN architecture is sufficiently flexible to allow for its continual update and refinement in light of new and expanded understandings of fluvial geomorphology. This has potential to save time and resources, while enabling a truly adaptive management approach using expert

  17. A Habitat Suitability Model for Selected Crayfish Species in Lancaster County,Pennsylvania, Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverty, S.; Buchanan, R.; Wagner, J.; Wallace, J.; Perry, B.

    2005-05-01

    The introduction of invasive exotic species to previously inaccessible areas provides the opportunity to study the impacts of invasive species on closely related native species. Habitat suitability index [HSI] models offer a coarse estimate of the habitat quality relative to hypothesized physiological tolerances of a species. The distribution and abundance of two native [Orconectes obscurus and Cambarus bartonii] and one invasive [Orconectes rusticus] crayfish along a twenty-three mile length of a Lancaster County, PA, stream and various physical factors at the sample sites were provided by a recent survey (Wagner et.al. unpublished). Of the factors provided, stream width, velocity, pH, and temperature were considered as the factors defining the geographic range of each species. An HSI model was constructed based on these factors to identify regions offering suitable habitat for a species and areas of a stream which are at risk for invasion of O. rusticus. Current work involves the development of subindices describing the availability of food and shelter within the stream, using stream order, link magnitude, and substrate measurements. The HSI model will be coupled to a model describing the interactions between size-structured populations of native and invasive species under the influence of a predator.

  18. The ecology of stream and riparian habitats of the Great Basin region: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Minshall, G.W. . Dept. of Biological Sciences); Jensen, S.E. ); Platts, W.S. . Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station)

    1989-09-01

    Surface waters of the Great Basin include perennial, intermittent, and ephemeral streams; freshwater and saline lakes; playa lakes; freshwater and saline wetlands and thermal springs associated with faulting and volcanic activity. All of these aquatic habitats generally have associated riparian habitats. However, riparian habitats of the Great Basin may be more mesic than the riparian habitats of the eastern United States. The Great Basin comprises the northern half of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and covers most of Nevada and western Utah and portions of California, Oregon, and Idaho. The entire basin actually consists of numerous subbasins and mountain ranges which present an extremely diverse physical setting. Typical mountains range from about 2100--3000 m in elevation while subbasin floors are typically 1500--1800 m in elevation. The entire Great Basin lies in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the regions is semi-arid to arid. Riparian and stream habitats within the Great Basin have received less attention from ecologists than similar habitats elsewhere in the United States. As a consequence, little is known about biotic communities or about certain aspects of structure and functioning of these ecosystems.

  19. Accounting for groundwater in stream fish thermal habitat responses to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Young, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting climate change effects on aquatic fauna and their habitat requires an understanding of how water temperature responds to changing air temperature (i.e., thermal sensitivity). Previous efforts to forecast climate effects on brook trout habitat have generally assumed uniform air-water temperature relationships over large areas that cannot account for groundwater inputs and other processes that operate at finer spatial scales. We developed regression models that accounted for groundwater influences on thermal sensitivity from measured air-water temperature relationships within forested watersheds in eastern North America (Shenandoah National Park, USA, 78 sites in 9 watersheds). We used these reach-scale models to forecast climate change effects on stream temperature and brook trout thermal habitat, and compared our results to previous forecasts based upon large-scale models. Observed stream temperatures were generally less sensitive to air temperature than previously assumed, and we attribute this to the moderating effect of shallow groundwater inputs. Predicted groundwater temperatures from air-water regression models corresponded well to observed groundwater temperatures elsewhere in the study area. Predictions of brook trout future habitat loss derived from our fine-grained models were far less pessimistic than those from prior models developed at coarser spatial resolutions. However, our models also revealed spatial variation in thermal sensitivity within and among catchments resulting in a patchy distribution of thermally suitable habitat. Habitat fragmentation due to thermal barriers therefore may have an increasingly important role for trout population viability in headwater streams. Our results demonstrate that simple adjustments to air-water temperature regression models can provide a powerful and cost-effective approach for predicting future stream temperatures while accounting for effects of groundwater.

  20. Spatial-Scale Effects on Relative Importance of Physical Habitat Predictors of Stream Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Sutton, Trent M.; Engel, Bernard A.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2005-12-01

    A common theme in recent landscape studies is the comparison of riparian and watershed land use as predictors of stream health. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of reach-scale habitat and remotely assessed watershed-scale habitat as predictors of stream health over varying spatial extents. Stream health was measured with scores on a fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) using data from 95 stream reaches in the Eastern Corn Belt Plain (ECBP) ecoregion of Indiana. Watersheds hierarchically nested within the ecoregion were used to regroup sampling locations to represent varying spatial extents. Reach habitat was represented by metrics of a qualitative habitat evaluation index, whereas watershed variables were represented by riparian forest, geomorphology, and hydrologic indices. The importance of reach- versus watershed-scale variables was measured by multiple regression model adjusted-R2 and best subset comparisons in the general linear statistical framework. Watershed models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.25 to 0.93 and reach models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.86. Better-fitting models were associated with smaller spatial extents. Watershed models explained about 15% more variation in IBI scores than reach models on average. Variety of surficial geology contributed to decline in model predictive power. Results should be interpreted bearing in mind that reach habitat was qualitatively measured and only fish assemblages were used to measure stream health. Riparian forest and length-slope (LS) factor were the most important watershed-scale variables and mostly positively correlated with IBI scores, whereas substrate and riffle-pool quality were the important reach-scale variables in the ECBP.

  1. Impacts of urbanization on stream habitat and fish across multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Lyons, J; Kanehl, P; Bannerman, R

    2001-08-01

    We analyzed the relation of the amount and spatial pattern of land cover with stream fish communities, in-stream habitat, and baseflow in 47 small southeastern Wisconsin, USA, watersheds encompassing a gradient of predominantly agricultural to predominantly urban land uses. The amount of connected impervious surface in the watershed was the best measure of urbanization for predicting fish density, species richness, diversity, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) score; bank erosion; and base flow. However, connected imperviousness was not significantly correlated with overall habitat quality for fish. Nonlinear models were developed using quantile regression to predict the maximum possible number of fish species, IBI score, and base flow for a given level of imperviousness. At watershed connected imperviousness levels less than about 8%, all three variables could have high values, whereas at connected imperviousness levels greater than 12% their values were inevitably low. Connected imperviousness levels between 8 and 12% represented a threshold region where minor changes in urbanization could result in major changes in stream condition. In a spatial analysis, connected imperviousness within a 50-m buffer along the stream or within a 1.6-km radius upstream of the sampling site had more influence on stream fish and base flow than did comparable amounts of imperviousness further away. Our results suggest that urban development that minimizes amount of connected impervious surface and establishes undeveloped buffer areas along streams should have less impact than conventional types of development. PMID:11443388

  2. Habitat Restoration and Monitoring in Urban Streams: The Case of Tryon Creek in Portland, OR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Touma, B. P.; Prescott, C.; Axtell, S.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Habitat enhancement in urban streams can be important for threatened species but challenging, because of altered catchment hydrology and urban encroachment on floodplains and channel banks. In Portland (OR) restoration actions have been undertaken at the watershed scale (e.g.: storm water management, protection of sites with high watershed value) to improve water quality, and at reach scale, when water quality and quantity are adequate, to increase habitat heterogeneity and stabilize banks. To evaluate reach-scale restoration projects in the Tryon Creek watershed, we sampled benthic macroinvertebrates and conducted habitat quality surveys pre-project and over 4 years post- project. Species sensitive to pollution and diversity of trophic groups increased after restoration. Although taxonomical diversity increased after restoration, but was still low compared to reference streams. We found no significant changes in trait proportions and functional diversity. Functional diversity, proportion of shredders and semivoltine invertebrates were significantly higher in reference streams than the restored stream reaches. We hypothesized that inputs of coarse particulate organic matter and land use at watershed scale may explain the differences in biodiversity between restored and reference stream reaches. Variables such as substrate composition, canopy cover or large wood pieces did not change from pre- to post-project, so could not explain the changes in the community. This may have been partly attributable to insensitivity of the visual estimate methods used, but likely also reflects an importance influence of watershed variables on aquatic biota - suggesting watershed actions may be more effective for the ecological recovery of streams. For future projects, we recommend multihabitat benthic sampling supported by studies of channel geomorphology to better understand stream response to restoration actions.

  3. Effects of coal mining, forestry, and road construction on southern Appalachian stream invertebrates and habitats.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, Michael M; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams. PMID:25528595

  4. Effects of Coal Mining, Forestry, and Road Construction on Southern Appalachian Stream Invertebrates and Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Michael M.; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W.; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams.

  5. The effects of road crossings on prairie stream habitat and function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouska, Wesley W.; Keane, Timothy; Paukert, Craig P.

    2010-01-01

    Improperly designed stream crossing structures may alter the form and function of stream ecosystems and habitat and prohibit the movement of aquatic organisms. Stream sections adjoining five concrete box culverts, five low-water crossings (concrete slabs vented by one or multiple culverts), and two large, single corrugated culvert vehicle crossings in eastern Kansas streams were compared to reference reaches using a geomorphologic survey and stream classification. Stream reaches were also compared upstream and downstream of crossings, and crossing measurements were used to determine which crossing design best mimicked the natural dimensions of the adjoining stream. Four of five low-water crossings, three of five box culverts, and one of two large, single corrugated pipe culverts changed classification from upstream to downstream of the crossings. Mean riffle spacing upstream at low-water crossings (8.6 bankfull widths) was double that of downstream reaches (mean 4.4 bankfull widths) but was similar upstream and downstream of box and corrugated pipe culverts. There also appeared to be greater deposition of fine sediments directly upstream of these designs. Box and corrugated culverts were more similar to natural streams than low-water crossings at transporting water, sediments, and debris during bankfull flows.

  6. RESTORATION OF STREAM PHYSICAL HABITAT AND FOOD RESOURCES: INFLUENCE ON JUVENILE COHO GROWTH AND SALMON DERIVED NUTRIENT INCORPORATION IN COASTAL OREGON STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT - Stream restoration in Western Oregon and Washington includes physical habitat improvement and salmon carcass additions. However, few studies examine the effects of carcass placement on juvenile fish in western Oregon, and in particular the interaction with physical hab...

  7. Mapping and Monitoring Stream Aquatic Habitat With a Narrow-Beam Green Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, J.; Wright, W.; Kinzel, P.; Isaak, D.

    2006-12-01

    Stream environments are structured by complex biophysical processes that operate across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Disentangling these multiscalar and multicausal relationships is difficult, but fundamental to understanding, managing, and monitoring channel aquatic ecosystems. Standard field wading surveys of stream physical habitat are limited by cost and logistics to relatively small, isolated samples. Traditional remotely sensed surveys, including methods such as photogrammetry and near-infrared lidar, suffer from attenuation by water and do not directly map submerged channel topography. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is a full-waveform lidar with a unique ability to simultaneously map, with relatively high resolution, subaqueous and subaerial topography and the vegetation canopy. We have used the EAARL instrument to investigate two dissimilar stream ecosystems. We mapped 40km of low gradient, meandering, gravel-bed streams in central Idaho that are spawning habitat for threatened Chinook salmon. We are using the continuous three-dimensional channel maps to quantitatively explore how channel features affect the distribution of salmon spawning at multiple spatial scales and how modern stream and floodplain topography is related to post-glacial valley evolution. In contrast, the Platte River in central Nebraska is a wide and shallow, sand-bedded river that provides habitat for migratory water birds, including endangered species such as the whooping crane and least tern. Multi-temporal EAARL data are being used to map and monitor the physical response of the Platte River to habitat improvement projects that include in-channel and riparian vegetation removal and river flow augmentation to limit vegetation encroachment.

  8. Morphological divergence and flow-induced phenotypic plasticity in a native fish from anthropogenically altered stream habitats.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Nathan R; Stewart, Laura K; Schaefer, Jacob F

    2013-11-01

    Understanding population-level responses to human-induced changes to habitats can elucidate the evolutionary consequences of rapid habitat alteration. Reservoirs constructed on streams expose stream fishes to novel selective pressures in these habitats. Assessing the drivers of trait divergence facilitated by these habitats will help identify evolutionary and ecological consequences of reservoir habitats. We tested for morphological divergence in a stream fish that occupies both stream and reservoir habitats. To assess contributions of genetic-level differences and phenotypic plasticity induced by flow variation, we spawned and reared individuals from both habitats types in flow and no flow conditions. Body shape significantly and consistently diverged in reservoir habitats compared with streams; individuals from reservoirs were shallower bodied with smaller heads compared with individuals from streams. Significant population-level differences in morphology persisted in offspring but morphological variation compared with field-collected individuals was limited to the head region. Populations demonstrated dissimilar flow-induced phenotypic plasticity when reared under flow, but phenotypic plasticity in response to flow variation was an unlikely explanation for observed phenotypic divergence in the field. Our results, together with previous investigations, suggest the environmental conditions currently thought to drive morphological change in reservoirs (i.e., predation and flow regimes) may not be the sole drivers of phenotypic change. PMID:24363894

  9. Predator avoidance during reproduction: diel movements by spawning sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitats.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kale T; Schindler, Daniel E; Cline, Timothy J; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Macias, Daniel; Ciepiela, Lindsy R; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-11-01

    Daily movements of mobile organisms between habitats in response to changing trade-offs between predation risk and foraging gains are well established; however, less in known about whether similar tactics are used during reproduction, a time period when many organisms are particularly vulnerable to predators. We investigated the reproductive behaviour of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and the activity of their principal predator, brown bears (Ursus arctos), on streams in south-western Alaska. Specifically, we continuously monitored movements of salmon between lake habitat, where salmon are invulnerable to bears, and three small streams, where salmon spawn and are highly vulnerable to bears. We conducted our study across 2 years that offered a distinct contrast in bear activity and predation rates. Diel movements by adult sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitat were observed in 51.3% ± 17.7% (mean ± SD) of individuals among years and sites. Fish that moved tended to hold in the lake for most of the day and then migrated into spawning streams during the night, coincident with when bear activity on streams tended to be lowest. Additionally, cyclic movements between lakes and spawning streams were concentrated earlier in the spawning season. Individuals that exhibited diel movements had longer average reproductive life spans than those who made only one directed movement into a stream. However, the relative effect was dependent on the timing of bear predation, which varied between years. When predation pressure primarily occurred early in the spawning run (i.e., during the height of the diel movements), movers lived 120-310% longer than non-movers. If predation pressure was concentrated later in the spawning run (i.e. when most movements had ceased), movers only lived 10-60% longer. Our results suggest a dynamic trade-off in reproductive strategies of sockeye salmon; adults must be in the stream to reproduce, but must also avoid predation long

  10. Towards an integrated forecasting system for fisheries on habitat-bound stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A.; Butenschön, M.; Gürkan, Z.; Allen, I. J.

    2013-03-01

    First results of a coupled modelling and forecasting system for fisheries on habitat-bound stocks are being presented. The system consists currently of three mathematically, fundamentally different model subsystems coupled offline: POLCOMS providing the physical environment implemented in the domain of the north-west European shelf, the SPAM model which describes sandeel stocks in the North Sea, and the third component, the SLAM model, which connects POLCOMS and SPAM by computing the physical-biological interaction. Our major experience by the coupling model subsystems is that well-defined and generic model interfaces are very important for a successful and extendable coupled model framework. The integrated approach, simulating ecosystem dynamics from physics to fish, allows for analysis of the pathways in the ecosystem to investigate the propagation of changes in the ocean climate and to quantify the impacts on the higher trophic level, in this case the sandeel population, demonstrated here on the basis of hindcast data. The coupled forecasting system is tested for some typical scientific questions appearing in spatial fish stock management and marine spatial planning, including determination of local and basin-scale maximum sustainable yield, stock connectivity and source/sink structure. Our presented simulations indicate that sandeel stocks are currently exploited close to the maximum sustainable yield, even though periodic overfishing seems to have occurred, but large uncertainty is associated with determining stock maximum sustainable yield due to stock inherent dynamics and climatic variability. Our statistical ensemble simulations indicates that the predictive horizon set by climate interannual variability is 2-6 yr, after which only an asymptotic probability distribution of stock properties, like biomass, are predictable.

  11. Evaluation of Macroinvertebrate Communities and Habitat for Selected Stream Reaches at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    L.J. Henne; K.J. Buckley

    2005-08-12

    This is the second aquatic biological monitoring report generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Water Quality and Hydrology Group. The study has been conducted to generate impact-based assessments of habitat and water quality for LANL waterways. The monitoring program was designed to allow for the detection of spatial and temporal trends in water and habitat quality through ongoing, biannual monitoring of habitat characteristics and benthic aquatic macroinvertebrate communities at six key sites in Los Alamos, Sandia, Water, Pajarito, and Starmer's Gulch Canyons. Data were collected on aquatic habitat characteristics, channel substrate, and macroinvertebrate communities during 2001 and 2002. Aquatic habitat scores were stable between 2001 and 2002 at all locations except Starmer's Gulch and Pajarito Canyon, which had lower scores in 2002 due to low flow conditions. Channel substrate changes were most evident at the upper Los Alamos and Pajarito study reaches. The macroinvertebrate Stream Condition Index (SCI) indicated moderate to severe impairment at upper Los Alamos Canyon, slight to moderate impairment at upper Sandia Canyon, and little or no impairment at lower Sandia Canyon, Starmer's Gulch, and Pajarito Canyon. Habitat, substrate, and macroinvertebrate data from the site in upper Los Alamos Canyon indicated severe impacts from the Cerro Grande Fire of 2000. Impairment in the macroinvertebrate community at upper Sandia Canyon was probably due to effluent-dominated flow at that site. The minimal impairment SCI scores for the lower Sandia site indicated that water quality improved with distance downstream from the outfall at upper Sandia Canyon.

  12. Fish assemblages and habitat relationships in a small northern Great Plains stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barfoot, C.A.; White, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    We examined fish populations and environmental characteristics of pool and riffle habitats of Little Beaver Creek, Montana, a small northern Great Plains stream. We collected 4,980 fishes representing 20 species in eight families. The most abundant and species-rich family was Cyprinidae. Nearly 88% (4,369) of all fishes were collected in pools. Pools also supported greater numbers ofspecies (x = 6.3, SO = 2.6, n = 58) than did riffles ( x = 2.2, SO = 1.9, n = 47). Most species showed distinct patterns of relative abundance along the stream gradient. Community changes were primarily reflected by the downstream addition of species; species replacement was of less importance. A multivariate analysis of fish relative abundance identified two relatively well-defined pool fish assemblages: a downstream assemblage comprised largely of native fluvial cyprinids, and a more diverse midstream-upstream assemblage comprised of fishes from several families. No well-defined assemblages were identified in riffle habitats. Environmental measures of stream size, substrate characteristics, water clarity, and banks ide conditions appeared to be associated with differences in fish assemblage structure. However, correlations between habitat conditions and fish assemblages were weak, possibly because a complex of factors act conculTently to shape assemblages.

  13. Assessing the Effects of Water Rights Purchases on Dissolved Oxygen, Stream Temperatures, and Fish Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzon, N. R.; Null, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Human impacts from land and water development have degraded water quality and altered the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of Nevada's Walker River. Reduced instream flows and increased nutrient concentrations affect native fish populations through warm daily stream temperatures and low nightly dissolved oxygen concentrations. Water rights purchases are being considered to maintain instream flows, improve water quality, and enhance habitat for native fish species, such as Lahontan cutthroat trout. This study uses the River Modeling System (RMSv4), an hourly, physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality model, to estimate streamflows, temperatures, and dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Walker River. We simulate thermal and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that water purchases most enhance native trout habitat. Stream temperatures and dissolved oxygen concentrations are proxies for trout habitat. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach currently acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage.

  14. Inland fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cable, Louella E.

    1971-01-01

    Today's inland commercial fisheries are small independent operational units widely dispersed on lakes, impoundments, and streams throughout the vast central plains. The problems of the fisheries are diverse and unique to local conditions. Inland fisheries are particularly important to the Nation in times of international conflict because they are distributed throughout the area and the fish can be easily harvested.

  15. Quantifying Stream Habitat: Relative Effort Versus Quality of Competing Remote Sensing & Ground-Based Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the quantity and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field sketches or ‘tape and stick’ ground-based surveys, through to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although some investigators have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the inter-comparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to quantify relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from different ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as enumerate the effort and cost in completing the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Three different traditional (“stick and tape”) survey techniques were used, including a variant using map-grade GPS. Complete topographic/bathymetric surveys were attempted at each site using separate rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR, boat-based echo-sounding (w/ ADCP), traditional airborne LiDaR, and imagery-based spectral methods. Separate, georectified aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Preliminary results from the surveys highlight that no single technique works across the full range of conditions where stream habitat surveys are needed. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each approach in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete quantification of habitat conditions in rivers.

  16. Assessment of the aquatic habitat quality of the mountain streams in Eastern Slovakia by bioindication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalcovikova, Monika; Skrovinova, Marcela; Stankoci, Ivan; Bajtek, Zbynek

    2010-05-01

    In 2008 was implemented topographical and ichtyological research on the chosen streams on the east of Slovakia. For hydraulic modeling was used RHABSIM model which is component of the IFIM (Instream Flow Incremental Methodology). IFIM is an interdisciplinary decision-making system, which has arisen as a result of the knowledge that most fish species prefer certain combinations of water depths, flow velocities, hiding places and materials of a riverbed. The research was aimed at the relationship between the quantitative parameters of ichthyofauna as a bioindicator and the ratio of habitat suitability. In the IFIM methodology the relationship between abiotic and biotic characteristics is represented by the habitat suitability curves of various fish species. Fish are the best bioindicators that most sensitively indicate the quality of a stream microhabitat. The habitat suitability curves of particular fish species are determined for the two most important abiotic characteristics - flow velocity and water depth. From our research, it follows that the technique of processing for the habitat suitability curve is a very important factor that significantly influences the whole process of habitat modeling. The assessment of the habitat quality proves the appropriate input for water-management planning and decision-making, e.g. determination of the minimal (ecological) flow, river restoration planning, or the assessment of the river regulation influence on the quality and quantity of its biological guilds. It can also be used as a substitute of the ichthyofauna biodiversity assessment. These models provide a basic overview of time and spatial interaction of physical and biological components of the river system. This methodology can even be used for modeling the unaffected character of stream according to the EU framework directive 2000/60/EC. Modeling of the aquatic habitat quality using the RHABSIM model requires the simulation of the velocity field verified for two water

  17. Relative influence of different habitat factors on creek chub population structure within channelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) are commonly found within channelized agricultural headwater streams within the Midwestern United States. Understanding the relationships of this headwater fish species with different habitat factors will provide information that can assist with developing resto...

  18. Generation rates and chemical compositions of waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore; Golub, Morton A.

    1990-01-01

    A judicious compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste feed streams in a typical crewed space habitat was made in connection with the waste-management aspect of NASA's Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Program. Waste composition definitions are needed for the design of waste-processing technologies involved in closing major life support functions in future long-duration human space missions. Tables of data for the constituents and chemical formulas of the following waste streams are presented and discussed: human urine, feces, hygiene (laundry and shower) water, cleansing agents, trash, humidity condensate, dried sweat, and trace contaminants. Tables of data on dust generation and pH values of the different waste streams are also presented and discussed.

  19. Contrasting habitat associations of imperilled endemic stream fishes from a global biodiversity hot spot

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the factors that drive species distributions provides a fundamental baseline for several areas of research including biogeography, phylogeography and biodiversity conservation. Data from 148 minimally disturbed sites across a large drainage system in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa were used to test the hypothesis that stream fishes have similar responses to environmental determinants of species distribution. Two complementary statistical approaches, boosted regression trees and hierarchical partitioning, were used to model the responses of four fish species to 11 environmental predictors, and to quantify the independent explanatory power of each predictor. Results Elevation, slope, stream size, depth and water temperature were identified by both approaches as the most important causal factors for the spatial distribution of the fishes. However, the species showed marked differences in their responses to these environmental variables. Elevation and slope were of primary importance for the laterally compressed Sandelia spp. which had an upstream boundary below 430 m above sea level. The fusiform shaped Pseudobarbus ‘Breede’ was strongly influenced by stream width and water temperature. The small anguilliform shaped Galaxias ‘nebula’ was more sensitive to stream size and depth, and also penetrated into reaches at higher elevation than Sandelia spp. and Pseudobarbus ‘Breede’. Conclusions The hypothesis that stream fishes have a common response to environmental descriptors is rejected. The contrasting habitat associations of stream fishes considered in this study could be a reflection of their morphological divergence which may allow them to exploit specific habitats that differ in their environmental stressors. Findings of this study encourage wider application of complementary methods in ecological studies, as they provide more confidence and deeper insights into the variables that should be managed to achieve desired

  20. Fish Communities and Habitat of Geomorphically Stable Reference Reaches in Streams of the Catskill Mountain Region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York City Department of Environmental Protection, began a 5-year study to develop a database that documents the physical and biological characteristics of nine stable reference reaches from seven streams in the New York City West of Hudson Water Supply Watershed in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State. Primary objectives of this study were to (1) develop a reference-reach database of morphology, aquatic biology, and fluvial processes, and (2) summarize the relations between fish communities, aquatic habitat, and stable stream morphology in streams in the Catskill Mountain region. Secondary objectives included documenting year-to-year variability in fish populations and stream habitat in geomorphically stable streams and demonstrating how reliably Habitat Suitability Index models can be used to characterize habitat conditions and predict the presence and abundance of populations of trout species. Fish and habitat databases were developed, and several important relations were identified. Fish-community indices differed considerably among sites where trout were present and where they were either absent or present in very low numbers; these differences were reflected in higher Habitat Suitability Index scores at trout-dominated sites. Several fish- community and habitat variables were found to be strongly associated with indices of stability and, therefore, determined to be useful tools for evaluating stream condition. Lastly, preliminary results suggest Rosgen stream type data can help refine fish and habitat relations and assist in our ability to predict habitat potential and fish-community composition.

  1. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume II, Appendix A, Fisheries Habitat Inventory.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Stream habitat inventories on 155 stream miles in the White River drainage on the Mt. Hood National Forest are summarized in this report. Inventory, data evaluation, and reporting work were accomplished within the framework of the budgetary agreements established between the USDA Forest Service, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Bonneville Power Administration, in the first 2 years of a multiyear program. One hundred forty-two stream miles of those inventoried on the Forest appear suitable for anadromous production. The surveyed area appears to contain most or all of the high quality fish habitat which would be potentially available for anadromous production if access is provided above the White River Falls below the Forest boundary. About 34 stream miles would be immediately accessible without further work on the Forest with passage at the Falls. Seventy-two additional miles could be made available with only minor (requiring low investment of money and planning) passage work further up the basin. Thirty-six miles of potential upstream habitat would likely require major investment to provide access.

  2. Colonization and extinction in dynamic habitats: an occupancy approach for a Great Plains stream fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Falke, Jeffrey A; Bailey, Larissa L; Fausch, Kurt D; Bestgen, Kevin R

    2012-04-01

    Despite the importance of habitat in determining species distribution and persistence, habitat dynamics are rarely modeled in studies of metapopulations. We used an integrated habitat-occupancy model to simultaneously quantify habitat change, site fidelity, and local colonization and extinction rates for larvae of a suite of Great Plains stream fishes in the Arikaree River, eastern Colorado, USA, across three years. Sites were located along a gradient of flow intermittency and groundwater connectivity. Hydrology varied across years: the first and third being relatively wet and the second dry. Despite hydrologic variation, our results indicated that site suitability was random from one year to the next. Occupancy probabilities were also independent of previous habitat and occupancy state for most species, indicating little site fidelity. Climate and groundwater connectivity were important drivers of local extinction and colonization, but the importance of groundwater differed between periods. Across species, site extinction probabilities were highest during the transition from wet to dry conditions (range: 0.52-0.98), and the effect of groundwater was apparent with higher extinction probabilities for sites not fed by groundwater. Colonization probabilities during this period were relatively low for both previously dry sites (range: 0.02-0.38) and previously wet sites (range: 0.02-0.43). In contrast, no sites dried or remained dry during the transition from dry to wet conditions, yielding lower but still substantial extinction probabilities (range: 0.16-0.63) and higher colonization probabilities (range: 0.06-0.86), with little difference among sites with and without groundwater. This approach of jointly modeling both habitat change and species occupancy will likely be useful to incorporate effects of dynamic habitat on metapopulation processes and to better inform appropriate conservation actions. PMID:22690636

  3. Modulation of Habitat-Based Conservation Plans by Fishery Opportunity Costs: A New Caledonia Case Study Using Fine-Scale Catch Data

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Marilyn; Andréfouët, Serge; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific), we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss) considering i) total catches, ii) target fish families, iii) local marine tenure, and iv) gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50–60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15–25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data. PMID:24835216

  4. Modulation of habitat-based conservation plans by fishery opportunity costs: a New Caledonia case study using fine-scale catch data.

    PubMed

    Deas, Marilyn; Andréfouët, Serge; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific), we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss) considering i) total catches, ii) target fish families, iii) local marine tenure, and iv) gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50-60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15-25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data. PMID:24835216

  5. Macrophytes, epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates as biotic indicators of physical habitat degradation of lowland streams (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Cortelezzi, Agustina; Sierra, María Victoria; Gómez, Nora; Marinelli, Claudia; Rodrigues Capítulo, Alberto

    2013-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the effect of the physical habitat degradation in three lowland streams of Argentina that are subject to different land uses. To address this matter, we looked into some physical habitat alterations, mainly the water quality and channel changes, the impact on macrophytes' community, and the structural and functional descriptors of the epipelic biofilm and invertebrate assemblages. As a consequence of physical and chemical perturbations, we differentiated sampling sites with different degradation levels. The low degraded sites were affected mainly for the suburban land use, the moderately degraded sites for the rural land use, and the highly degraded sites for the urban land use. The data shows that the biotic descriptors that best reflected the environmental degradation were vegetation cover and macrophytes richness, the dominance of tolerant species (epipelic biofilm and invertebrates), algal biomass, O2 consumption by the epipelic biofilm, and invertebrates' richness and diversity. Furthermore, the results obtained highlight the importance of the macrophytes in the lowland streams, where there is a poor diversification of abiotic substrates and where the macrophytes not only provide shelter but also a food source for invertebrates and other trophic levels such as fish. We also noted that both in benthic communities, invertebrates and epipelic biofilm supplied different information: the habitat's physical structure provided by the macrophytes influenced mainly the invertebrate descriptors; meanwhile, the water quality mainly influenced most of the epipelic biofilm descriptors. PMID:23149840

  6. Stable isotopes of C and S as indicators of habitat use by fish in small oregon Coast range streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. We have found isotopes of C and, surprisingly, S to be very useful in discriminating rearing habitats in our small streams. We found 13C values ...

  7. Contaminants as habitat disturbers: PAH-driven drift by Andean paramo stream insects.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-10-01

    Contaminants can behave as toxicants, when toxic effects are observed in organisms, as well as habitat disturbers and fragmentors, by triggering avoidance responses and generating less- or uninhabited zones. Drift by stream insects has long been considered a mechanism to avoid contamination by moving to most favorable habitats. Given that exploration and transportation of crude oil represent a threat for surrounding ecosystems, the key goal of the present study was to assess the ability of autochthonous groups of aquatic insects from the Ecuadorian paramo streams to avoid by drift different concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contained in the soluble fraction of locally transported crude oil. In the laboratory, different groups of insects were exposed to PAH for 12h. Three different assays, which varied in taxa and origin of the organisms, concentrations of PAH (0.6-38.8µgL(-1)), and environment settings (different levels of refuge and flow) were performed. For Anomalocosmoecus palugillensis (Limnephilidae), drift was a major cause of population decline in low concentration treatments but at higher concentrations mortality dominated. PAH was highly lethal, even at lower concentrations, for Chironomidae, Grypopterygidae (Claudioperla sp.) and Hydrobiosidae (Atopsyche sp.), and, therefore, no conclusion about drift can be drawn for these insects. Contamination by PAH showed to be a threat for benthic aquatic insects from Ecuadorian paramo streams as it can cause a population decline due to avoidance by drift and mortality. PMID:25042250

  8. A Spatially Explicit Approach for Evaluating Relationships among Coastal Cutthroat, Habitat, and Disturbance in Headwater Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresswell, R. E.; Bateman, D. S.; Torgersen, C. E.; Guy, T. J.; Hendricks, S. R.; Wofford, J. E.

    2005-05-01

    Headwater stream systems are complex networks that form a physicochemical template governing the persistence of aquatic species such as coastal cutthroat trout. Individual portions of the network can function as conduits or receptacles for sediments, wood, and nutrients from terrestrial areas. Temporal and spatial changes in the delivery of these constituents can substantially alter the habitat template and its ability to support this native fish. Our study of 40 mid-sized watersheds (500 - 1,500 ha) in western Oregon is providing new insights into the factors affecting the distribution of coastal cutthroat trout within, and among, headwater stream networks. For example, data suggest that coastal cutthroat trout move throughout the accessible portions of headwater streams for reproductive, feeding, and refuge purposes. Fish congregate in these areas and form local populations that may exhibit unique phenotypic and genetic attributes. At times, coastal cutthroat trout move into larger downstream portions of the network where they may contribute to the persistence and genetic character of anadromous or local potamodromous assemblages. Variation in distribution patterns among watersheds reflects diverse environments and selective factors, such as geology, geomorphology, climate, and land-management history. Our research findings suggest that human activities that impede movement among suitable habitat patches can have lasting consequences for local assemblages of coastal cutthroat trout and may ultimately affect persistence.

  9. Assessment of two Carolina watersheds using land and stream habitat quality indices

    SciTech Connect

    McQuaid, B.F.; Norfleet, L.

    1999-07-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has been directed to assist local landowners and communities to implement watershed improvement practices. The purpose of this study was to document current conditions in the Rocky River Watershed in North Carolina and the Saluda River Watershed in South Carolina. A variety of watershed assessment tools, including the NRCS Visual Stream Assessment (VSA), Stream Habitat Assessment (SHA), Riparian Vegetation Index (RVI), Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), and Land Quality Index (LQI) were used on a statistically representative portion of both watersheds. Overall, the SHA, VSA, and RVI rated the watershed's condition as good, whereas the IBI rated them as fair. Correlations between IBI and the other indices were poor, perhaps indicating these indices measure different features within the watersheds. The LQI emphasized the need for better characterization of urban land and riparian corridors. Inclusion of suburban lawns with the urban land indicator improved correlations between IBI and LQI by 20%. This pilot study suggests further scrutiny in applying quantitative stream physical habitat measures to assess watershed conditions. It also indicates additional study of the IBI by NRCS. Resources devoted to statistical design were valuable and should provide the NRCS with a framework for conducting future watershed studies.

  10. Spatiotemporal variability of stream habitat and movement of three species of fish.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James H; Angermeier, Paul L

    2007-03-01

    Relationships between environmental variability and movement are poorly understood, due to both their complexity and the limited ecological scope of most movement studies. We studied movements of fantail (Etheostoma flabellare), riverweed (E. podostemone), and Roanoke darters (Percina roanoka) through two stream systems during two summers. We then related movement to variability in measured habitat attributes using logistic regression and exploratory data plots. We indexed habitat conditions at both microhabitat (i.e., patches of uniform depth, velocity, and substrate) and mesohabitat (i.e., riffle and pool channel units) spatial scales, and determined how local habitat conditions were affected by landscape spatial (i.e., longitudinal position, land use) and temporal contexts. Most spatial variability in habitat conditions and fish movement was unexplained by a site's location on the landscape. Exceptions were microhabitat diversity, which was greater in the less-disturbed watershed, and riffle isolation and predator density in pools, which were greater at more-downstream sites. Habitat conditions and movement also exhibited only minor temporal variability, but the relative influences of habitat attributes on movement were quite variable over time. During the first year, movements of fantail and riverweed darters were triggered predominantly by loss of shallow microhabitats; whereas, during the second year, microhabitat diversity was more strongly related (though in opposite directions) to movement of these two species. Roanoke darters did not move in response to microhabitat-scale variables, presumably because of the species' preference for deeper microhabitats that changed little over time. Conversely, movement of all species appeared to be constrained by riffle isolation and predator density in pools, two mesohabitat-scale attributes. Relationships between environmental variability and movement depended on both the spatiotemporal scale of consideration and the

  11. Relationship between channel morphology and foraging habitat for stream salmonids: Effects of body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Channel morphology and dynamics strongly influence fish populations in running waters by defining habitat template for movement, spawning, incubation, and foraging. In this research we adopted a modeling approach to investigate how body size controls the relationship between salmonid fish and their foraging habitat in streams. Body size is a fundamental ecological parameter which affects resource acquisition, locomotory costs, metabolic rates, and competitive abilities. We focus on two specific questions. First, we examined how distinct types of channel morphology and associated flow fields shape specific growth potential for different body size classes of trout. Second, we modeled these fish-habitat relationships in a size-structured population in the presence of intraspecific competition. In the latter scenario, fish may not be able to occupy energetically optimal foraging habitat and the predicted specific growth potential may differ from the intrinsic habitat quality. To address the research questions, we linked a 2D hydrodynamic model with a bioenergetic foraging model for drift-feeding trout. Net energy intake, simulated for four study reaches with different channel morphology, was converted into maps of specific growth rate potential. We extended this model by including a component that enabled us to estimate territory size for fish of a given body size and account for the effects of competition on spatial distribution of fish. The predictions that emerge from our simulations highlight that fish body size is an important factor that determines the relationship between channel morphology and the quality of foraging habitat. The results also indicate that distinct types of channel morphology may give rise to different energetic conditions for different body size classes of drift-feeding salmonids.

  12. Spatiotemporal variability of stream habitat and movement of three species of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, J.H.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Relationships between environmental variability and movement are poorly understood, due to both their complexity and the limited ecological scope of most movement studies. We studied movements of fantail (Etheostoma flabellare), riverweed (E. podostemone), and Roanoke darters (Percina roanoka) through two stream systems during two summers. We then related movement to variability in measured habitat attributes using logistic regression and exploratory data plots. We indexed habitat conditions at both microhabitat (i.e., patches of uniform depth, velocity, and substrate) and mesohabitat (i.e., riffle and pool channel units) spatial scales, and determined how local habitat conditions were affected by landscape spatial (i.e., longitudinal position, land use) and temporal contexts. Most spatial variability in habitat conditions and fish movement was unexplained by a site's location on the landscape. Exceptions were microhabitat diversity, which was greater in the less-disturbed watershed, and riffle isolation and predator density in pools, which were greater at more-downstream sites. Habitat conditions and movement also exhibited only minor temporal variability, but the relative influences of habitat attributes on movement were quite variable over time. During the first year, movements of fantail and riverweed darters were triggered predominantly by loss of shallow microhabitats; whereas, during the second year, microhabitat diversity was more strongly related (though in opposite directions) to movement of these two species. Roanoke darters did not move in response to microhabitat-scale variables, presumably because of the species' preference for deeper microhabitats that changed little over time. Conversely, movement of all species appeared to be constrained by riffle isolation and predator density in pools, two mesohabitat-scale attributes. Relationships between environmental variability and movement depended on both the spatiotemporal scale of consideration and the

  13. Low-head sea lamprey barrier effects on stream habitat and fish communities in the Great Lakes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, H.R.; Hayes, D.B.; Baylis, J.R.; Carl, L.M.; Goldstein, J.D.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Noakes, D.L.G.; Porto, L.M.; Jones, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Low-head barriers are used to block adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from upstream spawning habitat. However, these barriers may impact stream fish communities through restriction of fish movement and habitat alteration. During the summer of 1996, the fish community and habitat conditions in twenty-four stream pairs were sampled across the Great Lakes basin. Seven of these stream pairs were re-sampled in 1997. Each pair consisted of a barrier stream with a low-head barrier and a reference stream without a low-head barrier. On average, barrier streams were significantly deeper (df = 179, P = 0.0018) and wider (df = 179, P = 0.0236) than reference streams, but temperature and substrate were similar (df = 183, P = 0.9027; df = 179, P = 0.999). Barrier streams contained approximately four more fish species on average than reference streams. However, streams with low-head barriers showed a greater upstream decline in species richness compared to reference streams with a net loss of 2.4 species. Barrier streams also showed a peak in richness directly downstream of the barriers, indicating that these barriers block fish movement upstream. Using S??renson's similarity index (based on presence/absence), a comparison of fish community assemblages above and below low-head barriers was not significantly different than upstream and downstream sites on reference streams (n = 96, P > 0.05), implying they have relatively little effect on overall fish assemblage composition. Differences in the frequency of occurrence and abundance between barrier and reference streams was apparent for some species, suggesting their sensitivity to barriers.

  14. Warm season chloride concentrations in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk.

    PubMed

    Todd, Aaron K; Kaltenecker, M Georgina

    2012-12-01

    Warm season (May-October) chloride concentrations were assessed in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk in southern Ontario, Canada. Significant increases in concentrations were observed at 96% of 24 long-term (1975-2009) monitoring sites. Concentrations were described as a function of road density indicating an anthropogenic source of chloride. Linear regression showed that 36% of the variation of concentrations was explained by road salt use by the provincial transportation ministry. Results suggest that long-term road salt use and retention is contributing to a gradual increase in baseline chloride concentrations in at risk mussel habitats. Exposure of sensitive mussel larvae (glochidia) to increasing chloride concentrations may affect recruitment to at risk mussel populations. PMID:22940273

  15. Continuing education needs for fishery professionals: a survey of North American fisheries administrators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rassam, G.N.; Eisler, R.

    2001-01-01

    North American fishery professionals? continuing education needs were investigated in an American Fisheries Society questionnaire sent to 111 senior fishery officials in winter 2000. Based on a response rate of 52.2% (N = 58), a minimum of 2,967 individuals would benefit from additional training, especially in the areas of statistics and analysis (83% endorsement rate), restoration and enhancement (81%), population dynamics (81%), multi-species interactions (79%), and technical writing (79%). Other skills and techniques recommended by respondents included computer skills (72%), fishery modeling (69%), habitat modification (67%), watershed processes (66%), fishery management (64%), riparian and stream ecology (62%), habitat management (62%), public administration (62%), nonindigenous species (57%), and age and growth (55%). Additional comments by respondents recommended new technical courses, training in various communications skills, and courses to more effectively manage workloads.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of stream burial and its effect on habitat connectivity across headwater stream communities of the Potomac River Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzell, R.; Guinn, S. M.; Elmore, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The process of directing streams into culverts, pipes, or concrete-lined ditches during urbanization, known as stream burial, alters the primary physical, chemical, and biological processes of streams. Knowledge of the cumulative impacts of reduced structure and ecological function within buried stream networks is crucial for informing management of stream ecosystems, in light of continued growth in urban areas, and the uncertain response of freshwater ecosystems to the stresses of global climate change. To address this need, we utilized recently improved stream maps for the Potomac River Basin (PRB) to describe the extent and severity of stream burial across the basin. Observations of stream burial made from high resolution aerial photographs (>1% of total basin area) and a decision tree using spatial statistics from impervious cover data were used to predict stream burial at 4 time-steps (1975, 1990, 2001, 2006). Of the roughly 95,500 kilometers (km) of stream in the PRB, approximately 4551 km (4.76%) were buried by urban development as of 2001. Analysis of county-level burial trends shows differential patterns in the timing and rates of headwater stream burial, which may be due to local development policies, topographical constraints, and/or time since development. Consistently higher rates of stream burial were observed for small streams, decreasing with stream order. Headwater streams (1st-2nd order) are disproportionately affected, with burial rates continuing to increase over time in relation to larger stream orders. Beyond simple habitat loss, headwater burial decreases connectivity among headwater populations and habitats, with potential to affect a wide range of important ecological processes. To quantify changes to regional headwater connectivity we applied a connectivity model based on electrical circuit theory. Circuit-theoretical models function by treating the landscape as a resistance surface, representing hypothesized relationships between

  17. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Habitat and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages Along a Neotropical Stream Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon-Gaud, C.; Whiles, M. R.

    2005-05-01

    Information on the structure and function of upland Neotropical streams is lacking compared to many other regions. We examined habitat characteristics and macroinvertebrate assemblages along an 8-km stretch of a stream originating on the continental divide in central Panama in order to examine patterns along a stream continuum. Wetted width and discharge ranged from 1 m and 18 L/s, respectively in the uppermost headwaters to 12 m and 1,580 L/s, respectively at the lowest reach examined. Percent substrate composition showed a decrease in fine particle sizes from upper headwater reaches (38%) to the lowest reach (10%). A total of 61 macroinvertebrate taxa were identified along the continuum, with more taxa present in lower reaches (45) compared to headwaters (28), but responses of individual groups varied. Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Diptera richness increased from headwaters to the lowest site, whereas Hemiptera and Coleoptera richness decreased along the gradient. Collector-gatherers and predators were the dominant functional groups (~70% of total abundance) and changed little across sites. Shredder abundance was highest in headwaters (15% of total), while scrapers (20%) and collector/filterers (11%) peaked in the lower reaches. These patterns suggest that upland streams in this region follow basic tenets of the River Continuum Concept.

  18. Forecasting effects of climate change on Great Lakes fisheries: models that link habitat supply to population dynamics can help

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Zhao, Yingming; Stockwell, Jason D.

    2006-01-01

    Future changes to climate in the Great Lakes may have important consequences for fisheries. Evidence suggests that Great Lakes air and water temperatures have risen and the duration of ice cover has lessened during the past century. Global circulation models (GCMs) suggest future warming and increases in precipitation in the region. We present new evidence that water temperatures have risen in Lake Erie, particularly during summer and winter in the period 1965–2000. GCM forecasts coupled with physical models suggest lower annual runoff, less ice cover, and lower lake levels in the future, but the certainty of these forecasts is low. Assessment of the likely effects of climate change on fish stocks will require an integrative approach that considers several components of habitat rather than water temperature alone. We recommend using mechanistic models that couple habitat conditions to population demographics to explore integrated effects of climate-caused habitat change and illustrate this approach with a model for Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreum). We show that the combined effect on walleye populations of plausible changes in temperature, river hydrology, lake levels, and light penetration can be quite different from that which would be expected based on consideration of only a single factor.

  19. The role of beaver in shaping steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat complexity and thermal refugia in a central Oregon stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolati, F.; Wheaton, J. M.; Neilson, B. T.; Bouwes, N.; Pollock, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek, tributary to the John Day River in central Oregon, is thought to be limiting the local population of ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Restoration efforts for this watershed are aimed to improve their habitat through reconnecting the channel with portions of its former floodplain (now terraces) to increase stream habitat complexity and the extent of riparian vegetation. This is being done via the installation of over a hundred beaver dam support (BDS) structures that are designed to either mimic beaver dams or support existing beaver dams. The overall objective of this study is to determine if the BDS structures have had an effect on stream channel habitat complexity and thermal refugia in selected sections of Bridge Creek. Analysis of stream temperature data in restoration treatment and control areas will show the effects of beaver dams on stream temperature. Analysis of aerial imagery and high resolution topographic data will exhibit how the number and types of geomorphic units have changed after the construction of beaver dams. Combined, the results of this research are aimed to increase our understanding of how beaver dams impact fish habitat and stream temperature.

  20. 76 FR 35408 - Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Components of Fishery Management Plans (Northeast Multispecies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... need for the Omnibus EFH Amendment can be found in the original NOI dated February 24, 2004, (69 FR... EIS (DEIS) was published on April 6, 2007 (72 FR 17157). Phase 2 will include an evaluation of the... Amendment to the fishery management plans (FMPs) for Northeast (NE) multispecies, Atlantic sea...

  1. Modelling climate-change impacts on stream temperature of Formosan landlocked salmon habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Ching-Pin; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Yang, Yi-Chen

    2006-04-01

    A physics-based model is provided for predicting the impact of climate change on stream temperature and, in turn, on Formosan landlocked salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus) habitat. Because upstream watersheds on Taiwan Island are surrounded with high and steep mountains, the influence of mountain shading on solar radiation and longwave radiation is taken into account by using a digital elevation model. Projections using CGCM2 and HADCM3 models and CCCM and GISS models provided information on future climatic conditions. The results indicate that annual average stream temperatures may rise by 0.5 °C (HADCM3 short term) to 2.9 °C (CGCM2 long term) due to climate change. The simulation results also indicate that the average suitable habitat for the Formosan landlocked salmon may decline by 333 m (HADCM3 short term) to 1633 m (CGCM2 long term) and 166 m (HADCM3 short term) to 1833 m (CGCM2 long term) depending on which thermal criterion (17 °C and 18 °C respectively) is applied. The results of this study draw attention to the tasks of Formosan landlocked salmon conservation agencies, not only with regard to restoration plans of the local environment, but also to the mitigation strategies to global climate change that are necessary and require further research.

  2. Effects of Land Use, Physical Habitat Type, and Stream Geomorphic Type at Multiple Spatial Scales on Fish Community Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfrani, C. M.; Sullivan, S. P.; Hession, W. C.; Watzin, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Twenty-five independent stream reaches in northwestern Vermont, USA spanning a range of geomorphic conditions were surveyed to determine the effects of land use and physical habitat on fish community diversity at multiple spatial scales including watershed, local riparian, and in-stream. Watershed-scale parameters were evaluated using a geographic information system (GIS) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed modeling software. Riparian vegetation was surveyed and classified in the field. In-stream physical characteristics were assessed using rapid geomorphic and rapid habitat assessments. Detailed in-stream geomorphic surveys and habitat assessments were also completed to provide quantitative data for each site. In-stream physical habitat was classified as having either predominantly pool-riffle type or comprised of multiple channel types. Fish were sampled using a bag seine at three to four locations selected to represent major flow habitats. Three fish community diversity measures were calculated: 1) Species richness (S); Shannon-Weaver Index (H'); and Simpson's Index (1/D). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal components analysis (PCA), and multiple regression were used to assess the relative importance of and the relationships between and among land use/physical habitat type and fish community diversity. Watershed scale land use was found to be a significant predictor of fish community diversity. Further, fish community diversity was higher for all three measures in streams with multiple channel types as compared to predominantly pool-riffle streams. Our results suggest that sampling strategies for fish (and potentially other biota) that focus on homogeneous reaches may underestimate diversity. In order to address these issues, comprehensive watershed management and restoration/protection plans should include assessment at multiple scales from a geomorphological, watershed, and ecological perspective.

  3. Baseline Channel Geometry and Aquatic Habitat Data for Selected Streams in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.; Rice, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Small streams in the rapidly developing Matanuska-Susitna Valley in south-central Alaska are known to support anadromous and resident fish but little is known about their hydrologic and riparian conditions, or their sensitivity to the rapid development of the area or climate variability. To help address this need, channel geometry and aquatic habitat data were collected in 2005 as a baseline of stream conditions for selected streams. Three streams were selected as representative of various stream types, and one drainage network, the Big Lake drainage basin, was selected for a systematic assessment. Streams in the Big Lake basin were drawn in a Geographic Information System (GIS), and 55 reaches along 16 miles of Meadow Creek and its primary tributary Little Meadow Creek were identified from orthoimagery and field observations on the basis of distinctive physical and habitat parameters, most commonly gradient, substrate, and vegetation. Data-collection methods for sites at the three representative reaches and the 55 systematically studied reaches consisted of a field survey of channel and flood-plain geometry and collection of 14 habitat attributes using published protocols or slight modifications. Width/depth and entrenchment ratios along the Meadow-Little Meadow Creek corridor were large and highly variable upstream of Parks Highway and lower and more consistent downstream of Parks Highway. Channel width was strongly correlated with distance, increasing downstream in a log-linear relation. Runs formed the most common habitat type, and instream vegetation dominated the habitat cover types, which collectively covered 53 percent of the channel. Gravel suitable for spawning covered isolated areas along Meadow Creek and about 29 percent of Little Meadow Creek. Broad wetlands were common along both streams. For a comprehensive assessment of small streams in the Mat-Su Valley, critical additional data needs include hydrologic, geologic and geomorphic, and biologic data

  4. Refuge habitats for fishes during seasonal drying in an intermittent stream: Movement, survival and abundance of three minnow species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, S.W.; Magoulick, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Drought and summer drying can be important disturbance events in many small streams leading to intermittent or isolated habitats. We examined what habitats act as refuges for fishes during summer drying, hypothesizing that pools would act as refuge habitats. We predicted that during drying fish would show directional movement into pools from riffle habitats, survival rates would be greater in pools than in riffles, and fish abundance would increase in pool habitats. We examined movement, survival and abundance of three minnow species, bigeye shiner (Notropis boops), highland stoneroller (Campostoma spadiceum) and creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), during seasonal stream drying in an Ozark stream using a closed robust multi-strata mark-recapture sampling. Population parameters were estimated using plausible models within program MARK, where a priori models are ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Creek chub showed directional movement into pools and increased survival and abundance in pools during drying. Highland stonerollers showed strong directional movement into pools and abundance increased in pools during drying, but survival rates were not significantly greater in pools than riffles. Bigeye shiners showed high movement rates during drying, but the movement was non-directional, and survival rates were greater in riffles than pools. Therefore, creek chub supported our hypothesis and pools appear to act as refuge habitats for this species, whereas highland stonerollers partly supported the hypothesis and bigeye shiners did not support the pool refuge hypothesis. Refuge habitats during drying are species dependent. An urgent need exists to further understand refuge habitats in streams given projected changes in climate and continued alteration of hydrological regimes. ?? 2011 Springer Basel AG (outside the USA).

  5. Refuge habitats for fishes during seasonal drying in an intermittent stream: movement, survival and abundance of three minnow species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, S.W.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    Drought and summer drying can be important disturbance events in many small streams leading to intermittent or isolated habitats. We examined what habitats act as refuges for fishes during summer drying, hypothesizing that pools would act as refuge habitats. We predicted that during drying fish would show directional movement into pools from riffle habitats, survival rates would be greater in pools than in riffles, and fish abundance would increase in pool habitats. We examined movement, survival and abundance of three minnow species, bigeye shiner (Notropis boops), highland stoneroller (Campostoma spadiceum) and creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), during seasonal stream drying in an Ozark stream using a closed robust multi-strata mark-recapture sampling. Population parameters were estimated using plausible models within program MARK, where a priori models are ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Creek chub showed directional movement into pools and increased survival and abundance in pools during drying. Highland stonerollers showed strong directional movement into pools and abundance increased in pools during drying, but survival rates were not significantly greater in pools than riffles. Bigeye shiners showed high movement rates during drying, but the movement was non-directional, and survival rates were greater in riffles than pools. Therefore, creek chub supported our hypothesis and pools appear to act as refuge habitats for this species, whereas highland stonerollers partly supported the hypothesis and bigeye shiners did not support the pool refuge hypothesis. Refuge habitats during drying are species dependent. An urgent need exists to further understand refuge habitats in streams given projected changes in climate and continued alteration of hydrological regimes.

  6. Fish, benthic macroinvertebrate, and stream habitat data from the Houston-Galveston Area Council service area, Texas, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce; Rosendale, John C.; Ansley, Stephen P.; Brown, Dexter W.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected fish, benthic macroinvertebrate, and stream habitat data at sampling sites in the Houston-Galveston Area Council service area, a 15-county area with a population of about 4.3 million people. The data were collected for a 1997?98 study in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council to provide data for the Texas Clean Rivers Program for watersheds near Houston, Texas. Fish community and stream habitat data were collected at all 56 sites selected, and benthic macroinvertebrate data were collected at 39 of the sites.

  7. Water quality, physical habitat, and fish community composition in streams in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talmage, Philip J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Anderson, Jesse P.; Fallon, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Water quality, physical habitat, and fish-community composition were characterized at 13 Twin Cities metropolitan area streams during low-flow conditions, September 1997. Fish communities were resampled during September 1998. Sites were selected based on a range of human population density. Nutrient concentrations were generally low, rarely exceeding concentrations found in agricultural streams or water-quality criteria. Seventeen pesticides and five pesticide metabolites were detected, with atrazine being the only pesticide detected at all 13 streams. Colony counts of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 54 to greater than 11,000 colonies per 100 mL. Instream fish habitat was sparse with little woody debris and few boulders, cobble, or other suitable fish habitat. Thirty?eight species and one hybrid from 10 families were collected. Fish communities were characterized by high percentages of omnivores and tolerant species with few intolerant species. Index of Biotic Integrity scores were low, with most streams rating fair to very poor. Percent impervious surface was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations and human population density, but was negatively correlated with fish species richness and diversity. Urban land use and human population density influence fish communities and water quality in Twin Cities metropolitan area streams. Other factors that may influence fish community composition include percent impervious cover, water chemistry, water temperature, geomorphology, substrate, instream habitat, and migration barriers.

  8. Effects of climate change and wildfire on stream temperatures and salmonid thermal habitat in a mountain river network.

    PubMed

    Isaak, Daniel J; Luce, Charles H; Rieman, Bruce E; Nagel, David E; Peterson, Erin E; Horan, Dona L; Parkes, Sharon; Chandler, Gwynne L

    2010-07-01

    Mountain streams provide important habitats for many species, but their faunas are especially vulnerable to climate change because of ectothermic physiologies and movements that are constrained to linear networks that are easily fragmented. Effectively conserving biodiversity in these systems requires accurate downscaling of climatic trends to local habitat conditions, but downscaling is difficult in complex terrains given diverse microclimates and mediation of stream heat budgets by local conditions. We compiled a stream temperature database (n = 780) for a 2500-km river network in central Idaho to assess possible trends in summer temperatures and thermal habitat for two native salmonid species from 1993 to 2006. New spatial statistical models that account for network topology were parameterized with these data and explained 93% and 86% of the variation in mean stream temperatures and maximas, respectively. During our study period, basin average mean stream temperatures increased by 0.38 degrees C (0.27 degrees C/decade), and maximas increased by 0.48 degrees C (0.34 degrees C/decade), primarily due to long-term (30-50 year) trends in air temperatures and stream flows. Radiation increases from wildfires accounted for 9% of basin-scale temperature increases, despite burning 14% of the basin. Within wildfire perimeters, however, stream temperature increases were 2-3 times greater than basin averages, and radiation gains accounted for 50% of warming. Thermal habitat for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was minimally affected by temperature increases, except for small shifts towards higher elevations. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in contrast, were estimated to have lost 11-20% (8-16%/decade) of the headwater stream lengths that were cold enough for spawning and early juvenile rearing, with the largest losses occurring in the coldest habitats. Our results suggest that a warming climate has begun to affect thermal conditions in streams and that impacts to

  9. Impacts of new highways and subsequent landscape urbanization on stream habitat and biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, A.P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Rosenberger, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    New highways are pervasive, pernicious threats to stream ecosystems because of their short- and long-term physical, chemical, and biological impacts. Unfortunately, standard environmental impact statements (EISs) and environmental assessments (EAs) focus narrowly on the initial direct impacts of construction and ignore other long-term indirect impacts. More thorough consideration of highway impacts, and, ultimately, better land use decisions may be facilitated by conceptualizing highway development in three stages: initial highway construction, highway presence, and eventual landscape urbanization. Highway construction is characterized by localized physical disturbances, which generally subside through time. In contrast, highway presence and landscape urbanization are characterized by physical and chemical impacts that are temporally persistent. Although the impacts of highway presence and landscape urbanization are of similar natures, the impacts are of a greater magnitude and more widespread in the urbanization phase. Our review reveals that the landscape urbanization stage is clearly the greatest threat to stream habitat and biota, as stream ecosystems are sensitive to even low levels (<10%) of watershed urban development. Although highway construction is ongoing, pervasive, and has severe biological consequences, we found few published investigations of its impacts on streams. Researchers know little about the occurrence, loading rates, and biotic responses to specific contaminants in highway runoff. Also needed is a detailed understanding of how highway crossings, especially culverts, affect fish populations via constraints on movement and how highway networks alter natural regimes (e.g., streamflow, temperature). Urbanization research topics that may yield especially useful results include a) the relative importance and biological effects of specific components of urban development - e.g., commercial or residential; b) the scenarios under which impacts are

  10. Understanding the Effects of Multiscale Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions on Scott River Baseflow and Stream Temperature in Support of Beneficial Salmon Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, R.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Scott River watershed is one of only a handful of major watersheds in California that include a zone of adjudicated groundwater and that is not managed by a major reservoir. The Scott River is a major tributary in the Klamath River basin, providing habitat for cold water salmon fishery, including the migration, spawning, reproduction, and early development of cold water fish such as coho salmon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout. The Scott Valley entertains extensive alfalfa and hay productions that provide the economic base for the agricultural valley. Due to the Mediterranean climate in the area, discharge rates in the river are highly seasonal. Almost all annual discharge occurs during the winter precipitation season and spring snowmelt. During the summer months (July through September), the main-stem river becomes disconnected from its tributaries throughout much of Scott Valley and relies primarily on baseflow from the Scott Valley aquifer. Summer baseflow in the Scott supports juvenile coho salmon that remain in the Valley until the following winter. Stream temperatures in the Scott River have increased to levels that are not considered sustainable for the native salmon population. Concurrently, late summer/early fall baseflow has decreased, possibly leading to substantial deterioration of habitat conditions. Increased temperature and decreased baseflow are thought to be due in part to groundwater pumping for irrigation and to increased solar radiation from lack of shade by riparian vegetation. Scott Valley agriculture relies on a combination of surface water and groundwater supplies for crop irrigation during April through September. Regional scale surface water - groundwater modeling is employed to investigate the benefits to mid-and late summer baseflow in the Scott River of various conjunctive use management alternatives, including increased spring irrigation recharge and deficit irrigation. Field measurements of stream temperature indicate that

  11. Use of standardized visual assessments of riparian and stream condition to manage riparian bird habitat in eastern Oregon.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Hilary A; Zack, Steve

    2009-07-01

    The importance of riparian vegetation to support stream function and provide riparian bird habitat in semiarid landscapes suggests that standardized assessment tools that include vegetation criteria to evaluate stream health could also be used to assess habitat conditions for riparian-dependent birds. We first evaluated the ability of two visual assessments of woody vegetation in the riparian zone (corridor width and height) to describe variation in the obligate riparian bird ensemble along 19 streams in eastern Oregon. Overall species richness and the abundances of three species all correlated significantly with both, but width was more important than height. We then examined the utility of the riparian zone criteria in three standardized and commonly used rapid visual riparian assessment protocols--the USDI BLM Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessment, the USDA NRCS Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), and the U.S. EPA Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet (HAFDS)--to assess potential riparian bird habitat. Based on the degree of correlation of bird species richness with assessment ratings, we found that PFC does not assess obligate riparian bird habitat condition, SVAP provides a coarse estimate, and HAFDS provides the best assessment. We recommend quantitative measures of woody vegetation for all assessments and that all protocols incorporate woody vegetation height. Given that rapid assessments may be the only source of information for thousands of kilometers of streams in the western United States, incorporating simple vegetation measurements is a critical step in evaluating the status of riparian bird habitat and provides a tool for tracking changes in vegetation condition resulting from management decisions. PMID:18574622

  12. Use of Standardized Visual Assessments of Riparian and Stream Condition to Manage Riparian Bird Habitat in Eastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Hilary A.; Zack, Steve

    2009-07-01

    The importance of riparian vegetation to support stream function and provide riparian bird habitat in semiarid landscapes suggests that standardized assessment tools that include vegetation criteria to evaluate stream health could also be used to assess habitat conditions for riparian-dependent birds. We first evaluated the ability of two visual assessments of woody vegetation in the riparian zone (corridor width and height) to describe variation in the obligate riparian bird ensemble along 19 streams in eastern Oregon. Overall species richness and the abundances of three species all correlated significantly with both, but width was more important than height. We then examined the utility of the riparian zone criteria in three standardized and commonly used rapid visual riparian assessment protocols—the USDI BLM Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessment, the USDA NRCS Stream Visual Assessment Protocol (SVAP), and the U.S. EPA Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet (HAFDS)—to assess potential riparian bird habitat. Based on the degree of correlation of bird species richness with assessment ratings, we found that PFC does not assess obligate riparian bird habitat condition, SVAP provides a coarse estimate, and HAFDS provides the best assessment. We recommend quantitative measures of woody vegetation for all assessments and that all protocols incorporate woody vegetation height. Given that rapid assessments may be the only source of information for thousands of kilometers of streams in the western United States, incorporating simple vegetation measurements is a critical step in evaluating the status of riparian bird habitat and provides a tool for tracking changes in vegetation condition resulting from management decisions.

  13. Fall and winter habitat use and movement by Columbia River redband trout in a small stream in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bennett, David H.; Marotz, B.

    2001-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to quantify the movements and habitat use of resident adult Columbia River redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (hereafter, redband trout) from October to December 1997 in South Fork Callahan Creek, a third-order tributary to Callahan Creek in the Kootenai River drainage in northwestern Montana. All redband trout (N = 23) were consistently relocated in a stream reach with moderate gradient (2.3%) near the site of original capture. Some fish (N = 13) displayed sedentary behavior, whereas others were mobile (N = 10). The mean total distance moved during the study for all fish combined was 64 m (SD = 105 m; range, 0–362 m), and the mean home range from October through December was 67 m (SD = 99 m; range, 5–377 m). Thirteen redband trout made short upstream and downstream movements (mean total movement = 134 m; range, 8–362 m) that were related to habitat use. Mobile fish commonly migrated to complex pools that spanned the entire channel width (primary pools). Eight of 10 fish that did not change habitat location occupied primary pools, whereas the remaining 2 fish occupied lateral pools. Fish commonly overwintered in primary pools dominated by cobble and boulder substrates that contained large woody debris. As water temperatures decreased from 3.2–6.3°C in October to 0–3.8°C in November and December, we found a 29% average increase (46–75%) in the proportional use of primary pool habitats. The lack of extensive movement and small home ranges indicate that adult redband trout found suitable overwintering habitat in deep pools with extensive amounts of cover within a third-order mountain stream. Resource managers who wish to protect overwintering habitat features preferred by redband trout throughout their limited range in streams affected by land management practices could apply strategies that protect and enhance pool habitat and stream complexity.

  14. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF COASTAL HABITAT ALTERATIONS ON FISHERY RESOURCES: TOWARD PREDICTION AT REGIONAL SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The integrity of aquatic ecosystems and habitats at the land-sea interface is challeneged by several forces, ranging from plot scale destruction and disturbance, to watershed scale perturbations, to global changes in climate and human demographis. The scientific challenge is to ...

  15. Ecosystem Services of Coastal Habitats and Fisheries: Multi-Scale Ecological and Economic Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical habitats for fish and wildlife often are small patches in landscapes, e.g., aquatic vegetation beds, reefs, isolated ponds and wetlands, remnant old growth forests, etc, yet the same animal populations that depend on these patches for reproduction or survival can be exte...

  16. Progress in understanding the importance of coastal wetland nursery habitat to Great Lakes fisheries support

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide important habitat for Great Lakes fishes of all life stages. A literature review of ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Great Lakes coastal wetlands found at least 82 species reported to be captured during the larval stage. Twenty of those sp...

  17. Islands in the ice stream: were spawning habitats for native salmonids in the Great Lakes created by paleo-ice streams?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen; Binder, Thomas R.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Menzies, John; Eyles, Nick; Janssen, John; Muir, Andrew M.; Esselman, Peter C.; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and cisco Coregonus artedi are salmonid fishes native to the Laurentian Great Lakes that spawn on rocky substrates in the fall and early winter. After comparing the locations of spawning habitat for these species in the main basin of Lake Huron with surficial substrates and the hypothesized locations of fast-flowing Late Wisconsinan paleo-ice streams, we hypothesize that much of the spawning habitat for these species in Lake Huron is the result of deposition and erosion by paleo-ice streams. This hypothesis may represent a new framework for the identification and protection of spawning habitat for these native species, some of which are currently rare or extirpated in some of the Great Lakes. We further suggest that paleo-ice streams may have been responsible for the creation of native salmonid spawning habitat elsewhere in the Great Lakes and in other glaciated landscapes.

  18. A comparison of the performance and compatibility of protocols used by seven monitoring groups to measure stream habitat in the Pacific Northwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    To comply with legal mandates, meet local management objectives, or both, many federal, state, and tribal organizations have monitoring groups that assess stream habitat at different scales. This myriad of groups has difficulty sharing data and scaling up stream habitat assessmen...

  19. Influence of herbaceous riparian buffers on physical habitat, water chemistry, and stream communities within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbaceous riparian buffers are a widely used agricultural conservation practice in the United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment loadings in agricultural streams. The ecological impacts of herbaceous riparian buffers on the channelized agricultural headwater streams that are comm...

  20. An Analysis of Potential Stream Fish and Fish Habitat Monitoring Procedures for the Inland Northwest: Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, James T.; Wollrab, Sherry P.

    1999-09-01

    Recent concerns over the rapid declines of native stream-fish populations in the inland Northwest have prompted the USDA Forest Service to institute interim land management practices intended to stop further declines in fish habitat quality and protect existing high quality habitat. Natural resource managers in the Inland Northwest need tools for assessing the success or failure of conservation policies and the impacts of management actions on fish and fish habitats. Effectiveness monitoring is one such potential tool, but there are currently no established monitoring protocols. Since 1991, US Forest Service biologists have used the standardized R1/R4 inventory procedures to measure fish and fish habitats on agency lands throughout the Intermountain West. The widespread use and acceptance of these standardized procedures and the large amount of data collected suggest that the R1/R4 procedures might provide the basis for an effectiveness monitoring protocol. Using fish and fish habitat data collected by Forest Service biologists, the authors assessed the efficiency of the R1/R4 procedures for monitoring stream fish and fish habitats.

  1. Climate change and stream temperature projections in the Columbia River basin: habitat implications of spatial variation in hydrologic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficklin, D. L.; Barnhart, B. L.; Knouft, J. H.; Stewart, I. T.; Maurer, E. P.; Letsinger, S. L.; Whittaker, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Water temperature is a primary physical factor regulating the persistence and distribution of aquatic taxa. Considering projected increases in air temperature and changes in precipitation in the coming century, accurate assessment of suitable thermal habitats in freshwater systems is critical for predicting aquatic species' responses to changes in climate and for guiding adaptation strategies. We use a hydrologic model coupled with a stream temperature model and downscaled general circulation model outputs to explore the spatially and temporally varying changes in stream temperature for the late 21st century at the subbasin and ecological province scale for the Columbia River basin (CRB). On average, stream temperatures are projected to increase 3.5 °C for the spring, 5.2 °C for the summer, 2.7 °C for the fall, and 1.6 °C for the winter. While results indicate changes in stream temperature are correlated with changes in air temperature, our results also capture the important, and often ignored, influence of hydrological processes on changes in stream temperature. Decreases in future snowcover will result in increased thermal sensitivity within regions that were previously buffered by the cooling effect of flow originating as snowmelt. Other hydrological components, such as precipitation, surface runoff, lateral soil water flow, and groundwater inflow, are negatively correlated to increases in stream temperature depending on the ecological province and season. At the ecological province scale, the largest increase in annual stream temperature was within the Mountain Snake ecological province, which is characterized by migratory coldwater fish species. Stream temperature changes varied seasonally with the largest projected stream temperature increases occurring during the spring and summer for all ecological provinces. Our results indicate that stream temperatures are driven by local processes and ultimately require a physically explicit modeling approach to

  2. Scale-dependent effects of river habitat quality on benthic invertebrate communities--Implications for stream restoration practice.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Stefan; Breyer, Philippa; Tonkin, Jonathan D; Früh, Denise; Haase, Peter

    2016-05-15

    Although most stream restoration projects succeed in improving hydromorphological habitat quality, the ecological quality of the stream communities often remains unaffected. We hypothesize that this is because stream communities are largely determined by environmental properties at a larger-than-local spatial scale. Using benthic invertebrate community data as well as hydromorphological habitat quality data from 1087 stream sites, we investigated the role of local- (i.e. 100 m reach) and regional-scale (i.e. 5 km ring centered on each reach) stream hydromorphological habitat quality (LQ and RQ, respectively) on benthic invertebrate communities. The analyses showed that RQ had a greater individual effect on communities than LQ, but the effects of RQ and LQ interacted. Where RQ was either good or poor, communities were exclusively determined by RQ. Only in areas of intermediate RQ, LQ determined communities. Metacommunity analysis helped to explain these findings. Species pools in poor RQ areas were most depauperated, resulting in insufficient propagule pressure for species establishment even at high LQ (e.g. restored) sites. Conversely, higher alpha diversity and an indication of lower beta dispersion signals at mass effects occurring in high RQ areas. That is, abundant neighboring populations may help to maintain populations even at sites with low LQ. The strongest segregation in species co-occurrence was detected at intermediate RQ levels, suggesting that communities are structured to the highest degree by a habitat/environmental gradient. From these results, we conclude that when restoring riverine habitats at the reach scale, restoration projects situated in intermediate RQ settings will likely be the most successful in enhancing the naturalness of local communities. With a careful choice of sites for reach-scale restoration in settings of intermediate RQ and a strategy that aims to expand areas of high RQ, the success of reach-scale restoration in promoting the

  3. Habitat overlap between southern bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna in the east coast longline fishery - implications for present and future spatial management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartog, Jason R.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Matear, Richard; Feng, Ming

    2011-03-01

    Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) are presently a quota-managed species in the multi-species eastern Australian tuna and billfish longline fishery (ETBF). Capture of SBT is regulated by quota, as is access to regions likely to contain SBT. A habitat prediction model combining data from an ocean model and pop-up satellite archival tags is used to define habitat zones based on the probability of SBT occurrence. These habitat zones are used by fishery managers to restrict access by ETBF fishers to SBT habitat during a May-November management season. The zones display a distinct seasonal cycle driven by the seasonal southward expansion and northward contraction of the East Australia Current (EAC) and as a result access by fishers to particular ocean regions changes seasonally. This species also overlaps with the commercially valuable yellowfin tuna (YFT), thus, we modified the SBT model to generate YFT habitat predictions in order to investigate habitat overlap between SBT and YFT. There is seasonal variation in the overlap of the core habitat between these two species, with overlap early (May-Jul) in the management season and habitat separation occurring towards the end (Aug-Nov). The EAC is one of the fastest warming ocean regions in the southern hemisphere. To consider the future change in distribution of these two species compared to the present and to explore the potential impact on fishers and managers of the future, we use future ocean predictions from the CSIRO Bluelink ocean model for the year 2064 to generate habitat predictions. As the ocean warms on the east coast of Australia and the EAC extends southward, our model predicts the suitable habitat for SBT and YFT will move further south. There was an increase in the overlap of SBT and YFT habitat throughout the management season, due to regional variation of each species' habitat. These results illustrate that a management tradeoff exists between restricting fisher access to SBT habitat and allowing access to YFT

  4. Assessing Variability and Uncertainty of Water Quality, Geomorphic, and Habitat Indicators to Evaluate Western New York Stream Restoration Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, C. E.; Rabideau, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Evaluation of stream restoration projects is often constrained by uncertainty and variability in performance indicators, as well as financial and time limitations. In Western New York (WNY), several projects, termed stream restoration, have been implemented that rely heavily on bank stabilization methods. Due to the lack of evaluation of these projects, it is uncertain if they are 1) meeting their objectives to protect against high erosion rates and 2) if they are improving stream function and processes in a manner consistent with the designation of “stream restoration”. During the summer/fall 2010 seasons, water quality, geomorphic, and rapid habitat indicators were used to characterize fourteen implemented and/or planned stream restoration projects spanning three WNY watersheds. Indicators included stream velocity, nutrient concentrations, water quality parameters (e.g. dissolved oxygen, conductivity, etc.), canopy coverage, substrate characteristics (e.g. embeddedness, particle size distribution) and bank characteristics (e.g. slope, shape, percentage erosion). In addition, five rapid assessment methods were implemented; two methods used the above indicators and three were based on visual assessments. Indicators were assessed for variability within and across sites to determine which indicators are most useful for evaluating WNY stream restoration and/or require additional investigation in summer 2011. Areas of uncertainty and vagueness in assessment methods were identified during field data collection, with a focus on how stream restoration structures were assessed. The poster presents results on select indicators, strengths/weaknesses of the rapid assessment techniques, and a preliminary evaluation of WNY stream restoration projects.

  5. Hydrologic modelling for climate change impacts analysis of shifts in future hydrologic regimes: implications for stream temperature and salmon habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Werner, A. T.; Schnorbus, M.; Salathé, E. P.; Nelitz, M.

    2009-05-01

    The challenges faced by climate change impact analysts must be solved through interdisciplinary collaboration between research scientists, institutions and stakeholders. In particular, hydrologic modelers, climate scientists, biologists, ecologists, engineers and water resource managers must interact to pool expertise and provide tools to address the complex issues associated with future climate change. The current study examines the results of an application of the VIC macro-scale hydrologic model to predict future changes to soil moisture, snowpack, evapo-transpiration, and streamflow in the Fraser Basin of British Columbia - and then apply these results to stream temperature and fish habitat models to predict future impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The results of this work will be presented to fisheries managers to provide them with the information needed to develop adaptation strategies that will help mitigate the adverse effects of climate change. This presentation will focus on the hydrologic modelling results of a number of downscaled scenarios to examine the projected differences for the 2050s (2041 - 2070) as compared to the historical baseline (1961- 1990). By the 2050s, although the magnitude of change varies by GCM and emissions scenarios, overall precipitation and temperature is projected to increase, particularly in the winter, which leads to increased winter time runoff for many basins. However, this is combined with declines in snow water equivalent (SWE) for many sites, which coupled with lower early season soil moisture, leads to declines in summer runoff and baseflow. SWE increases in some basins under the cgcm3 A1B and echam5 A1B scenarios at high elevations. A similar result was found in this region with the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) 4, driven with run 4 of the CGCM3 under the A2 emissions scenario. Lack of water availability during the summer time periods appears to limit evaporation, causing declines in summer ET across most

  6. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation : Fish Passage and Habitat Improvement in the Upper Flathead River Basin, 1991-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, W.Ladd; Deleray, Mark; Marotz, Brian L.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects.

  7. Effects of Salmon-Derived Nutrients and Habitat Characteristics on Population Densities of Stream-Resident Sculpins

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Noel R.; Reynolds, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Movement of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries can have important effects on food webs and population dynamics. An example from the North Pacific Rim is the connection between productive marine ecosystems and freshwaters driven by annual spawning migrations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp). While a growing body of research has highlighted the importance of both pulsed nutrient subsidies and disturbance by spawning salmon, their effects on population densities of vertebrate consumers have rarely been tested, especially across streams spanning a wide range of natural variation in salmon densities and habitat characteristics. We studied resident freshwater prickly (Cottus asper), and coastrange sculpins (C. aleuticus) in coastal salmon spawning streams to test whether their population densities are affected by spawning densities of pink and chum salmon (O. gorbuscha and O. keta), as well as habitat characteristics. Coastrange sculpins occurred in the highest densities in streams with high densities of spawning pink and chum salmon. They also were more dense in streams with high pH, large watersheds, less area covered by pools, and lower gradients. In contrast, prickly sculpin densities were higher in streams with more large wood and pools, and less canopy cover, but their densities were not correlated with salmon. These results for coastrange sculpins provide evidence of a numerical population response by freshwater fish to increased availability of salmon subsidies in streams. These results demonstrate complex and context-dependent relationships between spawning Pacific salmon and coastal ecosystems and can inform an ecosystem-based approach to their management and conservation. PMID:26030145

  8. Ice processes affect habitat use and movements of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in a Wyoming foothills stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstrom, J.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat use and movements of 25 adult cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and 25 adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from fall through winter 2002-2003 were assessed by means of radiotelemetry in a 7-km reach of a Rocky Mountains foothills stream. Temporal dynamics of winter habitat conditions were evaluated by regularly measuring the features of 30 pools and 5 beaver Castor canadensis ponds in the study reach. Groundwater inputs at three locations raised mean daily water temperatures in the stream channel during winter to 0.2-0.6??C and kept at least 250 m of the downstream channel free of ice, but the lack of surface ice further downstream led to the occurrence of frazil ice and anchor ice in pools and unstable habitat conditions for trout. Pools in segments that were not affected by groundwater inputs and beaver ponds tended to be stable and snow accumulated on the surface ice. Pools throughout the study reach tended to become more stable as snow accumulated. Both cutthroat trout and brook trout selected beaver ponds as winter progressed but tended to use lateral scour pools in proportion to their availability. Tagged fish not in beaver ponds selected lateral scour pools that were deeper than average and stable during winter. Movement frequencies by tagged fish decreased from fall through winter, but some individuals of both species moved during winter. Ice processes affected both the habitat use and movement patterns of cutthroat trout and brook trout in this foothills stream.

  9. Effects of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomeiu) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) habitat use and diel movements in an artificial stream.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Trial, Joan G.; Wathen, Gus

    2012-01-01

    Invasive smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu have been introduced to some of the last remaining watersheds that contain wild anadromous Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, yet little is known about the interactions between these species. We used an artificial stream equipped with passive integrated transponder tag antenna arrays to monitor habitat use and movements of age-0 Atlantic salmon and age-0 smallmouth bass in sympatry and allopatry. We used additive and substitutive designs to test for changes in habitat use, diel movements, and diel activity patterns of prior-resident Atlantic salmon or smallmouth bass resulting from the addition of conspecifics or heterospecifics. Atlantic salmon prior residents did not change their habitat use in the presence of conspecific or heterospecific invaders. However, Atlantic salmon invaders did lessen riffle habitat use by smallmouth bass prior residents during daytime. Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass displayed different diel activity patterns of movement (Atlantic salmon were more nocturnal; smallmouth bass were more diurnal), which were affected by heterospecific introductions. Because the two species tended to favor different habitat types and displayed different diel activity patterns, we suggest that under the conditions tested, the level of interspecific competition for habitat was low. Age-0 Atlantic salmon and smallmouth bass may be able to avoid intense interspecific competition through spatial and temporal habitat partitioning. These data do not, however, predict the potential for competition under different seasonal or ontogenetic circumstances.

  10. Development of a stream habitat index for use with an Index of Biotic Integrity in the St. Croix River Basin, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; Lorenz, D.L.; Niemela, Scott

    2000-01-01

    More than 70 streams in the St. Croix River Basin in Minnesota were sampled for fish community composition and physical habitat during 1996–98. A habitat index was developed based on measurements, field observations, and land use. The objective was to develope a habitat index for use to evaluate water quality and the effects of nonpoint-source effects not associated with habitat degradation. Core habitat variables were determined with a concurrence analysis using principal components of two subsets of sites with pristine or least affected habitat. Although core habitat variables differed slightly between data sets, sufficient similarities allowed development of an index. The index (the sum of pluses or minuses dependent on the variable’s correlation to biotic integrity), composed of 12 core habitat variables in 5 classification groups (hydrology, geomorphology, substrate, instream habitat, and riparian/land use), was able to distinguish sites with low Index of Biotic Integrity scores not related to habitat degradation.

  11. Characterizing Physical Habitat of a Mixed-Land Use Stream of the Central U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, L. W.; Hubbart, J. A.; Hosmer, G. W.; Hogan, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Land use altered flow regime impacts on aquatic biological habitat can be quantified by means of a physical habitat assessment (PHA). PHA metrics include (but are not limited to) channel substrate, width and wetted width, bank slope, and bank height. Hinkson Creek, located in Boone County, Missouri, was placed on the Missouri Department of Natural Resources list of impaired waters (Section 303d) of the Clean Water Act in 1998. A physical habitat assessment of Hinkson Creek in 2014 provides quantitative data characterizing the current potential of Hinkson Creek to fully support aquatic life, specifically macroinvertebrates (a goal for delisting). The PHA was conducted every 100m of Hinkson Creek (56km). Results from the lower 87.9% (contiguous) of the drainage indicate channel width ranged from a maximum of 70m to a minimum of 4.6m, with a mean width of 17m and standard deviation (SD) of 7.4m. Bankfull width ranged from a maximum of 74m to a minimum of 8.8m (mean = 26.1m, SD = 8.2). Bank height ranged from a maximum of 5.8m to a minimum of 0.4m (mean = 2.9m, SD = 1m). Mean bank angle for the left and right banks was nearly equivalent (left = 33.8°, right = 34.6°). Bank height and bankfull width increased with increasing drainage distance. Trench pools were the dominant channel unit at 71.4% of the sample transects, while riffles were present at 16.6%. Analysis of stream channel bed composition was conducted using a modified Wolman pebble count survey at each site and Thalweg profile between sites. Size class results were quantified as follows: 56.1% fines (16mm or less), 36.2% intermediate (16mm to 1000mm, plus vegetation and wood), 8.7% large/bedrock (greater than 1000mm, riprap and bedrock). Study results provide science-based information to better equip land planners in Hinkson Creek watershed and similar multi-use watersheds of the central United States for future management decisions and development scenarios.

  12. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Chapter 3 : Mainstem Habitat Use and Recruitment Estimates of Rainbow Trout, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredericks, James P.; Hendricks, Steve

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if recruitment is limiting the population of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the mainstem Kootenai River. The authors used snorkeling and electrofishing techniques to estimate juvenile rainbow trout density and total numbers in Idaho tributaries, and they trapped juvenile outmigrants to identify the age at which juvenile trout migrate from tributaries to the Kootenai River. The authors radio and reward-tagged post-spawn adult rainbow trout captured in Deep Creek to identify river reach and habitat used by those fish spawning and rearing in the Deep Creek drainage. They also conducted redd surveys in the Kootenai River to determine the extent of mainstem spawning. Based on the amount of available habitat and juvenile rainbow trout densities, the Deep Creek drainage was the most important area for juvenile production. Population estimates of age 0, age 1+, and age 2+ rainbow trout indicated moderate to high densities in several streams in the Deep Creek drainage whereas other streams, such as Deep Creek, had very low densities of juvenile trout. The total number of age 0, age 1+, and age 2+ rainbow trout in Deep Creek drainage in 1996 was estimated to be 63,743, 12,095, and 3,095, respectively. Radio telemetry efforts were hindered by the limited range of the transmitters, but movements of a radio-tagged trout and a returned reward tag indicated that at least a portion of the trout utilizing the Deep Creek drainage migrated downriver from the mouth of Deep Creek to the meandering section of river. They found no evidence of mainstem spawning by rainbow trout, but redd counting efforts were hindered by high flows from mid-April through June.

  13. Implications of fish-habitat relationships for designing restoration projects within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channelized headwater streams are common throughout agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Management of these streams focuses on drainage without consideration of the other ecosystem services they are capable of providing. Restoration of channelized agricultural headwater stream...

  14. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project: Management, Data and Habitat, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2002-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP or Project) is an all stock initiative that is responding to the need for scientific knowledge for rebuilding and maintaining naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks in both basins. The Yakama Nation, as the Lead Agency, in coordination with the co-managers, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration, the funding agency, is pursuing this. We are testing the principles of supplementation as a means to rebuild fish populations through the use of locally adapted broodstock in an artificial production program. This concept is being utilized on the Spring Chinook within the Yakima River Basin. The coho and fall chinook programs were approved and implemented in the Yakima Basin. The coho programs principle objective is to determine if naturally spawning coho populations can be reintroduced throughout their biological range in the basin. The objective of the fall chinook program is to determine if supplementation is a viable strategy to increase fall chinook populations in the Yakima subbasin. The coho and fall chinook programs are under the three step process that was established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Klickitat subbasin management program is combined with the Yakima subbasin program. This contract includes the Klickitat Basin Coordinator and operational costs for the basin. The Klickitat Subbasin has separate contracts for Monitoring & Evaluation, Construction, and ultimately, Operation and Maintenance. In the Klickitat subbasin, we propose to use supplementation to increase populations of spring chinook and steelhead. This program is still in the developmental stages consistent with the three step process.

  15. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project : Management, Data and Habitat, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2002-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP or Project) is an all stock initiative that is responding to the need for scientific knowledge for rebuilding and maintaining naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks in both basins. The Yakama Nation, as the Lead Agency, in coordination with the co-managers, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration, the funding agency, is pursuing this. We are testing the principles of supplementation as a means to rebuild fish populations through the use of locally adapted broodstock in an artificial production program. This concept is being utilized on the Spring Chinook within the Yakima River Basin. The coho and fall chinook programs were approved and implemented in the Yakima Basin. The coho programs principle objective is to determine if naturally spawning coho populations can be reintroduced throughout their biological range in the basin. The objective of the fall chinook program is to determine if supplementation is a viable strategy to increase fall chinook populations in the Yakima subbasin. The coho and fall chinook programs are under the three step process that was established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Klickitat subbasin management program is combined with the Yakima subbasin program. This contract includes the Klickitat Basin Coordinator and operational costs for the basin. The Klickitat Subbasin has separate contracts for Monitoring and Evaluation, Construction, and ultimately, Operation and Maintenance. In the Klickitat subbasin, we propose to use supplementation to increase populations of spring chinook and steelhead. This program is still in the developmental stages consistent with the three step process.

  16. Scale-Dependent Community Theory for Streams and Other Linear Habitats.

    PubMed

    Holt, Galen; Chesson, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The maintenance of species diversity occurs at the regional scale but depends on interacting processes at the full range of lower scales. Although there is a long history of study of regional diversity as an emergent property, analyses of fully multiscale dynamics are rare. Here, we use scale transition theory for a quantitative analysis of multiscale diversity maintenance with continuous scales of dispersal and environmental variation in space and time. We develop our analysis with a model of a linear habitat, applicable to streams or coastlines, to provide a theoretical foundation for the long-standing interest in environmental variation and dispersal, including downstream drift. We find that the strength of regional coexistence is strongest when local densities and local environmental conditions are strongly correlated. Increasing dispersal and shortening environmental correlations weaken the strength of coexistence regionally and shift the dominant coexistence mechanism from fitness-density covariance to the spatial storage effect, while increasing local diversity. Analysis of the physical and biological determinants of these mechanisms improves understanding of traditional concepts of environmental filters, mass effects, and species sorting. Our results highlight the limitations of the binary distinction between local communities and a species pool and emphasize species coexistence as a problem of multiple scales in space and time. PMID:27501093

  17. Land-use changes and the physical habitat of streams - a review with emphasis on studies within the U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Femmer, Suzanne R.; McKenney, Rose A.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the links between land-use changes and physical stream habitat responses is of increasing importance to guide resource management and stream restoration strategies. Transmission of runoff and sediment to streams can involve complex responses of drainage basins, including time lag, thresholds, and cumulative effects. Land-use induced runoff and sediment yield often combined with channel-scale disturbances that decrease flow resistance and erosion resistance, or increase stream energy. The net effects of these interactions on physical stream habitat--depth, velocity, substrate, cover, and temperature--are a challenge to predict. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Program has been instrumental in fostering studies of the links between land use and stream habitat nationwide.

  18. MASSACHUSETTS DIVISION OF FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE ADAPTATION PLANNING USING AN EXPERT PANEL BASED HABITAT VULNERABLITY ASSESSMENT John O'Leary, MA Div. of Fisheries and Wildlife and Hector Galbraith, Ph d. Climate Change Initiative, Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, J. A.; Galbraith, H.

    2010-12-01

    We are using the results from a recently completed Habitat Vulnerability Assessment (HVA) for adaptation planning within the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. We used Regional Downscale Climate Projections to provide exposure information for the assessment and an Expert Panel of biologists to provide information on the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of the habitat types we assessed. We estimated the vulnerability of 22 key habitat types which were identified in the State Wildlife Action Plan (SWAP). Results of the expert panel based HVA include a relative ranking of vulnerability to climate change for these habitats within Massachusetts, a confidence score for the estimated vulnerability for each habitat type evaluated and a narrative identifying the factors which influence the vulnerability of the habitat. We also evaluated the vulnerability of the Species in Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) from the SWAP to climate change conditions. The SGCN are linked to their primary habitat types. The HVA results along with recommendations from the National Academies Report: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change will inform “climate smart” adaptation strategies for agency management, acquisition, and research and monitoring programs that build on and do not replace existing implementation strategies. We believe that the adaptation planning process that we outline in this presentation could serve as a model for resource agencies and others who are in the process of developing their response to anticipated impacts from climate change conditions. We are also engaged in a collaborative effort to conduct a Regional Habitat Vulnerability Assessment (RHVA). Results form the RHVA will provide the MDFW with the ability to assess adaptation strategies based on regional need.

  19. Protection of fish spawning habitat for the conservation of warm-temperature reef-fish fisheries of shelf-edge reefs of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koenig, Christopher C.; Coleman, Felicia C.; Grimes, Churchill B.; Fitzhugh, Gary R.; Scanlon, Kathyryn M.; Gledhill, Christopher T.; Grace, Mark

    2000-01-01

    We mapped and briefly describe the surficial geology of selected examples of shelf-edge reefs (50–120 m deep) of the southeastern United States, which are apparently derived from ancient Pleistocene shorelines and are intermittently distributed throughout the region. These reefs are ecologically significant because they support a diverse array of fish and invertebrate species, and they are the only aggregation spawning sites of gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), and other economically important reef fish. Our studies on the east Florida shelf in the Experimental Oculina Research Reserve show that extensive damage to the habitat-structuring coral Oculina varicosa has occurred in the past, apparently from trawling and dredging activities of the 1970s and later. On damaged or destroyed Oculina habitat, reef-fish abundance and diversity are low, whereas on intact habitat, reef-fish diversity is relatively high compared to historical diversity on the same site. The abundance and biomass of the economically important reef fish was much higher in the past than it is now, and spawning aggregations of gag and scamp have been lost or greatly reduced in size. On the west Florida shelf, fishers have concentrated on shelf-edge habitats for over 100 yrs, but fishing intensity increased dramatically in the 1980s. Those reefs are characterized by low abundance of economically important species. The degree and extent of habitat damage there is unknown. We recommend marine fishery reserves to protect habitat and for use in experimentally examining the potential production of unfished communities.

  20. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  1. Effects of predation risk on habitat selection by water column fish, benthic fish and crayfish in stream pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoulick, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Predation risk can affect habitat selection by water column stream fish and crayfish, but little is known regarding effects of predation risk on habitat selection by benthic fish or assemblages of fish and crayfish. I used comparative studies and manipulative field experiments to determine whether, (1) habitat selection by stream fish and crayfish is affected by predation risk, and (2) benthic fish, water column fish, and crayfish differ in their habitat selection and response to predation risk. Snorkeling was used to observe fish and crayfish in, (1) unmanipulated stream pools with and without large smallmouth bass predators (Micropterus dolomieui >200 mm total length, TL) and (2) manipulated stream pools before and after addition of a single large smallmouth bass, to determine if prey size and presence of large fish predators affected habitat selection. Observations of microhabitat use were compared with microhabitat availability to determine microhabitat selection. Small fish (60-100 mm TL, except darters that were 30-100 mm TL) and crayfish (40-100 mm rostrum to telson length; TL) had significantly reduced densities in pools with large bass, whereas densities of large fish and crayfish (> 100 mm TL) did not differ significantly between pools with and without large bass. Small orangethroat darters (Etheostoma spectabile), northern crayfish (Orconectes virilis), and creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) showed significantly greater densities in pools without large bass. The presence of large smallmouth bass did not significantly affect depths selected by fish and crayfish, except minnows, which were found significantly more often at medium depths when bass were present. Small minnows and large and small crayfish showed the greatest response to additions of bass to stream pools by moving away from bass locations and into shallow water. Small darters and sunfish showed an intermediate response, whereas large minnows showed no significant response to bass additions

  2. Conservation implications of amphibian habitat relationships within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for removing water from agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States. Channelized agricultural headwater s...

  3. Influence of instream habitat and water chemistry on amphibians within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for draining agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States, Canada, and Europe. Channelized agricultural he...

  4. A comparison of avian communities and habitat characteristics in floodplain forests associated with valley plugs and unchannelized streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, A.R.; King, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Channelization of streams associated with floodplain forested wetlands has occurred extensively throughout the world and specifically in the southeastern United States. Channelization of fluvial systems alters the hydrologic and sedimentation processes that sustain these systems. In western Tennessee, channelization and past land-use practices have caused drastic geomorphic and hydrologic changes, resulting in altered habitat conditions that may affect avian communities. The objective of this study was to determine if there were differences in avian communities utilizing floodplain forests along unchannelized streams compared to channelized streams with valley plugs, areas where sediment has completely filled the channel. During point count surveys, 58 bird species were observed at unchannelized sites and 60 species were observed at valley plug sites. Species associated with baldcypress-tupelo (Taxodium-Nyssa) swamps (e.g. Great Egret (Ardea albus) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)) and mature hardwood forests with open midstories (e.g. Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens), Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons), Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) and Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)) were either only found at unchannelized sites or were more abundant at unchannelized sites. Conversely, species associated with open and early successional habitats (e.g. Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) and Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)) were either only found at valley plug sites or were more abundant at valley plug sites. Results of habitat modelling suggest that the habitat characteristics of floodplain forests at unchannelized sites are more suitable for Neotropical migrant bird species of conservation concern in the region than at valley plug sites. This study, in combination with previous research, demonstrates the ecological impacts of valley plugs span across abiotic and biotic processes and tropic

  5. A comparison of avian communities and habitat characteristics in floodplain forests associated with valley plugs and unchannelized streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, A.R.; King, Sammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Channelization of streams associated with floodplain forested wetlands has occurred extensively throughout the world and specifically in the southeastern United States. Channelization of fluvial systems alters the hydrologic and sedimentation processes that sustain these systems. In western Tennessee, channelization and past land-use practices have caused drastic geomorphic and hydrologic changes, resulting in altered habitat conditions that may affect avian communities. The objective of this study was to determine if there were differences in avian communities utilizing floodplain forests along unchannelized streams compared to channelized streams with valley plugs, areas where sediment has completely filled the channel. During point count surveys, 58 bird species were observed at unchannelized sites and 60 species were observed at valley plug sites. Species associated with baldcypress-tupelo (Taxodium-Nyssa) swamps (e.g. Great Egret (Ardea albus) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)) and mature hardwood forests with open midstories (e.g. Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens), Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons), Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) and Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)) were either only found at unchannelized sites or were more abundant at unchannelized sites. Conversely, species associated with open and early successional habitats (e.g. Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) and Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)) were either only found at valley plug sites or were more abundant at valley plug sites. Results of habitat modelling suggest that the habitat characteristics of floodplain forests at unchannelized sites are more suitable for Neotropical migrant bird species of conservation concern in the region than at valley plug sites. This study, in combination with previous research, demonstrates the ecological impacts of valley plugs span across abiotic and biotic processes and tropic

  6. Production of stream habitat gradients by montane watersheds: Hypothesis tests based on spatially explicit path analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaak, D.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    We studied how the features of mountain watersheds interact to cause gradients in three stream attributes: baseflow stream widths, total alkalinity, and stream slope. A priori hypotheses were developed before being tested in a series of path analyses using data from 90 stream reaches on 24 second- to fourth-order streams across a fifth-order Rocky Mountain watershed. Because most of the conventional least squares regressions initially calculated for the path analyses had spatially correlated residuals (13 of 15 regressions), spatially explicit regressions were often used to derive more accurate parameter estimates and significance tests. Our final working hypotheses accounted for most of the variation in baseflow stream width (73%), total alkalinity (74%), and stream slope (78%) and provide systemic views of watershed function by depicting interactions that occur between geomorphology, land surface features, and stream attributes. Stream gradients originated mainly from the unidirectional changes in geomorphic features that occur over the lengths of streams. Land surface features were of secondary importance and, because they change less predictably relative to the stream, appear to modify the rate at which stream gradients change.

  7. Determination of the effects of fine-grained sediment and other limiting variables on trout habitat for selected streams in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder, Barbara C.; Selbig, J.W.; Waschbusch, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Two Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models, developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were used to evaluate the effects of fine-grained (less than 2 millimeters) sediment on brook trout (Salvelinusfontinalis, Mitchill) and brown trout (Salmo trutta, Linnaeus) in 11 streams in west-central and southwestern Wisconsin. Our results indicated that fine-grained sediment limited brook trout habitat in 8 of 11 streams and brown trout habitat in only one stream. Lack of winter and escape cover for fry was the primary limiting variable for brown trout at 61 percent of the sites, and this factor also limited brook trout at several stations. Pool area or quality, in stream cover, streambank vegetation for erosion control, minimum flow, thalweg depth maximum, water temperature, spawning substrate, riffle dominant substrate, and dissolved oxygen also were limiting to trout in the study streams. Brook trout appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of fine-grained sediment than brown trout. The models for brook trout and brown trout appeared to be useful and objective screening tools for identifying variables limiting trout habitat in these streams. The models predicted that reduction in the amount of fine-grained sediment would improve brook trout habitat. These models may be valuable for establishing instream sediment-reduction goals; however, the decrease in sediment delivery needed to meet these goals cannot be estimated without quantitative data on land use practices and their effects on sediment delivery and retention by streams.

  8. Influence of habitat and land use on the assemblages of ephemeroptera, plecoptera, and trichoptera in neotropical streams.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Pedro Henrique Monteiro do; Silveira, Lidimara Souza da; Rosa, Beatriz Figueiraujo Jabour Vescovi; Oliveira, Vívian Campos de; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2015-01-01

    Insects of the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) are often used to assess the conditions of aquatic environments, but few studies have examined the differences in these communities between riffles and pools. Our objective was to test whether riffles shelter greater richness and abundance of EPT, as well as to assess the sensitivity of these insects for detecting impacts from different land uses in streams in southeastern Brazil. Samples were collected in the dry season of 2012 with a Surber sampler in riffles and pools of nine streams (forest, pasture, and urban areas). Principal component analysis distinguished the streams according to different land uses as a function of percentage of plant cover and water oxygenation level and showed partial distinction between riffles and pools as a function of current speed and percentage of ultrafine sand. Detrended correspondence analysis indicated the distinction in EPT composition between riffles and pools, except in urban streams. The results of this study confirm the expected differences in the EPT fauna structure between riffles and pools, especially in forest and pasture environments. The individual metrics of riffle and pool assemblages showed significantly different responses to land use. Therefore, we suggest individual sampling of riffles and pools, since the metrics of these assemblages' insects can differ between these habitats and influence the results of assessments in low-order streams. PMID:25989807

  9. Influence of Habitat and Land Use on the Assemblages of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera in Neotropical Streams

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Pedro Henrique Monteiro; da Silveira, Lidimara Souza; Rosa, Beatriz Figueiraujo Jabour Vescovi; de Oliveira, Vívian Campos; Alves, Roberto da Gama

    2015-01-01

    Insects of the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) are often used to assess the conditions of aquatic environments, but few studies have examined the differences in these communities between riffles and pools. Our objective was to test whether riffles shelter greater richness and abundance of EPT, as well as to assess the sensitivity of these insects for detecting impacts from different land uses in streams in southeastern Brazil. Samples were collected in the dry season of 2012 with a Surber sampler in riffles and pools of nine streams (forest, pasture, and urban areas). Principal component analysis distinguished the streams according to different land uses as a function of percentage of plant cover and water oxygenation level and showed partial distinction between riffles and pools as a function of current speed and percentage of ultrafine sand. Detrended correspondence analysis indicated the distinction in EPT composition between riffles and pools, except in urban streams. The results of this study confirm the expected differences in the EPT fauna structure between riffles and pools, especially in forest and pasture environments. The individual metrics of riffle and pool assemblages showed significantly different responses to land use. Therefore, we suggest individual sampling of riffles and pools, since the metrics of these assemblages’ insects can differ between these habitats and influence the results of assessments in low-order streams. PMID:25989807

  10. Innate immunity and stress physiology of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) from two stream reaches with differing habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William A; Durant, Sarah E

    2011-11-01

    In addition to depriving amphibians of physical habitat requirements (e.g., shelter, moisture, and food), habitat modification may also have subtle effects on the health of amphibians and potentially precipitate interactions with other deleterious factors such as pathogens, contaminants, and invasive species. The current study was designed to evaluate the physiological state of imperiled giant salamanders, the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis), experiencing different surrounding land use that influences in-stream habitat quality. When we compared hellbenders from a stream reach with greater anthropogenic disturbance to a more forested site, we found that baseline and stress-induced plasma levels of corticosterone were similar in the two areas, but were very low compared to other amphibians. Males consistently had higher plasma corticosterone levels than females, a finding congruent with the known territorial activities of males early in the breeding season. Innate immune responsiveness (measured as bactericidal ability of blood; BKA) was also similar at the two sites, but juveniles had less robust BKA than adults. We found a positive relationship between restraint time and BKA, suggesting that the bactericidal ability of hellbenders may improve following acute stress. Finally, there was a tendency for hellbenders with skin abnormalities to have higher BKA compared to individuals with normal integument, an observation consistent with patterns observed in other animals actively responding to pathogens. Our study provides foundational physiological information on an imperiled amphibian species and reveals important knowledge gaps that will be important for understanding the ecology, evolution, and conservation of hellbenders. PMID:21872597

  11. Diurnal stream habitat use of juvenile Atlantic salmon, brown trout and rainbow trout in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Douglass, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The diurnal winter habitat of three species of juvenile salmonids was examined in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, NY to compare habitat differences among species and to determine if species/age classes were selecting specific habitats. A total of 792 observations were made on the depth, velocity, substrate and cover (amount and type) used by sympatric subyearling Atlantic salmon, subyearling brown trout and subyearling and yearling rainbow trout. Subyearling Atlantic salmon occurred in shallower areas with faster velocities and less cover than the other salmonid groups. Subyearling salmon was also the only group associated with substrate of a size larger than the average size substrate in the study reach during both winters. Subyearling brown trout exhibited a preference for vegetative cover. Compared with available habitat, yearling rainbow trout were the most selective in their habitat use. All salmonid groups were associated with more substrate cover in 2002 under high flow conditions. Differences in the winter habitat use of these salmonid groups have important management implications in terms of both habitat protection and habitat enhancement.

  12. Coupled stream and population dynamics: Modeling the role beaver (Castor canadensis) play in generating juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, C.; Bouwes, N.; Wheaton, J. M.; Pollock, M.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several centuries, the population of North American Beaver has been dramatically reduced through fur trapping. As a result, the geomorphic impacts long-term beaver occupancy and activity can have on fluvial systems have been lost, both from the landscape and from our collective memory such that physical and biological models of floodplain system function neither consider nor have the capacity to incorporate the role beaver can play in structuring the dynamics of streams. Concomitant with the decline in beaver populations was an increasing pressure on streams and floodplains through human activity, placing numerous species of stream rearing fishes in peril, most notably the ESA listing of trout and salmon populations across the entirety of the Western US. The rehabilitation of stream systems is seen as one of the primary means by which population and ecosystem recovery can be achieved, yet the methods of stream rehabilitation are applied almost exclusively with the expected outcome of a static idealized stream planform, occasionally with an acknowledgement of restoring processes rather than form and only rarely with the goal of a beaver dominated riverscape. We have constructed an individual based model of trout and beaver populations that allows the exploration of fish population dynamics as a function of stream habitat quality and quantity. We based the simulation tool on Bridge Creek (John Day River basin, Oregon) where we have implemented a large-scale restoration experiment using wooden posts to provide beavers with stable platforms for dam building and to simulate the dams themselves. Extensive monitoring captured geomorphic and riparian changes, as well as fish and beaver population responses; information we use to parameterize the model as to the geomorphic and fish response to dam building beavers. In the simulation environment, stream habitat quality and quantity can be manipulated directly through rehabilitation actions and indirectly

  13. Fisheries Assemblages and Road Stream Crossing Improvements on Manistee River Tributaries, Manistee County, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressick, N. J.; Wright, A. L.; Stout, N. Y.; Snyder, E. B.

    2005-05-01

    Sedimentation affects both stream physical and biological integrity. Our objective was to incorporate the small-scale, proximate effects of sediment restoration and the larger-scale, ultimate effects that can occur from headwaters to mouth before and after restoration efforts. Electrofishing was conducted during Spring and Fall 2004. A total of 29 electrofishing reaches comprised the longitudinal gradient analysis along with 5 construction sites. Species richness ranged from 15 in Bear Creek (3rd order) to 8.1 in Sickle (1st). Pine Creek (2nd) was intermediate (9.3). Shannon's diversity index ranged from 0.78 in Bear to 0.61 and 0.51 in Pine and Sickle Creeks, respectively. Simpson's dominance index ranged from 0.46 in Sickle, where mottled sculpin were dominant, to 0.35 in Pine and 0.27 in Bear. Of the salmonids, relative abundance (%) of brook trout was highest in Sickle (2.31); brown trout were most abundant in Pine (7.58), and rainbow trout were most abundant in Bear (8.77). Initial results suggest that recovery should be most rapid in the more diverse and larger Bear Creek and that the restoration of a perched culvert in Sickle Creek could cause a decline in the native brook trout when brown trout are able to move upstream.

  14. Stream habitat assessment project: Afognak Island. Restoration study number 47. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwada, M.N.; Sundet, K.

    1993-02-01

    The Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Habitat and Restoration Division, conducted surveys of anadromous fish streams on Afognak Island from July 6 to September 1, 1992. These surveys focused on Afognak Native Corporation and Afognak Joint Venture lands in order to document anadromous fish distribution and habitat on private lands throughout the spill area. 167 new anadromous fish streams were documented totalling approximately 56 km (35 miles). Dolly Varden and coho salmon were the principal fish species found, followed by pink salmon, sockeye salmon, chum salmon, rainbow trout, stickleback and sculpin. The study additionally found 34 streams that have a high potential for rehabilitation.

  15. Nutrient, Habitat, and Basin-Characteristics Data and Relations with Fish and Invertebrate Communities in Indiana Streams, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, Jeffrey W.; Caskey, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of existing nutrient, habitat, basin-characteristics, and biological-community (fish and invertebrate) data assessed significant relations between nutrients and biological data. Data from 1998 through 2000 for 58 sites in the Upper Wabash River Basin, Lower Wabash River Basin, and tributaries to the Great Lakes and Ohio River Basins were analyzed. Correspondence analysis was used to assess significant relations among nutrients, habitat, basin-characteristics, and biological-community data. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to identify which environmental parameters most influenced the biological communities. When all 58 sites were assessed, six biological-community attributes, metric scores, or site scores were statistically sigificant but weak. When a subset of data was analyzed for eight headwater streams in one ecoregion to minimize the naturally occurring variability associated with the 58 sites, the strength of the relations increased and 24 attributes, metric scores, or site scores were significantly related. Fish-community composition in the 58 sites was most influenced by habitat and land use but not by nutrients. The invertebrate-community composition in the 58 sites was most influenced by habitat, land use, soils, and one nutrient (total Kjeldahl nitrogen [TKN]).

  16. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish and Wildlife Program Habitat Protection Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, Angelo; Roberts, Frank; Peters, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    Throughout the last century, the cumulative effects of anthropogenic disturbances have caused drastic watershed level landscape changes throughout the Reservation and surrounding areas (Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998). Changes include stream channelization, wetland draining, forest and palouse prairie conversion for agricultural use, high road density, elimination of old growth timber stands, and denuding riparian communities. The significance of these changes is manifested in the degradation of habitats supporting native flora and fauna. Consequently, populations of native fish, wildlife, and plants, which the Tribe relies on as subsistence resources, have declined or in some instances been extirpated (Apperson et al. 1988; Coeur d'Alene Tribe 1998; Lillengreen et al. 1996; Lillengreen et al. 1993; Gerry Green Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife Biologist, personal communication 2002). For example, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are not present at detectable levels in Reservation tributaries, westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) are not present in numbers commensurate with maintaining harvestable fisheries (Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996), and the Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) are not present at detectable levels on the Reservation (Gerry Green, Coeur d'Alene Tribe wildlife biologist, personal communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe added Fisheries and Wildlife Programs to their Natural Resources Department to address these losses and protect important cultural, and subsistence resources for future generations. The Tribal Council adopted by Resolution 89(94), the following mission statement for the Fisheries Program: 'restore, protect, expand and re-establish fish populations to sustainable levels to provide harvest opportunities'. This mission statement, focused on fisheries restoration and rehabilitation, is a response to native fish population declines throughout the Tribe's aboriginal territory, including the Coeur d'Alene Indian

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WOODY DEBRIS AND FISH HABITAT IN A SMALL WARMWATER STREAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abundance of woody debris was manipulated in a small Illinois stream to determine the importance of this material to fish. When a stream reach was divided along midchannel, and debris was added to one side, but removed from the other, fish and benthic invertebrates were usually m...

  18. HOW WELL CAN YOU ESTIMATE LOW FLOW AND BANKFULL DISCHARGE FROM STREAM CHANNEL HABITAT DATA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeled estimates of stream discharge are becoming more important because of reductions in the number of gauging stations and increases in flow alteration from land development and climate change. Field measurements of channel morphology are available at thousands of streams and...

  19. PRODUCTIVITY AND SPECIES RICHNESS IN SMALL HIGHLAND STREAMS: THE INTERACTION OF HABITAT AND LAND USE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small, upland, coldwater streams are an important resource for watershed management. In the Mid-Atlantic region, these streams are affected by acid deposition, mountaintop removal and valley fill for mineral extraction, and the effects of historical timber harvests. Small strea...

  20. Local habitat conditions explain the variation in the strength of self-thinning in a stream salmonid

    PubMed Central

    Myrvold, Knut Marius; Kennedy, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Self-thinning patterns are frequently used to describe density dependence in populations on timescales shorter than the organism's life span and have been used to infer carrying capacity of the environment. Among mobile animals, this concept has been used to document density dependence in stream salmonids, which compete over access to food and space. The carrying capacity, growth conditions, and initial cohort sizes often vary between streams and stream sections, which would influence the onset and strength of the density dependence. Despite much effort in describing habitat relationships in stream fishes, few studies have explicitly tested how the physical environment affects the slope of the thinning curves. Here, we investigate the prevalence and strength of self-thinning in juvenile stages of a steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in Idaho, USA. Further, we investigate the roles of local physical habitat and metabolic constraints in explaining the variation in thinning curves among study sites in the watershed. Only yearling steelhead exhibited an overall significant thinning trend, but the slope of the mass–density relationship (−0.53) was shallower than predicted by theory and reported from empirical studies. There was no detectable relationship in subyearling steelhead. Certain abiotic factors explained a relatively large portion of the variation in the strength of the self-thinning among the study reaches. For subyearling steelhead, the slopes were negatively associated with the average water depth and flow velocity in the study sites, whereas slopes in yearlings were steeper in sites that incurred a higher metabolic cost. Our results show that the prevalence and strength of density dependence in natural fish populations can vary across heterogeneous watersheds and can be more pronounced during certain stages of a species' life history, and that environmental factors can mediate the extent to which density dependence is manifested in predictable

  1. Composition of fish communities in relation to stream acidification and habitat in the Neversink River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of acidification in lotic systems are not well documented. Spatial and temporal variability of habitat and water quality complicate the evaluation of acidification effects in streams and river. The Neversink River in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York, the tributaries of which vary from well buffered to severely acidified, provided an opportunity to investigate the external and magnitude of acidification effects on fish communities of headwater systems. Composition of fish communities, water quality, stream hydrology, stream habitat, and physiographic factors were characterized from 1991 to 1995 at 16 first- to fourth-order sites in the basin. Correlation and regression analyses were used to develop empirical models and to assess the relations among fish species richness, total fish density, and total biomass and environmental variables. Chronic and episodic acidification and elevated concentrations of inorganic monomeric aluminum were common, and fish populations were rare or absent from several sites in the upper reaches of the basin; as many as six fish species were collected from sites in the lower reaches of the basin. Species distribution and species richness were most highly related to stream pH, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), inorganic monomeric aluminum (Al(im)), calcium (Ca)2+, and potassium (K)+ concentrations, site elevation, watershed drainage area, and water temperature. Fish density was most highly related to stream pH, Al(im), ANC, K+, Ca2+, and magnesium (Mg)2+ concentrations. Fish biomass, unlike species richness and fish density, was most highly related to physical habitat characteristics, water temperature, and concentrations of Mg2+ and silicon. Acidity characteristics were of secondary importance to fish biomass at all but the most severely acidified sites. Our results indicate that (1) the total biomass of fish communities was not seriously affected at moderately to strongly acidified sites; (2) species richness

  2. USE OF COLD FLOODPLAIN MARGIN HABITATS BY A STREAM FISH ASSEMBLAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the effects of temperature and other habitat characteristics on fish assemblages and their distribution among coldwater patches potentially functioning as "coldwater refugia" for salmonids. Potential coldwater refugia in alluvial segments of the Grande Ronde River of ...

  3. EMBEDDEDNESS OF SALMONID HABITAT OF SELECTED STREAMS ON THE PAYETTE NATIONAL FOREST, 1987-1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of fish habitat condition among various locations within the Payette National Forest (17060206, 17060208) is necessary in order to evaluate past and present activities and to facilitate development of future management objectives for aquatic ecosystems. The single mos...

  4. Estimation of potential maximum biomass of trout in Wyoming streams to assist management decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubert, W.A.; Marwitz, T.D.; Gerow, K.G.; Binns, N.A.; Wiley, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Fishery managers can benefit from knowledge of the potential maximum biomass (PMB) of trout in streams when making decisions on the allocation of resources to improve fisheries. Resources are most likely to he expended on streams with high PMB and with large differences between PMB and currently measured biomass. We developed and tested a model that uses four easily measured habitat variables to estimate PMB (upper 90th percentile of predicted mean bid mass) of trout (Oncorhynchus spp., Salmo trutta, and Salvelinus fontinalis) in Wyoming streams. The habitat variables were proportion of cover, elevation, wetted width, and channel gradient. The PMB model was constructed from data on 166 stream reaches throughout Wyoming and validated on an independent data set of 50 stream reaches. Prediction of PMB in combination with estimation of current biomass and information on habitat quality can provide managers with insight into the extent to which management actions may enhance trout biomass.

  5. Biological-Community Composition in Small Streams and its Relations to Habitat, Nutrients, and Land Use in Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes in Indiana and Ohio, 2004, and Implications for Assessing Nutrient Conditions in Midwest Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate algal-, invertebrate-, and fish-community composition to habitat, nutrients, and land-use variables in small streams in agriculturally dominated landscapes of the Midwest in Indiana and Ohio. Thirty sample locations were selected from a single ecoregion; all were small wadable streams within agriculturally dominated landscapes with similar substrate and canopy. Biological and nutrient samples were collected during stable flow conditions in August 2004. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine which variables most influenced each community. Total phosphorus concentrations significantly influenced the depositional-targeted habitat algal-diatom community and the richest-targeted habitat invertebrate community. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that habitat variables were more influential to the richest-targeted habitat algal-diatom and fish communities than nutrient concentrations. Although the nutrient concentrations measured during this study indicate that most streams were not eutrophic, the biological communities were dominated by eutrophic species, suggesting streams sampled were eutrophic. Consequently, it was concluded that biological relations to nutrients in agriculturally dominated landscapes are complex and habitat variables should be included in biological assessments of nutrient conditions in agriculturally dominated landscapes.

  6. Effects of fungal inocula and habitat conditions on alder and eucalyptus leaf litter decomposition in streams of northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Javier; Galán, Javier; Descals, Enrique; Pozo, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how fungal decomposer (aquatic hyphomycetes) communities colonizing alder and eucalyptus leaf litter respond to changes in habitat characteristics (transplantation experiment). We examined the breakdown of leaf materials and the associated fungal communities at two contrasting sites, a headwater stream (H) and a midreach (M). Agroforestry increased from headwater to midreach. One month after the start of experiments at both sites, some leaf samples from the midreach site were transplanted to the headwater site (M-H treatment). Although both sites showed similar dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, eucalyptus leaves initially incubated at the midreach site (M, M-H) increased their breakdown rate compared to those incubated along the experiment at the headwater site (H). Alder breakdown rate was not enhanced, suggesting that their consumption was not limited by nutrient availability. Sporulation rates clearly differed between leaf types (alder > eucalyptus) and streams (H > M), but no transplantation effect was detected. When comparing conidial assemblages after transplantation, an inoculum effect (persistence of early colonizing species) was clear in both leaf species. Substrate preference and shifts in the relative importance of some fungal species along the process were also observed. Overall, our results support the determining role of the initial conditioning phase on the whole litter breakdown process, highlighting the importance of intrinsic leaf characteristics and those of the incubation habitat. PMID:24141942

  7. 78 FR 62587 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat) Advisory Panel (AP). SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will hold a meeting of its Habitat AP in...: The Habitat AP will work on development of the Council's Essential Fish Habitat Policy Statements...

  8. Effects of urbanization on the geomorphology, habitat, hydrology, and fish index of biotic integrity of streams in the Chicago area, Illinois and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Diebel, M.W.; Harris, M.A.; Arnold, T.L.; Lutz, M.A.; Richards, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of urbanization on geomorphic, habitat, and hydrologic characteristics and fish biotic integrity of 45 streams in the Chicago area were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2000 to 2001. An agricultural to urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Landscape characteristics such as texture of surficial deposits, slope, riparian land cover, and stream network position also were examined to determine if these factors influenced the effects of urbanization. Among geomorphic characteristics, channel enlargement occurred in urban streams with a high percent of watershed clayey surficial deposits. Other geomorphic and habitat characteristics such as stream power, fine substrate, and amount of riffles did not correlate with percent watershed urban land but instead correlated with reach slope. Bank erosion, habitat variability, and two habitat indexes did not correlate with watershed urban land. Below 30% watershed urban land, the unit area discharge for a 2-year flood increased with increasing urban land; however, above 30% urban land, unit area discharges for a 2-year flood were variable, most likely due to variations in stormwater management practices, point-source contributions, and the transport index. Streams with greater than 33% watershed urban land had low base flow, but the effects of urbanization on base flow were offset by point-source contributions. Fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores were low in streams with greater than 25% watershed urban land. Fish IBI scores also were low in streams with high percentages of watershed clayey surficial deposits and enlarged channels. The amount of riparian forest/wetland buffer had no moderating effect on geomorphic/habitat/hydrologic characteristics and fish IBI scores. Variations in the texture and topography of glacial landforms affected reach slope and some habitat characteristics. Longitudinal profiles were useful for distinguishing differences in local geologic settings among sampled sites.

  9. An evaluation of a bed instability index as an indicator of habitat quality in mountain streams of the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Kusnierz, Paul C; Holbrook, Christopher M; Feldman, David L

    2015-08-01

    Managers of aquatic resources benefit from indices of habitat quality that are reproducible and easy to measure, demonstrate a link between habitat quality and biota health, and differ between human-impacted (i.e., managed) and reference (i.e., nonimpacted or minimally impacted) conditions. The instability index (ISI) is an easily measured index that describes the instability of a streambed by relating the tractive force of a stream at bankfull discharge to the median substrate size. Previous studies have linked ISI to biological condition but have been limited to comparisons of sites within a single stream or among a small number of streams. We tested ISI as an indicator of human impact to habitat and biota in mountain streams of the northwestern USA. Among 1428 sites in six northwestern states, ISI was correlated with other habitat measures (e.g., residual pool depth, percent fine sediment) and indices of biotic health (e.g., number of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa, fine sediment biotic index) and differed between managed and reference sites across a range of stream types and ecoregions. While ISI could be useful in mountain streams throughout the world, this index may be of particular interest to aquatic resource managers in the northwestern USA where a large dataset, from which ISI can be calculated, exists. PMID:26189618

  10. An evaluation of a bed instability index as an indicator of habitat quality in mountain streams of the northwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kusnierz, Paul C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Feldman, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Managers of aquatic resources benefit from indices of habitat quality that are reproducible and easy to measure, demonstrate a link between habitat quality and biota health, and differ between human-impacted (i.e., managed) and reference (i.e., nonimpacted or minimally impacted) conditions. The instability index (ISI) is an easily measured index that describes the instability of a streambed by relating the tractive force of a stream at bankfull discharge to the median substrate size. Previous studies have linked ISI to biological condition but have been limited to comparisons of sites within a single stream or among a small number of streams. We tested ISI as an indicator of human impact to habitat and biota in mountain streams of the northwestern USA. Among 1428 sites in six northwestern states, ISI was correlated with other habitat measures (e.g., residual pool depth, percent fine sediment) and indices of biotic health (e.g., number of intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa, fine sediment biotic index) and differed between managed and reference sites across a range of stream types and ecoregions. While ISI could be useful in mountain streams throughout the world, this index may be of particular interest to aquatic resource managers in the northwestern USA where a large dataset, from which ISI can be calculated, exists.

  11. Exploring geomorphic controls on fish bioenergetics in mountain streams: linkages between channel morphology and rearing habitat for cutthroat trout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienciala, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Landscape heterogeneity constitutes an important control on spatial distribution of habitat for living organisms, at a range of spatial scales. For example, spatial variation in geomorphic processes can spatially structure populations as well as entire communities, and affect various ecosystem processes. We have coupled a 2D hydrodynamic model with a bioenergetic model to study the effects of various channel morphologies and bed textures on rearing habitat for coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) in four reaches of a mountain stream. The bioenergetic model uses energy conservation principle to calculate energy budget for fish at any point of the study domain, given a set of relevant local conditions. Specifically, the energy intake is a function of food availability (invertebrate drift) while the energy expenditure occurs through, for example, basal metabolism and swimming to hold position against the flow. Channel morphology and bed texture, through their influence on channel hydraulics, can exert strong control on the spatial pattern of both food flux and swimming cost for drift-feeding fish. Therefore, the coupled hydrodynamic and bioenergetic models, parameterized using an extensive field data set, enabled us to explore mechanistic linkages between geomorphic properties of the study reaches, food resource availability, and the energetic profitability of rearing habitat for different age-classes at both between- and within-reach spatial scales.

  12. Characterization of instream hydraulic and riparian habitat conditions and stream temperatures of the Upper White River Basin, Washington, using multispectral imaging systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Robert W.; Haggland, Alan; Crosby, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Instream hydraulic and riparian habitat conditions and stream temperatures were characterized for selected stream segments in the Upper White River Basin, Washington. An aerial multispectral imaging system used digital cameras to photograph the stream segments across multiple wavelengths to characterize fish habitat and temperature conditions. All imageries were georeferenced. Fish habitat features were photographed at a resolution of 0.5 meter and temperature imageries were photographed at a 1.0-meter resolution. The digital multispectral imageries were classified using commercially available software. Aerial photographs were taken on September 21, 1999. Field habitat data were collected from August 23 to October 12, 1999, to evaluate the measurement accuracy and effectiveness of the multispectral imaging in determining the extent of the instream habitat variables. Fish habitat types assessed by this method were the abundance of instream hydraulic features such as pool and riffle habitats, turbulent and non-turbulent habitats, riparian composition, the abundance of large woody debris in the stream and riparian zone, and stream temperatures. Factors such as the abundance of instream woody debris, the location and frequency of pools, and stream temperatures generally are known to have a significant impact on salmon. Instream woody debris creates the habitat complexity necessary to maintain a diverse and healthy salmon population. The abundance of pools is indicative of a stream's ability to support fish and other aquatic organisms. Changes in water temperature can affect aquatic organisms by altering metabolic rates and oxygen requirements, altering their sensitivity to toxic materials and affecting their ability to avoid predators. The specific objectives of this project were to evaluate the use of an aerial multispectral imaging system to accurately identify instream hydraulic features and surface-water temperatures in the Upper White River Basin, to use the

  13. A study of the effects of implementing agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended sediment, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at three stream sites in Surry County, North Carolina, 2004-2007-Lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Douglas G.; Ferrell, G.M.; Harned, Douglas A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended-sediment concentrations, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were examined in a comparative study of three small, rural stream basins in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces of North Carolina and Virginia between 2004 and 2007. The study was designed to assess changes in stream quality associated with stream-improvement efforts at two sites in comparison to a control site (Hogan Creek), for which no improvements were planned. In the drainage basin of one of the stream-improvement sites (Bull Creek), several agricultural best management practices, primarily designed to limit cattle access to streams, were implemented during this study. In the drainage basin of the second stream-improvement site (Pauls Creek), a 1,600-foot reach of the stream channel was restored and several agricultural best management practices were implemented. Streamflow conditions in the vicinity of the study area were similar to or less than the long-term annual mean streamflows during the study. Precipitation during the study period also was less than normal, and the geographic distribution of precipitation indicated drier conditions in the southern part of the study area than in the northern part. Dry conditions during much of the study limited opportunities for acquiring high-flow sediment samples and streamflow measurements. Suspended-sediment yields for the three basins were compared to yield estimates for streams in the southeastern United States. Concentrations of suspended sediment and nutrients in samples from Bull Creek, the site where best management practices were implemented, were high compared to the other two sites. No statistically significant change in suspended-sediment concentrations occurred at the Bull Creek site following implementation of best management practices. However, data collected before and after channel stabilization at the Pauls

  14. Relations Among Geology, Physiography, Land Use, and Stream Habitat Conditions in the Buffalo and Current River Systems, Missouri and Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panfil, Maria S.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more

  15. POPULATION MODELS FOR STREAM FISH RESPONSE TO HABITAT AND HYDROLOGIC ALTERATION: THE CVI WATERSHED TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Canaan Valley Institute (CVI) is dedicated to addressing the environmental problems in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (MAH). Their goal is to develop and implement solutions to restore damaged areas and protect aquatic systems. In most wadeable streams of the Mid-Atlantic Highlan...

  16. Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in the Fifteenmile Creek and Trout Creek Basins of Central Oregon: Field Review and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, J. Boone

    1993-07-01

    A field review of stream habitat improvement project sites in the lower Deschutes River Basin was conducted by riparian ecology, fisheries, and hydrology specialists. Habitat management objectives, limiting factors, project implementation, land use history, and other factors were discussed at each site. This information, in conjunction with the reviewer`s field inspections of portions of a particular habitat project, provided the basis for this report.

  17. Effects of habitat disturbance on survival rates of softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) in an urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, M.V.; Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.; Mills, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    We monitored Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) using mark-recapture during 1994-2005 in Gin Creek, Searcy, Arkansas. In 1997-2000 the creek bed and riparian zone were bulldozed in an effort to remove debris and improve water flow. This disturbance appeared to reduce the quantity and quality of turtle habitat. We tested for the potential effect of this habitat disturbance on the survival rates of marked turtles. We estimated annual survival rates for the population using models that allowed for variation in survival by state of maturation, year, and effects of the disturbance; we evaluated two different models of the disturbance impact. The first disturbance model incorporated a single change in survival rates, following the disturbance, whereas the second disturbance model incorporated three survival rates: pre- and postdisturbance, as well as a short-term decline during the disturbance. We used a state-transition model for our mark-recapture analysis, as softshells transition from juveniles to adults in a variable period of time. Our analysis indicated that survival varied by maturation state and was independent of a time trend or the disturbance. Annual survival rates were lower for juveniles (S?? = 0.717, SE = 0.039) than for adults (S?? = 0.836, SE = 0.025). Despite the dramatic habitat disturbance, we found no negative effects on survival rates. Our results demonstrate that, like a few other freshwater turtle species known to thrive in urban environments, populations of A. spinifera are resilient and can persist in urban environments despite periodic habitat disturbances. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Toward a Rapid Synthesis of Field and Desktop Data for Classifying Streams in the Pacific Northwest: Guiding the Sampling and Management of Salmonid Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprak, A.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.; Weber, N. P.; Trahan, N. C.; Jordan, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    River managers often seek to understand habitat availability and quality for riverine organisms within the physical template provided by their landscape. Yet the large amount of natural heterogeneity in landscapes gives rise to stream systems which are highly variable over small spatial scales, potentially complicating site selection for surveying aquatic habitat while simultaneously making a simple, wide-reaching management strategy elusive. This is particularly true in the rugged John Day River Basin of northern Oregon, where efforts as part of the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program to conduct site-based surveys of physical habitat for endangered steelhead salmon (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are underway. As a complete understanding of the type and distribution of habitat available to these fish would require visits to all streams in the basin (impractical due to its large size), here we develop an approach for classifying channel types which combines remote desktop GIS analyses with rapid field-based stream and landscape surveys. At the core of this method, we build off of the River Styles Framework, an open-ended and process-based approach for classifying streams and informing management decisions. This framework is combined with on-the-ground fluvial audits, which aim to quickly and continuously map sediment dynamics and channel behavior along selected channels. Validation of this classification method is completed by on-the-ground stream surveys using a digital iPad platform and by rapid small aircraft overflights to confirm or refine predictions. We further compare this method with existing channel classification approaches for the region (e.g. Beechie, Montgomery and Buffington). The results of this study will help guide both the refinement of site stratification and selection for salmonid habitat monitoring within the basin, and will be vital in designing and prioritizing restoration and management strategies tailored to the distribution of river styles found

  19. Sensitivity of Off-Channel Salmon Rearing Habitats to Changing Base Flows in Low-Gradient Reaches of Central Idaho Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, J. A.; Thurow, R.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Bohn, C.

    2010-12-01

    Critical rearing habitats for juvenile salmon and trout are frequently in off-channel areas of shallow, low-velocity water. Typically, these are remnants of abandoned channel positions that are still hydraulically connected to the contemporary main channel. However, the size and spatial arrangement of this habitat is strongly dependent on water stage in the main channel. In two salmon-bearing streams in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho, we used a high-resolution channel DEM and a 1D fluid dynamics model to define the location, depth, total area, frequency, and timing and duration of flooding of off-channel habitat. We then predicted changes in water surface elevation in the main channel over a range of low flow discharges and remapped the functional off-channel areas at each flow stage. Measurements at nearby gages indicate that average late summer and autumn low flows in these streams have declined by about 7% per decade over the prior 60 years. Modern off-channel habitat along the 20km of study streams is not uniformly arranged, even at high flows, and the distribution becomes still more restricted in space and time as flows decline. Progeny of summer- and early fall-spawning Chinook salmon rear for up to 2 years in these streams before migrating to the ocean, with much of that time spent in the off-channel habitat. Progeny of spring-spawning steelhead use the same areas for up to 3 years. While much prior research has focused on the effects of climate change on the availability and condition of spawning sites and on water temperatures, this study documents likely changes in the amount and condition of rearing habitat. Further investigation is needed to understand the ecological consequences and whether the declining anadromous fish populations may be at some risk from diminishing rearing habitat during declining base flows caused by external forces, such as a changing climate, dams, or water extractions.

  20. Effects of riparian timber harvesting on instream habitat and fish assemblages in northern Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Blinn, Charles R.; Newman, Raymond M.; Atuke, Dickson M.; Fredricks, Keith; Hemstad, Nathaniel A.; Merten, Eric; Schlesser, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few evaluations of aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities have been published in peer-reviewed literature detailing the effect of varying residual basal area (RBA) after timber harvesting in riparian buffers. Our analysis investigated the effects of partial harvesting within riparian buffers on aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams from two experiments in northern Minnesota northern hardwood-aspen forests. Each experiment evaluated partial harvesting within riparian buffers. In both experiments, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish were collected 1 year prior to harvest and in each of 3 years after harvest. We observed interannual variation for the macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity and taxon richness in the single-basin study and abundance and diversity in the multiple-basin study, but few effects related to harvest treatments in either study. However, interannual variation was not evident in the fish communities and we detected no significant changes in the stream fish communities associated with partially harvested riparian buffers in either study. This would suggest that timber harvesting in riparian management zones along reaches ≤200 m in length on both sides of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 12.4 ± 1.3 m2 ha−1 or on a single side of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 8.7 ± 1.6 m2 ha−1 may be adequate to protect macroinvertebrate and fish communities in our Minnesota study systems given these specific timber harvesting techniques.

  1. Fish, Benthic-Macroinvertebrate, and Stream-Habitat Data from Two Estuaries Near Galveston Bay, Texas, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, Jennifer L.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents data on the status of fish, macroinvertebrates, and stream habitat collected from 10 sites in the lower (estuarine) parts of Armand and Dickinson Bayous near Galveston Bay, Texas, during summer 2000 and winter 2001. The total number of individual fish caught at the five Armand Bayou sites (2,091) was greater than at the five Dickinson Bayou sites (1,055), but the total number of fish species caught at Dickinson Bayou sites (37) was greater than at Armand Bayou sites (30). The total number of invertebrates (26,641) and the total number of invertebrate taxa (141) were both greater at Armand Bayou sites than at Dickinson Bayou sites (10,467 and 131, respectively). Among habitat data, the average sinuosity of Armand Bayou sites (1.31) was greater than that of Dickinson Bayou sites (1.14). Mean left-bank and right-bank slopes were greater at Armand Bayou sites than at Dickinson Bayou sites, although the Armand Bayou banks were lower and narrower than the Dickinson Bayou banks. The Dickinson Bayou channel was deeper at the sampling sites than the Armand Bayou channel.

  2. Habitat associations and effects of urbanization on macroinvertebrates of a small, high-plains stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, A.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Anderson, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    We described the relations between abundance of macroinvertebrates and several habitat variables in Crow Creek within F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Laramie County, Wyoming. Water velocity and longitudinal location showed the highest numbers of significant correlations with abundance of macroinvertebrate taxa. Changes in the macroinvertebrate community with changes in longitudinal location appeared to result from increasing urbanization with downstream movement. Caenis lattipennis, Ceratopogonidae, and Dubiraphia sp. were rare in the downstream portion of the study reach that has received substantial human disturbance.

  3. MODELING PHYSICAL HABITAT PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmonid populations can be affected by alterations in stream physical habitat. Fish productivity is determined by the stream's physical habitat structure ( channel form, substrate distribution, riparian vegetation), water quality, flow regime and inputs from the watershed (sedim...

  4. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  5. Comparing simulated wildfire effects to jam distribution and habitat quality in an intermediate-sized stream 10 years after a high intensity fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, S. L.; Eaton, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Large wood governs channel morphology and determines the quality and distribution of aquatic habitat in many forested river networks. This is particularly true in streams that contain both key pieces large enough to form morphologically effective jams, as well as smaller mobile wood. In these streams, jams create spawning habitat by retaining sediment, increase rearing and over-wintering habitat by forming pools, and force avulsions which create side channels. To explore the effects of wildfire-induced increases in wood loading on channel morphology and aquatic habitat we have applied the stochastic reach-scale channel simulator (RSCS) to a case study of Fishtrap Creek, an intermediate-sized stream in the interior of British Columbia which experienced a high intensity fire in 2003. As predicted by model simulations, high quality spawning, rearing, and over-wintering habitats, as well as multi-thread channels, are found exclusively in association with wood, while plane-bed morphologies dominate where wood is absent. However, valley confinement and glacial legacy exert an important control on the magnitude of the impacts of the fire-derived wood; where the stream is confined, wood is suspended and morphologically ineffective, while un-confined segments contain high effective wood loads, multi-thread channels, and abundant aquatic habitat. These findings suggest that the morphologic effects of wood are highly dependent on valley geometry, which is in turn dictated by glacial legacy throughout much of North America, and that the impacts of valley confinement on the effectiveness of introduced wood must be considered in future model iterations. Plane bed morphology typical of reaches without large wood present Complex forced pool-riffle morphology typical of reaches with high wood loading

  6. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling. Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater- treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  7. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platts, William S.; Armour, C.L.; Booth, G.D.; Bryant, M.; Bufford, J.L.; Cuplin, P.; Jensen, S.; Lienkaemper, G.W.; Minshall, G.W.; Monsen, S.T.; Nelson, R.L.; Sedell, J.R.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Riparian area planning and management is a major national issues today--something that should have been the case a century ago. A century of additive effects of land use has resulted in major impacts on many riparian stream habitats and their fisheries, wildlife, and domestic livestock use. Before scientists can evaluate the influences of various land and water uses on riparian environments, they must first understand these environments. This means being able to detect and measure with confidence the natural and artificial variation and instantaneous conditions of the riparian habitat. These conditions must then be related to the production capability of riparian habitat and any extraneous factors affecting this production potential.

  8. Population response to habitat fragmentation in a stream-dwelling brook trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.; Coombs, J.A.; O'Donnell, M. J.; Dubreuil, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation can strongly influence population persistence and expression of life-history strategies in spatially-structured populations. In this study, we directly estimated size-specific dispersal, growth, and survival of stream-dwelling brook trout in a stream network with connected and naturally-isolated tributaries. We used multiple-generation, individual-based data to develop and parameterize a size-class and location-based population projection model, allowing us to test effects of fragmentation on population dynamics at local (i.e., subpopulation) and system-wide (i.e., metapopulation) scales, and to identify demographic rates which influence the persistence of isolated and fragmented populations. In the naturally-isolated tributary, persistence was associated with higher early juvenile survival (-45% greater), shorter generation time (one-half) and strong selection against large body size compared to the open system, resulting in a stage-distribution skewed towards younger, smaller fish. Simulating barriers to upstream migration into two currently-connected tribuory populations caused rapid (2-6 generations) local extinction. These local extinctions in turn increased the likelihood of system-wide extinction, as tributaries could no longer function as population sources. Extinction could be prevented in the open system if sufficient immigrants from downstream areas were available, but the influx of individuals necessary to counteract fragmentation effects was high (7-46% of the total population annually). In the absence of sufficient immigration, a demographic change (higher early survival characteristic of the isolated tributary) was also sufficient to rescue the population from fragmentation, suggesting that the observed differences in size distributions between the naturally-isolated and open system may reflect an evolutionary response to isolation. Combined with strong genetic divergence between the isolated tributary and open system, these results

  9. 50 CFR 660.395 - Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  10. 50 CFR 660.75 - Essential Fish Habitat (EFH).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). 660.75 Section 660.75 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.75 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as...

  11. 50 CFR 660.75 - Essential Fish Habitat (EFH).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). 660.75 Section 660.75 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.75 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as...

  12. 50 CFR 660.75 - Essential Fish Habitat (EFH).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). 660.75 Section 660.75 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.75 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as...

  13. 50 CFR 660.75 - Essential Fish Habitat (EFH).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). 660.75 Section 660.75 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.75 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH). Essential fish habitat (EFH) is defined as...

  14. Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD): Integrative Study of Marine Ice Sheet Stability and Subglacial Life Habitats (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulaczyk, S. M.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Behar, A. E.; Christner, B. C.; Fisher, A. T.; Fricker, H. A.; Holland, D. M.; Jacobel, R. W.; Mikucki, J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Powell, R. D.; Priscu, J. C.; Scherer, R. P.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The WISSARD project is a large, NSF-funded, interdisciplinary initiative focused on scientific drilling, exploration, and investigation of Antarctic subglacial aquatic environments. The project consists of three interrelated components: (1) LISSARD - Lake and Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling, (2) RAGES - Robotic Access to Grounding-zones for Exploration and Science, and (3) GBASE - GeomicroBiology of Antarctic Subglacial Environments). A number of previous studies in West Antarctica highlighted the importance of understanding ice sheet interactions with water, either at the basal boundary where ice streams come in contact with active subglacial hydrologic and geological systems or at the marine margin where the ice sheet is exposed to forcing from the global ocean and sedimentation. Recent biological investigations of Antarctic subglacial environments show that they provide a significant habitat for life and source of bacterial carbon in a setting that was previously thought to be inhospitable. Subglacial microbial ecosystems also enhance biogeochemical weathering, mobilizing elements from long term geological storage. The overarching scientific objective of WISSARD is to examine the subglacial hydrological system of West Antarctica in glaciological, geological, microbiological, geochemical, and oceanographic contexts. Direct sampling will yield seminal information on these systems and test the overarching hypothesis that active hydrological systems connect various subglacial environments and exert major control on ice sheet dynamics, subglacial sediment transfer, geochemistry, metabolic and phylogenetic diversity, and biogeochemical transformations and geological records of ice sheet history. Technological advances during WISSARD will provide the US-science community with a capability to access and study sub-ice sheet environments. Developing this technological infrastructure will benefit the broader science community and it will be available for

  15. Seasonal variation in baseline and maximum whole-body glucocorticoid concentrations in a small-bodied stream fish independent of habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Cassia B; Vera-Chang, Marilyn N; Moon, Thomas W; Midwood, Jonathan D; Suski, Cory D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-02-01

    Alterations to natural habitats are becoming more common due to changes in anthropogenic land use. As such, there is increasing interest in determining how wild animals adapt and respond to environmental stressors. The glucocorticoid (GC) stress response enables animals to react appropriately to environmental challenges but can be affected by many factors, two of which are habitat quality and time of year (i.e., season). This study tested whether baseline and maximum (stress-induced) whole-body cortisol concentrations varied in relation to habitat quality and season using wild central mudminnows (Umbra limi) collected from two connected streams differing in habitat quality in each of four seasons. Overall, baseline and maximum cortisol levels did not differ significantly between the two systems but there was evidence of a seasonal effect. Baseline cortisol levels in the fall and summer were significantly (P<0.01) lower than those in winter and spring and maximum cortisol levels in the summer were significantly lower (P<0.01) than those in the spring. Inconsistent with the prevailing paradigm, our results indicate that habitat quality does not always influence baseline GCs or the stress response. In contrast, baseline and maximum GCs in this species do vary seasonally. As such, seasonality should be considered in the interpretation of stress response data especially when using small-bodied stream fish as biological indicators. PMID:26523497

  16. Multi-scale Spatial Analysis Of Physical Habitat Of Pseudobagrus ichikawai (Siluriformes: Bagridae) In Third Order Stream Landscapes, Mie Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, T.; Sagawa, S.; Kayaba, Y.; Saiki, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Amano, K.

    2005-05-01

    The bagrid catfish, Pseudobagrus ichikawai, is threatened with extinction, occurring only in the rivers flowing into Ise and Mikawa Bays. P. ichikawai is perceived to use the interstices of boulder clusters in backwaters. However, its ecology remains unclear owing to its nocturnal habits and unique habitat features. Recently, several river improvement works for controlling floods such as bank revetment, channel shortening and dam construction have decreased such environments in many rivers, and have also been considered to cause the reduction of catfish populations. The conservation of the remaining populations is fundamental not only for preserving species / genetic diversity, but also for sustaining the river landscape with its various environments. In other words, P. ichikawai can be utilized as an indicator species for this original river landscape. Therefore, in order to conserve a tiny population of the catfish, habitat restorations are planned in the 3rd order stream, a small branch of the Inabe River system in Mie Prefecture. The objectives of this study are to clarify the physical characteristics of P. ichikawai habitats and to help implementing habitat restoration in this small branch. This study consists of stratified analysis from the viewpoints of three kinds of spatial scale as follows: (1) landscape scale which includes physical land shape characteristics of the valley with each stream investigated before, (2) reach scale of the longitudinal 100 m length including the riparian zone with the multiple observed points of catfish and (3) micro-habitat scale of the quadrates (2m X 2m) where we observed the catfish individuals. At first, cluster analysis for scale (1) was conducted using variables such as sinuosity of channel, channel / valley width, and longitudinal / cross-sectional valley gradient. These parameters were obtained from general topographic maps and the 3rd order streams where local P. icihikawai populations survived in Mie Prefecture were

  17. Nearshore benthic habitat GIS for the Channel Islands National Sanctuary and southern California State Fisheries Reserves. Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Nasby, Nicole M.; Reid, Jane A.; Waltenberger, Ben; Lee, Kristen M.

    2003-01-01

    The nearshore benthic habitat of the Santa Barbara coast and Channel Islands supports diverse marine life that is commercially, recreationally, and intrinsically valuable. Some of these resources are known to be endangered including a variety of rockfish and the white abalone. Agencies of the state of California and the United States have been mandated to preserve and enhance these resources. Data from sidescan sonar, bathymetry, video and dive observations, and physical samples are consolidated in a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS provides researchers and policymakers a view of the relationship among data sets to assist scienctific research and to help with economic and social policy-making decisions regarding this protected environment.

  18. 77 FR 19230 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Insular Fisheries. A. American Samoa i. Coral reef and crustacean fisheries. ii. Bottomfish fisheries. iii. Precious corals fishery and coral reef habitat status. iv. Update on Bio-Sampling Program data summary. v. Non-stock related factors affecting Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) in the coral reef fisheries....

  19. Stream habitat assessment project: Prince William Sound and lower Kenai Peninsula. Restoration project 93051. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sundet, K.; Kuwada, M.N.; Barnhart, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Habitat and Restoration Division, conducted surveys of anadromous fish streams in Prince William Sound and Lower Kenai Peninsula from August 2 to September 23, 1993. These surveys focused on Chenega, Eyak and Tatilek corporation lands and Chugach Alaska Corporation lands in Prince William Sound, and on Port Graham and English Bay corporation lands on the lower Kenai Peninsula in order to document anadromous fish distribution and habitat on private lands throughout the spill area. 180 new anadromous fish streams were documented totalling approximately 57 km (35 miles). Pink and coho salmon were the principal fish species found, followed by chum salmon, sockeye salmon, Dolly Varden, rainbow trout, cutthroat trout, stickleback and sculpin, and in intertidal channels, juvenile founder.

  20. Water quality and habitat conditions in upper Midwest streams relative to riparian vegetation and soil characteristics, August 1997 : study design, methods, and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, S.K.; Porter, S.D.; Akers, K.B.; Harris, M.A.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Lee, K.E.; Roberts, L.; Terrio, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Water-chemistry, biological, and habitat data were collected from 70 sites on Midwestern streams during August 1997 as part of an integrated, regional water-quality assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The study area includes the Corn Belt region of southern Minnesota, eastern Iowa, and west-central Illinois, one of the most intensive and productive agricultural regions of the world. The focus of the study was to evaluate the condition of woodedriparian zones and the influence of basin soildrainage characteristics on water quality and biological-community responses. This report includes a description of the study design and site-characterization process, sample-collection and processing methods, laboratory methods, quality-assurance procedures, and summaries of data on nutrients, herbicides and metabolites, stream productivity and respiration, biological communities, habitat conditions, and agriculturalchemical and land-use information.

  1. The influence of high magnitude/ low frequency flood events on the spawning habitat of Atlantic salmon in the headwaters of a Scottish stream.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, H.; Gibbins, C.; Soulsby, C.; Webb, J.

    2002-12-01

    In upland salmonid spawning streams, a large proportion of sediment supply is generated in steep headwater reaches during low frequency, high magnitude flood events. These events are integral in dictating channel morphology in these streams. Previous work on a number of Scottish upland streams has suggested that material introduced to the channel during these events is the dominant source of salmonid spawning-calibre sediment and, being important in dictating channel morphology through-out the system, key in controlling the distribution of fish habitats. In headwater reaches, salmonid spawning habitat tends to be limited by the quantity and distribution of suitable sediments, the hydraulics of such locations tending to transport gravel-sized material downstream. Data collected on the Allt a' Ghlinne Bhig (an upland tributary of the River Tay, Scotland) has shown that headwater accumulations of gravel as a result of episodic sediment input during large flood events can provide important spawning habitat, although such features are intrinsically unstable. Uptake of these habitats may be disproportionately important to juvenile production. The stream morphology and discharge associated with over 400 incidents of Atlantic salmon spawning were recorded over three consecutive seasons (2000, 2001 and 2002). Two high magnitude flood events in September 2001 and July 2002 resulted in major sediment input to the headwaters, heavily modifying the character of the channel and producing many substantial accumulations of gravel. In the season prior to these events (2000), no spawning was observed in these locations. During the subsequent surveys (2001 and 2002), a significant number of spawning incidents were observed in the headwaters, potentially providing stock to uptake habitat in these important headwater areas. Although stream discharge during the spawning period is known to affect access to headwater reaches, flows between the three study periods were not significantly

  2. Habitat conservation and creation: Invoking the flood-pulse concept to enhance fisheries in the lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L., Jr.; Eggleton, M.A.; Mayo, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of four years of growth data failed to identify a single temperature or hydrologic variable that consistently accounted for variation in annual growth of catfishes (Ictaluridae). Instead, a composite variable that measured duration of floodplain inundation when water temperature exceeded minima for active feeding was directly related to growth. Results indicated that floodplain inundation have provided little direct energetic benefit to fishes when water temperatures were sub-optimal for active feeding, but floodplain resources were exploited when thermal conditions were sufficient for active feeding and growth. Thus, the flood-pulse concept applies to the lower Mississippi River (LMR) when modified to consider temperature. Managing the existing leveed floodplain to prolong inundation, increase water temperatures during spring flooding, and maintain connectivity of floodplain habitats with the main river channel should benefit fish production in the LMR.

  3. Using Net Energy Intake models to predict and evaluate the benefits of stream restoration to improve juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwes, N.; Wall, C. E.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S.; Jordan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Stream restoration is often targeted to improve fish habitat. However, predictions or evaluations of habitat or fish population responses to these actions are rarely assessed or more often assumed. Model predictions that describe both physical and biological effects from different types of restorations can help test hypotheses to improve our understanding of fish habitat requirements, especially if restoration is treated as an experiment. In addition, models can help synthesize data to determine project effectiveness to link fish responses to physical habitat responses, promoting a mechanistic understanding that is transferrable to other systems. We are applying a mechanistic model to estimate net energy intake (NEI) potential for juvenile steelhead throughout a stream reach. NEI modeling approaches attempt to describe the quantity of food a fish can ingest at a particular site (as a function of food availability, temperature, and fish size) and the energetic costs of living there (as a function of flow patterns, temperature, and fish size). The collection of NEI estimates can be used to help understand the site's overall energetic profitability for fish and to generate an estimate of carrying capacity. We collected topographic information to create digital elevation models (DEMs) of a stream channel along with drifting invertebrates, temperature, discharge, and substrate type, before and after the addition of large wood in the Asotin watershed. This information was used to create hydraulic models to estimate water velocities and flow direction which were then used to predict delivery rates of drift, swimming costs to fish, and ultimately NEI potential throughout the reach. The model was used to predict restoration benefits based on expected geomorphic responses to large wood. In addition, the model was used to translate modest observed changes in topography from the restoration to increases in NEI and carrying capacity of the stream reach. We believe the NEI

  4. Baseline Assessment of Fish Communities, Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities, and Stream Habitat and Land Use, Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2003-01-01

    The Big Thicket National Preserve comprises 39,300 hectares in the form of nine preserve units connected by four stream corridor units (with two more corridor units proposed) distributed over the lower Neches and Trinity River Basins of southeastern Texas. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate data were collected at 15 stream sites (reaches) in the preserve during 1999?2001 for a baseline assessment and a comparison of communities among stream reaches. The fish communities in the preserve were dominated by minnows (family Cyprinidae) and sunfishes (family Centrarchidae). Reaches with smaller channel sizes generally had higher fish species richness than the larger reaches in the Neches River and Pine Island Bayou units of the preserve. Fish communities in geographically adjacent reaches were most similar in overall community structure. The blue sucker, listed by the State as a threatened species, was collected in only one reach?a Neches River reach a few miles downstream from the Steinhagen Lake Dam. Riffle beetles (family Elmidae) and midges (family Chironomidae) dominated the aquatic insect communities at the 14 reaches sampled for aquatic insects in the preserve. The Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) Index, an index sensitive to water-quality degradation, was smallest at the Little Pine Island Bayou near Beaumont reach that is in a State 303(d)-listed stream segment on Little Pine Island Bayou. Trophic structure of the aquatic insect communities is consistent with the river continuum concept with shredder and scraper insect taxa more abundant in reaches with smaller stream channels and filter feeders more abundant in reaches with larger channels. Aquatic insect community metrics were not significantly correlated to any of the stream-habitat or land-use explanatory variables. The percentage of 1990s urban land use in the drainage areas upstream from 12 bioassessment reaches were negatively correlated to the reach structure index, which indicates less

  5. Is the diet of a typical shredder related to the physical habitat of headwater streams in the Brazilian Cerrado?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroinvertebrates are important for processing leaf detritus in temperate streams, but studies about their role in tropical streams are scarce and often present conflicting results. We assessed the diet of Phylloicus (Trichoptera: Calamoceratidae) larvae, that is generally class...

  6. Habitat suitability index model for brook trout in streams of the Southern Blue Ridge Province: Surrogate variables, model evaluation, and suggested improvements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Lemly, A.D.; Winger, P.V.

    1993-01-01

    Data from several sources were collated and analyzed by correlation, regression, and principal components analysis to define surrrogate variables for use in the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) habitat suitability index (HSI) model, and to evaluate the applicability of the model for assessing habitat in high elevation streams of the southern Blue Ridge Province (SBRP). In all data sets examined, pH and alkalinity were highly correlated, and both declined with increasing elevation; however, the magnitude of the decline varied with underlying rock formations and other factors, thereby restricting the utility of elevation as a surrogate for pH. In the data sets that contained biological information, brook trout abundance (as biomass, density, or both) tended to increase with elevation and decrease with the abundance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and was not significantly correlated (P >0.05) with the abundance of most benthic macroinvertebrate taxa normally construed as important in the diet of brook trout. Using multiple linear regression, the authors formulated an alternative HSI model A? based on point estimates of gradient, pH, elevation, stream width, and rainbow trout density A? which explained 40 to 50 percent of the variance in brook trout density in 256 stream reaches. Although logically developed, the present U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service HSI model, proposed in 1982, seems deficient in several areas, especially when applied to SBRP streams. The authors recommend that the water quality component in the model be updated and reevaluated, focusing on the differential sensitivities of each life stage, the stochastic nature of the water quality variables, and the possible existence of habitat requirements that differ among brook trout strains.

  7. Coupling Self-Organizing Maps with a Naïve Bayesian classifier: A case study for classifying Vermont streams using geomorphic, habitat and biological assessment data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytilis, N.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental managers are increasingly required to forecast the long-term effects and the resilience or vulnerability of biophysical systems to human-generated stresses. Mitigation strategies for hydrological and environmental systems need to be assessed in the presence of uncertainty. An important aspect of such complex systems is the assessment of variable uncertainty on the model response outputs. We develop a new classification tool that couples a Naïve Bayesian Classifier with a modified Kohonen Self-Organizing Map to tackle this challenge. For proof-of-concept, we use rapid geomorphic and reach-scale habitat assessments data from over 2500 Vermont stream reaches (~1371 stream miles) assessed by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources (VTANR). In addition, the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation (VTDEC) estimates stream habitat biodiversity indices (macro-invertebrates and fish) and a variety of water quality data. Our approach fully utilizes the existing VTANR and VTDEC data sets to improve classification of stream-reach habitat and biological integrity. The combined SOM-Naïve Bayesian architecture is sufficiently flexible to allow for continual updates and increased accuracy associated with acquiring new data. The Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is an unsupervised artificial neural network that autonomously analyzes properties inherent in a given a set of data. It is typically used to cluster data vectors into similar categories when a priori classes do not exist. The ability of the SOM to convert nonlinear, high dimensional data to some user-defined lower dimension and mine large amounts of data types (i.e., discrete or continuous, biological or geomorphic data) makes it ideal for characterizing the sensitivity of river networks in a variety of contexts. The procedure is data-driven, and therefore does not require the development of site-specific, process-based classification stream models, or sets of if-then-else rules associated with

  8. Using the PDSI to Estimate Summer Stream Discharge in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Implications for 20th Century Riparian Habitat Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, L.; Meyer, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Small streams at lower elevations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) create riparian habitat in an otherwise dry environment. Riparian area can be expanded by beaver damming, which increases channel wetted area and local water tables, and allows fine-grained organic-rich sediment to accumulate. However, increases can be countered by severe drought. The loss of riparian area is potentially greatest in small basins dependent on snowpack for base flow, where prolonged severe drought may reduce base flow to zero. Discharge records are often lacking for basins < 20 km^2, making it difficult to directly examine how climate has impacted flow. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is a useful proxy for large-scale variations in available moisture. PDSI values for climate divisions are estimated from spatially weighted weather station measurements of temperature and precipitation. We use divisional PDSI values to estimate discharge on GYE small streams since 1900. USGS stream-gauge sites were regressed with the corresponding PDSI for each climate division. We also use a regional (2.5° by 2.5°) reconstruction of the PDSI based on 30 tree ring chronologies (Cook et al., 2004) to estimate discharge during the most severe two and ten year droughts (AD 1150-1151 and 805-796, respectively) during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA). The MCA is a period of high climate variability and widespread drought in the GYE. Significant correlations between stream discharge and the PDSI occur during the late summer and early fall and the strongest correlation between discharge and the PDSI occurs for the 3-month PDSI average centered on August. Stream-gauge records with bootstrapped correlation values greater than 0.65 were chosen for regression analyses. To estimate stream flows for ungauged stream reaches, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed using measured stream flows and independent basin characteristics. Basin area and mean elevation are significant

  9. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Olfe, J.; Lang, C.; Vernet, M.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 15 papers. Topics include a review of some California fisheries, spawning biomass of the northern anchovy, marine fisheries, habitat alterations, fishery management, reproduction, population dynamics, acoustic Doppler currents and sea lion interaction and depredation. Each paper will be indexed and entered separately on the energy data base. 54 figs., 29 tabs. (KD)

  10. 50 CFR 226.208 - Critical habitat for green turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for green turtle. 226.208 Section 226.208 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.208 Critical habitat...

  11. 50 CFR 226.208 - Critical habitat for green turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for green turtle. 226.208 Section 226.208 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.208 Critical habitat...

  12. Review of habitat classification schemes appropriate to streams, rivers, and connecting channels in the Great Lakes drainage system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Griffiths, R.W.; Wheaton, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of lotic classification, zonation, and distribution carried out since the turn of the century were reviewed for their use in developing a habitat classification scheme for flowing water in the Great Lakes drainage basin. Seventy papers, dealing mainly with fish but including benthos, were organized into four somewhat distinct groups. A heirarchical scale of habitat measurements is suggested, and sources of data and inventory methods, including statistical treatment, are reviewed. An outline is also provided for developing a classification system for riverine habitat in the Great Lakes drainage basin.

  13. Implications of fish-habitat relationships for developing conservation plans for channelized headwater streams in the midwestern United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many headwater streams in the midwestern United States were channelized for agricultural drainage. Conservation practices are implemented to reduce nutrient and pesticide loadings within these altered streams. The impact of these practices is uncertain because the influence of water chemistry on st...

  14. Influence of Herbaceous Filter Strips on Physical Habitat, Water Chemistry, and Fish Communities Within Channelized Headwater Streams in Central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbaceous filter strips are a widely used conservation practice in the United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment loadings in agricultural streams. The importance of forested riparian zones for headwater streams has been documented, but the ecological impacts of herbaceous filter ...

  15. Implications of Fish-Habitat Relationships for Developing Conservation Plans for Channelized Headwater Streams in the Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many headwater streams in the midwestern United States were channelized for agricultural drainage. Conservation practices are implemented to reduce nutrient and pesticide loadings within these altered streams. The impact of these practices is uncertain because the influence of water chemistry on str...

  16. Linking movement and reproductive history of brook trout to assess habitat connectivity in a heterogeneous stream network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Coombs, Jason A.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlighted the importance of characterising animal movement over the life cycle for inferring habitat connectivity accurately. Such movements of individuals can contribute to substantial gene movements in a fecund species characterised by high variation in reproductive success.

  17. Evaluating the accotink creek restoration project for improving water quality, in-stream habitat, and bank stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Struck, S.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Hyer, K.; O'Connor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals) to receiving waters. To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff as well as to minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land-use practices directly impact urban streams. Stream flows in urbanized watersheds increase in magnitude as a function of impervious area and can result in degradation of the natural stream channel morphology affecting the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the stream. Stream bank erosion, which also increases with increased stream flows, can lead to bank instability, property loss, infrastructure damage, and increased sediment loading to the stream. Increased sediment loads may lead to water quality degradation downstream and have negative impacts on fish, benthic invertebrates, and other aquatic life. Accotink Creek is in the greater Chesapeake Bay and Potomac watersheds, which have strict sediment criteria. The USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) are investigating the effectiveness of stream restoration techniques as a BMP to decrease sediment load and improve bank stability, biological integrity, and in-stream water quality in an impaired urban watershed in Fairfax, Virginia. This multi-year project continuously monitors turbidity, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature, as well as biological and chemical water quality parameters. In addition, physical parameters (e.g., pebble counts, longitudinal and cross sectional stream surveys) were measured to assess geomorphic changes associated with the restoration. Data

  18. 50 CFR 600.815 - Contents of Fishery Management Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of Fishery Management Plans. 600.815 Section 600.815 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) § 600.815 Contents of...

  19. Comparing the Influence of Different Habitat Factors on Fish Communities in Channelized Headwater Streams in Indiana and Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation practices, such as herbaceous riparian buffers, pesticide management, and conservation tillage, are implemented to reduce nutrient, pesticide, and sediment loadings within agricultural streams. The impact of these practices is uncertain because previous studies have focused on evaluatin...

  20. Variation in biotic assemblages and stream-habitat data with sampling strategy and method in tidal segments of Highland and Marchand Bayous, Galveston County, Texas, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabe, Jeffrey A.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Galveston Bay Estuary Program under the authority of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a study in 2007 to assess the variation in biotic assemblages (benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities) and stream-habitat data with sampling strategy and method in tidal segments of Highland Bayou and Marchand Bayou in Galveston County. Data were collected once in spring and once in summer 2007 from four stream sites (reaches) (short names Hitchcock, Fairwood, Bayou Dr, and Texas City) of Highland Bayou and from one reach (short name Marchand) in Marchand Bayou. Only stream-habitat data from summer 2007 samples were used for this report. Additional samples were collected at the Hitchcock, Fairwood, and Bayou Dr reaches (multisample reaches) during summer 2007 to evaluate variation resulting from sampling intensity and location. Graphical analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate community data using a multidimensional scaling technique indicates there are taxonomic differences between the spring and summer samples. Seasonal differences in communities primarily were related to decreases in the abundance of chironomids and polychaetes in summer samples. Multivariate Analysis of Similarities tests of additional summer 2007 benthic macroinvertebrate samples from Hitchcock, Fairwood, and Bayou Dr indicated significant taxonomic differences between the sampling locations at all three reaches. In general, the deepwater samples had the smallest numbers for benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness and abundance. Graphical analysis of species-level fish data indicates no consistent seasonal difference in fish taxa across reaches. Increased seining intensity at the multisample reaches did not result in a statistically significant difference in fish communities. Increased seining resulted in some changes in taxa richness and community diversity metrics. Diversity increases

  1. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, Appendices, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1985-06-01

    The appendices include: (1) stream habitat inventory procedures; (2) lengths and volumes across hydroacoustic transects in Libby Reservoir; (3) temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity profiles in Libby Reservoir; (4) habitat survey information by reach; (5) gill net catches by species; (6) annual catches of fish in floating gill nets; (7) vertical distributions of fish and zooplankton; (8) timing of juvenile and adult movement through traps; (9) food habits information for collected fish; (10) estimated densities and composition of zooplankton by genera; (11) seasonal catch of macroinvertebrates; and (12) initial modeling effort on the Libby Reservoir fishery. (ACR)

  2. 78 FR 13326 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce ACTION: Notice; public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The New England Fishery Management Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat Committee to consider actions...

  3. Key stream/sediment exchanges of water and heat near stream mouths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J. E.; Naranjo, R. C.; Niswonger, R. G.; Neilson, B. T.; Allander, K.; Zamora, C.; Smith, D. W.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The section of stream discharging to a lake or other surface-water body is referred to as the stream mouth, a stream reach with rapidly changing hydrologic conditions, leading to unique aquatic and benthic ecology, as well as a visibly active fishery habitat. Of environmental significance, bridges, control structures, channelization and foot traffic are common near stream mouths, warranting comparisons of natural and channelized stream mouths. The present work completes the first investigation focusing specifically on the hydrology of surface-water/sediment exchanges at stream-mouth reaches discharging to lakes and compares these exchanges to those measured along the nearby shoreline in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. Heat and water exchanges for two common types of stream mouths (a natural stream with a summer barrier bar and a channelized stream mouth) are compared with comparable exchanges along the nearby shoreline on the north shore of Lake Tahoe located in the Central Sierra Nevada Mountain Range (CA/NV, US). The study site was selected partially due the abundance of streams discharging into the lake of both a natural and channelized nature (~30 small streams with a large number of both types of stream mouths). Heat and water exchanges were both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct for the three types of hydrologic settings, with (1) cool, low velocity, longitudinal (hyporheic) flowpaths observed below the channelized stream mouth, discharging beneath the warmer, more buoyant lakeshore water, (2) the nearby shoreline receiving relatively warm, higher velocity discharge and (3) for the natural stream mouth, there was strong diurnal temperature pattern in groundwater discharging through the seasonal barrier beach to the lake. Impacts of strong 2013 wave action on exchanges were also distinct for the three settings, with (1) channelization allowing waves to extend well upstream, (2) a lesser invasive impact in the shoreline swash zone exchanges

  4. Stream classification of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River System to support modeling of aquatic habitat response to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    A stream classification and associated datasets were developed for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin to support biological modeling of species response to climate change in the southeastern United States. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of the Interior’s National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center established the Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP) which used downscaled general circulation models to develop landscape-scale assessments of climate change and subsequent effects on land cover, ecosystems, and priority species in the southeastern United States. The SERAP aquatic and hydrologic dynamics modeling efforts involve multiscale watershed hydrology, stream-temperature, and fish-occupancy models, which all are based on the same stream network. Models were developed for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin and subbasins in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia, and for the Upper Roanoke River Basin in Virginia. The stream network was used as the spatial scheme through which information was shared across the various models within SERAP. Because these models operate at different scales, coordinated pair versions of the network were delineated, characterized, and parameterized for coarse- and fine-scale hydrologic and biologic modeling. The stream network used for the SERAP aquatic models was extracted from a 30-meter (m) scale digital elevation model (DEM) using standard topographic analysis of flow accumulation. At the finer scale, reaches were delineated to represent lengths of stream channel with fairly homogenous physical characteristics (mean reach length = 350 m). Every reach in the network is designated with geomorphic attributes including upstream drainage basin area, channel gradient, channel width, valley width, Strahler and Shreve stream order, stream power, and measures of stream confinement. The reach network was aggregated from tributary junction to tributary junction to define segments for the

  5. A model for evaluating stream temperature response to climate change in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Jana S.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Kammel, Leah E.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating the SWB Model with the ANN Model provided a mechanism by which downscaled global or regional climate model results could be used to estimate the potential effects of climate change on future stream temperature on a daily time step. To address future climate scenarios, statistically downscaled air temperature and precipitation projections from 10 GCMs and 2 time periods were used with the SWB-ANNv1 Model to project future stream temperature. Projections of future stream temperatures at mid- (2046–65) and late- (2081–2100) 21st century showed the July mean water temperature increasing for all stream segments with about 80 percent of stream kilometers increasing by 1 to 2 degrees Celsius (°C) by mid-century and about 99 percent increasing by 1 to 3 °C by late-century. Projected changes in stream temperatures also affected changes in thermal classes with a loss in the total amount of cold-water, cold-transition, and warm-transition thermal habitat and a gain in warm-water and very warm thermal habitat for both mid- and late-21st century time periods. The greatest losses occurred for cold-water streams and the greatest gains for warm-water streams, with a contraction of cold-water streams in the Driftless Area of western and southern Wisconsin and an expansion of warm-water streams across northern Wisconsin. Results of this study suggest that such changes will affect the composition of fish assemblages, with a loss of suitable habitat for cold-water fishes and gain in suitable habitat for warm-water fishes. In the end, these projected changes in thermal habitat attributable to climate may result in a net loss of fisheries, because many warm-water species may be unable to colonize habitats formerly occupied by cold-water species because of other habitat limitations (e.g., stream size, gradient). Although projected stream temperatures may vary greatly, depending on the emissions scenario and models used, the results presented in this report represent one

  6. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams. PMID:26339996

  8. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  9. The Timing, Spatial Extent and Magnitude of Fishery Benefits Obtained From Re-watering Interconnected Stream-Aquifer Systems Depleted by Historical Diversions and Pumping - A case study in the Shasta Valley, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davids, J. C.; Mehl, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Little Shasta River located in north-central California is bounded by Mt. Shasta to the south, the Klamath Mountains to the west, and the Cascade Range to the east. The predominant land and water uses are cattle ranching and forage-crop cultivation. Historically, a series of low-temperature springs forming the headwaters of the Little Shasta River provided the quantity and quality of water necessary for a productive perennial anadromous fishery. Currently, surface-water rights frequently result in complete diversion of the Little Shasta River. These surface-water diversions have led to a hydrologic scenario we refer to as artificially ephemeral. In other words, the Little Shasta River, though historically a perennial stream sustained by spring discharge through the dry summer months, has been altered to an artificial ephemeral flow regime from anthropogenic effects. Additionally, pumping from the underlying groundwater basin has caused a lowering of the groundwater table and a subsequent one-way connection between the stream and the aquifer. Of principal interest is how the river and the underlying aquifer system respond to returning the river to a perennial flow regime. More specifically (1) on what time scales, (2) to what spatial extents, and (3) to what magnitude will the anadromous fishery be benefited by returning to a perennial flow regime? Furthermore, what are the sensitivities of the timing, spatial extent, and magnitude of these benefits to changes in initial conditions, aquifer and stream geometry, riparian vegetation, and aquifer and stream geologic properties? To help answer these questions a series of parametric modeling runs were performed using a MODFLOW 2005 model. Field data obtained from infiltration tests, aquifer performance tests, and stream flow measurements are used to specifically tailor the modeling results to the unique context found in the Little Shasta Valley.

  10. 75 FR 18482 - Stanford University Habitat Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... 0648-XV36 Stanford University Habitat Conservation Plan AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service... habitat conservation plan, and receipt of application; notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice... Incidental Take and Implementation of Stanford University ] Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan), and...

  11. Influence of grass filter strips on structure and function of riparian habitats of agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass filter strips are a widely used conservation practice in the United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment loadings into agricultural streams. Previous studies have documented the effectiveness of grass filter strips in reducing the input of agricultural pollutants, but the inf...

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE, PHYSICAL HABITAT AND FISH ASSEMBLAGE DATA IN A STATE WIDE PROBABILITY SURVEY OF OREGON STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the ecological condition of streams and rivers in Oregon, we sampled 146 sites
    in summer, 1997 as part of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program.
    Sample reaches were selected using a systematic, randomized sample design from the blue-line n...

  13. Multi-scale geomorphic and hydrogeologic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat in headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; Wilcox, A. C.; Woessner, W. W.; Muhlfeld, C.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated multi-scale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt- dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Bull trout redds were primarily found in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (74%), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater-stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds (26%), however, were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches. Among all reaches and subreaches, the abundance of redds increased with increased bankfull dimensionless shear stress and decreased with reach-average streambed grain size (p < 0.05). Within these selected reaches and subreaches, redd occurrence tended to be associated with the finest available textural facies (i.e., gravel and small cobble substrates) in concave-up bedforms with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm. Groundwater provided substantial thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Our spawning gravel competence results indicate that bull trout select spawning areas that are potentially susceptible to flooding-induced scour during the fall and winter incubation period.

  14. Anthropogenic sedimentation in Pacific Northwest streams inferred from Aquatic Habitat Survey datausing a relative bed stability index

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated anthropogenic sedimentation in U.S. Pacific Northwest coastal streams using an index of relative bed stability (LRBS*) based on low flow survey data collected using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) fiel...

  15. Habitat use by a Midwestern U.S.A. riverine fish assemblage: effects of season, water temperature and river discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, D.P.; Tiemann, J.S.; Edds, D.R.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis that temperate stream fishes alter habitat use in response to changing water temperature and stream discharge was evaluated over a 1 year period in the Neosho River, Kansas, U.S.A. at two spatial scales. Winter patterns differed from those of all other seasons, with shallower water used less frequently, and low-flow habitat more frequently, than at other times. Non-random habitat use was more frequent at the point scale (4.5 m2) than at the larger reach scale (20-40 m), although patterns at both scales were similar. Relative to available habitats, assemblages used shallower, swifter-flowing water as temperature increased, and shallower, slower-flowing water as river discharge increased. River discharge had a stronger effect on assemblage habitat use than water temperature. Proportion of juveniles in the assemblage did not have a significant effect. This study suggests that many riverine fishes shift habitats in response to changing environmental conditions, and supports, at the assemblage level, the paradigm of lotic fishes switching from shallower, high-velocity habitats in summer to deeper, low-velocity habitats in winter, and of using shallower, low-velocity habitats during periods of high discharge. Results also indicate that different species within temperate river fish assemblages show similar habitat use patterns at multiple scales in response to environmental gradients, but that non-random use of available habitats is more frequent at small scales. ?? 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Impacts of groundwater abstraction on the trout fishery of the River Piddle, Dorset; and an approach to their alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strevens, A. P.

    1999-02-01

    The River Piddle, a small chalk stream in Dorset, supports a valuable fishery for brown trout. It is also heavily utilised for water abstraction, with a licensed maximum daily quantity of 197 Ml/d, of which 43·5% can be taken from the groundwater. The largest licensed groundwater uses (by licensed volume) are public water supplies (PWS), of which there are four within the Piddle catchment.Investigations into the impacts of the largest PWS abstraction, at Briantspuddle, on the brown trout population and fisheries of the River Piddle demonstrated a spatial correlation between a zone of reduced river flow and an area of low juvenile trout abundance, and a reduction in the period during which good quality trout fishing was available.Trout habitat was quantified by applying the Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) in conjunction with a groundwater model. The resultant habitat duration curves and habitat time-series corresponding with historical and naturalised (zero abstraction) flow, indicated large habitat losses for juvenile trout.Using discharge habitat relationships a preferred flow regime for the river at Briantspuddle, designed to satisfy both ecological and recreational needs, was identified. This flow regime, which will be maintained by stream support, includes a survival flow for juvenile trout during the critical summer low flow period.

  17. Seasonal variation in habitat use of juvenile Steelhead in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Studdert, Emily W.; Johnson, James H.

    2015-01-01

    We examined seasonal-habitat use by subyearling and yearling Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout or Steelhead) in Trout Brook, a tributary of the Salmon River, NY. We determined daytime fish-habitat use and available habitat during August and October of the same year and observed differences in habitat selection among year classes. Water depth and cover played the greatest role in Steelhead habitat use. During summer and autumn, we found yearling Steelhead in areas with deeper water and more cover than where we observed subyearling Steelhead. Both year classes sought out areas with abundant cover during both seasons; this habitat was limited within the stream reach. Subyearling Steelhead were associated with more cover during autumn, even though available cover within the stream reach was greater during summer. Principal component analysis showed that variation in seasonal-habitat use was most pronounced for subyearling Steelhead and that yearling Steelhead were more selective in their habitat use than subyearling Steelhead. The results of this study contribute to a greater understanding of how this popular sportfish is adapting to a new environment and the factors that may limit juvenile Steelhead survival. Our findings provide valuable new insights into the seasonal-habitat requirements of subyearling and yearling Steelhead that can be used by fisheries managers to enhance and protect the species throughout the Great Lakes region.

  18. Relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and geospatial habitat, in-stream water chemistry, and surfactants in the effluent-dominated Trinity River, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Slye, Jaime L; Kennedy, James H; Johnson, David R; Atkinson, Sam F; Dyer, Scott D; Ciarlo, Michael; Stanton, Kathleen; Sanderson, Hans; Nielsen, Allen M; Price, Bradford B

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, benthic macroinvertebrate community structure studies have been conducted on the upper Trinity River, Texas, USA, which is dominated by municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and industrial effluents. The Trinity River is located in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area, and is the most highly populated and industrialized watershed in Texas. As such, the Trinity River represents a near-worst-case scenario to examine the environmental effects of domestic-municipal and industrial effluents on aquatic life. A 1987 to 1988 study concluded that many stretches of the river supported a diverse benthic community structure; however, a decline in taxa richness occurred immediately downstream of WWTPs. A 2005 study designed to parallel the 1987 to 1988 efforts evaluated how changes in water quality, habitat, and increased urbanization impacted benthic community structure. Physicochemical measurements, habitat quality, geospatial variables, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from 10 sites. Surfactants were measured and toxic units (TUs) were calculated for surface water and pore water as indicators of domestic/household use of cleaning products. Total TUs indicated a low potential for biological impacts. Toxic unit distribution was not dependent on WWTP location and did not correlate with any benthic variable. Eight environmental parameters were determined to be useful for predicting changes in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure: surfactant surface water TUs (SWTU), in-stream habitat cover, and surface water total organic carbon were the top three parameters. Abundance, taxa richness, and taxa similarity in 2005 had increased since the earlier study throughout the immediate vicinity of the metropolitan area. PMID:21312245

  19. A landscape perspective of the stream corridor invasion and habitat characteristics of an exotic (Dioscorea oppositifolia) in a pristine watershed in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.R.; Middleton, B.; Gibson, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of exotics across riparian landscapes is not uniform, and research elaborating the environmental constraints and dispersal behavior that underlie these patterns of distribution is warranted. This study examined the spatial distribution, growth patterns, and habitat constraints of populations of the invasive Dioscorea oppositifolia in a forested stream corridor of a tributary of Drury Creek in Giant City State Park, IL. The distribution of D. oppositifolia was determined at the watershed scale mainly by floodplain structure and connectivity. Populations of D. oppositifolia were confined to the floodplain, with overbank flooding from the stream. Dioscorea oppositifolia probably originates in disturbed areas upstream of natural corridors, and subsequently, the species disperses downstream into pristine canyons or ravines via bulbils dispersing in the water. In Giant City State Park, populations of D. oppositifolia were distributed on the floodplain across broad gradients of soil texture, light, slope, and potential radiation. The study also examined the longevity of bulbils in various micro-environments to illuminate strategies for the management of the species in invaded watersheds. After 1 year, the highest percentages of bulbils were viable under leaves, and much lower percentages were viable over leaves, in soil, and in the creek (76.0??6.8, 21.2??9.6, 21.6??3.6, and 5.2??5.2%), respectively. This study suggests that management procedures that reduce leaf litter on the forest floor (e.g., prescribed burning) could reduce the number of bulbils of D. oppositifolia stored in the watershed. ?? Springer 2006.

  20. Abundance and distribution of selected elements in soils, stream sediments, and selected forage plants from desert tortoise habitats in the Mojave and Colorado deserts, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Berry, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    A baseline and background chemical survey was conducted in southeastern California, USA, to identify potential sources of toxicants in natural and anthropogenically-altered habitats of the threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Soil, stream sediment, and plant samples were collected from six tortoise habitat study areas in the Mojave and Colorado deserts and analysed for up to 66 different elements. The chemical analyses provided new information on the abundances and distributions of selected elements in this region. Soil, stream-sediment, and plant analyses showed distinct variations in bulk chemistries from locality to locality. Variations were, in general, consistent with the many types of exposed rock units in the region, their highly variable bulk mineralogies, and chemical contents. Of elements in soils that might have been toxic to tortoises, only As seemed to be anomalous region-wide. Some soil and plant anomalies were clearly anthropogenic. In the Rand and Atolia mining districts, soil anomalies for As, Au, Cd, Hg, Sb, and(or) W and plant anomalies for As, Sb, and(or) W extend as far as ???15 km outward from the present area of mining; soils containing anomalous Hg were found at least 6 km away from old piles of tailings. The anomalous concentrations of As and Hg may have been the source of elevated levels of these elements found in ill tortoises from the region. In the Goldstone mining district, soil anomalies extended several km from the mining area. These areas probably represented anthropogenic surface contamination of dust redistributed by wind, vehicles, and rainfall. One of two study areas transected by a paved road (Chemehuevi Valley) showed weakly elevated levels of Pb, which extended as far as ???22 m from the pavement edge and were probably related to vehicle exhaust. No soil or plant samples from historically used military areas (Goldstone, Goffs, Chemehuevi Valley, Chuckwalla Bench) contained anomalous concentrations of the elements

  1. Separating natural responses from experimental artefacts: habitat selection by a diadromous fish species using odours from conspecifics and natural stream water.

    PubMed

    Hale, Robin; Swearer, Stephen E; Downes, Barbara J

    2009-03-01

    Animals use sensory stimuli to assess and select habitats, mates and food as well as to communicate with other individuals. One way they do this is to use olfaction, whereby they identify and respond to chemical cues. All organisms release odours, which mix with other chemical substances and ambient environmental conditions. The result is that animals are frequently immersed in a complex, highly dynamic sensory environment where they must identify and respond to only some of the potential stimuli they encounter in the face of significant levels of background noise. Understanding how organisms respond to different chemical cues is therefore dependent on knowing how these responses might be influenced by potential interactions with other stimuli. To test this, we examined whether the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus was attracted to conspecific odours and whether this response differed when cues were offered in an artificial environment lacking other potential chemical stimuli (tap water) or a more natural background environment (stream water). We found that (1) fish responded to both natural stream water odours and those from conspecifics but the response to the latter was stronger; (2) the attraction to conspecific odours was stronger in tap water than in stream water, which indicates the importance of these odours may be overestimated when they are offered in artificial media. We also conducted a brief literature review, which confirmed that artificial media are commonly used in experiments and that the background environment is often not considered. Our results show that future research testing the responses of organisms to auditory, olfactory and visual cues should carefully consider the context in which cues are presented. Without doing so, such studies may inaccurately assess the importance of sensory cues in natural situations in the wild. PMID:19139923

  2. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Ken; Cain, Thomas C.; Heller, David A.

    1988-03-01

    Fisheries habitat improvement work is being done on priority drainages in the Clackamas and Rood River sub-basins under program measure 704(c), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This report describes the work completed in 1987 for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) project number 84-11, the Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program. The program is composed of six projects: Collawash River Habitat Improvement Project; Collawash River Falls Passage Improvement Project, Oak Grove Fork Habitat Improvement Project; Lake Branch/West Fork Hood River Habitat Improvement Project; Fifteenmile Creek Habitat Improvement Project; and Abundance, Behavior, and Habitat Utilization by Coho Salmon and Steelhead Trout in Fish Creek, Oregon, As Influenced by Habitat Enhancement. This ongoing program was initiated in 1984, although some of the projects were begun with BPA funding support as early as 1983. The projects are complemented by a variety of habitat improvement and management activities funded from a variety of Forest Service sources. This report describes the activities implemented for five of the six projects. A separate annual report on the 1987 habitat improvement and monitoring/evaluation efforts in the Fish Creek drainage has been prepared. Species for management emphasis include spring chinook and coho salmon, and summer and winter steelhead trout. Project work in 1987 primarily focused on increasing the quantity and quality of available rearing habitat, and improving access at passage barriers. The underlying theme of the improvement work has been to increase habitat diversity through the introduction of ''structure''. Structure provided by logs and boulders serves to deflect, pond, or otherwise disrupt flow patterns within a stream channel. This alteration of flow patterns results in formation of an increased number of habitat niches (i.e. pools, glides, alcoves, etc. ) in which a

  3. 50 CFR 226.221 - Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii). 226.221 Section 226.221 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.221 Critical habitat...

  4. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions. 226.202 Section 226.202 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.202 Critical habitat for Stellar sea...

  5. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  6. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  7. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. 226.204 Section 226.204 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following...

  8. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals. PMID:12572817

  9. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Plan; Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 1997-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Peters, Ronald

    2002-11-01

    Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are currently of special concern regionally and are important to the culture and subsistence needs of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. The mission of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is to restore and maintain these native trout and the habitats that sustain them in order to provide subsistence harvest and recreational fishing opportunities for the Reservation community. The adfluvial life history strategy exhibited by westslope cutthroat and bull trout in the Lake Coeur d'Alene subbasin makes these fish susceptible to habitat degradation and competition in both lake and stream environments. Degraded habitat in Lake Coeur d'Alene and its associated streams and the introduction of exotic species has lead to the decline of westslope cutthroat and listing of bull trout under the endangered species act (Peters et al. 1998). Despite the effects of habitat degradation, several streams on the Reservation still maintain populations of westslope cutthroat trout, albeit in a suppressed condition (Table 1). The results of several early studies looking at fish population status and habitat condition on the Reservation (Graves et al. 1990; Lillengreen et al. 1993, 1996) lead the Tribe to aggressively pursue funding for habitat restoration under the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) resident fish substitution program. Through these efforts, habitat restoration needs were identified and projects were initiated. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program is currently involved in implementing stream habitat restoration projects, reducing the transport of sediment from upland sources, and monitoring fish populations in four watersheds on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation (Figure 1). Restoration projects have included riparian plantings, addition of large woody debris to streams, and complete channel reconstruction to restore historical natural channel forms. In addition, ponds have

  10. Classification tree models for predicting distributions of michigan stream fish from landscape variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, P.J.; Zorn, T.G.; Seelbach, P.W.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, fish habitat requirements have been described from local-scale environmental variables. However, recent studies have shown that studying landscape-scale processes improves our understanding of what drives species assemblages and distribution patterns across the landscape. Our goal was to learn more about constraints on the distribution of Michigan stream fish by examining landscape-scale habitat variables. We used classification trees and landscape-scale habitat variables to create and validate presence-absence models and relative abundance models for Michigan stream fishes. We developed 93 presence-absence models that on average were 72% correct in making predictions for an independent data set, and we developed 46 relative abundance models that were 76% correct in making predictions for independent data. The models were used to create statewide predictive distribution and abundance maps that have the potential to be used for a variety of conservation and scientific purposes. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  11. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.; Stennfeld, Scott P.

    2001-04-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian enclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2000 included: (1) Implementing 2 new projects in the Grande Ronde drainage, and retrofitting one old project that will protect

  12. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R. Todd

    2001-12-31

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Habitat enhancement projects continued to be maintained on 44 private properties, four riparian easements and one in-stream enhancement agreement were secured, two new projects implemented and two existing projects improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities in the Umatilla River Basin. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River and Buckaroo Creek. Improvements were implemented at existing project sites on the upper Umatilla River and Wildhorse Creek. A stream bank stabilization project was implemented at approximately River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River to stabilize 760 feet of eroding stream bank and improve in-stream habitat diversity. Habitat enhancements at this site included construction of six rock barbs with one large conifer root wad incorporated into each barb, stinging approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings, planting 195 tubling willows and 1,800 basin wildrye grass plugs, and seeding 40 pounds of native grass seed. Staff time to assist in development of a subcontract and fence materials were provided to establish eight spring sites for off-stream watering and to protect wetlands within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. A gravel bar was moved and incorporated into an adjacent point bar to reduce stream energy and stream channel confinement within the existing project area at River Mile 85 Umatilla River. Approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings were stung and trenched into the stream channel margins and stream banks, and 360

  13. Testing the instream flow method in trout streams

    SciTech Connect

    Studley, T.K.; Railsback, S.F.; Asce, M.

    1995-12-31

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s (PG&E) Department of Research and Development and co-sponsors are fieldtesting the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) at a number of trout stream study sites. Fish populations, flows, and other variables were measured for an eight-year baseline period. Three levels of increasingly sophisticated predictions of population response to increased flows were made. The flow increases have been implemented and additional data are being collected to test the predictions. The baseline data and prediction analyses indicate that (1) using different habitat suitability criteria produces substantially different predictions of how populations respond to flow changes, (2) overlaps in habitat used by trout species can lead to misleading predictions of a population`s response to flow changes, and (3) factors other than habitat during summer low flows can limit trout populations (these include spawning habitat, high flows, stream channel characteristics, and stream temperature). Comprehensive field studies are expensive, but are more likely to result in instream flows that provide a cost-effective tradeoff between power and fisheries values.

  14. Immediate changes in stream channel geomorphology, aquatic habitat, and fish assemblages following dam removal in a small upland catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Nislow, K. H.; Kynard, B. E.; Hackman, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal is becoming an increasingly important component of river restoration, with > 1100 dams having been removed nationwide over the past three decades. Despite this recent progression of removals, the lack of pre- to post-removal monitoring and assessment limits our understanding of the magnitude, rate, and sequence of geomorphic and/or ecological recovery to dam removal. Taking advantage of the November 2012 removal of an old (~ 190 year-old) 6-m high, run-of-river industrial dam on Amethyst Brook (26 km2) in central Massachusetts, we identify the immediate eco-geomorphic responses to removal. To capture the geomorphic responses to dam removal, we collected baseline data at multiple scales, both upstream (~ 300 m) and downstream (> 750 m) of the dam, including monumented cross sections, detailed channel-bed longitudinal profiles, embeddedness surveys, and channel-bed grain size measurements, which were repeated during the summer of 2013. These geomorphic assessments were combined with detailed quantitative electrofishing surveys of stream fish richness and abundance above and below the dam site and throughout the watershed and visual surveys of native anadromous sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) nest sites. Post-removal assessments were complicated by two events: (1) upstream knickpoint migration exhumed an older (ca. late eighteenth century) intact wooden crib dam ~ 120 m upstream of the former stone dam, and (2) the occurrence of a 10-20 year RI flood 6 months after removal that caused further upstream incision and downstream aggradation. Now that the downstream reach has been reconnected to upstream sediment supply, the predominant geomorphic response was bed aggradation and associated fining (30-60% reduction). At dam proximal locations, aggradation ranged from 0.3 to > 1 m where a large woody debris jam enhanced aggradation. Although less pronounced, distal locations still showed aggradation with a mean depth of deposition of ~ 0.20 m over the 750-m

  15. Hydrologic changes in urban streams and their ecological significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Urban development modifies the production and delivery of runoff to streams and the resulting rate, volume, and timing of streamflow. Given that streamflow demonstrably influences the structure and composition of lotic communities, we have identified four hydrologic changes resulting from urban development that are potentially significant to stream ecosystems: increased frequency of high flows, redistribution of water from base flow to storm flow, increased daily variation in streamflow, and reduction in low flow. Previous investigations of streamflow patterns and biological assemblages provide a scale of ecological significance for each type of streamflow pattern. The scales establish the magnitude of changes in streamflow patterns that could be expected to produce biological responses in streams. Long-term streamflow records from eight streams in urbanizing areas of the United States and five additional reference streams, where land use has been relatively stable, were analyzed to assess if streamflow patterns were modified by urban development to an extent that a biological response could be expected and whether climate patterns could account for equivalent hydrologic variation in the reference streams. Changes in each type of streamflow pattern were evident in some but not all of the urban streams and were nearly absent in the reference streams. Given these results, hydrologic changes are likely significant to urban stream ecosystems, but the significance depends on the stream's physiographic context and spatial and temporal patterns of urban development. In urban streams with substantially altered hydrology, short-term goals for urban stream rehabilitation may be limited because of the difficulty and expense of restoring hydrologic processes in an urban landscape. The ecological benefits of improving physical habitat and water quality may be tempered by persistent effects of altered streamflow. In the end, the hydrologic effects of urban development must be

  16. Urbanization effects on fishes and habitat quality in a southern piedmont river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, D.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Leigh, D.S.; Freeman, B.J.; Pringle, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the relationships among urban land cover, fishes, and habitat quality to determine how fish assemblages respond to urbanization and if a habitat index can be used as an indirect measure of urban effects on stream ecosystems. We sampled 30 wadeable streams along an urban gradient (5-37% urban land cover) in the Etowah River basin, Georgia. Fish assemblages, sampled by electrofishing standardized stream reaches, were assessed using species richness, density, and species composition metrics. Habitat quality was scored using the Rapid Habitat Assessment Protocol (RHAP) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Urban land cover (including total, high-, and low-density urban) was estimated for the drainage basin above each reach. A previous study of these sites indicated that stream slope and basin area were strongly related to local variation in assemblage structure. We used multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis to account for this variation and isolate the urban effect on fishes. The MLR models indicated that urbanization lowered species richness and density and led to predictable changes in species composition. Darters and sculpin, cyprinids, and endemics declined along the urban gradient whereas centrarchids persisted and became the dominant group. The RHAP was not a suitable indicator of urban effects because RHAP-urban relationships were confounded by an overriding influence of stream slope on RHAP scores, and urban-related changes in fish assemblage structure preceded gross changes in stream habitat quality. Regression analysis indicated that urban effects on fishes accrue rapidly (<10 years) and are detectable at low levels (-5-10% urbanization). We predict that the decline of endemics and other species will continue and centrarchid-dominated streams will become more common as development proceeds within the Etowah basin. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  17. Quantifying multi-habitat support of Great Lakes fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances in trophic ecology have revealed the interconnectedness of diverse habitats in support of aquatic food webs. Understanding the degree to which different habitats support fish can be valuable for fisheries management and ecosystem protection. For example, stable is...

  18. Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Wadeable Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in wadeable streams nationwide as surveyed from 2000 to 2004. Benthic macroinvertebrates are particularly sensitive to disturbances in stream chemistry and physical habitat, making their prese...

  19. The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Reid, R.N.; Asch, R.G.; Guida, V.G.; Blackwood, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. is present on the Georges Bank fishing grounds in a gravel habitat where the benthic invertebrate fauna has been monitored annually since 1994. The species was not noted before 2002 when large colonies were first observed; and by 2003 and 2004 it covered large areas of the seabed at some locations. The latest survey in 2005 documented the tunicate's presence in two gravel areas that total more than 67 nm2 (230 km2). The affected area is located on the Northern Edge of the bank in United States waters near the U.S./Canada boundary ( Fig. 1). This is the first documented offshore occurrence of a species that has colonized eastern U.S. coastal waters from New York to Maine during the past 15–20 years ( U.S. Geological Survey, 2006). Video imagery shows colonies coalescing to form large mats that cover more than 50% of the seabed along some video/photo transects. The affected area is an immobile pebble and cobble pavement that lies at water depths of 40 to 65 m where strong semidiurnal tidal currents reach speeds of 1 to 2 kt (50–100 cm/s). The water column is mixed year round, ensuring a constant supply of nutrients to the seabed. Annual temperatures range from 4 to 15 °C ( Mountain and Holzwarth, 1989). The gravel areas are bounded by sand ridges whose mobile surfaces are moved daily by the strong tidal currents. Studies commenced here in 1994 to characterize the gravel habitat and to document the effects of fishing disturbance on it ( Collie et al., 2005).

  20. Exploring the effect of the spatial scale of fishery management.

    PubMed

    Takashina, Nao; Baskett, Marissa L

    2016-02-01

    For any spatially explicit management, determining the appropriate spatial scale of management decisions is critical to success at achieving a given management goal. Specifically, managers must decide how much to subdivide a given managed region: from implementing a uniform approach across the region to considering a unique approach in each of one hundred patches and everything in between. Spatially explicit approaches, such as the implementation of marine spatial planning and marine reserves, are increasingly used in fishery management. Using a spatially explicit bioeconomic model, we quantify how the management scale affects optimal fishery profit, biomass, fishery effort, and the fraction of habitat in marine reserves. We find that, if habitats are randomly distributed, the fishery profit increases almost linearly with the number of segments. However, if habitats are positively autocorrelated, then the fishery profit increases with diminishing returns. Therefore, the true optimum in management scale given cost to subdivision depends on the habitat distribution pattern. PMID:26593243

  1. Winter ice processes and pool habitat associated with two types of constructed instream structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrineau, C.E.; Hubert, W.A.; Dey, P.D.; Annear, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    There is little information on the winter features of salmonid habitats associated with constructed instream structures to provide guidance when planning habitat improvement projects. We assessed winter habitat features for trout of the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus in pools associated with two types of instream structures constructed on a low-gradient reach of a mountain stream in western Wyoming with a mean wetted width of 6.4 m. Pool habitat was affected by temporal variability in ice formations from fall into winter. As surface ice and snow accumulated with the progression of winter, variation in ice formations was less frequent and winter habitat conditions became more stable. However, groundwater inflow that maintained water temperatures at 0.2-0.6??C in a portion of the study reach appeared to contribute to incomplete surface ice cover and variation in ice formations in pools through most of the winter. Hanging dams and anchor ice dams were the primary ice features that affected winter habitat in pools associated with constructed instream structures. Trout were observed in these pools in the fall but tended to abandon pools with variation in ice formations as winter progressed. The potential impacts of groundwater inflow and winter ice processes on trout habitat in pools associated with instream structures should be considered when planning habitat improvement projects. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. Buffer strip design for protecting water quality and fish habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Belt, G.H.; O'Laughlin, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Buffer strips are protective areas adjacent to streams or lakes. Among other functions, they protect water quality and fish habitat. A typical buffer strip is found in western Oregon, where they are called Riparian Management Areas (RMAs). The authors use the term buffer strip to include functional descriptions such as filter, stabilization, or leave strips, and administrative designations such as Idaho's Stream Protection Zone (SPZ), Washington's Riparian Management Zone (RMZ), and the USDA Forest Service's Streamside Management Zone (SMZ). They address water quality and fishery protective functions of buffer strips on forestlands, pointing out improvements in buffer strip design possible through research or administrative changes. Buffer strip design requirements found in some western Forest Practices Act (FPA) regulations are also compared and related to findings in the scientific literature.

  3. 50 CFR 226.206 - Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). 226.206 Section 226.206 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.206...

  4. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  6. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  7. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  8. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  9. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  10. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  11. 50 CFR Table 25 to Part 679 - Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone 25 Table 25 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 25 Table 25 to Part 679—Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone Area number...

  12. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  13. 50 CFR Table 25 to Part 679 - Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone 25 Table 25 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 25 Table 25 to Part 679—Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone Area number...

  14. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  15. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  16. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  17. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  18. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  19. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  1. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  2. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  3. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  4. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  5. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  6. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  7. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  8. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  9. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  10. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  12. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  14. 50 CFR Table 25 to Part 679 - Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone 25 Table 25 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 25 Table 25 to Part 679—Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone Area number...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010...

  16. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  17. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  18. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  19. 50 CFR Table 22 to Part 679 - Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas 22 Table 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 22 Table 22 to Part 679— Alaska Seamount Habitat Protection Areas...

  20. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  1. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  2. 50 CFR Table 25 to Part 679 - Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone 25 Table 25 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 25 Table 25 to Part 679—Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone Area number...

  3. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  4. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude...

  5. 50 CFR Table 25 to Part 679 - Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone 25 Table 25 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 25 Table 25 to Part 679—Bowers Ridge Habitat Conservation Zone Area number...

  6. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  7. 50 CFR Table 26 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat Protection Areas 26 Table 26 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 26 Table 26 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Coral Habitat...

  8. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat...

  9. 78 FR 23224 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Fishery Management Council's Habitat & Environmental Protection Advisory Panel (AP); Coral AP; Joint Meeting of the Habitat & Environmental Protection AP and Coral AP; and Deepwater Shrimp AP. SUMMARY: The.... Coral AP Agenda, Tuesday, May 7, 2013, 1 p.m. Until 5 p.m. 1. Receive an update from NOAA...

  10. 50 CFR 424.12 - Criteria for designating critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for designating critical habitat... LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.12 Criteria for designating critical habitat. (a) Critical habitat shall be specified to the maximum...

  11. 50 CFR 226.213 - Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.213 Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass. Critical habitat is designated to include substrate and water...

  12. 50 CFR 226.213 - Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.213 Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass. Critical habitat is designated to include substrate and water...

  13. 50 CFR 424.12 - Criteria for designating critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for designating critical habitat... LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.12 Criteria for designating critical habitat. (a) Critical habitat shall be specified to the maximum...

  14. 50 CFR 226.213 - Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.213 Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass. Critical habitat is designated to include substrate and water...

  15. 50 CFR 226.213 - Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.213 Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass. Critical habitat is designated to include substrate and water...

  16. 50 CFR 226.213 - Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.213 Critical habitat for Johnson's seagrass. Critical habitat is designated to include substrate and water...

  17. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D.

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. Six projects, two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River were part of the exercise. Several thousand native plants as bare-root stock and cuttings were reintroduced to the sites and 18 acres of floodplain corridor was seeded with native grass seed. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan.

  18. 30 CFR 285.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protect essential fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation... activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery... essential fish habitat or habitat areas of particular concern may be adversely affected by your...

  19. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sear, Sheri

    2001-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  20. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles D.

    2000-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  1. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles D.

    1999-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Personnel of three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and

  2. QUANTIFYING STRUCTURAL PHYSICAL HABITAT ATTRIBUTES USING LIDAR AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Structural physical habitat attributes include indices of stream size, channel gradient, substrate size, habitat complexity and cover, riparian vegetation cover and structure, anthropogenic disturbances and channel-riparian interaction. These habitat attributes will vary dependen...

  3. Adopt a Stream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friends of Environmental Education Society of Alberta (Edmonton).

    This environmental education program is designed to increase awareness among junior high school students of stream ecosystems and those habitats which comprise the ecosystems adjacent to streams. The teaching content of the manual is presented in two major sections. The first section provides information and background material for the group…

  4. Relations of benthic macroinvertebrates to concentrations of trace elements in water, streambed sediments, and transplanted bryophytes and stream habitat conditions in nonmining and mining areas of the upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mize, Scott V.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive mining activity and highly mineralized rock formations have had significant impacts on surface-water and streambed-sediment quality and aquatic life within the upper reaches of the Uncompahgre River in western Colorado. A synoptic study by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program was completed in the upper Uncompahgre River Basin in 1998 to better understand the relations of trace elements (with emphasis on aluminum, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc concentrations) in water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. Water-chemistry, streambed-sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected during low-flow conditions between October 1995 and July 1998 at five sites on the upper Uncompahgre River, all downstream from historical mining, and at three sites in drainage basins of the Upper Colorado River where mining has not occurred. Aquatic bryophytes were transplanted to all sites for 15 days of exposure to the water column during which time field parameters were measured and chemical water-quality and benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected. Stream habitat characteristics also were documented at each site. Certain attributes of surface-water chemistry among streams were significantly different. Concentrations of total aluminum, copper, iron, lead, and zinc in the water column and concentrations of dissolved aluminum, copper, and zinc were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. Some sites associated with mining exceeded Colorado acute aquatic-life standards for aluminum, copper, and zinc and exceeded Colorado chronic aquatic-life standards for aluminum, copper, iron, lead, and zinc. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in streambed sediments were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. Generally, concentrations of arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in streambed sediments at mining sites exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines probable effect level (PEL

  5. Grand Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

    2009-07-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing the opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project originally provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented under revisions of the Fish and Wild Program as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources, is the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state

  6. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

    2008-12-30

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources are the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and coordinated by

  7. Behavioural and physiological response of trout to winter habitat in tailwaters in Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annear, Thomas C.; Hubert, Wayne; Simpkins, Darin; Hebdon, Lance

    2002-03-01

    Fisheries managers have often suggested that survival of trout during the winter is a major factor affecting population densities in many stream ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains. In Wyoming, trout population reductions from fall to spring in excess of 90% have been documented in some reservoir tailwaters. Though biologists have surmised that these reductions were the result of either mortality or emigration from some river sections, the specific mechanisms have not been defined and the factors leading to the trout loss are unknown. This is a review of four studies that were conducted or funded between 1991 and 1998 by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department to understand the extent of overwinter losses, identify some of the mechanisms leading to those conditions and develop management strategies to help avoid those impacts. Winter studies were conducted on tailwater fisheries in the Green, North Platte, Bighorn and Shoshone rivers to document trout population dynamics, assess physical habitat availability, evaluate trout movement and habitat selection, and understand the relationships between food availability and bioenergetic relationships. Results indicate that winter trout losses are extreme in some years, that trout movement and habitat selection are affected by supercooled flows, and that mortality is probably not directly due to starvation. The combination of physiological impairment with frequently altered habitat availability probably leads to indirect mortality from predators and other factors.

  8. 76 FR 52640 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA655 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) ad hoc groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee (EFHRC) will hold a...

  9. 78 FR 51711 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...) 431-2300; fax: (603) 433-5649. Council address: New England Fishery Management Council, 50 Water... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC813 New England Fishery Management Council... Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Joint Groundfish/Habitat Committees on September...

  10. 77 FR 68735 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...) 634-2001. Council address: New England Fishery Management Council, 50 Water Street, Mill 2... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC355 New England Fishery Management Council... Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat Oversight Committee to consider...

  11. The determination, assessment, and design of "in-stream value" studies for the northern Great Plains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive literature review was conducted to determine the discharge requirements of various components of a warm water fishery. Where exact hydrologic parameters were not measured directly in individual studies, they were estimated from inferred statements and knowledge of hydrologic variables leading to certain instream conditions. From this information it was possible to determine which components of the stream community would be most seriously affected by reduced discharges. In addition, a number of different methods used in the recommendation of minimum streamflows was reviewed. These methods were evaluated for their reliability and ease of use. It was concluded that a method for recommending minimum discharges should not sacrifice reliability for expediency. A methodology is proposed for the recommendation of minimum discharges for a warm water fishery. This method utilizes field measurements of critical stream areas and biological criteria determined from the used of indicator species. For large rivers, migration and spawning requirements are analyzed using the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) as the indicator species. For smaller rivers, the suggested indicator species is the sauger (Stizostedion canadense). Rearing flows are determined on the basis of stream productivity by analyzing macroinvertebrate habits, and on the basis of fish habitat typing. The indicator species for determining adequate fish habitat is the stonecat (Notorus flavus). A number of variables were identified which might require a greater amount of in-stream flow than the fishery, per se. These variables included streamflow needs for riparian and other sub-irrigated vegetation, water quality parameters, anchor ice formation, and the relationship between discharge and sediment yield. Information concerning these variables is insufficient at this time to determine whether a variable will "over-ride" the streamflow requirement for the fishery itself. Further research is needed in these

  12. Spatial modeling and habitat quantification for two diadromous fish in New Zealand streams: a GIS-based approach with application for conservation management.

    PubMed

    Eikaas, Hans S; Kliskey, Andrew D; McIntosh, Angus R

    2005-11-01

    We developed logistic regression models from data on biotic and abiotic variables for 172 sites on Banks Peninsula, New Zealand, to predict the probability of occurrence of two diadromous fish, banded kokopu (Galaxias fasciatus) and koaro (G. brevipinnis). Banded kokopu occurrence was positively associated with small streams and low-intensity land uses (e.g., sheep grazing or forested), whereas intensive land uses (e.g., mixed sheep and cattle farming) and lack of riparian forest cover impacted negatively on occurrence at sampled sites. Also, if forests were positioned predominantly in lowland areas, banded kokopu occurrence declined with increasing distance to stream mouth. Koaro occurrence was positively influenced by catchment forest cover, high stream altitudes, and areas of no farming activity or mixed land uses. Intensive land uses, distance to stream mouth, and presence of banded kokopu negatively influenced koaro occupancy of stream reaches. Banded kokopu and koaro presence was predicted in 86.0% and 83.7% agreement, respectively, with field observations. We used the models to quantify the amount of stream reaches that would be of good, moderate, and poor quality, based on the probability of occurrences of the fish being greater than 0.75, between 0.75 and 0.5, or less than 0.5, respectively. Hindcasting using historical data on vegetation cover undertaken for one catchment, Pigeon Bay, showed they would have occupied most of the waterway before anthropogenic modification. We also modeled potential future scenarios to project potential fish distribution. PMID:16206024

  13. Simulation of Flow Regimes to Reduce Habitat for T. tubifex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Whirling disease has had a significant impact on trout fisheries of the American west by reducing the numbers and quality of rainbow trout in infected streams. A critical factor in the life cycle of the whirling disease parasite is the fine sediment that provides the optimum habitat for Tubifex tubifex, an oligochaete worm that acts as an intermediate host for the disease. This report presents a model for the simulation of flushing flows required to remove undesirable fines and sand from a pool. Undesirable fines may also need to be flushed from runs, the surface layer, and backwater areas. Well-defined links of specific particle sizes to oligochaete worm abundance is needed to justify the use of flushing flows to move sediment. An analytical method for estimating the streamflows needed to remove the fine sediment is demonstrated herein. The overall steps to follow in removing fines from a stream are: Step 1. Determine size of the sediment that is the habitat for oligochaete worms. Step 2. Determine location of the sediment that is the habitat for oligochaete worms. Step 3. Determine streamflows needed to flush (remove) the sediment that is the habitat for oligochaete worms. The case study approach is used to present the method and to demonstrate its application. The case is derived from the sediment and oligochaete worm habitat of Willow Creek, a tributary of the Upper Colorado River located in Grand County, Colo. Willow Creek Reservoir (an element of the Colorado-Big Thompson Project) controls the streamflows of the creek and is just above the study site.

  14. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, Vance

    2003-08-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2002 included: (1) Implementing 1 new fencing project in the Wallowa subbasin that will protect an additional 0.95 miles of stream and 22.9 acres

  15. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  17. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.011...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  1. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  6. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  7. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  10. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  11. Assessing effects of stocked trout on nongame fish assemblages in southern Appalachian Mountain streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries managers are faced with the challenge of balancing the management of recreational fisheries with that of conserving native species and preserving ecological integrity. The negative effects that nonnative trout species exert on native trout are well documented and include alteration of competitive interactions, habitat use, and production. However, the effects that nonnative trout may exert on nongame fish assemblages are poorly understood. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of trout stocking on native nongame fish assemblages intensively on one newly stocked river, the North Toe River, North Carolina, and extensively on other southern Appalachian Mountain streams that are annually stocked with trout. In the intensive study, we adopted a before-after, control-impact (BACI) experimental design to detect short-term effects on the nongame fish assemblage and found no significant differences in fish density, species richness, species diversity, or fish microhabitat use associated with trout stocking. We observed differences in fish microhabitat use between years, however, which suggests there is a response to environmental changes, such as the flow regime, which influence available habitat. In the extensive study, we sampled paired stocked and unstocked stream reaches to detect long-term effects from trout stocking; however, we detected no differences in nongame fish density, species richness, species diversity, or population size structure between paired sites. Our results revealed high inherent system variation caused by natural and anthropogenic factors that appear to overwhelm any acute or chronic effect of stocked trout. Furthermore, hatchery-reared trout may be poor competitors in a natural setting and exert a minimal or undetectable impact on native fish assemblages in these streams. These findings provide quantitative results necessary to assist agencies in strategic planning and decision making associated with trout fisheries, stream

  12. Evaluating habitat associations of a fish assemblages at multiple scales in a minimally disturbed stream on the Edwards Plateau, Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheek, Brandon D.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Bean, Preston T.; Groeschel, Jillian R.; Magnelia, Stephan J.

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost side-scan sonar proved to be a cost-effective means of acquiring information on the habitat availability of the entire river length and allowed the assessment of how a full suite of riverscape-level variables influenced local fish assemblage structure.

  13. 50 CFR 17.94 - Critical habitats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitats. 17.94 Section 17.94... habitats. (a) The areas listed in § 17.95 (fish and wildlife) and § 17.96 (plants) and referred to in the lists at §§ 17.11 and 17.12 have been determined by the Director to be Critical Habitat. All...

  14. 50 CFR 17.94 - Critical habitats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitats. 17.94 Section 17.94... habitats. (a) The areas listed in § 17.95 (fish and wildlife) and § 17.96 (plants) and referred to in the lists at §§ 17.11 and 17.12 have been determined by the Director to be Critical Habitat. All...

  15. 50 CFR 17.94 - Critical habitats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitats. 17.94 Section 17.94... habitats. (a) The areas listed in § 17.95 (fish and wildlife) and § 17.96 (plants) and referred to in the lists at §§ 17.11 and 17.12 have been determined by the Director to be Critical Habitat. All...

  16. 50 CFR 17.94 - Critical habitats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitats. 17.94 Section 17.94... habitats. (a) The areas listed in § 17.95 (fish and wildlife) and § 17.96 (plants) and referred to in the lists at §§ 17.11 and 17.12 have been determined by the Director to be Critical Habitat. All...

  17. 50 CFR 17.94 - Critical habitats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitats. 17.94 Section 17.94... habitats. (a) The areas listed in § 17.95 (fish and wildlife) and § 17.96 (plants) and referred to in the lists at §§ 17.11 and 17.12 have been determined by the Director to be Critical Habitat. All...

  18. 50 CFR 226.207 - Critical habitat for leatherback turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for leatherback turtle... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.207 Critical habitat for leatherback turtle. Leatherback Sea Turtle (dermochelys coriacea) The waters...

  19. 50 CFR 226.209 - Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle. 226... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.209 Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle. (a) Mona and Monito Islands, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding...

  20. 50 CFR 226.207 - Critical habitat for leatherback turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for leatherback turtle... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.207 Critical habitat for leatherback turtle. Leatherback Sea Turtle (dermochelys coriacea) The waters...

  1. 50 CFR 226.209 - Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle. 226... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.209 Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle. (a) Mona and Monito Islands, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding...

  2. 50 CFR 226.209 - Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.209 Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle. (a) Mona and Monito Islands, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding...

  3. 50 CFR 226.209 - Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.209 Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle. (a) Mona and Monito Islands, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding...

  4. 50 CFR 226.208 - Critical habitat for green turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for green turtle. 226... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.208 Critical habitat for green turtle. (a) Culebra Island, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding the island of...

  5. 50 CFR 226.209 - Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.209 Critical habitat for hawksbill turtle. (a) Mona and Monito Islands, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding...

  6. 50 CFR 226.208 - Critical habitat for green turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for green turtle. 226... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.208 Critical habitat for green turtle. (a) Culebra Island, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding the island of...

  7. 50 CFR 226.208 - Critical habitat for green turtle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for green turtle. 226... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.208 Critical habitat for green turtle. (a) Culebra Island, Puerto Rico—Waters surrounding the island of...

  8. In stream habitat and stock restoration for salmon shrode creek barrier bypass subproject. Restoration project 94139-b2. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, K.; Gillikin, D.

    1995-05-01

    In 1994, repair was made to a deteriorating concrete weir at the Shrode Creek fishway. The stream flows into Long Bay, Culross Passage, Prince William Sound. Repairs were made through use of three types of polymer resins to obtain information and experience in applicability and effectiveness of these resins as applied to fishway repair.

  9. Oak Grove Fork Habitat Improvement Project, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, Scott

    1989-04-01

    The Lower Oak Grove Fork of the Clackamas River is a fifth-order tributary of the Clackamas River drainage supporting depressed runs of coho and chinook salmon, and summer and winter steelhead. Habitat condition rating for the Lower Oak Grove is good, but smelt production estimates are below the average for Clackamas River tributaries. Limiting factors in the 3.8 miles of the Lower Oak Grove supporting anadromous fish include an overall lack of quality spawning and rearing habitat. Beginning in 1986. measures to improve fish habitat in the Lower Oak Grove were developed in coordination with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODF&W) and Portland General Electric (PGE) fisheries biologists. Prior to 1986, no measures had been applied to the stream to mitigate for PGE's storage and regulation of flows in the Oak Grove Fork (Timothy Lake, Harriet Lake). Catchable rainbow trout are stocked by ODF&W two or three times a year during the trout fishing season in the lowermost portion of the Oak Grove Fork near two Forest Service campgrounds (Ripplebrook and Rainbow). The 1987 field season marked the third year of efforts to improve fish habitat of the Lower Oak Grove Fork and restore anadromous fish production. The efforts included the development of an implementation plan for habitat improvement activities in the Lower Oak Grove Fork. post-project monitoring. and maintenance of the 1986 improvement structures. No new structures were constructed or placed in 1987. Fiscal year 1988 brought a multitude of changes which delayed implementation of plans developed in 1987. The most prominent change was the withdrawal of the proposed Spotted Owl Habitat Area (SOHA) which overlapped the Oak Grove project implementation area. Another was the change in the Forest Service biologist responsible for implementation and design of this project.

  10. Determinants of fish assemblage structure in Northwestern Great Plains streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.A.; Bramblett, R.G.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Roberts, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie streams are known for their harsh and stochastic physical conditions, and the fish assemblages therein have been shown to be temporally variable. We assessed the spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure in five intermittent, adventitious northwestern Great Plains streams representing a gradient of watershed areas. Fish assemblages and abiotic conditions varied more spatially than temporally. The most important variables explaining fish assemblage structure were longitudinal position and the proportion of fine substrates. The proportion of fine substrates increased proceeding upstream, approaching 100% in all five streams, and species richness declined upstream with increasing fine substrates. High levels of fine substrate in the upper reaches appeared to limit the distribution of obligate lithophilic fish species to reaches further downstream. Species richness and substrates were similar among all five streams at the lowermost and uppermost sites. However, in the middle reaches, species richness increased, the amount of fine substrate decreased, and connectivity increased as watershed area increased. Season and some dimensions of habitat (including thalweg depth, absolute distance to the main-stem river, and watershed size) were not essential in explaining the variation in fish assemblages. Fish species richness varied more temporally than overall fish assemblage structure did because common species were consistently abundant across seasons, whereas rare species were sometimes absent or perhaps not detected by sampling. The similarity in our results among five streams varying in watershed size and those from other studies supports the generalization that spatial variation exceeds temporal variation in the fish assemblages of prairie and warmwater streams. Furthermore, given longitudinal position, substrate, and stream size, general predictions regarding fish assemblage structure and function in prairie streams are possible. ?? American

  11. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-04-01

    In 2001, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled six properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Since 1997, approximately 7 miles of critical salmonid habitat has been secured for restoration and protection under this project. Major accomplishments to date include the following: Secured approximately $250,000 in cost share; Secured 7 easements; Planted 30,000+ native plants; Installed 50,000+ cuttings; and Seeded 18 acres to native grass. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan. Basin-wide monitoring also included the deployment of 6 thermographs to collect summer stream temperatures.

  12. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Jed

    2005-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts on private properties in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of this effort is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled nine properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and four properties on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Major accomplishments during the reporting period include the following: (1) Secured approximately $229,000 in project cost share; (2) Purchase of 46 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River to be protected perpetually for native fish and wildlife; (3) Developed three new 15 year conservation easements with private landowners; (4) Installed 3000 feet of weed barrier tarp with new plantings within project area on the mainstem Walla Walla River; (5) Expanded easement area on Couse Creek to include an additional 0.5 miles of stream corridor and 32 acres of upland habitat; (6) Restored 12 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River and 32 acres on Couse Creek to native perennial grasses; and (7) Installed 50,000+ new native plants/cuttings within project areas.

  13. RELATING WEIGHT AND COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS OF STREAM BED GRAVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The size distribution of particles in a stream bed reflects the stream hydrology as well as its physical and chemical water quality characteristics. In environmental assessments, gravel distribution determines habitat quality for aquatic insects and stream suitability for spawnin...

  14. BPA Instream Habitat Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999-2001 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2002-10-23

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern WA. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve, because no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps Members have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, southeastern Washington had been dealing with endangered fall and spring chinook salmon since 1994. The Asotin Creek In-Stream Habitat Project teamed BPA and Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding on four instream habitat projects in the Asotin Creek Watershed. These projects provide complex instream habitat for steelhead, bull trout and spring chinook in the stream. 38 pools were

  15. 30 CFR 285.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protect essential fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation... fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act? (a) If, during the conduct of your approved activities, MMS finds that essential fish habitat...

  16. 30 CFR 585.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protect essential fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation... fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act? (a) If, during the conduct of your approved activities, BOEM finds that essential fish habitat...

  17. 30 CFR 585.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protect essential fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation... fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act? (a) If, during the conduct of your approved activities, BOEM finds that essential fish habitat...

  18. 30 CFR 585.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protect essential fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation... fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act? (a) If, during the conduct of your approved activities, BOEM finds that essential fish habitat...

  19. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R. Todd

    1993-04-01

    The Umatilla Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Measure 704 (d) (1) 34.02 and targets the improvement of water quality and restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall chinook and coho salmon. The project focused on implementing instream and riparian habitat improvements on private lands on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (hereafter referred to as Reservation) from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 1992. These efforts resulted in enhancement of the lower 1/4 mile of Boston Canyon Creek, the lower 4 river miles of Meacham Creek and 3.2 river miles of the Umatilla River (downstream of the Meacham Creek confluence upstream to the Reservation East Boundary). In 1993, the project shifted emphasis to a comprehensive watershed approach consistent with other basin efforts and began to identify upland and riparian watershed-wide causative factors impacting fisheries habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities throughout the Umatilla River Watershed. Maintenance of existing habitat improvement projects was included under this comprehensive approach. Maintenance of existing gravel traps, instream and bank stabilization structures was required within project areas during the reporting period due to spring flooding damage and high bedload movement. Maintenance activities were completed between river mile (RM) 0.0 and RM 0.25 Boston Canyon Creek, between RM 0.0 and RM 4 Meacham Creek and between RM 78.5 and RM 79 Umatilla River. Habitat enhancement areas were seeded with native grass, legume, shrub and wildflower mixes and planted with willow cuttings to assist in floodplain recovery, stream channel stability and filtering of sediments during high flow periods. Water quality monitoring continued for temperature and turbidity throughout the upper Umatilla River Watershed. Survey of cross sections and photo

  20. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).

    SciTech Connect

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.

    1984-03-01

    This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

  1. Woody plant encroachment, and its removal, impact bacterial and fungal communities across stream and terrestrial habitats in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Veach, Allison M; Dodds, Walter K; Jumpponen, Ari

    2015-10-01

    Woody plant encroachment has become a global threat to grasslands and has caused declines in aboveground richness and changes in ecosystem function; yet we have a limited understanding on the effects of these phenomena on belowground microbial communities. We completed riparian woody plant removals at Konza Prairie Biological Station, Kansas and collected soils spanning land-water interfaces in removal and woody vegetation impacted areas. We measured stream sediments and soils for edaphic variables (C and N pools, soil water content, pH) and bacterial (16S rRNA genes) and fungal (ITS2 rRNA gene repeat) communities using Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding. Bacterial richness and diversity decreased with distance from streams. Fungal richness decreased with distance from the stream in wooded areas, but was similar across landscape position while Planctomycetes and Basidiomycota relative abundance was lower in removal areas. Cyanobacteria, Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota and Glomeromycota relative abundance was greater in removal areas. Ordination analyses indicated that bacterial community composition shifted more across land-water interfaces than fungi yet both were marginally influenced by treatment. This study highlights the impacts of woody encroachment restoration on grassland bacterial and fungal communities which likely subsequently affects belowground processes and plant health in this ecosystem. PMID:26347079

  2. Umatilla River Basin Anadromus Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R. Todd

    1994-05-01

    The Umatilla Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, Section 7.6-7.8 and targets the improvement of water quality and restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall chinook and coho salmon. The project focused on implementing cooperative instream and riparian habitat improvements on private lands on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (hereafter referred to as Reservation) from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 1992. These efforts resulted in enhancement of the lower l/4 mile of Boston Canyon Creek, the lower 4 river miles of Meacham Creek and 3.2 river miles of the Umatilla River in the vicinity of Gibbon, Oregon. In 1993, the project shifted emphasis to a comprehensive watershed approach, consistent with other basin efforts, and began to identify upland and riparian watershed-wide causative factors impacting fisheries habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities throughout the Umatilla River Watershed. During the 1994-95 project period, a one river mile demonstration project was implemented on two privately owned properties on Wildhorse Creek. This was the first watershed improvement project to be implemented by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) off of the Reservation. Four 15 year riparian easements and two right-of-way agreements were secured for enhancement of one river mile on Wildhorse Creek and l/2 river mile on Meacham Creek. Enhancements implemented between river mile (RM) 9.5 and RM 10.5 Wildhorse Creek included: (1) installation of 1.43 miles of smooth wire high tensile fence line and placement of 0.43 miles of fence posts and structures to restrict livestock from the riparian corridor, (2) construction of eighteen sediment retention structures in the stream channel to speed riparian recovery by elevating the stream grade, slowing water velocities and

  3. Watershed Health Assessment Tools Investigating Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    WHATIF is software that integrates a number of calculators, tools, and models for assessing the health of watersheds and streams with an emphasis on fish communities. The tool set consists of hydrologic and stream geometry calculators, a fish assemblage predictor, a fish habitat ...

  4. Protocols for collection of streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data to describe stream quality for the Hydrobiological Monitoring Program, Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program, city of Wichita, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Wichita, Kansas uses the Equus Beds aquifer, one of two sources, for municipal water supply. To meet future water needs, plans for artificial recharge of the aquifer have been implemented in several phases. Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Program began with injection of water from the Little Arkansas River into the aquifer for storage and subsequent recovery in 2006. Construction of a river intake structure and surface-water treatment plant began as implementation of Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR Program in 2010. An important aspect of the ASR Program is the monitoring of water quality and the effects of recharge activities on stream conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological data provide the basis for an integrated assessment of stream quality. This report describes protocols for collecting streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data as part of the city of Wichita's hydrobiological monitoring program (HBMP). Following consistent and reliable methods for data collection and processing is imperative for the long-term success of the monitoring program.

  5. Did the pre-1980 use of in-stream structures improve streams? A reanalysis of historical data.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Douglas M

    2006-04-01

    In the 1930s, after only three years of scientific investigation at the University of Michigan Institute for Fisheries Research, cheap labor and government-sponsored conservation projects spearheaded by the Civilian Conservation Corps allowed the widespread adoption of in-stream structures throughout the United States. From the 1940s through the 1970s, designs of in-stream structures remained essentially unchanged, and their use continued. Despite a large investment in the construction of in-stream structures over these four decades, very few studies were undertaken to evaluate the impacts of the structures on the channel and its aquatic populations. The studies that were undertaken to evaluate the impact of the structures were often flawed. The use of habitat structures became an "accepted practice," however, and early evaluation studies were used as proof that the structures were beneficial to aquatic organisms. A review of the literature reveals that, despite published claims to the contrary, little evidence of the successful use of in-stream structures to improve fish populations exists prior to 1980. A total of 79 publications were checked, and 215 statistical analyses were performed. Only seven analyses provide evidence for a benefit of structures on fish populations, and five of these analyses are suspect because data were misclassified by the original authors. Many of the changes in population measures reported in early publications appear to result from changes in fishing pressure that often accompanied channel modifications. Modern evaluations of channel-restoration projects must consider the influence of fishing pressure to ensure that efforts to improve fish habitat achieve the benefits intended. My statistical results show that the traditional use of in-stream structures for channel restoration design does not ensure demonstrable benefits for fish communities, and their ability to increase fish populations should not be presumed. PMID:16711062

  6. Distribution and abundance of nonnative fishes in streams of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schade, C.B.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents data from one of the largest standardized stream surveys conducted in he western United States, which shows that one of every four individual fish in streams of 12 western states are nonnative. The states surveyed included Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. The most widely distributed and abundant nonnative fishes in the western USA were brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, common carp Cyprinus carpio, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, yellow perch Percaflavescens, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, cutthroat trout O. clarkii, western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis. The greatest abundance and distribution of nonnative fishes was in interior states, and the most common nonnatives were introduced for angling. Nonnative fishes were widespread in pristine to highly disturbed streams influenced by all types of land use practices. We present ranges in water temperature, flow, stream order, riparian cover, human disturbance, and other environmental conditions where the 10 most common introduced species were found. Of the total western U.S. stream length bearing fish, 50.1% contained nonnative fishes while 17.9% contained physical environment that was ranked highly or moderately disturbed by humans. Introduced fishes can adversely affect stream communities, and they are much more widespread in western U.S. streams than habitat destruction. The widespread distribution and high relative abundance of nonnative fishes and their documented negative effects suggest their management and control should elicit at least as much attention as habitat preservation in the protection of native western U.S. stream

  7. Freshwater fish faunas, habitats and conservation challenges in the Caribbean river basins of north-western South America.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Segura, L F; Galvis-Vergara, G; Cala-Cala, P; García-Alzate, C A; López-Casas, S; Ríos-Pulgarín, M I; Arango, G A; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Gutiérrez-Bonilla, F; Álvarez-León, R

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable fish diversity in the Caribbean rivers of north-western South America evolved under the influences of the dramatic environmental changes of neogene northern South America, including the Quechua Orogeny and Pleistocene climate oscillations. Although this region is not the richest in South America, endemism is very high. Fish assemblage structure is unique to each of the four aquatic systems identified (rivers, streams, floodplain lakes and reservoirs) and community dynamics are highly synchronized with the mono-modal or bi-modal flooding pulse of the rainy seasons. The highly seasonal multispecies fishery is based on migratory species. Freshwater fish conservation is a challenge for Colombian environmental institutions because the Caribbean trans-Andean basins are the focus of the economic development of Colombian society, so management measures must be directed to protect aquatic habitat and their connectivity. These two management strategies are the only way for helping fish species conservation and sustainable fisheries. PMID:27401480

  8. Bioeconomic analysis of selected conservation practices on soil erosion and freshwater fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westra, J.V.; Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2005-01-01

    Farmers can generate environmental benefits (improved water quality and fisheries and wildlife habitat), but they may not be able to quantify them. Furthermore, farmers may reduce their incomes from managing lands to produce these positive externalities but receive little monetary compensation in return. This study simulated the relationship between agricultural practices, water quality, fish responses to suspended sediment and farm income within two small watersheds, one of a cool water stream and one of a warm water stream. Using the Agricultural Drainage and Pesticide Transport (ADAPT) model, this study related best management practices (BMPs) to calculated instream suspended sediment concentrations by estimating sediment delivery, runoff, base flow, and streambank erosion to quantify the effects of suspended sediment exposure on fish communities. By implementing selected BMPs in each watershed, annual net farm income declined $18,000 to $28,000 (1 to 3 percent) from previous levels. "Lethal" fish events from suspended sediments in the cool water watershed decreased by 60 percent as conservation tillage and riparian buffers increased. Despite reducing suspended sediments by 25 percent, BMPs in the warm water watershed did not reduce the negative response of the fisheries. Differences in responses (physical and biological) between watersheds highlight potential gains in economic efficiency by targeting BMPs or by offering performance based "green payments." (JAWRA) (Copyright ?? 2005).

  9. Effects of Climate Change on Fishery Species in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenker, Jonathan M.

    2009-07-01

    Recreational and commercial fishery species in Florida and elsewhere are under serious stress from overfishing and many types of habitat and water quality degradation. Climate change may add to that stress by affecting an array of biological processes, although the range of some subtropical and tropical species may expand northward in the state. It is expected to trigger sea level rise and changes in hurricanes and precipitation levels in Florida and elsewhere. Perhaps the most significant impacts of climate change on fishery species will also associated with changes in seagrasses and mangroves that function as Essential Nursery Habitats. Seagrasses in estuarine and coastal areas are limited by water depth and light penetration. Increases in sea level and in precipitation-induced turbidity may restrict the extent of seagrass habitats and their role in fishery production. Expanded efforts to reduce nutrient and sediment loading into seagrass habitats may help minimize the potential loss of a valuable fish nursery habitat. Mangroves have also been affected by human activities, and are the subject of restoration efforts in many areas. Potential sea level rise may cause an expansion of mangrove habitats in the Everglades, at the expense of freshwater habitats. This potential tradeoff of habitats should be considered by the water flow and habitat restoration programs in the Everglades.

  10. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga... CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described...

  11. 50 CFR 226.206 - Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Southern Resident... CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.206 Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Resident killer whale as described in this section. The...

  12. 50 CFR 226.206 - Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Southern Resident... CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.206 Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Resident killer whale as described in this section. The...

  13. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica... 57°03′ N/153°00′ W. (d) Maps of critical habitat for the North Pacific right whale follow:...

  14. 50 CFR 226.206 - Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Southern... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.206 Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Resident killer whale as described in this section....

  15. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for the North Pacific... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.215 Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica... 57°03′ N/153°00′ W. (d) Maps of critical habitat for the North Pacific right whale follow:...

  16. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described...

  17. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described...

  18. 50 CFR 226.220 - Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.220 Critical habitat for the Cook Inlet beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Critical habitat is designated in Cook Inlet, Alaska, for the Cook Inlet beluga whale as described...

  19. 50 CFR 226.206 - Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Southern... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.206 Critical habitat for the Southern Resident killer whale (Orcinus orca). Critical habitat is designated for the Southern Resident killer whale as described in this section....

  20. 76 FR 56171 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Panel (AP) in Charleston, SC. DATES: The meeting will take place October 5-6, 2011. See SUPPLEMENTARY...) 769-4520; e-mail: kim.iverson@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Snapper Grouper AP... fishery and recreational deep-dropping on bottom habitat. The AP will give input on red porgy...

  1. Habitat Restoration/Enhancement Fort Hall Reservation : 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, Hunter

    2009-07-23

    Habitat enhancement, protection and monitoring were the focus of the Resident Fisheries Program during 2008. Enhancement and protection included sloping, fencing and planting wetlands plugs at sites on Spring Creek (Head-waters). Many previously constructed instream structures (rock barbs and wing dams) were repaired throughout the Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Reservation). Physical sampling during 2008 included sediment and depth measurements (SADMS) in Spring Creek at the Car Removal site. SADMS, used to track changes in channel morphology and specifically track movements of silt through Bottoms stream systems were completed for 5 strata on Spring Creek. Water temperature and chemistry were monitored monthly on Spring Creek, Clear Creek, Diggie Creek, and Portneuf (Jimmy Drinks) and Blackfoot rivers. Fish population densities and biomass were sampled in five reservation streams which included nine sites. Sampling protocols were identical to methods used in past years. Numbers of fish in Spring Creek series remained relatively low, however, there was an increase of biomass overall since 1993. Salmonid fry densities were monitored near Broncho Bridge and were similar to 2006, and 2007, however, as in years past, high densities of macrophytes make it very difficult to see fry in addition to lack of field technicians. Mean catch rate by anglers on Bottoms streams stayed the same as 2007 at 1.5/hr. Numbers of fish larger than 18-inches caught by anglers increased from 2007 at .20 to .26/hr.

  2. POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  3. Habitat planning, maintenance and management working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico (GOM), called {open_quotes}America`s Sea,{close_quotes} is actually a small ocean basin covering over 1.5 million square kilometers. Because of the multiple uses, diversity, and size of the Gulf`s resources, management is shared by a number of governmental agencies including the Minerals Management Service, the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, National Marine Fisheries Service, the US Coast Guard, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the five Gulf states fisheries agencies. All of these entities share a common goal of achieving optimum sustainable yield to maximize geological, biological, social, and economic benefits from these resources. These entities also share a common theme that the successful management of the northern GOM requires maintenance and enhancement of both the quantity and quality of habitats. A closer look at the GOM shows the sediment to be clearly dominated by vast sand and mud plains. These soft bottom habitats are preferred by many groundfish and shrimp species and, thus, have given rise to large commercial fisheries on these stocks. Hard bottom and reef habitats, on the other hand, are limited to approximately 1.6% of the total area of the Gulf, so that, while there are high demands by commercial and recreational fishermen for reef associated species, the availability of habitat for these stocks is limited. The thousands of oil and gas structures placed in the Gulf have added significant amounts of new hard substrate. The rigs-to-reefs concept was a common sense idea with support from environmental user groups and the petroleum industry for preserving a limited but valuable habitat type. As long as maximizing long-term benefits from the Gulf s resources for the greatest number of users remains the goal, then programs such as Rigs-to-Reefs will remain an important tool for fisheries and habitat managers in the Gulf.

  4. Stream temperature change detection for state and private forests in the Oregon Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groom, Jeremiah D.; Dent, Liz; Madsen, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    Oregon's forested coastal watersheds support important cold-water fisheries of salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) as well as forestry-dependent local economies. Riparian timber harvest restrictions in Oregon and elsewhere are designed to protect stream habitat characteristics while enabling upland timber harvest. We present an assessment of riparian leave tree rule effectiveness at protecting streams from temperature increases in the Oregon Coast Range. We evaluated temperature responses to timber harvest at 33 privately owned and state forest sites with Oregon's water quality temperature antidegradation standard, the Protecting Cold Water (PCW) criterion. At each site we evaluated stream temperature patterns before and after harvest upstream, within, and downstream of harvest units. We developed a method for detecting stream temperature change between years that adhered as closely as possible to Oregon's water quality rule language. The procedure provided an exceedance history across sites that allowed us to quantify background and treatment (timber harvest) PCW exceedance rates. For streams adjacent to harvested areas on privately owned lands, preharvest to postharvest year comparisons exhibited a 40% probability of exceedance. Sites managed according to the more stringent state forest riparian standards did not exhibit exceedance rates that differed from preharvest, control, or downstream rates (5%). These results will inform policy discussion regarding the sufficiency of Oregon's forest practices regulation at protecting stream temperature. The analysis process itself may assist other states and countries in developing and evaluating their forest management and water quality antidegradation regulations.

  5. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation, 1992-1993 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DosSantos, Joe; Vashro, Jim; Lockard, Larry

    1994-06-01

    In February of 1900, over forty agency representatives and interested citizens began development of the 1991 Mitigation Plan. This effort culminated in the 1993 Implementation Plan for mitigation of fish losses attributable to the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The primary purpose of this biennial report is to inform the public of the status of ongoing mitigation activities resulting from those planning efforts. A habitat improvement project is underway to benefit bull trout in Big Creek in the North Fork drainage of the Flathead River and work is planned in Hay Creek, another North Fork tributary. Bull trout redd counts have been expanded and experimental programs involving genetic evaluation, outmigrant monitoring, and hatchery studies have been initiated, Cutthroat mitigation efforts have focused on habitat improvements in Elliott Creek and Taylor`s Outflow and improvements have been followed by imprint plants of hatchery fish and/or eyed eggs in those streams. Rogers Lake west of Kalispell and Lion Lake, near Hungry Horse, were chemically rehabilitated. Cool and warm water fish habitat has been improved in Halfmoon Lake and Echo Lake. Public education and public interest is important to the future success of mitigation activities. As part of the mitigation team`s public awareness responsibility we have worked with numerous volunteer groups, public agencies, and private landowners to stimulate interest and awareness of mitigation activities and the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this biennial report is to foster public awareness of, and support for, mitigation activities as we move forward in implementing the Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan.

  6. Modeling sensitive elasmobranch habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, M. Grazia; Muñoz, Facundo; Conesa, David; López-Quílez, Antonio; Bellido, José Marí; a

    2013-10-01

    Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. In the Mediterranean Sea there is increasing concern over elasmobranch species because their biological (ecological) characteristics make them highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. Their removal could affect the structure and function of marine ecosystems, inducing changes in trophic interactions at the community level due to the selective elimination of predators or prey species, competitors and species replacement. In this study Bayesian hierarchical spatial models are used to map the sensitive habitats of the three most caught elasmobranch species (Galeus melastomus, Scyliorhinus canicula, Etmopterus spinax) in the western Mediterranean Sea, based on fishery-dependent bottom trawl data. Results show that habitats associated with hard substrata and sandy beds, mainly in deep waters and with a high seabed gradient, have a greater probability registering the presence of the studied species than those associated with muddy shallow waters. Temperature and chlorophyll-α concentration show a negative relationship with S. canicula occurrence. Our results identify some of the sensitive habitats for elasmobranchs in the western Mediterranean Sea (GSA06 South), providing essential and easy-to-use interpretation tools, such as predictive distribution maps, with the final aim of improving management and conservation of these vulnerable species.

  7. Rights and Conflicts in the Management of Fisheries in the Lower Songkhram River Basin, Northeast Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumsri, Malasri; Ruddle, Kenneth; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2009-04-01

    A complex, pre-existing local property rights system, characterized by overlap and conflict, comprises the local basis for managing inland fisheries in communities of the Lower Songkhram River Basin (LSRB) of Northeastern Thailand. The components, conflicts and changes of the system are analyzed for fourteen communities, focusing on the auction system for barrages, an illegal and destructive, yet tolerated, fishery. These rights, adapted to gear type, seasonality, and habitat of the LSRB fisheries, are a critical social resource and proven management system that should be legitimized. Recommendations are made for both improving general inland fisheries policy and reforming the barrage fishery.

  8. A Decision Support System for Mitigating Stream Temperature Impacts in the Sacramento River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Zagona, E. A.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing demands on the limited and variable water supply across the West can result in insufficient streamflow to sustain healthy fish habitat. We develop an integrated decision support system (DSS) for modeling and mitigating stream temperature impacts and demonstrate it on the Sacramento River system in California. Water management in the Sacramento River is a complex task with a diverse set of demands ranging from municipal supply to mitigation of fisheries impacts due to high water temperatures. Current operations utilize the temperature control device (TCD) structure at Shasta Dam to mitigate these high water temperatures downstream at designated compliance points. The TCD structure at Shasta Dam offers a rather unique opportunity to mitigate water temperature violations through adjustments to both release volume and temperature. In this study, we develop and evaluate a model-based DSS with four broad components that are coupled to produce the decision tool for stream temperature mitigation: (i) a suite of statistical models for modeling stream temperature attributes using hydrology and climate variables of critical importance to fish habitat; (ii) a reservoir thermal model for modeling the thermal structure and, consequently, the water release temperature, (iii) a stochastic weather generator to simulate weather sequences consistent with seasonal outlooks; and, (iv) a set of decision rules (i.e., 'rubric') for reservoir water releases in response to outputs from the above components. Multiple options for modifying releases at Shasta Dam were considered in the DSS, including mixing water from multiple elevations through the TCD and using different acceptable levels of risk. The DSS also incorporates forecast uncertainties and reservoir operating options to help mitigate stream temperature impacts for fish habitat, while efficiently using the reservoir water supply and cold pool storage. The use of these coupled tools in simulating impacts of future climate

  9. Long term study on the effect of mollusciciding with niclosamide in stream habitats on the transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni after community-based chemotherapy in Makueni District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosoma mansoni infection is a persistent public health problem in many Kenyan communities. Although praziquantel is available, re-infection after chemotherapy treatment is inevitable, especially among children. Chemotherapy followed by intermittent mollusciciding of habitats of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host snail, may have longer term benefits, especially if timed to coincide with natural fluctuations in snail populations. Methods In this cohort study, the Kambu River (Intervention area) was molluscicided intermittently for 4 years, after mass chemotherapy with praziquantel in the adjacent community of Darajani in January 1997. The nearby Thange River was selected as a control (Non-intervention area), and its adjacent community of Ulilinzi was treated with praziquantel in December 1996. Snail numbers were recorded monthly at 9–10 sites along each river, while rainfall data were collected monthly, and annual parasitological surveys were undertaken in each village. The mollusciciding protocol was adapted to local conditions, and simplified to improve prospects for widespread application. Results After the initial reduction in prevalence attributable to chemotherapy, there was a gradual increase in the prevalence and intensity of infection in the non-intervention area, and significantly lower levels of re-infection amongst inhabitants of the intervention area. Incidence ratio between areas adjusted for age and gender at the first follow-up survey, 5 weeks after treatment in the non-intervention area and 4 months after treatment in the intervention area was not significant (few people turned positive), while during the following 4 annual surveys these ratios were 0.58 (0.39-0.85), 0.33 (0.18-0.60), 0.14 (0.09-0.21) and 0.45 (0.26-0.75), respectively. Snail numbers were consistently low in the intervention area as a result of the mollusciciding. Following termination of the mollusciciding at the end of 2000, snail populations and

  10. Electrofishing capture probability of smallmouth bass in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    Abundance estimation is an integral part of understanding the ecology and advancing the management of fish populations and communities. Mark-recapture and removal methods are commonly used to estimate the abundance of stream fishes. Alternatively, abundance can be estimated by dividing the number of individuals sampled by the probability of capture. We conducted a mark-recapture study and used multiple repeated-measures logistic regression to determine the influence of fish size, sampling procedures, and stream habitat variables on the cumulative capture probability for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in two eastern Oklahoma streams. The predicted capture probability was used to adjust the number of individuals sampled to obtain abundance estimates. The observed capture probabilities were higher for larger fish and decreased with successive electrofishing passes for larger fish only. Model selection suggested that the number of electrofishing passes, fish length, and mean thalweg depth affected capture probabilities the most; there was little evidence for any effect of electrofishing power density and woody debris density on capture probability. Leave-one-out cross validation showed that the cumulative capture probability model predicts smallmouth abundance accurately. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  11. Effects of recent volcanic eruptions on aquatic habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Milner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano: During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano.

  12. Inland capture fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Welcomme, Robin L.; Cowx, Ian G.; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production. PMID:20713391

  13. Salamander occupancy in headwater stream networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, E.H.C.; Green, L.E.; Lowe, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Stream ecosystems exhibit a highly consistent dendritic geometry in which linear habitat units intersect to create a hierarchical network of connected branches. 2. Ecological and life history traits of species living in streams, such as the potential for overland movement, may interact with this architecture to shape patterns of occupancy and response to disturbance. Specifically, large-scale habitat alteration that fragments stream networks and reduces connectivity may reduce the probability a stream is occupied by sensitive species, such as stream salamanders. 3. We collected habitat occupancy data on four species of stream salamanders in first-order (i.e. headwater) streams in undeveloped and urbanised regions of the eastern U.S.A. We then used an information-theoretic approach to test alternative models of salamander occupancy based on a priori predictions of the effects of network configuration, region and salamander life history. 4. Across all four species, we found that streams connected to other first-order streams had higher occupancy than those flowing directly into larger streams and rivers. For three of the four species, occupancy was lower in the urbanised region than in the undeveloped region. 5. These results demonstrate that the spatial configuration of stream networks within protected areas affects the occurrences of stream salamander species. We strongly encourage preservation of network connections between first-order streams in conservation planning and management decisions that may affect stream species.

  14. 75 FR 29724 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Lobster/Stone Crab; Administrative Policy; Data Collection; Habitat; and Sustainable Fisheries/Ecosystem... Goliath Grouper Review Workshop and the SEDAR Spiny Lobster Assessment Review Workshop. 10 a.m. - 12...

  15. 75 FR 27708 - Stanford University Habitat Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... INFORMATION: Need for Correction In the Federal Register of April 12, 2010, in FR Doc. 2010-8300, on page... 0648-XV36 Stanford University Habitat Conservation Plan AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service... Register on April 12, 2010, announcing the availability of the Stanford University Habitat...

  16. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Bruce

    1984-10-01

    This report reviews activities of the Hungry Horse Reservoir fisheries study from May 16-October 14, 1983. The first six months of the project were concerned with testing of equipment and developing methodologies for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, seasonal distribution and abundance of fish, migration patterns of westslope cutthroat trout and habitat quality in tributary streams. Suitable methods have been developed for most aspects of the study, but problems remain with determining the vertical distribution of fish. Catch rates of fish in vertical nets were insufficient to determine depth distribution during the fall. If catches remain low during the spring and summer of 1984, experimental netting will be conducted using gang sets of standard gill nets. Purse seining techniques also need to be refined in the spring of 1984, Sample design should be completed in 1984. A major activity for the report period was preparation of a prospectus which reviewed: (1) environmental factors limiting gamefish production; (2) flexibility in reservoir operation; (3) effects of reservoir operation on fish populations and (4) model development. Production of westslope cutthroat trout may be limited by spawning and rearing habitat in tributary streams, reservoir habitat suitability, predation during the first year of reservoir residence and fish food availability. Reservoir operation affects fish production by altering fish habitat and food production through changes in reservoir morphometrics such as surface area, volume, littoral area and shoreline length. The instability in the fish habitat caused by reservoir operation may produce an environment which is suitable for fish which can utilize several habitat types and feed upon a wide variety of food organisms. Analysis of factors governing reservoir operation indicated that some flexibility exists in Hungry Horse operation. Changes in operation to benefit gamefish populations would

  17. 50 CFR 226.218 - Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.218 Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). Critical habitat is designated for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish as described in...

  18. 50 CFR 226.218 - Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.218 Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). Critical habitat is designated for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish as described in...

  19. 50 CFR 226.218 - Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.218 Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). Critical habitat is designated for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish as described in...

  20. 50 CFR 226.218 - Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.218 Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). Critical habitat is designated for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish as described in...

  1. 50 CFR 226.218 - Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of... DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.218 Critical habitat for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). Critical habitat is designated for the U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish as described in...

  2. 50 CFR 226.211 - Critical habitat for Seven Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Seven Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in California. 226.211 Section 226.211 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS...

  3. 50 CFR 226.212 - Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Washington, Oregon and Idaho. 226.212 Section 226.212 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 50 CFR 226.212 - Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Washington, Oregon and Idaho. 226.212 Section 226.212 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 50 CFR 226.212 - Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Washington, Oregon and Idaho. 226.212 Section 226.212 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 50 CFR 226.212 - Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for 13 Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) in Washington, Oregon and Idaho. 226.212 Section 226.212 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 77 FR 32083 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... being designated as Essential Fish Habitat. 9:30 a.m.-12 noon--The Mackerel Management Committee will... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management...

  8. Fringe benefit: Value of restoring coastal wetlands for Great Lakes fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishery support is recognized as a valuable ecosystem service provided by Great Lakes coastal wetlands, but it is challenging to quantify because multiple species and habitats are involved. Recent studies indicate that coastal wetland area is proportional to fishery harvest among...

  9. The Areal Extent of Brown Shrimp Habitat Suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama USA: Targeting Vegetated Habitat Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the U.S. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical t...

  10. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  11. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  12. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  16. Stock assessment in inland fisheries: a foundation for sustainable use and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenzen, Kai; Cowx, Ian G.; Entsua-Mensah, R. E. M.; Lester, Nigel P.; Koehn, J.D.; Randall, R.G.; So, N.; Bonar, Scott A.; Bunnell, David; Venturelli, Paul A.; Bower, Shannon D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries stock assessments are essential for science-based fisheries management. Inland fisheries pose challenges, but also provide opportunities for biological assessments that differ from those encountered in large marine fisheries for which many of our assessment methods have been developed. These include the number and diversity of fisheries, high levels of ecological and environmental variation, and relative lack of institutional capacity for assessment. In addition, anthropogenic impacts on habitats, widespread presence of non-native species and the frequent use of enhancement and restoration measures such as stocking affect stock dynamics. This paper outlines various stock assessment and data collection approaches that can be adapted to a wide range of different inland fisheries and management challenges. Although this paper identifies challenges in assessment, it focuses on solutions that are practical, scalable and transferrable. A path forward is suggested in which biological assessment generates some of the critical information needed by fisheries managers to make effective decisions that benefit the resource and stakeholders.

  17. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Limnological and Fisheries Monitoring Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Holly; Lee, Chuck; Scofield, Ben; Pavlik, Deanne

    1999-08-01

    , zooplankton and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; (2) quantification of seasonal distributions, standing crop, and habitat use of fish food organisms; (3) examination of variations in fish growth and abundance in relation to reservoir operations, prey abundance and predator/prey relationships; and (4) quantification of habitat alterations due to hydrooperations. The second goal of the LRMP is to evaluate the impacts of hatchery kokanee salmon and rainbow trout on the ecosystem and to determine stocking strategies that maximize angler harvest and return of adult kokanee salmon to egg collection facilities. Major tasks of the hatchery evaluation portion of the project include conducting a year round reservoir wide creel survey, sampling the fishery during spring, summer and fall via electro-fishing and gillnet surveys, and collecting information on diet, growth, and age composition of various fish species in Lake Roosevelt.

  18. ARE SALAMANDERS USEFUL INDICATORS OF HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE IN HEADWATER STREAMS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory agencies need appropriate indicators of stream permanence to aid in jurisdictional determinations for headwater streams. We evaluated salamanders as permanence indicators because they are often abundant in fishless headwaters. Salamander and habitat data were collect...

  19. Biology, fishery, conservation and management of Indian Ocean tuna fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishna Pillai, N.; Satheeshkumar, Palanisamy

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is to explore the recent trend of the world tuna fishery with special reference to the Indian Ocean tuna fisheries and its conservation and sustainable management. In the Indian Ocean, tuna catches have increased rapidly from about 179959 t in 1980 to about 832246 t in 1995. They have continued to increase up to 2005; the catch that year was 1201465 t, forming about 26% of the world catch. Since 2006 onwards there has been a decline in the volume of catches and in 2008 the catch was only 913625 t. The Principal species caught in the Indian Ocean are skipjack and yellowfin. Western Indian Ocean contributed 78.2% and eastern Indian Ocean 21.8% of the total tuna production from the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean stock is currently overfished and IOTC has made some recommendations for management regulations aimed at sustaining the tuna stock. Fishing operations can cause ecological impacts of different types: by catches, damage of the habitat, mortalities caused by lost or discarded gear, pollution, generation of marine debris, etc. Periodic reassessment of the tuna potential is also required with adequate inputs from exploratory surveys as well as commercial landings and this may prevent any unsustainable trends in the development of the tuna fishing industry in the Indian Ocean.

  20. 50 CFR 226.203 - Critical habitat for northern right whales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for northern right whales... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.203 Critical habitat for northern right whales. (a) Great South Channel. The area bounded by 41°40′ N/69°45′...

  1. 50 CFR 424.19 - Final rules-impact analysis of critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... habitat. 424.19 Section 424.19 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.19 Final rules—impact analysis of critical habitat. The Secretary shall identify any significant...

  2. 50 CFR 402.48 - Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... critical habitat. 402.48 Section 402.48 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND... Act § 402.48 Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat. EPA may employ the procedures described in § 402.10 to confer on any species proposed for listing or any habitat proposed...

  3. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.202 Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions. Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (a) Alaska...

  4. 50 CFR 424.19 - Final rules-impact analysis of critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... habitat. 424.19 Section 424.19 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists § 424.19 Final rules—impact analysis of critical habitat. The Secretary shall identify any significant...

  5. 50 CFR 402.10 - Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... critical habitat. 402.10 Section 402.10 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND... on proposed species or proposed critical habitat. (a) Each Federal agency shall confer with the... result in the destruction or adverse modification of proposed critical habitat. The conference...

  6. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following waterways, bottom...

  7. 50 CFR 226.204 - Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.204 Critical habitat for Sacramento winter-run chinook salmon. The following waterways, bottom...

  8. 50 CFR 402.10 - Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... critical habitat. 402.10 Section 402.10 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND... on proposed species or proposed critical habitat. (a) Each Federal agency shall confer with the... result in the destruction or adverse modification of proposed critical habitat. The conference...

  9. 50 CFR 402.48 - Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... critical habitat. 402.48 Section 402.48 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND... Act § 402.48 Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat. EPA may employ the procedures described in § 402.10 to confer on any species proposed for listing or any habitat proposed...

  10. 50 CFR 226.203 - Critical habitat for northern right whales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for northern right whales... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.203 Critical habitat for northern right whales. (a) Great South Channel. The area bounded by 41°40′ N/69°45′...

  11. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.201 Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  12. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.201 Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  13. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.201 Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  14. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Steller sea lions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Steller sea lions... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.202 Critical habitat for Steller sea lions. Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (a) Alaska...

  15. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.202 Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions. Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (a) Alaska...

  16. 50 CFR 226.203 - Critical habitat for northern right whales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for northern right... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.203 Critical habitat for northern right whales. (a) Great South Channel. The area bounded by...

  17. 50 CFR 402.10 - Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... proposed critical habitat. 402.10 Section 402.10 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES....10 Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat. (a) Each Federal agency shall confer... species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of proposed critical habitat. The...

  18. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.201 Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  19. 50 CFR 402.48 - Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... proposed critical habitat. 402.48 Section 402.48 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES... Rodenticide Act § 402.48 Conference on proposed species or proposed critical habitat. EPA may employ the procedures described in § 402.10 to confer on any species proposed for listing or any habitat proposed...

  20. 50 CFR 226.203 - Critical habitat for northern right whales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for northern right... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.203 Critical habitat for northern right whales. (a) Great South Channel. The area bounded by...