Science.gov

Sample records for fission poisons

  1. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... gas heater and any other gas-, oil- or wood-fueled appliances serviced regularly. Be sure these appliances ... on the skin, rinse it off with running water and remove any poisoned clothing. If the poison ...

  2. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Try to have the following information ready: The container or bottle from the medicine or poison The ... dangerous gases. Always store household chemicals in the container they came in. Don't reuse containers. Keep ...

  3. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... been swallowed, DO NOT give the person activated charcoal. DO NOT give children ipecac syrup. DO NOT ... poison from being absorbed, you may receive: Activated charcoal A tube through the nose into the stomach ...

  4. Separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons from spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Jerry D.; Sterbentz, James W.

    2016-08-30

    A method for the separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons comprising providing a spent nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel comprises UO.sub.2 and rare-earth oxides, preferably Sm, Gd, Nd, Eu oxides, with other elements depending on the fuel composition. Preferably, the provided nuclear fuel is a powder, preferably formed by crushing the nuclear fuel or using one or more oxidation-reduction cycles. A compound comprising Th or Zr, preferably metal, is provided. The provided nuclear fuel is mixed with the Th or Zr, thereby creating a mixture. The mixture is then heated to a temperature sufficient to reduce the UO.sub.2 in the nuclear fuel, preferably to at least to 850.degree. C. for Th and up to 600.degree. C. for Zr. Rare-earth metals are then extracted to form the heated mixture thereby producing a treated nuclear fuel. The treated nuclear fuel comprises the provided nuclear fuel having a significant reduction in rare-earths.

  5. Lanolin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wool wax poisoning; Wool alcohol poisoning; Glossylan poisoning; Golden dawn poisoning; Sparklelan poisoning ... a minor skin rash. Lanolin is similar to wax, so eating large amounts of it can cause ...

  6. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  7. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  8. Mushroom Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  9. Deodorant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  11. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  12. Cologne poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ...

  13. Insecticide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  14. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  15. Copper poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  16. Merbromin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  17. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Foxglove poisoning most often occurs from sucking the flowers or eating the seeds, stems, or leaves of ... The poisonous substances are found in: Flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds of the foxglove plant Heart medicine (digitalis glycoside)

  18. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given. PMID:15636379

  19. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  20. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sal soda poisoning; Soda ash poisoning; Disodium salt poisoning; Carbonic acid poisoning; Washing soda poisoning ... have symptoms. In this rare situation, long-term effects, even death, are possible if you do not ...

  1. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  2. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration.

  3. Bee poison

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by a sting from a bee, wasp , or yellow jacket. This article is for information ... anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Bee, wasp, and yellow jacket stings contain a substance called ...

  4. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating or drinking: ...

  5. Refrigerant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    A refrigerant is a chemical that makes things cold. This article discusses poisoning from sniffing or swallowing such chemicals. ... occurs when people intentionally sniff a type of refrigerant called Freon. This article is for information only. ...

  6. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of mistletoe poisoning can affect many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, AND THROAT Blurred vision STOMACH AND INTESTINES Diarrhea Nausea and vomiting Stomach pain HEART AND BLOOD Weakness NERVOUS SYSTEM Drowsiness

  7. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  8. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallows a lead object or breathes in lead dust, some of the poison can stay in the ... a health problem. Lead is everywhere, including dirt, dust, new toys, and old house paint. Unfortunately, you ...

  9. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  10. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  11. Pokeweed poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest amounts of poison are found in the roots, leaves, and stems. Small amounts are in the ... is no guarantee that they are safe. The roots should never be eaten. Symptoms most often appear ...

  12. Naphthalene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  13. Ammonia poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  14. Depilatory poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Wax PM, Young A. ...

  15. Aftershave poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 185. Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  16. Iodine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002658.htm Iodine poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Iodine is a naturally occurring chemical. Small amounts are ...

  17. Lanolin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lanolin is an oily substance taken from sheep's wool. Lanolin poisoning occurs when someone swallows a product that contains lanolin. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or ...

  18. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  19. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for weeks or months, or even longer. ... RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ...

  20. Shellac poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These substances are found in: Paint remover Shellac Wood finishing products Other products may also contain these ... a vein (IV) Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison Surgery to remove burned skin ...

  1. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If the patient survives, there may be little ...

  2. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ... The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called ... only hydrogen and carbon. Examples are benzene and methane.

  3. Ink poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  4. Paraffin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Shannon MW. Emergency management of poisoning. In: Shannon MW, ed. Haddad and ...

  5. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  6. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002883.htm Mistletoe poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mistletoe is an evergreen plant with white berries. Mistletoe ...

  7. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  8. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

  9. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

  10. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  11. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention ... Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the emergency list next to every phone in your home and in your cell phone. A toddler or preschooler who vomits may ...

  12. Acetone poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  13. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit and getting long-term therapy. Some effects of the poison may last for weeks or months, or even longer. ... Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); 2003.

  14. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ground. It is usually found in groups of many plants and looks like weeds growing from 6 inches ... or anything else that may have touched the plant (like camping, sporting, fishing or hunting gear). If you develop a poison ivy rash, it will go away on its own in 1 to 3 ...

  15. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... is found in various kinds of the yew plant. The poison is in most parts of the yew plant, but the highest amount ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  16. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... level of alertness). Before Calling Emergency Have this information ready: Person's age, weight, and condition (for example, is the person awake or alert?) Name of the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed However, DO NOT delay calling ... Poison Control Your local ...

  17. Nicotine poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... 15 minutes. Before Calling Emergency Determine the following information: The person's age, weight, and condition Name of product (as well as the ingredients and strength, if known) When it was swallowed or inhaled The amount swallowed or ... Poison Control Your local ...

  18. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  19. Ink remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... be very poisonous if swallowed in large doses) Wood alcohol (methanol, which is very poisonous) ... Immediate kidney dialysis Medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison Tube through the mouth into ...

  20. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Household plant food poisoning; Plant food - household - poisoning ... Belson M. Ammonia and nitrogen oxides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ...

  1. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  6. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  7. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  8. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  9. Pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Aggarwal, Praveen

    2007-01-01

    Acute poisoning with pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for as many as 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. The majority of deaths occur due to exposure to organophosphates, organochlorines and aluminium phosphide. Organophosphate compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase resulting in acute toxicity. Intermediate syndrome can develop in a number of patients and may lead to respiratory paralysis and death. Management consists of proper oxygenation, atropine in escalating doses and pralidoxime in high doses. It is Important to decontaminate the skin while taking precautions to avoid secondary contamination of health personnel. Organochlorine pesticides are toxic to the central nervous system and sensitize the myocardium to catecholamines. Treatment involves supportive care and avoiding exogenous sympathomimetic agents. Ingestion of paraquat causes severe inflammation of the throat, corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, renal tubular necrosis, hepatic necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Administration of oxygen should be avoided as it produces more fibrosis. Use of immunosuppressive agents have improved outcome in patients with paraquat poisoning. Rodenticides include thallium, superwarfarins, barium carbonate and phosphides (aluminium and zinc phosphide). Alopecia is an atypical feature of thallium toxicity. Most exposures to superwarfarins are harmless but prolonged bleeding may occur. Barium carbonate Ingestion can cause severe hypokalaemia and respiratory muscle paralysis. Aluminium phosphide is a highly toxic agent with mortality ranging from 37% to 100%. It inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and leads to pulmonary and cardiac toxicity. Treatment is supportive with some studies suggesting a beneficial effect of magnesium sulphate. Pyrethroids and insect repellants (e.g. diethyltoluamide) are relatively harmless but can cause toxic effects to pulmonary and central nervous systems. Ethylene dibromide-a highly toxic, fumigant

  10. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  11. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  12. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  13. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  14. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  15. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  16. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002702.htm Hair bleach poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows hair bleach or ...

  17. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  18. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  19. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Black nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. ... Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves.

  20. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Blue nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you ...

  1. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  2. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  3. Spontaneous Fission

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Segre, Emilio

    1950-11-22

    The first attempt to discover spontaneous fission in uranium was made by [Willard] Libby, who, however, failed to detect it on account of the smallness of effect. In 1940, [K. A.] Petrzhak and [G. N.] Flerov, using more sensitive methods, discovered spontaneous fission in uranium and gave some rough estimates of the spontaneous fission decay constant of this substance. Subsequently, extensive experimental work on the subject has been performed by several investigators and will be quoted in the various sections. [N.] Bohr and [A.] Wheeler have given a theory of the effect based on the usual ideas of penetration of potential barriers. On this project spontaneous fission has been studied for the past several years in an effort to obtain a complete picture of the phenomenon. For this purpose the spontaneous fission decay constants {lambda} have been measured for separated isotopes of the heavy elements wherever possible. Moreover, the number {nu} of neutrons emitted per fission has been measured wherever feasible, and other characteristics of the spontaneous fission process have been studied. This report summarizes the spontaneous fission work done at Los Alamos up to January 1, 1945. A chronological record of the work is contained in the Los Alamos monthly reports.

  4. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  5. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  6. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  7. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  8. Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Turner, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

  9. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  10. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  11. [Seafood poisonings. Part II. Fish poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Fish plays a significant role in human life, mainly as part of a balanced healthy diet and a good source of many of nutrients. However, contact with fish may be harmful or even life-threatening to man. Toxic effects, that fish exerts toward men (ichthyotoxism), result from envenomations by poison. ous fish equipped in venom apparatus (ichthyoacanthotoxism), direct contact with venom produced by skin glandules (ichthyocrinotoxism), or consuming fish containing toxins for nutritional purposes (ichthyosarcotoxism). In the present review, different fish-borne food poisonings are presented including their etiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. In fact, the majority of fish poisonings are intoxications with toxins primary produced by bacteria, cyanobacteria and algae. These are consumed and accumulated in the food chain by herbivorous and predatory fish, that in turn may be a cause of poisonings in humans. PMID:23243919

  12. [Acute salicylate poisoning].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2006-01-01

    Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis. PMID:16467617

  13. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  14. Oxalic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of oxalic acid poisoning include: Abdominal pain Burns and blisters where the acid contacted the skin Collapse Convulsions Mouth pain Shock Throat pain Tremors (unintentional trembling) Vomiting

  15. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  16. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S.) is a delayed allergic reaction. Brushing the plant on the skin results in blisters and slightly ... of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants. People typically have itchy bumps (papules) and blisters ( ...

  17. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Weedoff poisoning; Roundup poisoning ... Glyphosate is the poisonous ingredient in some weed killers. ... Glyphosate is in weed killers with these brand names: Roundup Bronco Glifonox Kleen-up Rodeo Weedoff Other ...

  18. Benchmarking nuclear fission theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G. F.; Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Talou, P.

    2015-05-14

    We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. Thus, the purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.

  19. Suspected Pesticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

  20. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  1. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  2. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States.

  3. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  4. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  5. Fission meter

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Snyderman, Neal J.

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source.

  6. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  7. Trisodium phosphate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... For swallowed poison, the person may receive: Endoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ... the nose or mouth into the lungs Bronchoscopy. Camera is placed down the throat to see burns ...

  8. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... except Maricopa County Mail donation to: College of Pharmacy, Development Office PO Box 210202, Tucson, AZ 85721 ... ly/1HDxdHb Tucson, AZ 85721 Online http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/outreach/poison/ Email: boesen at pharmacy ...

  9. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... any major gas-burning appliances (such as a furnace or water heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters are being used ...

  11. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or hand cream. This article is for information only. DO ... These ingredients in hand lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols

  12. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and ... for recovery. Swallowing such poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. The ultimate ...

  13. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Pine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  15. Bug spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective bug sprays contain pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally ... Borron SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon ... of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe ... other tests such as: Arterial blood gas analysis Chemistry panel and liver function studies Chest x-ray ( ...

  17. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  18. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 151. White SR. Toxic alcohols. ...

  19. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 97. Harchelroad FP Jr, Rottinghaus ... Textbook of Critical Care . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 187. Wax PM, Yarema M. ...

  20. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 48. Nelson LS, Ford MD. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Seger DL, Murray L. ...

  1. Plastic resin hardener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 41. Holland MG. Occupational toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. ...

  2. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... local take back programs in your community . Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Always read the label before using a product that may be poisonous. Keep chemical products in their original bottles or containers. Do ...

  3. Turpentine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called "huffing" ...

  4. Face powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes in this substance. This article is for information ... The ingredients in face powder that can be harmful are: Baking soda Talcum powder Many other types of powder

  5. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  6. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Field R, Panter KE, et al. Selected poisonous plants affecting animal and human health. In: Haschek WAM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA, eds. Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 40.

  7. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  8. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves.

  9. Automatic dishwasher soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... OJ, et al., eds. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide . 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2011:chap 211. Kulig K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. ...

  10. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  11. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  12. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... familiar skin rash. No one is born with sensitivity to Poison ivy, but if exposed enough most ... sensitized at some time and remain allergic. A sensitivity can change at any time. There's no way ...

  13. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... boric acid poisoning usually occurs when someone swallows powdered roach-killing products that contain the chemical. Chronic ... vein (IV) Medicines to treat symptoms Note: Activated charcoal does not effectively treat (absorb) boric acid. For ...

  14. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair spray or sprays it down their throat or ... The harmful ingredients in hair spray are: Carboxymethylcellulose ... Polyvinyl alcohol Propylene glycol Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  15. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... dishwasher soaps Some forms of potash (material from wood ashes that is used in fertilizers) Some home ... chance for recovery. Swallowing poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. Damage to ...

  16. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  17. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Jacobsen D, Hovda KE. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and other toxic alcohols. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  19. Toluene and xylene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... used in: Fingernail polish Glues and adhesives Lacquers Octane booster in gasoline Paints Paint thinners Printing and ... anywhere in the United States.This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ...

  20. Trisodium phosphate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... removal of burned skin) Washing of the skin (irrigation). Perhaps every few hours for several days. Ointments ... For eye exposure, the person may receive: Extensive irrigation to flush out the poison Medicines

  1. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  2. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  3. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  4. Caulking compound poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Caulking compounds are substances used to seal cracks and holes around windows and other openings. Caulking compound poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is for information only and not for use in the ...

  5. Pyopneumothorax Following Kerosene Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B. E.; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully. PMID:24748745

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2005-11-01

    CO is an ubiquitous poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms that are often subtle and may be easily misdiagnosed. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and permit continued exposure to a dangerous environment. Treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may also prevent DNS. Absolute indications forHBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most authors would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose or neurologically abnormal, have a history of LOC with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level(>15%-20%) is also widely, considered an indication for treatment.HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOTtreatment protocols. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit may assist the treating physician with decisions regarding therapy. PMID:16227059

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2004-11-01

    CO is an insidious poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms, which often are subtle and can be misdiagnosed easily. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and allow continued exposure to a dangerous environment. In the ED, a high index of suspicion must be maintained for occult CO exposure. Headache, particularly when associated with certain environments, and flulike illness in the wintertime with symptomatic cohabitants should raise the index of suspicion in the ED significantly for occult CO poisoning. Emergency treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may prevent DNS. Absolute indications for HBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose, are neurologically abnormal, have a history of loss of consciousness with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level (>15-20%) also is widely considered an indication for treatment. HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOT protocols. The emergency physician may be confronted with the difficult decision regarding disposition and even transfer to a hyperbaric facility. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit can assist the emergency physician with the decision-making process. PMID:15474779

  8. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  9. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  10. Boric Acid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

    1964-01-01

    Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

  11. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

  13. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  14. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  15. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  16. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  17. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  18. Age and criminal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Evgenia; Gesheva, Margarita; Hubenova, Aneta

    2005-01-01

    We present a series of 8 cases of acute combined poisonings, occurred in an identical way in patients over 70 years of age for a period of 6 months. The way of exposure, characteristic of the clinical presentation, complications and the outcome of the intoxications, as well as the therapeutic approach is described. In all of the cases combined drug intoxication with benzodiazepines and opiates have been proved. The impact of the combination of two toxic substances: the first causing rapid and brief suppression of the consciousness and the second, causing prolonged continuation of the already suppressed consciousness, on the clinical course is discussed. The similarities in the circumstances of the exposure, clinical course of the poisonings, the identified toxic substances, lead to the consideration of criminal characteristic of the poisonings. The contact with the corresponding authorities brought off the disclosure of a group of criminals, committed the intentional intoxications with the aim of robbery. Age, with all its various characteristics, has been discussed as a factor for occurrence of criminal poisonings. PMID:16225098

  19. Methyl Bromide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Rathus, E. M.; Landy, P. J.

    1961-01-01

    Seven cases of methyl bromide poisoning which occurred amongst workers engaged on a fumigation project are described. The methods adopted for investigation of the environmental situation are discussed and the measurement of blood bromide levels on random samples of workers is suggested as an index of the effectiveness of equipment and working methods. PMID:13739738

  20. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... a protein found in the plant Note: All parts of the plants are poisonous if large amounts are eaten. ... Symptoms from eating parts of the plant or from the plant touching the eye include: Burning in the mouth or throat Damage to the outer clear ...

  1. Puffer fish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J

    1998-01-01

    Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed. Images p336-a PMID:9785165

  2. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  3. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  4. [Poisoning by bee sting].

    PubMed

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

  5. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations. PMID:25344454

  6. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  7. Poisons and fever.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Rowsey, P J

    1998-02-01

    1. Dysfunction of the thermoregulatory system is one of many pathologies documented in experimental animals and humans exposed to toxic chemicals. The mechanism of action responsible for many types of poison-induced fevers is not understood. Some elevations in body temperature are attributed to the peripheral actions of some poisons that stimulate metabolic rate and cause a forced hyperthermia. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and certain metal fumes appears to cause a prolonged, regulated elevation in body temperature (Tb). 2. Activation of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in central nervous system (CNS) thermoregulatory centres is required to elicit a fever. Activating the COX-PGE2 pathway by a poison may occur by one of three mechanisms: (i) induction of cell-mediated immune responses and the subsequent release of cytokines; (ii) induction of lipid peroxidation in the CNS; and (iii) direct neurochemical activation. 3. Radiotelemetric monitoring of core temperature in unstressed rodents has led to an experimental animal model of poison-induced fever. Rats administered the OP agents chlorpyrifos and diisopropyl fluorophosphate display an initial hypothermic response lasting approximately 24 h, followed by an elevation in diurnal core temperature for 24-72 h after exposure. The hyperthermia is apparently a result of the activation of the COX-PGE2 pathway because it is blocked by the anti-pyretic sodium salicylate. Overall, the delayed hyperthermia resulting from OP exposure involves activation of thermoregulatory pathways that may be similar to infection-mediated fever. PMID:9493505

  8. [Acute phostoxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Idali, B; Miguil, M; Moutawakkil, S; Bouaggad, A; Guartit, A; Abassi, O; Ben Aguida, M

    1995-04-01

    Phostoxin is a mixture of aluminium phosphide and ammonium carbonate. When exposed to water, it releases phosphorus hydrogen (PH3), a highly-poisonous gas. In Morocco, death rate from suicide due to self-administration of phostoxin pills is high. Clinical signs include abrupt digestive and nervous disorders. Pulmonary oedema or cardiogenic shock dominate early prognosis. Liver and renal damage is secondary. Prevention requires both legal constraints and regulation of sales. PMID:7761363

  9. Endrin-food-poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end. PMID:5301732

  10. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  11. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-07-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO(4), coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  12. OXYGEN POISONING IN MAMMALS.

    PubMed

    Binger, C A; Faulkner, J M; Moore, R L

    1927-04-30

    1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined. PMID:19869294

  13. Prallethrin poisoning: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Alka; Dixit, Madhu B.; Banavaliker, Jayant N.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to their high effectiveness and low toxicity in humans. Despite their extensive worldwide use, there are a few reports of human pyrethroid poisoning. The poisoning has a varied presentation and its symptoms overlap with those of other compounds, which can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of poisoning with prallethrin, a pyrethroid compound, commonly available as All-Out. PMID:23494161

  14. Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Ronald E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

  15. Paraquat Poisoning: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Veer Bahadur; Meena, Babu Lal; Gaur, Subhash; Singla, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is commonly used herbicide by farmers in North West Rajasthan. Despite its easy availability, poisoning of its not common. Fatal dose of paraquat is so small that >10 ml poison can damage lungs permanently. Diagnosis is often difficult without proper history, absence of specific clinical feature and lack of diagnostic test. Inhalation exposures represent one of the most important routes of poisoning. We are reporting a case of inhaled paraquat poisoning with complication of irreversible acute kidney, liver and lung injury. PMID:27042505

  16. PESTICIDE POISONINGS REPORTED BY FLORIDA CITRUS FIELDWORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a 1981 survey of 1811 Florida citrus fieldworkers, 25 pesticide related poisoning incidents involving 29 fieldworkers were reported. Suspected poisonings were categorized into possible and confirmed poisonings, and from these reports it was possible to project an estimated 438...

  17. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? What You Need to Know in an Emergency ... Aid: Poisoning First-Aid Kit Emergency Contact Sheet Lead Poisoning Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Babysitting: Dealing With ...

  18. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    PubMed

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids. PMID:11376396

  19. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  20. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning. PMID:26867400

  1. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-12-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. PMID:8553638

  2. Herbicide poisoning: A diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supradip; Singh, Amandeep; Dewan, Himanshu; Walia, Gunwant; Bansal, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread availability, reports of herbicide poisoning from India are not common. Diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of proper history, non-specific clinical features and lack of diagnostic tests. A case of Paraquat poisoning is reported where diagnosis could be established only after the recovery of the patient. The literature is reviewed. PMID:22557836

  3. Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

  4. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12630734 . Shannon MW. Emergency management of poisoning. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  5. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  6. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  7. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds. PMID:7923948

  8. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... View all alerts right left National Poison Prevention Week is March 20-26! Be a part of ... is poison-proof. Read more › National Poison Prevention Week The U.S. Congress established National Poison Prevention Week ...

  9. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sachin; Rani, Yashoda

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law. PMID:27486362

  10. Super vasomol hair dye poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen A S; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T K

    2012-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management. PMID:22736909

  11. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Nabarun; Davis, Jonathan; Jonsson Funk, Michele; Dart, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in overdose mortality. Methods We used PC call counts for methadone that were reported to the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System in 2006 and 2007. US death certificate data were used to identify deaths due to methadone. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship of deaths and poison center calls. Results Compared to decedents, poison center callers tended to be younger, more often female, at home and less likely to require medical attention. A strong association was found with PC calls and methadone mortality (b = 0.88, se = 0.42, t = 9.5, df = 1, p<0.0001, R2 = 0.77). These findings were robust to large changes in a sensitivity analysis assessing the impact of underreporting of methadone overdose deaths. Conclusions Our results suggest that calls to poison centers for methadone are correlated with poisoning mortality as identified on death certificates. Calls received by poison centers may be used for timely surveillance of mortality due to methadone. In the midst of the prescription opioid overdose epidemic, electronic surveillance tools that report in real-time are powerful public health tools. PMID:22829925

  12. Can poison control data be used for pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Cody S; Dean, J Michael; Olson, Lenora M; Cook, Lawrence J; Keenan, Heather T

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between the frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a poison control center (PCC) and those seen in the emergency department (ED). Design A statewide population-based retrospective comparison of frequencies of ED pharmaceutical poisonings with frequencies of pharmaceutical exposures reported to a regional PCC. ED poisonings, identified by International Classification of Diseases, Version 9 (ICD-9) codes, were grouped into substance categories. Using a reproducible algorithm facilitated by probabilistic linkage, codes from the PCC classification system were mapped into the same categories. A readily identifiable subset of PCC calls was selected for comparison. Measurements Correlations between frequencies of quarterly exposures by substance categories were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients with adjustment for seasonality. Results PCC reported exposures correlated with ED poisonings in nine of 10 categories. Partial correlation coefficients (rp) indicated strong associations (rp>0.8) for three substance categories that underwent large changes in their incidences (opiates, benzodiazepines, and muscle relaxants). Six substance categories were moderately correlated (rp>0.6). One category, salicylates, showed no association. Limitations Imperfect overlap between ICD-9 and PCC codes may have led to miscategorization. Substances without changes in exposure frequency have inadequate variability to detect association using this method. Conclusion PCC data are able to effectively identify trends in poisonings seen in EDs and may be useful as part of a pharmaceutical poisoning surveillance system. The authors developed an algorithm-driven technique for mapping American Association of Poison Control Centers codes to ICD-9 codes and identified a useful subset of poison control exposures for analysis. PMID:21422101

  13. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    PubMed

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  14. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash is caused by skin contact with the oils (resin) of certain plants. The oils most often enter the skin rapidly. POISON IVY ... blisters. Therefore, once a person has washed the oil off the skin, the rash does not often ...

  15. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, et al., eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ed. New York, NY: ...

  16. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluids (through a vein) Medicines to reverse the effects of the poison and treat symptoms Tube placed down the nose and into the stomach (sometimes) Washing of the skin (irrigation), perhaps every few hours for several days

  17. Piperonyl butoxide with pyrethrins poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borron, SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  18. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    ... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  19. Fission Xenon on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, K. J.; Marti, K.; Marty, B.

    2002-01-01

    Fission Xe components due to Pu-244 decay in the early history of Mars have been identified in nakhlites; as in the case of ALH84001 and Chassigny the fission gas was assimilated into indigenous solar-type Xe. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Fission gas detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  1. Fission Spectrum Related Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    G. Aliberti; I. Kodeli; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2007-10-01

    The paper presents a preliminary uncertainty analysis related to potential uncertainties on the fission spectrum data. Consistent results are shown for a reference fast reactor design configuration and for experimental thermal configurations. However the results obtained indicate the need for further analysis, in particular in terms of fission spectrum uncertainty data assessment.

  2. The Fission Barrier Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, L.; Moretto, L. G.

    2008-04-17

    Fission excitation functions have been measured for a chain of neighboring compound nuclei from {sup 207}Po to {sup 212}Po. We present a new analysis which provides a determination of the fission barriers and ground state shell effects with nearly spectroscopic accuracy. The accuracy achieved in this analysis may lead to a future detailed exploration of the saddle mass surface and its spectroscopy.

  3. Biomodal spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K. )

    1989-09-26

    Investigations of mass and kinetic-energy distributions from spontaneous fission have been extended in recent years to an isotope of element 104 and, for half-lives, to an isotope of element 108. The results have been surprising in that spontaneous fission half-lives have turned out to be much longer than expected and mass and kinetic- energy distributions were found to abruptly shift away from those of the lighter actinides, showing two modes of fission. These new developments have caused a re-evaluation of our understanding of the fission process, bringing an even deeper appreciation of the role played by nuclear shell effects upon spontaneous fission properties. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Sharon M; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  5. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  6. [Chronic ethylene glycol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Steinmauer, H G; Biesenbach, G; Janko, O; Zazgornik, J

    1993-04-30

    Over a six-week period a 60-year-old patient had several unexplained intoxication-like episodes. He finally had severe abdominal cramps with changes in the level of consciousness and oligoanuric renal failure (creatinine 4.7 mg/dl). The history, marked metabolic acidosis (pH 7.15, HCO3- 2.2 mmol/l, pCO2 6.6 mmHg) as well as raised anion residue (43 mmol/l) and the presence of oxalates in urine suggested poisoning by ethylene glycol contained in antifreeze liquid. Intensive haemodialysis adequately eliminated ethylene glycol and its toxic metabolites (glycol aldehyde, glycolic acid). Renal function returned within 10 days, although the concentrating power of the kidney remained impaired for several weeks because of interstitial nephritis. The intoxication had been caused by a defective heating-pipe system from which the antifreeze had leaked into the hot-water boiler (the patient had habitually prepared hot drinks by using water from the hot-water tap). Gas chromatography demonstrated an ethylene glycol concentration of 21 g per litre of water. PMID:8482240

  7. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  8. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  9. Fission induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments was investigated, as well as the probability of utilizing the energy of these particles to create population inversion leading to laser action. Eventually, it is hoped that the same medium could be used for both fissioning and lasing, thus avoiding inefficiences in converting one form of energy to the other. A central problem in understanding a fission induced plasma is to obtain an accurate model of the electron behavior; some calculations are presented to this end. The calculations are simple, providing a compendium of processes for reference.

  10. Fission Systems for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne

    2012-01-01

    Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.

  11. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lead Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking ... less binge drinking. Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol ...

  13. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... placard must be white. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be black. The word “TOXIC” may... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard...

  14. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... placard must be white. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be black. The word “TOXIC” may... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard...

  15. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  16. More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils'

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158837.html More Children Accidently Poisoned by 'Essential Oils' Tennessee poison center reports doubling of dangerous exposures ... News) -- Children are increasingly at risk from essential oils that are often used in natural remedies, a ...

  17. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%. PMID:8235511

  18. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    PubMed

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. PMID:25839151

  19. Are poisonings inflicted upon others always criminal?

    PubMed

    Bismuth, C; Pierlot, P; Borron, S W

    2000-04-01

    While self-poisoning is a common cause for hospitalization, in the experience of our toxicological intensive care unit and emergency department, poisoning of other persons appears to be quite rare. We identified 32 patients in a non-exhaustive review of patients presenting over a 28-y period who had been unequivocally poisoned by others. We examine here the circumstances leading up to these poisonings, along with their clinical outcomes, and propose a classification scheme based on underlying intent. PMID:10750178

  20. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  1. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  2. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  3. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  4. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  5. Singlet exciton fission photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Jadhav, Priya; Reusswig, Philip D; Yost, Shane R; Thompson, Nicholas J; Congreve, Daniel N; Hontz, Eric; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission, a process that generates two excitons from a single photon, is perhaps the most efficient of the various multiexciton-generation processes studied to date, offering the potential to increase the efficiency of solar devices. But its unique characteristic, splitting a photogenerated singlet exciton into two dark triplet states, means that the empty absorption region between the singlet and triplet excitons must be filled by adding another material that captures low-energy photons. This has required the development of specialized device architectures. In this Account, we review work to develop devices that harness the theoretical benefits of singlet exciton fission. First, we discuss singlet fission in the archetypal material, pentacene. Pentacene-based photovoltaic devices typically show high external and internal quantum efficiencies. They have enabled researchers to characterize fission, including yield and the impact of competing loss processes, within functional devices. We review in situ probes of singlet fission that modulate the photocurrent using a magnetic field. We also summarize studies of the dissociation of triplet excitons into charge at the pentacene-buckyball (C60) donor-acceptor interface. Multiple independent measurements confirm that pentacene triplet excitons can dissociate at the C60 interface despite their relatively low energy. Because triplet excitons produced by singlet fission each have no more than half the energy of the original photoexcitation, they limit the potential open circuit voltage within a solar cell. Thus, if singlet fission is to increase the overall efficiency of a solar cell and not just double the photocurrent at the cost of halving the voltage, it is necessary to also harvest photons in the absorption gap between the singlet and triplet energies of the singlet fission material. We review two device architectures that attempt this using long-wavelength materials: a three-layer structure that uses

  6. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. PMID:22632635

  7. Myocarditis in hair dye poisoning.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay Pal; Jatav, O P; Dudani, Manish

    2009-01-01

    A 16-year-old male presented to us after consuming hair dye with features of facial puffiness but normal respiratory parameters. His recorded ECGs revealed RBBB, supraventricular, ventricularextrasystoleandventricular tachycardia. Elevated CPK-MB and positive C-trophonin-Tconfirmed the myocardial damage. The patient died following cardiac arrest. This is a uncommon manifestation of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) poisoning. The aim of this report is to highlight the cardiac manifestation of PPD poisoning as this substance is used extensively and available freely. PMID:20503845

  8. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  9. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

    Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

  10. Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    deCastro, F.J.

    1990-04-01

    Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  11. Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

  12. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  13. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from... Control Center. These transfers are necessary in order to maintain poison control services and...

  14. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  15. Handbook of Common Poisonings in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook for physicians, emergency room personnel and pharmacists lists the manufacturer, description, toxicity, symptoms and findings, treatment, and references for 73 poison substances considered by the Subcommittee on Accidental Poisoning of the American Academy of Pediatrics to be most significant in terms of accidental poisoning of…

  16. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  17. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  18. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  19. Paraquat poisoning - management and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, E J; Pang, M; Woo, K T

    1981-04-01

    Paraquat poisoning has become a significant clinical problem since the early 1960s. Its high mortality has posed a major challenge to clinicians treating these patients. Two patients who survived and one who did not are reported. The management of these patients and the possible factors affecting their outcome are discussed. PMID:7332290

  20. Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented. PMID:4619651

  1. The Dose Makes the Poison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottoboni, Alice

    1992-01-01

    A Toxicologist discusses common misconception that all chemicals are poisonous to people and the environment and how these misconceptions are perpetuated. Describes what makes a chemical toxic. Defines related concepts including dose, acute and chronic toxicity, and natural verses synthetic chemicals. (MCO)

  2. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates mitochondrial fission in response to energy stress

    PubMed Central

    Courchet, Julien; Lewis, Tommy L.; Losón, Oliver C.; Hellberg, Kristina; Young, Nathan P.; Chen, Hsiuchen; Polleux, Franck; Chan, David C.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA–linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood. We found that the energy-sensing adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase (AMPK) is genetically required for cells to undergo rapid mitochondrial fragmentation after treatment with ETC inhibitors. Moreover, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK was sufficient to rapidly promote mitochondrial fragmentation even in the absence of mitochondrial stress. A screen for substrates of AMPK identified mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for DRP1, the cytoplasmic guanosine triphosphatase that catalyzes mitochondrial fission. Nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic alleles of the AMPK sites in MFF revealed that it is a key effector of AMPK-mediated mitochondrial fission. PMID:26816379

  3. Metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates mitochondrial fission in response to energy stress.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Erin Quan; Herzig, Sébastien; Courchet, Julien; Lewis, Tommy L; Losón, Oliver C; Hellberg, Kristina; Young, Nathan P; Chen, Hsiuchen; Polleux, Franck; Chan, David C; Shaw, Reuben J

    2016-01-15

    Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA-linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood. We found that the energy-sensing adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is genetically required for cells to undergo rapid mitochondrial fragmentation after treatment with ETC inhibitors. Moreover, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK was sufficient to rapidly promote mitochondrial fragmentation even in the absence of mitochondrial stress. A screen for substrates of AMPK identified mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for DRP1, the cytoplasmic guanosine triphosphatase that catalyzes mitochondrial fission. Nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic alleles of the AMPK sites in MFF revealed that it is a key effector of AMPK-mediated mitochondrial fission. PMID:26816379

  4. SOLUBLE POISONS FOR SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Ketzlach, N.

    1957-05-01

    A study of B and Th poisoning of slightly enriched U/sup 235/ hetcrogeneous and homogencous systems has been made. This study indicates large processing plant capacity increases are possible by the incorporation of soluble neutron poisons. A tabulation of other readily available neutron poisons together with their poisoning effects has been made. The importance of being able to remove the ncutron poisons when desired as well as having them present under all conditions where nuclear safety is dependent upon them has also been presented. (auth)

  5. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  6. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis. PMID:26430228

  7. Potentials of fissioning plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.

    1979-01-01

    Successful experiments with the nuclear pumping of lasers have demonstrated that in a gaseous medium the kinetic energy of fission fragments can be converted directly into nonequilibrium optical radiation. This confirms the concept that the fissioning medium in a gas-phase nuclear reactor shows an internal structure such as a plasma in near thermal equilibrium varying up to a state of extreme nonequilibrium. During 20 years of research under NASA support major elements of the fissioning plasma reactor were demonstrated in theory and experiment, culminating in a proof-of-principle reactor test conducted at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It is concluded that the construction of a gaseous fuel reactor power plant is within the reach of present technology.

  8. Fission modelling with FIFRELIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Berge, Léonie

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear fission process gives rise to the formation of fission fragments and emission of particles (n,γ , e-) . The particle emission from fragments can be prompt and delayed. We present here the methods used in the FIFRELIN code, which simulates the prompt component of the de-excitation process. The methods are based on phenomenological models associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic ingredients. Input data can be provided by experiment as well as by theory. The fission fragment de-excitation can be performed within Weisskopf (uncoupled neutron and gamma emission) or a Hauser-Feshbach (coupled neutron/gamma emission) statistical theory. We usually consider five free parameters that cannot be provided by theory or experiments in order to describe the initial distributions required by the code. In a first step this set of parameters is chosen to reproduce a very limited set of target observables. In a second step we can increase the statistics to predict all other fission observables such as prompt neutron, gamma and conversion electron spectra but also their distributions as a function of any kind of parameters such as, for instance, the neutron, gamma and electron number distributions, the average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fission fragment mass, charge or kinetic energy, and so on. Several results related to different fissioning systems are presented in this work. The goal in the next decade will be i) to replace some macroscopic ingredients or phenomenological models by microscopic calculations when available and reliable, ii) to be a support for experimentalists in the design of detection systems or in the prediction of necessary beam time or count rates with associated statistics when measuring fragments and emitted particle in coincidence iii) extend the model to be able to run a calculation when no experimental input data are available, iv) account for multiple chance fission and gamma emission before fission, v) account for the

  9. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Renier, J.A.

    2002-04-17

    water reactor fuel core was chosen for the study, and state-of-the-art neutronic reactor core computer codes were used for analysis. Power distribution, fuel burnup, reactivity due to burnable poisons and other fission products, spectrum shift, core reactivity, moderator void coefficients, as well as other parameters were calculated as a function of time and fuel burnup. The results not only showed advantages of separation of burnable poison isotopes but revealed benefits to be achieved by careful selection of the configuration of even naturally occurring elements used as burnable poisons. The savings in terms of additional days of operation is shown in Figure 1, where the savings is plotted for each of six favorable isotopes in the four configurations. The benefit of isotope separation is most dramatic for dysprosium, but even the time savings in the case of gadolinium is several days. For a modern nuclear plant, one day's worth of electricity is worth about one million dollars, so the resulting savings of only a few days is considerable. It is also apparent that the amount of savings depends upon the configuration of the burnable poison.

  10. Process for treating fission waste

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.; Wick, Oswald J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  11. Student Experiments in Spontaneous Fission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becchetti, F. D.; Ying, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced undergraduate experiments utilizing a commercially available, thin spontaneous fission source are described, including studies of the energy and mass distribution of the fission fragments and their energy and angular correlation. The experiments provide a useful introduction to fission, nuclear mass equations, heavy-ion physics, and…

  12. Poisonings at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B; Singh, P M; Bharati, U; Dhungel, S

    2011-09-01

    Poisoning is an increasingly common social problem in Nepal. Studies on poisoning in semi urban areas of Nepal are minimal. Here we, present a prospective study of poisoning in semi urban area of capital, Kathmandu lasting for six years duration. Altogether there were 354 cases of various poisoning, admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from Baisakh 2062 (April 16, 2005) to Chaitra 2067 (April 15, 2011). Male: Female ratio was 135:219 (1:1.6) and Age +/- SD was age 29.3 +/- 13.8 years. Age group (20-29 years) comprised of 138 patients (38.9% followed by < 20 years age group (92, 25.9%). Brahman/ chhetri (150, 42.4%) and Mongolian (146, 41.2%) ethnic groups were the main sufferers of poisoning, followed by newars (41, 11.6%) patients. Deliberate self harm was the cause for poisoning in maximum number of patients (156, 44.1%), followed by depression (64, 18.1%) and accidental poisoning (42, 11.9%). Organophosphorus (152, 42.9%), medicines (71, 20.1%), and rodenticide poisoning (38, 10.7%) were common poisons. Metacid (Methyl parathion) (46, 15.5%) was the most popular brand of poisoning agent used in Nepal for suicidal purpose. The over all mortality rate of poisoning in general was 7.1% with organophosphorus poisoning topping the list (19, 12.5%). We also present mad honey poisonings in a small group of 9 (3.2%) patients with M:F 8:1, age 26.5 +/- 8.8 years. Due precaution should be undertaken during their management as some of them may go into cardiopulmonary arrest and should not be considered benign when more than 5 tablespoonful wild honey is consumed. PMID:22808816

  13. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    PubMed

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  14. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  15. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  16. Radiation Detection from Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.

    2004-11-17

    This report briefly describes the neutrons and gamma rays emitted in fission, briefly discusses measurement methods, briefly discusses sources and detectors relevant to detection of shielded HEU in sealand containers, and lists the measurement possibilities for the various sources. The brief descriptions are supplemented by reference.

  17. Lead shot poisons bald eagles

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, J.P.

    1985-09-01

    This article describes the controversy between the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the National Wildlife Federation and the increased mortality of bald eagles. The eagles are being poisoned by preying on waterfowl which have ingested lead shot or have been wounded by shot and not recovered. The controversy has resulted in the establishment of new criteria for so-called non-toxic shot waterfowl hunting.

  18. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  19. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the biliary tree. The experimental evidence implicating alsike clover as the cause of this syndrome comes entirely from a series of feeding trials performed by Dr. Frank Schofield between 1928 and 1933. This review surveys the literature on the association of alsike clover with both photosensitivity and biliary fibrosis in horses, and summarizes the clinical and pathological features of “alsike clover poisoning”. The experimental evidence that has been used to implicate Trifolium hybridum as the cause of alsike clover poisoning is critically examined. It is concluded that the existing experimental evidence is insufficient to prove that Trifolium hybridum is the cause of alsike clover poisoning. PMID:17423321

  20. Poisoning deaths in married women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2004-02-01

    Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime. PMID:15261005

  1. Elastocapillary Instability in Mitochondrial Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Sart, Sébastien; Babataheri, Avin; Tareste, David; Barakat, Abdul I.; Clanet, Christophe; Husson, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic cell organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events. These dynamical processes, which tightly regulate mitochondrial morphology, are essential for cell physiology. Here we propose an elastocapillary mechanical instability as a mechanism for mitochondrial fission. We experimentally induce mitochondrial fission by rupturing the cell's plasma membrane. We present a stability analysis that successfully explains the observed fission wavelength and the role of mitochondrial morphology in the occurrence of fission events. Our results show that the laws of fluid mechanics can describe mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  2. The nation's first poison control center: taking a stand against accidental childhood poisoning in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Burda, A M; Burda, N M

    1997-04-01

    Prior to the 1950's, there existed no formal system for poison prevention or treatment in the US. Estimates place the number of pediatric poisoning fatalities at over 400/y at that time. After World War II, urbanization and modern technological methods brought forth over 250,000 different brand name products on the market. Health care professionals presented with cases of acute poisoning usually had little knowledge of what ingredients were contained in these new products, making it difficult to treat these patients. In the 1930's, pharmacist Louis Gdalman established a poison information service at St Luke's hospital. Because of Gdalman's training in pharmacy and chemistry, physicians throughout Chicago and the US called on him in search of assistance. In the late 1940's, Gdalman began recording information on small cards, and developed a standard data collection from. By the 1950's he had established an extensive library on the management of acute and chronic poisonings. In 1948, a national effort to reduce the number of accidents in children was started by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and a committee was formed in Chicago to address this public safety need. In November, 1953, the poison center at Presbyterian-St Luke's Hospital was formally recognized, and the poison program model spread nationwide. As the number of poison centers grew, coordination was achieved through the National Clearing House for Poison Control Centers, founded in 1957, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers, created in 1958. By 1970, the number of poison centers in the US was reported to be 597. The need for large and better centers led to regional poison control centers. Other outgrowths were the formation of the National Poison Prevention Week Council, the enactment of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act, development of "Mr. Yuk" and other symbols, and formation of the National Animal Poison Control Center. As a result, the number of children dying from accidental

  3. Metal Poisons for Criticality in Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-06-26

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper.

  4. Accidental paraffin poisoning in Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Lang, T; Thuo, N; Akech, S

    2008-06-01

    A serious and common accident in rural Kenyan homesteads is accidental ingestion of paraffin when it has been mistaken for water and offered to a young child. Here we report the incidence, parental practices and outcome of severe paraffin poisoning, requiring admission at Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Over a 2-year period, 48 children (0.5% of all admissions) were admitted with kerosene poisoning, constituting 62% of all poisoning cases. All cases were accidental. Ten per cent had induced vomiting. One child (2%) died. We suggest these data support assessment followed by implementation of practical and affordable measures to prevent paraffin poisoning. PMID:18363584

  5. Poison ivy dermatitis. Nuances in treatment.

    PubMed

    Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F

    1994-02-01

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak. PMID:7994440

  6. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS...

  7. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS...

  8. E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... poison in your home," said report co-author Henry Spiller, director of the Central Ohio Poison Center ... director, Center for Injury Research and Policy, and Henry Spiller, MS, director, Central Ohio Poison Center, Nationwide ...

  9. Clusterization in Ternary Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamanin, D. V.; Pyatkov, Y. V.

    This lecture notes are devoted to the new kind of ternary decay of low excited heavy nuclei called by us "collinear cluster tri-partition" (CCT) due to the features of the effect observed, namely, decay partners fly away almost collinearly and at least one of them has magic nucleon composition. At the early stage of our work the process of "true ternary fission" (fission of the nucleus into three fragments of comparable masses) was considered to be undiscovered for low excited heavy nuclei. Another possible prototype—three body cluster radioactivity—was also unknown. The most close to the CCT phenomenon, at least cinematically, stands so called "polar emission", but only very light ions (up to isotopes of Be) were observed so far.

  10. SHAPED FISSIONABLE METAL BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Williamson, R.R.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A technique is presented for grooving the surface of fissionable fuel elements so that expansion can take place without damage to the interior structure of the fuel element. The fissionable body tends to develop internal stressing when it is heated internally by the operation of the nuclear reactor and at the same time is subjected to surface cooling by the circulating coolant. By producing a grooved or waffle-like surface texture, the annular lines of tension stress are disrupted at equally spaced intervals by the grooves, thereby relieving the tension stresses in the outer portions of the body while also facilitating the removal of accumulated heat from the interior portion of the fuel element.

  11. Extended optical model for fission

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-07

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier ismore » used for 234,235U(n,f), while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n,f) reactions. The 239Pu(n,f) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for 235,238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. Lastly, the extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.« less

  12. Extended optical model for fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier is used for U,235234(n ,f ) , while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n ,f ) reactions. The 239Pu(n ,f ) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for U,238235(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. The extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.

  13. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  14. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    PubMed

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye. PMID:22169568

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning from Sterno.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    A high school student became ill and later unconscious while working over a heating table set over three cans of burning Sterno. Measurements of 1000 to 3000 parts per million of carbon monoxide were obtained around and above the apparatus. Although the room was well ventilated there was incomplete combustion of the canned heating fuel because the apparatus was surrounded by aluminum foil, which resulted in poor oxygenation of the flame area. This case demonstrates the hazards of carbon monoxide poisoning from incompletely burned Sterno. PMID:638911

  16. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  17. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  18. Acute diquat poisoning with intracerebral bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, S; Wilks, M; Coupe, M

    2001-01-01

    A case of severe diquat poisoning complicated by the development of aggressive behaviour, oliguric renal failure, and intracerebral bleeding is described. The patient was successfully managed and made a complete recovery. In this paper special attention has been given to the major clinical differences between diquat and paraquat intoxication.


Keywords: poisoning; diquat; paraquat PMID:11320278

  19. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Resources for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, DC.

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook, the third in a three-volume set, provides examples of specific materials currently or recently used in ongoing state and local childhood lead…

  20. [Optic neuropathy in acute poisoning with methanol].

    PubMed

    Sekkat, A; Maillard, P; Dupeyron, G; Bensouda, J; Arne, J L; Bec, P

    1982-01-01

    The authors report four cases of methanol poisoning, two of which suffering acute bilateral optic neuropathy which secondarily leads to optic atrophy. The report the main clinical features of such a poisoning and the actual basis of its physiopathology and treatment. According to the four cases reported, they underline the importance of early diagnosis and specific treatment. PMID:7169508

  1. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  2. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  3. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  4. ''Subthreshold'' reactions involving nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.; Shrock, R.

    2001-02-01

    We analyze reactions of several types that are naively below threshold but can proceed because of the release of binding energy from nuclear fission and occasionally the formation of Coulombic bound states. These reactions include (i) photofission with pion production and (ii) charged current neutrino-nucleus reactions that lead to fission and/or formation of a Coulomb bound state of a {mu}{sup -} with the nucleus of a fission fragment. We comment on the possible experimental observation of these reactions.

  5. Management of the critically poisoned patient

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

  6. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

  7. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  8. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Oreihaka, E

    1992-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning may have existed in the Solomon Islands long ago though there has never been any ciguatera fish poisoning tests been carried to confirm its presence. Suspected occurrences are infrequent and seasonal. Most cases of ciguatera fish poisoning are undocumented that when cases do occur they depend largely on traditional-knowledge and anecdotal information. Areas suspected to have ciguatoxic poisoning problem in the Solomon Islands includes Santa Cruz, Rennell and Bellona, Indispensable reefs, Ontong Java and Wagina island. Fish species considered ciguatoxic includes red emperor, red snapper, roundfaced batfish, barracuda and blue lined sea-bream. In any way ciguatera fish poisoning is as yet not a big health problem in the Solomon Islands. PMID:1340336

  9. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities. PMID:9456553

  10. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  11. The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Koliou, Maria; Ioannou, Chrystalla; Andreou, Kyriaki; Petridou, Alexandra; Soteriades, Elpidoforos Soterakis

    2010-07-01

    Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia, Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children were admitted for poisoning. The mean age of children was 3.1 years, of which 83.7% were below the age of 5 years old, while 53% were boys. The poisoning hospitalizations accounted for about 3% of all admissions to the pediatric department during the study period (4 years). The annual cumulative incidence of childhood poisoning hospitalizations was 116 per 100,000 children. Medications accounted for 46.1% of all poisonings, the most frequent cause being paracetamol (9.8%), cardiovascular medications (5.3%), antitussive medications (4.5%), and other painkillers (4.1%). Another 37.6% of hospitalizations involved household products such as household cleaning products (11.8%), petroleum products (11.0%), and rodenticides (5.7%). Among children who ingested petroleum distillates, 55.6% developed clinical symptomatology. The vast majority of cases were accidental (93.8%). Suicidal cases involved children 8-14 years old, mainly girls, and the most frequent poisoning ingested was paracetamol (46.7%). Poisoning hospitalizations represent an important cause of morbidity among children in Cyprus. Preventive strategies should include the education of caregivers on the handling of medications and household products as well as legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for all medications and household products including petroleum distillates. PMID:20016913

  12. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  13. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  14. Fission Yeast Scp3 Potentially Maintains Microtubule Orientation through Bundling

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules play important roles in organelle transport, the maintenance of cell polarity and chromosome segregation and generally form bundles during these processes. The fission yeast gene scp3+ was identified as a multicopy suppressor of the cps3-81 mutant, which is hypersensitive to isopropyl N-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC), a poison that induces abnormal multipolar spindle formation in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated the function of Scp3 along with the effect of CIPC in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Microscopic observation revealed that treatment with CIPC, cps3-81 mutation and scp3+ gene deletion disturbed the orientation of microtubules in interphase cells. Overexpression of scp3+ suppressed the abnormal orientation of microtubules by promoting bundling. Functional analysis suggested that Scp3 functions independently from Ase1, a protein largely required for the bundling of the mitotic spindle. A strain lacking the ase1+ gene was more sensitive to CIPC, with the drug affecting the integrity of the mitotic spindle, indicating that CIPC has a mitotic target that has a role redundant with Ase1. These results suggested that multiple systems are independently involved to ensure microtubule orientation by bundling in fission yeast. PMID:25767875

  15. Fast fission phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In these lectures we have described two different phenomena occuring in dissipative heavy ion collisions : neutron-proton asymmetry and fast fission. Neutron-proton asymmetry has provided us with an example of a fast collective motion. As a consequence quantum fluctuations can be observed. The observation of quantum or statistical fluctuations is directly connected to the comparison between the phonon energy and the temperature of the intrinsic system. This means that this mode might also provide a good example for the investigation of the transition between quantum and statistical fluctuations which might occur when the bombarding energy is raised above 10 MeV/A. However it is by no means sure that in this energy domain enough excitation energy can be put into the system in order to reach such high temperatures over the all system. The other interest in investigating neutron-proton asymmetry above 10 MeV/A is that the interaction time between the two incident nuclei will decrease. Consequently, if some collective motion should still be observed, it will be one of the last which can be seen. Fast fission corresponds on the contrary to long interaction times. The experimental indications are still rather weak and mainly consist of experimental data which cannot be understood in the framework of standard dissipative models. We have seen that a model which can describe both the entrance and the exit configuration gives this mechanism in a natural way and that the experimental data can, to a good extend, be explained. The nicest thing is probably that our old understanding of dissipative heavy ion collisions is not changed at all except for the problems that can now be understood in terms of fast fission. Nevertheless this area desserve further studies, especially on the experimental side to be sure that the consistent picture which we have on dissipative heavy ion collisions still remain coherent in the future.

  16. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally,more » individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  17. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O`Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-07-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) has been developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E-2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E-v measurement.

  18. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally, individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  19. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  20. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  1. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  2. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  3. Fission Particle Emission Multiplicity Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-09-27

    Simulates discrete neutron and gamma-ray emission from the fission of heavy nuclei that is either spontaneous or neutron induced. This is a function library that encapsulates the fission physics and is intended to be called Monte Carlo transport code.

  4. TREATMENT OF FISSION PRODUCT WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Huff, J.B.

    1959-07-28

    A pyrogenic method of separating nuclear reactor waste solutions containing aluminum and fission products as buring petroleum coke in an underground retort, collecting the easily volatile gases resulting as the first fraction, he uminum chloride as the second fraction, permitting the coke bed to cool and ll contain all the longest lived radioactive fission products in greatly reduced volume.

  5. Fission fragment driven neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.; Brugger, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    Fissionable uranium formed into a foil is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the presence of deuterium-tritium gas. The resulting fission fragments impart energy to accelerate deuterium and tritium particles which in turn provide approximately 14 MeV neutrons by the reactions t(d,n).sup.4 He and d(t,n).sup.4 He.

  6. Methadone toxicity in a poisoning referral center

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Fatemeh; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist. Findings: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications. Conclusion: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning. PMID:24991620

  7. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  8. Ternary fission of nuclei into comparable fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2015-07-15

    The problem of nuclear fission into three comparable fragments is considered. A mechanism of true ternary fission is proposed. In contrast to sequential fission, where the three fragments arise upon two sequential events of binary fission, the mechanism in question relies on a scenario that originally involves fission into three fragments. This mechanism is driven by a hexadecapole deformation of the fissioning nucleus, in contrast to binary fission associated with quadrupole vibrations of the nuclear surface. The fragment-mass ratios are estimated. The dynamics of formation of collinear fragments and their subsequent motion in opposite directions is traced. The calculated probability of true ternary fission complies with observed values.

  9. Chemical warfare. Nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Holstege, C P; Kirk, M; Sidell, F R

    1997-10-01

    The threat of civilian and military casualties from nerve agent exposure has become a greater concern over the past decade. After rapidly assessing that a nerve agent attack has occurred, emphasis must be placed on decontamination and protection of both rescuers and medical personnel from exposure. The medical system can become rapidly overwhelmed and strong emotional reactions can confuse the clinical picture. Initially, care should first be focused on supportive care, with emphasis toward aggressive airway maintenance and decontamination. Atropine should be titrated, with the goal of therapy being drying of secretions and the resolution of bronchoconstriction and bradycardia. Early administration of pralidoxime chloride maximizes antidotal efficacy. Benzodiazepines, in addition to atropine, should be administered if seizures develop. Early, aggressive medical therapy is the key to prevention of the morbidity and mortality associated with nerve agent poisoning. PMID:9330846

  10. Nuclear Fission Research at IRMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2005-05-24

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) will celebrate its 45th anniversary in 2005. With its 150-MeV Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) and 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator as multi-purpose neutron sources, it served the nuclear physics community for this period.The research in the field of nuclear fission was focused in recent years on both the measurement and calculation of fission cross sections, and the measurement of fission fragment properties.Fission cross sections were determined for 233Pa and 234U; the fission process was studied in the resolved resonance region of 239Pu(n,f) and for 251Cf(nth,f). These measurements derive their interest from accelerator driven systems, the thorium fuel cycle, high temperature reactors, safety issues of current reactors, and basic physics. The measurements are supported by several modeling efforts that aim at improving model codes and nuclear data evaluation.

  11. A threshold for dissipative fission

    SciTech Connect

    Thoennessen, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1993-09-21

    The empirical domain of validity of statistical theory is examined as applied to fission data on pre-fission data on pre-fission neutron, charged particle, and {gamma}-ray multiplicities. Systematics are found of the threshold excitation energy for the appearance of nonstatistical fission. From the data on systems with not too high fissility, the relevant phenomenological parameter is the ratio of the threshold temperature T{sub thresh} to the (temperature-dependent) fission barrier height E{sub Bar}(T). The statistical model reproduces the data for T{sub thresh}/E{sub Bar}(T) < 0.26 {plus_minus} 0.05, but underpredicts the multiplicities at higher T{sub thresh}/E{sub Bar}(T) independent of mass and fissility of the systems.

  12. Self poisoning in Sri Lanka: motivational aspects.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, J; Kodituwakku, G C

    1989-01-01

    Sri Lanka is a developing Asian country with high suicide rate due to self poisoning, related to a high fatality rate. A study of motivational aspects of self poisoning in 97 consecutive patients showed that there is no greater intention of suicide in them than those from the developed countries. Interpersonal disputes involving domestic problems and love affairs are the main precipitating causes. Improving family relations may help in the prevention of self-poisoning. However the impulsive nature of the act might prove prevention a difficult task. PMID:2767925

  13. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well. PMID:16805148

  14. Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.

    1996-10-14

    Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

  15. Lead poisoning in the world and Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, M H; Azizi, F

    2010-04-01

    Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran. PMID:23022790

  16. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  17. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  18. Prompt Fission Neutron Emission in Resonance Fission of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Varapai, Natallia; Zeinalov, Shakir; Oberstedt, Stephan; Serot, Olivier

    2005-05-01

    The prompt neutron emission probability from neutron-induced fission in the resonance region is being investigated at the time-of-flight facility GELINA of the IRMM. A double Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is used as a fission-fragment detector. For the data acquisition of both the fission-fragment signals as well as the neutron detector signals the fast digitization technique has been applied. For the neutron detection, large-volume liquid scintillation detectors from the DEMON collaboration are used. A specialized data analysis program taking advantage of the digital filtering technique has been developed to treat the acquired data. Neutron multiplicity investigations for actinides, especially in resonance neutron-induced fission, are rather scarce. They are, however, important for reactor control and safety issues as well as for understanding the basic physics of the fission process. Fission yield measurements on both 235U and 239Pu without prompt neutron emission coincidence have shown that fluctuation of the fission-fragment mass distribution exists from resonance to resonance, larger in the case of 235U. To possibly explain these observations, the question now is whether the prompt neutron multiplicity shows similar fluctuations with resonance energy.

  19. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. CASE REPORT In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  20. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  1. Lead Poisoning in Remodeling of Old Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bart

    1973-01-01

    An article based on Dr. Muriel D. Wolf's study of elevated blood lead levels in children and adults present during the remodeling of old homes. Lead poisoning examples, symptoms, and precautions are given. (ST)

  2. Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

  3. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning English 鉛毒 - 無形的禍害 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Hmong (Hmoob) Lead Exposure during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding English Raug Lead thaum Cev Xeeb ...

  4. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ... is found throughout the plant, but especially in green potatoes and new sprouts. Never eat potatoes that ...

  5. Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

  6. [Diagnosis and therapy of mushroom poisoning (1)].

    PubMed

    Zilker, T

    1987-04-01

    The diagnosis of mushroom poisoning is based on three principles: the description of the mushroom, the toxicological analysis of the mushroom and, most important, the mushroom syndrome. Mushroom poisoning can be classified according to the lag time between the meal and the onset of symptoms. In this paper we will discuss mushroom poisoning with short and intermediate lag time. With short lag time and a predominance of CNS signs and symptoms the diagnosis is either fly-agaric, pantherina or psilocybin syndrome. Parasympathomimetic signs and symptoms indicate the muscarine syndrome. If--with a lag period of up to four hours--vomiting and diarrhea are predominant, we will find a poisoning with one of the many mushrooms which lead to gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis combined with hemolysis points to a paxillus syndrome. PMID:3586830

  7. Protecting Children from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... monoxide poisoning increases after disasters when gasoline- or diesel-powered generators may be more frequently used to ... can mimic symptoms of sea sickness. Schedule regular engine and exhaust system maintenance. Consider installing a carbon ...

  8. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002870.htm Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Jack-in-the-pulpit is a plant belonging to ...

  9. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  10. Fission yeast septation

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Juan C. G.; Ramos, Mariona; Osumi, Masako; Pérez, Pilar; Ribas, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In animal cells cytokinesis relies on the contraction of an actomyosin ring that pulls the plasma membrane to create a cleavage furrow, whose ingression finally divides the mother cell into two daughter cells. Fungal cells are surrounded by a tough and flexible structure called cell wall, which is considered to be the functional equivalent of the extracellular matrix in animal cells. Therefore, in addition to cleavage furrow ingression, fungal cytokinesis also requires the centripetal formation of a septum wall structure that develops between the dividing cells, whose genesis must be strictly coordinated with both the actomyosin ring closure and plasma membrane ingression. Here we briefly review what is known about the septum structure and composition in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the recent progress about the relationship between septum biosynthesis and actomyosin ring constriction, and the importance of the septum and ring in the steady progression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:27574536

  11. Fission yeast septation.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Juan C G; Ramos, Mariona; Osumi, Masako; Pérez, Pilar; Ribas, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In animal cells cytokinesis relies on the contraction of an actomyosin ring that pulls the plasma membrane to create a cleavage furrow, whose ingression finally divides the mother cell into two daughter cells. Fungal cells are surrounded by a tough and flexible structure called cell wall, which is considered to be the functional equivalent of the extracellular matrix in animal cells. Therefore, in addition to cleavage furrow ingression, fungal cytokinesis also requires the centripetal formation of a septum wall structure that develops between the dividing cells, whose genesis must be strictly coordinated with both the actomyosin ring closure and plasma membrane ingression. Here we briefly review what is known about the septum structure and composition in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the recent progress about the relationship between septum biosynthesis and actomyosin ring constriction, and the importance of the septum and ring in the steady progression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:27574536

  12. Dynamical Aspects of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliman, J.; Itkis, M. G.; Gmuca, Š.

    2008-11-01

    Fission dynamics. Dependence of scission-neutron yield on light-fragment mass for [symbol]=1/2 [et al.]. Dynamics of capture quasifission and fusion-fission competition / L. Stuttgé ... [et al.] -- Fission-fission. The processes of fusion-fission and quasi-fission of superheavy nuclei / M. G. Itkis ... [et al.]. Fission and quasifission in the reactions [symbol]Ca+[symbol]Pb and [symbol]Ni+[symbol]W / G. N. Knyazheva ... [et al.]. Mass-energy characteristics of reactions [symbol]Fe+[symbol][symbol][symbol]266Hs and [symbol]Mg+[symbol]Cm[symbol][symbol]Hs at Coulomb barrier / L. Krupa ... [et al.]. Fusion of heavy ions at extreme sub-barrier energies / Ş. Mişicu and H. Esbensen. Fusion and fission dynamics of heavy nuclear system / V. Zagrebaev and W. Greiner. Time-dependent potential energy for fusion and fission processes / A. V. Karpov ... [et al.] -- Superheavy elements. Advances in the understanding of structure and production mechanisms for superheavy elements / W. Greiner and V. Zagrebaev. Fission barriers of heaviest nuclei / A. Sobiczewski ... [et al.]. Possibility of synthesizing doubly magic superheavy nuclei / Y Aritomo ... [et al.]. Synthesis of superheavy nuclei in [symbol]Ca-induced reactions / V. K. Utyonkov ... [et al.] -- Fragmentation. Production of neutron-rich nuclei in the nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy / M. Veselský. Signals of enlarged core in [symbol]Al / Y. G. Ma ... [et al.] -- Exotic modes. New insight into the fission process from experiments with relativistic heavy-ion beams / K.-H. Schmidt ... [et al.]. New results for the intensity of bimodal fission in binary and ternary spontaneous fission of [symbol]Cf / C. Goodin ... [et al.]. Rare fission modes: study of multi-cluster decays of actinide nuclei / D. V. Kamanin ... [et al.]. Energy distribution of ternary [symbol]-particles in [symbol]Cf(sf) / M. Mutterer ... [et al.]. Preliminary results of experiment aimed at searching for collinear cluster tripartition of

  13. Botulinum toxin. From poison to medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, L E

    1993-01-01

    Although thousands of people in the world each year continue to be poisoned with botulinum toxin-food-borne, infantile, or wound botulism-the neurotoxin is now sufficiently understood to allow it to be used as a medicinal agent to paralyze specific muscles, giving temporary symptomatic relief from a variety of dystonic neurologic disorders. I review some of the epidemiologic, clinical, and pathophysiologic aspects of botulinum toxin and how the neurotoxin may act as a poison or a medicine. Images PMID:8470380

  14. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks. PMID:24966268

  15. Facts and fallacies on industrial poisoning.

    PubMed

    THIENES, C H

    1957-09-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and "compensation neuroses." It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  16. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  17. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  18. [Acute cyanide poisoning in an infant].

    PubMed

    Haasnoot, K; van Vught, A J; Meulenbelt, J; Bergman, L R

    1989-09-01

    An infant of 9 months was admitted to hospital in comatose condition; cyanide poisoning was suspected. This poisoning was caused by the desorption of hydrocyanic acid from building materials after the house had been fumigated with hydrocyanic acid under strict supervision and observed safety measures. Administration of 4-dimethyl-aminophenol, a methaemoglobin inducer, and sodium thiosulphate together with supportive measures, led to complete recovery of the infant, although the general hypotony persisted for a few weeks. PMID:2797290

  19. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

    1986-07-01

    Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

  1. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.

    PubMed

    Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available. PMID:21607993

  2. Acute Plant Poisoning and Antitoxin Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plants are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings - anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant anti-toxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

  3. Fusion, fission, and quasi-fission using TDHF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Sait; Oberacker, Volker

    2014-03-01

    We study fusion, fission, and quasi-fission reactions using the time-dependent Hartee-Fock (TDHF) approach together with the density-constrained TDHF method for fusion. The only input is the Skyrme NN interaction, there are no adjustable parameters. We discuss the identification of quasi-fission in 40Ca+238U, the scission dynamics in symmetric fission of 264Fm, as well as calculating heavy-ion interaction potentials V (R) , mass parameters M (R) , and total fusion cross sections from light to heavy systems. Some of the effects naturally included in these calculations are: neck formation, mass exchange, internal excitations, deformation effects, as well as nuclear alignment for deformed systems. Supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER40975.

  4. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    PubMed

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged < 13 years comprised the largest percent (69.8%) of the cases. The major type of exposure was unintentional ingestion. Ninety-nine types of poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged < 13 years. The greatest number of fatalities were due to ingestion of Manihot esculenta (cassava), primarily due to multi-system organ failure. Children aged < 13 years are at the greatest risk for plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  5. Cluster aspects of binary fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2013-04-01

    With the improved scission-point model the mass distributions are calculated for induced fission of different Hg isotopes with even mass numbers A =180, 184, 188, 192, 196, 198. The calculated mass distribution and mean total kinetic energy of fission fragments are in a good agreement with the existing experimental data. The change in the shape of the mass distribution from asymmetric to more symmetric is revealed with increasing A of the fissioning AHg nucleus, and the reactions are proposed to verify this prediction experimentally.

  6. Biomarkers of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ann; Plakas, Steven M; Flewelling, Leanne J; El Said, Kathleen R; Jester, Edward L E; Granade, Hudson R; White, Kevin D; Dickey, Robert W

    2008-08-01

    Urine specimens from patients diagnosed with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) were examined for biomarkers of brevetoxin intoxication. Brevetoxins were concentrated from urine by using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Urine extracts were fractionated by LC, and fractions analyzed for brevetoxins by ELISA. In subsequent LC-MS/MS analyses, several brevetoxin metabolites of B-type backbone were identified, with elution profiles consistent with those of ELISA. The more abundant brevetoxin metabolites in urine were characterized structurally by LC-MS/MS. With the exception of BTX-3, brevetoxin metabolites in urine differed from those found in shellfish and in shellfish meal remnants. Proposed structures of these major urinary metabolites are methylsulfoxy BTX-3, 27-epoxy BTX-3, and reduced BTX-B5. BTX-3 was found in all specimens examined. BTX-3 concentrations in urine, as determined by LC-MS/MS, correlated well with composite toxin measurements by ELISA (r(2)=0.96). BTX-3 is a useful biomarker for confirmation of clinical diagnosis of NSP. PMID:18582487

  7. Acute poisoning with Tricholoma equestre.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Chwaluk, Paweł; Sut, Michał

    2009-01-01

    Four cases, including three adults and one child, suffering from acute poisoning with Tricholoma equestre were described. The patients had eaten from 100 to 400 grams of the mushroom within a few consecutive meals. After consuming about 1000 grams of Tricholoma equestre for 3-4 days, the subjects developed fatigue, muscle weakness, myalgia, and in two cases acute respiratory failure with the need of respiratorotherapy. Maximal serum CK was 48136 U/L in the adults and 306 U/L in children. Maximal serum levels of AST and ALT were 802 U/L and 446 U/L in adults and 39 U/L, and 56 U/L in a child. All routine biochemical tests were within normal range. No other causes of rhabdomyolysis such as parasitic or viral infections, immune diseases, trauma or exposure to medications were found. Patient, aged 72 yrs., who developed acute respiratory failure, died in the second day of hospitalization. In other patients all the above mentioned symptoms and biochemical abnormalities disappeared from 2 to 3 weeks of hospitalization. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of appearance of rhabdo-myolysis after repeated consumption of large quantities of Tricholoma equestre. PMID:19788144

  8. Quantum Relaxation in Singlet Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichen, Paul; Eaves, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Singlet fission is a multielectron process in organic chromophores, where an initially excited singlet state decays into two independent triplets. First observed in organic semiconductors almost 40 years ago, the phenomenon may be a promising route for increasing yields in next-generation photovoltaics. Early theories that ignored quantum coherence between excited states were capable of explaining the fission process on nanosecond timescales, but recent observations of fission on sub picosecond timescales call several tenants of those theories into question. We present a theory of optical dephasing and decoherence in singlet fission, drawing on ideas from quantum information theory to establish conditions for decoherence and disentanglement between the relevant quantum states on the picosecond timescale.

  9. Background radiation from fission pulses

    SciTech Connect

    England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Brady, M.C.; LaBauve, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    Extensive source terms for beta, gamma, and neutrons following fission pulses are presented in various tabular and graphical forms. Neutron results from a wide range of fissioning nuclides (42) are examined and detailed information is provided for four fuels: /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 239/Pu; these bracket the range of the delayed spectra. Results at several cooling (decay) times are presented. For ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. spectra, only /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu results are given; fission-product data are currently inadequate for other fuels. The data base consists of all known measured data for individual fission products extensively supplemented with nuclear model results. The process is evolutionary, and therefore, the current base is summarized in sufficient detail for users to judge its quality. Comparisons with recent delayed neutron experiments and total ..beta../sup -/ and ..gamma.. decay energies are included. 27 refs., 47 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  11. Future Scenarios for Fission Based Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S.

    2005-04-01

    The coming century will see the exhaustion of standard fossil fuels, coal, gas and oil, which today represent 75% of the world energy production. Moreover, their use will have caused large-scale emission of greenhouse gases (GEG), and induced global climate change. This problem is exacerbated by a growing world energy demand. In this context, nuclear power is the only GEG-free energy source available today capable of responding significantly to this demand. Some scenarios consider a nuclear energy production of around 5 Gtoe in 2050, wich would represent a 20% share of the world energy supply. Present reactors generate energy from the fission of U-235 and require around 200 tons of natural Uranium to produce 1GWe.y of energy, equivalent to the fission of one ton of fissile material. In a scenario of a significant increase in nuclear energy generation, these standard reactors will consume the whole of the world's estimated Uranium reserves in a few decades. However, natural Uranium or Thorium ore, wich are not themselves fissile, can produce a fissile material after a neutron capture ( 239Pu and 233U respectively). In a breeder reactor, the mass of fissile material remains constant, and the fertile ore is the only material to be consumed. In this case, only 1 ton of natural ore is needed to produce 1GWe.y. Thus, the breeding concept allows optimal use of fertile ore and development of sustainable nuclear energy production for several thousand years into the future. Different sustainable nuclear reactor concepts are studied in the international forum "generation IV". Different types of coolant (Na, Pb and He) are studied for fast breeder reactors based on the Uranium cycle. The thermal Thorium cycle requires the use of a liquid fuel, which can be reprocessed online in order to extract the neutron poisons. This paper presents these different sustainable reactors, based on the Uranium or Thorium fuel cycles and will compare the different options in term of fissile

  12. Superheavy nuclei and fission barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing-Nan; Zhao, Jie; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    In this chapter, we will present relativistic mean field (RMF) description of heavy and superheavy nuclei (SHN). We will discuss the shell structure and magic numbers in the mass region of SHN, binding energies and α decay Q values, shapes of ground states and potential energy surfaces and fission barriers. We particularly focus on the multidimensionally-constrained covariant density functional theories (CDFT) and the applications of CDFT to the study of exotic nuclear shapes and fission barriers.

  13. Energy dependence of fission observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paşca, Horia

    2016-01-01

    The mass, charge and isotopic distributions of fission fragments are studied within an improved scission-point statistical model in the reaction 235U+n at different energies of the incident neutron. The available experimental data are well reproduced and the energy-dependencies of the observable characteristics of fission are predicted for future experiments. The calculated mass distribution of 238U+n is also compared with experimental data.

  14. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior. PMID:25458111

  15. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  16. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  17. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. . Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. . Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  18. Nicotine replacement products: poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Nicotine is widely used in smoking cessation aids. They are marketed in many forms, including: chewing gum, sublingual tablets, lozenges, transdermal patches, cartridges for oral inhalation, and mouth spray. French poison control and toxico-vigilance centres identified 318 cases of exposure to nicotine replacement products in children under the age of 10 years between 2000 and 2010. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A U.S. analysis identified 1768 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 6 years involving smokeless tobacco products, reported between 2006 and 2008.84% of these cases occurred in children under the age of 3 years. The first signs of nicotine poisoning are gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and neuropsychological (tremor of the extremities). With higher doses, these effects are rapidly followed by loss of consciousness, convulsions or respiratory failure. In children, poisoning can occur after ingestion of 1 mg of nicotine per kilogram of body weight. A dose of this magnitude is sometimes fatal in adults. Most cases of poisoning involving transdermal patches occur when a child finds an unused patch, or a used patch that an adult has discarded in a bin without taking proper precautions. Sometimes they involve patches that have become detached from an adult's skin. In practice, it is important to warn adults using smoking cessation aids containing nicotine that these products are dangerous PMID:24926513

  19. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety. PMID:25876709

  20. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Behal, Niharika; Wong, Alan; Mantara, Ruzly; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-02-01

    There are over 2 million human exposure cases reported to United States poison centers annually. Much of the data involves exposure through ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, ocular, or parenteral routes. There is limited data characterizing exposure via atypical routes. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System Database for a 24-month period from January 2012 to December 2013 for poison exposure that occurred through the otic, vaginal, or rectal route. There were a total of 634 cases involving single-route and single-substance atypical poison exposure. There were 287 (45%) cases of otic exposure, 190 (30.0%) cases of vaginal exposure, and 157 (25%) cases of rectal exposure. Five hundred forty (85%) of the cases were unintentional. Gasoline exposure through the otic route occurred in 83 (13.1%) cases, followed by hydrogen peroxide (4.7%), acetaminophen (3.8%), and miconazole (2.7%). Adverse effects occurred in 336 (53%) cases. No deaths were reported. The most common treatment was observation only, occurring in 396 (62.4%) cases. The majority of the cases did not warrant hospital evaluation (73.5%). This is the first retrospective characterization study of atypical routes of poison exposure. These results may provide education to providers and the public regarding risks of exposure to substances through atypical routes. PMID:26250476

  1. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  2. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Beyer, W.N.; Mateo, R.

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  3. Possible role for anisodamine in organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Eisenkraft, Arik; Falk, Avshalom

    2016-06-01

    In cases of organophosphate poisoning, patients are treated with a combination of antidotes. In addition to these poison-directed antidotes, patients may require extra oxygen and artificial ventilation; other modalities may also be needed due to the wide range of toxic effects. Anisodamine is a belladonna alkaloid, and like other drugs from this family is non subtype-selective muscarinic, and a nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonist, which has been employed in traditional Chinese medicine. As a muscarinic antagonist, it displays similar pharmacological effects to atropine and scopolamine. However, anisodamine is not only less potent than atropine and scopolamine but also less toxic. Current in vitro and animal model studies have demonstrated that anisodamine has protective effects in a variety of diseases. Organophosphate poisoning involves not only the central and peripheral nervous systems, but also the cardiac and respiratory systems, as well as activation of inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. Therefore, the anticholinergic and additional activities of anisodamine appear to be relevant and justify its consideration as an addition to the existing remedies. However, more research is needed, as at present data on the role of anisodamine in the management of organophosphate poisoning are limited. Here, we review the beneficial effects of anisodamine on processes relevant to organophosphate poisoning. PMID:27010563

  4. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  5. Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

  6. A review of lead poisoning in swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

  7. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J.; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick II, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B. Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  8. Fatal parathion poisoning in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R. A.; Forthal, D. N.; Hill, R. H.; Demby, A.

    1987-01-01

    In May and June 1986, 49 persons in Sierra Leone were acutely poisoned by the organothiophosphate insecticide, parathion. Fourteen people died. Illness occurred in three episodes at two different locations that were 44 km apart. A study of 21 cases and 22 household controls was undertaken to explore which factors were associated with the development of the symptoms. Cases were more likely than controls to have eaten bread in the 4 hours before becoming ill (odds ratio, 12.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-83.8). Scrapings of residue from the floor of the truck that had brought the wheat flour from the mill to the general store where the baker purchased it were positive for parathion, suggesting that the flour had been contaminated during transport. Pesticide poisoning is a common problem in the developing world, and public health measures such as restricting the use of parathion may help to prevent fatal poisonings. PMID:3501344

  9. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  10. Prognostic Factors in Cholinesterase Inhibitor Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sun, In O; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kwang Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphates and carbamates are insecticides that are associated with high human mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning. Material/Methods This study included 92 patients with CI poisoning in the period from January 2005 to August 2013. We divided these patients into 2 groups (survivors vs. non-survivors), compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed the predictors of survival. Results The mean age of the included patients was 56 years (range, 16–88). The patients included 57 (62%) men and 35 (38%) women. When we compared clinical characteristics between the survivor group (n=81, 88%) and non-survivor group (n=11, 12%), there were no differences in renal function, pancreatic enzymes, or serum cholinesterase level, except for serum bicarbonate level and APACHE II score. The serum bicarbonate level was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (12.45±2.84 vs. 18.36±4.73, P<0.01). The serum APACHE II score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (24.36±5.22 vs. 12.07±6.67, P<0.01). The development of pneumonia during hospitalization was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (n=9, 82% vs. n=31, 38%, P<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum bicarbonate concentration, APACHE II score, and pneumonia during hospitalization were the important prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Conclusions Serum bicarbonate and APACHE II score are useful prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Furthermore, pneumonia during hospitalization was also important in predicting prognosis in patients with CI poisoning. Therefore, prevention and active treatment of pneumonia is important in the management of patients with CI poisoning. PMID:26411989

  11. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  12. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: approximately twice the efficiency if the fission fragment energy can be directly converted into electricity; reduction of the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collection of the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem.

  13. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) consists of 160 BF{sub 2} crystals with equal solid-angle coverage. DANCE is a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter and designed to study the neutron-capture reactions on small quantities of radioactive and rare stable nuclei. These reactions are important for the radiochemistry applications and modeling the element production in stars. The recognition of capture event is made by the summed {gamma}-ray energy which is equivalent of the reaction Q-value and unique for a given capture reaction. For a selective group of actinides, where the neutron-induced fission reaction competes favorably with the neutron capture reaction, additional signature is needed to distinguish between fission and capture {gamma} rays for the DANCE measurement. This can be accomplished by introducing a detector system to tag fission fragments and thus establish a unique signature for the fission event. Once this system is implemented, one has the opportunity to study not only the capture but also fission reactions. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to {alpha} particles, which is important for experiments with {alpha}-emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. A PPAC with an ingenious design was fabricated in 2006 by integrating amplifiers into the target assembly. However, this counter was proved to be unsuitable for this application because of issues related to the stability of amplifiers and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. Therefore, a new design is needed. A LLNL proposal to develop a new PPAC for DANCE was funded by NA22 in FY09. The design goal is to minimize the mass for the proposed counter

  14. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y S

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

  15. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  16. Pharmacologic Strategies for Treatment of Poisonings.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Eric; Gooch, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    Poisoning is the leading cause of injury-related mortality in the United States. Data suggest that nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals is increasing, along with a proportional increase in subsequent adverse events. The widespread use of illegal drugs contributes to the challenge, because these drugs may produce a wide array of clinical presentations that warrant time-critical recognition and treatment. Common legal and illegal poisonings highlighting clinical presentations in terms of toxidromes as a means of categorically recognizing these emergencies is the focus of this article. To optimize outcomes for situations such as these, pharmacologic considerations are discussed and explored. PMID:26897424

  17. Kerosene poisoning in children in Iraq.

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, N. A.; Abdulallah, Z. A.

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and three children with kerosene poisoning were studied. The majority of the patients were under five years of age and included a newborn baby. More patients were seen in spring and fewer in winter months. Most of the patients were children of poor families living in overcrowded conditions. Negligence and ignorance were the main causes of poisoning. Respiratory and central nervous systems were mainly involved. Chest X-ray abnormalities were frequently seen. The patients were treated symptomatically. Only one patient died, he had been in a coma on admission to the hospital. All other patients had rapid and complete recoveries. PMID:7567734

  18. Resuscitative challenges in nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ben Abraham, Ron; Weinbroum, Avi A

    2003-09-01

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction such as nerve agents has become real since last year. The medical community has established protocols for the rapid evacuation and decontamination of affected civilians. However, protocols for resuscitative measures or acute perioperative care in cases of life-saving surgical interventions in toxic-traumatized casualties are still lacking. The database concerning the effects of nerve agent poisoning in humans is limited, and is largely based on reports of unintentional exposures to pesticide organophosphate poisoning and similar chemical substances. In this review, we summarize the knowledge on the possible pharmacological interactions between nerve agents and acute care. PMID:12972890

  19. [Local complications after poisonous snake bite].

    PubMed

    Kuzbari, R; Seidler, D; Deutinger, M

    1994-01-01

    The case of a zoo keeper who was bitten on the left finger by a venomous snake (Vipera xanthina) is reported. The administration of antivenom prevented the development of systemic poisoning but had no effect on the extent of the local complications. A compartment syndrome with a concomitant severe reaction at the bite site required fasciotomy of the upper and lower arm. The extensor tendon of the involved finger ruptured spontaneously, many weeks after wound healing was completed. Therefore, delayed local complications following snake bites may occur, even if signs of systemic poisoning are missing. PMID:8150389

  20. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    PubMed

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases. PMID:25702816

  1. Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most common pediatric health problems is childhood lead poisoning. This report examines the preventable problem of lead poisoning. The report describes childhood lead poisoning as both a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible, and as a housing problem. More than half the housing units in Rhode Island…

  2. Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Disease for the History Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Herbert L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the mounting evidence for the neurological damage of childhood lead poisoning. Argues that ignoring lead poisoning is more expensive than preventing it. Reviews a recent plan to eradicate lead poisoning and the sociological factors that may impede its implementation. (CJS)

  3. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Developing Prevention Programs and Mobilizing Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook describes in detail the program requirements for effective childhood lead poisoning prevention programs at the local level based on the…

  4. Statistics and Epidemiology of Lead Poisoning (FY 72-L1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, John H., Jr.; And Others

    This report is the first in a quarterly series which will contain statistics and epidemiologic notes on lead poisoning at both the national and local levels. This report contains (a) statistics on childhood lead poisoning; (b) a status report on the Community Lead Poisoning Data System, which was designed to assist local lead control programs and…

  5. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700... PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging..., using, or ingesting household substances, the Commission has determined that packaging designed...

  6. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black.... The text, class number, and inner border must be black. ... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON...

  7. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black.... The text, class number, and inner border must be black. ... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON...

  8. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide chemical, that is also a food additive will be... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious substance... added poisonous or deleterious substance that is also a pesticide chemical will ordinarily be...

  9. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  10. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  11. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  12. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  13. 21 CFR 109.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 109.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  14. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  15. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  16. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  17. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  18. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  19. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  20. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  1. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  2. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  3. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  4. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  5. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  6. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  7. Fission product retention in newly discovered organic-rich natural fission reactors at Oklo and Bangombe, Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, B.; Rigali, M.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of naturally occurring fission reactors in the rock strata of the Paleoproterozoic Francevillian Basin in the Republic of Gabon in equatorial West Africa led to several programs to define migration and/or retention of uranium and fissiogenic isotopes from/in the natural reactor zones. Although much understanding has been gained, new insight is needed regarding the chemical and physical parameters that control movement and retention of fission products over almost two billion years from/in the natural reactors. Seventeen known natural fission reactors sustained criticality for 0.1 to 1 million years in hydrothermally altered sedimentary rocks 1968 +/- 50 million years ago. These natural nuclear reactors attained criticality because of high concentrations of uranium in small pockets in uranium ores, the lack of neutron poisons, and because at the time they reached criticality, the abundance of [sup 235]U was five times greater than it is today. Water acted as a moderator, and temperature in the natural reactors was between 160 and 360[degrees]C. Both the uranium-rich pockets and the uranium ore bodies in which these pockets are located were formed when aqueous solutions moving through highly fractured zones in the Francevillian sedimentary rocks met organic-rich sediments. This resulted in the reduction of U(VI) in the dissolved uranyl ions to U(IV), causing the precipitation of pitchblende and uraninite. It has been proposed that between 2.2 and 1.9 billion years ago, the earth's atmosphere experienced a remarkable temporary rise in O[sub 2] content; this event may account for the uranium-bearing, oxidizing aqueous solutions in the Francevillian rocks.

  8. Singlet exciton fission in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Brian J.; Musser, Andrew J.; Beljonne, David; Friend, Richard H.

    2013-12-01

    Singlet exciton fission, the spin-conserving process that produces two triplet excited states from one photoexcited singlet state, is a means to circumvent the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells. Although the process through which singlet fission occurs is not well characterized, some local order is thought to be necessary for intermolecular coupling. Here, we report a triplet yield of 200% and triplet formation rates approaching the diffusion limit in solutions of bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl (TIPS)) pentacene. We observe a transient bound excimer intermediate, formed by the collision of one photoexcited and one ground-state TIPS-pentacene molecule. The intermediate breaks up when the two triplets separate to each TIPS-pentacene molecule. This efficient system is a model for future singlet-fission materials and for disordered device components that produce cascades of excited states from sunlight.

  9. Singlet exciton fission in solution.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brian J; Musser, Andrew J; Beljonne, David; Friend, Richard H

    2013-12-01

    Singlet exciton fission, the spin-conserving process that produces two triplet excited states from one photoexcited singlet state, is a means to circumvent the Shockley-Queisser limit in single-junction solar cells. Although the process through which singlet fission occurs is not well characterized, some local order is thought to be necessary for intermolecular coupling. Here, we report a triplet yield of 200% and triplet formation rates approaching the diffusion limit in solutions of bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl (TIPS)) pentacene. We observe a transient bound excimer intermediate, formed by the collision of one photoexcited and one ground-state TIPS-pentacene molecule. The intermediate breaks up when the two triplets separate to each TIPS-pentacene molecule. This efficient system is a model for future singlet-fission materials and for disordered device components that produce cascades of excited states from sunlight. PMID:24256865

  10. Ternary fission of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, M.; Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Manimaran, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ternary fission of superheavy nuclei is studied within the three-cluster model potential energy surfaces (PESs). Due to shell effects, the stability of superheavy nuclei has been predicted to be associated with Z =114 , 120, and 126 for protons and N =184 for neutrons. Taking some representative nuclei we have extended the ternary fission studies to superheavy nuclei. We adopted two minimization procedures to minimize the potential and considered different arrangements of the fragments. The PES from one-dimensional minimization reveals a strong cluster region favoring various ternary breakups for an arrangement in which the lightest fragment is kept at the center. The PES obtained from two-dimensional minimization reveals strong preference of ternary fragmentation in the true ternary fission region. Though the dominant decay mode of superheavy nuclei is α decay, the α -accompanied ternary breakup is found to be a nonfavorable one. Further, the prominent ternary combinations are found to be associated with the neutron magic number.

  11. Species susceptibility to locoweed poisoning and evaluation of chicks as a small animal model of poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweed poisoning has largely been attributed to the effects of mannosidase inhibiting swainsonine. However, there are many plants that contain mixtures of swainsonine and other glycosidase inhibiting alkaloids such as calystegines, castanospermine, and other minor alkaloids or metabolites like le...

  12. Heavy-element fission barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.; Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Bengtsson, Ragnar; Uhrenholt, Henrik; Angstromberg, Sven

    2009-06-15

    We present calculations of fission properties for heavy elements. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic finite-range liquid-drop model with a 2002 parameter set. For each nucleus we have calculated the potential energy in three different shape parametrizations: (1) for 5 009 325 different shapes in a five-dimensional deformation space given by the three-quadratic-surface parametrization, (2) for 10 850 different shapes in a three-dimensional deformation space spanned by {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {gamma} in the Nilsson perturbed-spheroid parametrization, supplemented by a densely spaced grid in {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 3}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {epsilon}{sub 6} for axially symmetric deformations in the neighborhood of the ground state, and (3) an axially symmetric multipole expansion of the shape of the nuclear surface using {beta}{sub 2}, {beta}{sub 3}, {beta}{sub 4}, and {beta}{sub 6} for intermediate deformations. For a fissioning system, it is always possible to define uniquely one saddle or fission threshold on the optimum trajectory between the ground state and separated fission fragments. We present such calculated barrier heights for 1585 nuclei from Z=78 to Z=125. Traditionally, actinide barriers have been characterized in terms of a ''double-humped'' structure. Following this custom we present calculated energies of the first peak, second minimum, and second peak in the barrier for 135 actinide nuclei from Th to Es. However, for some of these nuclei which exhibit a more complex barrier structure, there is no unique way to extract a double-humped structure from the calculations. We give examples of such more complex structures, in particular the structure of the outer barrier region near {sup 232}Th and the occurrence of multiple fission modes. Because our complete results are too extensive to present in a paper of this type, our aim here is limited: (1) to fully present our model and the methods for determining the

  13. Search for Singlet Fission Chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Havlas, Z.; Akdag, A.; Smith, M. B.; Dron, P.; Johnson, J. C.; Nozik, A. J.; Michl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Singlet fission, in which a singlet excited chromophore shares its energy with a ground-state neighbor and both end up in their triplet states, is of potential interest for solar cells. Only a handful of compounds, mostly alternant hydrocarbons, are known to perform efficiently. In view of the large number of conditions that a successful candidate for a practical cell has to meet, it appears desirable to extend the present list of high performers to additional classes of compounds. We have (i) identified design rules for new singlet fission chromophores and for their coupling to covalent dimers, (ii) synthesized them, and (iii) evaluated their performance as neat solids or covalent dimers.

  14. Ballistic piston fissioning plasma experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. E.; Schneider, R. T.; Thom, K.; Lalos, G. T.

    1971-01-01

    The production of fissioning uranium plasma samples such that the fission fragment stopping distance is less than the dimensions of the plasma is approached by using a ballistic piston device for the compression of uranium hexafluoride. The experimental apparatus is described. At room temperature the gun can be loaded up to 100 torr UF6 partial pressure, but at compression a thousand fold increase of pressure can be obtained at a particle density on the order of 10 to the 19th power per cu cm. Limited spectral studies of UF6 were performed while obtaining the pressure-volume data. The results obtained and their implications are discussed.

  15. Velocity fluctuations of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Carmona, Belén Martínez; Martínez, Jose L. Muñoz

    2016-02-01

    We propose event by event velocity fluctuations of nuclear fission fragments as an additional interesting observable that gives access to the nuclear temperature in an independent way from spectral measurements and relates the diffusion and friction coefficients for the relative fragment coordinate in Kramers-like models (in which some aspects of fission can be understood as the diffusion of a collective variable through a potential barrier). We point out that neutron emission by the heavy fragments can be treated in effective theory if corrections to the velocity distribution are needed.

  16. PRODUCING ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Segre, E.; Kennedy, J.W.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-10-13

    This patent broadly discloses the production of plutonium by the neutron bombardment of uranium to produce neptunium which decays to plutonium, and the fissionability of plutonium by neutrons, both fast and thermal, to produce energy and fission products.

  17. Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2012-06-19

    The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

  18. Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2012-06-01

    The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

  19. Predicting Outcome in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning with a Poison Severity Score or the Glasgow Coma Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davies, James O. J.; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning kills around 200,000 people each year, principally due to self poisoning in the Asia-Pacific region. Aim: We wished to assess whether patients at high risk of death could be identified accurately using clinical parameters soon after hospital admission. Design: We evaluated the usefulness of the International Program on Chemical Safety Poison Severity Score (IPCS PSS) and the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) prospectively for predicting death in patients poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides. Methods: Data were collected as part of a multicentre cohort study in Sri Lanka. Study doctors saw all patients on admission, collecting data on pulse, blood pressure, pupil size, need for intubation, and GCS. Results: 1365 patients with a history of acute organophosphorus poisoning were included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the IPCS PSS and GCS on admission. The IPCS PSS and GCS had similar ROC area under the curves (AUC) and best cut points as determined by Youden's index (AUC/sensitivity/specificity 0.81/0.78/0.79 for IPCS PSS ≥ grade 2 and 0.84/0.79/0.79 for GCS ≤13). The predictive value varied with the pesticide ingested, being more accurate for dimethoate poisoning and less accurate for fenthion poisoning (GCS AUC 0.91 compared to 0.69). Conclusions: GCS and the IPCS PSS were similarly effective at predicting outcome. Patients presenting with a GCS ≤ 13 need intensive monitoring and treatment. However, the identity of the organophosphate must be taken into account since the half of all patients who died from fenthion poisoning only had mild symptoms at presentation. PMID:18319295

  20. Computer program FPIP-REV calculates fission product inventory for U-235 fission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. S.; Call, D. W.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program calculates fission product inventories and source strengths associated with the operation of U-235 fueled nuclear power reactor. It utilizes a fission-product nuclide library of 254 nuclides, and calculates the time dependent behavior of the fission product nuclides formed by fissioning of U-235.

  1. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Jennifer K; Duchin, Jeffrey S; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

    2013-08-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks. PMID:23876232

  2. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  3. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  4. Selected Bibliography on Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S., Comp.

    This comprehensive bibliography was prepared in response to the growing interest in the problem of childhood lead poisoning. Most of the papers noted are from the pediatric literature and include only those published in English. A limited number of papers on experiments in laboratory animals are cited. Documents are grouped under several general…

  5. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  6. Poisonous Plants of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  7. Food poisoning--four unusual episodes.

    PubMed

    Begg, R C

    1975-07-23

    Four unusual outbreaks of food poisoning occurring in the Dunedin Health District during the period 1971-1973 are described. These involved a contaminated cordial, a death associated with a Clostridium perfringens outbreak, salmonellosis and infectious hepatitis in persons eating uncooked shellfish and symptoms associated with the ingestion of a normally edible fish--the trumpeter. PMID:170567

  8. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning associated with narghile use.

    PubMed

    Cavus, Umut Yucel; Rehber, Zehra Hamiyet; Ozeke, Ozcan; Ilkay, Erdogan

    2010-05-01

    The case history is presented of a healthy 25-year-old man who was admitted to hospital after two syncopal episodes caused by carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking narghile. Clinicians should be aware of this association when they evaluate syncope in the emergency department, especially in narghile users. PMID:20442182

  10. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    PubMed

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  11. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  12. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

  13. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  14. Important poisonous plants of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

  15. Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

  16. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  17. "The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

  18. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... placard must be white. The symbol, text, class number and inner border must be black. The word “TOXIC”...

  19. Acute endosulfan poisoning: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo

    2009-05-01

    Endosulfan is a widely used insecticide that is associated with a high fatality rate in humans when ingested accidentally or with the aim of suicide. However, the literature concerning human endosulfan exposure is limited to case reports. Thus, we sought to 1) describe the clinical features of patients with acute endosulfan poisoning and 2) identify independent factors to predict patients' outcome. Fifty-two patients who presented with acute endosulfan poisoning between January 2001 and January 2007 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Sixteen (30.7%) of the 52 patients died, and 48 patients experienced seizures. Endosulfan poisoning caused the hypotension and the abnormalities on electrocardiogram at presentation. Over half of the patients developed complications, such as rhabdomyolysis, hepatic toxicity, and hypotension. These complications resolved without sequelae in the survival group. Refractory status epilepticus was the most common cause of death in this series (75.0%). Amount ingested being greater than 35 g of endosulfan was the most found to be an independent variable that predicted patient mortality. Patients with this risk factor must be treated aggressively during the early stage of endosulfan poisoning. PMID:19755461

  20. Status epilepticus: An association with pyrethroid poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Mamta; Usha, Ganapathy; Kumath, Manish

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a 35 year old male who presented with seizures after consuming 4-5 bottles of “ALL-OUT” a commercial composition of pyrethroid used as insecticides. Our case report supports authors reporting an association of pyrethroid poisoning with status epilepticus. PMID:23983421

  1. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sprouts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the ... green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ...

  2. Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

  3. Acute renal dysfunction in acetaminophen poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mour, Girish; Feinfeld, Donald A; Caraccio, Thomas; McGuigan, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Although acetaminophen (APAP)-associated liver injury is well recognized, there are few reports describing APAP nephrotoxicity, and most of them are single cases. It has also been suggested that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), used to treat the hepatotoxicity, may be harmful to the kidneys. To examine this contention and to determine whether renal involvement in APAP poisoning is at all common, we analyzed the incidence and outcome of acute renal dysfunction in patients hospitalized for APAP overdose reported to our regional poison center over a year. Eleven APAP-poisoned patients had elevated liver function tests; nine of them had azotemia. Those with higher AST levels tended to be younger and to have lower APAP levels on admission. Two patients with acute renal injury died after admission. The other seven patients with renal dysfunction recovered in 2 to 7 days. Six of these received NAC; their mean serum creatinine fell from 3.2 +/- 2.0 versus 1.7 +/- 0.9 mg/dL (p < 0.05). We conclude that acute renal failure is not uncommon in APAP poisoning and appears to be unrelated to the degree of liver injury. NAC therapy did not seem to worsen nephrotoxicity. PMID:16060123

  4. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePlus

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to ... prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours ...

  5. Process for treating fission waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

    1981-11-17

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  6. Superfluid fission dynamics with microscopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simenel, C.; Scamps, G.; Lacroix, D.; Umar, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progresses in the description of the latter stage of nuclear fission are reported. Dynamical effects during the descent of the potential towards scission and in the formation of the fission fragments are studied with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach with dynamical pairing correlations at the BCS level. In particular, this approach is used to compute the final kinetic energy of the fission fragments. Comparison with experimental data on the fission of 258Fm are made.

  7. Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell

    PubMed Central

    Greene, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

    2005-01-01

    The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. PMID:15811881

  8. Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide

  9. Arrow poisons in south Asia. Part 1. Arrow poisons in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Bisset, N G; Mazars, G

    1984-10-01

    The use of arrow poisons in ancient India is discussed. While it is possible that Mesolithic hunting communities may have applied poison to their arrows, passages in the Rg Veda and Atharva Veda indicate its use in warfare. The meaning of the word -ala, used in the Rg Veda to denote the poison smeared on the arrowheads, is examined; but the available evidence, while almost certainly excluding a mineral (arsenical) source, does not allow a conclusion to be drawn between an animal and/or plant origin. Certain hymns in the Atharva Veda point to aconite tubers as one source. Later Sanskrit (and Buddhist) literature shows that poisoned arrows continued to be used and that a second source of poison was (putrefying) snakes--a source confirmed by an account in the classical literature of Alexander the Great's campaign in western India. Detailed descriptions of the symptoms and methods of treatment of wounds caused by poisoned arrows are to be found in the Sanskrit medical literature. PMID:6394907

  10. Etching fission tracks in zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.

    1969-01-01

    A new technique has been developed whereby fission tracks can be etched in zircon with a solution of sodium hydroxide at 220??C. Etching time varied between 15 minutes and 5 hours. Colored zircon required less etching time than the colorless varieties.

  11. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-04

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  12. Paraquat Poisoning: Analysis of an Uncommon Cause of Fatal Poisoning from Manipal, South India

    PubMed Central

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Bakkannavar, Shankar M.; Acharya, Preetham R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Morbidity and mortality related to acute poisoning is a serious health concern worldwide. Paraquat is known to be responsible for a number of acute poisonings in south India. Aim: The study aims at presenting the various aspects of paraquat poisoning that include patient profile, clinical presentation, end-organ complications, and observations at autopsy. Materials and Methods: The present registry-based retrospective research was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India. All the confirmed cases of paraquat poisoning were included in the present study. The postmortem and hospital records of these patients were retrieved and relevant information was collected and analyzed. Results: Paraquat poisonings constituted 14.4% of the total poisoning fatalities during the study period. Equal number of males and females were observed in the present study. The victims were aged between 17 and 65 years (mean ± SD = 30.2 ± 13.1 years). Manner of death was suicidal in 92.9% cases. Common presenting symptoms after ingestion of paraquat included vomiting, followed by difficulty in breathing. In the present series, overall survival post paraquat consumption ranged between 10 h and 25 days. Half of the victims died within 2 days of consumption of poison. The underlying cause of death included acute renal failure (ARF), adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan failure (MOF), acute liver failure, etc., In all the cases, brain was congested and edematous, and visceral organs showed marked congestion at autopsy. Lungs were congested with marked edema in 10 cases. Conclusion: It is recommended that the availability of this highly toxic substance be restricted so as to prevent its misuse as a method of suicide. PMID:26862257

  13. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep spare or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start - addressing this issue through proper system design is straightforward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission system. While space fission system were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if Ae are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems.

  14. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M.; Van Dyke, M. K.; Godfroy, T. J.; Pedersen, K. W.; Martin, J. J.; Dickens, R.; Williams, E.; Harper, R.; Salvail, P.; Hrbud, I.

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep space or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start. Addressing this issue through proper system design is straight-forward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission systems. While space fission systems were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if we are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, and others, has conducted preliminary research related to a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). An unfueled core has been fabricated by LANL, and resistance heaters used to verify predicted core thermal performance by closely mimicking heat from fission. The core is designed to use only established nuclear technology and be highly testable. In FY01 an energy conversion system and thruster will be coupled to the core, resulting in an 'end-to-end' nuclear electric propulsion demonstrator being tested using resistance heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. Results of the SAFE test program will be presented. The applicability

  15. A fission fragment detector for correlated fission output studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Tovesson, F.; Couture, A.; Duke, D. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Meharchand, R.; Meierbachtol, K.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Perdue, B.; Richman, D.; Shields, D.

    2014-09-01

    A digital data acquisition system has been combined with a double Frisch gridded ionization chamber for use at both moderated and unmoderated neutron sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science (LANSCE) facility. The high efficiency of the instrument combined with intense LANSCE beams and new acquisition system permits fission output measurements across 11 orders of magnitude incident neutron energy. The acquisition and analysis system is presented along with the first in-beam performance tests of the setup.

  16. DSP Algorithms for Fission Fragment and Prompt Fission Neutron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Fabry, I.

    2009-10-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are in high demand for modern nuclear fission investigation due to importance of increase the accuracy of fissile nuclear data for new generation of nuclear power stations. DSP algorithms for fission fragment (FF) and prompt fission neutron (PFN) spectroscopy are described in the present work. The twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber (GTIC) is used to measure the kinetic energy-, mass- and angular distributions of the FF in the 252Cf(SF) reaction. Along with the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurement the correlation between neutron emission and FF mass and energy is investigated. The TOF is measured between common cathode of the GTIC and the neutron detector (ND) pulses. Waveform digitizers (WFD) having 12 bit amplitude resolution and 100 MHz sampling frequency are used for the detector pulse sampling. DSP algorithms are developed as recursive procedures to perform the signal processing, similar to those available in various nuclear electronics modules, such as constant fraction discriminator (CFD), pulse shape discriminator (PSD), peak-sensitive analogue-to-digital converter (pADC) and pulse shaping amplifier (PSA). To measure the angle between FF and the cathode plane normal to the GTIC a new algorithm is developed having advantage over the traditional analogue pulse processing schemes. Algorithms are tested by comparing the numerical simulation of the data analysis of the 252Cf(SF) reaction with data available from literature.

  17. DSP Algorithms for Fission Fragment and Prompt Fission Neutron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Fabry, I.

    2009-10-29

    Digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are in high demand for modern nuclear fission investigation due to importance of increase the accuracy of fissile nuclear data for new generation of nuclear power stations. DSP algorithms for fission fragment (FF) and prompt fission neutron (PFN) spectroscopy are described in the present work. The twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber (GTIC) is used to measure the kinetic energy-, mass- and angular distributions of the FF in the {sup 252}Cf(SF) reaction. Along with the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurement the correlation between neutron emission and FF mass and energy is investigated. The TOF is measured between common cathode of the GTIC and the neutron detector (ND) pulses. Waveform digitizers (WFD) having 12 bit amplitude resolution and 100 MHz sampling frequency are used for the detector pulse sampling. DSP algorithms are developed as recursive procedures to perform the signal processing, similar to those available in various nuclear electronics modules, such as constant fraction discriminator (CFD), pulse shape discriminator (PSD), peak-sensitive analogue-to-digital converter (pADC) and pulse shaping amplifier (PSA). To measure the angle between FF and the cathode plane normal to the GTIC a new algorithm is developed having advantage over the traditional analogue pulse processing schemes. Algorithms are tested by comparing the numerical simulation of the data analysis of the {sup 252}Cf(SF) reaction with data available from literature.

  18. Bright fission: singlet fission into a pair of emitting states.

    PubMed

    Casanova, David

    2015-06-01

    This paper reintroduces and explores the generation of two bright states from a single photon via a singlet fission mechanism in organic materials. This particular photophysical process is labeled here as bright fission (BF). The central part of the study is devoted to set the theoretical foundations of BF by discussing possible electronic mechanisms, the role of different excited states with various physical nature, the presence of competing deactivation channels, and the possible requirements for the BF viability. In a second part, some of the properties related to BF are computationally explored in anthracene. The analysis of computed high-lying excited states identifies several optical transitions as good candidates to trigger BF in anthracene. The approximation of excitonic couplings of these high energy levels to other electronic states within the same energy range suggests possible paths to populate electronic configurations potentially able to split in two independent spin singlets, i.e. singlet-singlet states. The study also explores the electronic structure of the energetically lowest singlet-singlet states in anthracene dimers and discusses the presence of charge transfer configurations and their relation to the singlet-singlet manifold. The computational results suggest fast relaxation to the lowest singlet-singlet state, from which the excitonic fission may occur. All in all, the present work aims at motivating to pursue further efforts in the study of the BF process in organic materials. PMID:26575561

  19. The Poisoning Information Database Covers a Large Proportion of Real Poisoning Cases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The poisoning information database (PIDB) provides clinical toxicological information on commonly encountered toxic substances in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage rate of the PIDB by comparing the database with the distribution of toxic substances that real poisoning patients presented to 20 emergency departments. Development of the PIDB started in 2007, and the number of toxic substances increased annually from 50 to 470 substances in 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with toxic exposure who visited 20 emergency departments in Korea from January to December 2013. Identified toxic substances were classified as prescription drug, agricultural chemical, household product, animal or plant, herbal drug, or other. We calculated the coverage rate of the PIDB for both the number of poisoning cases and the kinds of toxic substances. A total of 10,887 cases of intoxication among 8,145 patients was collected. The 470 substances registered in the PIDB covered 89.3% of 8,891 identified cases related to poisoning, while the same substances only covered 45.3% of the 671 kinds of identified toxic substances. According to category, 211 prescription drugs, 58 agricultural chemicals, 28 household products, and 32 animals or plants were not covered by the PIDB. This study suggested that the PIDB covered a large proportion of real poisoning cases in Korea. However, the database should be continuously extended to provide information for even rare toxic substances. PMID:27365999

  20. The Poisoning Information Database Covers a Large Proportion of Real Poisoning Cases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Chung, Sung Phil; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Kim, Hyun; Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Kyung Woo; Cho, Junho; Yoon, Jae Chol; Cho, Soohyung; Choe, Michael Sung Pil; Hwang, Tae Sik; Hong, Dae Young; Lim, Hoon; Kim, Yang-Weon; Kim, Seung Whan; Kang, Hyunggoo; Kim, Woo Jeong

    2016-07-01

    The poisoning information database (PIDB) provides clinical toxicological information on commonly encountered toxic substances in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate the coverage rate of the PIDB by comparing the database with the distribution of toxic substances that real poisoning patients presented to 20 emergency departments. Development of the PIDB started in 2007, and the number of toxic substances increased annually from 50 to 470 substances in 2014. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with toxic exposure who visited 20 emergency departments in Korea from January to December 2013. Identified toxic substances were classified as prescription drug, agricultural chemical, household product, animal or plant, herbal drug, or other. We calculated the coverage rate of the PIDB for both the number of poisoning cases and the kinds of toxic substances. A total of 10,887 cases of intoxication among 8,145 patients was collected. The 470 substances registered in the PIDB covered 89.3% of 8,891 identified cases related to poisoning, while the same substances only covered 45.3% of the 671 kinds of identified toxic substances. According to category, 211 prescription drugs, 58 agricultural chemicals, 28 household products, and 32 animals or plants were not covered by the PIDB. This study suggested that the PIDB covered a large proportion of real poisoning cases in Korea. However, the database should be continuously extended to provide information for even rare toxic substances. PMID:27365999

  1. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

  2. Pathogenetic considerations of pica in lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pueschel, S M; Cullen, S M; Howard, R B; Cullinane, M M

    An important factor associated with lead poisoning in children is the habit of eating non-food substances, a condition termed pica. In search for underlying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of pica, this investigation presents evidence in support of the hypothesis that in many families failure of normal mother-child interaction, paternal deprivation, culturally dependent maternal oral interests and significant stress factors in the home where abundant lead-containing material is available are etiologically related to the development of pica in lead poisoning. Other factors, which have been thought to be associated with pica, are nutritional deficiencies and maladaptive behavior patterns. A multifocal treatment approach is considered to be most effective. PMID:649261

  3. [Paraquat poisoning and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal].

    PubMed

    López Lago, A M; Rivero Velasco, C; Galban Rodríguez, C; Mariño Rozados, A; Piñeiro Sande, N; Ferrer Vizoso, E

    2002-06-01

    Paraquat is a common herbicide in Spain. In our country there are a few cases of this intoxication and it presents a high mortality even if the patients ingest a minimal amount. We present two cases of accidental poisoning with paraquat. These patients were admitted three hours after ingestion of toxin. They were treated with with orogastric lavage, activated charcoal, N-acetylcysteine, Fuller's earth, cathartics, support measures and hemoperfusion with activated charcoal. With these treatments both patients had a undetectable levels of paraquat 48 hours after and improvement of their symptoms, gastric and intestinal predominantly . We present the graphics of evolution of the plasma and urine levels of paraquat in both patients. We review the different aspects of treatment and update of this poisoning. PMID:12152392

  4. A fatal case of menthol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akshay; Baitha, Upendra; Aggarwal, Praveen; Jamshed, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    Menthol is a monocyclic terpene alcohol, which is present naturally in peppermint and can be synthesized artificially as well. Generally, it is considered as very safe and has wide usage in medicine and food. There are case reports of toxicity due to excessive consumption of menthol, but a fatal intoxication has never been reported in the medical literature. We present a case of fatal menthol intoxication in a worker, who accidently got exposed when he was working in a peppermint factory. Emergency physicians must keep in mind this extremely rare manifestation of menthol poisoning. All necessary precaution should be taken to reduce its intake or exposure, as it has no specific antidote. Early recognition and supportive treatment of this poisoning is the key for a successful outcome. PMID:27127746

  5. Detoxification of Organophosphate Poisoning Using Nanoparticle Bioscavengers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Che-Ming J; Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Fei; Chuluun, Erdembileg; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Lu, Weiyue; Jiang, Xinguo; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-06-23

    Organophosphate poisoning is highly lethal as organophosphates, which are commonly found in insecticides and nerve agents, cause irreversible phosphorylation and inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to neuromuscular disorders via accumulation of acetylcholine in the body. Direct interception of organophosphates in the systemic circulation thus provides a desirable strategy in treatment of the condition. Inspired by the presence of AChE on red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we explored a biomimetic nanoparticle consisting of a polymeric core surrounded by RBC membranes to serve as an anti-organophosphate agent. Through in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the biomimetic nanoparticles retain the enzymatic activity of membrane-bound AChE and are able to bind to a model organophosphate, dichlorvos, precluding its inhibitory effect on other enzymatic substrates. In a mouse model of organophosphate poisoning, the nanoparticles were shown to improve the AChE activity in the blood and markedly improved the survival of dichlorvos-challenged mice. PMID:26053868

  6. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Anthony

    1970-01-01

    Hopkins, A. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 130-140. Experimental lead poisoning in the baboon. Twelve large and three infant baboons were poisoned by the intratracheal injection of lead carbonate in doses ranging from 50 to 135 mg/kg for 39 to 362 days. Eight baboons had one or more epileptic fits. Weakness of the limbs, believed to be of central origin, was seen in three of them. The effect of single and multiple doses of lead on the blood lead is recorded. Anaemia and punctate basophilia were not found. Measurements of nerve conduction velocity, electromyography and histological examination showed no abnormality of the peripheral nerves. The different effects of lead upon different species are discussed. Images PMID:4987891

  7. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Bone, F J; Bogie, D; Morgan-Jones, S C

    1989-12-01

    Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption. PMID:2691265

  8. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption. PMID:2691265

  9. A fatal case of menthol poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akshay; Baitha, Upendra; Aggarwal, Praveen; Jamshed, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    Menthol is a monocyclic terpene alcohol, which is present naturally in peppermint and can be synthesized artificially as well. Generally, it is considered as very safe and has wide usage in medicine and food. There are case reports of toxicity due to excessive consumption of menthol, but a fatal intoxication has never been reported in the medical literature. We present a case of fatal menthol intoxication in a worker, who accidently got exposed when he was working in a peppermint factory. Emergency physicians must keep in mind this extremely rare manifestation of menthol poisoning. All necessary precaution should be taken to reduce its intake or exposure, as it has no specific antidote. Early recognition and supportive treatment of this poisoning is the key for a successful outcome. PMID:27127746

  10. Detoxification of Organophosphate Poisoning Using Nanoparticle Bioscavengers

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zhiqing; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Luk, Brian T.; Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Fei; Chuluun, Erdembileg; Angsantikul, Pavimol; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Lu, Weiyue; Jiang, Xinguo; Zhang, Liangfang

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is highly lethal as organophosphates, which are commonly found in insecticides and nerve agents, cause irreversible phosphorylation and inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to neuromuscular disorders via accumulation of acetylcholine in the body. Direct interception of organophosphates in the systemic circulation thus provides a desirable strategy in treatment of the condition. Inspired by the presence of acetylcholinesterase on red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we explored a biomimetic nanoparticle consisting of a polymeric core surrounded by RBC membranes to serve as an anti-organophosphate agent. Through in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the biomimetic nanoparticles retain the enzymatic activity of membrane-bound AChE and are able to bind to a model organophosphate, dichlorvos, precluding its inhibitory effect on other enzymatic substrates. In a mouse model of organophosphate poisoning, the nanoparticles were shown to improve the AChE activity in the blood and markedly improved the survival of dichlorvos-challenged mice. PMID:26053868

  11. Saturnine curse: a history of lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been increasing recognition of subacute and chronic lead poisoning and a growing awareness of its pathophysiology and clinical effects. Besides the classic manifestations of abdominal colic, seizures, and anemia progressing to gout, renal disease, and neuropathy, more subtle manifestations are now being increasingly recognized, such as the development of hypertension, neurobehavioral changes, reproductive and endocrine abnormalities, a possible role in carcinogenesis, and an overall increase in morbidity and mortality. Lead was one of the seven metals of antiquity, and it has accompanied the Eurasian and American civilizations since their beginnings. Lead is an extremely pernicious metal with a multitude of adverse effects. The recurring nature of lead poisoning throughout the development of civilization can truly be referred to as the saturnine curse. 16 references.

  12. Ciguatera fish poisoning. A southern California epidemic.

    PubMed

    Barton, E D; Tanner, P; Turchen, S G; Tunget, C L; Manoguerra, A; Clark, R F

    1995-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning results from the bioconcentration of a variety of toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates. Signs and symptoms vary widely, but it usually presents as gastrointestinal and neurologic complaints beginning shortly after the ingestion of fish containing the toxins. Symptoms may persist for months and sometimes even years. Although cases have been reported throughout the United States, epidemics are most common along tropical and subtropical coasts and usually involve the ingestion of large carnivorous fish. We review the literature and report the first epidemic of 25 cases of ciguatera fish poisoning presenting to area hospitals in Southern California that were successfully tracked by the Department of Health Services and isolated to fish caught off the coast of Baja California, Mexico. PMID:7667980

  13. Lead poisoning in wild waterfowl in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, K; Kimura, T; Uematsu, K; Umemura, T; Itakura, C

    1999-10-01

    We collected 430 harvested ducks (Anas sp. and Aythya sp.) from nine prefectures in Japan between 1994 and 1997. Fifteen (4%) of 363 birds harvested during and after hunting seasons had one lead pellet each in the proventriculus and gizzard. In addition, 32 (34%) of 93 swans (Cygnus sp.) and two of 14 geese (Anser sp.) found dead from various wetlands had lesions consistent with lead poisoning. One to nine swans suspected of having toxicosis from ingestion of lead shot were found dead each year. Twenty-seven (84%) of the 32 lead-exposured swans were found in Hokkaido Prefecture. We concluded that lead poisoning is still a serious threat to waterfowl in Japan and that there is considerable need for environmental improvement concerning this problem. PMID:10574537

  14. New sources add to lead poisoning concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Benevich, T. )

    1990-02-09

    Lead poisoning again is edging to the forefront of medical concerns, spurred by the addition of unusual sources and a growing amount of information about the severity of its consequences. Ingesting or breathing in the lead from paint is till a major cause. Still, the source of lead is not always from paint. Lead can be inhaled from the dust that comes from the clothes, skin, shoes, and cars of people who work in lead-related industries. There also is the relatively new occupation of deleading homes that contain the older lead-based paint as part of building rehabilitation. Effects of lead poisoning are most pronounced in children and fetuses because it can damage the immature central nervous system.

  15. Metal poisons for criticality in waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.; Goslen, A.Q.

    1996-12-31

    Many of the wastes from processing fissile materials contain metals that may serve as neutron poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes to demonstrate that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and to demonstrate an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist; the second, calculating an always safe ratio, is an object of this paper. In an earlier study, the authors demonstrated safe ratios for iron, manganese, and chromium oxides to {sup 235}U. In these studies, the Hansen-Roach 16-group cross sections were used with the Savannah River site code HRXN. Multiplication factors were computed, and safe ratios were defined such that the adjusted neutron multiplication factors (k values) were <0.95. These safe weight ratios were Fe:{sup 235}U - 77:1; Mn:{sup 235}U - 30:1; and Cr:{sup 235}U - 52:1. Palmer has shown that for certain mixtures of aluminum, iron, and zirconium with {sup 235}U, the computed infinite multiplication factors may differ by as much as 20% with different cross sections and processing systems. Parks et al. have further studied these mixtures and state, {open_quotes}...these metal/uranium mixtures are very sensitive to the metal cross-section data in the intermediate-energy range and the processing methods that are used.{close_quotes} They conclude with a call for more experimental data. The purpose of this study is to reexamine earlier work with cross sections and processing codes used at Westinghouse Savannah River Company today. This study will focus on {sup 235}U mixtures with iron, manganese and chromium. Sodium will be included in the list of poisons because it is abundant in many of the waste materials.

  16. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of methylmercury poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, F.; Rustam, H.; Tikriti, S.; Al-Damluji, S. F.; Shihristani, H.

    1980-01-01

    An opportunity to study the effects of methylmercury poisoning in humans was provided by the large outbreak in Iraq in 1971-2. In adults, poisoning resulted from the ingestion of home-made bread prepared from methylmercury-treated seed grain and there was a highly significant correlation between the amount of bread ingested and blood mercury levels. Poisoning in infants resulted either from prior exposure in utero or from suckling or both. Blood mercury levels were higher in infants and children than in adults. There was no increased incidence of congenital defects. Symptoms and signs of poisoning and histopathological changes were mainly confined to the CNS. Symptoms developed, on average, 1-2 months after exposure. In children there was mental retardation with delayed onset of speech and impaired motor, sensory and autonomic function. Severely affected children were blind and deaf. In adults, the clinical picture could be classified as 1, mild (mainly of sensory symptoms) 2, moderate (sensory symptoms accompanied by cerebellar signs) and 3, severe (gross ataxia with marked visual and hearing loss which, in some cases, progressed to akinetic mutism followed by coma). Grades 1 and 2 carried a better prognosis thant grade 3. Interference with transmission at the myoneural junction was found in 14% of patients studied. There was no evidence of peripheral nerve involvement per se and sensory symptoms may be of central origin. The clinical differences between the Iraqi and Japanese outbreaks may be a result, in part at least, of the severe, prolonged and continuous exposure which occurred in the latter outbreak. Improvement was observed among the mild and moderate group. Treatment with chelating agents, thiol resin, haemodialysis and exchange transfusion lowered blood mercury concentrations but produced no convincing clinical benefit. To be effective, treatment may need to be instituted soon after exposure. PMID:7383945

  17. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  18. Iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L.; Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. Two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. Muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. Brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid,:and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. Lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle.necrosis.

  19. Experimental lead poisoning in bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, H.; Wiemeyer, S.; Hoffman, P.; Carpenter, J.; Sileo, L.

    1979-01-01

    Captive, crippled bald eagles unsuitable for release were fed lead shot to determine diagnostic criteria for lead poisoning. The eagles were fluoroscoped and bled periodically to determine shot retention and blood delta--aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Microscopic examination revealed renal tubular degeneration, arterial fibrinoid necrosis and myocardial necrosis. Acid-fast intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were not found in proximal convoluted tubule cells. Analyses of blood and toxicological data are not yet complete.

  20. Malicious paraquat poisoning in Oklahoma dogs.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, K; Brizzee-Buxton, B; Gatto, N; Edwards, W C; Stair, E L; Logan, C

    1998-06-01

    Paraquat is a restricted use herbicide which is extremely toxic to companion animals when ingested. This report details one incident of malicious poisoning involving 6 dogs. All dogs were from the same geographic area, and 5 had pulmonary and renal lesions consistent with paraquat toxicosis. Diagnosis was initiated by a modified dithionite spot test on vomitus from 1 dog. Subsequent tissue paraquat levels ranged from non-detectable to 1 ppm. PMID:9610494

  1. [Identification and prevention of meat poisoning].

    PubMed

    van Logtestijn, J G; Koolmees, P A; Mossel, D A

    1987-09-15

    In this contribution to a series 'Papers of Yesterday and Today' a retrospective review of developments in the identification and control of meat 'poisoning' defined as infections and intoxications following the ingestion of bacteriologically unsound meat and meat products is presented. Starting from two classical Dutch papers, viz. by H. J. H. Stempel (1891) and K. Hoefnagel (1899) illustrating the knowledge of meat 'poisoning' acquired in the nineties of the 19th century, developments in the field of bacteriological research on meats and the resulting efforts to manage meat 'poisoning' are summarised. Attention is paid to the role of Dutch veterinarians in investigations on the aetiology of meat infections resulting in the adoption of legal meat inspection in 1922 and the ensuing reduction in the occurrence of mass outbreaks of meat poisoning. However, despite marked improvement of the standard of hygiene in the food industry in general and expert monitoring of meat production lines by veterinarians in particular, infections and intoxications transmitted by meat and meat products are still quite prevalent. Essentially, their management can only be achieved by strict adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) throughout animal husbandry, slaughter, distribution and storage, termed longitudinally integrated safety assurance. Professional monitoring by an up-to-date meat inspection system, however, continues to be indispensable in the prevention of food-borne infections and intoxications. Some recommendations are made for effective intervention in the infection cycle of food-transmitted pathogens originating from the high infection pressure on slaughter lines, resulting from contamination acquired at previous stages of the animal production chain. PMID:3672466

  2. Phosphatic fertiliser poisoning of sheep: experimental studies.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, P J; McCausland, I P; Coup, M R

    1982-11-01

    The toxicity of serpentine phosphate and superphosphate for non-pregnant dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes was investigated by oral dosing. An attempt was made to reproduce a natural episode of poisoning by exposing pregnant and lactating ewes to topdressed pasture. A total dose in the range of 1200 to 1800 g of serpentine phosphate was required to kill two ewes and it was concluded that natural episodes of poisoning with this material are unlikely. The toxic process was similar to that caused by superphosphate. The LD50 of superphosphate was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 6 g/kg and a dose in the range of 200 to 300 g was sufficient to kill most sheep. The apparently greater susceptibility of pregnant and lactating sheep to poisoning suggested by the study of natural outbreaks was not demonstrated in these experiments, but the numbers of experimental animals may have been too small to detect differing susceptibility. The clinical disease resembled that seen in natural episodes; anorexia, diarrhoea, progressive depression and death in a period of 5 to 8 days after the start of dosing. Sublethal doses produced a transient diarrhoea and, in two sheep, a severe wool-break. The principal biochemical changes were hyperphosphataemia and evidence of renal failure (oliguria, uraemia, azotaemia). Gross lesions were not consistently present but included abomasal ulceration and renal cortical swelling and pallor. The histopathological evidence of renal tubular obstruction by flocculant eosinophilic casts was characteristic. PMID:16030836

  3. Poisoning due to Chinese proprietary medicines.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y; Lee, K K; Chan, A Y; Critchley, J A

    1995-05-01

    1. To determine the toxic potentials of those Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) which are commonly used for self-poisoning by adults in Hong Kong, all patients admitted to four of the eight general medical wards at the Prince of Wales Hospital between January 1988 and December 1993 were retrospectively studied. 2. There were 54 women and 17 men with their age ranging from 15 to 86 years. Twenty-three subjects (32%) also took alcohol, chemicals or drugs. Of the 51 subjects (72%) who had taken topical medicaments, 22 had no symptoms while 28 had minor features of gastrointestinal irritation (n = 26), mild (n = 2) or severe (n = 1) salicylate poisoning. Of the 17 subjects (24%) who had taken CPM tablets/capsules, nine had mild symptoms including nausea/vomiting and drowsiness. The three remaining patients (4%) who had ingested liquid CPM preparations were asymptomatic. Elevated plasma salicylate or paracetamol concentrations (> 0.1 mmol l-1) were found in some patients who had taken topical medicaments and CPM tablets/capsules, respectively. All the 71 patients completely recovered. 3. Most of the CPM used for self-poisoning in Hong Kong were of low to moderate toxicity except for those containing wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate). PMID:7612306

  4. Acute Lead Poisoning In an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhanan, M.; Lall, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    A case of acute lead poisoning in an infant without overt clinical manifestations of encephalopathy is reported for the first time in Oman. The case was diagnosed at Rustaq Hospital on the basis of (i) history by the mother of giving the child a traditional remedy for treating constipation (ii) X-ray of abdomen showing radio-opaque speckles and (iii) detection of high blood lead levels (83.3 µg/dL) at the toxicology laboratory of the poison control centre. The source of lead was confirmed by high content of inorganic lead (20.2%) found in the sample of the traditional remedy (bint al dahab). The blood lead levels significantly decreased, after the intravenous calcium edetate (EDTA) therapy was given to the baby. The case highlights that early detection and treatment of acute lead poisoning in children can prevent morbidity and sequelae associated with encephalopathy. It also indicated the need for awareness and prevention programme for parents on this issue. PMID:22400095

  5. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    PubMed

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance. PMID:25964144

  6. Diethylene glycol poisoning from transcutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Devoti, Elisabetta; Marta, Elisabetta; Belotti, Elena; Bregoli, Laura; Liut, Francesca; Maiorca, Paolo; Mazzucotelli, Valentina; Cancarini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    A case of transcutaneous diethylene glycol poisoning with severe acute kidney injury, but a positive outcome, is described. A man without significant medical history was admitted to our hospital due to anuria, gastrointestinal symptoms, and hypertension. Ultrasonography excluded vascular damage and postrenal obstruction. Laboratory tests showed acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap; hemodialysis therapy was started. The brother of the patient reported that the patient had been smearing his skin with brake fluid containing diethylene glycol to treat a "dermatitis." Only supportive therapy was given due to the lack of a specific antidote. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration was performed. The kidney biopsy showed acute toxic proximal tubulonecrosis, without deposition of oxalate crystals. His neurologic condition worsened dramatically; supportive care was continued. Over time, acute kidney injury and neurologic damage gradually improved; 33 days after admission, he went to a rehabilitation unit for 5 months, with complete clinical recovery. Historically, diethylene glycol has been the cause of large-scale poisonings from ingestion of contaminated drugs. The clinical evolution is unpredictable. Treatment is not well defined; early hemodialysis treatment reduces levels of toxic metabolites, and fomepizole could be useful in cases with an early diagnosis. A comparison of the characteristics of diethylene glycol versus ethylene glycol poisoning is given. PMID:25445099

  7. [Poisoning by spiders of Loxosceles genus].

    PubMed

    De Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Lloveras, Susana C; Orduna, Tomás A

    2002-01-01

    Despite the great number of spiders in the world, only a small group of them is capable of producing death in humans. In Argentina, there are only three of the four genera of spiders considered of high risk to humans: Latrodectus is present in rural areas, Phoneutria is restricted to small regions while Loxosceles is distributed throughout the country. Accidents by Loxosceles represent around 4% of the total number produced by venomous animals in Argentina. The bite is accidental and may produce considerable local necrosis with scar formation and ulcers of slow and difficult healing that may require surgical repair. Some bitten people may suffer from intravascular hemolysis, disseminated coagulation and acute renal insufficiency leading to death. Despite the great number of studies performed on Loxosceles venoms, at present, the physiopathological course of poisoning is not clear and there is not common criteria for its treatment. In this review, biological and epidemiological data of this spider are described as well as the venom composition and the possible participation of its components in the poisoning. These data provide biological and biochemical tools to understand the course of poisoning and to have better criteria for the treatment and prevention of these accidents and their complications. PMID:11965857

  8. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  9. [Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning: a complicated medical challenge].

    PubMed

    Lavon, Ophir; Sagi, Ram

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to insecticides, mainly cholinesterase inhibitors, is a global problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Risk of intoxication is increased in rural areas where there is high availability and proximity of insecticides to families and children. Neglected storage and inadequate practice lead to dangerous exposure. Strict regulations and appropriate safety measures are needed for the prevention of exposure to insecticides. Broad toxicological knowledge is necessary in order to treat organophosphate and carbamate poisoned patients. Diagnosis is not trivial, since the identity of the poison is not always apparent. Multiple exposures including organic solvents are possible. The clinical presenting can be confusing. Measurement of cholinesterase activity is mandatory in establishing the diagnosis. Prompt treatment with proper antidotes and respiratory support is indicated. Early administration of anticonvulsants may mitigate central neurologic complications. Monitoring neurologic and cardiac function is advised for rapid identification of complications and prognosis evaluation. Meticulous preparedness of health care providers for insecticide poisoning is needed from the pre-hospital phase to emergency departments and the different hospital wards. PMID:23957084

  10. Fission Properties for R-Process Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Erler, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematics of fission barriers and fission lifetimes for the whole landscape of superheavy elements (SHE), i.e., nuclei with Z 100. The fission lifetimes are also compared with the -decay half-lives. The survey is based on a self-consistent description in terms of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach. Results for various different SHF parametrizations are compared to explore the robustness of the predictions. The fission path is computed by quadrupole constrained SHF. The computation of fission lifetimes takes care of the crucial ingredients of the large-amplitude collective dynamics along the fission path, as self-consistent collective mass and proper quantum corrections. We discuss the different topologies of fission landscapes which occur in the realm of SHE (symmetric versus asymmetric fission, regions of triaxial fission, bimodal fission, and the impact of asymmetric ground states). The explored region is extended deep into the regime of very neutron-rich isotopes as they are expected to be produced in the astrophysical r process.

  11. Fission fusion hybrids- recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

    2012-03-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power, and can do this at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant- so it could be a nearer term application. For waste incineration, hybrids can burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs) with far fewer hybrid reactors than a comparable system within the realm of fission alone. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for ˜4 times as many LWRs with NO fuel reprocessing. For both waste incineration or fuel production, the most severe kind of nuclear accident- runaway criticality- can be excluded, unlike either fast reactors or typical accelerator based reactors. The proliferation risks for hybrid fuel production are, we strongly believe, far less than any other fuel production method, including today's gas centrifuges. US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ˜ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

  12. Technical Application of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    The chapter is devoted to the practical application of the fission process, mainly in nuclear reactors. After a historical discussion covering the natural reactors at Oklo and the first attempts to build artificial reactors, the fundamental principles of chain reactions are discussed. In this context chain reactions with fast and thermal neutrons are covered as well as the process of neutron moderation. Criticality concepts (fission factor η, criticality factor k) are discussed as well as reactor kinetics and the role of delayed neutrons. Examples of specific nuclear reactor types are presented briefly: research reactors (TRIGA and ILL High Flux Reactor), and some reactor types used to drive nuclear power stations (pressurized water reactor [PWR], boiling water reactor [BWR], Reaktor Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kanalny [RBMK], fast breeder reactor [FBR]). The new concept of the accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is presented. The principle of fission weapons is outlined. Finally, the nuclear fuel cycle is briefly covered from mining, chemical isolation of the fuel and preparation of the fuel elements to reprocessing the spent fuel and conditioning for deposit in a final repository.

  13. Lead poisoning: The invisible disease. Waterfowl Management handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Friend, M.

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an intoxication resulting from absorption of hazardous levels of lead into body tissues. Lead pellets from shot shells, when ingested, are the most common source of lead poisoning in migratory birds. Other far less common sources include lead fishing sinkers, mine wastes, paint pigments, bullets, and other lead objects that are swallowed. Lead poisoning has affected every major species of waterfowl in North America and has also been reported in a wide variety of other birds. The annual magnitude of lead poisoning losses for individual species cannot be precisely determined. However, reasonable estimates of lead-poisoning losses in different species can be made on the basis of waterfowl mortality reports and gizzard analyses. Within the United States, annual losses from lead poisoning have been estimated at between 1.6 and 2.4 million waterfowl, based on a fall flight of 100 million birds.

  14. Unsolved Problems in Salmonella Food Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Savage, William G.

    1929-01-01

    Salmonella groups of organisms are recognized as predominant in food poisoning outbreaks, but knowledge of the primary source of Salmonella bacilli and of paths of infection to implicated food is incomplete.—Unsolved problems discussed.—Food animals suffering from Salmonella infection are common in Germany but comparatively rare in this country and in most outbreaks the original food is shown to have been sound.—Infection of food from a human carrier is extremely rare. Detailed study of individual outbreaks brings out the striking fact that the Salmonella strains which cause food poisoning are just those types capable of causing disease in both man and animals. The hypothesis which best explains bacterial causation of most outbreaks is that the source of infection is derived, in most cases, from animals suffering from Salmonella disease or acting as carriers of these bacilli. Many facts favour this view, including the widespread extent of Salmonella infections in animals associated with food. Examples: Cows suffering from Salmonella infections with these bacilli in the milk; the widespread prevalence of such infections in rats and mice; the considerable extent to which pigs are infected with Salmonella bacilli.—Attention is directed to the presence of specific agglutinins in the blood of food animals such as bullocks and pigs, also to the fact that while in man a carrier condition for food-poisoning bacilli is extremely rare and at best a transient condition in animals. It is a well attested phenomenon. The causes of this difference are worthy of further study. Not only are there numerous types within the Salmonella group but these types exhibit characteristic and definite differences of pathological behaviour. Bacillus paratyphosus B and Bacillus aertrycke furnish a good illustration and these two types are critically contrasted. While our present knowledge is imperfect, it is suggested that the types in this group fall into three groups, i.e., (a) Strains

  15. Comparison of chlorine-poisoned experiments to calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.; Wilson, R.E.

    2000-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has fissile materials in salt, which could be processed for disposal more efficiently if the nuclear poison effect of the chlorine were validated. The authors conclude that chlorine can be credited as poison when present in thermal systems. The 27-, 44-, and 238-group libraries in SCALE and the ENDFB-B libraries with MCNP underpredict the poisonous effect of chlorine in thermal systems.

  16. Oxalic acid, epsom salt and the poison bottle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W A

    1982-03-01

    1 During the 19th century inadequate control of the sale of poisons, widespread illiteracy, and the English addiction to self-medication contributed to the high incidence of accidental poisoning by oxalic acid mistaken for Epsom salt. 2 Chemical methods for identifying oxalic acid failed when the product was adulterated. 3 Many mechanical devices were proposed to prevent careless dispensing; designs for poison bottles of distinctive shape, colour and texture appeared regularly for 40 years. PMID:6757103

  17. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Seaman, J T

    1987-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of sheep in New South Wales was reviewed, based on the records of the New South Wales Department of Agriculture's Regional Veterinary Laboratories. The plant species causing significant mortalities were Echium plantagineum and Heliotropium europaeum. The syndrome of hepatogenous chronic copper poisoning was more frequently diagnosed than primary pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, particularly when grazing E. plantagineum. The data indicated that adult crossbred ewes were the most commonly affected class of sheep. PMID:3632498

  18. Unintentional poisoning with drugs in a Mexican pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Olguin, Hugo Juárez; Garduño, Lina Barranco; Pérez, Janett Flores; Pérez, Carmen Flores

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, more than 70 % of acute pediatric poisoning is caused by medicines. The age groups at greatest risk of drug poisoning are those between 2 to 5 years and 14 to 18 years; although in this last group, drug ingestion is usually intentional. The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency of unintentional drug poisoning in the pediatric population attended in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico, and to review the rescue procedures applied in specific cases. A retrospective and descriptive study was performed through revision of clinical records, obtained from patients attended at the National Pediatrics Institute from January 1995 to June 2005. One hundred and thirty nine (139) records, 62 females and 77 males, median age 2 years with clinical diagnosis of drug poisoning were reviewed. Poisoning was confirmed in 23.7% of the cases by determination of drug plasma concentration. The most frequent causes of drug poisoning were analgesics (42.3 %), from which 60 % corresponded to acetylsalicylic acid and 40 % to acetaminophen; antiepileptics (22.9 %), anxiolytics (17.9 %) and other drugs (16.3 %). From our results, we concluded that self-medication was unlikely due to the early age of patients, unless ingestion of the drug was accidental. No case needed more than 24 h of hospitalization, and no patient died due to poisoning. Specific cause of poisoning was that, at early ages, doses must be administered according to the infant's weight, which poses a risk of poisoning. PMID:21471606

  19. An electrophysiological study of the intermediate syndrome of organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Gasparetto, Juliano; Kay, Cláudia Suemi Kamoi; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Werneck, Lineu César

    2010-09-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is commonly seen in emergency medicine. Neurologists must be alert to detect neuromuscular transmission failure and other neurological complications that follow OP poisoning. We report a 37-year-old male with acute OP poisoning to emphasize the electrophysiological abnormalities during the intermediate syndrome (IMS). Motor nerve conduction studies revealed that a single nerve stimulation evoked a repetitive compound muscle action potential, whereas repetitive nerve stimulation resulted in a combination of a decrement-increment pattern and a repetitive fade response. Thus, electrophysiological studies can be used to monitor patients with IMS, and these test results correlate well with clinical findings in acute OP poisoning. PMID:20483619

  20. Occupational and environmental exposures reported to Poison enters

    SciTech Connect

    Litovitz, T.; Oderda, G.; White, J.D.; Sheridan, M.J. )

    1993-05-01

    This analysis of 25,368 occupational and 7,565 environmental exposure cases characterizes the occupational and environmental exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Compared with other poisonings, occupational and environmental exposures were predominantly inhalation exposures rather than ingestions, were more often subacute or chronic, and demonstrated greater morbidity, mortality, and increased use of health care resources. As regional poison centers evolve to fill a critical information void in the management and assessment of environmental and occupational exposures, the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System provides an important, untapped passive surveillance mechanism.