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Sample records for fit heart results

  1. Estimation of heart rate and heart rate variability from pulse oximeter recordings using localized model fitting.

    PubMed

    Wadehn, Federico; Carnal, David; Loeliger, Hans-Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate variability is one of the key parameters for assessing the health status of a subject's cardiovascular system. This paper presents a local model fitting algorithm used for finding single heart beats in photoplethysmogram recordings. The local fit of exponentially decaying cosines of frequencies within the physiological range is used to detect the presence of a heart beat. Using 42 subjects from the CapnoBase database, the average heart rate error was 0.16 BPM and the standard deviation of the absolute estimation error was 0.24 BPM. PMID:26737125

  2. Cognitive Performance and Heart Rate Variability: The Influence of Fitness Level

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Zabala, Mikel; Morales, Esther; Mateo-March, Manuel; Sanabria, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relation between cognitive performance and heart rate variability as a function of fitness level. We measured the effect of three cognitive tasks (the psychomotor vigilance task, a temporal orienting task, and a duration discrimination task) on the heart rate variability of two groups of participants: a high-fit group and a low-fit group. Two major novel findings emerged from this study. First, the lowest values of heart rate variability were found during performance of the duration discrimination task, compared to the other two tasks. Second, the results showed a decrement in heart rate variability as a function of the time on task, although only in the low-fit group. Moreover, the high-fit group showed overall faster reaction times than the low-fit group in the psychomotor vigilance task, while there were not significant differences in performance between the two groups of participants in the other two cognitive tasks. In sum, our results highlighted the influence of cognitive processing on heart rate variability. Importantly, both behavioral and physiological results suggested that the main benefit obtained as a result of fitness level appeared to be associated with processes involving sustained attention. PMID:23437276

  3. Depressive Symptomatology, Exercise Adherence and Fitness are Associated with Reduced Cognitive Performance in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; van Dulmen, Manfred; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Depression is common in heart failure (HF) and associated with reduced cognitive function. The current study used Structrual Equation Modeling to examine whether depression adversely impacts cognitive function in HF through its adverse affects on exercise adherence and cardiovascular fitness. Methods 158 HF patients completed neuropsychological testing, physical fitness test, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and measures assessing exercise adherence, and physical exertion. Results The model demonstrated excellent model fit and increased scores on the BDI-II negatively affected exercise adherence and cardiovascular fitness. There was a strong inverse association between cardiovascular fitness and cognitive function. Sobel test showed a significant indirect pathway between the BDI-II and cognitive function through cardiovascular fitness. Discussion This study suggests depression in HF may adversely impact cognitive function through reduced cardiovascular fitness. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether treatment of depression can lead to better lifestyle behaviors and ultimately improve neurocognitive outcomes in HF. PMID:23378527

  4. Aerobic Fitness, Heart Rate Recovery and Heart Rate Recovery Time in Indian School Children.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Rajesh Jeniton; Ravichandran, K; Vaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Data on aerobic fitness and heart rate recovery in children are limited. This study was done to evaluate the relation between them in Indian school going children. Three hundred children of 7 to 10.5 years were recruited and their aerobic fitness was predicted using modified Harvard's step test (VO₂max) and 20 meter shuttle test (VO₂peak). The heart rate was monitored for 12 minutes post modified Harvard's step test. The difference between the maximum and the 1st minute HR was noted as HRR1 and the time taken to reach the resting heart rate was also recorded. VO₂max was inversely correlated with HRR1 (r = -0.64, p<0.001). However, the partial correlation of the two was not significant (r(partial) = -0.037, p = 0.55), indicating children with higher basal HR had higher HRR1 and that accounted for the observed association with aerobic fitness. Cox regression analysis showed that the recovery rate per unit time was 3% greater with increasing VO₂max (HR = 1.03, 95% CI:1.01 to 1.05, p = 0.013). The heart rate parameters did not show any associat with VO₂peak This study demonstrates that there is no relation between VO₂max and HRR1 after 3 minutes of modified Harvard's step test in Indian children of 7 to 10.5 years. However, aerobic fitness is a positive predictor of heart rate recovery time in this group. PMID:27530008

  5. Comparison of Traditional and Alternative Fitness Teaching Formats on Heart Rate Intensity and Perceived Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Amy Sau-ching; Heung-Sang Wong, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Compared a traditional and an alternative (skill-fitness- music) fitness teaching format to determine whether there would be differences on Hong Kong middle school students' heart rate intensity and perceived enjoyment. Data from heart rate monitors and student surveys indicated that the two formats did not produce differences in heart rates.…

  6. A comparison between heart rate and heart rate variability as indicators of cardiac health and fitness.

    PubMed

    Grant, Catharina C; Murray, Carien; Janse van Rensburg, Dina C; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of cardiac autonomic activity and control via heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) is known to provide prognostic information in clinical populations. Issues with regard to standardization and interpretation of HRV data make the use of the more easily accessible HR on its own as an indicator of autonomic cardiac control very appealing. The aim of this study was to investigate the strength of associations between an important cardio vascular health metric such as VO2max and the following: HR, HRV indicators, and HR normalized HRV indicators. A cross sectional descriptive study was done including 145 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 22 years. HRV was quantified by time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot analysis. Indirect VO2max was determined using the Multistage Coopers test. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the strength of the associations. Both simple linear and multiple stepwise regressions were performed to be able to discriminate between the role of the individual indicators as well as their combined association with VO2max. Only HR, RR interval, and pNN50 showed significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p = 0.03) correlations with VO2max. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that, when combining all HRV indicators the most important predictor of cardio vascular fitness as represented by VO2max, is HR. HR explains 17% of the variation, while the inclusion of HF (high frequency HRV indicator) added only an additional 3.1% to the coefficient of determination. Results also showed when testing the normalized indicators, HR explained of the largest percentage of the changes in VO2max (16.5%). Thus, HR on its own is the most important predictor of changes in an important cardiac health metric such as VO2max. These results may indicate that during investigation of exercise ability (VO2max) phenomena, quantification of HRV may not add significant value. PMID:24312058

  7. Results of a Required Fitness Program.

    PubMed

    Emes, C; Davies, C; Evans, J; Kerr, B; Kinnear, G; Maxwell, T

    1981-12-01

    In brief: Based on the belief that physical education majors should have above-average fitness levels, 128 students were instructed to design and execute their own fitness development project to improve strength, endurance, and flexibility. Most relied on jogging, stair running, swimming, and cycling; others performed weight training, calisthenics, racket sports, and aerobic dancing. Generally, both men and women showed statistically significant increases in all the fitness tests. The authors believe that success was encouraged by the students' daily contact with instructors, the fact that their fitness improvement affected their grades, and the knowledge they gained from the course. PMID:27452707

  8. Using Heart Rate Monitors in Research on Fitness Levels of Children in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Brad; Reeder, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of heart rate monitors (HRMs) in fitness research and examines heart rate intensity levels of middle school students while they participated in a variety of physical education activities throughout a school year. Research shows the HRM has considerable potential in assessing fitness achievements in school-age children. (GLR)

  9. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  10. Jump Start the Heart: Teaching Children Cardiovascular Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Starla; Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Griffin, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Quality physical education classes are an important avenue for teaching children about lifetime fitness participation. Specific fitness information and habits can be taught as part of physical education classes. Physical education, however, should not be the only source of physical activity for children. Children need opportunities to participate…

  11. Cardiovascular Fitness and Maximal Heart Rate Differences Among Three Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, S. W.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of differences in maximal heart rate and treadmill time among three ethnic groups revealed no significant age-adjusted differences among white, black, and Mexican-American males, and suggested that black females' lower maximal heart rate may be explained by their lower cardiovascular fitness level when compared to those of other…

  12. Obesity and Cognitive Dysfunction in Heart Failure: The Role of Hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes, and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is common in heart failure (HF). Obesity is a known risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in HF, though the mechanisms remain unclear. Obesity increases risk for conditions like hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as well as poor fitness levels and this may serve as one possible pathway accounting for association between obesity and cognitive dysfunction. Aims We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test whether the combination of hypertension, T2DM, and reduced fitness mediate the association between obesity and cognitive dysfunction. Methods 200 HF patients completed neuropsychological testing and a physical fitness assessment. Hypertension and T2DM were ascertained via self-report and medical records. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Results 43% of the sample was obese. Hypertension (70%) and T2DM (36%) were common, and fitness levels were reduced. The SEM model with these factors as mediators between BMI and cognitive function demonstrated excellent fit (CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = .03). Higher BMI correlated with hypertension, T2DM, and poorer fitness. Each of these factors predicted worse cognition. Models that isolated medical comorbidities and physical fitness as the mediator were weaker than the full model. Conclusions Increased risk for medical comorbidities and reduced fitness levels helped to explain the negative effects of obesity on cognitive dysfunction in HF. Prospective studies should confirm this pattern and examine weight loss benefits cognitive function in HF. Keywords: Physical fitness; cognitive function; heart failure; obesity; hypertension; type 2 diabetes mellitus PMID:24829294

  13. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,, Eon-ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  15. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p < 0.01). The cortisol response to lunch was not significantly different between the groups (time × treatment, p = 0.882). Overall, both groups showed the same pattern of cortisol secretion (treatment p = 0.839). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels. PMID:26499850

  16. Relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and selected risk factors for coronary heart disease in a population of Canadian men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Jetté, M; Sidney, K; Quenneville, J; Landry, F

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined with the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT), and selected risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Canadian population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. On the basis of age-specific and sex-specific national percentile scores, subjects were classified as being in the low-fitness, moderate-fitness or high-fitness category according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) predicted from performance on the CAFT. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4082 male and 1205 female Canadian federal public servants aged 30 to 59 years who participated in a voluntary fitness testing program between 1984 and 1991. OUTCOME MEASURES: Body composition (body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, sum of four skinfold measurements, predicted percentage of body fat and waist-hip ratio), blood lipid levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C) and hemodynamic measurements (heart rate and blood pressure at rest and during exercise and predicted VO2 max). MAIN RESULTS: For both men and women the mean anthropometric measurements, blood lipid levels and blood pressure measurements at rest and after exercise were significantly associated with fitness category (p less than 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In both men and women a higher level of aerobic fitness, as defined by VO2 max predicted from performance on the CAFT, is associated with a more favourable CHD risk profile. The results support the use of VO2 max predicted from performance on the CAFT as a valid procedure for classifying people according to fitness level. PMID:1555164

  17. Heart-Healthy Families. Helping Your Kids Stay Fit Could Prevent Heart Disease in Their Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagnini, Frederic J.; Malone, Mary Jo

    1994-01-01

    The conditions and habits that lead to heart disease begin early in life. Obesity is the predecessor of a host of cardiovascular-related diseases; childhood obesity poses serious physical and psychological roadblocks for youngsters as they mature. The article suggests how families can adopt fitter lifestyles and instill good eating and exercise…

  18. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  19. Differential baroreflex control of heart rate in sedentary and aerobically fit individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Fadel, P. J.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Shi, X.; Raven, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compared arterial, aortic, and carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in eight average fit (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max = 42.2+/-1.9 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and eight high fit (VO2max = 61.9+/-2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) healthy young adults. METHODS: Arterial and aortic (ABR) baroreflex functions were assessed utilizing hypo- and hyper-tensive challenges induced by graded bolus injections of sodium nitroprusside (SN) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively. Carotid baroreflex (CBR) sensitivity was determined using ramped 5-s pulses of both pressure and suction delivered to the carotid sinus via a neck chamber collar, independent of drug administration. RESULTS: During vasoactive drug injection, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similarly altered in average fit (AF) and high fit (HF) groups. However, the heart rate (HR) response range of the arterial baroreflex was significantly attenuated (P < 0.05) in HF (31+/-4 beats x min(-1)) compared with AF individuals (46+/-4 beats x min(-1)). When sustained neck suction and pressure were applied to counteract altered carotid sinus pressure during SN and PE administration, isolating the ABR response, the response range remained diminished (P < 0.05) in the HF population (24+/-3 beats x min(-1)) compared with the AF group (41+/-4 beats x min(-1)). During CBR perturbation, the HF (14+/-1 beats-min(-1)) and AF (16+/-1 beats-min(-1)) response ranges were similar. The arterial baroreflex response range was significantly less than the simple sum of the CBR and ABR (HF, 38+/-3 beats x min(-1) and AF, 57+/-4 beats x min(-1)) in both fitness groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that reductions in arterial-cardiac reflex sensitivity are mediated by diminished ABR function. More importantly, these data suggest that the integrative relationship between the ABR and CBR contributing to arterial baroreflex control of HR is inhibitory in nature and not altered by exercise training.

  20. Understanding the Heart's Electrical System and EKG Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Understanding the Heart's Electrical System and EKG Results Doctors use a test called an EKG ( ... of an electrical signal's journey through the heart. EKG The image shows the standard setup for an ...

  1. HEALTHY Intervention: Fitness, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Results

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Drews, Kimberly L.; Moe, Esther L.; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H.; Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. Results At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in Met-S, fitness, or MVPA levels at the end of the study after adjustment for baseline values and confounders. There were no differences in any ethnic, obesity, or ethnic × obesity subgroups for either gender. Conclusions The HEALTHY intervention had no effect on the Met-S, fitness, or physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed. PMID:21233778

  2. Fitness, chance, and myths: an objective view on soccer results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, A.; Rubner, O.

    2009-02-01

    We analyze the time series of soccer matches in a model-free way using data for the German soccer league (Bundesliga). We argue that the goal difference is a better measure for the overall fitness of a team than the number of points. It is shown that the time evolution of the table during a season can be interpreted as a random walk with an underlying constant drift. Variations of the overall fitness mainly occur during the summer break but not during a season. The fitness correlation shows a long-time decay on the scale of a quarter century. Some typical soccer myths are analyzed in detail. It is shown that losing but no winning streaks exist. For this analysis ideas from multidimensional NMR experiments have been borrowed. Furthermore, beyond the general home advantage there is no statistically relevant indication of a team-specific home fitness. Based on these insights a framework for a statistical characterization of the results of a soccer league is introduced and some general consequences for the prediction of soccer results are formulated.

  3. The association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents: the European youth heart study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Moeller, Niels Christian; Korsholm, Lars; Kolle, Elin; Wedderkopp, Niels; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-09-01

    The link between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children has been studied in a number of earlier studies and the results have generally shown weak to moderate correlations. This overall finding has been widely questioned partly because of the difficulty in obtaining valid estimates of physical activity. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between aerobic fitness and physical activity in a representative sample of 9 and 15-year-old children (n = 1260 cross-sectional, n = 153 longitudinal). The specific goal was to improve past studies using an objective method of activity assessment and taking into account a number of major sources of error. Data came from the Danish part of the European youth heart study, 1997-2003. The cross-sectional results generally showed a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity with standardized regression coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.33. The longitudinal results revealed a tendency towards an interaction effect of baseline physical activity on the relationship between changes in physical activity and aerobic fitness. Moderate to moderately strong regression effect sizes were observed in the lower quadrant of baseline physical activity compared to weak effect sizes in the remaining quadrants. In conclusion, the present study confirms earlier findings of a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in total population of children. However, the study also indicates that inactive children can achieve notable increase in aerobic fitness by increasing their habitual physical activity level. A potential physiological explanation for these results is highlighted. PMID:20458593

  4. Effect of spinal cord injury on the heart and cardiovascular fitness.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W T; Kiratli, B J; Sarkarati, M; Weraarchakul, G; Myers, J; Franklin, B A; Parkash, I; Froelicher, V

    1998-11-01

    The use of various FES protocols to encourage increases in physical activity and to augment physical fitness and reduce heart disease risk is a relatively new, but growing field of investigation. The evidence so far supports its use in improving potential health benefits for patients with SCI. Such benefits may include more efficient and safer cardiac function; greater stimulus for metabolic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary training adaptations; and greater stimulus for skeletal muscle training adaptations. In addition, the availability of relatively inexpensive commercial FES units to elicit muscular contractions, the ease of use of gel-less, reusable electrodes, and the increasing popularity of home and commercial upper body exercise equipment mean that such benefits are likely to be more accessible to the SCI population through increased convenience and decreased cost. The US Department of Health and Human Services has identified those with SCI as a "special population" whose health problems are accentuated, and so need to be specifically addressed. FES presents "a clear opportunity.... For health promotion and disease prevention efforts to improve the health prospects and functional independence of people with disabilities." As a corollary to this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended the development of techniques to prevent or ameliorate secondary disabilities in persons with a SCI. Patients with SCI have an increased susceptibility to cardiac morbidity and mortality in the acute and early stages of their injury. Most of these patients make an excellent adaptation except when confronted with infection or hypoxia. SCI by itself does not promote atherosclerosis; however, in association with multiple secondary conditions related to SCI, along with advancing age, patients with SCI are predisposed to relatively greater risk of heart disease. The epidemiologic significance of this is reflected in demographic studies that indicate an

  5. Correlates of Heart Rate Measures with Incidental Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tonello, Laís; Reichert, Felipe F.; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Del Rosso, Sebastián; Leicht, Anthony S.; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) levels and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) impact on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR). However, previous studies evaluating PA levels did not discriminate between incidental PA and regular exercise. We hypothesized that incidental PA “per se” would influence cardiac autonomic indices as assessed via HR variability (HRV) and HR recovery (HRR) in non-exercisers. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective PA levels, CRF, and cardiac autonomic indices in adult, regular non-exercising female workers. After familiarization with procedures and evaluation of body composition, 21 women completed a submaximal cycling test and evaluation of HRR on four different days. Resting (2-min seated and standing) and ambulatory (4-h) HRV were also recorded. Levels of PA were assessed by accelerometry over five consecutive days (i.e., Wednesday to Sunday). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured as an index of CRF. As reliability was low to moderate for most HR measures, relationships between these and PA and CRF were examined using the 4-day average measures. Significant correlations were identified between post-exercise HRR in the first min with various PA indices (daily moderate PA, daily vigorous PA, and the sum of vigorous and very vigorous daily PA). Additionally, VO2max was significantly correlated to HRV but not to HRR. The current results indicated that CRF was influential in enhancing HRV while incidental or non-exercise based PA was associated with greater autonomic reactivation in adult overweight women. Therefore, both CRF and non-exercise based PA contribute significant but diverse effects on cardiac health. The use of 4-day averages instead of single measures for evaluation of autonomic control of HR may provide a better indication of regular cardiac autonomic function that remains to be refined. PMID:26779034

  6. Human Fitting Studies of Cleveland Clinic Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    PubMed Central

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Steffen, Robert J.; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Cruz, Vincent; Golding, Leonard A.R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Moazami, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices is challenging, especially in patients with a small chest cavity. We evaluated how well the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) fit the anatomy of patients about to receive a heart transplant. A mock pump model of the CFTAH was rapid-prototyped using biocompatible materials. The model was brought to the operative table, and the direction, length, and angulation of the inflow/outflow ports and outflow conduits were evaluated after the recipient's ventricles had been resected. Thoracic cavity measurements were based on preoperative computed tomographic data. The CFTAH fit well in all five patients (height, 170 ± 9 cm; weight, 75 ± 24 kg). Body surface area was 1.9 ± 0.3 m2 (range, 1.6-2.1 m2). The required inflow and outflow port orientation of both the left and right housings appeared consistent with the current version of the CFTAH implanted in calves. The left outflow conduit remained straight, but the right outflow direction necessitated a 73 ± 22 degree angulation to prevent potential kinking when crossing over the connected left outflow. These data support the fact that our design achieves the proper anatomical relationship of the CFTAH to a patient's native vessels. PMID:25806613

  7. Do telemonitoring projects of heart failure fit the Chronic Care Model?

    PubMed Central

    Willemse, Evi; Adriaenssens, Jef; Dilles, Tinne; Remmen, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of extramural and transmural telemonitoring projects on chronic heart failure in Belgium. It describes to what extent these telemonitoring projects coincide with the Chronic Care Model of Wagner. Background The Chronic Care Model describes essential components for high-quality health care. Telemonitoring can be used to optimise home care for chronic heart failure. It provides a potential prospective to change the current care organisation. Methods This qualitative study describes seven non-invasive home-care telemonitoring projects in patients with heart failure in Belgium. A qualitative design, including interviews and literature review, was used to describe the correspondence of these home-care telemonitoring projects with the dimensions of the Chronic Care Model. Results The projects were situated in primary and secondary health care. Their primary goal was to reduce the number of readmissions for chronic heart failure. None of these projects succeeded in a final implementation of telemonitoring in home care after the pilot phase. Not all the projects were initiated to accomplish all of the dimensions of the Chronic Care Model. A central role for the patient was sparse. Conclusion Limited financial resources hampered continuation after the pilot phase. Cooperation and coordination in telemonitoring appears to be major barriers but are, within primary care as well as between the lines of care, important links in follow-up. This discrepancy can be prohibitive for deployment of good chronic care. Chronic Care Model is recommended as basis for future. PMID:25114664

  8. Aortic baroreflex control of heart rate during hypertensive stimuli: effect of fitness.

    PubMed

    Shi, X; Andresen, J M; Potts, J T; Foresman, B H; Stern, S A; Raven, P B

    1993-04-01

    We examined the aortic baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) in seven healthy young men of average fitness (AF) and seven of high fitness (HF). The fitness level was determined by maximal oxygen uptake (AF = 42.9 +/- 1.1, HF = 62.3 +/- 1.8 ml.kg-1.min-1). Aortic baroreflex control of HR was determined during a steady-state increase of mean arterial pressure (MAP; AF, +15.0 +/- 2.1 and HF, +18.3 +/- 0.8 mmHg) with phenylephrine (PE) infusion combined with positive neck pressure (NP; AF, 18 +/- 2.0 and HF, 20 +/- 0.8 mmHg) to counteract the increased carotid sinus pressure and with low levels of lower body negative pressure to counteract the increased central venous pressure. There was no group difference in the increased MAP or NP, nor was there stage difference in MAP within either group during PE infusion. However, the isolated cardiac-aortic baroreflex gains (i.e., delta HR/delta MAP) were significantly less in the HF (0.16 +/- 0.02 and 0.14 +/- 0.03 beats.min-1.mmHg-1) than in the AF (0.52 +/- 0.08 and 0.59 +/- 0.07 beats.min-1.mmHg-1) subjects at PE + NP and PE + NP + lower body negative pressure. We concluded that during steady-state increases in MAP, the sensitivity of aortic baroreflex control of HR was significantly less in the HF than in the AF subjects. PMID:8514669

  9. Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

  10. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  11. Determinants of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiorespiratory Fitness (from the Dallas Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ambarish; Park, Bryan D; Ayers, Colby; Das, Sandeep R; Lakoski, Susan; Matulevicius, Susan; de Lemos, James A; Berry, Jarett D

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated ethnic/racial differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, the relative contributions of body mass index (BMI), lifestyle behaviors, socioeconomic status (SES), cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and cardiac function to these differences in CRF are unclear. In this study, we included 2,617 Dallas Heart Study participants (58.6% women, 48.6% black; 15.7% Hispanic) without CV disease who underwent estimation of CRF using a submaximal exercise test. We constructed multivariable-adjusted linear regression models to determine the association between race/ethnicity and CRF, which was defined as peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg/min). Black participants had the lowest CRF (blacks: 26.3 ± 10.2; whites: 29.0 ± 9.8; Hispanics: 29.1 ± 10.0 ml/kg/min). In multivariate analysis, both black and Hispanic participants had lower CRF after adjustment for age and gender (blacks: Std β = -0.15; p value ≤0.0001, Hispanics: Std β = -0.05, p value = 0.01; ref group: whites). However, this association was considerably attenuated for black (Std β = -0.04, p value = 0.03) and no longer significant for Hispanic ethnicity (p value = 0.56) after additional adjustment for BMI, lifestyle factors, SES, and CV risk factors. Additional adjustment for stroke volume did not substantially change the association between black race/ethnicity and CRF (Std β = -0.06, p value = 0.01). In conclusion, BMI, lifestyle, SES, and traditional risk factor burden are important determinants of ethnicity-based differences in CRF. PMID:27349903

  12. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Boreham, Colin; Robson, Paula J; Gallagher, Alison M; Cran, Gordon W; Savage, J Maurice; Murray, Liam J

    2004-10-01

    BACKGROUND: The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. METHODS: Males (n 245) and females (n 231) were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD) age 22 (1.6) y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%), 'medium' (M1; middle 50%) or 'high' (H1; highest 25%) categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2) were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 x 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (kappa) statistics. RESULTS: Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (kappa fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in

  13. Impact of task-related changes in heart rate on estimation of hemodynamic response and model fit.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, Sarah F; Ivry, Richard B; Schlerf, John E

    2016-05-15

    The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, as measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is widely used as a proxy for changes in neural activity in the brain. Physiological variables such as heart rate (HR) and respiratory variation (RV) affect the BOLD signal in a way that may interfere with the estimation and detection of true task-related neural activity. This interference is of particular concern when these variables themselves show task-related modulations. We first establish that a simple movement task reliably induces a change in HR but not RV. In group data, the effect of HR on the BOLD response was larger and more widespread throughout the brain than were the effects of RV or phase regressors. The inclusion of HR regressors, but not RV or phase regressors, had a small but reliable effect on the estimated hemodynamic response function (HRF) in M1 and the cerebellum. We next asked whether the inclusion of a nested set of physiological regressors combining phase, RV, and HR significantly improved the model fit in individual participants' data sets. There was a significant improvement from HR correction in M1 for the greatest number of participants, followed by RV and phase correction. These improvements were more modest in the cerebellum. These results indicate that accounting for task-related modulation of physiological variables can improve the detection and estimation of true neural effects of interest. PMID:26944859

  14. General public awareness of heart failure: results of questionnaire survey during Heart Failure Awareness Day 2011

    PubMed Central

    Letonja, Mitja; Kovacic, Dragan; Hodoscek, Lea Majc; Marolt, Apolon; Bartolic, Cvetka Melihen; Mulej, Marija; Penko, Meta; Poles, Janez; Ravnikar, Tinkara; Iskra, Mojca Savnik; Pusnik, Cirila Slemenik; Jug, Borut

    2014-01-01

    Introduction General public views about heart failure (HF) alone and in comparison with other chronic conditions are largely unknown; thus we conducted this survey to evaluate general public awareness about HF and HF disease burden relative to common chronic disease. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional survey during European Heart Failure Awareness Day 2011. People visiting the stands and other activities in 12 Slovenian cities were invited to complete a 14-item questionnaire. Results The analysis included 850 subjects (age 56 ±15 years, 44% men, 55% completed secondary education or higher). Overall, 83% reported to have heard about HF, 58% knew someone with HF, and 35% believed that HF is a normal consequence of ageing. When compared to other chronic diseases, HF was perceived as less important than cancer, myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes with only 6%, 12%, 7%, and 5% of subjects ranking HF as number 1 in terms of prevalence, cost, quality of life, and survival. A typical patient with HF symptoms was recognized by 30%, which was comparable to the description of myocardial ischemia (33%) and stroke (39%). Primary care physicians (53%) or specialists (52%) would be primary sources of information about HF. If experiencing HF, 83% would prefer their care to be focused on quality of life rather than on survival (14%). Conclusions Many participants reported to have heard about heart failure but the knowledge was poor and with several misbeliefs. Heart failure was perceived as less important than several other chronic diseases, where cancer appears as a main concern among the general public. PMID:24904672

  15. Submaximal fitness and mortality risk reduction in coronary heart disease: a retrospective cohort study of community-based exercise rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Claire; Tsakirides, Costas; Moxon, James; Moxon, James William; Dudfield, Michael; Witte, Klaus K; Ingle, Lee; Carroll, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness (sCRF) and all-cause mortality in a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) cohort. Design Retrospective cohort study of participants entering CR between 26 May 1993 and 16 October 2006, followed up to 1 November 2013 (median 14 years, range 1.2–19.4 years). Setting A community-based CR exercise programme in Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK. Participants A cohort of 534 men (76%) and 136 women with a clinical diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD), aged 22–82 years, attending CR were evaluated for the association between baseline sCRF and all-cause mortality. 416 participants with an exercise test following CR (median 14 weeks) were examined for changes in sCRF and all-cause mortality. Main outcome measures All-cause mortality and change in sCRF expressed in estimated metabolic equivalents (METs). Results Baseline sCRF was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality; compared to the lowest sCRF group (<5 METs for women and <6 METs for men), mortality risk was 41% lower in those with moderate sCRF (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.83) and 60% lower (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.64) in those with higher sCRF levels (≥7 METs women and ≥8 METs for men). Although improvement in sCRF at 14 weeks was not associated with a significant mortality risk reduction (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.06) for the whole cohort, in those with the lowest sCRF (and highest all-cause mortality) at baseline, each 1-MET improvement was associated with a 27% age-adjusted reduction in mortality risk (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94). Conclusions Higher baseline sCRF is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality over 14 years in adults with CHD. Improving fitness through exercise-based CR is associated with significant risk reduction for the least fit. PMID:27363816

  16. ["Fitness for public service" - results of standardised acceptance examinations].

    PubMed

    Arndt, K- H; Roth, M

    2002-01-01

    From Nov. 1 1990 to Dec. 31 2001 4928 applicants (61 % female, 39 % male) were examined, totalling 6580 pre-employment examinations, to decide whether they fulfilled the health requirement criteria for civil servants. Standardised aptitude criteria were used, career-specific requirements taken into account. To exclude with a high probability were any risks of premature disability for service or frequent disorders. In 394 cases (= 5.99 %) the results were negative. This assessment was final in 298 cases (= 4.53 % of all examinations) or was confirmed negative in repeated examinations even after special conditions had been imposed. Main reasons for disqualification were second- and third-degree adipositas with additional risk factors or a metabolic syndrome, chronic cardio-vascular and metabolic diseases requiring permanent treatment, malignant neoplasms or non-fulfilment of the criteria for special careers. The comparatively high rate of disqualification is mainly due to the high average age of the applicants examined (40 % of all applicants were over 40, 13 % were older than 50). Purpose, sensitivity and specifics of such examinations are discussed. Taking into consideration the high rate of civil servants prematurely unfit for work, such pre-employment examinations are regarded as highly justified. Moreover, it is necessary to have clear guidelines, aptitude criteria and examination procedures for individual careers. It is also important to adhere strictly to local responsibility for pre-employment examinations. PMID:12221615

  17. UK heart disease prevention project: incidence and mortality results.

    PubMed

    Rose, G; Tunstall-Pedoe, H D; Heller, R F

    1983-05-14

    Results are presented for the UK centre of the WHO European Collaborative Trial in the Multifactorial Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). 18 210 men took part, aged 40 to 59; they were employed in 24 factories, which formed the allocation units for a randomised controlled trial lasting 5-6 years. Intervention comprised advice on cholesterol-lowering diet, smoking cessation, weight control, exercise, and treatment of hypertension. Advice was given mainly through factory medical departments, the staff being supplemented a little by a visiting central team. Self-reported cigarette smoking was moderately reduced, but changes in other risk factors were small and not well sustained. There was no clear effect on hard CHD end-points (coronary deaths and myocardial infarction) or on all-causes mortality. However, there was a 36% reduction in the rate at which intervention subjects reported ill with other CHD (principally angina) during the study, and at the end fewer intervention men gave positive responses to a self-administered questionnaire on angina and chest pain. These apparent benefits were not substantiated by electrocardiographic evidence, suggesting that participation in a heart disease prevention campaign may bias reporting of symptoms. Experience in other centres of the Collaborative Trial, however, suggests that more effective risk factor control does reduce CHD incidence and mortality. This implies that for the UK the problem is to find means of enhancing the acceptance of health advice. PMID:6133103

  18. Project Hearty Heart. A Cardiovascular Fitness Curriculum for First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Dorothy; Chrietzberg, Agnes

    This physical education and health education curriculum guide, specializing in the healthy heart, is designed for use by both classroom teachers and physical education teachers. Part 1 outlines a physical education curriculum for children in the first grade. Included are a variety of physical education program activities which focus on improving…

  19. Increased COUP-TFII expression in adult hearts induces mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wu, San-Pin; Kao, Chung-Yang; Wang, Leiming; Creighton, Chad J; Yang, Jin; Donti, Taraka R; Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G; Graham, Brett H; Bellen, Hugo J; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chang, Ching-Pin; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic remodelling are pivotal in the development of cardiomyopathy. Here, we show that myocardial COUP-TFII overexpression causes heart failure in mice, suggesting a causal effect of elevated COUP-TFII levels on development of dilated cardiomyopathy. COUP-TFII represses genes critical for mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity, oxidative stress detoxification and mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lower rates of oxygen consumption in mitochondria. COUP-TFII also suppresses the metabolic regulator PGC-1 network and decreases the expression of key glucose and lipid utilization genes, leading to a reduction in both glucose and oleate oxidation in the hearts. These data suggest that COUP-TFII affects mitochondrial function, impairs metabolic remodelling and has a key role in dilated cardiomyopathy. Last, COUP-TFII haploinsufficiency attenuates the progression of cardiac dilation and improves survival in a calcineurin transgenic mouse model, indicating that COUP-TFII may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26356605

  20. Increased COUP-TFII expression in adult hearts induces mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Pin; Kao, Chung-Yang; Wang, Leiming; Creighton, Chad J.; Yang, Jin; Donti, Taraka R.; Harmancey, Romain; Vasquez, Hernan G.; Graham, Brett H.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chang, Ching-Pin; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic remodelling are pivotal in the development of cardiomyopathy. Here, we show that myocardial COUP-TFII overexpression causes heart failure in mice, suggesting a causal effect of elevated COUP-TFII levels on development of dilated cardiomyopathy. COUP-TFII represses genes critical for mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity, oxidative stress detoxification and mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lower rates of oxygen consumption in mitochondria. COUP-TFII also suppresses the metabolic regulator PGC-1 network and decreases the expression of key glucose and lipid utilization genes, leading to a reduction in both glucose and oleate oxidation in the hearts. These data suggest that COUP-TFII affects mitochondrial function, impairs metabolic remodelling and has a key role in dilated cardiomyopathy. Last, COUP-TFII haploinsufficiency attenuates the progression of cardiac dilation and improves survival in a calcineurin transgenic mouse model, indicating that COUP-TFII may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26356605

  1. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  2. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  3. Influence of exercise adherence level on modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors and functional-fitness levels in middle-aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, E S; White, J A; Downie, A; Dalzell, G; Doran, D

    1993-01-01

    The study investigated the potential health benefits of two levels of short-term exercise intervention, compared with non-intervention, on selected modifiable coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and functional fitness states in middle-aged men. All subjects underwent medical screening and signed informed consent before carrying out a standardized graded treadmill walk which required exercise up to 85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. The results of the test were used together with musculoskeletal fitness assessments, for the prescription of a personalized exercise programme lasting 14 weeks. In all, 55 subjects were classified by adherence into high (HA, n = 20), low (LA, n = 19), or non-adherence (NA, n = 16) groups according to the degree of documented participation in the programme based on standard criteria (American College of Sports Medicine 1978, 1990). In addition, the respective groups of subjects were classified according to other modifiable and non-modifiable CHD risk factors and compared by self-reported levels of activity and sport involvement as well as perceived body weight classification. The results indicated that there were more comprehensive improvements in functional fitness including significant gains in aerobic endurance capacity, muscular endurance and flexibility in the HA group compared with the LA and NA groups. However, there was little or no change in the modifiable CHD risk factors in any of the respective groups, although anthropometric indices of weight, body mass index (BMI), skinfolds and waist:hips ratio tended to decrease in the HA and LA groups but increased marginally in the NA group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8358578

  4. Heart sounds as a result of acoustic dipole radiation of heart valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasoev, S. G.

    2005-11-01

    Heart sounds are associated with impulses of force acting on heart valves at the moment they close under the action of blood-pressure difference. A unified model for all the valves represents this impulse as an acoustic dipole. The near pressure field of this dipole creates a distribution of the normal velocity on the breast surface with features typical of auscultation practice: a pronounced localization of heart sound audibility areas, an individual area for each of the valves, and a noncoincidence of these areas with the projections of the valves onto the breast surface. In the framework of the dipole theory, the optimum size of the stethoscope’s bell is found and the spectrum of the heart sounds is estimated. The estimates are compared with the measured spectrum.

  5. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Fitness among Adolescents: Varying Definitions Yield Differing Results in Fitness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Matthew S.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess the relationships among leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and measures of health-related and performance-related physical fitness, and (2) to determine the primary predictors of performance-related physical fitness from the variables investigated. This study updates the literature with…

  6. Telehealth on heart failure: results of the Recap project.

    PubMed

    Varon, Carolina; Alao, Morenikeji; Minter, Jan; Stapleton, Michelle; Thomson, Stuart; Jaecques, Siegfried; Rocca, Hans-Peter Bl; Huffel, Sabine V

    2015-09-01

    Telehealth has become a very important tool that allows the monitoring of heart failure patients in a home environment. However, little is known about the effect that such monitoring systems have on patients' compliance, evolution and self-care behaviour. In particular, the effect that the selected user interface has on these factors is unknown. This study aims to investigate this, and to determine some practicalities that must be considered when designing and implementing a telehealth programme for heart failure. To achieve this, daily measurements of blood pressure, pulse, SpO2 and weight were collected from 534 patients suffering from heart failure. In addition, they were asked to fill in the European heart failure self-care behaviour scale questionnaire and the EQ-5D quality of life questionnaire, before and after the monitoring period. Two telehealth systems were used, the Motiva platform provided by Philips and the standalone unit provided by Docobo, the Doc@Home system. Significant differences were found between both systems concerning the compliance and adherence of patients. Moreover, a general, positive effect of telehealth was identified due to the fact that patients showed an increased self-awareness when managing their condition. These findings are supported by behavioural changes and a better understanding of heart failure from the patients' perspective. PMID:25962654

  7. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Benda, Nathalie M. M.; Seeger, Joost P. H.; Stevens, Guus G. C. F.; Hijmans-Kersten, Bregina T. P.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Bellersen, Louise; Lamfers, Evert J. P.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Thijssen, Dick H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT. Methods Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6%) were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload—alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload) or CT (30 minutes at 60–75% of maximal workload). Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test), cardiac function and structure (echocardiography), vascular function and structure (ultrasound) and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ)). Results Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05), whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.). We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05), whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S.). Conclusion Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671 PMID:26517867

  8. Staged reconstruction for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Contemporary results.

    PubMed Central

    Bove, E L; Lloyd, T R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors review their experience with staged reconstructive surgery for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and assess current outcome for this condition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Once considered a uniformly fatal condition, the outlook for newborns with HLHS has been altered dramatically with staged reconstructive procedures. Refinements in operative technique and perioperative management have been largely responsible for this improved outlook. METHODS: The authors reviewed their experience with 158 consecutive patients undergoing stage 1 reconstruction with a Norwood procedure from January 1990 to August 1995. All patients had classic HLHS, defined as a right ventricular dependent circulation in association with atresia or severe hypoplasia of the aortic valve. RESULTS: There were 120 hospital survivors. Among the 127 patients considered at standard risk, survival was significantly higher than that for the 31 patients with important risk factors. Adverse survival was associated most strongly with significant associated noncardiac congenital conditions and severe preoperative obstruction to pulmonary venous return. Second-stage reconstruction with the hemi-Fontan procedure was performed in 106 patients, with 103 hospital survivors and one late death. Three of the late survivors were not considered candidates for the Fontan procedure. To date, the Fontan procedure has been completed in 62 patients, with 53 survivors. Deaths after the Fontan procedure occurred early in our experience and were mostly secondary to left pulmonary artery stenosis or hypoplasia. Significant or potentially significant morbid conditions were noted in 25 of the 120 hospital survivors. Neurologic conditions were found in 6% and cardiovascular conditions in 10%, including dysrhythmia, left pulmonary artery thrombosis, and chronic pleural effusions. Among the patients considered at standard risk with typical anatomy, actuarial survival was 69 +/- 8% at 5 years. Survival was 71

  9. Radio Astronomers Lift "Fog" on Milky Way's Dark Heart: Black Hole Fits Inside Earth's Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    -emitting object would fit neatly just inside the path of the Earth's orbit around the Sun, the astronomers said. The black hole itself, they calculate, is about 14 million miles across, and would fit easily inside the orbit of Mercury. Black holes are concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their powerful gravity. The new VLBA observations provided astronomers their best look yet at a black hole system. "We are much closer to seeing the effects of a black hole on its environment here than anywhere else," Bower said. The Milky Way's central black hole, like its more-massive cousins in more-active galactic nuclei, is believed to be drawing in material from its surroundings, and in the process powering the emission of the radio waves. While the new VLBA observations have not provided a final answer on the nature of this process, they have helped rule out some theories, Bower said. Based on the latest work, he explained, the top remaining theories for the nature of the radio- emitting object are jets of subatomic particles, similar to those seen in radio galaxies; and some theories involving matter being accelerated near the edge of the black hole. As the astronomers studied Sagittarius A* at higher and higher radio frequencies, the apparent size of the object became smaller. This fact, too, Bower said, helped rule out some ideas of the object's nature. The decrease in observed size with increasing frequency, or shorter wavelength, also gives the astronomers a tantalizing target. "We think we can eventually observe at short enough wavelengths that we will see a cutoff when we reach the size of the black hole itself," Bower said. In addition, he said, "in future observations, we hope to see a 'shadow' cast by a gravitational lensing effect of the very strong gravity of the black hole." In 2000, Falcke and his colleagues proposed such an observation on theoretical grounds, and it now seems feasible. "Imaging the shadow of the black hole's event horizon is now

  10. Early result of heart transplantation in Japan: Osaka University experience.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Norihide; Miyamoto, Yuji; Ohtake, Shigeaki; Sawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Toshiki; Nishimura, Motonobu

    2004-06-01

    Since the new organ transplantation law was established in 1997, 17 heart transplantations have been performed in Japan, 7 of which were carried out at Osaka University Hospital. Recipient diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy in 2, dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 4, and post-myocarditis cardiomyopathy in 1. Ages ranged from 8 to 49 years with a mean of 35.3 years. Five patients were bridged with a left ventricular assist device. The waiting period was 182-977 days (mean, 643 days). There was no early or late death during follow-up of 1-4.8 years. Under a standard triple-drug regimen using mycophenolate, there were 3 rejection episodes greater than grade 3 in 2 patients, and humoral rejection requiring plasmapheresis in one. A young boy whose donor was a hemodynamically compromised adult developed neurological sequelae after resuscitation following ventricular tachycardia. All patients were discharged and went back to work or their regular daily life. Although the donor shortage is still severe in Japan, the resumption of heart transplantation has been satisfactory, and left ventricular assist devices have played a crucial role. PMID:15213084

  11. Heart rate response and fitness effects of various types of physical education for 8- to 9-year-old schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Bendiksen, Mads; Williams, Craig A; Hornstrup, Therese; Clausen, Helle; Kloppenborg, Jesper; Shumikhin, Dmitriy; Brito, João; Horton, Joshua; Barene, Svein; Jackman, Sarah R; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the heart rate (HR) response to various types of physical education (PE) activities for 8- to 9-year-olds (five school classes, n = 93) and the fitness effects of a short-term PE training programme (three of the five classes, n = 59) with high compared to low-to-moderate aerobic intensity. HR was recorded during small-sided indoor soccer (SO), basketball (BB), unihockey (UH), circuit training (CT), walking (W) and Nintendo Wii Boxing (NWB) and Nintendo Wii Tennis (NWT). Maximal HR (HRmax) and physical fitness was determined by the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 Children's test (YYIR1C) test. Following cluster randomisation, three classes were tested before and after 6 wks with 2 × 30 min/wk SO and UH lessons [high-intensity (HI), 2 classes, n = 39] or low-to-moderate intensity PE lessons (CON, 1 class, n = 20). Average HR in SO (76 ± 1% HRmax), BA (77 ± 1% HRmax) and UH (74 ± 1% HRmax) was higher (P < 0.05) than in CT (62 ± 1% HRmax), W (57 ± 1% HRmax), NWB (65 ± 2% HRmax) and NWT (57 ± 1% HRmax). Time with HR > 80% and 90% HRmax, respectively, was higher (P < 0.05) in SO (42 ± 4 and 12 ± 2%), BB (41 ± 5 and 13 ± 3%) and UH (34 ± 3 and 9 ± 2%) than in CT, W and NW (0-5%), with time >80% HRmax being higher (P < 0.05) in SO than UH. After 6 wk, YYIR1C performance was increased (P < 0.05) by 22% in HI (673 ± 57 to 821 ± 71 m), but unaltered in CON (674 ± 88 to 568 ± 81 m). HR 2 min into YYIR1C was lowered (P < 0.05) in HI after 6 wks (92.4 ± 0.8 to 89.1 ± 0.9% HRmax), but not in CON. In conclusion, ball games elicited high aerobic loading for young schoolchildren and a short-term, low-volume ball game PE-intervention improved physical fitness. Traditional PE sessions had no effects on intermittent exercise performance. PMID:24533471

  12. 77 FR 24459 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings (SSBW pipe fittings) from Italy.\\1\\ This review covers two... results remain unchanged from the preliminary results of review. \\1\\ See Stainless Steel Butt-Weld...

  13. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  14. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  15. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  16. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  17. 49 CFR 385.317 - Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness... SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.317 Will a safety audit result in a safety fitness determination by the FMCSA? A safety audit will not result in a...

  18. Fitness Trade-offs Result in the Illusion of Social Success

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jason B.; Howie, Jennifer A.; Parkinson, Katie; Gruenheit, Nicole; Melo, Diogo; Rozen, Daniel; Thompson, Christopher R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cooperation is ubiquitous across the tree of life, from simple microbes to the complex social systems of animals [1]. Individuals cooperate by engaging in costly behaviors that can be exploited by other individuals who benefit by avoiding these associated costs. Thus, if successful exploitation of social partners during cooperative interactions increases relative fitness, then we expect selection to lead to the emergence of a single optimal winning strategy in which individuals maximize their gain from cooperation while minimizing their associated costs [2]. Such social “cheating” appears to be widespread in nature [3], including in several microbial systems [4–11], but despite the fitness advantages favoring social cheating, populations tend to harbor significant variation in social success rather than a single optimal winning strategy. Using the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, we provide a possible explanation for the coexistence of such variation. We find that genotypes typically designated as “cheaters” [12] because they produce a disproportionate number of spores in chimeric fruiting bodies do not actually gain higher fitness as a result of this apparent advantage because they produce smaller, less viable spores than putative “losers.” As a consequence of this trade-off between spore number and viability, genotypes with different spore production strategies, which give the appearance of differential social success, ultimately have similar realized fitness. These findings highlight the limitations of using single fitness proxies in evolutionary studies and suggest that interpreting social trait variation in terms of strategies like cheating or cooperating may be misleading unless these behaviors are considered in the context of the true multidimensional nature of fitness. PMID:25819562

  19. Establishing percentiles for junior tennis players based on physical fitness testing results.

    PubMed

    Roetert, E P; Piorkowski, P A; Woods, R B; Brown, S W

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of this study was the establishment of a data base. A broad data base allows for data on certain parameters to be greatly expanded and will also enhance the use and interpretation of statistical methods. A longitudinal study of these variables may also assist in monitoring the players' progress over a period of time, and can provide a useful supplement to subjective coaching appraisals. The means and standard deviation for each test were calculated according to the USTA age and gender groups, that is, 12s, 14s, and 16s for each separate gender. Additionally, the mean and standard deviations for the ages, heights, and weights of each grouping were also calculated. Once the means and standard deviations were calculated, percentile tables were developed for each of the USTA groupings (by age and gender). The percentiles for each USTA test are presented in Appendix 1. A percentile is defined as the point on the distribution below which a given percentage of the scores is found. Percentiles can provide a norm-referenced interpretation of an individual score within a distribution that often consists of scores from a comparable group of individuals. Using the USTA protocol, players and coaches now have a set of normative data by which individual player's fitness scores may be compared with participants of the USTA Area Training Centers (See appendix 1). From the test results, coaches and players can determine which fitness areas need to be improved for athletes on an individual basis. Specific training programs can then be designed based on an athlete's fitness testing results. Proper interpretation of the USTA fitness testing data base results can lead to an easy way to determine the relative position of a given fitness score in the distribution, recognizing weaker areas for the purpose of injury prevention and performance enhancement. Each player can be given a profile detailing their percentile rank relative to other area training center

  20. Potential fitting biases resulting from grouping data into variable width bins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towers, S.

    2014-07-01

    When reading peer-reviewed scientific literature describing any analysis of empirical data, it is natural and correct to proceed with the underlying assumption that experiments have made good faith efforts to ensure that their analyses yield unbiased results. However, particle physics experiments are expensive and time consuming to carry out, thus if an analysis has inherent bias (even if unintentional), much money and effort can be wasted trying to replicate or understand the results, particularly if the analysis is fundamental to our understanding of the universe. In this note we discuss the significant biases that can result from data binning schemes. As we will show, if data are binned such that they provide the best comparison to a particular (but incorrect) model, the resulting model parameter estimates when fitting to the binned data can be significantly biased, leading us to too often accept the model hypothesis when it is not in fact true. When using binned likelihood or least squares methods there is of course no a priori requirement that data bin sizes need to be constant, but we show that fitting to data grouped into variable width bins is particularly prone to produce biased results if the bin boundaries are chosen to optimize the comparison of the binned data to a wrong model. The degree of bias that can be achieved simply with variable binning can be surprisingly large. Fitting the data with an unbinned likelihood method, when possible to do so, is the best way for researchers to show that their analyses are not biased by binning effects. Failing that, equal bin widths should be employed as a cross-check of the fitting analysis whenever possible.

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness estimation using wearable sensors: Laboratory and free-living analysis of context-specific submaximal heart rates.

    PubMed

    Altini, Marco; Casale, Pierluigi; Penders, Julien; Ten Velde, Gabrielle; Plasqui, Guy; Amft, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose to use pattern recognition methods to determine submaximal heart rate (HR) during specific contexts, such as walking at a certain speed, using wearable sensors in free living, and using context-specific HR to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CRF of 51 participants was assessed by a maximal exertion test (V̇o2 max). Participants wore a combined accelerometer and HR monitor during a laboratory-based simulation of activities of daily living and for 2 wk in free living. Anthropometrics, HR while lying down, and walking at predefined speeds in laboratory settings were used to estimate CRF. Explained variance (R(2)) was 0.64 for anthropometrics, and increased up to 0.74 for context-specific HR (0.73-0.78 when including fat-free mass). Next, we developed activity recognition and walking speed estimation algorithms to determine the same contexts (i.e., lying down and walking) in free living. Context-specific HR in free living was highly correlated with laboratory measurements (Pearson's r = 0.71-0.75). R(2) for CRF estimation was 0.65 when anthropometrics were used as predictors, and increased up to 0.77 when including free-living context-specific HR (i.e., HR while walking at 5.5 km/h). R(2) varied between 0.73 and 0.80 when including fat-free mass among the predictors. Root mean-square error was reduced from 354.7 to 281.0 ml/min by the inclusion of context-specific HR parameters (21% error reduction). We conclude that pattern recognition techniques can be used to contextualize HR in free living and estimated CRF with accuracy comparable to what can be obtained with laboratory measurements of HR response to walking. PMID:26940653

  2. 10 years results of an uncemented metaphyseal fit modular stem in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Basilio J; Chaparro, Manuel; Romanillos, Juan O; Zarzoso, Sara; Mosquera, Margarita; Rodriguez, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are concerns with regard to the femoral fixation in cementless total hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. We report a retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological results of uncemented metaphyseal fit modular stem in elderly patients irrespective of anatomic characterstics of proximal femur. Materials and Methods: This study reviews the outcomes of 60 primary hip replacements using a metaphyseal fit modular stem (third-generation Omniflex stem) conducted in 54 patients, of age 75 years or older. After a mean follow-up of 10,4 years, complete clinical and radiographic records were available for 52 hips of 48 patients. The patients were evaluated by Harris Hip Score (HHS). Results: There was a significantly improved pain score and Harris Hip Score (41,6 to 83,2). Six stems (11.53%) were revised: four because of periprosthetic fracture; one stem was well fixed, but presented a large osteolytic lesion in the metaphyseal area and the last stem was revised because of aseptic loosening. Stem survival taking aseptic loosening as the end-point was 98%. Bone atrophy in the proximal femur caused by stress shielding was observed in 39 stems (75%), but there was no case of subtrochanteric stress shielding. Moreover, atrophy appeared within two years postoperatively, with no extension thereafter. Conclusions: We achieved good clinical and radiographic results by uncemented metaphyseal fit femoral stem regardless of patient's age and femoral canal type. PMID:21772630

  3. The results of a press-fit-only technique for acetabular fixation in hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Takao, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuo; Ohzono, Kenji; Sakai, Takashi; Nishii, Takashi; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the 6- to 11-year follow-up results of hemispherical porous-coated cups implanted into dysplastic hips using press-fit technique without screws focusing on the amount of host bone coverage. There were 87 patients who underwent 98 primary total hip arthroplasties. Bony coverage was measured as the angle between the vertical line and the line drawn from the cup center to the lateral edge of the acetabulum, which was named the cup center-edge angle (cup-CE angle). All 98 cups were judged to be bone ingrown. The minimum cup-CE angle was 8.4° (mean, 26.3°). Bone-cup contact of more than 8.4° of the cup-CE angle was large enough for press-fit cups to resist superior directed loads during this follow-up period. PMID:20647158

  4. Results of a community translation of the "Women Take PRIDE" heart disease self-management program.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Mary P; Pettinger, Tianna M; Coyle, Cassandra L; Spokane, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    This article reports the results of a community demonstration of an evidence-based heart disease self-management program for older women. Women Take PRIDE (WTP) is a group-based education and behavior modification program, based on social cognitive theory, designed to enhance heart disease self-management among older women. We implemented the program in community settings with 129 participants. Evaluation data was collected at baseline and at 4- and 12-month follow-ups. Outcomes included general health status, functional health status, and knowledge. Results showed significant improvements in self-rated health, energy, social functioning, knowledge of community resources, and number, frequency, and bother of cardiac symptoms. These results demonstrate that an evidence-based heart disease self-management program can be effective at improving health and quality of life among older women with heart disease when implemented in community settings. PMID:24652881

  5. Effective Compressibility of A Bubbly Slurry: II. Fitting Numerical Results to Field Data and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, Seung I.; Gauglitz, Phillip A. ); Rossen, William R.

    2000-12-01

    The goal of this study is to fit model parameters to changes in waste level in response to barometric pressure changes in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This waste compressibility is a measure of the quantity of gas, typically hydrogen and other flammable gases that can pose a safety hazard, retained in the waste. A one-dimensional biconical-pore-network model for compressibility of a bubbly slurry is presented in a companion paper. Fitting these results to actual waste level changes in the tanks implies that bubbles are long in the slurry layer and the ratio of pore-body radius to pore-throat radius is close to one; unfortunately, capillary effects can not be quantified unambiguously from the data without additional information on pore geometry. Therefore determining the quantity of gas in the tanks requires more than just slurry volume data. Similar ambiguity also exists with two other simple models: a capillary-tube model with contact angle hysteresis and spherical-p ore model.

  6. Fitness Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... that gets your heart pumping, such as dancing, running, or swimming laps. How hard you exercise matters, too. You can learn how to measure your workout to see if it is light, medium, or intense. Fitness for all Do you have an illness or ...

  7. 77 FR 31577 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China, 68 FR 16765... Part, 77 FR 22562 (April 16, 2012) (``Initiation and Preliminary Results''). \\2\\ Petitioners account... International Trade Administration Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of...

  8. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  9. Are Intensified Physical Education Sessions Able to Elicit Heart Rate at a Sufficient Level To Promote Aerobic Fitness in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baquet, Georges; Berthoin, Serge; Van Praagh, Emmanuel

    2002-01-01

    Determined the effects of intensified physical education sessions on adolescents divided into two groups: high intensity running group (HIRG) and high intensity jumping group (HIJG). Heart rate (HR) was monitored during sessions. There was no significant difference between mean HR for HIRG and HIJG. Mean HR was significantly lower for the control…

  10. Results from flight noise tests on a Viper turbojet fitted with ejector/suppressor nozzle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, J. R.; Mckinnon, R. A.; Johnson, E. S.

    1980-01-01

    Noise tests have been performed on a range of advanced exhaust suppressors fitted to a Viper turbojet engine with the objective of evaluating systems potentially suitable for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. A key item in the suppressor systems was an acoustically lined ejector, and tests were made with and without this ejector. Flight tests were made using an HS-125 aircraft in England and were followed by outdoor static tests at NASA Ames Research Center. In addition, acoustic and propulsion measurements were made at static, and in simulated flight conditions, with the engine installed in the Ames 40- by 80-ft wind tunnel. The paper deals mainly with the flight test results. These show that the use of a lined ejector considerably increases the attenuation obtainable using a suppressor nozzle alone and largely confirm predictions made on the basis of previous model and static tests. The maximum measured attenuation adjusted to an altitude of 500 ft was 14 EPNdB at an ideal jet velocity of 2400 ft/sec using the suppressor/ejector design intended for supersonic application. Initial propulsion performance results from the Ames wind tunnel confirm previous smaller scale propulsion results from a Douglas facility.

  11. Six-year in-vitro reliability results of the HeartWare HVAD pump.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Carlos; Chorpenning, Katherine; LaRose, Jeffrey A; Gomez, Ramiro; Tamez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As a result of stagnant heart transplantation rates, ventricular assist devices (VADs) have become a widely accepted therapy for the treatment of advanced-stage heart failure. Long-term reliability of VADs will become increasingly vital as the population of destination therapy patients expands. In this study, eight HVAD pumps (n = 8) completed a 6-year reliability test in the HeartWare Life Cycle Testing System, an in-vitro mock circulatory loop that simulated physiologic pressures and flows. Cumulative runtime for the pumps was 2,408 ± 60 days. During this time, no device failures of any type occurred. These results strongly support the durability of the pump design. PMID:24814839

  12. Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability–based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Methods Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26–40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. Results PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P < 0.001), activity class (P = 0.001), and CRF (P = 0.019) were negatively associated with stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. Conclusions PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed. PMID:24742265

  13. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  14. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ∼5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (∼4 beat/min and ∼5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (∼5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations. PMID:23161271

  15. Peer mentoring is associated with positive change in physical activity and aerobic fitness of grades 4, 5, and 6 students in the heart healthy kids program.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca A; Bower, Jenna; Kirk, Sara F L; Hancock Friesen, Camille

    2014-11-01

    Only 7% of Canadian children achieve activity recommendations, contributing to obesity and preventable disease. The Heart Healthy Kids (H2K) program was designed to test the relationship between peer mentoring, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness. Participants from 10 schools (5 control, 5 intervention) were enrolled in the program. In control schools, H2K included a physical activity challenge and education sessions. Intervention schools included the addition of a peer-mentoring component. Physical activity was measured through daily pedometer recording. Cardiovascular fitness was evaluated using the PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) protocol to calculate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Participants included 808 children (average age 9.9 ± 1.0 years). Although control and intervention schools did not differ at baseline, participants with peer mentoring logged significantly more steps per school day, on average, than those in control schools (6,785 ± 3,011 vs. 5,630 ± 2,586; p < .001). Male participants logged significantly more steps per school day than female participants. A significant improvement in VO2 max was also noted in intervention schools, with an average increase of 1.72 ml/mg/min. H2K was associated with positive change in physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, suggesting that peer mentoring shows promise for application in health promotion interventions. PMID:24737774

  16. The Texas Youth Fitness Study: Looking at School Policies as They Relate to Physical Fitness and Academic Variables. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiden, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    In partnership with three universities, the Cooper Institute, Dallas, completed the Texas Youth Fitness Study from 2008 to 2009. The study explored three key questions: (1) Is physical fitness associated with academic performance?; (2) Can physical education teachers collect high-quality information on student fitness?; and (3) Are school policies…

  17. Physical Fitness of University Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, H. N.; Barksdale, J. M.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare physical activity, aerobic fitness, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors in 27 male and 21 female university faculty members. Results of t-tests indicate that the males had significantly greater values for physical activity index, systolic blood pressure, aerobic fitness (V02 max), and…

  18. Racial Differences in the Prognostic Value of Cardiorespiratory Fitness (Results from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project).

    PubMed

    Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Qureshi, Waqas T; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Alam, Mohsin; Dardari, Zeina; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine whether racial differences exist in the prognostic value of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in black and white patients undergoing stress testing. We included 53,876 patients (mean age 53 ± 13, 49% women) from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing project free of established coronary disease or heart failure who completed a maximal exercise test from 1991 to 2009. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 11.5 years for all-cause mortality, ascertained by linkage with the Death Master File. Follow-up over mean 6.2 years was also available for incident myocardial infarction. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used adjusting for demographic variables, risk factors, medications, and reason for stress test referral, including formal interaction testing by race (black vs white). Black patients (n = 16,725) were younger (54 ± 13 vs 52 ± 13, p <0.001) but had higher prevalence of hypertension (73% vs 57%, p <0.001) and obesity (28% vs 21%, p <0.001). On average, black patients achieved a lower CRF compared with whites (8.4 vs 9.5 metabolic equivalents, p <0.0001). A graded increase in mortality risk was noted with decreasing CRF for both black and white patients. In multivariate Cox regression, CRF was a predictor of both myocardial infarction and mortality, with no significant interaction between race, fitness, and outcomes (all interaction terms p >0.10). CRF is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality in both white and black patients, with no significant interaction observed between race, fitness, and outcomes. PMID:26976790

  19. A Hypomorphic Lsd1 Allele Results in Heart Development Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Thomas B.; Singh, Anup K.; Su, Hui; Hevi, Sarah; Wang, Jing; Bajko, Jeff; Li, Mei; Valdez, Reginald; Goetschkes, Margaret; Capodieci, Paola; Loureiro, Joseph; Cheng, Xiaodong; Li, En; Kinzel, Bernd; Labow, Mark; Chen, Taiping

    2013-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1/Aof2/Kdm1a), the first enzyme with specific lysine demethylase activity to be described, demethylates histone and non-histone proteins and is essential for mouse embryogenesis. Lsd1 interacts with numerous proteins through several different domains, most notably the tower domain, an extended helical structure that protrudes from the core of the protein. While there is evidence that Lsd1-interacting proteins regulate the activity and specificity of Lsd1, the significance and roles of such interactions in developmental processes remain largely unknown. Here we describe a hypomorphic Lsd1 allele that contains two point mutations in the tower domain, resulting in a protein with reduced interaction with known binding partners and decreased enzymatic activity. Mice homozygous for this allele die perinatally due to heart defects, with the majority of animals suffering from ventricular septal defects. Molecular analyses revealed hyperphosphorylation of E-cadherin in the hearts of mutant animals. These results identify a previously unknown role for Lsd1 in heart development, perhaps partly through the control of E-cadherin phosphorylation. PMID:23637775

  20. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... heart block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test ...

  1. A CLINICAL TRIAL COMBINING DONOR BONE MARROW INFUSION AND HEART TRANSPLANTATION: INTERMEDIATE-TERM RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Si M.; Rao, Abdul S.; Zeevi, Adriana; Kormos, Robert L.; McCurry, Kenneth R.; Hattler, Brack G.; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Griffith, Bartley P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Donor chimerism (the presence of donor cells of bone marrow origin) is present for years after transplantation in recipients of solid organs. In lung recipients, chimerism is associated with a lower incidence of chronic rejection. To augment donor chimerism with the aim to enhance graft acceptance and to reduce immunosuppression, we initiated a trial combining infusion of donor bone marrow with heart transplantation. Reported herein are the intermediate-term results of this ongoing trial. Methods Between September 1993 and August 1998, 28 patients received concurrent heart transplantation and infusion of donor bone marrow at 3.0 × 108 cells/kg (study group). Twenty-four contemporaneous heart recipients who did not receive bone marrow served as controls. All patients received an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of tacrolimus and steroids. Results Patient survival was similar between the study and control groups (86% and 87% at 3 years, respectively). However, the proportion of patients free from grade 3A rejection was higher in the study group (64% at 6 months) than in the control group (40%; P = .03). The prevalence of coronary artery disease was similar between the two groups (freedom from disease at 3 years was 78% in study patients and 69% in controls). Similar proportions of study (18%) and control (15%) patients exhibited in vitro evidence of donor-specific hyporesponsiveness. Conclusions The infusion of donor bone marrow reduces the rate of acute rejection in heart recipients. Donor bone marrow may play an important role in strategies aiming to enhance the graft acceptance. PMID:10733755

  2. RSAP - A Code for Display of Neutron Cross Section Data and SAMMY Fit Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.

    2001-02-02

    RSAP is a computer code for display of neutron cross section data and selected SAMMY output. SAMMY is a multilevel R-matrix code for fitting neutron time-of-flight cross-section data using Bayes' method. RSAP, which runs on the Digital Unix Alpha platform, reads ORELA Data Files (ODF) created by SAMMY and uses graphics routines from the PLPLOT package. In addition, RSAP can read data and/or computed values from ASCII files with a format specified by the user. Plot output may be displayed in an X window, sent to a postscript file (rsap.ps), or sent to a color postscript file (rsap.psc). Thirteen plot types are supported, allowing the user to display cross section data, transmission data, errors, theory, Bayes fits, and residuals in various combinations. In this document the designations theory and Bayes refer to the initial and final theoretical cross sections, respectively, as evaluated by SAMMY. Special plot types include Bayes/Data, Theory--Data, and Bayes--Data. Output from two SAMMY runs may be compared by plotting the ratios Theory2/Theory1 and Bayes2/Bayes1 or by plotting the differences (Theory2-Theory1) and (Bayes2-Bayes1).

  3. Self-reported diagnosis of heart disease: results from the SHIELD study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S J; Fox, K M; Grandy, S

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the self-reported method of diagnosis of heart disease (HD) to elucidate whether diagnosis is occurring at early, presymptomatic stages as recommended by the prevention guidelines. Methods: Respondents to the 2006 survey in the US population-based Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD) reported whether a physician told them that they had HD, including heart attack, angina, heart failure, angioplasty or heart bypass surgery. Self-report of age at diagnosis, specialty of physician who made the diagnosis and whether the diagnosis was made after having symptoms, during routine screening or while being treated for another health problem were assessed. Year of diagnosis was categorised into 3-year intervals from 1985 to 2006. Individuals with HD diagnosis with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were compared using chi-square tests. Results: Of 1573 respondents reporting a diagnosis of HD, > 87% were white, > 49% were men and 38% had T2DM. Approximately 19% of respondents reported that their HD diagnosis was made during routine screening. A significantly greater percentage of HD respondents with T2DM reported the diagnosis being made based on symptoms (54%) and while being treated for another health problem (22%) compared with respondents without diabetes (48% symptoms and 15% other health problem, p > 0.05). HD was diagnosed primarily by cardiologists (> 60%) and family doctors (> 25%). Conclusion: There remains a missed opportunity to diagnose HD at earlier stages through routine screening or during treatment of other health conditions such as diabetes, as many individuals were not diagnosed until they were symptomatic. PMID:19392922

  4. 78 FR 72639 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China, 68 FR 16765 (April 7, 2003). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 39256 (July 1, 2013). As explained in the memorandum from the...: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY:...

  5. Simple Cognitive and Behavioural Changes Resulting from Improved Physical Fitness in Persons over 50 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of exercise on simple cognitive performance and on psychological well-being in persons over 50 years of age. It also assesses the relationship between a set of subject variables and dropout from fitness programs. Results suggest that the beneficial effects of exercise may extend to cognitive and personality processes.…

  6. Discussion of the results of the boundary-layer tests of an airfoil fitted with a rotary cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E B; Koning, C

    1927-01-01

    The results of the velocity measurements in the boundary layer described in NACA-TM 411 are here discussed in greater detail. The measurements made were of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of an airfoil model fitted with a rotary cylinder and were undertaken for the purpose of obtaining a closer insight into the phenomena observed in experimenting with this model.

  7. SELF-MANAGEMENT COUNSELING IN PATIENTS WITH HEART FAILURE: PRIMARY RESULTS FROM THE HEART FAILURE ADHERENCE AND RETENTION TRIAL (HART)

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E.; Richardson, Dejuran; Janssen, Imke; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Flynn, Kristin J.; Grady, Kathleen L.; Rucker-Whitaker, Cheryl S.; Eaton, Claudia; Avery, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context Activating patients with heart failure (HF) to adhere to physician advice has not translated into clinical benefit, but past trials have had methodologic limitations. Objective To determine the value of self-management counseling plus HF education, over HF education alone, on the primary endpoint of death or HF hospitalization. Design, Setting, and Patients A single center behavioral efficacy trial in 902 patients with mild to moderate systolic or diastolic dysfunction, randomized between 2001–2004. Interventions All patients were offered 18 contacts and 18 HF educational tip sheets over the course of 1 year. Patients randomized to education received tip sheets in the mail and phone calls to check comprehension. Patients randomized to self-management received tip sheets in groups and were taught self-management skills to implement the advice. Main Outcome Measure Death or HF hospitalization, blindly adjudicated by cardiologists. Intent-to-treat results were analyzed as time-to-event and accelerated failure time models were used for non-proportional hazards. Results Patients were an average of 63.6 years, 47% female, 40% minority, 52% with family income <$30,000/year, and 23% with diastolic dysfunction. The self-management arm was no different from the education arm on the primary endpoint (Wilcoxon p=0.58). Post-hoc analyses on pre-specified subgroups revealed a significant income x treatment interaction (log-logistic estimate=0.64, p=0.02). Patients with income <$30,000 in self-management had a slower time to event than those in education (p=0.05) and were no different than higher income patients in either treatment arm. Conclusions The addition of self-management counseling to HF education does not reduce death or HF hospitalizations in patients with mild to moderate HF. Future trials should evaluate tailored outpatient HF management featuring ongoing education and comprehension checks for all, augmented by group-based skill development for those more

  8. Results following implantation of mechanical circulatory support systems: The Montreal Heart Institute experience

    PubMed Central

    El-Hamamsy, Ismaïl; Jacques, Frédéric; Perrault, Louis P; Bouchard, Denis; Demers, Philippe; White, Michel; Pelletier, Guy B; Racine, Normand; Pellerin, Michel; Carrier, Michel

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS) have been available in Canada since 1986. Accepted indications include bridging to transplantation or recovery. The present study reviewed the results following MCSS implantation at the Montreal Heart Institute (Montreal, Quebec). METHODS: From September 1987 to September 2006, 43 MCSS were implanted (32 Thoratec [Thoratec Corporation, USA], nine Cardio West TAH [SynCardia Systems Inc, USA], two Novacor [World Heart Corporation, Canada]) in 43 patients (mean [± SD] age 44±13 years; range 19 to 64 years). Indications for implantation included cardiogenic shock due to ischemic (n=19), viral (n=10) or other types of cardiomyopathies (n=14). RESULTS: The mean ejection fraction before implantation was 17.6±6.5% (range 10% to 45%). Before MCSS implantation, most patients showed signs of end-organ failure, including mechanical ventilation (77%), central venous pressure higher than 16 mmHg (44%), oliguria (35%) and hepatic dysfunction (19%). The mean duration of MCSS support was 22.8±32.8 days (range one to 158 days). Survival to transplantation or recovery was 74%. Only one patient was successfully bridged to recovery. Complications were common during MCSS support. They included re-exploration for bleeding (47%), respiratory failure (44%), renal failure requiring temporary dialysis (40%), infection (33%) and neurological events (16%). Only one patient had device failure. In patients successfully bridged to transplantation, early actuarial survival (one month) following transplantation averaged 71±8% and was 57±9% at one year. CONCLUSION: MCSS support with a left ventricular assist device or a total artificial heart provides an effective means of bridging terminally ill patients to transplantation or recovery. Early survival after transplantation shows satisfactory results. However, these results come at the expense of frequent device-related complications, and device failure remains a constant threat. PMID

  9. Clinical management of arrhythmias in elderly patients: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Hocini, Mélèze; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Proclemer, Alessandro; Sciaraffia, Elena; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess clinical practice in management of cardiac arrhythmias in elderly patients (age ≥75 years) in the European countries. The data are based on an electronic questionnaire sent to the European Heart Rhythm Association Research Network members. Responses were received from 50 centres in 20 countries. The results of the survey have shown that management of cardiac arrhythmias is generally in accordance with the guidelines and consensus recommendations on management of cardiac arrhythmias, although there are some areas of variation, especially on age limit and exclusion of elderly patients for anticoagulation, ablation, and device therapy. PMID:25634939

  10. LLNL heart valve condition classification project anechoic testing results at the TRANSDEC evaluation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V

    1999-10-31

    This report first briefly outlines the procedures and support/activation fixture developed at LLNL to perform the heart valve tests in an anechoic-like tank at the US Navy Transducer Evaluation Facility (TransDec) located in San Diego, CA. Next they discuss the basic experiments performed and the corresponding experimental plan employed to gather meaningful data systematically. The signal processing required to extract the desired information is briefly developed along with some of the data. Finally, they show the results of the individual runs for each valve, point out any of the meaningful features and summaries.

  11. Fabrication of single-electron devices using dispersed nanoparticles and fitting experimental results to values calculated based on percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masataka; Huong, Tran Thi Thu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Yasuo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Mizugaki, Yoshinao

    2016-08-01

    We calculated the connection probability, P C, between electrodes on the basis of the triangular lattice percolation model for investigating the effect of distance variation between electrodes and the electrode width on fabricated capacitively coupled single-electron transistors. Single-electron devices were fabricated via the dispersion of gold nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs were dispersed via the repeated dropping of an NP solution onto a chip. The experimental results were fitted to the calculated values, and the fitting parameters were compared with the occupation probability, P O, which was estimated for one drop of the NP solution. On the basis of curves of the drain current versus the drain-source voltage ( I D- V DS) measured at 77 K, the current was suppressed at approximately 0 V.

  12. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  13. Results From the New Jersey Statewide Critical Congenital Heart Defects Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Lorraine F.; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Knapp, Mary M.; Anderson, Terry M.; Koppel, Robert I.; Hirsch, Daniel; Beres, Leslie M.; Hyg, MS; Sweatlock, Joseph; Olney, Richard S.; Glidewell, Jill; Hinton, Cynthia F.; Kemper, Alex R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE New Jersey was the first state to implement legislatively mandated newborn pulse oximetry screening (POxS) in all licensed birthing facilities to detect critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs). The objective of this report was to evaluate implementation of New Jersey’s statewide POxS mandate. METHODS A 2-pronged approach was used to collect data on infants screened in all New Jersey birthing facilities from August 31, 2011, through May 31, 2012. Aggregate screening results were submitted by each birthing facility. Data on failed screens and clinical characteristics of those newborns were reported to the New Jersey Birth Defects Registry (NJBDR). Three indicators were used to distinguish the added value of mandated POxS from standard clinical care: prenatal congenital heart defect diagnosis, cardiology consultation or echocardiogram indicated or performed before PoxS, or clinical findings at the time of POxS warranting a pulse oximetry measurement. RESULTS Of 75 324 live births in licensed New Jersey birthing facilities, 73 320 were eligible for screening, of which 99% were screened. Forty-nine infants with failed POxS were reported to the NJBDR, 30 of whom had diagnostic evaluations solely attributable to the mandated screening. Three of the 30 infants had previously unsuspected CCHDs and 17 had other diagnoses or non-CCHD echocardiogram findings. CONCLUSIONS In the first 9 months after implementation, New Jersey achieved a high statewide screening rate and established surveillance mechanisms to evaluate the unique contribution of POxS. The screening mandate identified 3 infants with previously unsuspected CCHDs that otherwise might have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality and also identified other significant secondary targets such as sepsis and pneumonia. PMID:23858425

  14. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function fitting: Results from a global MHD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Han, J. P.; Li, H.; Peng, Z.; Richardson, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    Quantitatively estimating the energy input from the solar wind into the magnetosphere on a global scale is still an observational challenge. We perform three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to derive the energy coupling function. Based on 240 numerical test runs, the energy coupling function is given by Ein=3.78×107nsw0.24Vsw1.47BT0.86[sin2.70(θ/2)+0.25]. We study the correlations between the energy coupling function and a wide variety of magnetospheric activity, such as the indices of Dst, Kp, ap, AE, AU, AL, the polar cap index, and the hemispheric auroral power. The results indicate that this energy coupling function gives better correlations than the ɛ function. This result is also applied to a storm event under northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. About 13% of the solar wind kinetic energy is transferred into the magnetosphere and about 35% of the input energy is dissipated in the ionosphere, consistent with previous studies.

  15. A Low-Glycemic Nutritional Fitness Program to Reverse Metabolic Syndrome in Professional Firefighters: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mary G.; Al-Zaiti, Salah S.; Liao, Limei; Martin, Heather N.; Butler, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk for cardiovascular events is higher for those with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it is known that firefighters have a fourfold risk for cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to quantify MetS prevalence and evaluate the effect of a low glycemic nutritional fitness program on the reduction of MetS risk factors among firefighters. Methods Professional firefighters were screened for MetS then enrolled in a low glycemic nutritional fitness program for a 12-week period. Anthropometric and physiologic measurements were obtained at the start and end of the program. Subjects with ≥3 of the following were positive for MetS: waist ≥40 (men) or ≥35 inches (women), BP≥135 (systole) or ≥85 (diastole) mmHg, fasting blood sugar ≥100mg/dl, triglycerides ≥150mg/dl, and high-density lipoproteins <40 (men) or <50 mg/dl (women). Weekly training was provided with low glycemic nutrition and regular fitness and evaluation of individual progress. Results Seventy-five firefighters (age 42+8yrs, mostly Caucasian men) had a total MetS prevalence of 46.7% (p<0.05 vs normal population). One platoon (10 men, age 48±5yrs) was enrolled in the 12-week program. Most (7/10) had MetS at the baseline, but this prevalence decreased significantly after 12 weeks to 3 subjects (p=0.02). On average, subjects had 3.2±1.6 vs 1.9±1.7 MetS risk factors (p<0.01) at baseline and 12 week interval, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS and MetS risk factors are higher among professional firefighters compared to general population. A short-duration low glycemic fitness program can successfully improve anthropometric and physiologic measures and reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:21263343

  16. Management of patients with ventricular tachycardia in Europe: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Todd, Derick M; Proclemer, Alessandro; Sciaraffia, Elena; Estner, Heidi L; Broadhurst, Paul; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess clinical practice in the management of ventricular tachycardia (VT). The data are based on an electronic questionnaire sent to the members of the EHRA Research Network. Responses were received from 31 centres in 16 countries. The results of the survey show that the management of VT is in general in accordance with guidelines. Antiarrhythmic drugs are still frequently used for VT treatment. In patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is routinely recommended, while the treatment options vary for patients with moderate or low risk. A discreet attitude is adopted for catheter ablation in high-risk patients as demonstrated by a relatively low rate of catheter ablation. PMID:26273104

  17. Dysregulated endocardial TGFβ signaling and mesenchymal transformation result in heart outflow tract septation failure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Man C; Li, Peng; Shen, Hua; Estrada, Kristine D; Xu, Jian; Kumar, S Ram; Sucov, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Heart outflow tract septation in mouse embryos carrying mutations in retinoic acid receptor genes fails with complete penetrance. In this mutant background, ectopic TGFβ signaling in the distal outflow tract is responsible for septation failure, but it was uncertain what tissue was responsive to ectopic TGFβ and why this response interfered with septation. By combining RAR gene mutation with tissue-specific Cre drivers and a conditional type II TGFβ receptor (Tgfbr2) allele, we determined that ectopic activation of TGFβ signaling in the endocardium is responsible for septation defects. Ectopic TGFβ signaling results in ectopic mesenchymal transformation of the endocardium and thereby in improperly constituted distal OFT cushions. Our analysis highlights the interactions between myocardium, endocardium, and neural crest cells in outflow tract morphogenesis, and demonstrates the requirement for proper TGFβ signaling in outflow tract cushion organization and septation. PMID:26522286

  18. [Heart rate variability in the prognosis of tilt-testing results].

    PubMed

    Dupliakov, D V; Golovina, G A; Sysuenkova, E V; Glukhova, V L; Gar'kina, S V

    2012-01-01

    Study aim was assessment of dynamics of spectral parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) during the Westminster and Italian protocols of tilt-test (TT). We included in this study 114 patients with recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS). Basing on TT results we distinguished 4 groups of patients: with positive result of the Westminster protocol (WPTT) (group 1, n=30); with negative result of WPTT (group 2, n=23); with positive result of the Italian protocol (IPTT) (group 3, n=44); with negative result of IPTT (group 4, n=11). Control group comprised 14 healthy persons without history of syncope. Spectral parameters of HRV were analyzed in 3 five minutes intervals (before TT in horizontal position, during first and last 5 minutes of orthostasis). Structure of vasovagal responses was similar for all TT protocols used. In lying position in patients of groups 1-3 lower values of LF1 and LF1/HF1 were registered, as well as high values of HF1 compared with the control group and patients with negative results of IPTT. Initial stage of TT in patients with positive result of WPTT (group 1) was characterized by almost twofold increase of LF values (n.u.) and decrease of HF parameters (n.u.) compared with other patients. In the group 1 during the second period. PMID:22839716

  19. Flexible Survival Strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Biofilms Result in Increased Fitness Compared with Candida albicans *

    PubMed Central

    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage. PMID

  20. Quality of Life and Economic Outcomes with Surgical Ventricular Reconstruction in Ischemic Heart Failure: Results From the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Daniel B.; M.P.H; Knight, J. David; Velazquez, Eric J.; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Spertus, John A.; Djokovic, Ljubomir T.; Harding, Tina M.; Rankin, Gena R.; R.D.; Drew, Laura A.; Szygula-Jurkiewicz, Bozena; Adlbrecht, Christopher; Anstrom, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) is used in conjunction with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) to improve left ventricular function and clinical outcomes in selected patients with ischemic heart failure. The impact of SVR on quality of life and medical costs is unknown. Methods We compared CABG plus SVR with CABG alone in 1000 patients with ischemic heart failure, a large anterior wall scar, and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 0.35. In 991 (99% of eligible), we collected a battery of quality of life (QOL) instruments. The principal, pre-specified QOL measure was the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), which evaluates the effects of heart failure symptoms on QOL using a scale from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicating better QOL. Structured QOL interviews were conducted at baseline, 4, 12, 24, and 36 months post randomization and were ≥ 92% complete. Cost data were collected on 196 of 200 (98%) patients enrolled in the United States. Results Heart-failure-related QOL outcomes did not differ between the two treatment strategies out to 3 years (median KCCQ scores for CABG alone and CABG plus SVR, respectively: baseline 53 versus 54, p=0.53; 3 years 85 versus 84, p=0.89). There were no treatment-related differences in other QOL measures. In the US patients, total index hospitalization costs averaged over $14,500 higher for CABG plus SVR (P=0.004) due primarily to 4.2 extra post-operative high-intensity care days in the hospital. Conclusions Addition of SVR to CABG in patients with ischemic heart failure did not improve quality of life but significantly increased health care costs. PMID:19376309

  1. Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Trial: Mode of Death Results

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Peter; Wertheimer, John; Miller, Alan; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Pina, Ileana L.; Selzman, Craig; Sueta, Carla; She, Lilin; Greene, Deborah; Lee, Kerry L.; Jones, Robert H.; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of the addition of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to medical therapy on mode of death in heart failure. Background While CABG therapy is widely used in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients, there is no prospective clinical trial data on mode of death. Methods The Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure Trial (STICH) compared the strategy of CABG plus medical therapy to medical therapy alone in 1212 ischemic cardiomyopathy patients with reduced ejection fraction. A clinical events committee adjudicated deaths using pre-specified definitions for mode of death. Results In STICH, there were 462 deaths over a median follow-up of 56 months. The addition of CABG therapy tended to reduce cardiovascular deaths (HR 0.83; CI (0.68, 1.03),p=0.09) and significantly reduced the most common modes of death: sudden death (HR 0.73; CI (.54–.99) p=0.041) and fatal pump failure events (HR 0.64; CI (.41–1.00) p=0.05). Time-dependent estimates indicate that the protective effect of CABG principally occurred after 24 months in both categories. Deaths post- cardiovascular procedures were increased in CABG patients (HR 3.11 CI (1.47–6.60), but fatal myocardial infarction deaths were lower (HR 0.07 CI (0.01–0.57). Non- cardiovascular deaths were infrequent and did not differ between groups. Conclusion In STICH, the addition of CABG to medical therapy reduced the most common modes of death: sudden death and fatal pump failure events. The beneficial effects were principally seen after 2 years. Post-procedure deaths were increased in patients randomized to CABG while myocardial infarction deaths were decreased. PMID:24621972

  2. Take heart: results from the initial phase of a work-site wellness program.

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, R E; Terborg, J R; Hollis, J F; Severson, H H; Boles, S M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of a low-intensity work-site heart disease risk reduction program using a matched pair design with work site as the unit of analysis. METHODS. Twenty-six heterogeneous work sites with between 125 and 750 employees were matched on key organization characteristics and then randomly assigned to early or delayed intervention conditions. Early intervention consisted of an 18-month multifaceted program that featured an employee steering committee and a menu approach to conducting key intervention activities tailored to each site. RESULTS. Cross-sectional and cohort analyses produced consistent results. At the conclusion of the intervention, early and delayed intervention conditions did not differ on changes in smoking rates, dietary intake, or cholesterol levels. There was considerable variability in outcomes among work sites within each condition. CONCLUSIONS. Despite documented implementation of key intervention activities and organization-level changes in terms of perceived support for health promotion, this intervention did not produce short-term improvements beyond secular trends observed in control work sites. Research is needed to understand determinants of variability between work sites. PMID:7856780

  3. Fitting of satellite and in-situ ocean surface temperatures Results for polymode during the winter of 1977-1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A.; Bravo, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    For the period considered, December 1977 through February 1978, bivariate Gaussian discriminant function cloud identification revealed that more than 93 percent of the 8-km resolution GOES infrared pixels were cloud contaminated. Cloud-free in-situ calibration points were distributed in nonrandom groups; this resulted in systematic errors when using least squares techniques. Surfaces and regression lines were least squares fitted between satellite and in-situ data; use was also made of differences and ratios. The best results were achieved with a regression in the form of the infrared radiative transfer equation; but this was no better than + or - 0.9 K. Because of extensive cloudiness, the linear regressions were seldom useful, and temperature ratios with + or - 1.3 K experimental errors best represent the applicability of GEOS data to sea surface temperatures.

  4. Lifestyle Intervention Improves Heart Rate Recovery from Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Paul M.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A.; Horton, Edward S.; Jakicic, John M.; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Knowler, William C.; Stewart, Kerry J.; Research Group, Look AHEAD

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45–76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314

  5. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Paul M; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A; Horton, Edward S; Jakicic, John M; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W; Knowler, William C; Stewart, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45-76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314

  6. A color spectrographic phonocardiography (CSP) applied to the detection and characterization of heart murmurs: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although cardiac auscultation remains important to detect abnormal sounds and murmurs indicative of cardiac pathology, the application of electronic methods remains seldom used in everyday clinical practice. In this report we provide preliminary data showing how the phonocardiogram can be analyzed using color spectrographic techniques and discuss how such information may be of future value for noninvasive cardiac monitoring. Methods We digitally recorded the phonocardiogram using a high-speed USB interface and the program Gold Wave http://www.goldwave.com in 55 infants and adults with cardiac structural disease as well as from normal individuals and individuals with innocent murmurs. Color spectrographic analysis of the signal was performed using Spectrogram (Version 16) as a well as custom MATLAB code. Results Our preliminary data is presented as a series of seven cases. Conclusions We expect the application of spectrographic techniques to phonocardiography to grow substantially as ongoing research demonstrates its utility in various clinical settings. Our evaluation of a simple, low-cost phonocardiographic recording and analysis system to assist in determining the characteristic features of heart murmurs shows promise in helping distinguish innocent systolic murmurs from pathological murmurs in children and is expected to useful in other clinical settings as well. PMID:21627809

  7. Twenty-Year Experience of Heart Transplantation: Early and Long-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Yeom, Sang Yoon; Hwang, Ho Young; Choi, Jae-Woong; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Lee, Hae-Young; Huh, Jae-Hak; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated early and long-term results after heart transplantation (HTPL). Methods One hundred five consecutive patients (male:female=80:25) who underwent HTPL between 1994 and 2013 were enrolled. Based on the changes in immunosuppressive regimen, the study patients were divided into two groups. Early and long-term clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared between the patients who underwent HTPL before (group E, n=41) and after July 2009 (group L, n=64). The group L patients were older (p<0.001), had higher incidence of hypertension (p=0.001) and chronic kidney disease (p<0.001), and more frequently needed preoperative mechanical ventilation (p=0.027) and mechanical circulatory support (p=0.014) than the group E patients. Results Overall operative mortality was 3.8%, and postoperative morbidities included acute kidney injury (n=31), respiratory complications (n=16), reoperation for bleeding (n=15) and wound complications (n=10). There were no significant differences in early results except acute kidney injury between group E and group L patients. Overall survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 83.8%, 67.7%, and 54.9%, respectively, with no significant difference between the two patient groups. Rejection-free rates at 1 and 5 years were 63.0% and 59.7%, respectively; rates were significantly higher in group L than in group E (p<0.001). Conclusion Despite increased preoperative comorbidities, group L patients showed similar early and long-term outcomes and significantly higher rejection-free rates when compared with group E patients. PMID:27525232

  8. Gestational stress induces the unfolded protein response, resulting in heart defects.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongjun; O'Reilly, Victoria C; Moreau, Julie L M; Bewes, Therese R; Yam, Michelle X; Chapman, Bogdan E; Grieve, Stuart M; Stocker, Roland; Graham, Robert M; Chapman, Gavin; Sparrow, Duncan B; Dunwoodie, Sally L

    2016-07-15

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is an enigma. It is the most common human birth defect and yet, even with the application of modern genetic and genomic technologies, only a minority of cases can be explained genetically. This is because environmental stressors also cause CHD. Here we propose a plausible non-genetic mechanism for induction of CHD by environmental stressors. We show that exposure of mouse embryos to short-term gestational hypoxia induces the most common types of heart defect. This is mediated by the rapid induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which profoundly reduces FGF signaling in cardiac progenitor cells of the second heart field. Thus, UPR activation during human pregnancy might be a common cause of CHD. Our findings have far-reaching consequences because the UPR is activated by a myriad of environmental or pathophysiological conditions. Ultimately, our discovery could lead to preventative strategies to reduce the incidence of human CHD. PMID:27436040

  9. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries to determine your risk for heart disease Congenital heart disease (heart problems that are present at birth) Problems ... Abnormal results may be due to: Aneurysm Congenital heart disease ... Narrowing of one or more coronary arteries (coronary artery ...

  10. Current ablation techniques for persistent atrial fibrillation: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Dagres, Nikolaos; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Hernandez-Madrid, Antonio; Pison, Laurent; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this survey was to provide insight into current practice regarding ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) among members of the European Heart Rhythm Association electrophysiology research network. Thirty centres responded to the survey. The main ablation technique for first-time ablation was stand-alone pulmonary vein isolation (PVI): in 67% of the centres for persistent but not long-standing AF and in 37% of the centres for long-standing persistent AF as well. Other applied techniques were ablation of fractionated electrograms, placement of linear lesions, stepwise approach until AF termination, and substrate mapping and isolation of low-voltage areas. However, the percentage of centres applying these techniques during first ablation did not exceed 25% for any technique. When stand-alone PVI was performed in patients with persistent but not long-standing AF, the majority (80%) of the centres used an irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter whereas 20% of the respondents used the cryoballoon. Similar results were reported for ablation of long-standing persistent AF (radiofrequency 90%, cryoballoon 10%). Neither rotor mapping nor one-shot ablation tools were used as the main first-time ablation methods. Systematic search for non-pulmonary vein triggers was performed only in 10% of the centres. Most common 1-year success rate off antiarrhythmic drugs was 50-60%. Only 27% of the centres knew their 5-year results. In conclusion, patients with persistent AF represent a significant proportion of AF patients undergoing ablation. There is a shift towards stand-alone PVI being the primary choice in many centres for first-time ablation in these patients. The wide variation in the use of additional techniques and in the choice of endpoints reflects the uncertainties and lack of guidance regarding the most optimal approach. Procedural success rates are modest and long-term outcomes are unknown in most centres. PMID:26498718

  11. Periodontal Infection and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Younger Adults: Results from Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Jacobs, David R.; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. Methods The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women) who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max ). Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20–49 years), 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute) as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile) were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99). Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28). Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00). The odds ratio (OR) for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64–1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51–1.15]. Conclusion Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults. PMID:24663097

  12. 76 FR 5333 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China, 68 FR 16765 (April 7, 2003). \\2\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR... cast iron pipe fittings with an inside diameter ranging from \\1/4\\ inch to 6 inches, whether...

  13. 75 FR 68324 - Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 53664 (September 1, 2010) (Initiation Notice). Because no interested domestic... Less Than Fair Value; Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe and Tube Fittings From Japan, 53 FR 9787 (March 25... Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Korea, 58 FR 11029 (February 23, 1993). The Department published...

  14. Bootstrapping Results of Exercise Therapy and Education for Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witta, E. Lea; Brubaker, Craig

    2003-01-01

    When studies are conducted over a period of time, the sample size typically decreases. In a study of the effects of exercise therapy and education with recovering congestive heart failure (CHF) patients (Brubaker, Witta, & Angelopoulus, 2003), the sample size decreased from over 40 to 9 participants after an 18-month time span. Although the…

  15. Small dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease: results from the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to establish reference values for a new direct assay for small dense LDL cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and to measure sdLDL-C concentrations in patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) vs controls. Direct LDL-C and sdLDL-C were measured in samples from 3188 male and female participan...

  16. Sodium MRI of the human heart at 7.0 T: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Graessl, Andreas; Ruehle, Anjuli; Waiczies, Helmar; Resetar, Ana; Hoffmann, Stefan H; Rieger, Jan; Wetterling, Friedrich; Winter, Lukas; Nagel, Armin M; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) and whole heart coverage (23)Na cardiac MRI at 7.0 T including single-cardiac-phase and cinematic (cine) regimes. A four-channel transceiver RF coil array tailored for (23)Na MRI of the heart at 7.0 T (f = 78.5 MHz) is proposed. An integrated bow-tie antenna building block is used for (1)H MR to support shimming, localization and planning in a clinical workflow. Signal absorption rate simulations and assessment of RF power deposition were performed to meet the RF safety requirements. (23) Na cardiac MR was conducted in an in vivo feasibility study. 3D gradient echo (GRE) imaging in conjunction with Cartesian phase encoding (total acquisition time T(AQ)  = 6 min 16 s) and whole heart coverage imaging employing a density-adapted 3D radial acquisition technique (T(AQ)  = 18 min 20 s) were used. For 3D GRE-based (23)Na MRI, acquisition of standard views of the heart using a nominal in-plane resolution of (5.0 × 5.0) mm(2) and a slice thickness of 15 mm were feasible. For whole heart coverage 3D density-adapted radial (23)Na acquisitions a nominal isotropic spatial resolution of 6 mm was accomplished. This improvement versus 3D conventional GRE acquisitions reduced partial volume effects along the slice direction and enabled retrospective image reconstruction of standard or arbitrary views of the heart. Sodium cine imaging capabilities were achieved with the proposed RF coil configuration in conjunction with 3D radial acquisitions and cardiac gating. Cardiac-gated reconstruction provided an enhancement in blood-myocardium contrast of 20% versus the same data reconstructed without cardiac gating. The proposed transceiver array enables (23)Na MR of the human heart at 7.0 T within clinical acceptable scan times. This capability is in positive alignment with the needs of explorations that are designed to examine the potential of (23)Na MRI for the assessment of cardiovascular and

  17. Lack of Gata3 results in conotruncal heart anomalies in mouse.

    PubMed

    Raid, Raivo; Krinka, Dagni; Bakhoff, Lairi; Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Jokinen, Eero; Kärner, Martin; Malva, Merly; Meier, Riho; Pelliniemi, Lauri J; Ploom, Merlin; Sizarov, Aleksander; Pooga, Margus; Karis, Alar

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor Gata3 is an important regulator of the development of thymus, the nervous system, ear, kidney, and adrenal glands. This study analyzes the role of Gata3 in the developing heart using a mouse strain containing an nlsLacZ reporter gene fused in frame to the Gata3 gene by homologous recombination. Using in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and Gata3-LacZ histochemistry, Gata3 expression was shown in various cardiac structures up to newborn stage. During looping stages (E9.5-E11.5) Gata3-LacZ activity recapitulated endogenous Gata3 and was abundantly expressed in the endocardial ridges and endothelium of distal outflow tract. Strong reporter gene expression was also noted in the mesenchyme of ventral branchial arches, and in the epithelium. In the atrioventricular canal expression was relatively lower. In the four-chambered heart stages (E13.5-E17.5) the LacZ-staining did not recapitulate the endogenous Gata3 transcript and showed rather lineage tracing of formerly Gata3-expressing cells in the hearts. beta-Galactosidase activity was detected in the cusps of semilunar valves, aorta, pulmonary trunk, innominate and common carotid arteries, and faintly in the atrioventricular valves. Gata3-null embryos die normally between E11 and E12. Pharmacological treatment with sympathomimetic beta-adrenergic receptor agonist lengthens the survival up to E18 when malformations of the heart such as ventricular septal defect (VSD), double-outlet of right ventricle (DORV), anomalies of the aortic arch (AAA) and persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) were detected. The specified malformations correlate with the normal developmental pattern of Gata3-LacZ expression. The short outflow tract and insufficient rotation of truncus arteriosus during looping stages might be the main reasons underlying these malformations. PMID:18955134

  18. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: rationale, design, and early results.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Bruce; Brueckner, Martina; Chung, Wendy; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Kaltman, Jonathan; Kaski, Juan Pablo; Kim, Richard; Kline, Jennie; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Porter, George; Roberts, Amy; Rosenberg, Ellen; Seiden, Howard; Seidman, Christine; Sleeper, Lynn; Tennstedt, Sharon; Kaltman, Jonathan; Schramm, Charlene; Burns, Kristin; Pearson, Gail; Rosenberg, Ellen

    2013-02-15

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the leading cause of infant mortality among birth defects, and later morbidities and premature mortality remain problematic. Although genetic factors contribute significantly to cause CHD, specific genetic lesions are unknown for most patients. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium established the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to investigate relationships between genetic factors, clinical features, and outcomes in CHD. The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium comprises 6 main and 4 satellite sites at which subjects are recruited, and medical data and biospecimens (blood, saliva, cardiovascular tissue) are collected. Core infrastructure includes an administrative/data-coordinating center, biorepository, data hub, and core laboratories (genotyping, whole-exome sequencing, candidate gene evaluation, and variant confirmation). Eligibility includes all forms of CHD. Annual follow-up is obtained for probands <1-year-old. Parents are enrolled whenever available. Enrollment from December 2010 to June 2012 comprised 3772 probands. One or both parents were enrolled for 72% of probands. Proband median age is 5.5 years. The one third enrolled at age <1 year are contacted annually for follow-up information. The distribution of CHD favors more complex lesions. Approximately, 11% of probands have a genetic diagnosis. Adequate DNA is available from 97% and 91% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. Genomic analyses of probands with heterotaxy, atrial septal defects, conotruncal, and left ventricular outflow tract obstructive lesions are underway. The scientific community's use of Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium resources is welcome. PMID:23410879

  19. The isolated working heart model in infarcted rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Itter, G; Jung, W; Schoelkens, B A; Linz, W

    2005-04-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common causes of death in western countries. The aim of this study was to establish and validate the working heart model in rat hearts with CHF. In the rat model the animals show parameters and symptoms that can be extrapolated to the clinical situation of patients with end-stage heart failure. The focus of attention was the evaluation of cardiodynamics (e.g.contractility) in the isolated 'working heart' model. The geometric properties of the left ventricle were measured by planimetry (stereology). Formulae available in the past for determining certain parameters in the working heart model (e.g.external heart work) have to be fitted to the circumstances of the infarcted rat hearts with its different organ properties.CHF was induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NHsd) by creating a permanent (8 week) occlusion of the left coronary artery, 2 mm distal to the origin from the aorta, by a modified technique (Itter et al. 2004). This resulted in a large infarction of the free left ventricular wall. We were able to establish and adapt a new and predictive working heart model in spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts with myocardial infarction (MI) 8-12 weeks after coronary artery ligation. At this stage the WKY rat did not show any symptoms of CHF. The SHR rat represented characteristic parameters and symptoms that could be extrapolated to the clinical situation of patients with end-stage heart failure (NYHA III-IV). Upon inspection, severe clinical symptoms of CHF such as dyspnoea, subcutaneous oedema, palebluish limbs and impaired motion were prominent. On necropsy the SHR showed lung oedema, hydrothorax, large dilated left and right ventricular chambers and hypertrophy of the septum. In the working heart model the infarcted animals showed reduced heart power, diminished contractility and enhanced heart work, much more so in the SHR/NHsd than in the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY/NHsd). The

  20. Hydroxyapatite-coated stems with metaphyseal and diaphyseal press-fit. Eleven-year follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Hernández Cortés, P; Nájera Sagastume, O O; Mesa Ramos, F; Pajares López, M; Hernández Hernández, M A

    2002-02-01

    We report the 11-year follow-up results of 52 unilateral primary hip arthroplasties performed with hydroxyapatite-coated stems. The femoral prosthesis used was a collarless titanium alloy implant, with proximal circumferential hydroxyapatite coating and increased distal thickness to fit the proximal diaphyseal region of the femur. Clinical evaluation was performed using the Merle d'Aubigné Hip Score. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were obtained and compared with previous postoperative films. Radiographic evaluation was carried out following Engh's criteria for uncemented implant fixation and using Livermore's method for measurement of polyethylene wear. At the end of the follow-up period, excellent and good clinical results were recorded in 40 arthroplasties (77%). The incidence of thigh pain at one year was 32.7%, but it decreased to 4.2% after the first post-operative year. The 11-year survival rate was 92.3%. Seven arthroplasties were revised because of aseptic loosening of the cup in one case, aseptic loosening of the stem, in one case, septic loosening of the stem in one case, periprosthetic fracture in two cases and polyethylene wear in three cases. Forty-two (87.5%) of the nonrevised stems met the criteria for radiographic osseointegration. Cortical hypertrophy was observed around the mid-part and tip of the stem in 22 patients of the series. This sign tends to be related to thigh pain (p < 0.1). Calcar osteolysis was present in 8 cases. There was only one case of distal femoral osteolysis. We found a strong and significant relationship between long-term wear rates and the occurrence of osteolysis (p < 0.001). We concluded that thigh pain is in relation to the distal diameter of the stems and significantly decreases after the first postoperative year. There was a low incidence of osteolysis in our series in comparison with other series of noncemented implants with 32-mm femoral heads and with similar follow-up. PMID:11915455

  1. Stroke and bleeding risk evaluation in atrial fibrillation: results of the European heart rhythm association survey.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Potpara, Tatjana; Dagres, Nikolaos; Pison, Laurent; Estner, Heidi; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess clinical practice in relation to stroke and bleeding risk evaluation in atrial fibrillation, particularly regarding the use of risk evaluation schemes, among members of the EHRA electrophysiology (EP) research network. In this EP Wire survey, we have provided some insights into current practice in Europe for the use of these risk assessment schemes. There were some obvious practice differences. However, reassuring information on current practice in Europe was evident, but more focus on renal function is warranted, especially facing the fact that novel oral anticoagulants are used for antithrombotic therapy. PMID:24798958

  2. Defibrillation testing at the time of implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Morgan, John M; Marinskis, Germanas

    2011-04-01

    This survey assesses the current practices of testing defibrillation function at the time of the first implanted cardioverter defibrillator placement. Responses have been collected from 57 European heart rhythm management centres. The results of the survey show an extraordinary inconsistency in the approaches to defibrillation testing (19.3% of responders report no testing at the time of implantation). A policy statement on this topic would help to improve patient care and unify the procedure according to evidence based data. PMID:21447521

  3. Effects of 32-year leisure time physical activity discordance in twin pairs on health (TWINACTIVE study): aims, design and results for physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Tuija; Waller, Katja; Mutikainen, Sara; Aaltonen, Sari; Ronkainen, Paula H A; Alén, Markku; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko; Perhonen, Merja; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Cheng, Sulin; Suominen, Harri; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2009-02-01

    The physically active lifestyle is associated with low future morbidity and mortality, but the causality between physical activity and health is not always clear. As some inherited biological characteristics and childhood experiences may cause selection bias in observational studies, we sought to take them into account by identifying 16 twin pairs (7 MZ, 9 DZ, mean age 60 years) discordant for leisure time physical activity habits for thirty years. We conducted detailed health-related examinations among these twin pairs. Our main aims were to study the effects of physical activity and genes on fitness and body composition, with special reference to body fat compartments, metabolic syndrome components and related diseases and risk factor levels, status of arteries, structure and function of the heart, bone properties, and muscle and fat tissue-related mechanisms linked to physical activity and chronic disease development. Our physical activity assessments showed that inactive co-twins were on average 8.8 MET hours/day less active than their active co-twins through out their midlife (2.2+/-2.3 vs. 11.0+/-4.1 MET h/day, p< .001). Follow-up fitness tests showed that physically inactive co-twins were less fit than their active co-twins (estimated VO(2peak) 26.4+/-4.9 vs. 32.5+/-5.5 ml/kg/min, p< .001). Similar differences were found in both MZ and DZ pairs. On the basis of earlier epidemiological observations on nonrelated individuals, these physical activity and fitness differences are large enough to cause differences in many mechanisms and risk factors related to the development of chronic diseases and to permit future analyses. PMID:19210186

  4. Cardioversion for atrial fibrillation in current European practice: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Madrid, Antonio; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Lip, Gregory Y H; Van Gelder, Isabelle C; Dobreanu, Dan; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2013-06-01

    This survey was conducted to provide an insight into the current clinical practice regarding the use of cardioversion for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Europe. Responses were received from 57 centres across Europe, 71.9% of which were university hospitals. For electrical cardioversion, general anaesthesia was managed by an anaesthesiologist in 73.9% of centres and by a cardiologist in 37%. In the majority of centres, electrical cardioversion was performed using a biphasic defibrillator (85.1%). Antiarrhythmic drugs were routinely prescribed prior to electrical cardioversion by 54.3% of hospitals. For pharmacological cardioversion in patients with no or minimal heart disease, the majority of centres (63.1%) chose intravenous flecainide or propafenone, whereas vernakalant was used by 35% of centres in patients with no or minimal-to-moderate structural heart disease. Most centres (71.7%) used a mandatory strategy of 3 weeks of oral anticoagulation prior to elective cardioversion in patients AF > 48 h, but 28.3% performed immediate cardioversion after a transoesophageal echocardiogram. Many centres are now performing electrical cardioversion on treatment with novel oral anticoagulants (up to 23.6% of cardioversions). PMID:23709570

  5. IVIM-based MRI method to study the microcirculation in the heart: preliminary results in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callot, Virginie; Bennett, Eric; Wen, Han

    2003-05-01

    In living organs, microcirculation in the capillaries and high order branches can be seen as a macroscopically random process. The Intra Voxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) method uses a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequence to register this pseudo-random motion. It is able to observe perfusion in addition to the brownian diffusion by its relatively large distance of movement. The dependence of the MR signal (S) on the diffusion weighting b can be approximated as a bi-exponential relation: (S/S0)=(1-f).exp(-bD)+f.exp[-b(D+D*)], where S0 is the signal intensity for b=0, f the vascular volume fraction, D the molecular diffusion coefficient and D* a flow index. This effect, largely investigated in the brain, has never been applied in the heart, where the diffusion-weighted sequence is highly sensitive to bulk motion. We have studied microcirculation in the canine heart in vivo, with a well-controlled cardiac and respiratory gating protocol that overcomes the bulk motion effects. We demonstrated that the IVIM effect could be applied in the myocardium. The IVIM parameters were found equal to D=1.26*10-3 mm2/s, f=11.98%, D*=12.87*10-3 mm2/s. Moreover, the microcirculation is directionally anisotropic. The preferred direction of capillaries/small vessels is aligned with the myofibers in mid-myocardium in the left ventricle.

  6. 76 FR 79651 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines, 66 FR 11257, 11258 (Feb., 23, 2001). For a full... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 5559 (February 1, 2011). In... Administrative Reviews, Requests for Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR...

  7. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  8. Diagnosis and management of patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes in Europe: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Hocini, Mélèze; Pison, Laurent; Proclemer, Alessandro; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Madrid, Antonio; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-04-01

    Inherited arrhythmia disorders associated with structurally normal heart (i.e. long and short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, early repolarization syndrome, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation) cause 10% of 1.1 million sudden deaths in Europe and the USA. The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) electrophysiology wire survey was to assess the European clinical practice adopted for the diagnosis and management of these disorders. The survey was based on an electronic questionnaire sent out to the EHRA Research Network centres. Responses were received from 50 centres in 23 countries. The results of the survey show that inherited arrhythmia syndromes have a relatively low burden and are diagnosed and managed in accordance with the current guidelines. However, more than 50% of centres do not participate in any existing registry underlining the need for establishing a pan-European registry of these disorders. PMID:24711616

  9. Micro-Economic Impact of Congenital Heart Surgery: Results of a Prospective Study from a Limited-Resource Setting

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mary; Sudhakar, Abish; Varghese, Anu Alphonse; Haridas, Aareesh Chittulliparamb; Kabali, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The microeconomic impact of surgery for congenital heart disease is unexplored, particularly in resource limited environments. We sought to understand the direct and indirect costs related to congenital heart surgery and its impact on Indian households from a family perspective. Methods Baseline and first follow-up data of 644 consecutive children admitted for surgery for congenital heart disease (March 2013 – July 2014) in a tertiary referral hospital in Central Kerala, South India was collected prospectivelyfrom parents through questionnaires using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results The median age was 8.2 months (IQR: 3.0– 36.0 months). Most families belonged to upper middle (43.0%) and lower middle (35.7%) socioeconomic class. Only 3.9% of families had some form of health insurance. The median expense for the admission and surgery was INR 201898 (IQR: 163287–266139) [I$ 11989 (IQR: 9696–15804)], which was 0.93 (IQR: 0.52–1.49) times the annual family income of affected patients. Median loss of man-days was 35 (IQR: 24–50) and job-days was 15 (IQR: 11–24). Surgical risk category and hospital stay duration significantly predicted higher costs. One in two families reported overwhelming to high financial stress during admission period for surgery. Approximately half of the families borrowed money during the follow up period after surgery. Conclusion Surgery for congenital heart disease results in significant financial burden for majority of families studied. Efforts should be directed at further reductions in treatment costs without compromising the quality of care together with generating financial support for affected families. PMID:26110639

  10. Results with an anticoagulation protocol in 99 SynCardia total artificial heart recipients.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Jack; Copeland, Hannah; Nolan, Paul; Gustafson, Monica; Slepian, Marvin; Smith, Richard

    2013-01-01

    For 15 years, we employed a consistent anticoagulation protocol in 99 consecutive SynCardia Systems total artificial heart (TAH) recipients. Thromboelastography and platelet aggregation studies were used for evaluating and modulating therapy with dipyridamole, pentoxiphylline, aspirin, and heparin. Partial thromboplastin times, international normalized ratios, and platelet counts were also followed. After the second post-implant day in patients who were free of endo-device infection (97 patients), the embolic stroke incidence was 0.08 per patient year. This included 23.6 patient years of device support. There were no spontaneous hemorrhagic strokes. Two patients had endo-device infections and both had strokes. Postimplantation bleeding was seen in 20% of patients. All but two of these were within the first postoperative week. In all, 4% of patients had gastrointestinal bleeding. We did not observe heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in any patient. We conclude that stroke rates on TAH support have been low, and recommend this protocol. PMID:23644607

  11. Results with SynCardia total artificial heart beyond 1 year.

    PubMed

    Torregrossa, Gianluca; Morshuis, Michiel; Varghese, Robin; Hosseinian, Leila; Vida, Vladimiro; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Loforte, Antonio; Duveau, Daniel; Arabia, Francisco; Leprince, Pascal; Kasirajan, Vigneshwa; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Musumeci, Francesco; Hetzer, Roland; Krabatsch, Thoamas; Gummert, Jan; Copeland, Jack; Gerosa, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory support devices have been increasingly used for long-term support. We reviewed outcomes in all patients supported with a SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) for more than 1 year to assess its safety in long-term support. As of December 2011, all 47 patients who received the TAH from 10 centers worldwide were included in this retrospective study. Clinical data were collected on survival, infections, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events, device failures, and antithrombotic therapy. The mean age of patients was 50 ± 1.57 years, the median support time was 554 days (range 365-1373 days). The primary diagnosis was dilated cardiomiopathy in 23 patients, ischemic in 15, and "other" in 9. After a minimum of 1 year of support, 34 patients (72%) were successfully transplanted, 12 patients (24%) died while on device support, and 1 patient (2%) is still supported. Five patients (10%) had a device failure reported. Major complications were as follows: systemic infections in 25 patients (53%), driveline infections in 13 patients (27%), thromboembolic events in 9 patients (19%), and hemorrhagic events in 7 patients (14%). SynCardia TAH has proven to be a reliable and effective device in replacing the entire heart. In patients who reached a minimum of 1 year of support, device failure rate is acceptable and only in two cases was the leading cause of death. Infections and hemorrhagic events were the major causes of death. Patients who remain supported beyond 1 year are still likely to survive to transplantation. PMID:25158888

  12. Press-fit versus threaded acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty: Functional and radiological results after five years.

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Martin; Bader, Rainer; Bergschmidt, Philipp; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Prospectively the outcome after total hip replacement with a new threaded acetabular cup design was compared to an established press-fit cup. After 1, 2 and 5 years, the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index and Harris Hip Score revealed no significant differences between the two groups (each group: n=42 patients), except for a higher Harris Hip Score in the threaded cup group after five years (p=0.02). After five years, one threaded cup had a mild radiolucent line without further signs of loosening. All other cups of both groups (98.6%) showed a full osseous integration. The cup inclination angle ranged from 41-58° (threaded cups) to 39-77° (press-fit cups). The new threaded cup provides equivalent clinical outcomes and osseous integration but more precise implant positioning compared to the press-fit design. No complications typically ascribed to threaded cups (acetabular fractures, bone resorption, nerve impairment) occurred. PMID:26984655

  13. Effect of a Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bancroft, Barbara; Curtis, Jeffery M.; Mathews, Anne; Pereira, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial. Design Randomized clinical trial to compare a lifestyle intervention for weight loss with a diabetes support and education condition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Subjects Data from 4,376 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age = 58.7±6.8 years, BMI = 35.8±5.8 kg/m2) who completed one-year of the Look AHEAD trial and had available fitness data were analyzed. Intervention Subjects were randomly assigned to DSE or ILI. DSE received standard-care plus 3 education sessions over the one-year period. ILI included individual and group contact throughout the year, restriction in energy intake, and 175 min/wk of prescribed physical activity. Measurements Fitness was assessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Physical activity was assessed via questionnaire in a subset of 2,221 subjects. Results Change in fitness was statistically greater in ILI vs. DSE after adjustment for baseline fitness (20.9% vs. 5.7%) (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that change in fitness was greater in overweight vs. obese Class II and III (p<0.05). Physical activity increased by 892±1694 kcal/wk in ILI vs. 108±1254 kcal/wk in DSE (p<0.01). Changes in fitness (r=0.41) and physical activity (r=0.42) were significantly correlated with weight loss (p<0.0001). Conclusions The ILI was effective in increasing physical activity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. This effect may add to weight loss in improving metabolic control in patients in lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:19153582

  14. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Anne M; Wellenius, Gregory A; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150-299 m, 1161 lived 300-999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans. PMID:27304962

  15. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Anne M.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150–299 m, 1161 lived 300–999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans. PMID:27304962

  16. Effects of daily hemodialysis on heart rate variability: results from the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christopher T.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Daugirdas, John T.; Greene, Tom H.; Kotanko, Peter; Larive, Brett; Pierratos, Andreas; Stokes, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Background End-stage renal disease is associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), components of which generally are associated with advanced age, diabetes mellitus and left ventricular hypertrophy. We hypothesized that daily in-center hemodialysis (HD) would increase HRV. Methods The Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily Trial randomized 245 patients to receive 12 months of six versus three times per week in-center HD. Two hundred and seven patients had baseline Holter recordings. HRV measures were calculated from 24-h Holter electrocardiograms at both baseline and 12 months in 131 patients and included low-frequency power (LF, a measure of sympathetic modulation), high-frequency power (HF, a measure of parasympathetic modulation) and standard deviation (SD) of the R–R interval (SDNN, a measure of beat-to-beat variation). Results Baseline to Month 12 change in LF was augmented by 50% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 6.1–112%, P =0.022] and LF + HF was augmented by 40% (95% CI 3.3–88.4%, P = 0.03) in patients assigned to daily hemodialysis (DHD) compared with conventional HD. Changes in HF and SDNN were similar between the randomized groups. The effects of DHD on LF were attenuated by advanced age and diabetes mellitus (predefined subgroups). Changes in HF (r = −0.20, P = 0.02) and SDNN (r = −0.18, P = 0.04) were inversely associated with changes in left ventricular mass (LVM). Conclusions DHD increased the LF component of HRV. Reduction of LVM by DHD was associated with increased vagal modulation of heart rate (HF) and with increased beat-to-beat heart rate variation (SDNN), suggesting an important functional correlate to the structural effects of DHD on the heart in uremia. PMID:24078335

  17. As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158889.html As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops But change requires dedication ... TUESDAY, May 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A higher level of heart-lung fitness may reduce your risk ...

  18. Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected Home » Heart Health Heath and Aging Heart Health Your Heart Changes to Your Heart With ... are both taking steps toward heart health. Your Heart Your heart is a strong muscle about the ...

  19. Experimental Periodontitis Results in Prediabetes and Metabolic Alterations in Brain, Liver and Heart: Global Untargeted Metabolomic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ilievski, Vladimir; Kinchen, Jason M; Prabhu, Ramya; Rim, Fadi; Leoni, Lara; Unterman, Terry G.; Watanabe, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies suggest that there is an association between periodontitis and prediabetes, however, causality is not known. The results from our previous studies suggest that induction of periodontitis leads to hyperinsulinemia glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, all hallmarks of prediabetes. However, global effects of periodontitis on critical organs in terms of metabolic alterations are unknown. We determined the metabolic effects of periodontitis on brain, liver, heart and plasma resulting from Porphyromonas gingivalis induced periodontitis in mice. Periodontitis was induced by oral application of the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis for 22 weeks. Global untargeted biochemical profiles in samples from these organs/plasma were determined by liquid and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared between controls and animals with periodontitis. Oral application of Porphyromonas gingivalis induced chronic periodontitis and hallmarks of prediabetes. The results of sample analyses indicated a number of changes in metabolic readouts, including changes in metabolites related to glucose and arginine metabolism, inflammation and redox homeostasis. Changes in biochemicals suggested subtle systemic effects related to periodontal disease, with increases in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress most prominent in the liver. Signs of changes in redox homeostasis were also seen in the brain and heart. Elevated bile acids in liver were suggestive of increased biosynthesis, which may reflect changes in liver function. Interestingly, signs of decreasing glucose availability were seen in the brain. In all three organs and plasma, there was a significant increase in the microbiome-derived bioactive metabolite 4-ethylphenylsulfate sulfate in animals with periodontitis. The results of metabolic profiling suggest that periodontitis/bacterial products alter metabolomic signatures of brain, heart, liver, and plasma in the

  20. Current periprocedural management of ablation for atrial fibrillation in Europe: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Todd, Derick M; Hocini, Mélèze; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this EP Wire survey was to assess clinical practice in periprocedural management of atrial fibrillation ablation. This survey is based on an electronic questionnaire sent to the European Heart Rhythm Association Research Network members. Responses were received from 78 centres in 20 countries. The results of the survey have shown that periprocedural management is generally in accordance with guidelines and consensus recommendations on ablation for atrial fibrillation ablation, although there are some areas of variation. Differences between high- and low-volume centres are observed with respect to patient selection, antiarrhythmic drug management, and heparin bridging. PMID:24569891

  1. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  2. Updated Users' Guide for RSAP -- A Code for Display and Manipulation of Neutron Cross Section Data and SAMMY Fit Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.

    2003-07-29

    RSAP [1] is a computer code for display and manipulation of neutron cross section data and selected SAMMY output. SAMMY [2] is a multilevel R-matrix code for fitting neutron time-of-flight cross-section data using Bayes' method. This users' guide provides documentation for the recently updated RSAP code (version 6). The code has been ported to the Linux platform, and several new features have been added, including the capability to read cross section data from ASCII pointwise ENDF files as well as double-precision PLT output from SAMMY. A number of bugs have been found and corrected, and the input formats have been improved. Input items are parsed so that items may be separated by spaces or commas.

  3. Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Thomas J.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Richardson, David B.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Herring, Amy H.; Anderka, Marlene; Botto, Lorenzo; Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Langlois, Peter H.; Mosley, Bridget; Shaw, Gary M.; Siffel, Csaba; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic literature suggests that exposure to air pollutants is associated with fetal development. Objectives: We investigated maternal exposures to air pollutants during weeks 2–8 of pregnancy and their associations with congenital heart defects. Methods: Mothers from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a nine-state case–control study, were assigned 1-week and 7-week averages of daily maximum concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide and 24-hr measurements of fine and coarse particulate matter using the closest air monitor within 50 km to their residence during early pregnancy. Depending on the pollutant, a maximum of 4,632 live-birth controls and 3,328 live-birth, fetal-death, or electively terminated cases had exposure data. Hierarchical regression models, adjusted for maternal demographics and tobacco and alcohol use, were constructed. Principal component analysis was used to assess these relationships in a multipollutant context. Results: Positive associations were observed between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and coarctation of the aorta and pulmonary valve stenosis. Exposure to fine particulate matter was positively associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome but inversely associated with atrial septal defects. Examining individual exposure-weeks suggested associations between pollutants and defects that were not observed using the 7-week average. Associations between left ventricular outflow tract obstructions and nitrogen dioxide and between hypoplastic left heart syndrome and particulate matter were supported by findings from the multipollutant analyses, although estimates were attenuated at the highest exposure levels. Conclusions: Using daily maximum pollutant levels and exploring individual exposure-weeks revealed some positive associations between certain pollutants and defects and suggested potential windows of susceptibility during pregnancy. Citation: Stingone JA, Luben TJ

  4. TORUS AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PROPERTIES OF NEARBY SEYFERT GALAXIES: RESULTS FROM FITTING INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Mason, Rachel; Asensio Ramos, Andres; Rodriguez Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.; Roche, Patrick F.; Levenson, Nancy A.; Elitzur, Moshe; Packham, Christopher; Young, Stuart; Diaz-Santos, Tanio

    2011-08-01

    We used the CLUMPY torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions and ground-based high angular resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of 13 nearby Seyfert galaxies. This allowed us to put tight constraints on torus model parameters such as the viewing angle i, the radial thickness of the torus Y, the angular size of the cloud distribution {sigma}{sub torus}, and the average number of clouds along radial equatorial rays N{sub 0}. We found that the viewing angle i is not the only parameter controlling the classification of a galaxy into type 1 or type 2. In principle, type 2s could be viewed at any viewing angle i as long as there is one cloud along the line of sight. A more relevant quantity for clumpy media is the probability for an active galactic nucleus (AGN) photon to escape unabsorbed. In our sample, type 1s have relatively high escape probabilities, P{sub esc} {approx} 12%-44%, while type 2s, as expected, tend to have very low escape probabilities. Our fits also confirmed that the tori of Seyfert galaxies are compact with torus model radii in the range 1-6 pc. The scaling of the models to the data also provided the AGN bolometric luminosities L{sub bol}(AGN), which were found to be in good agreement with estimates from the literature. When we combined our sample of Seyfert galaxies with a sample of PG quasars from the literature to span a range of L{sub bol}(AGN) {approx} 10{sup 43}-10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, we found plausible evidence of the receding torus. That is, there is a tendency for the torus geometrical covering factor to be lower (f{sub 2} {approx} 0.1-0.3) at high AGN luminosities than at low AGN luminosities (f{sub 2} {approx} 0.9-1 at {approx}10{sup 43}-10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}). This is because at low AGN luminosities the tori appear to have wider angular sizes (larger {sigma}{sub torus}) and more clouds along radial equatorial rays. We cannot, however, rule out the possibility that this is due to

  5. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005). Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004). Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002) and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001) compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs. PMID:22424138

  6. Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Cook, Adam M; Eddington, James D; Bentzen, Paul; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Interbreeding between artificially-selected and wild organisms can have negative fitness consequences for the latter. In the Northwest Atlantic, farmed Atlantic salmon recurrently escape into the wild and enter rivers where small, declining populations of wild salmon breed. Most farmed salmon in the region derive from an ancestral source population that occupies a nonacidified river (pH 6.0–6.5). Yet many wild populations with which escaped farmed salmon might interbreed inhabit acidified rivers (pH 4.6–5.2). Using common garden experimentation, and examining two early-life history stages across two generations of interbreeding, we showed that wild salmon populations inhabiting acidified rivers had higher survival at acidified pH than farmed salmon or F1 farmed-wild hybrids. In contrast, however, there was limited evidence for reduced performance in backcrosses, and F2 farmed-wild hybrids performed better or equally well to wild salmon. Wild salmon also survived or grew better at nonacidified than acidified pH, and wild and farmed salmon survived equally well at nonacidified pH. Thus, for acid tolerance and the stages examined, we found some evidence both for and against the theory that repeated farmed-wild interbreeding may reduce adaptive genetic variation in the wild and thereby negatively affect the persistence of depleted wild populations. PMID:25567731

  7. Preoperative heart rate and myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery: results of a predefined secondary analysis of the VISION study

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, T. E. F.; Ackland, G. L.; Archbold, R. A.; Wragg, A.; Kam, E.; Ahmad, T.; Khan, A. W.; Niebrzegowska, E.; Rodseth, R. N.; Devereaux, P. J.; Pearse, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased baseline heart rate is associated with cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality in the general population. We hypothesized that elevated preoperative heart rate increases the risk of myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS). Methods We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective international cohort study of patients aged ≥45 yr undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Preoperative heart rate was defined as the last measurement before induction of anaesthesia. The sample was divided into deciles by heart rate. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine relationships between preoperative heart rate and MINS (determined by serum troponin concentration), myocardial infarction (MI), and death within 30 days of surgery. Separate models were used to test the relationship between these outcomes and predefined binary heart rate thresholds. Results Patients with missing outcomes or heart rate data were excluded from respective analyses. Of 15 087 patients, 1197 (7.9%) sustained MINS, 454 of 16 007 patients (2.8%) sustained MI, and 315 of 16 037 patients (2.0%) died. The highest heart rate decile (>96 beats min−1) was independently associated with MINS {odds ratio (OR) 1.48 [1.23–1.77]; P<0.01}, MI (OR 1.71 [1.34–2.18]; P<0.01), and mortality (OR 3.16 [2.45–4.07]; P<0.01). The lowest decile (<60 beats min−1) was independently associated with reduced mortality (OR 0.50 [0.29–0.88]; P=0.02), but not MINS or MI. The predefined binary thresholds were also associated with MINS, but more weakly than the highest heart rate decile. Conclusions Preoperative heart rate >96 beats min−1 is associated with MINS, MI, and mortality after non-cardiac surgery. This association persists after accounting for potential confounding factors. Clinical trial registration NCT00512109. PMID:27440628

  8. Text Message and Internet Support for Coronary Heart Disease Self-Management: Results From the Text4Heart Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Robyn; Jiang, Yannan; Stewart, Ralph; Rolleston, Anna; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology has the potential to deliver behavior change interventions (mHealth) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) at modest cost. Previous studies have focused on single behaviors; however, cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a component of CHD self-management, needs to address multiple risk factors. Objective The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of a mHealth-delivered comprehensive CR program (Text4Heart) to improve adherence to recommended lifestyle behaviors (smoking cessation, physical activity, healthy diet, and nonharmful alcohol use) in addition to usual care (traditional CR). Methods A 2-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial was conducted in New Zealand adults diagnosed with CHD. Participants were recruited in-hospital and were encouraged to attend center-based CR (usual care control). In addition, the intervention group received a personalized 24-week mHealth program, framed in social cognitive theory, sent by fully automated daily short message service (SMS) text messages and a supporting website. The primary outcome was adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors measured using a self-reported composite health behavior score (≥3) at 3 and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included clinical outcomes, medication adherence score, self-efficacy, illness perceptions, and anxiety and/or depression at 6 months. Baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments (unblinded) were conducted in person. Results Eligible patients (N=123) recruited from 2 large metropolitan hospitals were randomized to the intervention (n=61) or the control (n=62) group. Participants were predominantly male (100/123, 81.3%), New Zealand European (73/123, 59.3%), with a mean age of 59.5 (SD 11.1) years. A significant treatment effect in favor of the intervention was observed for the primary outcome at 3 months (AOR 2.55, 95% CI 1.12-5.84; P=.03), but not at 6 months (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 0.83-4.53; P=.13). The intervention group reported significantly greater medication

  9. Heart transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10 years. Alternative Names Cardiac transplant; Transplant - heart; Transplantation - heart Images Heart, section through the middle Heart, ... 28. Bernstein D. Pediatric heart and heart-lung transplantation. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton ...

  10. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  11. Making sense of health care delivery Where does the close to community health care worker fit in? - The case for congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, P; Biddargardi, N; Bastiampillai, T; Beneby, G

    2015-01-01

    Close to community health care workers (CTC-HCW) is an increasingly used term to describe the emergence of a new partner in health services delivery. In strengthening arguments for this part of the health workforce the authorities, health staffers, supporters, sceptics and perhaps clients will look to the academicians and the evidence base to determine the fate of this group. There is no doubt, CTC-HCW are a vital resource, whose importance is tied to socio-demo-geographic variables. Regardless of what the common perceptions of its importance are, the evolving evidence base could suggest either way. In this short commentary we would like to highlight the importance of a balanced and common sense approach in these arguments. An important example is heart failure where the majority have an associated comorbidity and one in four would also suffer with cognitive or mood disturbances. It is unclear how the CTC-HCW would fare for this devastating syndrome. In moving forward it is important we understand there are: strengths and limitations in the evidence gathering processes; indecision as to the questions; uncertainty of the starting points to gather evidence; and sociodemogeographic biases, which have to be factored before determining the fate of this much needed health care resource. PMID:26138183

  12. Making sense of health care delivery Where does the close to community health care worker fit in? – The case for congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, P.; Biddargardi, N.; Bastiampillai, T.; Beneby, G.

    2015-01-01

    Close to community health care workers (CTC-HCW) is an increasingly used term to describe the emergence of a new partner in health services delivery. In strengthening arguments for this part of the health workforce the authorities, health staffers, supporters, sceptics and perhaps clients will look to the academicians and the evidence base to determine the fate of this group. There is no doubt, CTC-HCW are a vital resource, whose importance is tied to socio-demo-geographic variables. Regardless of what the common perceptions of its importance are, the evolving evidence base could suggest either way. In this short commentary we would like to highlight the importance of a balanced and common sense approach in these arguments. An important example is heart failure where the majority have an associated comorbidity and one in four would also suffer with cognitive or mood disturbances. It is unclear how the CTC-HCW would fare for this devastating syndrome. In moving forward it is important we understand there are: strengths and limitations in the evidence gathering processes; indecision as to the questions; uncertainty of the starting points to gather evidence; and sociodemogeographic biases, which have to be factored before determining the fate of this much needed health care resource. PMID:26138183

  13. Long-term monitoring of sleep apnea at home in heart failure patients: preliminary results from the HHH study.

    PubMed

    Pinna, G D; Maestri, R; Gobbi, E; Capomolla, S; Campana, C; Emdin, M; Di Lenarda, A; La Rovere, M T; Andrews, D; Johnson, P; Mortara, A; Sleight, P

    2004-01-01

    Sleep apnea is very common in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and has important implications in terms of morbidity, mortality and clinical management. Home respiratory telemonitoring might constitute a potential low-cost, widely-applicable alternative to traditional polysomnography in the evaluation and long-term monitoring of breathing disorders in these patients. In this paper we briefly describe the technological infrastructure and present preliminary results of the European Community multicountry trial HHH (Home or Hospital in Heart Failure), which is currently testing a novel system for home telemonitoring of cardiorespiratory signals in CHF patients. The recording and transmitting devices are suitable to be self-managed by the patient. We give a detailed report on the prevalence of nocturnal respiratory disorders at the beginning of the one-year follow-up and on their persistency over the following recordings (one per month). These preliminary findings clearly indicate that intermittent home telemonitoring of respiratory signals based on patient's self-management is feasible in CHF patients and the compliance is high. Reported statistics unambiguously confirm the high prevalence of nocturnal breathing disorders in these patients and clearly show that this phenomenon tends to persist over time. PMID:17271142

  14. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  15. Exercise and Pharmacological Treatment of Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: Results from the UPBEAT Study

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Sherwood, Andrew; Babyak, Michael A.; Watkins, Lana L.; Smith, Patrick J.; Hoffman, Benson M.; O’Hayer, C. Virginia F.; Mabe, Stephanie; Johnson, Julie; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Jiang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of exercise and antidepressant medication in reducing depressive symptoms and improving cardiovascular biomarkers in depressed patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). BACKGROUND Although there is good evidence that clinical depression is associated with poor prognosis, optimal therapeutic strategies are currently not well-defined. METHODS 101 outpatients with CHD and elevated depressive symptoms underwent assessment of depression including a psychiatric interview and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Participants were randomized to 4 months of aerobic exercise (3 times/week), sertraline (50-200 mg/day), or placebo. Additional assessments of cardiovascular biomarkers included measures of heart rate variability (HRV), endothelial function, baroreflex sensitivity, inflammation, and platelet function. RESULTS After 16 weeks, all groups showed improvement on HAM-D scores. Participants in both aerobic exercise (M= −7.5 [95% CI = −9.8, −5.0]) and sertraline (M= −6.1 [95% CI = −8.4, −3.9] achieved larger reductions in depressive symptoms compared to placebo (M= −4.5 [95% CI = −7.6, −1.5]; p = .034); exercise and sertraline were equally effective in reducing depressive symptoms (p = .607). Exercise and medication tended to result in greater improvements in HRV compared to placebo (p = .052); exercise tended to result in greater improvements in HRV compared to sertraline (p =.093) CONCLUSIONS Both exercise and sertraline resulted in greater reductions in depressive symptoms compared to placebo in CHD patients. Evidence that active treatments may also improve cardiovascular biomarkers suggests that they may have a beneficial effect on clinical outcomes as well as quality of life. PMID:22858387

  16. Heart failure outcomes with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk: results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial

    PubMed Central

    Fitchett, David; Zinman, Bernard; Wanner, Christoph; Lachin, John M.; Hantel, Stefan; Salsali, Afshin; Johansen, Odd Erik; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We previously reported that in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause death, and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. We have now further investigated heart failure outcomes in all patients and in subgroups, including patients with or without baseline heart failure. Methods and results Patients were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo. Seven thousand and twenty patients were treated; 706 (10.1%) had heart failure at baseline. Heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death occurred in a significantly lower percentage of patients treated with empagliflozin [265/4687 patients (5.7%)] than with placebo [198/2333 patients (8.5%)] [hazard ratio, HR: 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.55–0.79); P < 0.001], corresponding to a number needed to treat to prevent one heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death of 35 over 3 years. Consistent effects of empagliflozin were observed across subgroups defined by baseline characteristics, including patients with vs. without heart failure, and across categories of medications to treat diabetes and/or heart failure. Empagliflozin improved other heart failure outcomes, including hospitalization for or death from heart failure [2.8 vs. 4.5%; HR: 0.61 (0.47–0.79); P < 0.001] and was associated with a reduction in all-cause hospitalization [36.8 vs. 39.6%; HR: 0.89 (0.82–0.96); P = 0.003]. Serious adverse events and adverse events leading to discontinuation were reported by a higher proportion of patients with vs. without heart failure at baseline in both treatment groups, but were no more common with empagliflozin than with placebo. Conclusion In patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk, empagliflozin reduced heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death, with a

  17. Design and rationale for the PREVAIL study: effect of e-Health individually tailored encouragements to physical exercise on aerobic fitness among adolescents with congenital heart disease--a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hirth, Asle; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Søndergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2012-04-01

    Intensive exercise may be an important part of rehabilitation in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, performing regular physical exercise is challenging for many adolescent patients. Consequently, effective exercise encouragements may be needed. Little is known on the effect of e-Health encouragements on physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life in adolescents. This trial is a nationwide interactive e-Health rehabilitation study lasting 1 year, centered on interactive use of mobile phone and Internet technology. We hypothesize that e-Health encouragements and interactive monitoring of intensive exercise for 1 year can improve physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life. Two hundred sixteen adolescents (age, 13-16 years) with surgically corrected complex CHD but without significant hemodynamic residual defects and no restrictions to participate in physical activity are in the process of being enrolled by invitation after informed consent. Physical fitness is measured as the maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) at baseline and after 12 months by an assessor blinded to the randomization group. After baseline testing, the patients are 1:1 randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Individually fully automated tailored e-Health encouragements--SMS, Internet, and mobile applications--aimed at increasing physical activity are delivered to the participants in the intervention group once a week. The Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory inspires the behavioral theoretical background. The e-Health intervention and the Godfrey cycle ergometer protocol have been feasibility tested and seem applicable to adolescents with CHD. The trial is expected to contribute with new knowledge regarding how physical activity in adolescents with CHD can be increased and, possibly, comorbidity be reduced. PMID:22520519

  18. Current implantable cardioverter-defibrillator programming in Europe: the results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Proclemer, Alessandro; Grazia Bongiorni, Maria; Etsner, Heidi; Todd, Derick; Sciaraffia, Elena; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to examine the current practice on the choice of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) type, use of defibrillation testing, and ICD programming for detection and therapy of ventricular arrhythmias. In accordance with recent guidelines and the results of observational studies, the majority of EHRA research network centres reported a high utilization rate of dual-chamber ICDs in the presence of symptomatic and asymptomatic sinus node dysfunction, biventricular ICD in high-degree atrioventricular block and QRS duration <120 ms, and a limited use of defibrillation testing either in primary and secondary prevention settings. Activation of the long ventricular tachycardia (VT) detection window, slow VT zone, antitachycardia pacing before shock for slow and fast VT, and atrial tachyarrhythmia discrimination were considered useful in ICD programming for the majority of patients. PMID:24864305

  19. Altered mechanical state in the embryonic heart results in time-dependent decreases in cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brennan; Bark, David; Van Herck, Ilse; Garrity, Deborah; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Proper blood flow patterns are critical for normal cardiac morphogenesis, a process that occurs rapidly in order to support further development of all tissue and organs. Previously, intracardiac fluid forces have been shown to play a critical role in cardiac morphogenesis. Altered blood flow in early development can result in an array of cardiac defects including ventricular septal defects, valve malformations, and impaired cardiac looping. However, given the dynamic and highly transient nature of cardiac morphogenesis, time dependency of the mechanical environment as an epigenetic factor in relation to intracardiac forces must be significant. Here, we show that abnormal cardiac loading adversely influences cardiac morphology only during certain time windows, thus confirming that mechanical factors are a time-dependent epigenetic factor. To illustrate this, groups of zebrafish embryos were spaced at 6-h increments from 24 to 48 h post-fertilization (hpf) in which embryos were centrifuged to generate a noninvasive alteration of cardiac preload in addition to an overall hypergravity environment. We found that earlier and later treatment groups responded with altered morphology and function, while the group with altered preload from 30 to 36 hpf had no effect. These results demonstrate the inherently time-dependent nature of epigenetic factors as pertaining to intracardiac forces and external mechanical factors. Further, it underscores the highly coupled nature of programmed biology and mechanical forces during cardiac morphogenesis. Future studies with respect to surgical correction during cardiac morphogenesis must consider timing to optimize therapeutic impact. PMID:25976479

  20. Design Concepts and Preclinical Results of a Miniaturized HeartWare Platform

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Anson; Chorpenning, Katherine; Tamez, Daniel; Shambaugh, Charles; Dierlam, Anne E.; Taskin, M. Ertan; Ashenuga, Michael; Reyes, Carlos; LaRose, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ventricular assist device (VAD) miniaturization is one design trend that may result in less-invasive implantation techniques and more versatility with patient selection. The MVAD System is a miniature, continuous-flow device implanted in the ventricle. The pump is capable of delivering between 0 and 7 L/min of flow at a mean arterial pressure of 75 mm Hg. The impeller was optimized from its original design to improve hydraulic performance, minimize shear regions, and enhance the impeller’s radial stiffness. These studies evaluated the MVAD System with modified impeller in the preclinical setting. Methods This modified pump design was tested through chronic studies (n = 6) in a healthy ovine model where 4 animals were implanted for a duration of 30 ± 5 days and 2 animals were implanted for a duration of 90 ± 5 days. The pump was placed in the left ventricular apex with the outflow graft anastomosed to the descending aorta. Postoperatively, no anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies were administered throughout the study duration. Results All 6 animals reached their elective date of kill, demonstrating no evidence of organ compromise or device-related complications. Average pump parameters did not deviate significantly, and average rotational speed, pump flow, and power consumption were 14095 ± 139 RPM, 4.1 ± 0.4 L/min, and 4.3 ± 0.1 W, respectively. Examination of pump components postexplant demonstrated no mechanical wear or thrombus formation. Conclusions Hemocompatibility and biocompatibility of the modified MVAD System were demonstrated through pump parameters, blood chemistry panels, and histopathology analysis. PMID:26098174

  1. Healthy Dietary Interventions and Lipoprotein (a) Plasma Levels: Results from the Omni Heart Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haring, Bernhard; Wyler von Ballmoos, Moritz C.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies of dietary interventions on changes in Lp(a) are sparse. We aimed to compare the effects of three healthy dietary interventions differing in macronutrient content on Lp(a) concentration. Methods Secondary analysis of a randomized, 3-period crossover feeding study including 155 (89 blacks; 66 whites) individuals. Participants were given DASH-type healthy diets rich in carbohydrates [Carb], in protein [Prot] or in unsaturated fat [Unsat Fat] for 6 weeks each. Plasma Lp(a) concentration was assessed at baseline and after each diet. Results Compared to baseline, all interventional diets increased mean Lp(a) by 2 to 5 mg/dl. Unsat Fat increased Lp(a) less than Prot with a difference of 1.0 mg/dl (95% CI, −0.5, 2.5; p = 0.196) in whites and 3.7 mg/dl (95% CI, 2.4, 5.0; p<0.001) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.008); Unsat Fat increased Lp(a) less than Carb with a difference of −0.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, −2.1, 0.9; p = 0.441) in whites and −1.5 mg/dl (95% CI, −0.2, −2.8; p = 0.021) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.354). Prot increased Lp(a) more than Carb with a difference of 0.4 mg/dl (95% CI, −1.1, 1.9; p = 0.597) in whites and 2.2 mg/dl (95%CI, 0.9, 3.5; p = 0.001) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.082). Conclusion Diets high in unsaturated fat increased Lp(a) levels less than diets rich in carbohydrate or protein with greater changes in blacks than whites. Our results suggest that substitutions with dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy diets may be preferable over protein or carbohydrates with regards to Lp(a). Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00051350 PMID:25506933

  2. Unilateral lower limb lymphedema resulting from a heart surgery performed 50 years prior

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Satoshi; Miura, Yuki; Sugiyama, Narushi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is classified into two main types: secondary lymphedema accompanied by lymph node excision surgery or radiotherapy; and idiopathic lymphedema. Here we experienced a very rare case of lymphatic edema resulting from cardiac surgery that the patient underwent 50 years previously. Presentation of case A 62-year-old woman experienced progressive unilateral lower leg lymphedema for recent years. After undergoing cardiac surgery at another hospital at the age of 12 years, she gradually developed left lower leg edema. The cause of the edema was unclear and it remained untreated. Her edema symptoms gradually worsened in recent years, so she consulted the plastic surgery division of our hospital. Discusssion Perhaps the lymphatic structures of affected individuals differ prior to disease onset. If the mechanism of lymphatic edema outbreak is elucidated, patients needing conservative and surgical therapy might be more easily identified. Knowing the outbreak mechanism of lymphatic edema would definitely ease the investigation of an unconventional case like this one. Conservative treatments for lymphedema, such as self-massage and compression therapy using garments, were immediately started. With these treatments, the leg volume and edema symptoms reduced. Conclusion The research on the cause of this case may be important step for elucidating the source of secondary lymphatic edema. PMID:26719996

  3. Cardiac Rhythm Monitoring After Acute Decompensation for Heart Failure: Results from the CARRYING ON for HF Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mortara, Andrea; Diotallevi, Paolo; Gallone, Giuseppe; Mariconti, Barbara; Gronda, Edoardo; Gentili, Alessandra; Bisetti, Silvia; Botto, Giovanni Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background There’s scarce evidence about cardiovascular events (CV) in patients with hospitalization for acute heart failure (HF) and no indication for immediate device implant. Objective The CARdiac RhYthm monitorING after acute decompensatiON for Heart Failure study was designed to assess the incidence of prespecified clinical and arrhythmic events in this patient population. Methods In this pilot study, 18 patients (12 (67%) male; age 72±10; 16 (89%) NYHA II-III), who were hospitalized for HF with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (<40%) and no immediate indication for device implant received an implantable loop recorder (ILR) before hospital discharge. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 3 and 6 months, and at every 6 months until study closure; device data were remotely reviewed monthly. CV mortality, unplanned CV hospitalization, and major arrhythmic events during follow-up were analyzed. Results During a median follow-up of 593 days, major CV occurred in 13 patients (72%); of those, 7 patients had at least 1 cardiac arrhythmic event, 2 had at least a clinical event (CV hospitalization or CV death), and 4 had both an arrhythmic and a CV event. Six (33%) patients experienced 10 major clinical events, 5 of them (50%) were HF related. During follow-up, 2 (11%) patients died due to a CV cause and 3 (16%) patients received a permanent cardiac device. Conclusions After an acute HF hospitalization, patients with LVEF<40% and who are not readily eligible for permanent cardiac device implant have a known high incidence of major CV event. In these patients, ILR allows early detection of major cardiac arrhythmias and the ability to react appropriately in a timely manner. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01216670; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01216670 PMID:27118481

  4. Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Meriç; Männer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending → simple helical coiling → complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological “models.” We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID

  5. 76 FR 31936 - Non-Malleable Cast Iron Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 5333 (January 31, 2011) (``Preliminary..., 72 FR 30758, 30760 (June 4, 2007), unchanged in Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Coated Free Sheet Paper from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 60632 and accompanying Issues...

  6. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 67412 (November 1, 2011... Philippines: Final Results of the Expedited Second Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews of Antidumping Duty Orders..., and the Philippines pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act).\\1\\...

  7. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Gabriel E A; Hicks, James W; Manzani, Paulo R; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias; Secor, Stephen M; Garland, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of all animals is affected by gravitational pressure gradients, the intensity of which varies according to organismic features, behavior, and habitat occupied. A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures-found the heart located 15%-25% of total body length from the head in terrestrial and arboreal species but 25%-45% in aquatic species. It was hypothesized that a more anterior heart in arboreal species served to reduce the hydrostatic blood pressure when these animals adopt vertical postures during climbing, whereas an anterior heart position would not be needed in aquatic habitats, where the effects of gravity are less pronounced. We analyzed a new data set of 155 species from five major families of Alethinophidia (one of the two major branches of snakes, the other being blind snakes, Scolecophidia) using both conventional and phylogenetically based statistical methods. General linear models regressing log(10) snout-heart position on log(10) snout-vent length (SVL), as well as dummy variables coding for habitat and/or clade, were compared using likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike Information Criterion. Heart distance to the tip of the snout scaled isometrically with SVL. In all instances, phylogenetic models that incorporated transformation of the branch lengths under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution (to mimic stabilizing selection) better fit the data as compared with their nonphylogenetic counterparts. The best-fit model predicting snake heart position included aspects of both habitat and clade and indicated that arboreal snakes in our study tend to have hearts placed more posteriorly, opposite the trend identified in previous studies. Phylogenetic signal in relative heart position was apparent both within and among clades. Our results suggest that overcoming gravitational pressure gradients in snakes most likely involves the combined action of several cardiovascular and

  8. Correlation between prior exercise and present health and fitness status of entering medical students.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D Fred; Degenhardt, Brian F; Smith, Carol M

    2003-08-01

    Four hundred forty-one students were tested for strength, agility, flexibility, and endurance as well as for body fat, heart rate, and blood pressure. Questionnaires estimated prior exercise, sleep, diet, and leisure habits. Students were more fit than published norms. Their reported prior exercise habits correlated positively with estimated VO2max. Positive results of endurance tests correlated with better eating habits and lower blood pressure. Strong correlation existed between reported exercise and lower body fat, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure was in the hypertensive range in 57 individuals, and high blood pressure correlated with higher body weight, percent body fat, and resting heart rate. The authors concluded that most incoming medical students are fit and physically active. Positive correlations exist between prior exercise habits, performance on fitness tests, and indicators of reduced health risks. There was high correlation between risk factors for heart disease and measured blood pressure. PMID:12956248

  9. Best-fit results from application of a thermo-rheological model for channelized lava flow to high spatial resolution morphological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew; Favalli, Massimiliano; Mazzarini, Francesco; Pareschi, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The FLOWGO thermo-rheological model links heat loss, core cooling, crystallization, rheology and flow dynamics for lava flowing in a channel. We fit this model to laser altimeter (LIDAR) derived channel width data, as well as effusion rate and flow velocity measurements, to produce a best-fit prediction of thermal and rheological conditions for lava flowing in a ~1.6 km long channel active on Mt. Etna (Italy) on 16th September 2004. Using, as a starting condition for the model, the mean channel width over the first 100 m (6 m) and a depth of 1 m we obtain an initial velocity and instantaneous effusion rate of 0.3-0.6 m/s and ~3 m3/s, respectively. This compares with field- and LIDAR-derived values of 0.4 m/s and 1-4 m3/s. The best fit between model-output and LIDAR-measured channel widths comes from a hybrid run in which the proximal section of the channel is characterised by poorly insulated flow and the medial-distal section by well-insulated flow. This best-fit model implies that flow conditions evolve down-channel, where hot crusts on a free flowing channel maximise heat losses across the proximal section, whereas thick, stable, mature crusts of 'a'a clinker reduce heat losses across the medial-distal section. This results in core cooling per unit distance that decreases from ~0.02-0.015°C m-1 across the proximal section, to ~0.005°C m-1 across the medial-distal section. This produces an increase in core viscosity from ~3800 Pa s at the vent to ~8000 Pa s across the distal section.

  10. Femoral press-fit fixation in ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft: results at 15 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background If anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is to be performed, decision regarding graft choice and its fixation remains one of the most controversial. Multiple techniques for ACL reconstruction are available. To avoid disadvantages related to fixation devices, a hardware-free, press-fit ACL reconstruction technique was developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcome and osteoarthritis progression in long term after ACL reconstruction with central third patellar-tendon autograft fixed to femur by press-fit technique. Methods Fifty two patients met inclusion/excusion criteria for this study. The patients were assessed preoperatively and at 15 years after surgery with International Knee Documentation Committee Knee Ligament Evaluation Form, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity scale and radiographs. Results Good overall clinical outcomes and self-reported assessments were documented, and remained good at 15 years. The mean Lysholm and Tegner scores improved from 59.7 ± 18.5 and 4.2 ± 1.0 preoperatively to 86.4 ± 5.6 (p = 0.004) and 6.9 ± 1.4 (p = 0.005) respectively at follow-up. The IKDC subjective score improved from 60.1 ± 9.2 to 80.2 ± 8.1 (p = 0.003). According to IKDC objective score, 75% of patients had normal or nearly normal knee joints at follow-up. Grade 0 or 1 results were seen in 85% of patients on laxity testing. Degenerative changes were found in 67% of patients. There was no correlation between arthritic changes and stability of knee and subjective evaluation (p > 0.05). Conclusions ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft fixed to femur with press-fit technique allows to achieve good self-reported assessments and clinical ligament evaluation up to 15 years. Advantages of the bone-patellar-tendon-bone (BPTB) press-fit fixation include unlimited bone-to-bone healing, cost effectiveness, avoidance of disadvantages associated with hardware, and ease for

  11. Mortality Resulting From Congenital Heart Disease Among Children and Adults in the United States, 1999 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Salemi, Jason L.; Nembhard, Wendy N.; Fixler, David E.; Correa, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous reports suggest that mortality resulting from congenital heart disease (CHD) among infants and young children has been decreasing. There is little population-based information on CHD mortality trends and patterns among older children and adults. Methods and Results We used data from death certificates filed in the United States from 1999 to 2006 to calculate annual CHD mortality by age at death, race-ethnicity, and sex. To calculate mortality rates for individuals ≥1 year of age, population counts from the US Census were used in the denominator; for infant mortality, live birth counts were used. From 1999 to 2006, there were 41 494 CHD-related deaths and 27 960 deaths resulting from CHD (age-standardized mortality rates, 1.78 and 1.20 per 100 000, respectively). During this period, mortality resulting from CHD declined 24.1% overall. Mortality resulting from CHD significantly declined among all race-ethnicities studied. However, disparities persisted; overall and among infants, mortality resulting from CHD was consistently higher among non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Infant mortality accounted for 48.1% of all mortality resulting from CHD; among those who survived the first year of life, 76.1% of deaths occurred during adulthood (≥18 years of age). Conclusions CHD mortality continued to decline among both children and adults; however, differences between race-ethnicities persisted. A large proportion of CHD-related mortality occurred during infancy, although significant CHD mortality occurred during adulthood, indicating the need for adult CHD specialty management. PMID:21098447

  12. Evaluation of the geomorphometric results and residual values of a robust plane fitting method applied to different DTMs of various scales and accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koma, Zsófia; Székely, Balázs; Dorninger, Peter; Kovács, Gábor

    2013-04-01

    Due to the need for quantitative analysis of various geomorphological landforms, the importance of fast and effective automatic processing of the different kind of digital terrain models (DTMs) is increasing. The robust plane fitting (segmentation) method, developed at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing at Vienna University of Technology, allows the processing of large 3D point clouds (containing millions of points), performs automatic detection of the planar elements of the surface via parameter estimation, and provides a considerable data reduction for the modeled area. Its geoscientific application allows the modeling of different landforms with the fitted planes as planar facets. In our study we aim to analyze the accuracy of the resulting set of fitted planes in terms of accuracy, model reliability and dependence on the input parameters. To this end we used DTMs of different scales and accuracy: (1) artificially generated 3D point cloud model with different magnitudes of error; (2) LiDAR data with 0.1 m error; (3) SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DTM database with 5 m accuracy; (4) DTM data from HRSC (High Resolution Stereo Camera) of the planet Mars with 10 m error. The analysis of the simulated 3D point cloud with normally distributed errors comprised different kinds of statistical tests (for example Chi-square and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests) applied on the residual values and evaluation of dependence of the residual values on the input parameters. These tests have been repeated on the real data supplemented with the categorization of the segmentation result depending on the input parameters, model reliability and the geomorphological meaning of the fitted planes. The simulation results show that for the artificially generated data with normally distributed errors the null hypothesis can be accepted based on the residual value distribution being also normal, but in case of the test on the real data the residual value distribution is

  13. Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis according to FITS concept: presentation of the method and preliminary, short term radiological and clinical results based on SOSORT and SRS criteria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conservative scoliosis therapy according to the FITS Concept is applied as a unique treatment or in combination with corrective bracing. The aim of the study was to present author's method of diagnosis and therapy for idiopathic scoliosis FITS-Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis and to analyze the early results of FITS therapy in a series of consecutive patients. Methods The analysis comprised separately: (1) single structural thoracic, thoracolumbar or lumbar curves and (2) double structural scoliosis-thoracic and thoracolumbar or lumbar curves. The Cobb angle and Risser sign were analyzed at the initial stage and at the 2.8-year follow-up. The percentage of patients improved (defined as decrease of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees), stable (+/- 5 degrees), and progressed (increase of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees) was calculated. The clinical assessment comprised: the Angle of Trunk Rotation (ATR) initial and follow-up value, the plumb line imbalance, the scapulae level and the distance from the apical spinous process of the primary curve to the plumb line. Results In the Group A: (1) in single structural scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 46,2% were stable and 3,8% progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 30,8% were stable and 19,2% progressed. In the Group B: (1) in single scoliosis 20,0% of patients improved, 80,0% were stable, no patient progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 28,1% of patients improved, 46,9% were stable and 25,0% progressed. Conclusion Best results were obtained in 10-25 degrees scoliosis which is a good indication to start therapy before more structural changes within the spine establish. PMID:22122964

  14. Spectrum of congenital heart defects and extracardiac malformations associated with chromosomal abnormalities: results of a seven year necropsy study

    PubMed Central

    Tennstedt, C; Chaoui, R; Korner, H; Dietel, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse the spectrum of congenital heart malformations, the frequency of extracardiac malformations, and the proportion of chromosome aberrations among fetuses sent for necropsy.
MATERIAL—Necropsies were performed on 815 fetuses—448 induced abortions (55%), 220 spontaneous abortions (27%), and 147 stillbirths (18%)—during a seven year period (1991-97) in the department of pathology of the Charité Medical Centre in Berlin. A congenital heart defect was identified in 129 cases (16%). For all 129 fetuses, karyotyping and an ultrasound examination had been performed.
RESULTS—Congenital heart defects were present in 22% of induced abortions (99 cases), 9% of spontaneous abortions (20 cases), and 7% of stillbirths (10 cases). The heart malformations were classified into 13 categories. A fetus with more than one defect was included only in the category of the most serious defect. The malformations in order of frequency were: ventricular septal defect (VSD) (28%), atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) (16%), hypoplastic left heart (HLH) (16%), double outlet right ventricle (DORV) (12%), coarctation of the aorta (CoA) (6%), transposition of the great arteries (TGA) (4%), aortic valve stenosis (AoVS) (4%), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (3%), truncus arteriosus communis (TAC) (3%), pulmonary valve stenosis/pulmonary valve atresia (PaVS/PaVA) (3%), tricuspid atresia (TA) (3%), single ventricle (SV) (1.5%), and atrial septal defect (ASD) (0.5%). The most common congenital heart defects were VSD, AVSD, HLH, and DORV, which made up 72% of all the cases. In 11 cases the heart defect was isolated (no other cardiovascular or extracardiac malformations present), 85 cases (66%) were associated with additional cardiac malformations, 85 cases (66%) were associated with extracardiac malformations, and chromosome anomalies were detected in 43 cases (33%).
CONCLUSIONS—Fetal congenital heart malformations are common. These defects are often

  15. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Canadians 55 to 74 years of age: results from the Canadian Heart Health Surveys, 1986-1992

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, SA; MacLean, DR; Langille, DB; Joffres, MR; MacPherson, KM; Andreou, P

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in older people, who account for an increasing proportion of Canada's population. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors is essential for changes in behaviour, yet little is known about these issues in older people. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys database provides a unique resource to examine knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors in older Canadians. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study used data from the Canadian provinces' Heart Health Surveys, for the years 1986 to 1992. Sampling within each province consisted of stratified, 2-stage, replicated probability samples; 4976 people 55 to 74 years of age were included in the present analysis. Knowledge and awareness of cardiovascular risk factors was determined from the survey question "Can you tell me what are the major causes of heart disease or heart problems?" Blood pressure was measured during a home visit; anthropometric and blood measurements were obtained during a clinic visit. Cardiovascular health status was determined by self-reporting. RESULTS: Smoking and stress or worry were mentioned as major causes of heart disease by the greatest proportion of participants (41% and 44% respectively); hypertension was mentioned by only 16%. Men and women did not differ in their awareness of high blood cholesterol (cited by 23% of participants), smoking (41%), excess weight (30%) or lack of exercise (28%) as causes of heart disease. A greater proportion of women than men were aware of hypertension (19% v. 12%) and heredity (31% v. 17%) as major causes of heart disease. Awareness of risk factors was consistently lower in the older age group (65-74 v. 55-64 years). Among women, there was greater awareness of the respective risk factors as causes of heart disease among those who were smokers (60% v. 35% of nonsmokers), those who had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater (38% v. 24% of those with a BMI less than

  16. Preferred tools and techniques for implantation of cardiac electronic devices in Europe: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Proclemer, Alessandro; Dobreanu, Dan; Marinskis, Germanas; Pison, Laurent; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess clinical practice in relation to the tools and techniques used for cardiac implantable electronic devices procedures in the European countries. Responses to the questionnaire were received from 62 members of the EHRA research network. The survey involved high-, medium-, and low-volume implanting centres, performing, respectively, more than 200, 100-199 and under 100 implants per year. The following topics were explored: the side approach for implantation, surgical techniques for pocket incision, first venous access for lead implantation, preference of lead fixation, preferred coil number for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads, right ventricular pacing site, generator placement site, subcutaneous ICD implantation, specific tools and techniques for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), lead implantation sequence in CRT, coronary sinus cannulation technique, target site for left ventricular lead placement, strategy in left ventricular lead implant failure, mean CRT implantation time, optimization of the atrioventricular (AV) and ventriculo-ventricular intervals, CRT implants in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation, AV node ablation in patients with permanent AF. This panoramic view allows us to find out the operator preferences regarding the techniques and tools for device implantation in Europe. The results showed different practices in all the fields we investigated, nevertheless the survey also outlines a good adherence to the common standards and recommendations. PMID:24170423

  17. Multifractal analysis of heart rate variability and laser Doppler flowmetry fluctuations:comparison of results from different numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humeau, Anne; Buard, Benjamin; Mahé, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Abraham, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamics in the cardiovascular system (CVS), the central CVS has previously been analyzed through multifractal analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) signals that were shown to bring useful contributions. Similar approaches for the peripheral CVS through the analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals are comparatively very recent. In this direction, we propose here a study of the peripheral CVS through a multifractal analysis of LDF fluctuations, together with a comparison of the results with those obtained on HRV fluctuations simultaneously recorded. To perform these investigations concerning the biophysics of the CVS, first we have to address the problem of selecting a suitable methodology for multifractal analysis, allowing us to extract meaningful interpretations on biophysical signals. For this purpose, we test four existing methodologies of multifractal analysis. We also present a comparison of their applicability and interpretability when implemented on both simulated multifractal signals of reference and on experimental signals from the CVS. One essential outcome of the study is that the multifractal properties observed from both the LDF fluctuations (peripheral CVS) and the HRV fluctuations (central CVS) appear very close and similar over the studied range of scales relevant to physiology.

  18. Current practice for diagnosis and management of silent atrial fibrillation: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Dobreanu, Dan; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Lewalter, Thorsten; Hernández-Madrid, Antonio; Lip, Gregory Y H; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2013-08-01

    Although it is well known that silent atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with morbidity and mortality rates similar to those of symptomatic AF, no specific strategy for screening and management of this form of AF has been advocated. The purpose of this survey was to identify current practices for the diagnosis and management of silent AF. This survey is based on an electronic questionnaire sent to the European Heart Rhythm Association Research Network partners. Responses were received from 33 centres in 16 countries. The preferred screening methods for silent AF in patients with rhythm control by pharmacological therapy was 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) at outpatient visits (31.3%) and periodical 24 h Holter ECG recordings (34.4%), while after pulmonary vein isolation the corresponding figures were 6.3 and 65.6%, respectively. No consensus has been reached concerning the therapeutic approach for such patients. Most responders preferred rate control over rhythm control in patients with silent AF, although some favoured pulmonary vein isolation in young patients. However, oral anticoagulant therapy in patients at high thromboembolic risk was considered mandatory by most, provided that at least one episode of silent AF was documented, without recommending further investigations. The results of this survey have confirmed that there is currently no consensus regarding the screening and management of patients with silent AF and that clinical practice is not always consistent with the few existing evidence-based recommendations. PMID:23878150

  19. [Immediate and remote results of stenting of left coronary artery trunk in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Bokeriia, L A; Alekian, B G; Buziashvili, Iu I; Golukhova, E Z; Staferov, A V; Zakarian, N V; Al-Sharjabi, R M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was assessment of efficacy of stenting in patients with ischemic heart disease with lesions of left coronary artery (LCA) trunk. In the A.N. Bakulev Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery between June 1997 and March 2005 stenting of LCA trunk was carried out in 50 patients (33 with stable effort angina and 17 with acute coronary syndrome). Immediate success rate was 100% in patients with stable angina. In a group of patients with acute coronary syndrome angiographic success rate was 100%. Total lethality in this group was (3 cases) 17.7%. In remote period (6 to 60 months) 33 of 39 patients were examined and recurrence of angina was noted in 7 of them (21.1%). Control angiography was carried out in 16 patients and restenosis of LCA was revealed in 18.75% of cases. The authors believe that stenting of LCA trunk is an effective and safe method of treatment of patients with stable angina and sufficiently safe method in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Roentgenoendovascular treatment may serve as an alternative to aortocoronary bypass surgery especially in isolated lesions of LCA trunk. Application of stents with drug coating allows to cardinally improve long term results of stenting. PMID:16710248

  20. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

  1. Development of the Canadian Home Fitness Test

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.; Bailey, Donald A.; Mirwald, Robert L.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian Home Fitness Test is a self-administered procedure in which the participant steps at an age- and sex-specific rhythm controlled by recorded music, then palpates the pulse immediately following activity. Validation of the test has shown a correlation of 0.72 with the results of a standard submaximum bicycle ergometer test, while the directly measured maximum oxygen intake is correlated even more closely (r = 0.88) with the attained stepping rate, body weight and recovery heart rate. Given modest training, subjects could measure their immediate postexercise heart rate (correlation with electro-cardiographic data, r = 0.94), although 10-second counts underestimated the true rate by an average of 7 beats/min. The safety of the test will be established ultimately by experience in its use in a large population; nevertheless, both theoretical considerations and results of trials in over 14 000 adults suggest the procedure can be self-administered without serious consequences. It is also well accepted by the general public and arouses considerable interest in most homes. The test can thus be recommended as providing an approximate measure of an individual's physical fitness in order to stimulate an increase in personal physical activity. It also has potential as a simple screening procedure that would allow paramedical personnel to record fitness levels and standardized exercise electrocardiograms in large segments of the population. PMID:56979

  2. Munc18-1 haploinsufficiency results in enhanced anxiety-like behavior as determined by heart rate responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Hager, Torben; Maroteaux, Grégoire; Pont, Paula du; Julsing, Joris; van Vliet, Rick; Stiedl, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Heterozygous (HZ) missense mutations in the gene encoding syntaxin binding protein 1 (Stxbp1 or Munc18-1), a presynaptic protein essential for neurotransmitter release, causes early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, abnormal brain structure and mental retardation in humans. Here we investigated whether the mouse model mimics symptoms of the human phenotype. The effects of the deletion of munc18-1 were studied in HZ and wild-type (WT) mice based on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) as independent measures to expand previous behavioral results of enhanced anxiety and impaired emotional learning suggesting mild cognitive impairments. HR responses were assessed during novelty exposure, during the expression and extinction of conditioned tone-dependent fear and during the diurnal phase. Novelty exposure yielded no differences in activity patterns between the two genotypes, while maximum HR differed significantly (WT: 770 bpm; HZ: 790 bpm). Retention tests after both auditory delay and trace fear conditioning showed a delayed extinction of the conditioned HR response in HZ mice compared to WT mice. Since the HR versus HRV correlation and HR dynamics assessed by nonlinear methods revealed similar function in HZ and WT mice, the higher HR responses of munc18-1 HZ mice to different emotional challenges cannot be attributed to differences in autonomic nervous system function. Thus, in contrast to the adverse consequences of deletion of a single allele of munc18-1 in humans, C57BL/6J mice show enhanced anxiety responses based on HR adjustments that extend previous results on the behavioral level without support of cognitive impairment, epileptic seizures and autonomic dysregulation. PMID:24304718

  3. Chronic vagal stimulation for the treatment of low ejection fraction heart failure: results of the NEural Cardiac TherApy foR Heart Failure (NECTAR-HF) randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zannad, Faiez; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Tuinenburg, Anton E.; Wright, David; Brugada, Josep; Butter, Christian; Klein, Helmut; Stolen, Craig; Meyer, Scott; Stein, Kenneth M.; Ramuzat, Agnes; Schubert, Bernd; Daum, Doug; Neuzil, Petr; Botman, Cornelis; Castel, Maria Angeles; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Solomon, Scott D.; Wold, Nicholas; Ruble, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The neural cardiac therapy for heart failure (NECTAR-HF) was a randomized sham-controlled trial designed to evaluate whether a single dose of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) would attenuate cardiac remodelling, improve cardiac function and increase exercise capacity in symptomatic heart failure patients with severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction despite guideline recommended medical therapy. Methods Patients were randomized in a 2 : 1 ratio to receive therapy (VNS ON) or control (VNS OFF) for a 6-month period. The primary endpoint was the change in LV end systolic diameter (LVESD) at 6 months for control vs. therapy, with secondary endpoints of other echocardiography measurements, exercise capacity, quality-of-life assessments, 24-h Holter, and circulating biomarkers. Results Of the 96 implanted patients, 87 had paired datasets for the primary endpoint. Change in LVESD from baseline to 6 months was −0.04 ± 0.25 cm in the therapy group compared with −0.08 ± 0.32 cm in the control group (P = 0.60). Additional echocardiographic parameters of LV end diastolic dimension, LV end systolic volume, left ventricular end diastolic volume, LV ejection fraction, peak V02, and N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide failed to show superiority compared to the control group. However, there were statistically significant improvements in quality of life for the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (P = 0.049), New York Heart Association class (P = 0.032), and the SF-36 Physical Component (P = 0.016) in the therapy group. Conclusion Vagal nerve stimulation as delivered in the NECTAR-HF trial failed to demonstrate a significant effect on primary and secondary endpoint measures of cardiac remodelling and functional capacity in symptomatic heart failure patients, but quality-of-life measures showed significant improvement. PMID:25176942

  4. Updated Heart Failure Treatment Guidelines Issued

    MedlinePlus

    ... as Corlanor, according to the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure ... best fits which treatment." Yancy is chief of cardiology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in ...

  5. Trends in coronary heart disease in two Belgian areas: results from the MONICA Ghent-Charleroi Study

    PubMed Central

    De Henauw, S.; De Bacquer, D.; de Smet, P.; Kornitzer, M.; De Backer, G.

    1999-01-01

    SETTING: As part of the WHO-MONICA study, acute coronary events have been registered from 1983 until 1992 in the general population aged 25- 69 years in two Belgian cities--Ghent in the northern Dutch speaking part of Belgium and Charleroi in the southern French speaking part. Registration of events was done according to an international standard protocol. OBJECTIVE: To study trends in total, fatal and non-fatal event rates and trends in case fatality rates in these two cities. MAIN RESULTS: Incidence of CHD was on average 50% higher in Charleroi compared with Ghent in both men and women (attack rate ratio Charleroi/Ghent was 1.5 in both sexes). In both men and women, diverging trends were observed between the two cities for total and non- fatal event rates, while parallel declining trends were observed in fatal event rates and in case fatality rates. In both sexes, total attack rates showed a significant decrease in Ghent and a significant increase in Charleroi. Also in the two sexes, attack rates of non-fatal events increased significantly in Charleroi and remained stable in Ghent. Attack rates of fatal events decreased significantly in men and women in Ghent and in men in Charleroi. Both "total" and "in hospital" case fatality rates declined significantly in both sexes in the two cities. CONCLUSIONS: Important differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and CHD trends between Ghent and Charleroi were observed. These differences and trends are interpreted in the context of existing and still growing differences in the overall socioeconomic situation between the north and the south of the country. On the other hand, the efficacy of medical treatment of CHD is comparable in the two regions, as reflected by similar figures and trends for case fatality rates.   PMID:10396469

  6. Fitness and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Catherine R.

    This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

  7. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...

  8. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  9. Genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus, low density lipoproteins, response to pravastatin and coronary heart disease: results from PROSPER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caucasian carriers of the T allele at R46L in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) locus have been reported to have 15% lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (C) levels and 47% lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Our objective was to examine two PCSK9 single nucle...

  10. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height² (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height² (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = -0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = -0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = -0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  11. Associations of Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass with Physical Fitness in 4-Year-Old Children: Results from the MINISTOP Trial

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Leppänen, Marja H.; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Ortega, Francisco B.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth. Studies in adolescents and adults suggest that higher fat mass is related to worse physical fitness. However, there is limited knowledge whether fat mass and fat-free mass are associated with physical fitness already in preschoolers. Baseline data from the MINISTOP (Mobile-based INtervention Intended to STop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial was utilized for this cross-sectional analysis. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. Fat mass index [fat mass (kg)/height2 (m)] and fat-free mass index [fat-free mass (kg)/height2 (m)] were used to provide height-adjusted measures of body composition. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT (FITness testing in PREschool children) battery, which assesses cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body and lower-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness. In total, this study included 303 children (168 boys and 135 girls), who were on average 4.48 ± 0.15 years old. Higher fat mass index was associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized β = −0.17, p = 0.002), lower-body muscular strength (β = −0.17, p = 0.003) and motor fitness (β = −0.21, p < 0.001) in regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and mutually adjusted for fat-mass index and fat-free mass index. Conversely, higher fat-free mass index was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 0.18, p = 0.002), upper-body muscular strength (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), lower-body muscular strength (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) and motor fitness (β = 0.17, p = 0.004). Thus, fat mass and fat-free mass in preschoolers appear to have joint but opposite associations with physical fitness, an important marker for current and future health. PMID:27483320

  12. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... the P and the R waves on the EKG (electrocardiogram). First-degree heart block may not cause ...

  13. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  14. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary schools in the UK. Participants 1625 children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. Outcome measures A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. Results The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, p<0.0001). Levels of estimated VO2 max were lower in South Asians than those in white Europeans (mean difference −0.79 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI −1.41 to −0.18, p=0.01); levels of estimated VO2 max in black African–Caribbeans were higher than those in white Europeans (mean difference 0.60 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.17, p=0.04); these patterns were similar in boys and girls. The lower estimated VO2 max in South Asians, compared to white Europeans, was consistent among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children and was attenuated by 78% after adjustment for objectively measured physical activity (average daily steps). Conclusions South Asian children have lower levels of physical fitness than white Europeans and black African–Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. PMID:27324713

  15. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID in three Dutch care services, the feasibility of 8…

  16. Depression and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death and Coronary Heart Disease in Women: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Whang, William; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Kroenke, Candyce H.; Glynn, Robert J.; Garan, Hasan; Albert, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the association between depression and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and cardiac events among individuals without baseline coronary heart disease (CHD). Background Depression is a risk factor for cardiac events and mortality among those with CHD, possibly from arrhythmia. Methods We studied depressive symptoms, and a proxy variable for clinical depression consisting of severe symptoms and/or antidepressant medication use, and their relationship to cardiac events in the Nurses’ Health Study. Questionnaires in 1992, 1996, and 2000 assessed symptoms with the Mental Health Index (MHI-5), and antidepressant use was assessed in 1996 and 2000. Primary endpoints included SCD, fatal CHD, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). Results Among 63,469 women without prior CHD/stroke in 1992, 7.9% had MHI-5 scores (<53) previously found to predict clinical depression. Depressive symptoms were associated with CHD events, and the relationship was strongest for fatal CHD, where the association remained significant even after controlling for CHD risk factors (HR=1.49; 95% CI 1.11–2.00 for MHI-5 score<53). In models from 1996 onward, our proxy variable for clinical depression was most associated with SCD in multivariable models (HR=2.33, 95% CI 1.47–3.70), and this risk was primarily due to a specific relationship between antidepressant use and SCD (HR=3.34, 95% CI 2.03–5.50). Conclusions In this cohort of women without baseline CHD, depressive symptoms were associated with fatal CHD, and a measure of clinical depression including antidepressant use was specifically associated with SCD. Although antidepressant use may be a marker of worse depression, its specific association with SCD merits further study. CONDENSED ABSTRACT We prospectively analyzed the association between depression and cardiac events in the Nurses’ Health Study. Symptoms of depression as measured by Mental Health Index (MHI-5) score were directly associated with risk of CHD events

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p < .001) and hip (p < .01) circumference,, trunk and leg fat mass (FM; p < .01) and an increase in trunk and leg fat free mass (FFM; p < .01) and cardiovascular fitness (VO2max in ml/kg/min; p < .001) with exercise. However, no significant differences were observed between groups. There was no significant change in RMR, RER, nonexercise PA levels, fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity with exercise or between groups. There was a tendency for a reduction in AUC insulin with exercise (p = .069), but no differences between groups. These results indicate that isocaloric training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals. PMID:26479856

  18. Project SuperHeart: An Evaluation of a Heart Disease Intervention Program For Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Joyce W.

    1981-01-01

    An effective way to prevent coronary heart disease in later life is to concentrate on preventive measures in the early years before coronary heart disease becomes established. Project SuperHeart, a heart disease intervention program for young children, includes physical fitness and classroom activities emphasizing basic nutritional habits. (JN)

  19. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  20. Ten-year results with the Morscher press-fit cup: an uncemented, non-modular, porous-coated cup inserted without screws.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Guido; Lübbeke, Anne; Barea, Christophe; Roussos, Constantinos; Peter, Robin; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) with well designed cementless acetabular implants has shown excellent results. The purpose of this study was to assess our clinical and radiological outcomes using an uncemented cup. We conducted a prospective cohort study including all consecutive primary THAs performed with the Morscher press-fit cup, an uncemented non-modular acetabular component, between March 1996 and December 1998. Patients were evaluated at ten years with clinical and radiological follow-up, patient satisfaction and questionnaire assessment using the Harris hip score (HHS), Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, the UCLA score, the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12) and a visual analog scale. Five hundred sixty-one THAs were performed in 518 patients. At 120 months (± 7.3 months), 303 patients with 335 THAs were still available for follow-up. None of the patients had required cup revision for aseptic loosening. At ten years, the cup survivorship was 98.8% (95% CI 97.4-99.5) with cup revision for any cause as an endpoint. No radiolucencies were seen around the cups, but osteolytic defects involved 21 stems (8.3%). Mean total linear polyethylene wear was 0.9 mm. The Morscher acetabular replacement cup provides excellent results at ten years. There were no revisions for aseptic loosening of the cup, and no osteolytic defects were found around the cup. Patient satisfaction was high and the clinical results were very good. PMID:20524114

  1. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  2. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  3. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft - CABG) Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart repair Minimally ... Heart bypass surgery Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Patent ...

  4. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p < 0.001) between body composition with fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  5. Work-up and management of lone atrial fibrillation: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Pison, Laurent; Hocini, Mélèze; Potpara, Tatjana S; Todd, Derick; Chen, Jian; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to explore the work-up and management of lone atrial fibrillation (AF) among the European centres. Thirty-two European centres, all members of the EHRA electrophysiology (EP) research network, responded to this survey and completed the list of questions. The prevalence of lone AF has been reported to be ≤10% by 19 (60%) of the participating centres. The presence of isolated left atrial enlargement and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction represent heart disease according to 50 and 84% of the centres, respectively, and exclude the diagnosis of lone AF. Fifty-nine per cent of responders do not routinely consider genetic testing in lone AF patients. The initial therapeutic approach in symptomatic paroxysmal lone AF is antiarrhythmic drug therapy as reported by 31 (97%) of the centres. Pulmonary vein isolation only is the first ablation strategy for patients with symptomatic persistent lone AF at 27 (84%) of the responding centres. Assessment for sleep apnoea, obesity, and intensive sports activity in lone AF is performed at 27 (84%) centres. In conclusion, this EP Wire survey confirms that the term 'lone AF' is still used in daily practice. The work-up typically includes screening for known risk factors but not genetic testing. The preferred management of paroxysmal lone AF is rhythm control with antiarrhythmic drugs, whereas pulmonary vein isolation is the first ablation strategy for the majority of patients with symptomatic persistent lone AF. PMID:25267359

  6. Personnel, equipment, and facilities for electrophysiological and catheter ablation procedures in Europe: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Estner, Heidi L; Chen, Jian; Potpara, Tatjana; Proclemer, Alessandro; Todd, Derick; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-07-01

    Clinical electrophysiology (EP) and catheter ablation of arrhythmias are rapidly evolving in recent years. More than 50 000 catheter ablations are performed every year in Europe. Emerging indications, an increasing number of procedures, and an expected high quality require national and international standards as well as trained specialists. The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess the practice of requirements for EP personnel, equipment, and facilities in Europe. Responses to the questionnaire were received from 52 members of the EHRA research network. The survey involved high-, medium-, and low-volume EP centres, performing >400, 100-399, and under 100 implants per year, respectively. The following topics were explored: (i) EP personnel issues including balance between female and male operators, responsibilities within the EP department, age profiles, role and training of fellows, and EP nurses, (ii) the equipments available in the EP laboratories, (iii) source of patient referrals, and (iv) techniques used for ablation for different procedures including sedation, and peri-procedural use of anticoagulation and antibiotics. The survey reflects the current EP personnel situation characterized by a high training requirement and specialization. Arrhythmia sections are still most often part of cardiology departments and the head of cardiology is seldom a heart rhythm specialist. Currently, the vast majority of EP physicians are men, although in the subgroup of physicians younger than 40 years, the proportion of women is increasing. Uncertainty exists regarding peri-procedural anticoagulation, antibiotic prophylaxis, and the need for sedation during specific procedures. PMID:24966009

  7. Randomised controlled trial evaluating cardiovascular screening and intervention in general practice: principal results of British family heart study. Family Heart Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the change in cardiovascular risk factors achievable in families over one year by a cardiovascular screening and lifestyle intervention in general practice. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial in 26 general practices in 13 towns in Britain. SUBJECTS--12,472 men aged 40-59 and their partners (7460 men and 5012 women) identified by household. INTERVENTION--Nurse led programme using a family centred approach with follow up according to degree of risk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--After one year the pairs of practices were compared for differences in (a) total coronary (Dundee) risk score and (b) cigarette smoking, weight, blood pressure, and random blood cholesterol and glucose concentrations. RESULTS--In men the overall reduction in coronary risk score was 16% (95% confidence interval 11% to 21%) in the intervention practices at one year. This was partitioned between systolic pressure (7%), smoking (5%), and cholesterol concentration (4%). The reduction for women was similar. For both sexes reported cigarette smoking at one year was lower by about 4%, systolic pressure by 7 mm Hg, diastolic pressure by 3 mm Hg, weight by 1 kg, and cholesterol concentration by 0.1 mmol/l, but there was no shift in glucose concentration. Weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol concentration showed the greatest difference at the top of the distribution. If maintained long term the differences in risk factors achieved would mean only a 12% reduction in risk of coronary events. CONCLUSIONS--As most general practices are not using such an intensive programme the changes in coronary risk factors achieved by the voluntary health promotion package for primary care are likely to be even smaller. The government's screening policy cannot be justified by these results. PMID:8124121

  8. Correlation of results obtained by in-vivo optical spectroscopy with measured blood oxygen saturation using a positive linear regression fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Patrick W.; Lewis, Gary D.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.; Stewart, Mick; Widman, Ronald A.

    1992-05-01

    Near infrared light generated by specialized instrumentation was passed through artificially oxygenated human blood during simultaneous sampling by a co-oximeter. Characteristic absorption spectra were analyzed to calculate the ratio of oxygenated to reduced hemoglobin. A positive linear regression fit between diffuse transmission oximetry and measured blood oxygenation over the range 23% to 99% (r2 equals .98, p < .001) was noted. The same technology was used to pass two channels of light through the scalp of brain-injured patients with prolonged, decreased level of consciousness in a tertiary care neuroscience ICU. Transmission data were collected with gross superficial-to-deep spatial resolution. Saturation calculation based on the deep signal was observed in the patient over time. The procedure was able to be performed clinically without difficulty; rSO2 values recorded continuously demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Using the same instrumentation, arterial input and cerebral response functions, generated by IV tracer bolus, were deconvoluted to measure mean cerebral transit time. Date collected over time provided a sensitive index of changes in cerebral blood flow as a result of therapeutic maneuvers.

  9. A Single Mutation in the Glycophorin A Binding Site of Hepatitis A Virus Enhances Virus Clearance from the Blood and Results in a Lower Fitness Variant

    PubMed Central

    Costafreda, M. Isabel; Ribes, Enric; Franch, Àngels; Bosch, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has previously been reported to bind to human red blood cells through interaction with glycophorin A. Residue K221 of VP1 and the surrounding VP3 residues are involved in such an interaction. This capsid region is specifically recognized by the monoclonal antibody H7C27. A monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant with the mutation G1217D has been isolated. In the present study, the G1217D mutant was characterized physically and biologically in comparison with the parental HM175 43c strain. The G1217D mutant is more sensitive to acid pH and binds more efficiently to human and rat erythrocytes than the parental 43c strain. In a rat model, it is eliminated from serum more rapidly and consequently reaches the liver with a certain delay compared to the parental 43c strain. In competition experiments performed in vivo in the rat model, the G1217D mutant was efficiently outcompeted by the parental 43c strain. Only in the presence of antibodies reacting specifically with the parental 43c strain could the G1217D mutant outcompete the parental 43c strain in serum, although the latter still showed a remarkable ability to reach the liver. Altogether, these results indicate that the G1217D mutation induces a low fitness phenotype which could explain the lack of natural antigenic variants of the glycophorin A binding site. PMID:22593170

  10. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD-heart attack; Coronary artery disease-heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  11. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack treatment works best when it's given right after symptoms occur. Prompt treatment of a heart attack can help prevent or limit damage to the heart and prevent sudden death. Call 9-1-1 Right Away A heart ...

  12. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  13. Fitness Load and Exercise Time in Secondary Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiao Jun; Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the effect of secondary school physical education on fitness load: the product of the mean heart rate above threshold (144 bpm) and the time duration of heart rate above that threshold. Highly and moderately skilled students achieved fitness load more frequently than their lower skilled colleagues. (GLR)

  14. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a heart attack take part in a cardiac rehabilitation program. ... al. eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  15. [Long-term results of clinical application of autologous mononuclear bone marrow fraction for regeneration therapy of ischemic heart disease patients].

    PubMed

    Sedov, V M; Nemkov, A S; Afanas'ev, B V; Belyĭ, S A; Burnos, S N; Zverev, O G; Babenko, E V; Lukashenko, V I; Nesteruk, Iu A; Kobak, A E; Azovtsev, R A; Kreĭl', V A; Ryzhkova, D V; Iudina, O V

    2012-01-01

    An experience with using autologous bone marrow mononuclears for regeneration of the heart was analyzed in 97 patients in whom the intracoronary transplantation of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells was performed. The results were estimated in terms up to 5 years and compared with a group of 37 patients who underwent only conservative treatment. A distinct positive dynamic of clinical and echocardiographic indices in the main group was noted in a subgroup of patients with a decreased ejection fraction (EF less than 50%) as compared with an analogous subgroup of patients in the control group. Substantial influence is exerted by regeneration therapy upon remote lethality. Thus, as a whole in the main group lethality over 5 years was 13.4% and in the group of control it was 21.6%. In the subgroup with a decreased ejection fraction and symptoms of heart failure lethality was 22.6% in the main group and 54.5%--in the control group. The intracoronary administration of the autologous bone marrow mononuclear fraction to inoperable patients with ischemic heart disease and a severe lesion of the coronary arteries and a decreased ejection fraction of the left ventricle is a safe and useful procedure resulting to substantially decreased lethality followed-up during 5 years against the background of conservative treatment. PMID:23227737

  16. Autonomic Function is Associated with Fitness Level in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Morgan H; Hetzler, Ronald K; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Kimura, Iris F; Stickley, Cris D; Lindsey, Rachel A; Nakamoto, Beau K; Chow, Dominic C

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular fitness can improve autonomic function (AF) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Methods Cross-sectional study investigating relationship between AF and cardiovascular fitness in HIV+ individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Participants’ (n=29) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MAX) were assessed by graded exercise test and scaled allometrically, then divided into tertiles by fitness level (Unfit, Low-fit, and Moderately-fit). Heart rate variability (HRV) and the Autonomic Reflex Screen were used to assess AF. Results Median VO2MAX were 104.9, 130.5, and 150.2 mL•kg−.67•min−1 for Unfit (n=10), Low-fit (n=10), and Moderately-fit (n= 9) groups respectively (p<0.05). Positive correlations were found between VO2MAX and HRV (Spearman’s rho range 0.383 to 0.553) were found. Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test (QSART) Distal Leg volumes was lower in Unfit compared to Low-fit (p=0.007) and Moderately-fit groups (p=0.018). Unfit QSART total volumes was lower than Moderately-fit (p=0.014). Conclusion A positive relationship existed between AF and fitness levels. HIV+ individuals could benefit from improved fitness. PMID:26213714

  17. Use of event recorders and loop recorders in clinical practice: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Sciaraffia, Elena; Chen, Jian; Hocini, Meleze; Larsen, Torben Bierregaard; Potpara, Tatjana; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of electrocardiogram monitoring systems are now available in the clinical practice. The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess the use of different monitoring techniques in the evaluation of patients with unexplained syncope, palpitations, and in those with established diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Forty-five centres in Europe answered the questionnaire and the majority (78%) were university hospitals. The answers showed a discrepancy between the recommended use of implantable loop recorders (ILRs) in patients with unexplained syncope and the use of this device in clinical practice. In most of the cases only a minority of patients (<20%) seemed to actually receive an ILR as a part of the diagnostic process in accordance to the current guidelines. Holter monitoring systems and external loop recorders seemed to be the preferred monitoring techniques both in patients with recurrent palpitations and in those with established diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. PMID:25172620

  18. How are arrhythmias detected by implanted cardiac devices managed in Europe? Results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Todd, Derick; Hernandez-Madrid, Antonio; Proclemer, Alessandro; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Estner, Heidi; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-09-01

    The management of arrhythmias detected by implantable cardiac devices can be challenging. There are no formal international guidelines to inform decision-making. The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess the management of various clinical scenarios among members of the EHRA electrophysiology research network. There were 49 responses to the questionnaire. The survey responses were mainly (81%) from medium-high volume device implanting centres, performing more than 200 total device implants per year. Clinical scenarios were described focusing on four key areas: the implantation of pacemakers for bradyarrhythmia detected on an implantable loop recorder (ILR), the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmia detected by an ILR or pacemaker, the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with pacemakers and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices and the management of ventricular tachycardia in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. PMID:26443791

  19. How are arrhythmias managed in the paediatric population in Europe? Results of the European Heart Rhythm survey.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Madrid, Antonio; Hocini, Mélèze; Chen, Jian; Potpara, Tatjana; Pison, Laurent; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this survey was to provide insight into current practice regarding the management of paediatric arrhythmias in Europe. The survey was based on a questionnaire sent via the Internet to the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) electrophysiology research network centres. The following topics were explored: patient and treatment selection, techniques and equipment, treatment outcomes and complications. The vast majority of paediatric arrhythmias concerns children older than 1 year and patients with grown-up congenital heart disease. In 65% of the hospitals there is a specialized paediatric centre, and the most commonly observed arrhythmias include Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardias (90.24%). The medical staff performing paediatric catheter ablations in Europe are mainly adult electrophysiology teams (82.05% of the centres). Radiofrequency is the preferred energy source used for paediatric arrhythmia ablation. Catheter ablation is only chosen if two or more antiarrhythmic drugs have failed (94.59% of the centres). The majority of the centres use flecainide (37.8%) or atenolol (32.4%) as their first choice drug for prevention of recurrent supraventricular arrhythmias. While none of the centres performed catheter ablation in asymptomatic infants with pre-excitation, 29.7% recommend ablation in asymptomatic children and adolescents. The preferred choice for pacemaker leads in infants less than 1 year old is implantation of epicardial leads in 97.3% of the centres, which continues to be the routine even in patients between 1 and 5 years of age as reported by 75.68% of the hospitals. Almost all centres (94.59%) report equally small number of complications of catheter ablation in children (aged 1-14 years) as observed in adults. PMID:25417228

  20. The use of wearable cardioverter-defibrillators in Europe: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Lenarczyk, Radosław; Potpara, Tatjana S; Haugaa, Kristina H; Hernández-Madrid, Antonio; Sciaraffia, Elena; Dagres, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to collect data on the use of wearable cardioverter-defibrillators (WCDs) among members of the EHRA electrophysiology research network. Of the 50 responding centres, 23 (47%) reported WCD use. Devices were fully reimbursed in 17 (43.6%) of 39 respondents, and partially reimbursed in 3 centres (7.7%). Eleven out of 20 centres (55%) reported acceptable patients' compliance (WCD worn for >90% of time). The most common indications for WCD (8 out of 10 centres; 80%) were covering the period until re-implantation of ICD explanted due to infection, in patients with left ventricular impairment due to myocarditis or recent myocardial infarction and those awaiting heart transplantation. Patient life expectancy of <12 months and poor compliance were the most commonly reported contraindications for WCD (24 of 46 centres, 52.2%). The major problems encountered by physicians managing patients with WCD were costs (8 of 18 centres, 44.4%), non-compliance, and incorrect use of WCD. Four of 17 centres (23.5%) reported inappropriate WCD activations in <5% of patients. The first shock success rate in terminating ventricular arrhythmias was 95-100% in 6 of 15 centres (40%), 85-95% in 4 (26.7%), 75-85% in 2 (13.3%), and <75% in 3 centres (20%). The survey has shown that the use of WCD in Europe is still restricted and depends on reimbursement. Patients' compliance remains low. Heterogeneity of indications for WCD among centres underscores the need for further research and a better definition of indications for WCD in specific patient groups. PMID:26842735

  1. Cardiorespiratory responses of Hi Fit and Low Fit subjects to mental challenge during exercise.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, E O; Webb, H E; Weldy, M L; Fabianke, E C; Orndorff, G R; Starks, M A

    2006-12-01

    The influence of psychological states on physiological responses during exercise is of considerable importance to individuals for which the efficiency of energy production is critical to occupational performance. Numerous studies have shown that aerobic fitness is associated with enhanced cardiovascular efficiency at rest and that responses to mental stress demonstrate evidence of increased sensitivity (relative increase in HR response) and enhanced efficiency (a decrease in absolute HR). However, the effect of aerobic fitness and its impact on cardiorespiratory (CR) responses to psychological stress during exercise has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was three-fold; (1) to examine during exercise, anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses to a mental challenge, (2) to examine anxiety and heart rate (HR) responses from rest to exercise with mental challenge between below average fitness (Low Fit) and well-above average fitness (Hi Fit) individuals (exercising at similar relative intensities), and (3) to examine anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses of Low Fit and Hi Fit individuals to a mental challenge during exercise at a similar relative intensity. Twelve Low Fit and eleven Hi Fit subjects participated in two, 32-minute cycle ergometer rides at 65 % of VO2max. In the mental challenge condition (MCC), subjects rode while participating in mentally challenging tasks (Stroop Color-Word task and mental arithmetic) from min 6 to min 14 of the protocol. In the no mental challenge condition (NMCC), subjects exercised at the same intensity and duration without a stressor. Subjects were counter-balanced between fitness levels and condition. HR, VE, VE/VO2, RR, VO2, RER, effort sense (RPE), and state anxiety (SAI) were assessed at 5, 14, 24, and 30 min. SAI was also assessed at - 5 min before exercise and after 15 min of recovery. In addition, the NASA task load index (NTLX) was used to assess perceived overall workload. SAI increased

  2. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  3. Old-and With Severe Heart Failure: Telemonitoring by Using Digital Pen Technology in Specialized Homecare: System Description, Implementation, and Early Results.

    PubMed

    Lind, Leili; Carlgren, Gunnar; Karlsson, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Telehealth programs for heart failure have been studied using a variety of techniques. Because currently a majority of the elderly are nonusers of computers and Internet, we developed a home telehealth system based on digital pen technology. Fourteen patients (mean age, 84 years [median, 83 years]) with severe heart failure participated in a 13-month pilot study in specialized homecare. Participants communicated patient-reported outcome measures daily using the digital pen and health diary forms, submitting a total of 3 520 reports. The reports generated a total of 632 notifications when reports indicated worsening health. Healthcare professionals reviewed reports frequently, more than 4700 times throughout the study, and acted on the information provided. Patients answered questionnaires and were observed in their home environment when using the system. Results showed that the technology was accepted by participants: patients experienced an improved contact with clinicians; they felt more compliant with healthcare professionals' advice, and they felt more secure and more involved in their own care. Via the system, the healthcare professionals detected heart failure-related deteriorations at an earlier stage, and as a consequence, none of the patients were admitted into hospital care during the study. PMID:27223309

  4. Relationships among Fitness, Body Composition, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    LOHMAN, TIMOTHY G.; RING, KIMBERLY; PFEIFFER, KARIN; CAMHI, SARAH; ARREDONDO, ELVA; PRATT, CHARLOTTE; PATE, RUSS; WEBBER, LARRY S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the associations of physical activity and body composition with cardiorespiratory fitness in eighth grade girls. Methods A random sample of 1440 eighth grade girls at 36 schools participated in this cross-sectional investigation, which represented an ethnically and geographically diverse group. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a modified physical work capacity test on a cycle ergometer that predicted workload at a heart rate of 170 beats·min−1. Physical activity was assessed over 6 d in each girl using an accelerometer and body composition was estimated from body mass index and triceps skinfolds using a previously validated equation. Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to determine the relationships among fitness, physical activity, and body composition. Results Significant linear relationships among cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and physical activity were found. The combination of fat and fat-free mass along with racial group and a race by fat-free-mass interaction accounted for 18% (R2) of the variation in physical fitness. Adding moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to the regression model increased the R2 to 22%. Black girls had somewhat lower fitness levels (P < 0.05) especially at higher levels of fat and fat-free mass than other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Physical activity, fat-free mass, and the interaction between fat-free mass and racial group are significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescent girls. PMID:18460987

  5. Is There a Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement? Positive Results from Public School Children in the Northeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia R.; Slining, Meghan M.; McGowan, Robert J.; Mitchell, Suzanne E.; Dawson, Glen F.; Hacker, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between physical fitness and academic achievement in diverse, urban public school children. Methods: This cross-sectional study used public school data from 2004 to 2005. Academic achievement was assessed as a passing score on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) achievement tests in…

  6. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get help immediately. It's ... few hours causes the affected heart muscle to die. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  7. Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  8. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  9. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  10. Left atrial appendage closure-indications, techniques, and outcomes: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Pison, Laurent; Potpara, Tatjana S; Chen, Jian; Larsen, Torben B; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this EP Wire was to assess the indications, techniques, and outcomes of left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) in Europe. Thirty-three European centres, all members of the European Heart Rhythm Association electrophysiology (EP) research network, responded to this survey by completing the questionnaire. The major indication for LAAO (94%) was the prevention of stroke in patients at high thrombo-embolic risk (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2) and contraindications to oral anticoagulants (OACs). Twenty-one (64%) of the responding centres perform LAAO in their own institution and 80% implanted 30 or less LAAO devices in 2014. Two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography was the preferred imaging technique to visualize LAA before, during, and after LAAO in 79, 58, and 62% of the participating centres, respectively. Following LAAO, 49% of the centres prescribe vitamin K antagonists or novel OACs. Twenty-five per cent of the centres combine LAAO with pulmonary vein isolation. The periprocedural complications included death (range, 0-3%), ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke (0-25%), tamponade (0-25%), and device embolization (0-20%). In conclusion, this EP Wire has demonstrated that LAAO is most commonly employed in patients at high thrombo-embolic risk in whom OAC is contraindicated. The technique is not yet very widespread and the complication rates remain significant. PMID:25833883

  11. Management of malfunctioning and recalled pacemaker and defibrillator leads: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Grazia Bongiorni, Maria; Dagres, Nikolaos; Estner, Heidi; Pison, Laurent; Todd, Derick; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this survey was to describe the different strategies regarding the management of malfunctioning and recalled pacemaker and defibrillator leads across Europe. A questionnaire has been designed to assess the current practice and physician's approach to the management of leads which are faulty, unnecessary, and/or recalled. Responses to the questionnaire were received from 34 hospitals-members of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) electrophysiology (EP) research network. The survey involved both very high and low volume implanting centres, with 85% of the responding centres performing lead extraction. The survey provides a panoramic view of operator's decision making in the field of malfunctioning, recalled, and redundant leads and outlines a common point of view on lead abandonment and factors influencing the decision about lead extraction. The main factors strongly influencing the decision making were patient's age (59%), the presence of the damaged leads (44%), and the lead dwelling time (44%). Regarding the lead abandonment, the main concern (61%) was the potential greater difficulty associated with lead extraction in the future. High volume extracting centres showed a greater propensity to removing the malfunctioning or recalled leads compared with low volume or non-extracting centres. This EP Wire survey gives a snapshot of the operators' approaches and options regarding redundant, malfunctioning, and recalled lead management and may form the basis for future prospective research on this topic. PMID:25344962

  12. More than 10 million steps in the right direction: results from the first American Heart Association scientific sessions walking challenge.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Robert A; Arena, Ross; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ciarochi, Amy; Croll, Elizabeth; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count! PMID:25269063

  13. The influence of environmental factors on heart rate chronostructure depending on the individual characteristics of autonomic regulation. Results of long-term medical-ecological studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaeva, Olga; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Breus, Tamara; Chernikova, Anna; Baevsky, Roman

    It was previously shown [Baevsky, Petrov, 1998] that during space flight under influence of geomagnetic disturbances there are both specific response of the autonomic regulation system in the form of vasomotor cardiovascular center activation (LF spectral components) and non-specific stress response, which depends on the actual autonomic balance [Breus, Baevsky, 2002]. Within the project "Mars-500" the parallel medical-ecological studies were conducted in 10 groups (10-16 people), that lived in different regions of the world under the influence of various environmental factors - climatic, geographic, industrial, social and other. It allowed us to obtain a sufficiently large number of variants of adaptive reactions caused by differences in external impacts. The main research method was the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in short ECG samples (5 minutes) for assessing heart rate chronostructure and functional status of autonomic regulation. Results of studies have demonstrated that environmental loads on the regulatory mechanisms is higher in the northern and north-eastern regions of Russia - Magadan and Syktyvkar. Stress-index of regulatory systems and adaptive risk indicator is significantly higher in these groups [Baevsky, Berseneva, 2013]. The preliminary search of weather factors (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, humidity and magnetic index Kp) influence on the autonomic regulation of heart rate showed that there are no any significant changes and relationships in the entire group of participants. We have assumed that the character of adaptive responses, including responses to changing weather and geomagnetic conditions, is associated with the individual characteristics and the initial functional state of autonomic regulation. To test this hypothesis, we have identified two groups of subjects with different autonomic balance. The first group included individuals with a pronounced predominance of sympathetic regulation (n = 127), the second - with a

  14. Replacement of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Tilz, Roland; Boveda, Serge; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Dobreanu, Dan; Haugaa, Kristina H; Dagres, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this EP Wire was to assess the management, indications, and techniques for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device replacement in Europe. A total of 24 centres in 14 European countries completed the questionnaire. All centres were members of the European Heart Rhythm Association Electrophysiology Research Network. Replacement procedures were performed by electrophysiologists in 52% of the centres, by cardiologists in 33%, and both in the remaining centres. In the majority of centres, the procedures were performed during a short hospitalization (<2 days; 61.2%), or on an outpatient basis (28%). The overwhelming majority of centres reported that they replaced ICDs at the end of battery life. Only in a small subset (<10%) of patients with ICD for primary prevention and without ventricular tachycardia (VT) since implantation, ICD was not replaced. In inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes, 80% of the centres always replaced the ICD at the end of battery life. After VT ablation, only few centres (9%) explanted or downgraded the device that was previously implanted for secondary prevention, but only in those patients without new VT episodes. Patient's life expectancy <1 year was the most commonly reported reason (61%) to downgrade from a CRT-D to a CRT-P device. While warfarin therapy was continued in 47% of the centres, non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants were discontinued without bridging 24 h prior to replacement procedures in 60%. Finally, in 65% of the centres, VT induction and shock testing during ICD and CRT-D replacement were performed only in the case of leads with a warning or with borderline measurements. This survey provides a snapshot of the perioperative management, indications, and techniques of ICD and CRT device replacement in Europe. It demonstrates some variations between participating centres, probably related to local policies and to the heterogeneity of the ICD population. PMID

  15. Management of atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic kidney disease in Europe Results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Lenarczyk, Radoslaw; Larsen, Torben B; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm (EHRA) Scientific Initiatives Committee EP Wire Survey was to assess 'real-world' practice in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the European Eelectrophysiology centres. Of 41 responding centres, 39 (95.1%) and 37 (90.2%) routinely evaluated renal function in AF patients at first presentation and during follow-up, respectively, but 13 centres (31.7%) re-assessed advanced CKD only at ≥1-year intervals. While the use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in mild-to-moderate CKD patients was mostly guided by individual patient stroke risk, 31% of the centres used no therapy, or aspirin or the left appendage occlusion in patients with advanced CKD and HAS-BLED ≥ 3. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) were preferred in patients with severe CKD or under renal replacement therapy (RRT), any non-VKA in patients with mild CKD, and apixaban in patients with moderate CKD. Rhythm control was preferred in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD (48.7% of centres), and rate control in patients with severe CKD (51.2% of centres). In 20 centres (48.8%), AF ablation was not performed in advanced CKD patients. Most centres performed AF ablation on OAC, but heparin bridging was still used in >10% of centres. Our survey has shown that the importance of renal function monitoring in AF patients is well recognized in clinical practice. In patients with mild-to-moderate CKD, AF is mostly managed according to the guideline recommendations, but more data are needed to guide the management of AF in patients with severe CKD or RRT. PMID:26733617

  16. Perioperative Anticoagulation in Patients with Mechanical Heart Valves Undergoing Elective Surgery: Results of a Survey Conducted among Korean Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sehyun; Lim, Chang Young; Lee, Jong Seok; Park, Seonyang; Garcia, David; Crowther, Mark A.; Ageno, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The optimal perioperative anticoagulation management in patients on warfarin therapy is poorly defined due to the lack of randomized trials. Because guidelines are heterogeneous, it was hypothesized that "treatment strategies are not uniform in clinical practice". Between February 2003 and May 2003, a questionnaire with 4 different clinical scenarios was distributed to physicians by e-mail, or direct contact was made by a survey monitor. Two scenarios described the cases of patients with a mechanical heart valve (MHV) in the mitral position, with additional risk factors for a systemic embolism; one undergoing major (scenario 1) and the other minor surgery (scenario 3). Two scenarios described patients with an aortic MHV; one undergoing major (scenario 2) and the other minor (scenario 4) surgery. Different preoperative and postoperative management options were offered. The treatment options for all scenarios were the same. Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 52 (57.8%) were returned. Hospitalization for full-dose intravenous unfractionated heparin (IV UH) was the most commonly selected strategy in the preoperative phase for scenarios 1 (59%), 2 (42%) and 3 (44%). In scenario 4, 34% chose IV UH. Outpatient, full-dose, subcutaneous UH or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was the most selected option in the postoperative phase for all scenarios, with the exception of number 4 (52.9% in scenario 1, 34% in scenario 2, 32%, in scenario 3 and 28% in scenario 4). Even among expert clinicians, the management of perioperative anticoagulation is heterogeneous. In particular, the definition of risk categories and the optimal intensity of antithrombotic drugs need to be defined by well-designed prospective studies. PMID:15744807

  17. New Results in Magnitude and Sign Correlations in Heartbeat Fluctuations for Healthy Persons and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diosdado, A. Muñoz; Cruz, H. Reyes; Hernández, D. Bueno; Coyt, G. Gálvez; González, J. Arellanes

    2008-08-01

    Heartbeat fluctuations exhibit temporal structure with fractal and nonlinear features that reflect changes in the neuroautonomic control. In this work we have used the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to analyze heartbeat (RR) intervals of 54 healthy subjects and 40 patients with congestive heart failure during 24 hours; we separate time series for sleep and wake phases. We observe long-range correlations in time series of healthy persons and CHF patients. However, the correlations for CHF patients are weaker than the correlations for healthy persons; this fact has been reported by Ashkenazy et al. [1] but with a smaller group of subjects. In time series of CHF patients there is a crossover, it means that the correlations for high and low frequencies are different, but in time series of healthy persons there are not crossovers even if they are sleeping. These crossovers are more pronounced for CHF patients in the sleep phase. We decompose the heartbeat interval time series into magnitude and sign series, we know that these kinds of signals can exhibit different time organization for the magnitude and sign and the magnitude series relates to nonlinear properties of the original time series, while the sign series relates to the linear properties. Magnitude series are long-range correlated, while the sign series are anticorrelated. Newly, the correlations for healthy persons are different that the correlations for CHF patients both for magnitude and sign time series. In the paper of Ashkenazy et al. they proposed the empirical relation: αsign≈1/2(αoriginal+αmagnitude) for the short-range regime (high frequencies), however, we have found a different relation that in our calculations is valid for short and long-range regime: αsign≈1/4(αoriginal+αmagnitude).

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Results from Prospective Cohort Studies of Chinese Adults in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Danxia; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Huang, Jie; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Protective associations of fruit and vegetables against coronary heart disease (CHD) have been suggested in many epidemiological studies among Western populations. However, prospective data are lacking for Asian populations. We examined the associations of fruit and vegetable intake with incidence of CHD among 67,211 women (40–70 years) and 55,474 men (40–74 years) living in Shanghai, China. Food intake was assessed using validated food-frequency questionnaires through in-person interviews. Coronary events (nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD) were identified by biennial home visits and further confirmed by medical records review. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 and 5.4 years, 148 events in women and 217 events in men were documented and verified, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, women in the highest quartile of total fruit and vegetable intake (median: 814 g/d) had a hazard ratio (HR) for CHD of 0.62 (95% CI 0.38, 1.02) (P for trend=0.04) compared with those in the lowest quartile (median: 274 g/d). This association was primarily driven by fruits (the HR for the highest vs. the lowest intake in women: 0.62; 95% CI, 0.37, 1.03). The strength of the association was attenuated after further controlling for history of diabetes or hypertension. For men, no significant association was found for fruit and vegetable intake when analyzed either in combination or individually. Our findings suggest that a high consumption of fruits may reduce the risk of CHD in Chinese women. PMID:23866068

  19. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  20. Ex Vivo Rehabilitation of Non-Heart-Beating Donor Lungs in a Preclinical Porcine Model: Delayed Perfusion Results in Superior Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, Daniel P.; Stone, Matthew L.; Crosby, Ivan K.; LaPar, Damien J.; Sharma, Ashish K.; Webb, David V.; Lau, Christine L.; Laubach, Victor E.; Kron, Irving L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a promising modality for the evaluation and treatment of marginal donor lungs. The optimal timing of EVLP initiation and potential for rehabilitation of donor lungs with extended warm-ischemic times is unknown. This study compares the efficacy of different treatment strategies for uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs. Methods Mature swine underwent hypoxic arrest followed by 60 minutes of no-touch warm-ischemia. Lungs were harvested and flushed with 4°C Perfadex®. Three groups (n=5/group) were stratified according to preservation method: cold-static preservation (CSP: 4 hrs 4°C storage), immediate EVLP (I-EVLP: 4 hrs EVLP at 37°C), and delayed EVLP (D-EVLP: 4 hrs cold storage followed by 4 hrs EVLP). EVLP groups were perfused with Steen solution™ supplemented with heparin, methylprednisolone, cefazolin, and an adenosine 2A receptor agonist. Lungs then underwent allotransplantation and four hours of recipient reperfusion prior to allograft assessment for resultant ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results Donor blood oxygenation (PO2:FiO2) prior to euthanasia was not different between groups. Oxygenation after transplantation was significantly higher in the D-EVLP group compared to the I-EVLP or CSP groups. Mean airway pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α were all significantly reduced in the D-EVLP group. Importantly, post-transplant oxygenation exceeded acceptable clinical levels only in D-EVLP lungs. Conclusions Uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs with extended warm-ischemia can be reconditioned for successful transplantation. The combination of CSP and EVLP present in the D-EVLP group was necessary to obtain optimal post-transplant function. This finding, if confirmed clinically, will allow expanded use of non-heart-beating donor lungs. PMID:22944084

  1. A Lasting Impression: A Pedagogical Perspective on Youth Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Stephen; Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Phillips, Sharon R.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses ways in which fitness tests can be used positively in physical education. We take the position throughout the article that fitness tests should be used as formative evaluation to further educational goals. We begin by discussing the different ways in which adults and children use fitness tests. The next section, the heart of…

  2. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles. PMID:26736588

  3. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  4. Do beta-blockers prolong survival in heart failure only by inhibiting the beta1-receptor? A perspective on the results of the COMET trial.

    PubMed

    Packer, Milton

    2003-12-01

    Experimental and clinical studies indicate that carvedilol exerts multiple antiadrenergic effects in addition to beta(1)-receptor blockade, but the prognostic importance of these actions has long been debated. This controversy has now been substantially advanced by the results of the recently completed Carvedilol Or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET), which showed that carvedilol (25 mg twice daily) reduced mortality by 17% when compared with metoprolol (50 mg twice daily), P=.0017--a result that was consistent with the differences seen across earlier controlled trials with beta-blockers in survivors of an acute myocardial infarction and in patients with chronic heart failure. Questions have been raised about the interpretation of these findings in view of the fact that the trial did not use the dose or formulation of metoprolol that was shown to prolong life in a placebo-controlled trial (ie, Metoprolol CR/XL [Controlled Release] Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses, however, indicate that the dosing regimen of metoprolol selected for use in the COMET trial produces a magnitude and time course of beta(1)-blockade during a 24-hour period that is similar to the dose of carvedilol targeted for use in the trial. These analyses suggest that the observed difference in the mortality effects of metoprolol and carvedilol is not related to a difference in the magnitude or time course of their beta(1)-blocking effects but instead reflect antiadrenergic effects of carvedilol in addition to beta(1)-blockade. PMID:14966782

  5. Making the Fitness Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Sheri J.; Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine

    2005-01-01

    Children's fitness levels are decreasing at an alarming rate. The Centers for Disease Control has determined that approximately 33% of children do not regularly engage in vigorous physical activity (CDC, 2002). As a result, childhood obesity has increased 100% since 1980 in the United States due to physical inactivity (CDC, 2004). A well-planned…

  6. Heart palpitations

    MedlinePlus

    Heart palpitations can be due to: Anxiety, stress, panic attack, or fear Caffeine intake Nicotine intake Cocaine or other illegal drugs Diet pills Exercise Fever However, some palpitations are due to an abnormal heart rhythm, ...

  7. Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/Go4Life Heart Health Just like an engine makes a car go, your heart keeps your ... all at once —10-minute periods will do. Start by doing activities you enjoy—brisk walking, dancing, ...

  8. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... with heart disease? What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean? How can I lower my cholesterol? ... weight Know your numbers (blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides) You can reduce your chances of getting heart ...

  9. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  10. Heart pacemaker

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 ounce. Most pacemakers have 2 parts: The generator contains the battery and the information to control ... are wires that connect the heart to the generator and carry the electrical messages to the heart. ...