Science.gov

Sample records for fixed depth fluidic

  1. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002

    SciTech Connect

    REICH, F.R.

    1999-03-11

    This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract.

  2. Test plan for evaluating the operational performance of the prototype nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler

    SciTech Connect

    REICH, F.R.

    1999-05-18

    The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by a privatization contractor from two double-shell feed tanks, 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume, representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. A plan has been developed for the cold testing of this nested, fixed-depth sampling system with simulant materials. The sampling system will fill the 500-ml bottles and provide inner packaging to interface with the Hanford Sites cask shipping systems (PAS-1 and/or ''safe-send''). The sampling system will provide a waste stream that will be used for on-line, real-time measurements with an at-tank analysis system. The cold tests evaluate the performance and ability to provide samples that are representative of the tanks' content within a 95 percent confidence interval, to sample while mixing pumps are operating, to provide large sample volumes (1-15 liters) within a short time interval, to sample supernatant wastes with over 25 wt% solids content, to recover from precipitation- and settling-based plugging, and the potential to operate over the 20-year expected time span of the privatization contract.

  3. Engineering Task Plan for Development and Fabrication and Deployment of Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampling and At Tank Analysis Systems

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-10-30

    This engineering task plan identifies the resources, responsibilities, and schedules for the development and deployment of a mobile, variable depth sampling system and an at-tank analysis system. The mobile, variable depth sampling system concept was developed after a cost assessment indicated a high cost for multiple deployments of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. The sampling will provide double-shell tank (DST) staging tank waste samples for assuring the readiness of the waste for shipment to the LAW/HLW plant for treatment and immobilization. The at-tank analysis system will provide ''real-time'' assessments of the samples' chemical and physical properties. These systems support the Hanford Phase 1B vitrification project.

  4. Fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Suthanthiraraj, Pearlson P. Austin; Graves, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of fluidics is implicit in a technology named “flow cytometry”, which flows a cell or particle through a sensing volume to obtain serial analysis of particles on a one by one basis. This flow of particles enables flow cytometry to collect information on multiple particle populations, giving it a distinct advantage over bulk analysis approaches. Moreover, flow cytometers can analyze thousands of particles per second in a single flowing stream. Additionally, use of volumetric sample delivery makes it possible for flow cytometers to accurately count cells and particles. Furthermore, the analysis results can be coupled with a fluidic diversion mechanism to sort and collect particles based on desired properties. Finally, when high throughput sampling technologies are employed to rapidly change the input of the sample stream, a flow cytometer can become an integral tool for high throughput screening. The above properties have made flow cytometry useful in a wide range of biomedical applications. In this unit we will present an overview of fluidic systems that make flow cytometry possible. This will introduce historical approaches, explanations of the commonly implemented current fluidics, and brief discussions of potential future fluidics where appropriate. PMID:23835801

  5. Fluidics.

    PubMed

    Austin Suthanthiraraj, Pearlson P; Graves, Steven W

    2013-07-01

    The use of fluidics is implicit in a technology named "flow cytometry," which flows a cell or particle through a sensing volume to obtain serial analysis of particles on a one by one basis. This flow of particles enables flow cytometry to collect information on multiple particle populations, giving it a distinct advantage over bulk analysis approaches. Moreover, flow cytometers can analyze thousands of particles per second in a single flowing stream. Additionally, use of volumetric sample delivery makes it possible for flow cytometers to accurately count cells and particles. Furthermore, the analysis results can be coupled with a fluidic diversion mechanism to sort and collect particles based on desired properties. Finally, when high-throughput sampling technologies are employed to rapidly change the input of the sample stream, a flow cytometer can become an integral tool for high-throughput screening. The above properties have made flow cytometry useful in a wide range of biomedical applications. In this unit we will present an overview of fluidic systems that make flow cytometry possible. This will introduce historical approaches, explanations of the commonly implemented current fluidics, and brief discussions of potential future fluidics where appropriate. PMID:23835801

  6. A comparison of carbide fracture during fixed depth and fixed load scratch tests

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.V.; Kosel, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    In order to simulate abrasion of dual-phase materials containing large carbides under fixed depth conditions an apparatus has been designed and used to perform scratch tests at a fixed depth of cut on such materials. The scratch test consists of two support arms tipped with small steel balls held in contact with surface by /sup 700/ g, while the scratch tool is mounted on the tip of a central arm whose adjustable length allow control of the depth of cut. The scratch tool does not deflect significant when it encounters a large carbide. Scratch tests with the new apparatus have been performed on Co-base Stellite alloys containing large Cr-rich carbides, using individual particles of alumina as scratch tools to generate fixed depth scratches. A in situ SEM scratch test apparatus has also been used to genrate fixed load scratches. Comparison of the scratches shows that for comparable average scratch depths, under fixed load conditions the scratch tool deflects over the carbides without causing fracture, but that since it cannot deflect under fixed depth conditions it induces gross carbide fracture. Results suggest that the fixed depth scratch test can be successfully employed to simulate fixed depth abrasion, which has been previously shown to generate gross carbide fracture in these alloys. The in situ SEM scratch test simulates fixed load abrasion conditions such as those which occur in rubber wheel abrasion tests. 12 refs., 9 figs

  7. Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    SciTech Connect

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-02-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks.

  8. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler and analysis system deployment strategy and plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, K.A.

    1998-07-28

    Under the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization strategy, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requires the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Team to supply tank wastes to the Privatization Contractor for separation, treatment and immobilization (verification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) envelopes represent the range of the liquid wastes in the large underground waste-storage tank at the Hanford Site. The PHMC Team also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) to the Privatization Contractor. The LAW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration period will extend over 10-plus years. Wastes processed during this period will result in 6% to 13% of the total Hanford Site tank waste being treated. The purpose of this document is to provide a strategy and top-level implementation plan for the demonstration and deployment of an alternative sampling technology as an improvement to the current grab sampling approach to support the TWRS privatization. Included in this work is the addition of the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the use of this technology for meeting the PHMC Team`s needs. The first application of this technology is to LAW feed staging, then to HLW feed staging, and finally to cross-site transfer to support feed staging from 200 West Area tanks. The TWRS retrieval and disposal mission readiness-to-proceed activities in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 identified the primary uncertainties and risks that must be managed to successfully carry out the support of the TWRS Phase 1 activities. Four of the critical risks could be mitigated, at least partially, by the use of an improved alternative to grab sampling. In addition, eight of the risks with the Waste Feed Delivery Project were associated with the sampling activities. Over 25 logic elements, Technical Basis Reviews (TBR), were reviewed and found to be relevant to risk mitigation using an improved alternative to grab sampling. This document describes these risks and uses a methodology for risk analysis to determine a preliminary estimate of return on investment for pursuing an alternative sampling technology. The basis for the estimate will be firmed up as fiscal year multi-year work planning is conducted and the associated TBRs and cost estimating input sheets are updated. In this calculation the benefits were conservatively estimated to accrue only during the first five years of operation; with this assumption, a return of about double the original investment for development and deployment was projected.

  9. Fluidic sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-04-20

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

  10. Fluidic sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, E. D.

    1992-04-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2-39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02-0.05 gpm (77-192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016-0.026 gpm (60-100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140-150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

  11. Vitrectomy fluidics.

    PubMed

    Steel, David H W; Charles, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The goal of all vitreous surgery is to perform the desired intraoperative intervention with minimum collateral damage in the most efficient way possible. An understanding of the principles of fluidics is of importance to all vitreoretinal surgeons to achieve these aims. Advances in technology mean that surgeons are being given increasing choice in the settings they are able to select for surgery. Manufacturers are marketing systems with aspiration driven by peristaltic, Venturi and hybrid pumps. Increasingly fast cut rates are offered with optimised, and in some cases surgeon-controlled, duty cycles. Function-specific cutters are becoming available and narrow-gauge instrumentation is evolving to meet surgeon demands with higher achievable flow rates. In parallel with the developments in outflow technology, infusion systems are advancing with lowering flow resistance and intraocular pressure control to improve fluidic stability during surgery. This review discusses the important aspects of fluidic technology so that surgeons can select the optimum machine parameters to carry out safe and effective surgery. PMID:21778777

  12. Using a fixed-wing UAS to map snow depth distribution: an evaluation at peak accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michele, Carlo; Avanzi, Francesco; Passoni, Daniele; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Pinto, Livio; Dosso, Paolo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Gianatti, Roberto; Della Vedova, Giacomo

    2016-03-01

    We investigate snow depth distribution at peak accumulation over a small Alpine area ( ˜ 0.3 km2) using photogrammetry-based surveys with a fixed-wing unmanned aerial system (UAS). These devices are growing in popularity as inexpensive alternatives to existing techniques within the field of remote sensing, but the assessment of their performance in Alpine areas to map snow depth distribution is still an open issue. Moreover, several existing attempts to map snow depth using UASs have used multi-rotor systems, since they guarantee higher stability than fixed-wing systems. We designed two field campaigns: during the first survey, performed at the beginning of the accumulation season, the digital elevation model of the ground was obtained. A second survey, at peak accumulation, enabled us to estimate the snow depth distribution as a difference with respect to the previous aerial survey. Moreover, the spatial integration of UAS snow depth measurements enabled us to estimate the snow volume accumulated over the area. On the same day, we collected 12 probe measurements of snow depth at random positions within the case study to perform a preliminary evaluation of UAS-based snow depth. Results reveal that UAS estimations of point snow depth present an average difference with reference to manual measurements equal to -0.073 m and a RMSE equal to 0.14 m. We have also explored how some basic snow depth statistics (e.g., mean, standard deviation, minima and maxima) change with sampling resolution (from 5 cm up to ˜ 100 m): for this case study, snow depth standard deviation (hence coefficient of variation) increases with decreasing cell size, but it stabilizes for resolutions smaller than 1 m. This provides a possible indication of sampling resolution in similar conditions.

  13. Freeform Fluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Richardson, Bradley S; Lind, Randall F; Dehoff, Ryan R; Peter, William H; Lowe, Larry E; Blue, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the integration of miniaturized fluid power and additive manufacturing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing an approach to miniaturized fluidic actuation and control that enables high dexterity, low cost and a pathway towards energy efficiency. Previous work focused on mesoscale digital control valves (high pressure, low flow) and the integration of actuation and fluid passages directly with the structure. The primary application being fluid powered robotics. The fundamental challenge was part complexity. Additive manufacturing technologies (E-Beam, Laser and Ultrasonic deposition) enable freeform manufacturing using conventional metal alloys with excellent mechanical properties. The combination of these two technologies (miniaturized fluid power and additive manufacturing) can enable a paradigm shift in fluid power, increasing efficiency while simultaneously reducing weight, size, complexity and cost.

  14. Freeform Fluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R; Love, Lonnie J; Lind, Randall F; Richardson, Bradley S; Lowe, Larry E; Peter, William H; Klarner, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the integration of miniaturized fluid power and additive manufacturing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing an approach to miniaturized fluidic actuation and control that enables high dexterity, low cost and a pathway towards energy efficiency. Previous work focused on mesoscale digital control valves (high pressure, low flow) and the integration of actuation and fluid passages directly with the structure, the primary application being fluid powered robotics. The fundamental challenge was part complexity. ORNL s new additive manufacturing technologies (e-beam, laser and ultrasonic deposition) enables freeform manufacturing using conventional metal alloys with excellent mechanical properties. The combination of these two technologies, miniaturized fluid power and additive manufacturing, can enable a paradigm shift in fluid power, increasing efficiency while simultaneously reducing weight, size, complexity and cost. This paper focuses on the impact additive manufacturing can have on new forms of fluid power components and systems. We begin with a description of additive manufacturing processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each technology. Next we describe fundamental results of material characterization to understand the design and mechanical limits of parts made with the e-beam process. A novel design approach is introduced that enables integration of fluid powered actuation with mechanical structure. Finally, we describe a proof-of-principle demonstration: an anthropomorphic (human-like) hydraulically powered hand with integrated power supply and actuation.

  15. Imaging with depth extension: where are the limits in fixed- focus cameras?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakin, Dmitry; Keelan, Brian

    2008-08-01

    The integration of novel optics designs, miniature CMOS sensors, and powerful digital processing into a single imaging module package is driving progress in handset camera systems in terms of performance, size (thinness) and cost. The miniature cameras incorporating high resolution sensors and fixed-focus Extended Depth of Field (EDOF) optics allow close-range reading of printed material (barcode patterns, business cards), while providing high quality imaging in more traditional applications. These cameras incorporate modified optics and digital processing to recover the soft-focus images and restore sharpness over a wide range of object distances. The effects a variety of parameters of the imaging module on the EDOF range were analyzed for a family of high resolution CMOS modules. The parameters include various optical properties of the imaging lens, and the characteristics of the sensor. The extension factors for the EDOF imaging module were defined in terms of an improved absolute resolution in object space while maintaining focus at infinity. This definition was applied for the purpose of identifying the minimally resolvable object details in mobile cameras with bar-code reading feature.

  16. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-02-08

    This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the in-tank sampling system which will support the BNFL contract in the final disposal of Hanford's High Level Wastes (HLW) and Low Activity Wastes (LAW). The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from double-shell feed tanks. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume? representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume Impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification is not a general specification for tank sampling, but is based on a ''record of decision'', AGA (HNF-SD-TWR-AGA-001 ), the System Specification for the Double Shell Tank System (HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07), and the BNFL privatization contract.

  17. A comparative study of the growth of Tetraselmis sp. in large scale fixed depth and decreasing depth raceway ponds.

    PubMed

    Das, Probir; Thaher, Mahmoud Ibrahim; Hakim, Mohammed Abdul Quadir Mohd Abdul; Al-Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S J; Alghasal, Ghamza Saed H S

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an alternative approach was proposed where excess seawater would be added only during inoculation (DD) rather than daily addition (FD). Growth and metabolite contents of Tetraselmis sp. weren't affected for daily increase of 2% NaCl salinity. Tetraselmis sp. was then cultured in DD and FD pond. In DD pond, initial culture depth was 23.5cm and its depth reduced as no water was added; for FD pond, everyday sterilized seawater was added to maintain 20cm depth. DD pond had higher biomass productivity compared to FD pond, until DD pond was deeper than FD pond; metabolite content and FAME profile of Tetraselmis sp. were also similar in both cultures. Therefore, considering the simplicity in operation, halo tolerant microalgae can be grown in DD pond method. PMID:27235973

  18. Fluidic-thermochromic display device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafstein, D.; Hilborn, E. H.

    1968-01-01

    Fluidic decoder and display device has low-power requirements for temperature control of thermochromic materials. An electro-to-fluid converter translates incoming electrical signals into pneumatics signal of sufficient power to operate the fluidic logic elements.

  19. Fluidic fuel feed system

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.

    1990-06-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a fluidic fuel injector for a coal-water slurry fueled diesel engine. The objective of this program was to improve the operating life of coal-water slurry fuel controls and injector components by using fluidic technology. This project addressed the application of fluidic devices to solve the problems of efficient atomization of coal-water slurry fuel and of injector component wear. The investigation of injector nozzle orifice design emphasized reducing the pressure required for efficient atomization. The effort to minimize injector wear includes the novel design of components allowing the isolation of the coal-water slurry from close-fitting injector components. Three totally different injectors were designed, fabricated, bench tested and modified to arrive at a final design which was capable of being engine tested. 6 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.; Benavides, Gilbert L.; Hetherington, Dale L.

    2006-02-28

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  1. Depth

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space—a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues. PMID:23145244

  2. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  3. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  4. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2008-04-08

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  5. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-10

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic fluidic system

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Bachman, Mark G.

    2004-08-24

    A magnetohydrodynamic fluidic system includes a reagent source containing a reagent fluid and a sample source containing a sample fluid that includes a constituent. A reactor is operatively connected to the supply reagent source and the sample source. MHD pumps utilize a magnetohydrodynamic drive to move the reagent fluid and the sample fluid in a flow such that the reagent fluid and the sample fluid form an interface causing the constituent to be separated from the sample fluid.

  7. Evaluate depth of field limits of fixed focus lens arrangements in thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    More and more modern thermal imaging systems use uncooled detectors. High volume applications work with detectors that have a reduced pixel count (typically between 200x150 and 640x480). This reduces the usefulness of modern image treatment procedures such as wave front coding. On the other hand, uncooled detectors demand lenses with fast fnumbers, near f/1.0, which reduces the expected Depth of Field (DoF). What are the limits on resolution if the target changes distance to the camera system? The desire to implement lens arrangements without a focusing mechanism demands a deeper quantification of the DoF problem. A new approach avoids the classic "accepted image blur circle" and quantifies the expected DoF by the Through Focus MTF of the lens. This function is defined for a certain spatial frequency that provides a straightforward relation to the pixel pitch of imaging device. A certain minimum MTF-level is necessary so that the complete thermal imaging system can realize its basic functions, such as recognition or detection of specified targets. Very often, this technical tradeoff is approved with a certain lens. But what is the impact of changing the lens for one with a different focal length? Narrow field lenses, which give more details of targets in longer distances, tighten the DoF problem. A first orientation is given by the hyperfocal distance. It depends in a square relation on the focal length and in a linear relation on the through focus MTF of the lens. The analysis of these relations shows the contradicting requirements between higher thermal and spatial resolution, faster f-number and desired DoF. Furthermore, the hyperfocal distance defines the DoF-borders. Their relation between is such as the first order imaging formulas. A calculation methodology will be presented to transfer DoF-results from an approved combination lens and camera to another lens in combination with the initial camera. Necessary input for this prediction is the accepted DoF of

  8. Fluidic flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Tippetts, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid and gaseous product streams are the lifeblood of many industries. Safe, reliable fluid handling is of the utmost importance. Here, no-moving-part fluidic systems have unique advantages which are now clear in such diverse fields as flood control, nuclear plant and ventilation. This book stems from these applications which typically use vortex diodes, amplifiers, jet-pump-like elements and special junctions to control aggressive fluid flows. Both fluid-mechanics and network theory are combined to give the theoretical background.

  9. MEMS fluidic actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Johnston, Gabriel A.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat

    2007-07-24

    The present invention comprises a novel, lightweight, massively parallel device comprising microelectromechanical (MEMS) fluidic actuators, to reconfigure the profile, of a surface. Each microfluidic actuator comprises an independent bladder that can act as both a sensor and an actuator. A MEMS sensor, and a MEMS valve within each microfluidic actuator, operate cooperatively to monitor the fluid within each bladder, and regulate the flow of the fluid entering and exiting each bladder. When adjacently spaced in a array, microfluidic actuators can create arbitrary surface profiles in response to a change in the operating environment of the surface. In an embodiment of the invention, the profile of an airfoil is controlled by independent extension and contraction of a plurality of actuators, that operate to displace a compliant cover.

  10. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  11. Numerical Studies of a Fluidic Diverter for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis E.; Raghu, Surya

    2009-01-01

    The internal flow structure in a specific fluidic diverter is studied over a range from low subsonic to sonic inlet conditions by a time-dependent numerical analysis. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The velocity, temperature and pressure fields are calculated for subsonic conditions and the self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted. The results of our numerical studies have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements of oscillation frequencies. The acoustic speed in the gaseous medium is determined to be a key factor for up to sonic conditions in governing the mechanism of initiating the oscillations as well as determining its frequency. The feasibility of employing plasma actuation with a minimal perturbation level is demonstrated in steady-state calculations to also produce oscillation frequencies of our own choosing instead of being dependent on the fixed-geometry fluidic device.

  12. Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank S.; Johnson, Daniel; Francis, Cameron S.; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Mintz, Yoav; Horgan, Santiago; Talamini, Mark; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2010-05-01

    This work reports a miniaturized laparoscopic zoom camera that can significantly improve vision for minimally invasive surgery (MIS), also known as laparoscopic surgery. The laparoscopic zoom camera contains bioinspired fluidic lenses that can change curvature and focal length in a manner similar to the crystalline lenses in human eyes. The traditional laparoscope is long, rigid, and made of fixed glass lenses with a fixed field of view. The constricted vision of a laparoscope is often an inconvenience and plays a role in many surgical injuries. To further advance MIS technology, we developed a new type of laparoscopic camera that has a total length of less than 17 mm, greater than 4× optical zoom, and 100 times higher sensitivity than today's laparoscope allowing it to work under illumination as low as 300 lux. All these unique features are enabled by the technology of bioinspired fluidic lenses having a dynamic range over 100 diopters and being convertible between a convex and concave shape.

  13. Continuous thorium biosorption--dynamic study for critical bed depth determination in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Marta Cristina; Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Melo; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the biosorption of thorium by the seaweed Sargassum filipendula in a dynamic system. Different bed depths were tested with the purpose of evaluating the critical bed depth for total uptake of the radioactive element. Several bed depths were tested, ranging from 5.0 to 40.0 cm. Bed depths tested presented distinct capacities to accumulate thorium. An increase in biosorption efficiency was observed with an increase in bed depth. The 30.0 cm bed produced an effluent still containing detectable levels of thorium. The critical bed depth suitable for a complete removal of thorium by S.filipendula biomass was equal to 40.0 cm. PMID:18614355

  14. Performance of fluidically controlled oscillating jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, T.; Vasudevan, B.; Prabhu, A.

    An experimental investigation on a fluidically controlled oscillating jet is reported. The flow inside the fluidic nozzle shows a feedback mechanism different from what is currently accepted. Although large spread angles can be obtained with fluidically oscillated jets, entrainment of secondary flow seems less than that in a steady jet.

  15. Compressible flow in fluidic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, Emilio; Hirsch, Damian; Gharib, Mory

    2013-11-01

    We present qualitative observations on the internal flow characteristics of fluidic oscillator geometries commonly referred to as sweeping jets in active flow control applications. We also discuss the effect of the geometry on the output jet in conditions from startup to supersonic exit velocity. Supported by the Boeing Company.

  16. Fluidics: Success Story at Brevard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Norm

    1974-01-01

    Fluidics is a new and emerging technology in which a fluid medium is used to transmit power and to process information. The two-year Associate Degree program at Brevard Community College is the result of student, faculty, and industry effort. It successfully prepares students for jobs as mechanical engineering technicians. (Author/KP)

  17. Manipulating fluids: Advances in micro-fluidics, opto-fluidics and fluidic self assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyawahare, Saurabh

    This dissertation describes work in three inter-related areas---micro-fluidics, opto-fluidics and fluidic self-assembly. Micro-fluidics has gotten a boost in recent years with the development of multilayered elastomeric devices made of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), allowing active elements like valves and pumps. However, while PDMS has many advantages, it is not resistant to organic solvents. New materials and/or new designs are needed for solvent resistance. I describe how novel fluorinated elastomers can replace PDMS when combined with the three dimensional (3-D) solid printing. I also show how another 3-D fabrication method, multilayer photo-lithography, allows for fabrication of devices integrating filters. In general, 3-D fabrications allow new kinds of micro-fluidic devices to be made that would be impossible to emulate with two dimensional chips. In opto-fluidics, I describe a number of experiments with quantum dots both inside and outside chips. Inside chips, I manipulate quantum dots using hydrodynamic focusing to pattern fine lines, like a barcode. Outside chips, I describe our attempts to create quantum dot composites with micro-spheres. I also show how evaporated gold films and chemical passivation can then be used to enhance the emission of quantum dots. Finally, within fluids, self assembly is an attractive way to manipulate materials, and I provide two examples: first, a DNA-based energy transfer molecule that relies on quantum mechanics and self-assembles inside fluids. This kind of molecular photonics mimics parts of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants and bacteria. The second example of self-assembly in fluids describes a new phenomena---the surface tension mediated self assembly of particles like quantum dots and micro-spheres into fine lines. This self assembly by capillary flows can be combined with photo-lithography, and is expected to find use in future nano- and micro-fabrication schemes. In conclusion, advances in fludics, integrating

  18. Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bishara, Waheb; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade microfluidics has created a versatile platform that has significantly advanced the ways in which micro-scale organisms and objects are controlled, processed and investigated, by improving the cost, compactness and throughput aspects of analysis. Microfluidics has also expanded into optics to create reconfigurable and flexible optical devices such as reconfigurable lenses, lasers, waveguides, switches, and on-chip microscopes. Here we present a new opto-fluidic microscopy modality, i.e., Holographic Opto-fluidic Microscopy (HOM), based on lensless holographic imaging. This imaging modality complements the miniaturization provided by microfluidics and would allow the integration of microscopy into existing on-chip microfluidic devices with various functionalities. Our imaging modality utilizes partially coherent in-line holography and pixel super-resolution to create high-resolution amplitude and phase images of the objects flowing within micro-fluidic channels, which we demonstrate by imaging C. elegans, Giardia lamblia, and Mulberry pollen. HOM does not involve complicated fabrication processes or precise alignment, nor does it require a highly uniform flow of objects within microfluidic channels. PMID:21197025

  19. Holographic opto-fluidic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Waheb; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-12-20

    Over the last decade microfluidics has created a versatile platform that has significantly advanced the ways in which micro-scale organisms and objects are controlled, processed and investigated, by improving the cost, compactness and throughput aspects of analysis. Microfluidics has also expanded into optics to create reconfigurable and flexible optical devices such as reconfigurable lenses, lasers, waveguides, switches, and on-chip microscopes. Here we present a new opto-fluidic microscopy modality, i.e., Holographic Opto-fluidic Microscopy (HOM), based on lensless holographic imaging. This imaging modality complements the miniaturization provided by microfluidics and would allow the integration of microscopy into existing on-chip microfluidic devices with various functionalities. Our imaging modality utilizes partially coherent in-line holography and pixel super-resolution to create high-resolution amplitude and phase images of the objects flowing within micro-fluidic channels, which we demonstrate by imaging C. elegans, Giardia lamblia, and Mulberry pollen. HOM does not involve complicated fabrication processes or precise alignment, nor does it require a highly uniform flow of objects within microfluidic channels. PMID:21197025

  20. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David James

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 microm diameter PDMS microbeads and

  1. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David James

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 microm diameter PDMS microbeads and

  2. Opto-mechano-fluidic viscometer

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kewen Zhu, Kaiyuan; Bahl, Gaurav

    2014-07-07

    The recent development of opto-mechano-fluidic resonators has provided—by harnessing photon radiation pressure—a microfluidics platform for the optical sensing of fluid density and bulk modulus. Here, we show that fluid viscosity can also be determined through optomechanical measurement of the vibrational noise spectrum of the resonator mechanical modes. A linear relationship between the spectral linewidth and root-viscosity is predicted and experimentally verified in the low viscosity regime. Our result is a step towards multi-frequency measurement of viscoelasticity of arbitrary fluids, without sample contamination, using highly sensitive optomechanics techniques.

  3. Miniaturized unified imaging system using bio-inspired fluidic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank S.; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2008-08-01

    Miniaturized imaging systems have become ubiquitous as they are found in an ever-increasing number of devices, such as cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and web cameras. Until now, the design and fabrication methodology of such systems have not been significantly different from conventional cameras. The only established method to achieve focusing is by varying the lens distance. On the other hand, the variable-shape crystalline lens found in animal eyes offers inspiration for a more natural way of achieving an optical system with high functionality. Learning from the working concepts of the optics in the animal kingdom, we developed bio-inspired fluidic lenses for a miniature universal imager with auto-focusing, macro, and super-macro capabilities. Because of the enormous dynamic range of fluidic lenses, the miniature camera can even function as a microscope. To compensate for the image quality difference between the central vision and peripheral vision and the shape difference between a solid-state image sensor and a curved retina, we adopted a hybrid design consisting of fluidic lenses for tunability and fixed lenses for aberration and color dispersion correction. A design of the world's smallest surgical camera with 3X optical zoom capabilities is also demonstrated using the approach of hybrid lenses.

  4. NASA contributions to fluidic systems: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, T. M.

    1972-01-01

    A state-of-the art review of fluidic technology is presented. It is oriented towards systems applications rather than theory or design. It draws heavily upon work performed or sponsored by NASA in support of the space program and aeronautical research and development (R&D). Applications are emphasized in this survey because it is hoped that the examples described and the criteria presented for evaluating the suitability of fluidics to new applications will be of value to potential users of fluidic systems. This survey of the fluidics industry suggests some of the means whereby a company may use a fluidic system effectively either to manufacture a product or as part of the end product.

  5. Fluidics cube for biosensor miniaturization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodson, J. M.; Feldstein, M. J.; Leatzow, D. M.; Flack, L. K.; Golden, J. P.; Ligler, F. S.

    2001-01-01

    To create a small, portable, fully automated biosensor, a compact means of fluid handling is required. We designed, manufactured, and tested a "fluidics cube" for such a purpose. This cube, made of thermoplastic, contains reservoirs and channels for liquid samples and reagents and operates without the use of any internal valves or meters; it is a passive fluid circuit that relies on pressure relief vents to control fluid movement. We demonstrate the ability of pressure relief vents to control fluid movement and show how to simply manufacture or modify the cube. Combined with the planar array biosensor developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, it brings us one step closer to realizing our goal of a handheld biosensor capable of analyzing multiple samples for multiple analytes.

  6. The Capillary Fluidics of Espresso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Nathan; Wollman, Drew; Graf, John; Weislogel, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Espresso is enjoyed by tens of millions of people daily. The coffee is distinguished by a complex low density colloid of emulsified oils. Due to gravity, these oils rise to the surface forming a foam lid called the crema. In this work we present a variety of large length scale capillary fluidic effects for espresso in a gravity-free environment. Drop tower tests are performed to establish brief microgravity conditions under which spontaneous capillarity-driven behavior is observed. Because the variety of espresso drinks is extensive, specific property measurements are made to assess the effects of wetting and surface tension for `Italian' espresso, caffe latte, and caffe Americano. To some, the texture and aromatics of the crema play a critical role in the overall espresso experience. We show how in the low-g environment this may not be possible. We also suggest alternate methods for enjoying espresso aboard spacecraft. NASA NNX09AP66A, Glenn Research Center.

  7. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation

    DOEpatents

    Benner, Henry W.; Dzenitis, John M.

    2016-06-21

    Provided herein are fluidics platforms and related methods for performing integrated sample collection and solid-phase extraction of a target component of the sample all in one tube. The fluidics platform comprises a pump, particles for solid-phase extraction and a particle-holding means. The method comprises contacting the sample with one or more reagents in a pump, coupling a particle-holding means to the pump and expelling the waste out of the pump while the particle-holding means retains the particles inside the pump. The fluidics platform and methods herein described allow solid-phase extraction without pipetting and centrifugation.

  8. Fluidic self-actuating control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Grantz, Alan L.

    1979-01-01

    A fluidic self-actuating control assembly for use in a reactor wherein no external control inputs are required to actuate (scram) the system. The assembly is constructed to scram upon sensing either a sudden depressurization of reactor inlet flow or a sudden increase in core neutron flux. A fluidic control system senses abnormal flow or neutron flux transients and actuates the system, whereupon assembly coolant flow reverses, forcing absorber balls into the reactor core region.

  9. Formation and Control of Fluidic Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Darren Roy (Inventor); Weitz, David A. (Inventor); Marquez-Sanchez, Manuel (Inventor); Cheng, Zhengdong (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention generally relates to systems and methods for the formation and/or control of fluidic species, and articles produced by such systems and methods. In some cases, the invention involves unique fluid channels, systems, controls, and/or restrictions, and combinations thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention allows fluidic streams (which can be continuous or discontinuous, i.e., droplets) to be formed and/or combined, at a variety of scales, including microfluidic scales. In one set of embodiments, a fluidic stream may be produced from a channel, where a cross-sectional dimension of the fluidic stream is smaller than that of the channel, for example, through the use of structural elements, other fluids, and/or applied external fields, etc. In some cases, a Taylor cone may be produced. In another set of embodiments, a fluidic stream may be manipulated in some fashion, for example, to create tubes (which may be hollow or solid), droplets, nested tubes or droplets, arrays of tubes or droplets, meshes of tubes, etc. In some cases, droplets produced using certain embodiments of the invention may be charged or substantially charged, which may allow their further manipulation, for instance, using applied external fields. Non-limiting examples of such manipulations include producing charged droplets, coalescing droplets (especially at the microscale), synchronizing droplet formation, aligning molecules within the droplet, etc. In some cases, the droplets and/or the fluidic streams may include colloids, cells, therapeutic agents, and the like.

  10. Industry: Power fluidics - the state in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Whetton, C.

    1996-03-01

    Fluidics is the science of fluid control without moving parts. To many people, fluidics is dead technology, long displaced by electronic logic. In the case of low-power fluidics, this is undoubtedly true except for a few highly specialized cases. Power fluidics, the control of large, industrial-scale flows, is very much alive and well, controlling sewer systems, {open_quotes}deslugging{close_quotes} mixed oil and gas flows, pumping highly corrosive radioactive liquids, and handling various applications in the pharmaceutical industry. The first fluidic device was the vortex diode or vortex throttle, developed in 1936 by Thomas Zobel of the Muenchen Technische Hochschule (Technical University of Munich). This device, the prototype of which still exists in working order, allowed fluid to flow easily in one direction, but offered a high resistance to reverse flow. Typical forward to reverse flow rates were 10:1, with a similar pressure ratio of 100:1. By adding a control port to the vortex diode, a vortex amplifier was achieved so that a large fluid flow could be controlled by a much smaller flow without moving parts. By the mid-1960s, practical vortex amplifiers had been developed and applied to the control of {open_quotes}difficult{close_quotes} fluids. With no moving parts, fluidic devices required minimal maintenance, a definite bonus if the device was located in a hot area. 6 figs.

  11. Optimization of a fluidic temperature control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabsky, J. M.; Rask, D. R.; Starr, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Refinements are described to an existing fluidic temperature control system developed under a prior study which modulated temperature at the inlet to the liquid-cooled garment by using existing liquid supply and return lines to transmit signals to a fluidic controller located in the spacecraft. This earlier system produced a limited range of garment inlet temperatures, requiring some bypassing of flow around the suit to make the astronaut comfortable at rest conditions. Refinements were based on a flow visualization study of the key element in the fluidic controller: the fluidic mixing valve. The valve's mixing-ratio range was achieved by making five key changes: (1) geometrical changes to the valve; (2) attenuation of noise generated in proportional amplifier cascades; (3) elimination of vortices at the exit of the fluidic mixing valve; (4) reduction of internal heat transfer; and (5) flow balancing through venting. As a result, the refined system is capable of modulating garment inlet temperature from 45 F to 70 F with a single manual control valve in series with the garment. This control valve signals without changing or bypassing flow through the garment.

  12. Tuning fluidic resistance via liquid crystal microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling-typically absent in isotropic fluids-bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to pattern different pathways to tunable fluidic resistance within microfluidic devices. We use a nematic liquid crystalline material flowing in microchannels to demonstrate passive and active modulation of the flow resistance. While appropriate surface anchoring conditions-which imprint distinct fluidic resistances within microchannels under similar hydrodynamic parameters-act as passive cues, an external field, e.g., temperature, is used to actively modulate the flow resistance in the microfluidic device. We apply this simple concept to fabricate basic fluidic circuits, which can be hierarchically extended to create complex resistance networks, without any additional design or morphological patterning of the microchannels. PMID:24256819

  13. Tuning Fluidic Resistance via Liquid Crystal Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling—typically absent in isotropic fluids—bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to pattern different pathways to tunable fluidic resistance within microfluidic devices. We use a nematic liquid crystalline material flowing in microchannels to demonstrate passive and active modulation of the flow resistance. While appropriate surface anchoring conditions—which imprint distinct fluidic resistances within microchannels under similar hydrodynamic parameters—act as passive cues, an external field, e.g., temperature, is used to actively modulate the flow resistance in the microfluidic device. We apply this simple concept to fabricate basic fluidic circuits, which can be hierarchically extended to create complex resistance networks, without any additional design or morphological patterning of the microchannels. PMID:24256819

  14. Water oxygenation by fluidic microbubble generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesař, V.; Peszynski, K.

    2014-03-01

    Oxygenation of water by standard means in waste water processing, in particular to improve the conditions for the micro-organisms that decompose organic wastes is rather ineffective. The classical approach to improvements - decreasing the size of the aerator exits - have already reached their limits. A recent new idea is to decrease the size of the generated air bubbles by oscillating the supplied air flow using fluidic oscillators. Authors made extensive performance measurements with an unusual high-frequency fluidic oscillator, designed to operate within the submersed aerator body. The performance was evaluated by the dynamic method of recording the oxygen concentration increase to saturation in the aerated water. Experiments proved the fluidic generator can demonstrably increase the aeration efficiency 4.22-times compared with the aeration from a plain end of a submerged air supply tube. Despite this significant improvement, the behaviour of the generator still provides an opportunity for further improvements.

  15. Adjustable fluidic lenses for ophthalmic corrections

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Randall; Mathine, David L.; Peyman, Gholam; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    We report on two fluidic lenses that have been developed for ophthalmic applications. The lenses use a circular aperture to demonstrate optical powers between −20 and +20 D and a rectangular aperture to demonstrate astigmatism with values ranging from 0 to 8 D. Measurements of image quality were made with the fluidic lens using a model eye. Both lenses were variable and controllable by adjusting the fluid volume of the lens. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a continuously variable lens for control of astigmatism. PMID:19373359

  16. Fluidic systems may improve combustion in automotive engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangion, C.

    1972-01-01

    Application of fluidic devices to reduce generation of noxious exhausts from internal combustion engines is discussed. Operation of fluidic system to provide bypass of fuel air mixture into heated loop to provide more complete combustion is explanined. Advantage lies in no moving parts required for fluidic by-pass action.

  17. Fluidics research, including vortex and jet pipe valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research at the Systems and Control Laboratory is reported. Topics discussed include: response characteristics of laminar fluidic amplifiers, power amplification with a vortex valve, pulse-supply-mode fluidics, speed control system employing a jet pipe valve, and the fluidics reference center.

  18. Fluidic Sampler. Tanks Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2007

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem Definition; Millions of gallons of radioactive and hazardous wastes are stored in underground tanks across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. To manage this waste, tank operators need safe, cost-effective methods for mixing tank material, transferring tank waste between tanks, and collecting samples. Samples must be collected at different depths within storage tanks containing various kinds of waste including salt, sludge, and supernatant. With current or baseline methods, a grab sampler or a core sampler is inserted into the tank, waste is maneuvered into the sample chamber, and the sample is withdrawn from the tank. The mixing pumps in the tank, which are required to keep the contents homogeneous, must be shut down before and during sampling to prevent airborne releases. These methods are expensive, require substantial hands-on labor, increase the risk of worker exposure to radiation, and often produce nonrepresentative and unreproducible samples. How It Works: The Fluidic Sampler manufactured by AEA Technology Engineering Services, Inc., enables tank sampling to be done remotely with the mixing pumps in operation. Remote operation minimizes the risk of exposure to personnel and the possibility of spills, reducing associated costs. Sampling while the tank contents are being agitated yields consistently homogeneous, representative samples and facilitates more efficient feed preparation and evaluation of the tank contents. The above-tank portion of the Fluidic Sampler and the replacement plug and pipework that insert through the tank top are shown.

  19. Temperature-controlled fluidic device A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehsteiner, F. H.

    1970-01-01

    Symmetrical fluidic device directly converts electrical signals to mechanical signals in the form of a fluid-flow parameter. This device eliminates or reduces effects of all undesirable parameters on the departure angle, leaving it a function of the controlled wall and jet temperatures.

  20. Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.

    1992-05-01

    The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.

  1. Aeroacoustic Improvements to Fluidic Chevron Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Whitmire, Julia; Abeysinghe, Amal

    2006-01-01

    Fluidic chevrons use injected air near the trailing edge of a nozzle to emulate mixing and jet noise reduction characteristics of mechanical chevrons. While previous investigations of "first generation" fluidic chevron nozzles showed only marginal improvements in effective perceived noise levels when compared to nozzles without injection, significant improvements in noise reduction characteristics were achieved through redesigned "second generation" nozzles on a bypass ratio 5 model system. The second-generation core nozzles had improved injection passage contours, external nozzle contour lines, and nozzle trailing edges. The new fluidic chevrons resulted in reduced overall sound pressure levels over that of the baseline nozzle for all observation angles. Injection ports with steep injection angles produced lower overall sound pressure levels than those produced by shallow injection angles. The reductions in overall sound pressure levels were the result of noise reductions at low frequencies. In contrast to the first-generation nozzles, only marginal increases in high frequency noise over that of the baseline nozzle were observed for the second-generation nozzles. The effective perceived noise levels of the new fluidic chevrons are shown to approach those of the core mechanical chevrons.

  2. Robust fluidic connections to freestanding microfluidic hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Bradly B.; Larsen, Taylor S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic scaffolds approaching physiological scale, whose size and large cellular load far exceed the limits of diffusion, require incorporation of a fluidic means to achieve adequate nutrient/metabolite exchange. This need has driven the extension of microfluidic technologies into the area of biomaterials. While construction of perfusable scaffolds is essentially a problem of microfluidic device fabrication, functional implementation of free-standing, thick-tissue constructs depends upon successful integration of external pumping mechanisms through optimized connective assemblies. However, a critical analysis to identify optimal materials/assembly components for hydrogel substrates has received little focus to date. This investigation addresses this issue directly by evaluating the efficacy of a range of adhesive and mechanical fluidic connection methods to gelatin hydrogel constructs based upon both mechanical property analysis and cell compatibility. Results identify a novel bioadhesive, comprised of two enzymatically modified gelatin compounds, for connecting tubing to hydrogel constructs that is both structurally robust and non-cytotoxic. Furthermore, outcomes from this study provide clear evidence that fluidic interconnect success varies with substrate composition (specifically hydrogel versus polydimethylsiloxane), highlighting not only the importance of selecting the appropriately tailored components for fluidic hydrogel systems but also that of encouraging ongoing, targeted exploration of this issue. The optimization of such interconnect systems will ultimately promote exciting scientific and therapeutic developments provided by microfluidic, cell-laden scaffolds. PMID:26045731

  3. Research on fluidics, valves, and proportional amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Research and development being conducted at the Systems and Controls Laboratory is reviewed. Static characteristics (supply, input, transfer, output, and noise characteristics) of laminar proportional amplifiers were investigated. Other topics discussed include velocity profiles for laminar fluidic jets, speed control systems employing a jet pipe valve, and power amplification with a vortex valve.

  4. Vivo-Fluidics and Programmable Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, David

    In this talk I will discuss two projects that appear very different but are uniquely unified by the fact that they both involve the use of microfluidics to enable physical control of complex systems. The first of these projects involves our work on Insect Cyborgs or living insects with implanted microdevices. There I will show how we can use implanted microfluidic elements to exert control over the nervous system, turning it on and off on command, by injecting controlled amounts of neurotransmitters. In the second project I will demonstrate how microfluidics can be used to control assembly processes ultimately enabling a new form of "programmable matter". There I will show how controlling the strength and location of fluidic jets can provide control over fluidic assembly processes enabling affinity tuning, reconfiguration and error correction.

  5. Fluidic Chevrons for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Henderson, Brenda; Whitmire, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Chevron mixing devices are used to reduce noise from commercial separate-flow turbofan engines. Mechanical chevron serrations at the nozzle trailing edge generate axial vorticity that enhances jet plume mixing and consequently reduces far-field noise. Fluidic chevrons generated with air injected near the nozzle trailing edge create a vorticity field similar to that of the mechanical chevrons and allow more flexibility in controlling acoustic and thrust performance than a passive mechanical design. In addition, the design of such a system has the future potential for actively controlling jet noise by pulsing or otherwise optimally distributing the injected air. Scale model jet noise experiments have been performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to investigate the fluidic chevron concept. Acoustic data from different fluidic chevron designs are shown. Varying degrees of noise reduction are achieved depending on the injection pattern and injection flow conditions. CFD results were used to select design concepts that displayed axial vorticity growth similar to that associated with mechanical chevrons and qualitatively describe the air injection flow and the impact on acoustic performance.

  6. Method for making electro-fluidic connections in microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Martinez, David; Manginell, Ronald P.; Heller, Edwin J.; Chanchani, Rajen

    2004-08-10

    A method for forming electro-fluidic interconnections in microfluidic devices comprises forming an electrical connection between matching bond pads on a die containing an active electrical element and a microfluidic substrate and forming a fluidic seal ring that circumscribes the active electrical element and a fluidic feedthrough. Preferably, the electrical connection and the seal ring are formed in a single bonding step. The simple method is particularly useful for chemical microanalytical systems wherein a plurality of microanalytical components, such as a chemical preconcentrator, a gas chromatography column, and a surface acoustic wave detector, are fluidically interconnected on a hybrid microfluidic substrate having electrical connection to external support electronics.

  7. A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Andrew D.; Katzschmann, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This work provides approaches to designing and fabricating soft fluidic elastomer robots. That is, three viable actuator morphologies composed entirely from soft silicone rubber are explored, and these morphologies are differentiated by their internal channel structure, namely, ribbed, cylindrical, and pleated. Additionally, three distinct casting-based fabrication processes are explored: lamination-based casting, retractable-pin-based casting, and lost-wax-based casting. Furthermore, two ways of fabricating a multiple DOF robot are explored: casting the complete robot as a whole and casting single degree of freedom (DOF) segments with subsequent concatenation. We experimentally validate each soft actuator morphology and fabrication process by creating multiple physical soft robot prototypes.

  8. A Fluidic Device with Polymeric Textured Ratchets

    PubMed Central

    Sekeroglu, Koray; Demirel, Melik C.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotextured surfaces are widely used throughout nature for adhesion, wetting, and transport. Chemistry, geometry, and morphology are important factors for creating tunable textured surfaces, in which directionality of droplets can be controlled. Here, we fabricated nano textured polymeric surfaces, and studied the effect of tilting on the mobility of frequency modulated water droplet transported on asymmetric nano-PPX tracks. Plastically-deformed tracks guided water droplets for sorting, gating, and merging them as a function on their volume. Polymeric ratchets open up new avenues for the fields of digital fluidics and flexible device fabrication. PMID:25641987

  9. Fluid Mechanics of the ``Vortex Fluidic Device''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, Stuart; Britton, Joshua; Raston, Colin

    2014-11-01

    The Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD) provides a new ``green'' alternative for many industrially important organic chemistry processes including the generation of biodiesel. Improved chemical kinetics have also been demonstrated for a number of reactions. This relatively simple device, comprising essentially of a rapidly rotating tube, provides advantages ranging from reduced energy requirements and waste streams to high flow rates and the avoidance of clogging. The VFD is effective due to the interplay between fluid mechanics and chemistry providing near optimal conditions for the required reactions. This contribution provides an insight into the rich fluid mechanics of the device.

  10. Micro-Fluidic Diffusion Coefficient Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, F.K.; Galambos, P.

    1998-10-06

    A new method for diffusion coefficient measurement applicable to micro-fluidics is pre- sented. The method Iltilizes an analytical model describing laminar dispersion in rect- anglllar ~llicro_channe]s. The Illethod ~vas verified throllgh measllremen~ of fllloresceill diffusivity in water and aqueolls polymer solutions of differing concentration. The diffll- sivity of flllorescein was measlmed as 0.64 x 10-gm2/s in water, 0.49 x 10-gm2/s in the 4 gm/dl dextran solution and 0.38 x 10-9n12/s in the 8 gnl/dl dextran solution.

  11. The feasibility of a fluidic respiratory flow meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neradka, V. F.; Bray, H. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of adapting a fluidic airspeed sensor for use as a respiratory flowmeter. A Pulmonary Function Testing Flowmeter was developed which should prove useful for mass screening applications. The fluidic sensor threshold level was not reduced sufficiently to permit its adaptation to measuring the low respiratory flow rates encountered in many respiratory disorders.

  12. Tunable generation of Bessel beams with a fluidic axicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Graham; Jeffries, Gavin D. M.; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes a tunable fluidic conical lens, or axicon, for the generation and dynamic reconfiguration of Bessel beams. When illuminated with a Gaussian laser beam, our fluidic axicon generates a diverging beam with an annular cross section. By varying the refractive index of the solution that fills our device, we can vary easily the spatial properties of the resulting Bessel beam.

  13. Tunable generation of Bessel beams with a fluidic axicon

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Graham; Jeffries, Gavin D.M.; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a tunable fluidic conical lens, or axicon, for the generation and dynamic reconfiguration of Bessel beams. When illuminated with a Gaussian laser beam, our fluidic axicon generates a diverging beam with an annular cross section. By varying the refractive index of the solution that fills our device, we can vary easily the spatial properties of the resulting Bessel beam. PMID:19529839

  14. Development of a three axis fluidic airspeed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neradka, V. F.

    1972-01-01

    A three axis fluidic airspeed sensor system has been fabricated and wind tunnel tested. The complete system consists of the fluidic sensor, air power supply and instrumentation and readout. The system is adapted to aircraft and requires only the standard aircraft 28V dc supply to function.

  15. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Nielsen, Alec A. K.; Keating, Steven J.; Levy, Taylor J.; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J.; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A.; Voigt, Christopher A.; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts—DNA assembly—is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  16. Characterization of an Oscillating Fluidic Atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ujjwal; Kiger, Kenneth; Raghu, Surya

    1998-11-01

    The atomization characteristics of a capillary-jet fluidic oscillator is studied. A unique feature of this atomizer is that the nozzle geometry produces a thin capillary jet which is forced to oscillate in a 2-dimensional plane through the use of passive feedback limited internal instabilities. The objective of the current work is to characterize the influence of the jet oscillation and stretching on the break-up properties of the capillary ligament. To this end, particle tracking velocimetry and shadowgraph techniques are used to measure droplet size, number density and velocity as a function of position within the spray fan. The break-up length and spray angle is also used to analyze the atomization behavior. The nozzle is studied for a viscosity range of 0.5 - 1.9 centistokes, flowrates from 5 to 30 cc/min, which gives Reynolds number range between 400 - 7500 and a Weber number from 78 to 700. Preliminary results show that the droplets produced by the atomizer are relatively uniform in size, while their velocity is a strong function of the supply pressure (flowrate). Break-up length initially decreases while spray-angle increases with flowrate and saturates at constant values. Effects of turbulent transition on the atomization will be discussed. Work supported by Bowles Fluidics Inc., and the NSF under contract CTS-097027.

  17. Fluidic hydrogen detector production prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, G. W.; Wright, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen gas sensor that can replace catalytic combustion sensors used to detect leaks in the liquid hydrogen transfer systems at Kennedy Space Center was developed. A fluidic sensor concept, based on the principle that the frequency of a fluidic oscillator is proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of its operating fluid, was utilized. To minimize sensitivity to pressure and temperature fluctuations, and to make the sensor specific for hydrogen, two oscillators are used. One oscillator operates on sample gas containing hydrogen, while the other operates on sample gas with the hydrogen converted to steam. The conversion is accomplished with a small catalytic converter. The frequency difference is taken, and the hydrogen concentration computed with a simple digital processing circuit. The output from the sensor is an analog signal proportional to hydrogen content. The sensor is shown to be accurate and insensitive to severe environmental disturbances. It is also specific for hydrogen, even with large helium concentrations in the sample gas.

  18. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics.

    PubMed

    Patrick, William G; Nielsen, Alec A K; Keating, Steven J; Levy, Taylor J; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A; Voigt, Christopher A; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts-DNA assembly-is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  19. Computational Investigation of Fluidic Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.

    1999-01-01

    A computational study of fluidic counterflow thrust vectoring has been conducted. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. For validation, computational results were compared to experimental data obtained at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. In general, computational results were in good agreement with experimental performance data, indicating that efficient thrust vectoring can be obtained with low secondary flow requirements (less than 1% of the primary flow). An examination of the computational flowfield has revealed new details about the generation of a countercurrent shear layer, its relation to secondary suction, and its role in thrust vectoring. In addition to providing new information about the physics of counterflow thrust vectoring, this work appears to be the first documented attempt to simulate the counterflow thrust vectoring problem using computational fluid dynamics.

  20. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  1. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  2. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Youngjun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-10-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug.

  3. Electrokinetic transport and separations in fluidic nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhen; Garcia, Anthony L; Lopez, Gabriel P; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2007-02-01

    This article presents a summary of theory, experimental studies, and results for the electrokinetic transport in small fluidic nanochannels. The main focus is on the effect of the electric double layer on the EOF, electric current, and electrophoresis of charged analytes. The double layer thickness can be of the same order as the width of the nanochannels, which has an impact on the transport by shaping the fluid velocity profile, local distributions of the electrolytes, and charged analytes. Our theoretical consideration is limited to continuum analysis where the equations of classical hydrodynamics and electrodynamics still apply. We show that small channels may lead to qualitatively new effects like selective ionic transport based on charge number as well as different modes for molecular separation. These new possibilities together with the rapid development of nanofabrication capabilities lead to an extensive experimental effort to utilize nanochannels for a variety of applications, which are also discussed and analyzed in this review. PMID:17304495

  4. Fluidic Oscillator Having Decoupled Frequency and Amplitude Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator having independent frequency and amplitude control includes a fluidic-oscillator main flow channel having a main flow inlet, a main flow outlet, and first and second control ports disposed at opposing sides thereof. A fluidic-oscillator controller has an inlet and outlet. A volume defined by the main flow channel is greater than the volume defined by the controller. A flow diverter coupled to the outlet of the controller defines a first fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the first control port and defines a second fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the second control port.

  5. Impact of Fluidic Chevrons on Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Kinzie, Kevin W.; Whitmire, Julia; Abeysinghe, Amal

    2005-01-01

    The impact of alternating fluidic core chevrons on the production of jet noise is investigated. Core nozzles for a representative 1/9th scale, bypass ratio 5 model system were manufactured with slots cut near the trailing edges to allow for air injection into the core and fan streams. The injectors followed an alternating pattern around the nozzle perimeter so that the injection alternated between injection into the core stream and injection into the fan stream. For the takeoff condition and a forward flight Mach number of 0.10, the overall sound pressure levels at the peak jet noise angle decrease with increasing injection pressure. Sound pressure levels increase for observation angles less than 110o at higher injection pressures due to increases in high frequency noise. Greater increases in high frequency noise are observed when the number of injectors increases from 8 to 12. When the forward flight Mach number is increased to 0.28, jet noise reduction (relative to the baseline) is observed at aft angles for increasing injection pressure while significant increases in jet noise are observed at forward observation angles due to substantial acoustic radiation at high frequencies. A comparison between inflow and alternating injectors shows that, for equal mass injection rates, the inflow nozzle produces greater low frequency noise reduction (relative to the baseline) than the alternating injectors at 90o and aft observation angles and a forward flight Mach number of 0.28. Preliminary computational fluid dynamic simulations indicate that the spatial decay rate of the hot potential core flow is less for the inflow nozzle than for the alternating nozzles which indicates that gentle mixing may be preferred over sever mixing when fluidic chevrons are used for jet noise reduction.

  6. Passive fluidic diode for simple fluids using nested nanochannel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jingwen; Li, Long; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhigang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a moving part-free fluidic diode for simple fluids using nested nanochannels, which contain inner and outer channels of different lengths. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the fluidic diode accepts water flows in the forward direction and blocks flows in the backward direction in a wide range of pressure drops. The anisotropic flow rates are generated by the distinct activation pressures in different directions. In the forward direction, the activation pressure is low, which is determined by the infiltration pressure of the inner channel. In the backward direction, the activation pressure is quite high due to the capillary effects when flows are released from the inner to the outer channel. The pressure drop range for the fluidic diode can be varied by changing the channel size or surface wettability. The fluidic diode offers an alternative way for flow control in integrated micro- and nanofluidic devices.

  7. Design and test of the 172K fluidic rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of concepts for control of aircraft without moving parts or a separate source of power is described. The design and wind tunnel tests of a full scale fluidic rudder for a Cessna 172K aircraft, intended for subsequent flight tests were documented. The 172K fluidic rudder was designed to provide a control force equivalent to 3.3 degrees of deflection of the conventional rudder. In spite of an extremely thin airfoil, cascaded fluidic amplifiers were built to fit, with the capacity for generating the required level of control force. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that the principles of lift control using ram air power are sound and reliable under all flight conditions. The tests also demonstrated that the performance of the 172K fluidic rudder is not acceptable for flight tests until the design of the scoop is modified to prevent interference with the lift control phenomenon.

  8. Integration of fluidic jet actuators in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueller, Martin; Lipowski, Mathias; Schirmer, Eckart; Walther, Marco; Otto, Thomas; Geßner, Thomas; Kroll, Lothar

    2015-04-01

    Fluidic Actuated Flow Control (FAFC) has been introduced as a technology that influences the boundary layer by actively blowing air through slots or holes in the aircraft skin or wind turbine rotor blade. Modern wing structures are or will be manufactured using composite materials. In these state of the art systems, AFC actuators are integrated in a hybrid approach. The new idea is to directly integrate the active fluidic elements (such as SJAs and PJAs) and their components in the structure of the airfoil. Consequently, the integration of such fluidic devices must fit the manufacturing process and the material properties of the composite structure. The challenge is to integrate temperature-sensitive active elements and to realize fluidic cavities at the same time. The transducer elements will be provided for the manufacturing steps using roll-to-roll processes. The fluidic parts of the actuators will be manufactured using the MuCell® process that provides on the one hand the defined reproduction of the fluidic structures and, on the other hand, a high light weight index. Based on the first design concept, a demonstrator was developed in order to proof the design approach. The output velocity on the exit was measured using a hot-wire anemometer.

  9. Fabrication of 3-Dimensional Structure of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Embodied in the Convex Corner of the Silicon Micro-Fluidic Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Geunbae; Park, Chin-Sung; Lyu, Hong-Kun; Kim, Dong-Sun; Jeong, Yong-Taek; Park, Hey-Jung; Kim, Hyoung Sik; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    As micro-fluidic systems and biochemical detection systems are scaled to smaller dimensions, the realization of small and portable biochemical detection systems has become increasingly important. In this paper, we propose a 3-dimensional structure of a metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor(3-D MOSFET) using tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) anisotropic etching, which is a suitable device for combining with a micro-fluidic system. After fabricating a trapezoidal micro-fluidic channel, the 3-D MOSFET embodied in the convex corner of the micro-fluidic channel was fabricated. The length of the gate is about 20 μm and the width is about 9 μm. The depth and top width of the trapezoidal micro-fluidic channel are about 8 μm and 60 μm, respectively. The measured drain saturation current of the 3-D MOSFET was about -22 μA at VGS=-5 V and VDS=-5 V, and the device characteristics exhibit a typical MOSFET behavior. Moreover, a gold layer was used for the MOSFET’s gate metal to detect charged biochemical samples using the affinity between gold and thiol.

  10. Tubular astigmatism-tunable fluidic lens.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate a new means to fabricate three-dimensional liquid lenses which may be tuned in focal length and astigmatism. Using actuation by electrowetting-on-dielectrics, astigmatism in arbitrary directions may be tuned independently, with almost no cross talk between orthogonal orientations. The lens is based on electrodes structured on planar polyimide foils and subsequently rolled, enabling high-resolution patterning of complex electrodes along the azimuthal and radial directions of the lens. Based on a design established through fluidic and optical simulations, the astigmatism tuning is experimentally verified by a change of the corresponding Zernike coefficients measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. It was seen that the back focal length can be tuned by 5 mm and 0° and 45° astigmatism by 3 μm through application of voltages in the range of 50  Vrms. It was observed that the cross talk with other aberrations is very low, suggesting a novel means for astigmatism control in imaging systems. PMID:27304276

  11. Measurement of microchannel fluidic resistance with a standard voltage meter.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Leah A; Deal, Kennon S; Hoepfner, Lauren D; Jackson, Louis A; Easley, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    A simplified method for measuring the fluidic resistance (R(fluidic)) of microfluidic channels is presented, in which the electrical resistance (R(elec)) of a channel filled with a conductivity standard solution can be measured and directly correlated to R(fluidic) using a simple equation. Although a slight correction factor could be applied in this system to improve accuracy, results showed that a standard voltage meter could be used without calibration to determine R(fluidic) to within 12% error. Results accurate to within 2% were obtained when a geometric correction factor was applied using these particular channels. When compared to standard flow rate measurements, such as meniscus tracking in outlet tubing, this approach provided a more straightforward alternative and resulted in lower measurement error. The method was validated using 9 different fluidic resistance values (from ∼40 to 600kPa smm(-3)) and over 30 separately fabricated microfluidic devices. Furthermore, since the method is analogous to resistance measurements with a voltage meter in electrical circuits, dynamic R(fluidic) measurements were possible in more complex microfluidic designs. Microchannel R(elec) was shown to dynamically mimic pressure waveforms applied to a membrane in a variable microfluidic resistor. The variable resistor was then used to dynamically control aqueous-in-oil droplet sizes and spacing, providing a unique and convenient control system for droplet-generating devices. This conductivity-based method for fluidic resistance measurement is thus a useful tool for static or real-time characterization of microfluidic systems. PMID:23245901

  12. A characteristic analysis of the fluidic muscle cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Soo; Bae, Sang-Kyu; Hong, Sung-In

    2005-12-01

    The fluidic muscle cylinder consists of an air bellows tube, flanges and lock nuts. It's features are softness of material and motion, simplicity of structure, low production cost and high power efficiency. Recently, unlikely the pneumatic cylinder, the fluidic muscle cylinder without air leakage, stick slip, friction, and seal was developed as a new concept actuator. It has the characteristics such as light weight, low price, high response, durable design, long life, high power, high contraction, which is innovative product fulfilling RT(Robot Technology) which is one of the nation-leading next generation strategy technologies 6T as well as cleanness technology. The application fields of the fluidic muscle cylinder are so various like fatigue tester, brake, accelerator, high technology testing device such as driving simulator, precise position, velocity, intelligent servo actuator under special environment such as load controlling system, and intelligent robot. In this study, we carried out the finite element modeling and analysis about the main design variables such as contraction ration and force, diameter increment of fluidic muscle cylinder. On the basis of finite element analysis, the prototype of fluidic muscle cylinder was manufactured and tested. Finally, we compared the results between the test and the finite element analysis.

  13. Experimental and analytical investigation of a fluidic power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarohia, V.; Bernal, L.; Beauchamp, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation was performed to understand the various fluid processes associated with the conversion of flow energy into electric power in a fluidic generator. Experiments were performed under flight-simulated laboratory conditions and results were compared with those obtained in the free-flight conditions. It is concluded that the mean mass flow critically controlled the output of the fluidic generator. Cross-correlation of the outputs of transducer data indicate the presence of a standing wave in the tube; the mechanism of oscillation is an acoustic resonance tube phenomenon. A linearized model was constructed coupling the flow behavior of the jet, the jet-layer, the tube, the cavity, and the holes of the fluidic generator. The analytical results also show that the mode of the fluidic power generator is an acoustical resonance phenomenon with the frequency of operation given by f approx = a/4L, where f is the frequency of jet swallowing, a is the average speed of sound in the tube, and L is the length of the tube. Analytical results further indicated that oscillations in the fluidic generator are always damped and consequently there is a forcing of the system in operation.

  14. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, W. Henry; Dzenitis, John M.; Bennet, William J.; Baker, Brian R.

    2014-08-19

    Herein provided are fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis. The fluidics platform is capable of analyzing DNA from blood samples using amplification assays such as polymerase-chain-reaction assays and loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification assays. The fluidics platform can also be used for other types of assays and analyzes. In some embodiments, a sample in a sealed tube can be inserted directly. The following isolation, detection, and analyzes can be performed without a user's intervention. The disclosed platform may also comprises a sample preparation system with a magnetic actuator, a heater, and an air-drying mechanism, and fluid manipulation processes for extraction, washing, elution, assay assembly, assay detection, and cleaning after reactions and between samples.

  15. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, David

    2016-01-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray’s law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray’s law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows. PMID:27493583

  16. The processing technology of PMMA micro-fluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Lili; Rong, Li; Guo, Shuheng; Liu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    In order to enrich the production method of micro-fluidic chip and simplify its processing technology, the paper discussed the double-sided adhesive layer for channel layer, with PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) for fabrication of microfluidic chip with the cover plate and the bottom plate. Taking 40 mm (long) x 20 mm (wide) x 2.2 mm (thick) liquid drop to separate the microfluidic chip as an example, details the design and machining process of the chip. Experiments show that surface quality is high and processing speed is fast when using this technology to process the chip. Thus, it can realize the mass production of micro fluidic chip.

  17. VCSEL-based flexible opto-fluidic fluorescence sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Yoon, Jongseung

    2016-03-01

    Flexible opto-fluidic fluorescence sensors based on microscale vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (micro-VCSELs) and silicon photodiodes (Si-PDs) are demonstrated, where arrays of 850 nm micro-VCSELs and thin film Si-PDs are heterogeneously integrated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by transfer printing, in conjunction with elastomeric fluidic channel. Enabled with optical isolation trenches together with wavelength- and angle-selective spectral filters implemented to suppress the absorption of excitation light, the integrated flexible fluorescence sensors exhibited significantly enhanced signal-to-background ratio, resulting in a maximum sensitivity of 5 × 10-5 wt% of infrared-absorbing organic dyes.

  18. Tubular dielectric elastomer actuator for active fluidic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David; Pei, Qibing

    2015-10-01

    We report a novel low-profile, biomimetic dielectric elastomer tubular actuator capable of actively controlling hydraulic flow. The tubular actuator has been established as a reliable tunable valve, pinching a secondary silicone tube completely shut in the absence of a fluidic pressure bias or voltage, offering a high degree of resistance against fluidic flow, and able to open and completely remove this resistance to flow with an applied low power actuation voltage. The system demonstrates a rise in pressure of ∼3.0 kPa when the dielectric elastomer valve is in the passive, unactuated state, and there is a quadratic fall in this pressure with increasing actuation voltage, until ∼0 kPa is reached at 2.4 kV. The device is reliable for at least 2000 actuation cycles for voltages at or below 2.2 kV. Furthermore, modeling of the actuator and fluidic system yields results consistent with the observed experimental dependence of intrasystem pressure on input flow rate, actuator prestretch, and actuation voltage. To our knowledge, this is the first actuator of its type that can control fluid flow by directly actuating the walls of a tube. Potential applications may include an implantable artificial sphincter, part of a peristaltic pump, or a computerized valve for fluidic or pneumatic control.

  19. Development of fluidic oscillators as flow control actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, James Winborn

    This work is comprised of two key accomplishments: the study and design of fluidic oscillators for flow control applications, and the development and application of porous pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) for unsteady flowfields. PSP development was a necessary prerequisite for characterizing the unsteady fluid dynamics of the fluidic oscillators. Development work on the fluidic oscillator commences with a study on the internal fluid dynamics of the feedback-free class of oscillators. This study demonstrates that the collision of two jets within a mixing chamber forms an oscillating shear layer driven by counter-rotating vortices. A micro-scale version of this type of oscillator is also characterized with PSP measurements and frequency surveys. Subsequently, this high-frequency oscillator (˜ 5 kHz) is coupled with a low-frequency solenoid valve to create dual-frequency injection that is useful in flow control applications. A new hybrid actuator is developed that merges piezoelectric and fluidic technology. This piezo-fluidic oscillator successfully decouples the oscillation frequency from the supply pressure, thereby enabling closed-loop flow control actuation. Fluidic oscillators are then applied to a practical flow control application for cavity tone suppression. The fluidic oscillators are able to suppress the tone by 17.0 dB, while steady blowing at the same mass flow rate offers only 1.6-dB suppression. Work with pressure-sensitive paint involved development of a model for the quenching kinetics of the paint. Two fast-responding paint formulations, Polymer/ceramic and Fast FIB, are evaluated experimentally and compared to the model predictions. Both the model and experiments demonstrate that a paint layer will respond faster to a decrease in pressure than an increase of the same magnitude, and that the polymer/ceramic paint has a flat frequency response of at least 1.59 kHz. Furthermore, the excellent response characteristics of porous PSP are highlighted by

  20. Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Lloyd H., III

    Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional

  1. Wind turbine apparatus with fluidic rotation indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Machin, T.H.

    1993-06-22

    A wind turbine apparatus, comprising, an impeller housing, the housing including a front torroidal plate spaced from a rear solid uninterrupted plate, wherein the front plate is parallel, and spaced from the rear plate in a coaxially aligned relationship, and an axle shaft fixedly mounted to the rear plate and to the front plate extending rearward of the rear plate, and a plurality of arcuate vanes mounted between the rear plate and front plate adjacent an outer periphery of the housing, wherein the outer periphery of the housing is defined by a rear plate outer periphery and a front plate outer periphery, and each arcuate vane includes an outer edge adjacent the outer periphery, and an inner edge spaced from the outer periphery, wherein the inner edge and outer edge are arranged in a parallel relationship, and a central cone, the central cone including a cone base, wherein the cone base is fixedly mounted to a forward surface of the rear plate, and a cone apex positioned to extend at least to the front plate, wherein the cone is arranged coaxially relative to the axle shaft, and the arcuate vanes are positioned between the central cone and the outer periphery, and a plurality of radial brace legs mounted to an outer surface of the front plate extending radially of the front plate terminating in a central bearing ring, with a forward terminal end of the axle shaft mounted within the bearing ring, and a plurality of arcuate liquid chambers mounted to the forward surface of the front plate, each liquid chamber spaced an equal radial distance relative to the axle shaft and equally spaced about the front plate, with each chamber containing a first fluid and a second fluid, each first fluid defined by a first coloration and a first specific gravity, and each second fluid defined by a second coloration and second specific gravity, whereupon rotation of the impeller hosing, the first fluid and second fluid are intermixed to define a third coloration.

  2. Development of Two Color Fluorescent Imager and Integrated Fluidic System for Nanosatellite Biology Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Diana Terri; Ricco, Antonio Joseph; Lera, Matthew P.; Timucin, Linda R.; Parra, Macarena P.

    2012-01-01

    Nanosatellites offer frequent, low-cost space access as secondary payloads on launches of larger conventional satellites. We summarize the payload science and technology of the Microsatellite in-situ Space Technologies (MisST) nanosatellite for conducting automated biological experiments. The payload (two fused 10-cm cubes) includes 1) an integrated fluidics system that maintains organism viability and supports growth and 2) a fixed-focus imager with fluorescence and scattered-light imaging capabilities. The payload monitors temperature, pressure and relative humidity, and actively controls temperature. C. elegans (nematode, 50 m diameter x 1 mm long) was selected as a model organism due to previous space science experience, its completely sequenced genome, size, hardiness, and the variety of strains available. Three strains were chosen: two green GFP-tagged strains and one red tdTomato-tagged strain that label intestinal, nerve, and pharyngeal cells, respectively. The integrated fluidics system includes bioanalytical and reservoir modules. The former consists of four 150 L culture wells and a 4x5 mm imaging zone the latter includes two 8 mL fluid reservoirs for reagent and waste storage. The fluidic system is fabricated using multilayer polymer rapid prototyping: laser cutting, precision machining, die cutting, and pressure-sensitive adhesives it also includes eight solenoid-operated valves and one mini peristaltic pump. Young larval-state (L2) nematodes are loaded in C. elegans Maintenance Media (CeMM) in the bioanalytical module during pre-launch assembly. By the time orbit is established, the worms have grown to sufficient density to be imaged and are fed fresh CeMM. The strains are pumped sequentially into the imaging area, imaged, then pumped into waste. Reagent storage utilizes polymer bags under slight pressure to prevent bubble formation in wells or channels. The optical system images green and red fluorescence bands by excitation with blue (473 nm peak

  3. Nature-inspired polymer actuators for micro-fluidic mixing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Toonder, Jaap M. J.; Bos, Femke; de Goede, Judith; Anderson, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    One particular micro-fluidics manipulation mechanism ``designed'' by nature is that due to a covering of beating cilia over the external surface of micro-organisms (e.g. Paramecium). A cilium can be viewed as a small hair or flexible rod (in protozoa: typical length 10 microns and diameter 0.1 microns) which is attached to the surface. We have developed polymer micro-actuators, made with standard micro-technology processing, which respond to an applied electrical or magnetic field by changing their shape. The shape and size of the polymer actuators mimics that of cilia occurring in nature. Flow visualization experiments show that the cilia can generate substantial fluid velocities, in the order of 1 mm/s. In addition, using specially designed geometrical configurations of the cilia, very efficient mixing is obtained. Since the artificial cilia can be actively controlled using electrical signals, they have exciting applications in micro-fluidic devices.

  4. Microfluidic hubs, systems, and methods for interface fluidic modules

    DOEpatents

    Bartsch, Michael S; Claudnic, Mark R; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L

    2015-01-27

    Embodiments of microfluidic hubs and systems are described that may be used to connect fluidic modules. A space between surfaces may be set by fixtures described herein. In some examples a fixture may set substrate-to-substrate spacing based on a distance between registration surfaces on which the respective substrates rest. Fluidic interfaces are described, including examples where fluid conduits (e.g. capillaries) extend into the fixture to the space between surfaces. Droplets of fluid may be introduced to and/or removed from microfluidic hubs described herein, and fluid actuators may be used to move droplets within the space between surfaces. Continuous flow modules may be integrated with the hubs in some examples.

  5. Fluidic Oscillator Array for Synchronized Oscillating Jet Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator array includes a plurality of fluidic-oscillator main flow channels. Each main flow channel has an inlet and an outlet. Each main flow channel has first and second control ports disposed at opposing sides thereof, and has a first and a second feedback ports disposed at opposing sides thereof. The feedback ports are located downstream of the control ports with respect to a direction of a fluid flow through the main flow channel. The system also includes a first fluid accumulator in fluid communication with each first control port and each first feedback port, and a second fluid accumulator in fluid communication with each second control port and each second feedback port.

  6. Characterizing fluidic seals for on-board reagent delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, Tejas; Anthony, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The reagent delivery mechanism in a point-of-care, HIV diagnostic, microfluidic device is studied. Reagents held in an aluminum blister pack are released on the opening of a fluidic seal. The fluidic seals, controlling the flow of reagents, are characterized to reduce anomalies in the desired flow pattern. The findings of this research can be divided into three categories - 1) bonding phenomenon 2) influence of seal pattern on flow and rupture mechanics and 3) process parameters which minimize flow anomalies. Four seal patterns - line hemisphere, line flat, chevron hemisphere and chevron flat were created and tested for reagent delivery using a flow sensor and a force gauge. Experiments suggest that one of the patterns - line-flat - inducted the fewest flow anomalies. A parameter scoping exercise of the seal manufacturing process parameters (temperature, time, pressure) was performed for the line flat seal. Temperature, time, pressure / gap and distance settings which minimize flow anomalies were found.

  7. Laser-based patterning for fluidic devices in nitrocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Katis, Ioannis N.; Eason, Robert W.; Sones, Collin L.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate a simple and low cost method that can be reproducibly used for fabrication of microfluidic devices in nitrocellulose. The fluidic patterns are created via a laser-based direct-write technique that induces polymerisation of a photo-polymer previously impregnated in the nitrocellulose. The resulting structures form hydrophobic barriers that extend through the thickness of the nitrocellulose and define an interconnected hydrophilic fluidic-flow pattern. Our experimental results show that using this method it is possible to achieve microfluidic channels with lateral dimensions of ∼100 μm using hydrophobic barriers that form the channel walls with dimensions of ∼60 μm; both of these values are considerably smaller than those that can be achieved with other current techniques used in the fabrication of nitrocellulose-based fluidic devices. A simple grid patterned nitrocellulose device was then used for the detection of C-reactive protein via a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which served as a useful proof-of-principle experiment. PMID:26015836

  8. Numerical Simulation of Fluidic Actuators for Flow Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasta, Veer N.; Koklu, Mehti; Wygnanski, Israel L.; Fares, Ehab

    2012-01-01

    Active flow control technology is finding increasing use in aerospace applications to control flow separation and improve aerodynamic performance. In this paper we examine the characteristics of a class of fluidic actuators that are being considered for active flow control applications for a variety of practical problems. Based on recent experimental work, such actuators have been found to be more efficient for controlling flow separation in terms of mass flow requirements compared to constant blowing and suction or even synthetic jet actuators. The fluidic actuators produce spanwise oscillating jets, and therefore are also known as sweeping jets. The frequency and spanwise sweeping extent depend on the geometric parameters and mass flow rate entering the actuators through the inlet section. The flow physics associated with these actuators is quite complex and not fully understood at this time. The unsteady flow generated by such actuators is simulated using the lattice Boltzmann based solver PowerFLOW R . Computed mean and standard deviation of velocity profiles generated by a family of fluidic actuators in quiescent air are compared with experimental data. Simulated results replicate the experimentally observed trends with parametric variation of geometry and inflow conditions.

  9. The Promise of Macromolecular Crystallization in Micro-fluidic Chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Micro-fluidics, or lab on a chip technology, is proving to be a powerful, rapid, and efficient approach to a wide variety of bio-analytical and microscale bio-preparative needs. The low materials consumption, combined with the potential for packing a large number of experiments in a few cubic centimeters, makes it an attractive technique for both initial screening and subsequent optimization of macromolecular crystallization conditions. Screening operations, which require equilibrating macromolecule solution with a standard set of premixed solutions, are relatively straightforward and have been successfully demonstrated in a micro-fluidics platform. More complex optimization methods, where crystallization solutions are independently formulated from a range of stock solutions, are considerably more complex and have yet to be demonstrated. To be competitive with either approach, a micro-fluidics system must offer ease of operation, be able to maintain a sealed environment over several weeks to months, and give ready access for the observation of crystals as they are grown.

  10. In Vivo Imaging of Intraocular Fluidics in Vitrectomized Swine Eyes Using a Digital Fluoroscopy System

    PubMed Central

    Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe; Koss, Michael Janusz; Choi, Chul Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the characteristics of intraocular fluidics during cataract surgery in swine eyes with prior vitrectomy. Methods. We prepared three groups of enucleated swine eyes (nonvitrectomized, core, and totally vitrectomized). Irrigation and aspiration were performed (2.7 mm conventional sleeved phacosystem) using a balanced saline solution mixed with a water-soluble radiopaque contrast medium at 1 : 1 ratio. We imaged the eyes using a digital fluoroscopy system (DFS) during phacoemulsification and compared the characteristics of the intraocular fluid dynamics between the groups. Results. The anterior chamber depth (ACD) after the commencement of irrigation differed between groups (2.25 ± 0.06 mm; 2.33 ± 0.06 mm; 3.17 ± 0.11 mm), as well as the height of the fluid flowing from the anterior chamber into the posterior cavity that was identified by lifting up the iris to correct the infusion deviation syndrome (0.00 ± 0.00 mm; 0.41 ± 0.04 mm; 2.19 ± 0.35 mm). Conclusions. DFS demonstrated differences in fluid dynamics during phacoemulsification in swine eyes with or without prior vitrectomy. In completely vitrectomized eyes, the large ACD, which developed during phacoemulsification, could be reduced by lifting the iris and allowing the fluid to shift to the posterior cavity. Recognizing the differences in fluidics of vitrectomized eyes as compared to those of the nonvitrectomized eyes may reduce the frequency of intraoperative complications. PMID:27127645

  11. Stereoscopic depth constancy.

    PubMed

    Guan, Phillip; Banks, Martin S

    2016-06-19

    Depth constancy is the ability to perceive a fixed depth interval in the world as constant despite changes in viewing distance and the spatial scale of depth variation. It is well known that the spatial frequency of depth variation has a large effect on threshold. In the first experiment, we determined that the visual system compensates for this differential sensitivity when the change in disparity is suprathreshold, thereby attaining constancy similar to contrast constancy in the luminance domain. In a second experiment, we examined the ability to perceive constant depth when the spatial frequency and viewing distance both changed. To attain constancy in this situation, the visual system has to estimate distance. We investigated this ability when vergence, accommodation and vertical disparity are all presented accurately and therefore provided veridical information about viewing distance. We found that constancy is nearly complete across changes in viewing distance. Depth constancy is most complete when the scale of the depth relief is constant in the world rather than when it is constant in angular units at the retina. These results bear on the efficacy of algorithms for creating stereo content.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269596

  12. Stereoscopic depth constancy

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Depth constancy is the ability to perceive a fixed depth interval in the world as constant despite changes in viewing distance and the spatial scale of depth variation. It is well known that the spatial frequency of depth variation has a large effect on threshold. In the first experiment, we determined that the visual system compensates for this differential sensitivity when the change in disparity is suprathreshold, thereby attaining constancy similar to contrast constancy in the luminance domain. In a second experiment, we examined the ability to perceive constant depth when the spatial frequency and viewing distance both changed. To attain constancy in this situation, the visual system has to estimate distance. We investigated this ability when vergence, accommodation and vertical disparity are all presented accurately and therefore provided veridical information about viewing distance. We found that constancy is nearly complete across changes in viewing distance. Depth constancy is most complete when the scale of the depth relief is constant in the world rather than when it is constant in angular units at the retina. These results bear on the efficacy of algorithms for creating stereo content. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269596

  13. Apparent Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar, Antonio B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a well-known optical refraction problem where the depth of an object in a liquid is determined. Proposes that many texts incorrectly solve the problem. Provides theory, equations, and diagrams. (MVL)

  14. Experimental microbubble generation by sudden pressure drop and fluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco Gutierrez, Fernando; Figueroa Espinoza, Bernardo; Aguilar Corona, Alicia; Vargas Correa, Jesus; Solorio Diaz, Gildardo

    2014-11-01

    Mass and heat transfer, as well as chemical species in bubbly flow are of importance in environmental and industrial applications. Microbubbles are well suited to these applications due to the large interface contact area and residence time. The objective of this investigation is to build devices to produce microbubbles using two methods: pressure differences and fluidics. Some characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of both methods are briefly discussed, as well as the characterization of the bubbly suspensions in terms of parameters such as the pressure jump and bubble equivalent diameter distribution. The authors acknowledge the support of Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología.

  15. Carbon nanotube-based nano-fluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud Seyyed Fakhrabadi, Mir; Rastgoo, Abbas; Taghi Ahmadian, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    The paper investigates the influences of fluid flow on static and dynamic behaviours of electrostatically actuated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using strain gradient theory. This nonclassical elasticity theory is applied in order to obtain more accurate results possessing higher agreement with the experimental data. The effects of various fluid parameters such as the fluid viscosity, velocity, mass and temperature on the pull-in properties of the CNTs with two cantilever and doubly clamped boundary conditions are studied. The results reveal the applicability of the proposed nano-system as nano-valves or nano-fluidic sensors.

  16. Coulomb Forces on DNA Polymers in Charged Fluidic Nanoslits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongqiang; Stein, Derek

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the repulsive electrostatic interactions between a DNA polyelectrolyte and the charged walls of a fluidic nanoslit. The scaling of the DNA coil size with the physical slit height revealed electrostatic depletion regions that reduced the effective slit height. These regions exceeded the Debye screening length of the buffer, λDbuffer, and saturated at ≈50nm when λDbuffer reached 10 nm. We explain these results by modeling a semiflexible charged rod near a charged wall and the electrostatic screening by the polyelectrolyte. These results demonstrate the surprisingly long range over which a nanofluidic device can exert field-effect control over confined molecules.

  17. AEA Fluidic Pulse Jet Mixer. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-01

    AEA's Fluidic Pulse Jet Mixer was developed to mix and maintain the suspension of solids and to blend process liquids. The mixer can be used to combine a tank's available supernate with the sludge into a slurry that is suitable for pumping. The system uses jet nozzles in the tank coupled to a charge vessel. Then, a jet pump creates a partial vacuum in the charge vessel allowing it to be filled with waste. Next, air pressure is applied to the charge vessel, forcing sludge back into the tank and mixing it with the liquid waste. When the liquid waste contains 10% solids, a batch is pumped out of the tank.

  18. Computational Study of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring using Separation Control in a Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2003-01-01

    A computational investigation of a two- dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D was used to guide the design and analyze over 60 configurations. Nozzle design variables included cavity convergence angle, cavity length, fluidic injection angle, upstream minimum height, aft deck angle, and aft deck shape. All simulations were computed with a static freestream Mach number of 0.05. a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.858, and a fluidic injection flow rate equal to 6 percent of the primary flow rate. Results indicate that the recessed cavity enhances the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring and allows for greater thrust-vector angles without compromising thrust efficiency.

  19. Stokes Trap: Multiplexed particle trapping and manipulation using fluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, Anish; Schroeder, Charles

    We report the development of the Stokes Trap, which is a multiplexed microfluidic trap for control over an arbitrary number of small particles in a microfluidic device. Our work involves the design and implementation of ``smart'' flow-based devices by coupling feedback control with microfluidics, thereby enabling new routes for the fluidic-directed assembly of particles. Here, we discuss the development of a new method to achieve multiplexed microfluidic trapping of an arbitrary number of particles using the sole action of fluid flow. In particular, we use a Hele-Shaw microfluidic cell to generate hydrodynamic forces on particles in a viscous-dominated flow defined by the microdevice geometry and imposed peripheral flow rates. This platform allows for a high degree of flow control over individual particles and can be used for manufacturing novel particles for fundamental studies, using fluidic-directed assembly. From a broader perspective, our work provides a solid framework for guiding the design of next-generation, automated on-chip assays.

  20. Nature-inspired micro-fluidic manipulation using artificial cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Toonder, Jaap; de Goede, Judith; Khatavkar, Vinayak; Anderson, Patrick

    2006-11-01

    One particular micro-fluidics manipulation mechanism ``designed'' by nature is that due to a covering of beating cilia over the external surface of micro-organisms (e.g. Paramecium). A cilium can be viewed as a small hair or flexible rod (in protozoa: typical length 10 μm and diameter 0.1 μm) which is attached to the surface. We have developed polymer micro-actuators, made with standard micro-technology processing, which respond to an applied electrical or magnetic field by changing their shape. The shape and size of the polymer actuators mimics that of cilia occurring in nature. We have shown experimentally that, indeed, our artificial cilia can induce significant flow velocities of at least 75 μm/s in a fluid with a viscosity of 10 mPas. In this paper we will give an overview of our activities in developing the polymer actuators and the corresponding technology, show experimental and numerical fluid flow results, and finally assess the feasibility of applying this new and attractive micro-fluidic actuation method in functional biosensors.

  1. Variable recruitment fluidic artificial muscles: modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Matthew; Meller, Michael A.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-07-01

    We investigate taking advantage of the lightweight, compliant nature of fluidic artificial muscles to create variable recruitment actuators in the form of artificial muscle bundles. Several actuator elements at different diameter scales are packaged to act as a single actuator device. The actuator elements of the bundle can be connected to the fluidic control circuit so that different groups of actuator elements, much like individual muscle fibers, can be activated independently depending on the required force output and motion. This novel actuation concept allows us to save energy by effectively impedance matching the active size of the actuators on the fly based on the instantaneous required load. This design also allows a single bundled actuator to operate in substantially different force regimes, which could be valuable for robots that need to perform a wide variety of tasks and interact safely with humans. This paper proposes, models and analyzes the actuation efficiency of this actuator concept. The analysis shows that variable recruitment operation can create an actuator that reduces throttling valve losses to operate more efficiently over a broader range of its force-strain operating space. We also present preliminary results of the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of three such bioinspired variable recruitment actuator prototypes.

  2. Origami paper-based fluidic batteries for portable electrophoretic devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sung-Sheng; Hu, Chih-Wei; Yu, I-Fan; Liao, Ying-Chih; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2014-06-21

    A manufacturing approach for paper-based fluidic batteries was developed based on the origami principle (three-dimension paper folding). Microfluidic channels were first created on a filter paper by a wax-printing method. Copper and aluminium sheets were then glued onto the paper as electrodes for the redox reaction. After the addition of copper sulphate and aluminium chloride, commonly available cellophane paper was attached as a membrane to separate the two electrodes. The resulting planar paper sheets were then folded into three-dimensional structures and compiled as a single battery with glue. The two half reactions (Al/Al(3+) and Cu/Cu(2+)) in the folded batteries provided an open-circuit potential from 0.82 V (one cell) to 5.0 V (eight cells in series) depending on the origami design. The prepared battery can provide a stable current of 500 μA and can light a regular LED for more than 65 min. These paper-based fluidic batteries in a set can also be compiled into a portable power bank to provide electric power for many electric or biomedical applications, such as LED lights and electrophoretic devices, as we report here. PMID:24811036

  3. Fluidic Force Discrimination Assays: A New Technology for Tetrodotoxin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Yakes, Betsy Jean; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Mulvaney, Shawn P.; Tamanaha, Cy R.

    2010-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a low molecular weight (~319 Da) neurotoxin found in a number of animal species, including pufferfish. Protection from toxin tainted food stuffs requires rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tests. An emerging technique for the detection of both proteins and nucleic acids is Fluidic Force Discrimination (FFD) assays. This simple and rapid method typically uses a sandwich immunoassay format labeled with micrometer-diameter beads and has the novel capability of removing nonspecifically attached beads under controlled, fluidic conditions. This technique allows for near real-time, multiplexed analysis at levels of detection that exceed many of the conventional transduction methods (e.g., ELISAs). In addition, the large linear dynamic range afforded by FFD should decrease the need to perform multiple sample dilutions, a common challenge for food testing. By applying FFD assays to an inhibition immunoassay platform specific for TTX and transduction via low magnification microscopy, levels of detection of ~15 ng/mL and linear dynamic ranges of 4 to 5 orders of magnitude were achieved. The results from these studies on the first small molecule FFD assay, along with the impact to detection of seafood toxins, will be discussed in this manuscript. PMID:20411115

  4. Application of fluidic lens technology to an adaptive holographic optical element see-through autophoropter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancy, Carl H.

    A device for performing an objective eye exam has been developed to automatically determine ophthalmic prescriptions. The closed loop fluidic auto-phoropter has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested for the automatic measurement and correction of a patient's prescriptions. The adaptive phoropter is designed through the combination of a spherical-powered fluidic lens and two cylindrical fluidic lenses that are orientated 45o relative to each other. In addition, the system incorporates Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing technology to identify the eye's wavefront error and corresponding prescription. Using the wavefront error information, the fluidic auto-phoropter nulls the eye's lower order wavefront error by applying the appropriate volumes to the fluidic lenses. The combination of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor the fluidic auto-phoropter allows for the identification and control of spherical refractive error, as well as cylinder error and axis; thus, creating a truly automated refractometer and corrective system. The fluidic auto-phoropter is capable of correcting defocus error ranging from -20D to 20D and astigmatism from -10D to 10D. The transmissive see-through design allows for the observation of natural scenes through the system at varying object planes with no additional imaging optics in the patient's line of sight. In this research, two generations of the fluidic auto-phoropter are designed and tested; the first generation uses traditional glass optics for the measurement channel. The second generation of the fluidic auto-phoropter takes advantage of the progress in the development of holographic optical elements (HOEs) to replace all the traditional glass optics. The addition of the HOEs has enabled the development of a more compact, inexpensive and easily reproducible system without compromising its performance. Additionally, the fluidic lenses were tested during a National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) parabolic flight campaign, to

  5. Optimal design for fluidic systems: Topology and shape optimization with the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingen, Georg

    The objective of this work is the development of a formal design approach for fluidic systems, providing conceptually novel design layouts with the provision of only boundary conditions and some basic parameters. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is chosen as a flow model due to its simplicity, inherent use of immersed boundary methods, parallelizability, and general flexibility. Immersed Boundary Methods in the form of a Brinkmann penalization are used to continuously vary the flow from fluid to solid, leading to a material distribution based boundary representation. An analytical adjoint sensitivity analysis is derived for the lattice Boltzmann method, enabling the combination of the lattice Boltzmann method with optimization techniques. This results in the first application of design optimization with the lattice Boltzmann method. In particular, the first LBM topology optimization framework for 2D and 3D problems is developed and validated with numerical design optimization problems for drag and pressure drop minimization. To improve the parallel scalability of the LBM sensitivity analysis and permit the solution of large 2D and 3D problems, iterative solvers are studied and a parallel GMRES Schur Complement method is applied to the solution of the linear adjoint problem in the LBM sensitivity analysis. This leads to improved parallel scalability through reduced memory use and algorithmic speedup. The potential of the developed design approach for fluidic systems is illustrated with the optimization of a 3D dual-objective fixed-geometry valve. The use of a parametric level-set method coupled with the LBM material distribution based topology optimization framework is shown to provide further versatility for design applications. Finally, the use of a penalty formulation of the fluid volume constraint permits the topology optimization of flows at moderate Reynolds numbers for a steady-state pipe bend application. Concluding, this work has led to the development of

  6. Nanobiomimetic Active Shape Control - Fluidic and Swarm-Intelligence Embodiments for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoli, S.

    The concepts of Active Shape Control ( ASC ) and of Generalized Quantum Holography ( GQH ), respectively embodying a closer approach to biomimicry than the current macrophysics-based attempts at bioinspired robotic systems, and realizing a non-connectionistic, life-like kind of information processing that allows increasingly depths of mimicking of the biological structure-function solidarity, which have been formulated in physical terms in previous papers, are here further investigated for application to bioinspired flying or swimming robots for planetary exploration. It is shown that nano-to-micro integration would give the deepest level of biomimicry, and that both low and very low Reynolds number ( Re ) fluidics would involve GQH and Fiber Bundle Topology ( FBT ) for processing information at the various levels of ASC bioinspired robotics. While very low Re flows lend themselves to geometrization of microrobot dynamics and to FBT design, the general design problem is geometrized through GQH , i.e. made independent of dynamic considerations, thus allowing possible problems of semantic dyscrasias in highly complex hierarchical dynamical chains of sensing information processing actuating to be overcome. A roadmap to near- and medium-term nanostructured and nano-to-micro integration realizations is suggested.

  7. New investigations in capillary fluidics using a drop tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollman, Andrew; Weislogel, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Drop towers provide brief terrestrial access to microgravity environments. When exploited for capillary fluidics research, the drop tower allows for unique control over an experiment's initial conditions which can enable, enhance, or otherwise improve methods to study capillary flows and phenomena at significantly larger length scales than can be achieved on the ground. In this work, a new, highly accessible, 2.1-s tower design is introduced for such research. Enabled in part by simple macro-fabrication methods, a variety of new demonstrative experiments are presented for purely capillarity-driven flows leading to droplet ejections, bubble ingestions, sinking flows, particle injections, and multiphase flows. Due to the repeatability of the passive flows, each experiment may be used in turn as a means to study other phenomena, and forward-looking research themes are suggested that include large-length-scale passive phase separations, heat and mass transfer, and droplet dynamics.

  8. Stochastic regimes in very-low-frequency fluidic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Paper discusses interesting unexpected stochastic regimes discovered in a fluidic oscillator designed for operation at very low oscillation frequencies - without the inconvenience of the long feedback loops needed in standard low-frequency oscillator designs. The new oscillator contains a pair of bistable turn-down active valves operating in anti-parallel — essentially analogous to Abraham & Bloch electric "multibrateur" invented in 1919. Three different self-excited oscillation regimes were found. In the order of increasing supplied flow rate, these regimes are characterised by: (A) generation of stochastic-duration multi-pulse packs, (B) generation of individual pulses with a degree of periodicity, and (C) regime with randomly appearing flow pulses separated by intervals of the order of seconds.

  9. Stokes trap for multiplexed particle manipulation and assembly using fluidics.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Anish; Rao, Christopher V; Schroeder, Charles M

    2016-04-12

    The ability to confine and manipulate single particles and molecules has revolutionized several fields of science. Hydrodynamic trapping offers an attractive method for particle manipulation in free solution without the need for optical, electric, acoustic, or magnetic fields. Here, we develop and demonstrate the Stokes trap, which is a new method for trapping multiple particles using only fluid flow. We demonstrate simultaneous manipulation of two particles in a simple microfluidic device using model predictive control. We further show that this approach can be used for fluidic-directed assembly of multiple particles in solution. Overall, this technique opens new vistas for fundamental studies of particle-particle interactions and provides a new method for the directed assembly of colloidal particles. PMID:27035979

  10. Sub-micrometer fluidic channel for measuring photon emitting entities

    SciTech Connect

    Stavis, Samuel M; Edel, Joshua B; Samiee, Kevan T; Craighead, Harold G

    2014-11-18

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  11. Fluidic Control of Aerodynamic Forces on an Axisymmetric Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

    2007-11-01

    The aerodynamic forces and moments on a wind tunnel model of an axisymmetric bluff body are modified by induced local vectoring of the separated base flow. Control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jets that emanate from narrow, azimuthally-segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end within a small backward facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The model is suspended in the wind tunnel by eight thin wires for minimal support interference with the wake. Fluidic actuation results in a localized, segmented vectoring of the separated base flow along the rear Coanda surface and induces asymmetric aerodynamic forces and moments to effect maneuvering during flight. The aerodynamic effects associated with quasi-steady and transitory differential, asymmetric activation of the Coanda effect are characterized using direct force and PIV measurements.

  12. Opto-fluidic flow analysis for monitoring of immunity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, A.; Bharadwaj, A.,; Marshkole, N.; Saiyed, T.; Prabhakar, A.

    2015-06-01

    We describes the design, development and testing of a cost effective and miniaturized version of a flow analyzer. It is designed to detect fluorescence labeled immunocytes in human blood sample. Availing of advancements in micro fluidics and nanolithographic technique, we fabricated a PDMS based device with integrated micro channels for accommodating the optical fibers. The lensed fibers serves as the waveguides for illumination and collection of laser and scattered signals respectively. As a cell crosses the interrogation point the forward scatter, side scatter and fluorescence are detected. Photomultiplier tubes used in conventional flow cytometers have been replaced here with APDs (avalanche photo detectors) and supplemented with digital signal processing. The prototype was tested with different sized polymer beads as well as the live cells.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic actuation of droplets for millimetric planar fluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, A.; McDermid, C. M.; Markley, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a magnetohydrodynamic method is proposed for the actuation of droplets in small-scale planar fluidic systems, providing an alternative to commonly used methods such as electrowetting-on-dielectric. Elementary droplet-based operations, including transport, merging, and mixing, are demonstrated. The forces acting on millimetric droplets are carefully investigated, with a primary focus on the magnetic actuation force and on the unbalanced capillary forces that arise due to hysteresis. A super-hydrophobic channel is 3D printed to guide the droplets, with thin wires installed as contact electrodes and permanent magnets providing a static magnetic field. It is shown that droplet motion is enhanced by increasing the droplet size and minimizing the electrode contact surface. The effects of channel geometry on threshold voltage and minimum moveable droplet volume are characterized. Finally, the presence of electrolysis is investigated and mitigating strategies are discussed.

  14. Tritium test of a ferro-fluidic rotary seal

    SciTech Connect

    Antipenkov, A.; Day, C.; Adami, H. D.

    2008-07-15

    The ferro-fluidic seal is being investigated as an internal rotary seal for tritium compatible mechanical roots type vacuum pumps. After its successful testing with helium and integration into a small (250 m{sup 3}/h) test roots pump, the seal, made as a cartridge, has been integrated into a special test unit and is currently being tested with tritium in order to define the leak rates and the possible degradation of the ferro-fluid under long term exposure to tritium radiation. The tritium pressure from one side of the seal is 0.125 MPa, the nitrogen pressure from the other side is 0.075 MPa, the rotation speed is maintained at 1500 rpm. The tritium leak through the cartridge contributes to the tritium concentration in the nitrogen, which is continuously measured by an ionisation chamber; the pressure in both chambers is continuously registered by precise pressure gauges. The experimental program is discussed. (authors)

  15. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    DOEpatents

    Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2010-04-13

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  16. Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel

    DOEpatents

    Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2008-07-29

    A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.

  17. Thin-walled compliant plastic structures for mesoscale fluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Robin R.; Schumann, Daniel L.

    1999-06-01

    Thin-walled, compliant plastic structures for meso-scale fluidic systems were fabricated, tested and used to demonstrate valving, pumping, metering and mixing. These structures permit the isolation of actuators and sensors form the working fluid, thereby reducing chemical compatibility issues. The thin-walled, compliant plastic structures can be used in either a permanent, reusable system or as an inexpensive disposable for single-use assay systems. The implementation of valving, pumping, mixing and metering operations involve only an elastic change in the mechanical shape of various portions of the structure. Advantages provided by the thin-walled plastic structures include reduced dead volume and rapid mixing. Five different methods for fabricating the thin-walled plastic structures discussed including laser welding, molding, vacuum forming, thermal heat staking and photolithographic patterning techniques.

  18. A Programmable MicroFluidic Processor: Integrated and Hybrid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A

    2002-05-10

    The Programmable Fluidic Processor (PFP), a device conceived of by researchers at MD Anderson Cancer Center, is a reconfigurable and programmable bio-chemical analysis system designed for handheld operation in a variety of applications. Unlike most microfluidic systems which utilize channels to control fluids, the PFP device is a droplet-based system. The device is based on dielectrophoresis; a fluid transport phenomenon that utilizes mismatched polarizability between a droplet and its medium to induce droplet mobility. In the device, sample carrying droplets are polarized by an array of electrodes, individually addressable by subsurface microelectronics. My research focused on the development of a polymer-based microfluidic injection system for injecting these droplets onto the electrode array. The first of two device generations fabricated at LLNL was designed using extensive research and modeling performed by MD Anderson and Coventor. Fabricating the first generation required several iterations and design changes in order to generate an acceptable device for testing. Difficulties in planar fabrication of the fluidic system and a narrow channel design necessitated these changes. The second generation device incorporated modifications of the previous generation and improved on deficiencies discovered during experimentation with the initial device. Extensive modeling of the injection channels and fluid storage chamber also aided in redesigning the device's microfluidic system. A micromolding technique with interlocking features enabled precise alignments and dimensional control, critical requirements for device optimization. Fabrication of a final device will be fully integrated with the polymer-based microfluidics bonded directly to the silicon-based microelectronics. The optimized design and process flow developed in the trial generations will readily transfer to this approach.

  19. Stochasticity, succession, and environmental perturbations in a fluidic ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Zhang, Ping; Xue, Kai; Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Stahl, David A.; Hazen, Terry C.; Tiedje, James M.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling the drivers of community structure and succession in response to environmental change is a central goal in ecology. Although the mechanisms shaping community structure have been intensively examined, those controlling ecological succession remain elusive. To understand the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in mediating microbial community succession, a unique framework composed of four different cases was developed for fluidic and nonfluidic ecosystems. The framework was then tested for one fluidic ecosystem: a groundwater system perturbed by adding emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) for uranium immobilization. Our results revealed that groundwater microbial community diverged substantially away from the initial community after EVO amendment and eventually converged to a new community state, which was closely clustered with its initial state. However, their composition and structure were significantly different from each other. Null model analysis indicated that both deterministic and stochastic processes played important roles in controlling the assembly and succession of the groundwater microbial community, but their relative importance was time dependent. Additionally, consistent with the proposed conceptual framework but contradictory to conventional wisdom, the community succession responding to EVO amendment was primarily controlled by stochastic rather than deterministic processes. During the middle phase of the succession, the roles of stochastic processes in controlling community composition increased substantially, ranging from 81.3% to 92.0%. Finally, there are limited successional studies available to support different cases in the conceptual framework, but further well-replicated explicit time-series experiments are needed to understand the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in controlling community succession. PMID:24550501

  20. Investigation of Combustion Control in a Dump Combustor Using the Feedback Free Fluidic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Eric J.; Casiano, Matthew J.; Anderson, William E.; Heister, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    A feedback free fluidic oscillator was designed and integrated into a single element rocket combustor with the goal of suppressing longitudinal combustion instabilities. The fluidic oscillator uses internal fluid dynamics to create an unsteady outlet jet at a specific frequency. An array of nine fluidic oscillators was tested to mimic modulated secondary oxidizer injection into the combustor dump plane. The combustor has a coaxial injector that uses gaseous methane and decomposed hydrogen peroxide with an overall O/F ratio of 11.7. A sonic choke plate on an actuator arm allows for continuous adjustment of the oxidizer post acoustics enabling the study of a variety of instability magnitudes. The fluidic oscillator unsteady outlet jet performance is compared against equivalent steady jet injection and a baseline design with no secondary oxidizer injection. At the most unstable operating conditions, the unsteady outlet jet saw a 67% reduction in the instability pressure oscillation magnitude when compared to the steady jet and baseline data. Additionally, computational fluid dynamics analysis of the combustor gives insight into the flow field interaction of the fluidic oscillators. The results indicate that open loop high frequency propellant modulation for combustion control can be achieved through fluidic devices that require no moving parts or electrical power to operate.

  1. The early fluidic and optical physics of cytometry.

    PubMed

    Watson, J V

    1999-02-15

    All forms of cytometry, depend on the basic laws of physics, including those of fluidics, optics, and electronics, most of which were established centuries ago. Flow cytometry depends critically on the fluidics presenting each individual cell with precision to the sensing volume. This is intersected by a high-intensity light source, and light scattering and fluorescence from suitably stained constituents in each cell are captured by the light-collecting optics and measured. The works and observations of Bernoulli and Euler in the 18th century, Reynolds in the 19th century, and Crosland-Taylor in the 20th century in the field of fluid dynamics laid the foundations for hydrodynamic focussing, which is the primary prerequisite for presenting individual cells to the sensing volume. In addition, electrostatic cell sorters must have the ability to generate stable droplet formation in the jet-stream issuing from the flow chamber nozzle. The origins here can be traced to work carried out in the early to mid-19th century by Savart, Magnus, and Thomson. Flow, image, and confocal cytometry are all dependent on the laws of optics, including those of reflection and refraction as well as numerous other optical principles. The observations and works of Socrates, Ptolemy, Snel, and Descartes between about BC 370 and 1637 were of seminal importance in developing the laws of reflection and refraction. In the mid-17th century Hooke illustrated the power of magnifying glasses and microscopy in his Micrographia and Newton was responsible for explaining colours in the spectrum. Huygens, toward the end of the 17th century, put forward the concept of point source light propagation contributing to a wave front. Finally, Thomas Young, early in the 19th century, established the wave form of light from interference patterns. Most people will be familiar with some of these discoveries and the investigators who carried out the work; some people will be familiar with all of these. However, very

  2. Learning Sparse Representations of Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosic, Ivana; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Culpepper, Benjamin J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper introduces a new method for learning and inferring sparse representations of depth (disparity) maps. The proposed algorithm relaxes the usual assumption of the stationary noise model in sparse coding. This enables learning from data corrupted with spatially varying noise or uncertainty, typically obtained by laser range scanners or structured light depth cameras. Sparse representations are learned from the Middlebury database disparity maps and then exploited in a two-layer graphical model for inferring depth from stereo, by including a sparsity prior on the learned features. Since they capture higher-order dependencies in the depth structure, these priors can complement smoothness priors commonly used in depth inference based on Markov Random Field (MRF) models. Inference on the proposed graph is achieved using an alternating iterative optimization technique, where the first layer is solved using an existing MRF-based stereo matching algorithm, then held fixed as the second layer is solved using the proposed non-stationary sparse coding algorithm. This leads to a general method for improving solutions of state of the art MRF-based depth estimation algorithms. Our experimental results first show that depth inference using learned representations leads to state of the art denoising of depth maps obtained from laser range scanners and a time of flight camera. Furthermore, we show that adding sparse priors improves the results of two depth estimation methods: the classical graph cut algorithm by Boykov et al. and the more recent algorithm of Woodford et al.

  3. Depth keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvili, Ronen; Kaplan, Amir; Ofek, Eyal; Yahav, Giora

    2003-05-01

    We present a new solution to the known problem of video keying in a natural environment. We segment foreground objects from background objects using their relative distance from the camera, which makes it possible to do away with the use of color for keying. To do so, we developed and built a novel depth video camera, capable of producing RGB and D signals, where D stands for the distance to each pixel. The new RGBD camera enables the creation of a whole new gallery of effects and applications such as multi-layer background substitutions. This new modality makes the production of real time mixed reality video possible, as well as post-production manipulation of recorded video. We address the problem of color spill -- in which the color of the foreground object is mixed, along its boundary, with the background color. This problem prevents an accurate separation of the foreground object from its background, and it is most visible when compositing the foreground objects to a new background. Most existing techniques are limited to the use of a constant background color. We offer a novel general approach to the problem with enabling the use of the natural background, based upon the D channel generated by the camera.

  4. Interaction of turbulence with flexible beams in fluidic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danesh Yazdi, Amir Hossein

    Advances in the development and fabrication of microelectronics have enhanced the energy efficiency of these devices to such an extent that they can now operate at very low power levels, typically on the order of a few microwatts or less. Batteries are primarily thought of as the most convenient source of power for electronic devices, but in instances where a device needs to be deployed in a difficult-to-access location such as under water, the added weight and especially maintenance of such a power source becomes costly. A solution that avoids this problem and is particularly attractive in a "deploy & forget" setting involves designing a device that continuously harvests energy from the surrounding environment. Piezoelectric energy harvesters, which employ the direct piezoelectric effect to convert mechanical strain into electrical energy, have garnered a great deal of attention in the literature. This work presents an overview of the experimental and analytical results related to fluidic energy extraction from vortex and turbulent flow using piezoelectric cantilever beams. In particular, the development of the FTGF (Fourier Transform-Green's Function) solution approach to the coupled, continuous electromechanical equations governing piezoelectric cantilever beams and the associated TFB (Train of Frozen Boxcars) method, which models the flow of vortices and turbulent eddies over the beams, is discussed. In addition, the behavior of fluidic energy harvesters in decaying isotropic, homogeneous grid turbulence generated by passive, semi-passive and active grids is examined and a novel grid-turbulence forcing model is introduced. An expression for the expected power output of the piezoelectric beam is obtained by utilizing this forcing function model in the single degree-of-freedom electromechanical equations. Furthermore, approximate, closed-form solutions to the theoretical expected power are derived from deterministic turbulence forcing models and are compared with

  5. Experimental Observation of Bohr’s Nonlinear Fluidic Surface Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Songky; Shin, Younghoon; Kwak, Hojeong; Yang, Juhee; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kim, Soyun; An, Kyungwon

    2016-01-01

    Niels Bohr in the early stage of his career developed a nonlinear theory of fluidic surface oscillation in order to study surface tension of liquids. His theory includes the nonlinear interaction between multipolar surface oscillation modes, surpassing the linear theory of Rayleigh and Lamb. It predicts a specific normalized magnitude of 0.416η2 for an octapolar component, nonlinearly induced by a quadrupolar one with a magnitude of η much less than unity. No experimental confirmation on this prediction has been reported. Nonetheless, accurate determination of multipolar components is important as in optical fiber spinning, film blowing and recently in optofluidic microcavities for ray and wave chaos studies and photonics applications. Here, we report experimental verification of his theory. By using optical forward diffraction, we measured the cross-sectional boundary profiles at extreme positions of a surface-oscillating liquid column ejected from a deformed microscopic orifice. We obtained a coefficient of 0.42 ± 0.08 consistently under various experimental conditions. We also measured the resonance mode spectrum of a two-dimensional cavity formed by the cross-sectional segment of the liquid jet. The observed spectra agree well with wave calculations assuming a coefficient of 0.414 ± 0.011. Our measurements establish the first experimental observation of Bohr’s hydrodynamic theory.

  6. Experimental Observation of Bohr’s Nonlinear Fluidic Surface Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Songky; Shin, Younghoon; Kwak, Hojeong; Yang, Juhee; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kim, Soyun; An, Kyungwon

    2016-01-01

    Niels Bohr in the early stage of his career developed a nonlinear theory of fluidic surface oscillation in order to study surface tension of liquids. His theory includes the nonlinear interaction between multipolar surface oscillation modes, surpassing the linear theory of Rayleigh and Lamb. It predicts a specific normalized magnitude of 0.416η2 for an octapolar component, nonlinearly induced by a quadrupolar one with a magnitude of η much less than unity. No experimental confirmation on this prediction has been reported. Nonetheless, accurate determination of multipolar components is important as in optical fiber spinning, film blowing and recently in optofluidic microcavities for ray and wave chaos studies and photonics applications. Here, we report experimental verification of his theory. By using optical forward diffraction, we measured the cross-sectional boundary profiles at extreme positions of a surface-oscillating liquid column ejected from a deformed microscopic orifice. We obtained a coefficient of 0.42 ± 0.08 consistently under various experimental conditions. We also measured the resonance mode spectrum of a two-dimensional cavity formed by the cross-sectional segment of the liquid jet. The observed spectra agree well with wave calculations assuming a coefficient of 0.414 ± 0.011. Our measurements establish the first experimental observation of Bohr’s hydrodynamic theory. PMID:26803911

  7. Liquid crystal thermometry for micro-fluidic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottebaum, Tait

    2009-11-01

    Liquid crystal thermometry has been implemented in a micro-channel and the performance of the technique quantified. Implementation of the technique is subject to constraints on imaging and illumination configurations similar to the constraints on micro-PIV. In addition, the proximity of the measurements to interfaces and surfaces from which light scatters leads to high noise levels that cannot be reduced by wavelength filtering (such as with fluorescent particles) because the temperature information is contained in the color of the particles. Therefore, circular polarization filtering is used, exploiting the circular dichroism of the thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC). Encapsulated TLC particles were flowed through the micro-channel and subjected to a series of uniform temperatures for calibration. To validate the technique, a temperature gradient was imposed with no flow. Finally, the technique was applied to micro-channel flow with an imposed wall temperature gradient in the flow direction. Liquid crystal thermometry can now be applied to a wide range of micro-fluidic applications.

  8. Fluidic delivery of homogeneous solutions through carbon tube bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikar, R.; Yarin, A. L.; Megaridis, C. M.

    2009-07-01

    A wide array of technological applications requires localized high-rate delivery of dissolved compounds (in particular, biological ones), which can be achieved by forcing the solutions or suspensions of such compounds through nano or microtubes and their bundled assemblies. Using a water-soluble compound, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 610 chloride, frequently used as a model drug release compound, it is shown that deposit buildup on the inner walls of the delivery channels and its adverse consequences pose a severe challenge to implementing pressure-driven long-term fluidic delivery through nano and microcapillaries, even in the case of such homogeneous solutions. Pressure-driven delivery (3-6 bar) of homogeneous dye solutions through macroscopically-long (~1 cm) carbon nano and microtubes with inner diameters in the range 100 nm-1 µm and their bundled parallel assemblies is studied experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the flow delivery gradually shifts from fast convection-dominated (unobstructed) to slow jammed convection, and ultimately to diffusion-limited transport through a porous deposit. The jamming/clogging phenomena appear to be rather generic: they were observed in a wide concentration range for two fluorescent dyes in carbon nano and microtubes, as well as in comparable transparent glass microcapillaries. The aim of the present work is to study the physics of jamming, rather than the chemical reasons for the affinity of dye molecules to the tube walls.

  9. More investigations in capillary fluidics using a drop tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollman, Andrew; Weislogel, Mark; Wiles, Brently; Pettit, Donald; Snyder, Trevor

    2016-04-01

    A variety of contemplative demonstrations concerning intermediate-to-large length scale capillary fluidic phenomena were made possible by the brief weightless environment of a drop tower (Wollman and Weislogel in Exp Fluids 54(4):1, 2013). In that work, capillarity-driven flows leading to unique spontaneous droplet ejections, bubble ingestions, and multiphase flows were introduced and discussed. Such efforts are continued herein. The spontaneous droplet ejection phenomena (auto-ejection) is reviewed and demonstrated on earth as well as aboard the International Space Station. This technique is then applied to novel low-g droplet combustion where soot tube structures are created in the wakes of burning drops. A variety of new tests are presented that routinely demonstrate `puddle jumping,' a process defined as the spontaneous recoil and ejection of large liquid drops from hydrophobic surfaces following the step reduction in `gravity' characteristic of most drop towers. The inverse problem of `bubble jumping' is also demonstrated for the case of hydrophilic surfaces. A variety of puddle jump demonstrations are presented in summary as a means of suggesting the further exploitation of drop towers to study such large length scale capillary phenomena.

  10. Experimental Observation of Bohr's Nonlinear Fluidic Surface Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Songky; Shin, Younghoon; Kwak, Hojeong; Yang, Juhee; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kim, Soyun; An, Kyungwon

    2016-01-01

    Niels Bohr in the early stage of his career developed a nonlinear theory of fluidic surface oscillation in order to study surface tension of liquids. His theory includes the nonlinear interaction between multipolar surface oscillation modes, surpassing the linear theory of Rayleigh and Lamb. It predicts a specific normalized magnitude of 0.416η(2) for an octapolar component, nonlinearly induced by a quadrupolar one with a magnitude of η much less than unity. No experimental confirmation on this prediction has been reported. Nonetheless, accurate determination of multipolar components is important as in optical fiber spinning, film blowing and recently in optofluidic microcavities for ray and wave chaos studies and photonics applications. Here, we report experimental verification of his theory. By using optical forward diffraction, we measured the cross-sectional boundary profiles at extreme positions of a surface-oscillating liquid column ejected from a deformed microscopic orifice. We obtained a coefficient of 0.42 ± 0.08 consistently under various experimental conditions. We also measured the resonance mode spectrum of a two-dimensional cavity formed by the cross-sectional segment of the liquid jet. The observed spectra agree well with wave calculations assuming a coefficient of 0.414 ± 0.011. Our measurements establish the first experimental observation of Bohr's hydrodynamic theory. PMID:26803911

  11. Stereo depth distortions in teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Vonsydow, Marika

    1988-01-01

    In teleoperation, a typical application of stereo vision is to view a work space located short distances (1 to 3m) in front of the cameras. The work presented here treats converged camera placement and studies the effects of intercamera distance, camera-to-object viewing distance, and focal length of the camera lenses on both stereo depth resolution and stereo depth distortion. While viewing the fronto-parallel plane 1.4 m in front of the cameras, depth errors are measured on the order of 2cm. A geometric analysis was made of the distortion of the fronto-parallel plane of divergence for stereo TV viewing. The results of the analysis were then verified experimentally. The objective was to determine the optimal camera configuration which gave high stereo depth resolution while minimizing stereo depth distortion. It is found that for converged cameras at a fixed camera-to-object viewing distance, larger intercamera distances allow higher depth resolutions, but cause greater depth distortions. Thus with larger intercamera distances, operators will make greater depth errors (because of the greater distortions), but will be more certain that they are not errors (because of the higher resolution).

  12. Bacterial adhesion force quantification by fluidic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthoff, Eva; Ossola, Dario; Zambelli, Tomaso; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2015-02-01

    Quantification of detachment forces between bacteria and substrates facilitates the understanding of the bacterial adhesion process that affects cell physiology and survival. Here, we present a method that allows for serial, single bacterial cell force spectroscopy by combining the force control of atomic force microscopy with microfluidics. Reversible bacterial cell immobilization under physiological conditions on the pyramidal tip of a microchanneled cantilever is achieved by underpressure. Using the fluidic force microscopy technology (FluidFM), we achieve immobilization forces greater than those of state-of-the-art cell-cantilever binding as demonstrated by the detachment of Escherichia coli from polydopamine with recorded forces between 4 and 8 nN for many cells. The contact time and setpoint dependence of the adhesion forces of E. coli and Streptococcus pyogenes, as well as the sequential detachment of bacteria out of a chain, are shown, revealing distinct force patterns in the detachment curves. This study demonstrates the potential of the FluidFM technology for quantitative bacterial adhesion measurements of cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions that are relevant in biofilms and infection biology.Quantification of detachment forces between bacteria and substrates facilitates the understanding of the bacterial adhesion process that affects cell physiology and survival. Here, we present a method that allows for serial, single bacterial cell force spectroscopy by combining the force control of atomic force microscopy with microfluidics. Reversible bacterial cell immobilization under physiological conditions on the pyramidal tip of a microchanneled cantilever is achieved by underpressure. Using the fluidic force microscopy technology (FluidFM), we achieve immobilization forces greater than those of state-of-the-art cell-cantilever binding as demonstrated by the detachment of Escherichia coli from polydopamine with recorded forces between 4 and 8 nN for many

  13. Fabrication of a Based Fluidic Chip Equipped with Porous Silicon Filter and Micro-Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, Duk-Soo; Kong, Dae-Young; Kong, Seong Ho; Choi, Pyung; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, a new design and fabrication method for a micro electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based micro-fluidic system that includes an articulated filter with micro-channel is proposed. An anodic reaction that involves chemical etching is used to produce a porous silicon (PS) layer to be applied to a micro-fluidic filter. The micro-fluidic filter is fabricated with vertical micro-pores by an anodic reaction process using a (110) wafer. Physical etching based on a micro-sandblaster process, and wet chemical etching using either tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) or hydrofluoric, nitric, and acetic (HNA) acid solution are applied to form the micro-channels that function as an essential factor in the micro-fluidic system. These independently-fabricated filter and channel wafers are bonded using a dry film resist (DFR). The characteristics of the filter fabricated on a (100) wafer are analyzed. Moreover, the functional performances of the channels formed by different methods are compared. The proposed micro-fluidic system with porous silicon micro-filters might be applied to bio-material reaction chambers, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chambers and DNA separation devices that require a filter.

  14. Manufacture of micro fluidic devices by laser welding using thermal transfer printing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Klein, K. F.; Tobisch, T.; Thoelken, D.; Belz, M.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-fluidic devices are widely used today in the areas of medical diagnostics and drug research, as well as for applications within the process, electronics and chemical industry. Microliters of fluids or single cell to cell interactions can be conveniently analyzed with such devices using fluorescence imaging, phase contrast microscopy or spectroscopic techniques. Typical micro-fluidic devices consist of a thermoplastic base component with chambers and channels covered by a hermetic fluid and gas tight sealed lid component. Both components are usually from the same or similar thermoplastic material. Different mechanical, adhesive or thermal joining processes can be used to assemble base component and lid. Today, laser beam welding shows the potential to become a novel manufacturing opportunity for midsize and large scale production of micro-fluidic devices resulting in excellent processing quality by localized heat input and low thermal stress to the device during processing. For laser welding, optical absorption of the resin and laser wavelength has to be matched for proper joining. This paper will focus on a new approach to prepare micro-fluidic channels in such devices using a thermal transfer printing process, where an optical absorbing layer absorbs the laser energy. Advantages of this process will be discussed in combination with laser welding of optical transparent micro-fluidic devices.

  15. Separation of Cells using a Fluidic MEMS Device and a Quantitative Analysis of Cell Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoda, Takaaki; Ishida, Yasuaki

    Fluidic micro electro mechanical system (fluidic MEMS) devices, composed of a micro pump, mixer, valve, reactor, sensor and an electric circuit on a chip, have been widely applied in biotechnology and medical analyses. This study describes the design and fabrication of a fluidic MEMS device that can separate living leukocyte cells from a single droplet of blood (< 1μl). The chip was constructed from two substrate materials sandwiched together to form a gap with an upper hydrophilic (glass) surface and a lower hydrophobic (acrylic resin) surface. A blood sample was flowed into the gap (40μm) between the two substrates driven by the difference in surface tension of the two materials. Leukocyte cells were left adhered to the lower hydrophobic surface, whereas red corpuscles flowed toward the exit of the fluidic MEMS device. The separation rate of the red corpuscles has been achieved to 91 ± 9% in a unit area of 0.1 mm2. Further, the change in an area of a living leukocyte cell separated in the chip, was quantitatively analyzed. This study proposes a method for separating and measuring living cells in a fluidic MEMS device.

  16. Fluidic origami cellular structure -- combining the plant nastic movements with paper folding art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K. W.

    2015-04-01

    By combining the physical principles behind the nastic plant movements and the rich designs of paper folding art, we propose a new class of multi-functional adaptive structure called fluidic origami cellular structure. The basic elements of this structure are fluid filled origami "cells", made by connecting two compatible Miura-Ori stripes along their crease lines. These cells are assembled seamlessly into a three dimensional topology, and their internal fluid pressure or volume are strategically controlled just like in plants for nastic movements. Because of the unique geometry of the Miura-Ori, the relationships among origami folding, internal fluid properties, and the crease bending are intricate and highly nonlinear. Fluidic origami can exploit such relationships to provide multiple adaptive functions concurrently and effectively. For example, it can achieve actuation or morphing by actively changing the internal fluid volume, and stillness tuning by constraining the fluid volume. Fluidic origami can also be bistable because of the nonlinear correlation between folding and crease material bending, and such bistable character can be altered significantly by fluid pressurization. These functions are natural and essential companions with respect to each other, so that fluidic origami can holistically exhibit many attractive characteristics of plants and deliver rapid and efficient actuation/morphing while maintaining a high structural stillness. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design and working principles of the fluidic origami, as well as to explore and demonstrate its performance potential.

  17. A superparamagnetic bead driven fluidic device (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husband, Benjamin; Melvin, Tracy; Evans, Alan G. R.

    2005-07-01

    Injection strategies have been employed in the field of fluidic MEMS using piezo electric or thermal actuators. A very popular application for such technology is inkjet printing. Largely this technology is used to produce droplets of fluid in air; the aim of this investigation is to produce an injection device for the precise dispensing of nanolitre volumes of fluid. A novel technique for dispensing fluid using superparamagnetic beads has been investigated. The beads used (Dynal Biotech) contain a homogeneous dispersion of Fe2O3, allowing for easy control with a magnet. This magnetic property is exploited, by a plug of approximately 60 000 beads within a micro channel. This is accomplished by applying a non-uniform magnetic field from a bullet magnet within close proximity of the bead plug. Once the plug is formed it can be moved along the micro channel by moving the magnet and thus, provide a plunger-like action. Previous work has demonstrated a bead plug device is able to dispense fluid from a micro channel at rates up to 7.2μlmin-1. This is an investigation using silicon and Pyrex fabricated micro channels with smaller dimensions, such that the dimensions will be similar to those which will be used to produce a pipette device. Here results are presented using these fabricated micro channels, where the effects of using differently sized bead plugs and varying velocities are examined. The results follow our proposed theory; further analysis is required to determine the operation of a bead plug during all states of movement.

  18. Experimental investigation of the noise reduction of supersonic exhaust jets with fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Russell William Walter

    The noise produced by the supersonic, high temperature jets that exhaust from military aircraft is becoming a hazard to naval personnel and a disturbance to communities near military bases. Methods to reduce the noise produced from these jets in a practical full-scale environment are difficult. The development and analysis of distributed nozzle blowing for the reduction of radiated noise from supersonic jets is described. Model scale experiments of jets that simulate the exhaust jets from typical low-bypass ratio military jet aircraft engines during takeoff are performed. Fluidic inserts are created that use distributed blowing in the divergent section of the nozzle to simulate mechanical, hardwall corrugations, while having the advantage of being an active control method. This research focuses on model scale experiments to better understand the fluidic insert noise reduction method. Distributed blowing within the divergent section of the military-style convergent divergent nozzle alters the shock structure of the jet in addition to creating streamwise vorticity for the reduction of mixing noise. Enhancements to the fluidic insert design have been performed along with experiments over a large number of injection parameters and core jet conditions. Primarily military-style round nozzles have been used, with preliminary measurements of hardwall corrugations and fluidic inserts in rectangular nozzle geometries also performed. It has been shown that the noise reduction of the fluidic inserts is most heavily dependent upon the momentum flux ratio between the injector and core jet. Maximum reductions of approximately 5.5 dB OASPL have been observed with practical mass flow rates and injection pressures. The first measurements with fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream have been performed. Optimal noise reduction occurs at similar injector parameters in the presence of forward flight. Fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream were

  19. Vortex fluidic entrapment of functional microalgal cells in a magnetic polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Ela; D'Alonzo, Nicholas J.; Smith, Steven M.; Raston, Colin L.

    2013-03-01

    Composite materials based on superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles embedded in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are generated in a continuous flow vortex fluidic device (VFD). The same device is effective in entrapping microalgal cells within this material, such that the functional cells can be retrieved from aqueous dispersions using an external magnet.Composite materials based on superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles embedded in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are generated in a continuous flow vortex fluidic device (VFD). The same device is effective in entrapping microalgal cells within this material, such that the functional cells can be retrieved from aqueous dispersions using an external magnet. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33813d

  20. Algebraic and numerical analysis of imaging properties of thin tunable-focus fluidic membrane lenses with parabolic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri; Novak, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    The theory of third-order aberrations for a system of rotationally symmetric thin tunable-focus fluidic membrane lenses with parabolic surfaces is described. A complex analysis of the third-order design of tunable fluidic lenses is performed considering all types of primary aberrations. Moreover, formulas are derived for the calculation of the change of aberration coefficients of the parabolic tunable fluidic membrane lens with respect to the wavelength. It is shown that spherical aberration of a simple tunable-focus fluidic membrane lens with parabolic surfaces can be corrected, which is not possible with a classical spherical lens. The presented analysis is explained on examples. Derived formulas make possible to calculate parameters of optical systems with fluidic membrane lenses with small residual aberrations. PMID:23545969

  1. Investigation of combustion control in a dump combustor using the feedback free fluidic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Eric J.

    The feedback free fluidic oscillator uses the unsteady nature of two colliding jets to create a single oscillating outlet jet with a wide sweep angle. These devices have the potential to provide additional combustion control, boundary layer control, thrust vectoring, and industrial flow deflection. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, CFD, was used to analyze the jet oscillation frequency over a range of operating conditions and to determine the effect that geometric changes in the oscillator design have on the frequency. Results presented illustrate the changes in jet oscillation frequency with gas type, gas temperature, operating pressure, pressure ratio across the oscillator, aspect ratio of the oscillator, and the frequency trends with various changes to the oscillator geometry. A fluidic oscillator was designed and integrated into single element rocket combustor with the goal of suppressing longitudinal combustion instabilities. An array of nine fluidic oscillators was tested to mimic modulated secondary oxidizer injection into the dump plane using 15% of the oxidizer flow. The combustor has a coaxial injector that uses gaseous methane and decomposed hydrogen peroxide at an O/F of 11.66. A sonic choke plate on an actuator arm allows for continuous adjustment of the oxidizer post acoustics for studying a variety of instability magnitudes. The fluidic oscillator unsteady outlet jet performance is compared with equivalent steady jet injection and a baseline design with no secondary oxidizer injection. At the most unstable operating conditions, the unsteady outlet jet saw a 60% reduction in the instability pressure oscillation magnitude when compared to the steady jet and baseline data. The results indicate open loop propellant modulation for combustion control can be achieved through fluidic devices that require no moving parts or electrical power to operate. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, 3-D CFD, was conducted to determine the

  2. Development of a Photo-Fluidic Control Valve without Mechanical Moving Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro

    An optical servo system is a new control system which can be used in hazardous environments; such as those with electromagnetic influence, radiation and so on. The purpose of our study is to develop such an optical control system. In our previous study, an optical servo valve in which the output differential pressure was proportional to input optical power had been developed. However, the dynamics of the valve depended on the time required to move the flapper membrane of a fluid booster amplifier using the lower flow rate from the photo-fluidic interface. In addition, the lifetime of the valve depends on that of the fluid booster amplifier that has mechanical moving parts. As a next step, we need to improve the dynamics and to get longer lifetime of the optical servo valve and try to develop another type of optical servo valve whose elements have no mechanical moving parts. In this paper, a photo-fluidic control valve which consists of the photo-fluidic interface and fluid amplifier only using fluidics is proposed. As a result, we found that the tested valve generated output differential pressure of + 80 kPa or -80 kPa according to applied optical power. By driving a pneumatic cylinder whose inner diameter is 16 mm with a stroke of 100 mm using the tested valve, we also confirmed that the tested valve has enough output fluid power to drive a small-sized pneumatic cylinder on the market.

  3. A Computational Study of a New Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational investigation of a two-dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. Several design cycles with the structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D and with experiments in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility have been completed to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. This paper presents computational results on potential design improvements for best experimental configuration tested to date. Nozzle design variables included cavity divergence angle, cavity convergence angle and upstream throat height. Pulsed fluidic injection was also investigated for its ability to decrease mass flow requirements. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 2 to 7, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to 3 percent of the primary flow rate. Computational results indicate that increasing cavity divergence angle beyond 10 is detrimental to thrust vectoring efficiency, while increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 improves thrust vectoring efficiency at nozzle pressure ratios greater than 2, albeit at the expense of discharge coefficient. Pulsed injection was no more efficient than steady injection for the Dual Throat Nozzle concept.

  4. Customizable 3D Printed ‘Plug and Play’ Millifluidic Devices for Programmable Fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Soichiro; Jaffery, Hussain; Doran, David; Hezwani, Mohammad; Robbins, Phillip J.; Yoshida, Mari; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is actively sought after in recent years as a promising novel technology to construct complex objects, which scope spans from nano- to over millimeter scale. Previously we utilized Fused deposition modeling (FDM)-based 3D printer to construct complex 3D chemical fluidic systems, and here we demonstrate the construction of 3D milli-fluidic structures for programmable liquid handling and control of biological samples. Basic fluidic operation devices, such as water-in-oil (W/O) droplet generators for producing compartmentalized mono-disperse droplets, sensor-integrated chamber for online monitoring of cellular growth, are presented. In addition, chemical surface treatment techniques are used to construct valve-based flow selector for liquid flow control and inter-connectable modular devices for networking fluidic parts. As such this work paves the way for complex operations, such as mixing, flow control, and monitoring of reaction / cell culture progress can be carried out by constructing both passive and active components in 3D printed structures, which designs can be shared online so that anyone with 3D printers can reproduce them by themselves. PMID:26558389

  5. Fluidic origami: a plant-inspired adaptive structure with shape morphing and stiffness tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K. W.

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by the physics behind the rapid plant movements and the rich topologies in origami folding, this research creates a unique class of multi-functional adaptive structure through exploring the innovation of fluidic origami. The idea is to connect multiple Miura folded sheets along their crease lines into a space-filling structure, and fill the tubular cells in-between with working fluids. The pressure and fluid flow in these cells can be strategically controlled much like in plants for nastic movements. The relationship between the internal fluid volume and the overall structure deformation is primarily determined by the kinematics of folding. This relationship can be exploited so that fluidic origami can achieve actuation/morphing by actively changing the internal fluid volume, and stiffness tuning by constraining the fluid volume. In order to characterize the working principles and performance potentials of these two adaptive functions, this research develops an equivalent truss frame model on a fluidic origami unit cell to analyze its fundamental elastic characteristics. Eigen-stiffness analysis based on this model reveals the primary modes of deformation and their relationships with initial folding configurations. Performances of the adaptive functions are correlated to the crease pattern design. In parallel to analytical studies, the feasibility of the morphing and stiffness tuning is also examined experimentally via a 3D printed multi-material prototype demonstrator. The research reported in this paper could lead to the synthesis of adaptive fluidic origami cellular metastructures or metamaterial systems for various engineering applications.

  6. Fluidic origami with embedded pressure dependent multi-stability: a plant inspired innovation.

    PubMed

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K W

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by the impulsive movements in plants, this research investigates the physics of a novel fluidic origami concept for its pressure-dependent multi-stability. In this innovation, fluid-filled tubular cells are synthesized by integrating different Miura-Ori sheets into a three-dimensional topological system, where the internal pressures are strategically controlled similar to the motor cells in plants. Fluidic origami incorporates two crucial physiological features observed in nature: one is distributed, pressurized cellular organization, and the other is embedded multi-stability. For a single fluidic origami cell, two stable folding configurations can coexist due to the nonlinear relationships among folding, crease material deformation and internal volume change. When multiple origami cells are integrated, additional multi-stability characteristics could occur via the interactions between pressurized cells. Changes in the fluid pressure can tailor the existence and shapes of these stable folding configurations. As a result, fluidic origami can switch between being mono-stable, bistable and multi-stable with pressure control, and provide a rapid 'snap-through' type of shape change based on the similar principles as in plants. The outcomes of this research could lead to the development of new adaptive materials or structures, and provide insights for future plant physiology studies at the cellular level. PMID:26400197

  7. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  8. Optimal Control of Airfoil Flow Separation using Fluidic Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrabi, Arireza F.

    This thesis deals with the control of flow separation around a symmetric airfoils with the aid of multiple synthetic jet actuators (SJAs). CFD simulation methods have been implemented to uncover the flow separation regimes and associated properties such as frequencies and momentum ratio. In the first part of the study, the SJA was studied thoroughly. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) were performed for one individual cavity; the time history of SJA of the outlet velocity profile and the net momentum imparted to the flow were analyzed. The studied SJA is asymmetrical and operates with the aid of a piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic circular plate actuator. A three-dimensional mesh for the computational domain of the SJA and the surrounding volume was developed and was used to evaluate the details of the airflow conditions inside the SJA as well as at the outlet. The vibration of the PZT ceramic actuator was used as a boundary condition in the computational model to drive the SJA. Particular attention was given to developing a predictive model of the SJA outlet velocity. Results showed that the SJA velocity output is correlated to the PZT ceramic plate vibration, especially for the first frequency mode. SJAs are a particular class of zero net mass flux (ZNMF) fluidic devices with net imparted momentum to the flow. The net momentum imparted to the flow in the separated region is such that positive enhancement during AFC operations is achieved. Flows around the NACA 0015 airfoil were simulated for a range of operating conditions. Attention was given to the active open and closed loop control solutions for an airfoil with SJA at different angles of attack and flap angles. A large number of simulations using RANS & LES models were performed to study the effects of the momentum ratio (Cμ) in the range of 0 to 11% and of the non-dimensional frequency, F+, in the range of 0 to 2 for the control of flow separation at a practical angle of attack and flap angle. The optimum value of C

  9. Development of high-rate electro-fluidic directed assembly of nanoelements on insulating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirman, Asli

    Directed assembly of nanoelements has been used to fabricate devices for diverse applications including electronics, energy and materials. The challenge in using such techniques consists of developing highly scalable, high-rate assembly techniques for precisely placing nanoelements. Two promising examples are template-directed fluidic assembly and electric field induced assembly. In template-directed fluidic assembly, the substrate is vertically dipped into a nanoelement solution and slowly withdrawn creating a capillary force at the air-liquid interface. The withdrawal speed of the substrate needs to be slow to achieve the necessary nanoelement concentration near the template. On the other hand, electric field induced assembly techniques are very fast and robust. In this technique, two electrodes are utilized to create an electric field to direct nanoelements to the assembly region. Thus, assembly inherently results on conducting surfaces. We enhanced the previously described techniques and developed a new nanomanufacturing method called electro-fluidic directed assembly, which places nanoelements on insulating surfaces in a very short time. The electro-fluidic directed assembly is conducted on an insulating layer by having a thin conductive film underneath. The conductive layer serves to create an electrophoretic force on the suspended nanoelements. The applied electric field attracts charged nanoelements toward the template and quickly replenishes the concentration in the assembly region as a consequence fast pulling speeds results in higher assembly efficiencies. In this study, governing parameters and important process kinetics, such as applied voltage and pH of the solution, were studied to establish a repeatable and robust assembly technique. A generalized assembly efficiency graph was obtained for different pulling speeds. We were also able to examine monolayer and multilayer assemblies with different geometries down to 100 nm scale. We have demonstrated

  10. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Mercedes; Paull, Brett

    2010-06-01

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed. PMID:20493286

  11. Numerical Simulation of a High-Lift Configuration with Embedded Fluidic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Casalino, Damiano; Lin, John C.; Appelbaum, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a vertical tail configuration with deflected rudder. The suction surface of the main element of this configuration is embedded with an array of 32 fluidic actuators that produce oscillating sweeping jets. Such oscillating jets have been found to be very effective for flow control applications in the past. In the current paper, a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code known as the PowerFLOW(Registered TradeMark) code is used to simulate the entire flow field associated with this configuration, including the flow inside the actuators. The computed results for the surface pressure and integrated forces compare favorably with measured data. In addition, numerical solutions predict the correct trends in forces with active flow control compared to the no control case. Effect of varying yaw and rudder deflection angles are also presented. In addition, computations have been performed at a higher Reynolds number to assess the performance of fluidic actuators at flight conditions.

  12. 3D-printed fluidic networks as vasculature for engineered tissue.

    PubMed

    Kinstlinger, Ian S; Miller, Jordan S

    2016-05-24

    Fabrication of vascular networks within engineered tissue remains one of the greatest challenges facing the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. Historically, the structural complexity of vascular networks has limited their fabrication in tissues engineered in vitro. Recently, however, key advances have been made in constructing fluidic networks within biomaterials, suggesting a strategy for fabricating the architecture of the vasculature. These techniques build on emerging technologies within the microfluidics community as well as on 3D printing. The freeform fabrication capabilities of 3D printing are allowing investigators to fabricate fluidic networks with complex architecture inside biomaterial matrices. In this review, we examine the most exciting 3D printing-based techniques in this area. We also discuss opportunities for using these techniques to address open questions in vascular biology and biophysics, as well as for engineering therapeutic tissue substitutes in vitro. PMID:27173478

  13. Numerical Studies of a Supersonic Fluidic Diverter Actuator for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis e.; Raghu, Surya

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the internal flow structure and performance of a specific fluidic diverter actuator, previously studied by time-dependent numerical computations for subsonic flow, is extended to include operation with supersonic actuator exit velocities. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted and the calculated oscillation frequencies with respect to flow rate have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements. The oscillation frequency increases with Mach number, but its dependence on flow rate changes from subsonic to transonic to supersonic regimes. The delay time for the initiation of oscillations depends on the flow rate and the acoustic speed in the gaseous medium for subsonic flow, but is unaffected by the flow rate for supersonic conditions

  14. On the Stable-Oscillation Domain of a Simple Fluidic Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Katsuya; Matoba, Noriyoshi; Naruse, Takatoshi; Haneda, Yoko; Funaki, Jiro

    A confined jet sometimes causes a self-exited oscillation due to the existence of a downstream target. In this work, the authors study this phenomenon. More specifically, the authors deal with a simple fluidic oscillator; namely, a two-dimensional confined jet into an abruptly-expanding channel with a downstream target of a square cylinder. The authors conduct the velocity measurements by an UVP (ultrasonic velocity profiler). Besides, the flow patterns in the fluidic oscillator are observed by a PIV (particle image velocimetry). As a result, the authors reveal the geometrical effects upon the range of stable jet's oscillation, such as the aspect-ratio effect, the channel-breadth effect, the cylinder-size effect and the cylinder-distance effect, together with the Re effect.

  15. Wind tunnel tests of the dynamic characteristics of the fluidic rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fourth phase is given of a continuing program to develop the means to stabilize and control aircraft without moving parts or a separate source of power. Previous phases have demonstrated the feasibility of (1) generating adequate control forces on a standard airfoil, (2) controlling those forces with a fluidic amplifier and (3) cascading non-vented fluidic amplifiers operating on ram air supply pressure. The foremost objectives of the fourth phase covered under Part I of this report were to demonstrate a complete force-control system in a wind tunnel environment and to measure its static and dynamic control characteristics. Secondary objectives, covered under Part II, were to evaluate alternate configurations for lift control. The results demonstrate an overall response time of 150 msec, confirming this technology as a viable means for implementing low-cost reliable flight control systems.

  16. PAB3D Simulations of a Nozzle with Fluidic Injection for Yaw Thrust-Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental and computational study was conducted on an exhaust nozzle with fluidic injection for yaw thrust-vector control. The nozzle concept was tested experimentally in the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility (JETF) at nozzle pressure ratios up to 4 and secondary fluidic injection flow rates up to 15 percent of the primary flow rate. Although many injection-port geometries and two nozzle planforms (symmetric and asymmetric) were tested experimentally, this paper focuses on the computational results of the more successful asymmetric planform with a slot injection port. This nozzle concept was simulated with the Navier-Stokes flow solver, PAB3D, invoking the Shih, Zhu, and Lumley algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model (ASM) at nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) of 2,3, and 4 with secondary to primary injection flow rates (w(sub s)/w(sub p)) of 0, 2, 7 and 10 percent.

  17. Use of fluidic oscillator to measure fuel-air ratios of combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator was investigated for use in measuring fuel-air ratios in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The oscillator was operated with dry exhaust gas from an experimental combustor burning ASTM A-1 fuel. Tests were conducted with fuel-air ratios between 0.015 and 0.031. Fuel-air ratios determined by oscillator frequency were within 0.001 of the values computed from separate flow measurements of the air and fuel.

  18. Automation of Column-based Radiochemical Separations: A Comparison of Fluidic, Robotic, and Hybrid Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Farawila, Anne F.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Owsley, Stanley L.

    2011-09-26

    Two automated systems have been developed to perform column-based radiochemical separation procedures. These new systems are compared with past fluidic column separation architectures, with emphasis on setting up samples and columns in parallel, and using disposable components so that no sample contacts any surface that any other sample has contacted. In the first new approach, a general purpose liquid handling robot has been modified and programmed to perform anion exchange separations using 2 mL column bed columns in 6 mL plastic disposable column bodies. In the second new approach, a fluidic system has been developed to deliver clean reagents through disposable manual valves to six disposable columns, with a mechanized fraction collector that positions four rows of six vials below the columns. The samples are delivered to the columns via a manual 3-port valve from disposable syringes. This second approach, a hybrid of fluidic and mechanized components, is simpler and faster in performing anion exchange procedures for the recovery and purification of plutonium from samples.

  19. Analysis of single nucleic acid molecules in micro- and nano-fluidics.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Sarah M; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2016-03-01

    Nucleic acid analysis has enhanced our understanding of biological processes and disease progression, elucidated the association of genetic variants and disease, and led to the design and implementation of new treatment strategies. These diverse applications require analysis of a variety of characteristics of nucleic acid molecules: size or length, detection or quantification of specific sequences, mapping of the general sequence structure, full sequence identification, analysis of epigenetic modifications, and observation of interactions between nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Strategies that can detect rare or transient species, characterize population distributions, and analyze small sample volumes enable the collection of richer data from biosamples. Platforms that integrate micro- and nano-fluidic operations with high sensitivity single molecule detection facilitate manipulation and detection of individual nucleic acid molecules. In this review, we will highlight important milestones and recent advances in single molecule nucleic acid analysis in micro- and nano-fluidic platforms. We focus on assessment modalities for single nucleic acid molecules and highlight the role of micro- and nano-structures and fluidic manipulation. We will also briefly discuss future directions and the current limitations and obstacles impeding even faster progress toward these goals. PMID:26818700

  20. Fluidic control of wake-flow behind a two-dimensional square back bluff body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaligné, Sébastien; Castelain, Thomas; Michard, Marc; Chacaton, Damien; Juvé, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This experimental study deals with wake-flow fluidic control behind a two-dimensional square back geometry positioned close to the ground. The fluidic control system is made of pulsed jets positioned at the upper edge of the model base. The objective of the fluidic action is to modify the wake-flow development, and as a consequence the static pressure distribution over the model base and hence the pressure drag. The main concern of this study is to determine to what extent the presence of a flow confined between the model and the floor influences the effectiveness of the control. Static pressure measurements at the model base and wake-flow characteristics derived from PIV measurements at a high acquisition frequency indicate global similarities between a case where an underbody flow exists and a case where this underbody flow is absent. For low actuation frequencies, discrepancies in the way the coherent structures due to the control develop in the shear layer appear. xml:lang="fr"

  1. Laser-induced photo-polymerisation for creation of paper-based fluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Sones, C L; Katis, I N; He, P J W; Mills, B; Namiq, M F; Shardlow, P; Ibsen, M; Eason, R W

    2014-12-01

    Paper-based microfluidics is a rapidly progressing inter-disciplinary technology driven by the need for low-cost alternatives to conventional point-of-care diagnostic tools. For transport of reagents/analytes, such devices often consist of interconnected hydrophilic fluid-flow channels that are demarcated by hydrophobic barrier walls that extend through the thickness of the paper. Here, we present a laser-based fabrication procedure that uses polymerisation of a photopolymer to produce the required fluidic channels in paper. Experimental results showed that the structures successfully guide the flow of fluids and allow containment of fluids in wells, and hence the technique is suitable for fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices. The minimum width for the hydrophobic barriers that successfully prevented fluid leakage was ~120 μm and the minimum width for the fluidic channels that can be formed was ~80 μm, the smallest reported so far for paper-based fluidic patterns. PMID:25286149

  2. Improving acoustic streaming effects in fluidic systems by matching SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane layers.

    PubMed

    Catarino, S O; Minas, G; Miranda, J M

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the use of acoustic waves for promoting and improving streaming in tridimensional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cuvettes of 15mm width×14mm height×2.5mm thickness. The acoustic waves are generated by a 28μm thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) - PVDF - piezoelectric transducer in its β phase, actuated at its resonance frequency: 40MHz. The acoustic transmission properties of two materials - SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - were numerically compared. It was concluded that PDMS inhibits, while SU-8 allows, the transmission of the acoustic waves to the propagation medium. Therefore, by simulating the acoustic transmission properties of different materials, it is possible to preview the acoustic behavior in the fluidic system, which allows the optimization of the best layout design, saving costs and time. This work also presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results of acoustic streaming obtained with that β-PVDF transducer in the movement and in the formation of fluid recirculation in tridimensional closed domains. Differences between the numerical and experimental results are credited to the high sensitivity of acoustic streaming to the experimental conditions and to limitations of the numerical method. The reported study contributes for the improvement of simulation models that can be extremely useful for predicting the acoustic effects of new materials in fluidic devices, as well as for optimizing the transducers and matching layers positioning in a fluidic structure. PMID:27044029

  3. Dissolvable fluidic time delays for programming multi-step assays in instrument-free paper diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Barry; Liang, Tinny; Fu, Elain; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Kauffman, Peter; Yager, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Lateral flow tests (LFTs) are an ingenious format for rapid and easy-to-use diagnostics, but they are fundamentally limited to assay chemistries that can be reduced to a single chemical step. In contrast, most laboratory diagnostic assays rely on multiple timed steps carried out by a human or a machine. Here, we use dissolvable sugar applied to paper to create programmable flow delays and present a paper network topology that uses these time delays to program automated multi-step fluidic protocols. Solutions of sucrose at different concentrations (10-70% of saturation) were added to paper strips and dried to create fluidic time delays spanning minutes to nearly an hour. A simple folding card format employing sugar delays was shown to automate a four-step fluidic process initiated by a single user activation step (folding the card); this device was used to perform a signal-amplified sandwich immunoassay for a diagnostic biomarker for malaria. The cards are capable of automating multi-step assay protocols normally used in laboratories, but in a rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-use format. PMID:23685876

  4. [Advantages of fixed combinations].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2008-07-01

    Fixed combinations are indicated in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension when monotherapy does not sufficiently reduce IOP. Fixed combinations show better efficacy than the instillation of each separate component and are at least equivalent to the administration of both components in a separate association. They simplify treatment, increase compliance and quality of life, and decrease exposure to preservatives. Although they are less aggressive for patients when a new drug needs to be added, the use of fixed combinations should not decrease the follow-up. PMID:18957922

  5. Open and closed-loop control of transonic buffet on 3D turbulent wings using fluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandois, Julien; Lepage, Arnaud; Dor, Jean-Bernard; Molton, Pascal; Ternoy, Frédéric; Geeraert, Arnaud; Brunet, Vincent; Coustols, Éric

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the work performed recently at ONERA on the control of the buffet phenomenon. This aerodynamic instability induces strong wall pressure fluctuations and as such limits aircraft envelope; consequently, it is interesting to try to delay its onset, in order to enlarge aircraft flight envelop, but also to provide more flexibility during the design phase. Several types of flow control have been investigated, either passive (mechanical vortex generators) or active (fluidic VGs, fluidic trailing-edge device (TED)). It is shown than mechanical and fluidic VGs are able to delay buffet onset in the angle-of-attack domain by suppressing the separation downstream of the shock. The effect of the fluidic TED is different, the separation is not suppressed, but the rear wing loading is increased and consequently the buffet onset is not delayed to higher angles of attack, but only to higher lift coefficient. Then, a closed loop control methodology based on a quasi-static approach is defined and several architectures are tested for various parameters such as the input signal, the objective function or, the tuning of the feedback gain. All closed loop methods are implemented on a dSPACE device calculating in real time the fluidic actuators command from the unsteady pressure sensors data.

  6. Design Enhancements of the Two-Dimensional, Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2006-01-01

    A Dual Throat Nozzle fluidic thrust vectoring technique that achieves higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without sacrificing thrust efficiency has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concept was designed with the aid of the structured-grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluidic dynamics code PAB3D. This new concept combines the thrust efficiency of sonic-plane skewing with increased thrust-vectoring efficiencies obtained by maximizing pressure differentials in a separated cavity located downstream of the nozzle throat. By injecting secondary flow asymmetrically at the upstream minimum area, a new aerodynamic minimum area is formed downstream of the geometric minimum and the sonic line is skewed, thus vectoring the exhaust flow. The nozzle was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal nozzle performance characteristics were defined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10, with a range of secondary injection flow rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. Most of the data included in this paper shows the effect of secondary injection rate at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4. The effects of modifying cavity divergence angle, convergence angle and cavity shape on internal nozzle performance were investigated, as were effects of injection geometry, hole or slot. In agreement with computationally predicted data, experimental data verified that decreasing cavity divergence angle had a negative impact and increasing cavity convergence angle had a positive impact on thrust vector angle and thrust efficiency. A curved cavity apex provided improved thrust ratios at some injection rates. However, overall nozzle performance suffered with no secondary injection. Injection holes were more efficient than the injection slot over the range of injection rates, but the slot generated larger thrust vector angles for injection rates less than 4 percent of the primary flow rate.

  7. Fixing Dataset Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  8. Future Fixed Target Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Melnitchouk, Wolodymyr

    2009-01-01

    We review plans for future fixed target lepton- and hadron-scattering facilities, including the 12 GeV upgraded CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab, neutrino beam facilities at Fermilab, and the antiproton PANDA facility at FAIR. We also briefly review recent theoretical developments which will aid in the interpretation of the data expected from these facilities.

  9. Oxygen depth profiling with subnanometre depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmata, Marcel; Munnik, Frans; Hanf, Daniel; Grötzschel, Rainer; Crocoll, Sonja; Möller, Wolfhard

    2014-10-01

    A High-depth Resolution Elastic Recoil Detection (HR-ERD) set-up using a magnetic spectrometer has been taken into operation at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for the first time. This instrument allows the investigation of light elements in ultra-thin layers and their interfaces with a depth resolution of less than 1 nm near the surface. As the depth resolution is highly influenced by the experimental measurement parameters, sophisticated optimisation procedures have been implemented. Effects of surface roughness and sample damage caused by high fluences need to be quantified for each kind of material. Also corrections are essential for non-equilibrium charge state distributions that exist very close to the surface. Using the example of a high-k multilayer SiO2/Si3N4Ox/SiO2/Si it is demonstrated that oxygen in ultra-thin films of a few nanometres thickness can be investigated by HR-ERD.

  10. Experimental design studies and flow visualization of proportional laminar-flow fluidic amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Mcdermon, J. N.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of certain parameter variations on the performance characteristics of laminar, proportional, jet-deflection fluidic amplifiers were studied. The matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high pressure gain was included, but dynamic effects were not. The parameter variations considered were aspect ratio, setback, control length, splitter distance, receiver-duct width, width of center-vent duct, and bias pressure. Usable pressure gains of 19 per stage were achieved, and 5 amplifier stages were integrated to yield an overall pressure gain of 2,000,000.

  11. Fluidic harvesters in free stream turbulence undergoing flow-induced vibrations or flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Joan; Azadeh Ranjbar, Vahid; Goushcha, Oleg; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Elvin, Niell

    2015-11-01

    In the present experimental work we investigated the performance of fluidic harvesters consisting of cylindrical body mounted of the tip of a flexible beam in the presence of nearly homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. Circular, semi-circular and square shapes have been tested. It was found that turbulence interferes with resonance conditions between the flow and the structure in the case of vortex induced vibrations and has absolutely no effect in flutter dominated case. As a result, turbulence increases the power output of non-linear harvesters subjected to vortex induces vibration and it has no effect in harvester under flutter conditions. Supported by NSF Grant: CBET #1033117.

  12. Picosecond Laser Machining of Metallic and Polymer Substrates for Fluidic Driven Self-Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, G. R. B. E.; Cerro, D. Arnaldo Del; Pohl, R.; Chang, B.; Liimatainen, V.; Zhou, Q.; Veld, A. J. Huis In `t.

    Fluidic self-alignment of micro-components relies on creating a receptor site that is able to confine a liquid droplet. When a micro-component is brought in contact with the droplet, capillary forces move the component to its final position. A method to stop the advancing of a liquid from a receptor site, consists of creating geometrical features, such as edges around the site. A picosecond pulsed laser source was used to create suitable edges in a metallic and a polyimide substrate. Subsequently, the self-alignment capabilities of these sites were tested. The receptor sites in polyimide showed the highest success rate.

  13. Development and fluidic simulation of microneedles for painless pathological interfacing with living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the development and fluidic analysis of microneedles integrated with painless blood extraction systems that aim to mimic the female mosquito's blood sampling techniques in certain respects. The microneedles are fabricated by employing the sputtering deposition method. A fluid mechanical analysis is presented toward predicting the transport mechanisms inside the microneedle as dynamically evolving consequences of the resistive forces and the aiding surface tension influences. The theoretical predictions are comprehensively compared to experimental data, and excellent agreements are found for all cases.

  14. Contactless automated manipulation of mesoscale objects using opto-fluidic actuation and visual servoing.

    PubMed

    Vela, Emir; Hafez, Moustapha; Régnier, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    This work describes an automated opto-fluidic system for parallel non-contact manipulation of microcomponents. The strong dynamics of laser-driven thermocapillary flows were used to drag microcomponents at high speeds. High-speed flows allowed to manipulate micro-objects in a parallel manner only using a single laser and a mirror scanner. An automated process was implemented using visual servoing with a high-speed camera in order to achieve accurately parallel manipulation. Automated manipulation of two glass beads of 30 up to 300 μm in diameter moving in parallel at speeds in the range of mm/s was demonstrated. PMID:24880415

  15. A fluidic device for measuring constituent masses of a flowing binary gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    A continuous reading mass flow device was developed to measure the component flow of a binary gas mixture. The basic components of the device are a fluidic humidity sensor and a specially designed flow calorimeter. These components provide readings of gas mixture ratio, mixture heat capacity, heat dissipated by the calorimeter and the gas temperature rise across the calorimeter. These parameter values, applied in the general definitions of specific heat capacity and the heat capacity of a gas mixture, produce calculated component flow rates of the mixture being metered. A test program was conducted to evaluate both the steady state and dynamic performance of the device.

  16. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Dae Jin; Seo, Tae Il; Park, Dong Sam

    2008-01-01

    For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a pre-process, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels.

  17. The Effects of Fluidic Loading on Underwater Contact Sensing with Robotic Fins and Beams.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jeff C; Tangorra, James L

    2016-01-01

    As robots become more involved in underwater operations, understanding underwater contact sensing with compliant systems is fundamental to engineering useful haptic interfaces and vehicles. Despite knowledge of contact sensation in air, little is known about contact sensing underwater and the impact of fluid on both the robotic probe and the target object. The objective of this work is to understand the effects of fluidic loading, fin webbing, and target object geometry on strain sensation within compliant robotic fins and beams during obstacle contact. General descriptions of obstacle contact were sought for strain measurements in fins and beams. Multiple phases of contact were characterized where the robot, fluid, and object interact to affect sensory signals. Unlike in air, the underwater structure-fluid-structure interaction (SFSI) caused changes to strain in each phase of contact. The addition of webbing to beams created a mechanical coupling between adjacent beams, which changed contact strains. Complex obstacle geometries tended to make contact less apparent and caused stretch in fins. This work demonstrates several effects of fluidic loading on strain sensing with compliant robotic beams and fins as they contact obstacles in air and underwater, and provides guidance for future work in underwater active sensing with compliant manipulators. PMID:26441453

  18. Demonstration of fluidic pulse jet mixing for a horizontal waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.; Stellern, J.L.; Billingsley, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    A fluidic pulse jet mixing system, designed and fabricated by AEA Technology of the United Kingdom, was successfully demonstrated for mobilization and retrieval of remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) sludge from a 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The pulse jet system, consisting of seven modular equipment skids, was installed and commissioned in about 7 weeks and operated remotely for 52 days to remove about 88% of the sludge in the tank. The system used specially designed fluidic jet pumps and pulse vessels, along with existing submerged nozzles for mixing the settled sludges with existing supernate in the tank. The operation also used existing piping and progressive cavity pumps for retrieval and transfer of the mixture. A total of 64,000 gal of liquid was required to transfer 6300 gal of sludge to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) designated for consolidation of all ORNL RH-TRU sludges. Of the liquid used for the retrieval, 88% was existing or recycled tank supernate and only 7770 gal of additional process water was added to the system. Minimizing the addition of process water is extremely important at ORNL, where tank system storage capacity is limited. A simple manual sluicer was used periodically to wash down and aid the removal of localized sludge heels.

  19. Computational Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for a Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    A computational investigation of an axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept has been conducted. This fluidic thrust-vectoring nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting technique for improved thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver PAB3D was used to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. Nozzle design variables included extent of circumferential injection, cavity divergence angle, cavity length, and cavity convergence angle. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.89 to 10, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to zero and up to 4 percent of the primary flow rate. The effect of a variable expansion ratio on nozzle performance over a range of freestream Mach numbers up to 2 was investigated. Results indicated that a 60 circumferential injection was a good compromise between large thrust vector angles and efficient internal nozzle performance. A cavity divergence angle greater than 10 was detrimental to thrust vector angle. Shortening the cavity length improved internal nozzle performance with a small penalty to thrust vector angle. Contrary to expectations, a variable expansion ratio did not improve thrust efficiency at the flight conditions investigated.

  20. Proton beam writing of long, arbitrary structures for micro/nano photonics and fluidics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalagama, Chammika; Teo, E. J.; Chan, S. F.; Kumar, V. S.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.

    2011-10-01

    The last decade has seen proton beam writing maturing into a versatile lithographic technique able to produce sub-100 nm, high aspect ratio structures with smooth side walls. However, many applications in the fields of photonics and fluidics require the fabrication of structures with high spatial resolution that extends over several centimetres. This cannot be achieved by purely magnetic or electrostatic beam scanning due to the large off-axis beam aberrations in high demagnification systems. As a result, this has limited us to producing long straight structures using a combination of beam and stage scanning. In this work we have: (1) developed an algorithm to include any arbitrary pattern into the writing process by using a more versatile combination of beam and stage scanning while (2) incorporating the use of the ubiquitous AutoCAD DXF (drawing exchange format) into the design process. We demonstrate the capability of this approach in fabricating structures such as Y-splitters, Mach-Zehnder modulators and microfluidic channels that are over several centimetres in length, in polymer. We also present optimisation of such parameters as scanning speed and scanning loops to improve on the surface roughness of the structures. This work opens up new possibilities of using CAD software in PBW for microphotonics and fluidics device fabrication.

  1. Characterization of a tunable astigmatic fluidic lens with adaptive optics correction for compact phoropter application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Huang, Chieh-Tse

    2014-07-01

    Fluidically controlled lenses which adaptively correct prescribed refractive error without mechanically moving parts are extensively applied in the ophthalmic applications. Capable of variable-focusing properties, however, the associated aberrations due to curvature change and refractive index mismatch can inherently degrade image quality severely. Here we present the experimental study of the aberrations in tunable astigmatic lens and use of adaptive optics to compensate for the wavefront errors. Characterization of the optical properties of the individual lenses is carried out by Shack-Hartmann measurements. An adaptive optics (AO) based scheme is demonstrated for three injected fluidic volumes, resulting in a substantial reduction of the wavefront errors from -0.12, -0.25, -0.32 to 0.01, -0.01, -0.20 μm, respectively, corresponding to the optical power tenability of 0.83 to 1.84 D. Furthermore, an integrated optical phoroptor consisting of adjustable astigmatic lenses and AO correction is demonstrated such that an induced refraction error of -1 D cylinder at 180° of a model eye vision is experimentally corrected.

  2. Autonomous Soft Robotic Fish Capable of Escape Maneuvers Using Fluidic Elastomer Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Onal, Cagdas D.; Rus, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this work we describe an autonomous soft-bodied robot that is both self-contained and capable of rapid, continuum-body motion. We detail the design, modeling, fabrication, and control of the soft fish, focusing on enabling the robot to perform rapid escape responses. The robot employs a compliant body with embedded actuators emulating the slender anatomical form of a fish. In addition, the robot has a novel fluidic actuation system that drives body motion and has all the subsystems of a traditional robot onboard: power, actuation, processing, and control. At the core of the fish's soft body is an array of fluidic elastomer actuators. We design the fish to emulate escape responses in addition to forward swimming because such maneuvers require rapid body accelerations and continuum-body motion. These maneuvers showcase the performance capabilities of this self-contained robot. The kinematics and controllability of the robot during simulated escape response maneuvers are analyzed and compared with studies on biological fish. We show that during escape responses, the soft-bodied robot has similar input–output relationships to those observed in biological fish. The major implication of this work is that we show soft robots can be both self-contained and capable of rapid body motion.

  3. The smart Peano fluidic muscle: a low profile flexible orthosis actuator that feels pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, Allan J.; Anderson, Iain A.; Xie, Shane Q.

    2015-03-01

    Robotic orthoses have the potential to provide effective rehabilitation while overcoming the availability and cost constraints of therapists. These orthoses must be characterized by the naturally safe, reliable, and controlled motion of a human therapist's muscles. Such characteristics are only possible in the natural kingdom through the pain sensing realized by the interaction of an intelligent nervous system and muscles' embedded sensing organs. McKibben fluidic muscles or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) are a popular orthosis actuator because of their inherent compliance, high force, and muscle-like load-displacement characteristics. However, the circular cross-section of PMA increases their profile. PMA are also notoriously unreliable and difficult to control, lacking the intelligent pain sensing systems of their biological muscle counterparts. Here the Peano fluidic muscle, a new low profile yet high-force soft actuator is introduced. This muscle is smart, featuring bioinspired embedded pressure and soft capacitive strain sensors. Given this pressure and strain feedback, experimental validation shows that a lumped parameter model based on the muscle geometry and material parameters can be used to predict its force for quasistatic motion with an average error of 10 - 15N. Combining this with a force threshold pain sensing algorithm sets a precedent for flexible orthosis actuation that uses embedded sensors to prevent damage to the actuator and its environment.

  4. Ionogel-based light-actuated valves for controlling liquid flow in micro-fluidic manifolds.

    PubMed

    Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Byrne, Robert; Răduţă, Ana Maria; Vrana, Nihal Engin; McGuinness, Garrett; Diamond, Dermot

    2010-01-21

    We present the fabrication, characterisation and performance of four novel ionic liquid polymer gels (ionogels) as photo-actuated valves incorporated into micro-fluidic manifolds. The ionogels incorporate benzospiropyran units and phosphonium-based ionic liquids. Each ionogel is photo-polymerised in situ in the channels of a poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-fluidic device, generating a manifold incorporating four different micro-valves. The valves are actuated by simply applying localised white light irradiation, meaning that no physical contact between the actuation impulse (light) and the valve structure is required. Through variation of the composition of the ionogels, each of the micro-valves can be tuned to open at different times under similar illumination conditions. Therefore, flows through the manifold can be independently controlled by a single light source. At present, the contraction process to open the channel is relatively rapid (seconds) while the recovery (expansion) process to re-close the channel is relatively slow (minutes), meaning that the valve, in its current form, is better suited for single-actuation events. PMID:20066247

  5. High-throughput metabolic genotoxicity screening with a fluidic microwell chip and electrochemiluminescence†

    PubMed Central

    Wasalathanthri, Dhanuka P.; Malla, Spundana; Bist, Itti; Tang, Chi K.; Faria, Ronaldo C.; Rusling, James F.

    2014-01-01

    A high throughput electrochemiluminescent (ECL) chip was fabricated and integrated into a fluidic system for screening toxicity-related chemistry of drug and pollutant metabolites. The chip base is conductive pyrolytic graphite onto which are printed 64 microwells capable of holding one-µL droplets. Films combining DNA, metabolic enzymes and an ECL-generating ruthenium metallopolymer (RuIIPVP) are fabricated in these microwells. The system runs metabolic enzyme reactions, and subsequently detects DNA damage caused by reactive metabolites. The performance of the chip was tested by measuring DNA damage caused by metabolites of the well-known procarcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (cyt P450) enzymes were used with and without epoxide hydrolase (EH), a conjugative enzyme required for multi-enzyme bioactivation of B[a]P. DNA adduct formation was confirmed by determining specific DNA-metabolite adducts using similar films of DNA/enzyme on magnetic bead biocolloid reactors, hydrolyzing the DNA, and analyzing by capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CapLC-MS/MS). The fluidic chip was also used to measure IC50-values of inhibitors of cyt P450s. All results show good correlation with reported enzyme activity and inhibition assays. PMID:24113555

  6. Turbulent Deflagrated Flame Interaction with a Fluidic Jet Flow for Deflagration-to-Detonation Flame Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Jessica; McGarry, Joseph; Ahmed, Kareem

    2015-11-01

    Detonation is a high energetic mode of pressure gain combustion. Detonation combustion exploits the pressure rise to augment high flow momentum and thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. The driving mechanism of deflagrated flame acceleration to detonation is turbulence generation and induction. A fluidic jet is an innovative method for the production of turbulence intensities and flame acceleration. Compared to traditional obstacles, the jet reduces the pressure losses and heat soak effects while providing turbulence generation control. The investigation characterizes the turbulent flame-flow interactions. The focus of the study is on classifying the turbulent flame dynamics and the temporal evolution of turbulent flame regime. The turbulent flame-flow interactions are experimentally studied using a LEGO Detonation facility. Advanced high-speed laser diagnostics, particle image velocimetry (PIV), planar laser induced florescence (PLIF), and Schlieren imaging are used in analyzing the physics of the interaction and flame acceleration. Higher turbulence induction is observed within the turbulent flame after contact with the jet, leading to increased flame burning rates. The interaction with the fluidic jet results in turbulent flame transition from the thin reaction zones to the broken reaction regime.

  7. Evaluating methods for controlling depth perception in stereoscopic cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Geng; Holliman, Nick

    2009-02-01

    Existing stereoscopic imaging algorithms can create static stereoscopic images with perceived depth control function to ensure a compelling 3D viewing experience without visual discomfort. However, current algorithms do not normally support standard Cinematic Storytelling techniques. These techniques, such as object movement, camera motion, and zooming, can result in dynamic scene depth change within and between a series of frames (shots) in stereoscopic cinematography. In this study, we empirically evaluate the following three types of stereoscopic imaging approaches that aim to address this problem. (1) Real-Eye Configuration: set camera separation equal to the nominal human eye interpupillary distance. The perceived depth on the display is identical to the scene depth without any distortion. (2) Mapping Algorithm: map the scene depth to a predefined range on the display to avoid excessive perceived depth. A new method that dynamically adjusts the depth mapping from scene space to display space is presented in addition to an existing fixed depth mapping method. (3) Depth of Field Simulation: apply Depth of Field (DOF) blur effect to stereoscopic images. Only objects that are inside the DOF are viewed in full sharpness. Objects that are far away from the focus plane are blurred. We performed a human-based trial using the ITU-R BT.500-11 Recommendation to compare the depth quality of stereoscopic video sequences generated by the above-mentioned imaging methods. Our results indicate that viewers' practical 3D viewing volumes are different for individual stereoscopic displays and viewers can cope with much larger perceived depth range in viewing stereoscopic cinematography in comparison to static stereoscopic images. Our new dynamic depth mapping method does have an advantage over the fixed depth mapping method in controlling stereo depth perception. The DOF blur effect does not provide the expected improvement for perceived depth quality control in 3D cinematography

  8. Deep depth undex simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, R. R.; Malakhoff, A.

    1985-01-29

    A deep depth underwater simulator is illustrated for determining the dual effects of nuclear type underwater explosion shockwaves and hydrostatic pressures on a test vessel while simulating, hydrostatically, that the test vessel is located at deep depths. The test vessel is positioned within a specially designed pressure vessel followed by pressurizing a fluid contained between the test and pressure vessels. The pressure vessel, with the test vessel suspended therein, is then placed in a body of water at a relatively shallow depth, and an explosive charge is detonated at a predetermined distance from the pressure vessel. The resulting shockwave is transmitted through the pressure vessel wall so that the shockwave impinging on the test vessel is representative of nuclear type explosive shockwaves transmitted to an underwater structure at great depths.

  9. Depth Optimization Study

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kawase, Mitsuhiro

    2009-11-22

    The zipped file contains a directory of data and routines used in the NNMREC turbine depth optimization study (Kawase et al., 2011), and calculation results thereof. For further info, please contact Mitsuhiro Kawase at kawase@uw.edu. Reference: Mitsuhiro Kawase, Patricia Beba, and Brian Fabien (2011), Finding an Optimal Placement Depth for a Tidal In-Stream Conversion Device in an Energetic, Baroclinic Tidal Channel, NNMREC Technical Report.

  10. Freeform fluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R; Lind, Randall F; Love, Lonnie L; Peter, William H; Richardson, Bradley S

    2015-02-10

    A robotic, prosthetic or orthotic member includes a body formed of a solidified metallic powder. At least one working fluid cylinder is formed in the body. A piston is provided in the working fluid cylinder for pressurizing a fluid in the cylinder. At least one working fluid conduit receives the pressurized fluid from the cylinder. The body, working fluid cylinder and working fluid conduit have a unitary construction. A method of making a robotic member is also disclosed.

  11. Fluidic oscillator-mediated microbubble generation to provide cost effective mass transfer and mixing efficiency to the wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Fahad; Medley, Gareth J D; Bandulasena, Hemaka; Zimmerman, William B J

    2015-02-01

    Aeration is one of the most energy intensive processes in the waste water treatment plants and any improvement in it is likely to enhance the overall efficiency of the overall process. In the current study, a fluidic oscillator has been used to produce microbubbles in the order of 100 μm in diameter by oscillating the inlet gas stream to a pair of membrane diffusers. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient was measured for steady state flow and oscillatory flow in the range of 40-100l/min. The highest improvement of 55% was observed at the flow rates of 60, 90 and 100l/min respectively. Standard oxygen transfer rate and efficiency were also calculated. Both standard oxygen transfer rate and efficiency were found to be considerably higher under oscillatory air flow conditions compared to steady state airflow. The bubble size distributions and bubble densities were measured using an acoustic bubble spectrometer and confirmed production of monodisperse bubbles with approximately 100 μm diameters with fluidic oscillation. The higher number density of microbubbles under oscillatory flow indicated the effect of the fluidic oscillation in microbubble production. Visual observations and dissolved oxygen measurements suggested that the bubble cloud generated by the fluidic oscillator was sufficient enough to provide good mixing and to maintain uniform aerobic conditions. Overall, improved mass transfer coefficients, mixing efficiency and energy efficiency of the novel microbubble generation method could offer significant savings to the water treatment plants as well as reduction in the carbon footprint. PMID:25483415

  12. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here – soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world. PMID:27426677

  13. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics.

    PubMed

    Yeh, S I; Huang, Y C; Cheng, C H; Cheng, C M; Yang, J T

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here - soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world. PMID:27426677

  14. The Fluidic Obstacle Technique: An Approach for Enhancing Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Pulsed Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Benjamin W.

    The current research explored the fluidic obstacle technique and obtained relative performance estimates of this new approach for enhancement of de agration-to-detonation transition. Optimization of conventional physical obstacles has comprised the majority of de agration-to-detonation enhancement research but these devices ultimately degrade the performance of a pulsed detonation engine. Therefore, a new approach has been investigated that demonstrates a fluidic obstacle has the potential to maximize turbulence production and enhance the flame acceleration process, leading to successful DDT. A fluidic obstacle is also able to reduce total pressure losses, "heat soaking", and ignition times. A reduction in these variables serves to maximize available thrust. In addition, the fluidic obstacle technique is an active combustion control method capable of adapting to off-design conditions. Steady non-reacting and unsteady reacting flow have been utilized in two facilities, namely the UB Combustion Laboratory and AFRL Detonation Engine Research facility, to provide experimental measurements and observations into the feasibility of this new approach.

  15. Fixed and Sunk Costs Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, X. Henry; Yang, Bill Z.

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the concepts of, and the link between, fixed costs and sunk costs. Argues that the root of confusion is the inconsistency in defining the term fixed costs. Consistently defines fixed and sunk costs, and describes how instructors must teach under these definitions. (RLH)

  16. Depth from water reflection.

    PubMed

    Linjie Yang; Jianzhuang Liu; Xiaoou Tang

    2015-04-01

    The scene in a water reflection image often exhibits bilateral symmetry. In this paper, we design a framework to reconstruct the depth from a single water reflection image. This problem can be regarded as a special case of two-view stereo vision. It is challenging to obtain correspondences from the real scene and the mirror scene due to their large appearance difference. We first propose an appearance adaptation method to transform the appearance of the mirror scene so that it is much closer to the real scene. We then present a stereo matching algorithm to obtain the disparity map of the real scene. Compared with other depth-from-symmetry work that deals with man-made objects, our algorithm can recover the depth maps of a variety of scenes, where both natural and man-made objects may exist. PMID:25643408

  17. Radon depth migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.T. ); Carroll, R.J. )

    1993-02-01

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation.

  18. Lab on a Biomembrane: Rapid prototyping and manipulation of 2D fluidic lipid bilayers circuits

    PubMed Central

    Ainla, Alar; Gözen, Irep; Hakonen, Bodil; Jesorka, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes are among the most ubiquitous structures in the living world, with intricate structural features and a multitude of biological functions. It is attractive to recreate these structures in the laboratory, as this allows mimicking and studying the properties of biomembranes and their constituents, and to specifically exploit the intrinsic two-dimensional fluidity. Even though diverse strategies for membrane fabrication have been reported, the development of related applications and technologies has been hindered by the unavailability of both versatile and simple methods. Here we report a rapid prototyping technology for two-dimensional fluidic devices, based on in-situ generated circuits of phospholipid films. In this “lab on a molecularly thin membrane”, various chemical and physical operations, such as writing, erasing, functionalization, and molecular transport, can be applied to user-defined regions of a membrane circuit. This concept is an enabling technology for research on molecular membranes and their technological use. PMID:24067786

  19. A Fluidic Cell Embedded Electromagnetic Wave Sensor for Online Indication of Neurological Impairment during Surgical Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakey, R. T.; Mason, A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    Lactate is known to be an indicator of neurological impairment during aortic aneurysm surgery. It is suggested that cerebrospinal fluid removed during such surgery could provide useful information in this regard. Medical professionals find the prospect of online detection of such analytes exciting, as current practice is time consuming and leads to multiple invasive procedures. Advancing from the current laboratory based analysis techniques to online methods could provide the basis for improved treatment regimes, better quality of care, and enhanced resource efficiency within hospitals. Accordingly, this article considers the use of a low power fluidic system with embedded electromagnetic wave sensor to detect varying lactate concentrations. Results are promising over the physiological range of 0 - 20 mmol/L with a calibration curve demonstrating an R2 value > 0.98.

  20. Variable stiffness actuator based on fluidic flexible matrix composites and piezoelectric-hydraulic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Li, Suyi; Wang, K. W.

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a new biological-inspired fluidic flexible matrix composite (in short, F2MC) concept has been developed for linear/torsional actuation and structural stiffness tailoring. Although the actuation and the variable stiffness features of the F2MC have been successfully demonstrated individually, their combined functions and full potentials were not yet manifested. In addition, the current hydraulic pressurization systems are bulky and heavy, limiting the potential of the F2MC actuator. To address these issues, we synthesize a new variable stiffness actuator concept that can provide both effective actuation and tunable stiffness (dual-mode), incorporating the F2MC with a compact piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (in short, PHP). This dual-mode mechanism will significantly enhance the potential of the F2MC adaptive structures.

  1. Thin-walled compliant plastic structures for meso-scale fluidic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R R; Schumann, D L

    1998-12-29

    Thin-walled, compliant plastic structures for meso-scale fluidic systems were fabricated, tested and used to demonstrate valving, pumping, metering and mixing. These structures permit the isolation of actuators and sensors from the working fluid, thereby reducing chemical compatibility issues. The thin-walled, compliant plastic structures can be used in either a permanent, reusable system or as an inexpensive disposable for single-use assay systems. The implementation of valving, pumping, mixing and metering operations involve only an elastic change in the mechanical shape of various portions of the structure. Advantages provided by the thin-walled plastic structures include reduced dead volume and rapid mixing. Five different methods for fabricating the thin-walled plastic structures discussed including laser welding, molding, vacuum forming, thermal heat staking and photolithographic patterning techniques.

  2. Fluidic Self-Assembly Using Molten Ga Bumps and Its Application to Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Jun; Shibata, Tomoaki; Morita, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Mori, Masayuki; Maezawa, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Fluidic self-assembly (FSA) using molten metal bumps is one of the most promising heterogeneous integration (HI) technologies, which enable us to integrate devices made of various materials on various substrates. We can fabricate the metal bumps using Ga having diameters of 24, 18, 12, and 8 µm with good yield. Using Ga has significant advantages; especially, it includes no toxic metals. These bumps were used for the FSA process of the metal dummy blocks having a diameter of 18 µm, and a good yield of 84% was obtained all over the substrate of about 1×1 cm2. Finally, we applied this method to the resonant tunneling diode (RTD) to verify good electrical, mechanical, and thermal contacts. The RTD device blocks having a diameter of 24 µm have been successfully assembled using the molten Ga bumps. This method is promising for high-performance RTD integration.

  3. Optimising a vortex fluidic device for controlling chemical reactivity and selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasmin, Lyzu; Chen, Xianjue; Stubbs, Keith A.; Raston, Colin L.

    2013-07-01

    A vortex fluidic device (VFD) involving a rapidly rotating tube open at one end forms dynamic thin films at high rotational speed for finite sub-millilitre volumes of liquid, with shear within the films depending on the speed and orientation of the tube. Continuous flow operation of the VFD where jet feeds of solutions are directed to the closed end of the tube provide additional tuneable shear from the viscous drag as the liquid whirls along the tube. The versatility of this simple, low cost microfluidic device, which can operate under confined mode or continuous flow is demonstrated in accelerating organic reactions, for model Diels-Alder dimerization of cyclopentadienes, and sequential aldol and Michael addition reactions, in accessing unusual 2,4,6-triarylpyridines. Residence times are controllable for continuous flow processing with the viscous drag dominating the shear for flow rates >0.1 mL/min in a 10 mm diameter tube rotating at >2000 rpm.

  4. Integratible Process for Fabrication of Fluidic Microduct Networks on a Single Wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Matzke, C.M.; Ashby, C.I.; Bridges, M.M.; Griego, L.; Wong, C.C.

    1999-09-07

    We present a microelectronics fabrication compatible process that comprises photolithography and a key room temperature SiON thin film plasma deposition to define and seal a fluidic microduct network. Our single wafer process is independent of thermo-mechanical material properties, particulate cleaning, global flatness, assembly alignment, and glue medium application, which are crucial for wafer fusion bonding or sealing techniques using a glue medium. From our preliminary experiments, we have identified a processing window to fabricate channels on silicon, glass and quartz substrates. Channels with a radius of curvature between 8 and 50 {micro}m, are uniform along channel lengths of several inches and repeatable across the wafer surfaces. To further develop this technology, we have begun characterizing the SiON film properties such as elastic modulus using nanoindentation, and chemical bonding compatibility with other microelectronic materials.

  5. Modeling and bonding-free fabrication of flexible fluidic microactuators with a bending motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorissen, Benjamin; Vincentie, Wannes; Al-Bender, Farid; Reynaerts, Dominiek; De Volder, Michaël

    2013-04-01

    Flexible fluidic actuators recently attracted the interest of the microsystem community, especially for soft robotic applications including minimally invasive surgery. These actuators, based on a well-known actuator design where a void is surrounded by an asymmetric elastic structure, can achieve large bending strokes when pressurized. Miniaturized versions of these actuators typically fail due to poor bonding of constituting components, and further, there is little theoretical understanding of these devices. This paper presents a new actuator design which does not require any bonding and provides new insights into the modeling of these actuators. The newly developed production process of the actuators is based on out-of-plane high aspect ratio micromolding, which enables high-throughput bonding-free fabrication. Furthermore, a mathematical model based on Euler-Bernoulli's beam equation with a deformable cross section is developed that shows good agreement with validation experiments on prototypes. These theoretical insights greatly facilitate the design and optimization of flexible bending actuators.

  6. Numerical Studies of an Array of Fluidic Diverter Actuators for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis E.; Raghu, Surya

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of boundary conditions on the behavior of an array of uniformly-spaced fluidic diverters with an ultimate goal to passively control their output phase. This understanding will aid in the development of advanced designs of actuators for flow control applications in turbomachinery. Computations show that a potential design is capable of generating synchronous outputs for various inlet boundary conditions if the flow inside the array is initiated from quiescence. However, when the array operation is originally asynchronous, several approaches investigated numerically demonstrate that re-synchronization of the actuators in the array is not practical since it is very sensitive to asymmetric perturbations and imperfections. Experimental verification of the insights obtained from the present study is currently being pursued.

  7. Non-contact opto-fluidics-based liquid level sensor for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.; Reza, Syed Azer

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive, non-contact liquid level sensor. The proposed sensor is a free-space-based optical sensor that uses opto-fluidic technology-based agile optics to direct light from a laser source to the Liquid Under Test (LUT). The presented design makes the proposed sensor ideal for use in environments where levels have to be determined for caustic or toxic liquids having a small window interface on the containers carrying them. The proposed design uses very low optical power levels (< 100 μW) making it useful for measuring levels of combustible liquids (e.g., jet fuels) which have a danger of being ignited at higher power levels. The proposed sensor can find potential applications in transportation, chemical and aerospace industries.

  8. Glucose Measurement by Affinity Sensor and Pulsed Measurements of Fluidic Resistances

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Thomas; Robin, Franck; Heinemann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Affinity sensors for glucose are based on a different measuring principle than the commercially available amperometric needle type sensors: reversible affinity interaction of glucose with specific receptors is the primary recognition mechanism instead of an enzymatic glucose oxidation. A novel pulsed-flow micro-fluidic system was used to characterize first the viscosity of a sensitive liquid containing the glucose receptor Concanavalin A and dextran and in a second approach to characterize the geometry of a fluidic resistance. In the viscometric sensor, glucose of the sensitive liquid is equilibrated, while passing through a dialysis chamber, with the surrounding medium. With the membrane flow sensor, the viscosity of the liquid remains constant but the pores of the flow-resisting membrane contain a swellable hydrogel affecting the width of the pores. Two types of hydrogel were tested with the membrane flow sensor; one is highly sensitive to pH and salt concentration, the other contains receptors of phenyl boronic acids to obtain sensitivity to glucose. The viscometric affinity sensor (first approach) showed a linear response over 0 to 30 mmol/L glucose concentration range. The disturbing effect of air bubbles could be compensated for. The sensing proof of principle of the second approach could be demonstrated by its linear response to different saline concentrations; however, the glucose-sensitive membrane developed showed only a small response to glucose. Glucose monitoring based on this pulsed flow measuring principle offers interesting alternatives for the development of CGM systems with different options for the glucose sensing part. PMID:24876545

  9. A versatile valving toolkit for automating fluidic operations in paper microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Toley, Bhushan J.; Wang, Jessica A.; Gupta, Mayuri; Buser, Joshua R.; Lafleur, Lisa K.; Lutz, Barry R.; Fu, Elain; Yager, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Failure to utilize valving and automation techniques has restricted the complexity of fluidic operations that can be performed in paper microfluidic devices. We developed a toolkit of paper microfluidic valves and methods for automatic valve actuation using movable paper strips and fluid-triggered expanding elements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional demonstration of this valving strategy in paper microfluidics. After introduction of fluids on devices, valves can actuate automatically a) after a certain period of time, or b) after the passage of a certain volume of fluid. Timing of valve actuation can be tuned with greater than 8.5% accuracy by changing lengths of timing wicks, and we present timed on-valves, off-valves, and diversion (channel-switching) valves. The actuators require ~30 μl fluid to actuate and the time required to switch from one state to another ranges from ~5 s for short to ~50s for longer wicks. For volume-metered actuation, the size of a metering pad can be adjusted to tune actuation volume, and we present two methods – both methods can achieve greater than 9% accuracy. Finally, we demonstrate the use of these valves in a device that conducts a multi-step assay for the detection of the malaria protein PfHRP2. Although slightly more complex than devices that do not have moving parts, this valving and automation toolkit considerably expands the capabilities of paper microfluidic devices. Components of this toolkit can be used to conduct arbitrarily complex, multi-step fluidic operations on paper-based devices, as demonstrated in the malaria assay device. PMID:25606810

  10. Integration of microsphere resonators with bioassay fluidics for whispering gallery mode imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel C; Armendariz, Kevin P; Dunn, Robert C

    2013-06-01

    Whispering gallery mode resonators are small, radially symmetric dielectrics that trap light through continuous total internal reflection. The resonant condition at which light is efficiently confined within the structure is linked with refractive index, which has led to the development of sensitive label-free sensing schemes based on whispering gallery mode resonators. One resonator design uses inexpensive high index glass microspheres that offer intrinsically superior optical characteristics, but have proven difficult to multiplex and integrate with the fluidics for sample delivery and fluid exchange necessary for assay development. Recently, we introduced a fluorescence imaging approach that enables large scale multiplexing with microsphere resonators, thus removing one obstacle for assay development. Here we report an approach for microsphere immobilization that overcomes limitations arising from their integration with fluidic delivery. The approach is an adaptation of a calcium-assisted glass bonding method originally developed for microfluidic glass chip fabrication. Microspheres bonded to glass using this technique are shown to be stable with respect to fluid flow and show no detectable loss in optical performance. Measured Q-factors, for example, remain unchanged following sphere bonding to the substrate. The stability of the immobilized resonators is further demonstrated by transferring lipid films onto the immobilized spheres using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Bilayers of DOPC doped with GM1 were transferred onto immobilized resonators to detect the binding of cholera toxin to GM1. Binding curves generated from shifts in the whispering gallery mode resonance result in a measured Kd of 1.5 × 10(-11) with a limit of detection of 3.3 pM. These results are discussed in terms of future assay development using microsphere resonators. PMID:23615457

  11. New Drop Fluidics Enabled by Magnetic-Field-Mediated Elastocapillary Transduction.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saheli; Pomeau, Yves; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2016-07-12

    This research introduces a new drop fluidics that uses a deformable and stretchable elastomeric film as the platform instead of the commonly used rigid supports. Such a soft film impregnated with magnetic particles can be modulated with an external electromagnetic field that produces a vast array of topographical landscapes with varying surface curvature, which, in conjunction with capillarity, can direct and control the motion of water droplets efficiently and accurately. When a thin layer of oil is present on this film that is deformed locally, a centrosymmetric wedge is formed. A water droplet placed on this oil-laden film becomes asymmetrically deformed, thus producing a gradient of Laplace pressure within the droplet and setting it in motion. A simple theory is presented that accounts for the droplet speed in terms of such geometric variables as the volume of the droplet and the thickness of the oil film covering the soft elastomeric film as well as material variables such as the viscosity of the oil and the interfacial tension of the oil-water interfaces. Following the verification of the theoretical result using well-controlled model systems, we demonstrate how the electromagnetically controlled elastocapillary force can be used to manipulate the motion of single and/or multiple droplets on the surface of the elastomeric film and how elementary operations such as drop fusion and thermally addressed chemical transformation can be carried out in aqueous droplets. It is expected that the resulting drop fluidics would be suitable for the digital control of drop motion by simply switching on and off the electromagnetic fields applied at different positions underneath the elastomeric film in a Boolean sequence. We anticipate that this method of directing and manipulating water droplets is poised for application in various biochemical reaction engineering situations, an example of which is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:27300489

  12. Depth remapping using seam carving for depth image based rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, Ikuko; Iwauchi, Kenichi

    2015-03-01

    Depth remapping is a technique to control depth range of stereo images. Conventional remapping which uses a transform function in the whole image has a stable characteristic, however it sometimes reduces the 3D appearance too much. To cope with this problem, a depth remapping method which preserves the details of depth structure is proposed. We apply seam carving, which is an effective technique for image retargeting, to depth remapping. An extended depth map is defined as a space-depth volume, and a seam surface which is a 2D monotonic and connected manifold is introduced. The depth range is reduced by removing depth values on the seam surface from the space-depth volume. Finally a stereo image pair is synthesized from the corrected depth map and an input color image by depth image based rendering.

  13. Apparatus for fixing latency

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2009-09-08

    An apparatus for fixing computational latency within a deterministic region on a network comprises a network interface modem, a high priority module and at least one deterministic peripheral device. The network interface modem is in communication with the network. The high priority module is in communication with the network interface modem. The at least one deterministic peripheral device is connected to the high priority module. The high priority module comprises a packet assembler/disassembler, and hardware for performing at least one operation. Also disclosed is an apparatus for executing at least one instruction on a downhole device within a deterministic region, the apparatus comprising a control device, a downhole network, and a downhole device. The control device is near the surface of a downhole tool string. The downhole network is integrated into the tool string. The downhole device is in communication with the downhole network.

  14. [Fixed-dose combination].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yoshio

    2015-03-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) do not achieve satisfactory glycemic control by monotherapy alone, and often require multiple oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs). Combining OHAs with complementary mechanisms of action is fundamental to the management of T2DM. Fixed-dose combination therapy(FDC) offers a method of simplifying complex regimens. Efficacy and tolerability appear to be similar between FDC and treatment with individual agents. In addition, FDC can enhance adherence and improved adherence may result in improved glycemic control. Four FDC agents are available in Japan: pioglitazone-glimepiride, pioglitazone-metformin, pioglitazone-alogliptin, and voglibose-mitiglinide. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these four combinations are identified and discussed. PMID:25812374

  15. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  16. Compact Fixed-exit UHV DCM for XAFS

    SciTech Connect

    Rickers, K.; Brueggmann, U.; Drube, W.; Herrmann, M.; Heuer, J.; Welter, E.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Schulz-Ritter, H.

    2007-01-19

    A double-crystal, UHV-compatible monochromator for XAFS applications at bending magnet beamlines has been designed. It uses two crystal sets, Si(111) and (311), on a common central rotation axis driven by an ex-vacuo goniometer. All mechanical and electrical components are mounted on a 400 mm UHV flange which is attached to a compact vacuum chamber. The first crystals are water cooled using connector- and bellowless tubing through the fluidic sealed feedthrough of the central rotation. The first crystal set is mounted off-axis and can be translated vertically to keep the fixed exit condition. The second crystal set uses small crystals of the same size as the first. In order to accept the reflected beam of the first crystal at small Bragg angles, it is tangentially translated along the beam. The angle can be varied from 5 deg. to 55.5 deg. resulting in a total energy range 2.4 - 43.4 keV for Si(111)/(311). Crystal sets are interchangeable by translating the vacuum chamber. Angle encoding is achieved by a Renishaw incremental optical encoder in vacuo.

  17. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  18. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  19. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  20. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  1. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  2. Variable depth core sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates to a sampling means, more particularly to a device to sample hard surfaces at varying depths. Often it is desirable to take samples of a hard surface wherein the samples are of the same diameter but of varying depths. Current practice requires that a full top-to-bottom sample of the material be taken, using a hole saw, and boring a hole from one end of the material to the other. The sample thus taken is removed from the hole saw and the middle of said sample is then subjected to further investigation. This paper describes a variable depth core sampler comprimising a circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapse to form a point and capture a sample, and a second saw member residing inside the first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of the first member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside the the first hole saw member.

  3. Use of PLL-g-PEG in micro-fluidic devices for localizing selective and specific protein binding.

    PubMed

    Marie, Rodolphe; Beech, Jason P; Vörös, Janos; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Höök, Fredrik

    2006-11-21

    By utilizing flow-controlled PLL-g-PEG and PLL-g-PEGbiotin modification of predefined regions of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) micro-fluidic device, with an intentionally chosen large (approximately 1 cm2) internal surface area, we report rapid (10 min), highly localized (6 x 10(-6) cm2), and specific surface-based protein capture from a sample volume (100 microL) containing a low amount of protein (160 attomol in pure buffer and 400 attomol in serum). The design criteria for this surface modification were achieved using QCM-D (quartz crystal microbalance with energy dissipation monitoring) of serum protein adsorption onto PLL-g-PEG-modified oxidized PDMS. Equally good, or almost as good, results were obtained for oxidized SU-8, Topas, and poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA), demonstrating the generic potential of PLL-g-PEG for surface modification in various micro-fluidic applications. PMID:17107006

  4. Scalable Fluidic Injector Arrays for Viral Targeting of Intact 3-D Brain Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Stephanie; Bernstein, Jacob; Boyden, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of neural circuits--how they mediate the computations that subserve sensation, thought, emotion, and action, and how they are corrupted in neurological and psychiatric disorders--would be greatly facilitated by a technology for rapidly targeting genes to complex 3-dimensional neural circuits, enabling fast creation of "circuit-level transgenics." We have recently developed methods in which viruses encoding for light-sensitive proteins can sensitize specific cell types to millisecond-timescale activation and silencing in the intact brain. We here present the design and implementation of an injector array capable of delivering viruses (or other fluids) to dozens of defined points within the 3-dimensional structure of the brain (Figure. 1A, 1B). The injector array comprises one or more displacement pumps that each drive a set of syringes, each of which feeds into a polyimide/fused-silica capillary via a high-pressure-tolerant connector. The capillaries are sized, and then inserted into, desired locations specified by custom-milling a stereotactic positioning board, thus allowing viruses or other reagents to be delivered to the desired set of brain regions. To use the device, the surgeon first fills the fluidic subsystem entirely with oil, backfills the capillaries with the virus, inserts the device into the brain, and infuses reagents slowly (<0.1 microliters/min). The parallel nature of the injector array facilitates rapid, accurate, and robust labeling of entire neural circuits with viral payloads such as optical sensitizers to enable light-activation and silencing of defined brain circuits. Along with other technologies, such as optical fiber arrays for light delivery to desired sets of brain regions, we hope to create a toolbox that enables the systematic probing of causal neural functions in the intact brain. This technology may not only open up such systematic approaches to circuit-focused neuroscience in mammals, and facilitate labeling of

  5. A simple method for the evaluation of microfluidic architecture using flow quantitation via a multiplexed fluidic resistance measurement.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Daniel C; Melnikoff, Brett A; Marchiarullo, Daniel J; Cash, Devin R; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2010-08-01

    Quality control of microdevices adds significant costs, in time and money, to any fabrication process. A simple, rapid quantitative method for the post-fabrication characterization of microchannel architecture using the measurement of flow with volumes relevant to microfluidics is presented. By measuring the mass of a dye solution passed through the device, it circumvents traditional gravimetric and interface-tracking methods that suffer from variable evaporation rates and the increased error associated with smaller volumes. The multiplexed fluidic resistance (MFR) measurement method measures flow via stable visible-wavelength dyes, a standard spectrophotometer and common laboratory glassware. Individual dyes are used as molecular markers of flow for individual channels, and in channel architectures where multiple channels terminate at a common reservoir, spectral deconvolution reveals the individual flow contributions. On-chip, this method was found to maintain accurate flow measurement at lower flow rates than the gravimetric approach. Multiple dyes are shown to allow for independent measurement of multiple flows on the same device simultaneously. We demonstrate that this technique is applicable for measuring the fluidic resistance, which is dependent on channel dimensions, in four fluidically connected channels simultaneously, ultimately determining that one chip was partially collapsed and, therefore, unusable for its intended purpose. This method is thus shown to be widely useful in troubleshooting microfluidic flow characteristics. PMID:20707008

  6. Micro-a-fluidics ELISA for Rapid CD4 Cell Count at the Point-of-Care

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ShuQi; Tasoglu, Savas; Chen, Paul Z.; Chen, Michael; Akbas, Ragip; Wach, Sonya; Ozdemir, Cenk Ibrahim; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Giguel, Francoise F.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    HIV has become one of the most devastating pathogens in human history. Despite fast progress in HIV-related basic research, antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the most effective method to save AIDS patients' lives. Unfortunately, ART cannot be universally accessed, especially in developing countries, due to the lack of effective treatment monitoring diagnostics. Here, we present an inexpensive, rapid and portable micro-a-fluidic platform, which can streamline the process of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a fully automated manner for CD4 cell count. The micro-a-fluidic CD4 cell count is achieved by eliminating operational fluid flow via “moving the substrate”, as opposed to “flowing liquid” in traditional ELISA or microfluidic methods. This is the first demonstration of capturing and detecting cells from unprocessed whole blood using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic channel. Combined with cell phone imaging, the presented micro-a-fluidic ELISA platform holds great promise for offering rapid CD4 cell count to scale up much needed ART in resource-constrained settings. The developed system can be extended to multiple areas for ELISA-related assays. PMID:24448112

  7. New Large Length Scale Capillary Fluidics Investigations Using a Drop Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weislogel, Mark; Wollman, Andrew; Wiles, Brentley

    2013-11-01

    Drop Towers provide brief terrestrial access to microgravity environments. When exploited for capillary fluidics research, the drop tower allows for unique control over an experiment's initial conditions which can enable, enhance, or otherwise improve methods to study capillary flows and phenomena at significantly larger length scales than can be achieved on the ground. In this work a new, highly accessible, 2.1 s tower is introduced for such research. Enabled in part by simple macro-fabrication methods, a variety of new demonstrative experiments are presented for purely capillarity-driven flows leading to droplet ejections, bubble ingestions, sinking flows, particle injections, and multiphase flows. Due to the repeatability of the passive flows, each experiment may be used in turn as a means to study other phenomena and forward-looking research themes are suggested that include large length scale passive phase separations, heat and mass transfer, droplet dynamics, combustion, and more. NASA NNX09AP66A Glenn Research Center, NASA NNX10AK68H Oregon Space Grant Consortium.

  8. Use of a Novel Fluidic Microplotter in Macroelectronics, Photonics, and Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, B.; Lagally, D.; Baier, J.; Rugheimer, P.; Tanto, B.; Gopalan, P.; Lagally, M. G.

    2006-03-01

    Many future applications of microelectronics will focus not on computing but on broader uses in fast flexible electronics, imaging and displays, energy, and environmental and health monitoring. Such uses will require in many cases integration on the mesoscale, and the combination of the fast microelectronics with materials that provide other benefits. One need is the deposition of a wide range of materials from the fluid state. We describe a new fluidic microplotter that enables the deposition of a wide range of materials at the 1 μm and larger scale. The dispensing depends on a novel axial ultrasonic resonance of a fluid micropipette that allows a gentle noncontact deposition of spots, lines, curves, and 3D objects with high precision and very good CV values. We will demonstrate some of the capabilities of the plotter in 1) writing patterns on MEMS membranes, 2) writing a polymer LED, 3) writing parallel lines separated by 1 μm, 4) making bioarrays with very small spots, and 5) writing polymer waveguides, and writing on Si nanomembranes that serve as the basis for very fast flexible electronics. The physical basis for the unique dispensing action in this device, as well as broader features of the plotter will be described. Potential additional applications will be discussed.

  9. Bioengineering bacteriophages to enhance the sensitivity of phage amplification-based paper fluidic detection of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alcaine, S D; Law, K; Ho, S; Kinchla, A J; Sela, D A; Nugen, S R

    2016-08-15

    Bacteriophage (phage) amplification is an attractive method for the detection of bacteria due to a narrow phage-host specificity, short amplification times, and the phages' ability to differentiate between viable and non-viable bacterial cells. The next step in phage-based bacteria detection is leveraging bioengineered phages to create low-cost, rapid, and easy-to-use detection platforms such as lateral flow assays. Our work establishes the proof-of-concept for the use of bioengineered T7 phage strains to increase the sensitivity of phage amplification-based lateral flow assays. We have demonstrated a greater than 10-fold increase in sensitivity using a phage-based protein reporter, maltose-binding protein, over the detection of replicated T7 phage viron itself, and a greater then 100-fold increase in sensitivity using a phage-based enzymatic reporter, alkaline phosphatase. This increase in sensitivity enabled us to detect 10(3)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli in broth after 7h, and by adding a filter concentration step, the ability to detect a regulatory relevant E. coli concentration of 100CFU/100mL in inoculated river water after 9h, where the current standard requires days for results. The combination of the paper fluidic format with phage-based detection provides a platform for the development of novel diagnostics that are sensitive, rapid, and easy to use. PMID:27031186

  10. Fluidic Grooves on Doped-Ice Surface as Size-Tunable Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagawa, Arinori; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new principle for fabrication of size-tunable fluidic nano- and microchannels with a ubiquitous green material, water. Grooves filled with a solution are spontaneously formed on the surface of ice when an appropriate dopant is incorporated. Sucrose doping allows the development of grooves with lengths of 300 μm along the boundaries of ice crystal grains. This paper focuses on controlling the size of the liquid-filled groove and reveals its applicability to size-selective differentiation of nano- and micromaterials. The width of this groove can be varied in a range of 200 nm to 4 μm by adjusting the working temperature of the frozen platform. The channel dimension is reproducible as long as the same frozen condition is employed. We demonstrate the size-selective entrapment of particles as well as the state evaluation of DNA by controlling the physical interference of the ice wall with the electrophoretic migration of particles.