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1

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For asymptotically periodic systems, a powerful (phase) reduction of the dynamics is obtained by computing the so-called isochrons, i.e. the sets of points that converge toward the same trajectory on the limit cycle. Motivated by the analysis of excitable systems, a similar reduction has been attempted for non-periodic systems admitting a stable fixed point. In this case, the isochrons can still be defined but they do not capture the asymptotic behavior of the trajectories. Instead, the sets of interest-that we call “isostables”-are defined in the literature as the sets of points that converge toward the same trajectory on a stable slow manifold of the fixed point. However, it turns out that this definition of the isostables holds only for systems with slow-fast dynamics. Also, efficient methods for computing the isostables are missing. The present paper provides a general framework for the definition and the computation of the isostables of stable fixed points, which is based on the spectral properties of the so-called Koopman operator. More precisely, the isostables are defined as the level sets of a particular eigenfunction of the Koopman operator. Through this approach, the isostables are unique and well-defined objects related to the asymptotic properties of the system. Also, the framework reveals that the isostables and the isochrons are two different but complementary notions which define a set of action-angle coordinates for the dynamics. In addition, an efficient algorithm for computing the isostables is obtained, which relies on the evaluation of Laplace averages along the trajectories. The method is illustrated with the excitable FitzHugh-Nagumo model and with the Lorenz model. Finally, we discuss how these methods based on the Koopman operator framework relate to the global linearization of the system and to the derivation of special Lyapunov functions.

Mauroy, A.; Mezi?, I.; Moehlis, J.

2013-10-01

2

Fixed Points in Metric Semantics

We present a brief tutorial on the use of metric spaces in semantics, with special attention for the role of fixed points.In traditional semantic modelling, one is primarily interested in the I\\/O behaviour of a program. In more recent developments, phenomena such as parallel processing and reactive systems have gained increased importance. For these kinds of notions, the I\\/O model

J. W. de Bakker

2001-01-01

3

BROUWER'S FIXED POINT THEOREM JASPER DEANTONIO

BROUWER'S FIXED POINT THEOREM JASPER DEANTONIO Abstract. In this paper we prove Brouwer's Fixed be used to make three sequences which all have p as their limit point. Date: July 27, 2009. 1 #12;2 JASPER

May, J. Peter

4

Fixed Point Theorems for Hybrid Mappings

We obtain some fixed point theorems for two pairs of hybrid mappings using hybrid tangential property and quadratic type contractive condition. Our results generalize some results by Babu and Alemayehu and those contained therein. In the sequel, we introduce a new notion to generalize occasionally weak compatibility. Moreover, two concrete examples are established to illuminate the generality of our results. PMID:25629089

Kamran, Tayyab; Karapinar, Erdal

2015-01-01

5

Intuitionistic fixed point theories over Heyting arithmetic

In this paper we show that an intuitionistic theory for fixed points is conservative over the Heyting arithmetic with respect to a certain class of formulas. This extends partly the result of mine. The proof is inspired by the quick cut-elimination due to G. Mints.

Arai, Toshiyasu

2010-01-01

6

Fuzzy and Crisp Mahalanobis Fixed Point Clusters

Fuzzy and Crisp Mahalanobis Fixed Point Clusters Christian Hennig 1 Fachbereich Mathematik SPST of the Mahalanobis distance. Crisp FPCs (where outlyingness is defined with a 01 weight function) are compared be used to locate clusters. In this paper, FPCs for pdimensional data based on the Mahalanobis distance

Hennig, Christian

7

ASIC For Complex Fixed-Point Arithmetic

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performs 24-bit, fixed-point arithmetic operations on arrays of complex-valued input data. High-performance, wide-band arithmetic logic unit (ALU) designed for use in computing fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and for performing ditigal filtering functions. Other applications include general computations involved in analysis of spectra and digital signal processing.

Petilli, Stephen G.; Grimm, Michael J.; Olson, Erlend M.

1995-01-01

8

Quantum Entanglement and fixed point Hopf bifurcation

We present the qualitative differences in the phase transitions of the mono-mode Dicke model in its integrable and chaotic versions. We show that a first order phase transition occurs in the integrable case whereas a second order in the chaotic one. This difference is also reflected in the classical limit: for the integrable case the stable fixed point in phase space suffers a bifurcation of Hopf type whereas for the second one a pitchfork type bifurcation has been reported.

M. C. Nemes; K. Furuya; G. Q. Pellegrino; A. C. Oliveira; Mauricio Reis; L. Sanz

2005-07-04

9

Ultralimits and fixed-point properties, after Gromov

Ultralimits and fixed-point properties, after Gromov Yves Stalder UniversitÃ© Blaise Pascal Geneva, August 26, 2008 Yves Stalder (UniversitÃ© Blaise Pascal) Ultralimits and fixed-point properties Geneva is a fixed point iff S(x) = 0. Yves Stalder (UniversitÃ© Blaise Pascal) Ultralimits and fixed-point properties

Sart, Remi

10

Fixed point theorems in ultrametric spaces

Point Theorems in Ultrametric Spaces. (May 1972) Steven E. Fullbright, B. A. , Texas A&M University M. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: L. F. Guseman, Jr. and Jack Bryant Let (X, d) be an ultrametric space and f a contractive selfmap of X... The solution of many mathematical problems can be reduced to showing the existence of a fixed point of a selfmap f of some space X. In this thesis the space X is an ultrametric space and we are interested in conditions under which a contractive...

Fullbright, Steven Edward

1972-01-01

11

The Three Faces of a Fixed Point

It has been argued that the only mathematically precise quantum descriptions of gravitating systems are from vantage points which allow an unbounded amount of information to be gathered. For an eternally inflating universe that means a hat, i.e., the asymptotic future of a flat FRW universe. The boundary of the hat (the place where it enters the bulk geometry) is the seat of the FRW/CFT duality. In this paper we discuss the perturbative and non-perturbative fixed points of FRW/CFT as seen from the three regions which share this boundary. Perturbatively, there is nothing universal about the FRW duality; there is a separate construction for each possible initial vacuum. We explain how bubble collisions induce a non-perturbative flow to a universal fixed point which contains information about the entire landscape. We also argue that there is a duality between the landscape of de Sitter vacua and a discretuum of very low-dimension relevant operators in the FRW/CFT spectrum. In principle this provides us with a pr...

Harlow, Daniel; Stanford, Douglas; Susskind, Leonard

2012-01-01

12

Sequential conditions for fixed and periodic points

. Let (X, d) be a metric space and f a selfmap of X. It is shown that a number of known theorems on the existence of fixed and periodic points are related through simple properties of the n sequence (f ) of iterates . ACMOVI. EDGEMENTS I wish... in organizing this thesis; Ny wife Susan, who provided moral support. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chavter Page 0. INTRODUCTION I. TWO L~S II. APPLICATIONS REFERENCES 11 CHAPTER 0 INTRODUCTION Let (X, d) be a metric space and f : X ~ X a selfmap of X...

Peters, Burnis Charles

1970-01-01

13

Secure Computation with Fixed-Point Numbers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secure computation is a promising approach to business problems in which several parties want to run a joint application and cannot reveal their inputs. Secure computation preserves the privacy of input data using cryptographic protocols, allowing the parties to obtain the benefits of data sharing and at the same time avoid the associated risks. These business applications need protocols that support all the primitive data types and allow secure protocol composition and efficient application development. Secure computation with rational numbers has been a challenging problem. We present in this paper a family of protocols for multiparty computation with rational numbers using fixed-point representation. This approach offers more efficient solutions for secure computation than other usual representations.

Catrina, Octavian; Saxena, Amitabh

14

Holographic non-Fermi-liquid fixed points.

Techniques arising from string theory can be used to study assemblies of strongly interacting fermions. Via this 'holographic duality', various strongly coupled many-body systems are solved using an auxiliary theory of gravity. Simple holographic realizations of finite density exhibit single-particle spectral functions with sharp Fermi surfaces, of a form distinct from those of the Landau theory. The self-energy is given by a correlation function in an infrared (IR) fixed-point theory that is represented by a two-dimensional anti de Sitter space (AdS(2)) region in the dual gravitational description. Here, we describe in detail the gravity calculation of this IR correlation function. PMID:21422019

Faulkner, Tom; Iqbal, Nabil; Liu, Hong; McGreevy, John; Vegh, David

2011-04-28

15

Partial Fixed-Point Logic on Infinite Structures

Abstract: We consider an alternative semantics for partial fixed-point logic (PFP). To define the fixed point of a formula in this semantics, the sequence of stages induced by the formula is considered. As soon as this sequence becomes cyclic, the set of elements contained in every stage of the cycle is taken as the fixed point. It is shown that

Stephan Kreutzer; RWTH Aachen

2002-01-01

16

Dual Fixed-Point: An Efficient Alternative to Floating-Point Computation

Dual Fixed-Point: An Efficient Alternative to Floating-Point Computation Chun Te Ewe, Peter Y fixed-point and floating-point representations. It has the implementation complexity similar to that of a fixed-point system together with the improved dynamic range offered by a floating-point system

Cheung, Peter Y. K.

17

Clustering and Outlier Identification: Fixed Point Cluster Analysis

Clustering and Outlier Identification: Fixed Point Cluster Analysis C. Hennig Institut f¨ur Mathematische Stochastik, Universit¨at Hamburg, D20146 Hamburg, Germany Abstract: Fixed Point Cluster Analysis (FPCA) is introduced in this paper. FPCA is a new method for nonhierarchical cluster analysis

Hennig, Christian

18

Palladium-Carbon Eutectic Fixed Point for Thermocouple Calibration

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Pd-C eutectic fixed point has been produced using a molybdenum disilicide element, electrically heated furnace that was built in-house. The eutectic fixed point was measured with two Pt/Pd thermocouples calibrated at the fixed points of Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, and Au. An ITS-90 temperature of (1490.69 ± 0.88) °C ( k = 2) was obtained for the inflection point of the melting plateau. Diffusion of Pd into the thermowell and onto the thermocouple protection tube was observed.

Todd, A. D. W.; Gotoh, M.; Woods, D. J.; Hill, K. D.

2011-01-01

19

Fixed point optimality criteria algorithms for general decreasing ...

A fast fixed point algorithm for a class of nonlinear programming problems. Professor ... size controls which make them similar to the slower nonlinear programming NLP ...... Table 1 below shows results for various random generated trials.

Ashok Belegundu

2013-11-14

20

Maximum number of fixed points in regulatory Boolean networks.

Boolean networks (BNs) have been extensively used as mathematical models of genetic regulatory networks. The number of fixed points of a BN is a key feature of its dynamical behavior. Here, we study the maximum number of fixed points in a particular class of BNs called regulatory Boolean networks, where each interaction between the elements of the network is either an activation or an inhibition. We find relationships between the positive and negative cycles of the interaction graph and the number of fixed points of the network. As our main result, we exhibit an upper bound for the number of fixed points in terms of minimum cardinality of a set of vertices meeting all positive cycles of the network, which can be applied in the design of genetic regulatory networks. PMID:18306974

Aracena, Julio

2008-07-01

21

Tracking unstable fixed points in parametrically dynamic systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of Ott, Grebogi and Yorke is extended to control a two-parameter system when one of the parameters is time dependent and the other is used as the control-parameter. As one of the parameters changes, the unstable fixed point follows its branch of the bifurcation tree. We control a chaotic orbit such that it tracks this “moving” unstable fixed point using an adaptive control method.

Mondragón, Raúl J.; Arrowsmith, David K.

1997-02-01

22

Stray thermal influences in zinc fixed-point cells

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of thermal effects is a major uncertainty contribution to the calibration of Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (SPRTs) in fixed-point cells. Axial heat losses strongly depend on the fixed-point temperature, constructional details of cells and SPRTs and the resulting heat transfer between cell, thermometer, furnace and environment. At the zinc point contributions by heat conduction and thermal radiation must be considered. Although the measurement of temperature gradients in the re-entrant well of a fixed-point cell provides very important information about the influence of axial heat losses, further investigations are required for a reliable estimate of the resulting uncertainty contribution. It is shown that specific modifications of a zinc fixed-point cell, following generally accepted principles, may result in systematic deviations of the measured fixed-point temperatures larger than typically stated in the uncertainty budget of National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The underlying heat transport processes are investigated and the consequences for the construction of zinc cells are discussed.

Rudtsch, S.; Aulich, A.; Monte, C.

2013-09-01

23

Stray thermal influences in zinc fixed-point cells

The influence of thermal effects is a major uncertainty contribution to the calibration of Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (SPRTs) in fixed-point cells. Axial heat losses strongly depend on the fixed-point temperature, constructional details of cells and SPRTs and the resulting heat transfer between cell, thermometer, furnace and environment. At the zinc point contributions by heat conduction and thermal radiation must be considered. Although the measurement of temperature gradients in the re-entrant well of a fixed-point cell provides very important information about the influence of axial heat losses, further investigations are required for a reliable estimate of the resulting uncertainty contribution. It is shown that specific modifications of a zinc fixed-point cell, following generally accepted principles, may result in systematic deviations of the measured fixed-point temperatures larger than typically stated in the uncertainty budget of National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The underlying heat transport processes are investigated and the consequences for the construction of zinc cells are discussed.

Rudtsch, S.; Aulich, A.; Monte, C. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)] [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

2013-09-11

24

Positive area and inaccessible fixed points for hedgehogs

Let f be a germ of holomorphic diffeomorphism with an irra- tionally indifferent fixed point at the origin in C (i.e. f(0) = 0, f'(0) = e 2pi i alpha, alpha in R - Q). Perez-Marco showed the existence of a unique family of nontrivial invariant full continua containing the fixed point called Siegel compacta. When f is non-linearizable (i.e. not holomorphically conjugate to the rigid rotation R_{alpha}(z) = e 2pi i z) the invariant compacts obtained are called hedgehogs. Perez-Marco developed techniques for the construction of examples of non-linearizable germs; these were used by the author to construct hedge- hogs of Hausdorff dimension one, and adapted by Cheritat to construct Siegel disks with pseudo-circle boundaries. We use these techniques to construct hedgehogs of positive area and hedgehogs with inaccessible fixed points.

Biswas, Kingshook

2010-01-01

25

IR fixed points in $SU(3)$ gauge Theories

We propose a novel RG method to specify the location of the IR fixed point in lattice gauge theories and apply it to the $SU(3)$ gauge theories with $N_f$ fundamental fermions. It is based on the scaling behavior of the propagator through the RG analysis with a finite IR cut-off, which we cannot remove in the conformal field theories in sharp contrast with the confining theories. The method also enables us to estimate the anomalous mass dimension in the continuum limit at the IR fixed point. We perform the program for $N_f=16, 12, 8 $ and $N_f=7$ and indeed identify the location of the IR fixed points in all cases.

K. -I. Ishikawa; Y. Iwasaki; Yu Nakayama; Y. Yoshie

2015-03-09

26

Cobalt-Carbon Eutectic Fixed Point for Contact Thermometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Co-C eutectic fixed points were constructed for thermocouple calibration. The eutectic fixed points were measured with a Pt/Pd thermocouple calibrated at the freezing temperatures of Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, and Au. A temperature of (1323.99 ± 0.52) °C ( k = 2) was determined via this method. The cell design allowed filling to be accomplished in a single step. Each cell was held above 1300 °C for at least 42 h and was subjected to at least 20 melt/freeze cycles with no mechanical failure occurring.

Todd, A. D. W.; Gotoh, M.; Woods, D. J.; Hill, K. D.

2011-01-01

27

Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11

28

Gardens of Eden and Fixed Points in Sequential Dynamical Systems

BR99] as an abstract model of computer simulations. Here, we address some questions concerning two special types of the SDS configurations, namely Garden of Eden and Fixed Point configurations. A configuration C of an SDS is a Garden of Eden (GE) configuration if it cannot be reached from any configuration. A necessary and sufficient condition for the non-existence of GE

Christopher L. Barrett; Harry B. Hunt III; Madhav V. Marathe; S. S. Ravi; Daniel J. Rosenkrantz; Richard Edwin Stearns; Predrag T. Tosic

2001-01-01

29

Fixed Points of Difference Operator of Meromorphic Functions

Let f be a transcendental meromorphic function of order less than one. The authors prove that the exact difference ?f =(z+1) - f (z) has infinitely many fixed points, if a ? ? and ? are Borel exceptional values (or Nevanlinna deficiency values) of f. These results extend the related results obtained by Chen and Shon. PMID:24563624

Wu, Zhaojun; Xu, Hongyan

2014-01-01

30

Teaching Fixed-point Algorithm Development in a Systems Context

A course on fixed-point algorithm design using a single sideband (SSB) communication project has been offered three times. The course emphasizes system cost and performance to simulate industry constraints. Students have found the course motivational, and there is a significant need for the topic in industry. Efforts to assess the effect of the course on conceptual understanding are discussed, as

Wayne T. Padgett

2006-01-01

31

Fixed Point Approximation of Weakly Commuting Mappings in Banach Space

A fixed point theorem for a pair of weakly commuting mappings using Mann iterative process is presented. In the process the results due to Rhoades, Khan-Imdad and Ghosh are improved. n n n n Tx c x c x + ? = + ) 1 ( 1 for , 0 > n where } { n c satisfies

ZAHEER AHMAD; ABDALLA J. ASAD

2000-01-01

32

Partial Rectangular Metric Spaces and Fixed Point Theorems

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of partial rectangular metric spaces as a generalization of rectangular metric and partial metric spaces. Some properties of partial rectangular metric spaces and some fixed point results for quasitype contraction in partial rectangular metric spaces are proved. Some examples are given to illustrate the observed results. PMID:24672366

2014-01-01

33

Kadanoff Sand Pile Model Avalanches and Fixed Points

Kadanoff Sand Pile Model Avalanches and Fixed Points KÂ´evin Perrot and Â´Eric RÂ´emila Â´equipe MC2 #12;Aim of this work 1 2 D-1 ... #12;Introduction Definition Representation Known results Avalanches Inductive computation Avalanche as a carry the Snowball Conjecture Statement Approach and issues #12

LiÃ¨ge, UniversitÃ© de

34

Development of Fixed-Point Cells at the SMU

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the research programs realized at the thermometry laboratory of the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) in recent years has focused on the development of fixed-point cells. In the frame of this research, several primary cells for realization of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) and several secondary cells for industrial thermometer calibrations were built and studied. This article discusses primary cells for the gallium and mercury fixed points and miniature cells for the zinc point that were developed at the SMU. Information about the cell designs is provided, the materials that were used are specified, and the procedures for their manufacture are described. Briefly, the realization of the fixed points of mercury, gallium, and zinc by using these cells is also described. Many experiments were carried out to study the characteristics of these cells. One of the gallium cells was compared with the circulating transfer cell during the key comparison CCT-K3, and it and the mercury cell were used for the EUROMET Project No. 552. The results of the experiments together with the results of the comparisons show the high quality of these cells. Secondary zinc-point cells were compared against SMU primary zinc-point cells. The comparison shows agreement within 0.12 mK.

?uriš, S.; Ranostaj, J.; Palen?ár, R.

2008-06-01

35

A fixed-point framework for launch vehicle ascent guidance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interests in responsive launch have highlighted the need for rapid and fully automated ascent guidance planning and guidance parameter generation for launch vehicles. This dissertation aims at developing methodology and algorithms for on-demand generation of optimal launch vehicle ascent trajectories from lift-off to achieving targeting conditions outside the atmosphere. The entire ascent trajectory from lift-off to final target point is divided into two parts: atmospheric ascent portion and vacuum ascent portion. The two portions are integrated via a fixed-point iteration based on the continuity condition at the switch point between atmospheric ascent portion and vacuum ascent portion. The previous research works on closed-loop endo-atmospheric ascent guidance shows that the classical finite difference method is well suited for fast solution of the constrained optimal three-dimensional ascent problem. The exploitation of certain unique features in the integration procedure between the atmospheric portion and vacuum portion and the finite difference method, allows us to cast the atmospheric ascent problem into a nested fixed-point iteration problem. Therefore a novel Fixed-Point Iteration algorithm is presented for solving the endo-atmospheric ascent guidance problem. Several approaches are also provided for facilitating the convergence of the fixed-point iteration. The exo-atmospheric ascent portion allows an optimal coast in between the two vacuum powered stages. The optimal coast enables more efficient usage of the propellant. The Analytical Multiple-Shooting algorithm is developed to find the optimal trajectory for this portion. A generic launch vehicle model is adopted in the numerical simulation. A series of open-loop and closed-loop simulations are performed. The results verify the effectiveness, robustness and reliability of the Fixed-Point Iteration (FPI) algorithm and Analytical Multiple-Shooting (AMS) algorithm developed in this research. In comparison to Finite Difference (FD) algorithm, the Fixed-Point Iteration algorithm is more adaptive to the "cold start" case for endoatmospheric ascent guidance. The simulations also validate the feasibility of the methodology presented in this research in rapid panning and guidance for ascent through atmosphere.

Zhang, Lijun

36

Non-Thermal Fixed Point in a Holographic Superfluid

We study the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a (2+1)-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature and chemical potential using its holographic description in terms of a gravitational system in 3+1 dimensions. Starting from various initial conditions corresponding to ensembles of vortex defects we numerically evolve the system to long times. At intermediate times the system exhibits Kolmogorov scaling the emergence of which depends on the choice of initial conditions. We further observe a universal late-time regime in which the occupation spectrum and different length scales of the superfluid exhibit scaling behaviour. We study these scaling laws in view of superfluid turbulence and interpret the universal late-time regime as a non-thermal fixed point of the dynamical evolution. In the holographic superfluid the non-thermal fixed point can be understood as a stationary point of the classical equations of motion of the dual gravitational description.

Carlo Ewerz; Thomas Gasenzer; Markus Karl; Andreas Samberg

2014-10-13

37

Gravity Duals of Lifshitz-Like Fixed Points

We find candidate macroscopic gravity duals for scale-invariant but non-Lorentz invariant fixed points, which do not have particle number as a conserved quantity. We compute two-point correlation functions which exhibit novel behavior relative to their AdS counterparts, and find holographic renormalization group flows to conformal field theories. Our theories are characterized by a dynamical critical exponent z, which governs the anisotropy between spatial and temporal scaling t {yields} {lambda}{sup z}t, x {yields} {lambda}x; we focus on the case with z = 2. Such theories describe multicritical points in certain magnetic materials and liquid crystals, and have been shown to arise at quantum critical points in toy models of the cuprate superconductors. This work can be considered a small step towards making useful dual descriptions of such critical points.

Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Liu, Xiao; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Mulligan, Michael; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2008-11-05

38

On String Theory Duals of Lifshitz-like Fixed Points

We present type IIB supergravity solutions which are expected to be dual to certain Lifshitz-like fixed points with anisotropic scale invariance. They are expected to describe a class of D3-D7 systems and their finite temperature generalizations are straightforward. We show that there exist solutions that interpolate between these anisotropic solutions in the IR and the standard AdS5 solutions in the UV. This predicts anisotropic RG flows from familiar isotropic fixed points to anisotropic ones. In our case, these RG flows are triggered by a non-zero theta-angle in Yang-Mills theories that linearly depends on one of the spatial coordinates. We study the perturbations around these backgrounds and discuss the possibility of instability. We also holographically compute their thermal entropies, viscosities, and entanglement entropies.

Tatsuo Azeyanagi; Wei Li; Tadashi Takayanagi

2009-05-06

39

Fixed points, stable manifolds, weather regimes, and their predictability

In a simple, one-layer atmospheric model, we study the links between low-frequency variability and the model’s fixed points in phase space. The model dynamics is characterized by the coexistence of multiple “weather regimes.” To investigate the transitions from one regime to another, we focus on the identification of stable manifolds associated with fixed points. We show that these manifolds act as separatrices between regimes. We track each manifold by making use of two local predictability measures arising from the meteorological applications of nonlinear dynamics, namely, “bred vectors” and singular vectors. These results are then verified in the framework of ensemble forecasts issued from “clouds” (ensembles) of initial states. The divergence of the trajectories allows us to establish the connections between zones of low predictability, the geometry of the stable manifolds, and transitions between regimes.

Deremble, Bruno; D'Andrea, Fabio; Ghil, Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United Staes). Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

2009-10-27

40

Thermal analysis on the realization of the tin fixed point

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the thermal analysis of a new tin fixed-point open cell within a new three-zone furnace was carried out. The stability at the setting temperatures of liquid-solid coexisting together with some degree Celsius lower and higher than the tin fixed point; and the axial uniformity of furnace while tin is still in solid phase were investigated and analyzed. The impurities effect on the depression in temperature was investigated in terms of ?T (Tobserved-T1/F=0) and the inverse of the melted fraction (1/F) relationship during the melting and the following freezing realizations at various temperature settings of furnace. These thermal analysis results were also compared with those estimated by the CCT-WG1 recommended SIE (sum of individual estimates) method, which leads to a temperature correction along with a corresponding uncertainty through the individual impurity content detected by GDMS (glow discharge mass spectrometry).

Tsai, S. F.

2013-09-01

41

Expressive Equivalence of Least and Inflationary Fixed-Point Logic

We study the relationship between least and inflationary fixed-point logic. By results of Gurevich and Shelah from 1986, it has been known that on finite structures both log- ics have the same expressive power. On infinite structures however, the question whether there is a formula inIFP not equivalent to anyLFP-formula was still open. In this paper, we settle the question

Stephan Kreutzer; RWTH Aachen

2002-01-01

42

A fixed point approach to stability of a quadratic equation

. Using the fixed point alternative theorem we establish the orthogonal stability of the quadratic functional equation of Pexider\\u000a type f (x+y)+g(x?y) = h(x)+k(y), where f, g, h, k are mappings from a symmetric orthogonality space to a Banach space, by orthogonal additive mappings under a necessary and\\u000a sufficient condition on f.

M. Mirzavaziri; M. S. Moslehian

2006-01-01

43

Impurity and thermal modelling of SPRT fixed-points

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impurities in pure metal fixed points for the calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) causes significant variations in the freezing temperature, of the order of sub-mK to several mK. This often represents the largest contribution to the overall uncertainty of the fixed point temperature, and it is therefore of great interest to explore ways of correcting for this effect. The sum of individual estimates (SIE) method, in which the contributions of all the impurities are summed, is the recommended way of determining the correction if one has an accurate knowledge of the impurities present and their low concentration liquidus slopes. However, due to the difficulty in obtaining reliable iningot impurity corrections, it remains useful to investigate the influence of impurities on freezing curves using modeling techniques, and ultimately to parameterize the freezing curve by e.g. least-squares fitting to make corrections to the temperature of the freeze. Some success in analyzing freezing curves has been achieved. When parameterizing experimentally determined freezing curves, it is necessary to reliably determine the freezing end-point, and minimize spurious thermal effects. We outline some methods for meeting these requirements. As the influence of impurities is always convolved with thermal influences it is instructive to construct a model which takes into account both heat and impurity transport. We describe the development of more sophisticated models which take both these effects into account.

Pearce, J. V.; Veltcheva, R. I.; Large, M. J.

2013-09-01

44

Sequential fixed-point ICA based on mutual information minimization.

A new gradient technique is introduced for linear independent component analysis (ICA) based on the Edgeworth expansion of mutual information, for which the algorithm operates sequentially using fixed-point iterations. In order to address the adverse effect of outliers, a robust version of the Edgeworth expansion is adopted, in terms of robust cumulants, and robust derivatives of the Hermite polynomials are used. Also, a new constrained version of ICA is introduced, based on goal programming of mutual information objectives, which is applied to the extraction of the antepartum fetal electrocardiogram from multielectrode cutaneous recordings on the mother's thorax and abdomen. PMID:18085987

Van Hulle, Marc M

2008-05-01

45

The High-Density Fixed Point for Nonneutral Plasma Compression.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ``strong-drive'' regime was recently discovered for the radial compression of single component plasmas in Penning-Malmberg traps using a rotating electric field [the so-called rotating wall (RW) technique] and Phys. Plasmas 13, 055706 (2006).. The transition to this regime occurs via a bifurcation, and the steady-state density exhibits hysteresis as a function of the applied RW voltage. Plasmas can be compressed until the E x B rotation frequency, ?E (?E n, the plasma density) approaches the applied frequency, ?RW. Here, we discuss a simple nonlinear model that explains these observations as convergence to an attracting, high-density fixed point - a torque-balanced steady state. Measurements of the RW torque magnitude and dependence on drive voltage are presented. Quantitative agreement is found with a newly developed theory that calculates the torque near the fixed point produced by the Debye-shielded RW electric field. Applications of the RW technique in this high-density, strong-drive regime and factors limiting its utility will be discussed. J. R. Danielson and C. M. Surko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035001 (2005) M. W. Anderson and T. M. O'Neil, adjacent poster.

Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.; Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.

2006-10-01

46

Attracting Fixed Points for Radially Compressed Single-Component Plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotating electric fields are used to compress electron plasmas confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap using the so-called rotating wall (RW) techniqueootnotetextJ. R. Danielson and C. M. Surko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035001 (2005); and Phys. Plasmas 13, 055706 (2006).. Over a broad range in RW frequency, plasmas can be compressed until the E xB rotation frequency, ?E (with ?E n, the plasma density), approaches the applied frequency, ?RW. Bifurcation and hysteresis are observed between low-density and high-density steady states as a function of the applied RW electric field amplitude and frequency. Here, models of the drive and drag torques are used to describe the stable, attracting fixed points of the system. Key ingredients are a drag torque due to a plasma-mode resonance, driven by static trap asymmetries, and a RW drive torque that passes rapidly through zero as ?E approaches ?RW. A number of tests of the model are described, including perturbation experiments to confirm the nature of the RW torque and to measure its magnitude near the high-density fixed point. Open questions for future research, including a possible thermodynamic model to describe the plasma dynamics, are discussed.

Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.; Anderson, M. W.; O'Neil, T. M.

2007-11-01

47

Surveying the three-dimensional fixed points of T duality

We explore the family of fixed points of T-duality transformations in three dimensions. For the simplest nontrivial self-duality conditions it is possible to show that, in addition to the spacelike isometry in which the T-duality transformation is performed, these backgrounds must be necessarily stationary. This allows us to prove that, for nontrivial string coupling, the low energy bosonic string backgrounds, which are additionally self-T-dual along an isometry direction generated by a constant norm Killing vector, are uniquely described by a two-parametric class, including only three nonsingular cases: the charged black string, the exact gravitational wave propagating along the extremal black string, and the flat space with a linear dilaton. Besides, for constant string coupling, the only self-T-dual lower energy string background under the same assumptions corresponds to the Coussaert-Henneaux spacetime. Thus, we identify minimum criteria that yield a classification of these quoted examples and only these. All these T-dual fixed points describe exact backgrounds of string theory.

Ayon-Beato, Eloy [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Giribet, Gaston [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-02-15

48

Fixed-point computation and seismic waveform tomography

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is comprised of two parts: fixed-point computation and seismic waveform tomography. In the first part, I consider the problem of approximating fixed points of multivariate contractive and nonexpanding functions whose Lipschitz constant is close or equal to 1. Both absolute and residual error criteria are utilized as termination conditions. The circumscribed ellipsoid (CE) algorithm is shown to be able to approximate fixed points in a larger class of functions than possible in previous research. A function in this class is globally expanding but contractive or nonexpanding in the direction of fixed points. Line-search (LS) and circle-search (CS) methods are also developed for solving the fixed-point problem. The computational costs of both methods are lower than those of the CE method when the number of constraints is small. The LS method is well suited for almost linear functions while the CS method is well suited for rotational functions. To combine the strength of both methods, I developed an LS-CS hybrid method that in general is more efficient than either one of these methods. Various multivariate contractive and nonexpanding functions were implemented to test the performance of the proposed methods. The simple iteration (SI) and Newton-Raphson (NR) methods were compared with the CE, LS, CS, and LS-CS hybrid methods. The CE algorithm is an excellent method for low-dimensional functions with discontinuities and/or low regularity. However, the LS method is faster than the CE method in many cases because there is no need to construct an ellipsoid which requires solving an eigenvalue problem. However, the number of constraints for the LS, CS, LS-CS hybrid methods grows with the number of iterations. In the second part, I develop an efficient multiscale method for time-domain waveform tomography. I propose filters that are more efficient than the previously used Hamming-windowed filter. A strategy for choosing optimal frequency bands is proposed to achieve high computational efficiency in the time domain. A staggered-grid, explicit finite-difference method with 4th -order accuracy in space and 2nd-order accuracy in time is used for forward modeling and the adjoint calculation. The adjoint method is utilized in the inversion for an efficient computation of the gradient directions. In the multiscale approach, multifrequency data and multiple grid sizes are used to partially overcome the severe local minima problem of waveform tomography. My method is successfully applied to both 1D and 2D heterogeneous models, and can accurately recover both the low and high wavenumber components of the velocity models. The inversion result for the 2D model also shows that the multiscale method is computationally efficient and converges faster compared to a conventional, single-scale method.

Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot

49

Weight Initialization for Simultaneous Recurrent Neural Network Trained with a Fixed-point

optimization, fixed-point training, nonlinear dynamics, recurrent backpropagation, recurrent neural networkWeight Initialization for Simultaneous Recurrent Neural Network Trained with a Fixed-point Learning network, an adaptive algorithm, as a nonlinear dynamic system for combinatorial optimization. Empirical

Serpen, Gursel

50

Remarks on a fixed point theorem of Caristi

of the theorem was suggested to Caristi by F, E. Browder (see [2] and [3]). Theorem 1. 2: Let (X, d) be a complete metric space and f : X ~ X + arbitrary. If there exists a lower semi-continuous function g: X ~ R such that for each x c X 4(x, f(x)) & y... result which is discussed in [I j. Theorem 1. 3: Let (X, d) be a complete metric space and let f : X ~ X be continuous. If there exists a function y : X ~ R , such that for each x c X d(x, f(x)) & p(x) - y(f(x)), then f has a fixed point. Proof...

Egle, David Lee

1977-01-01

51

A Fixed-Point Iteration Method with Quadratic Convergence

The fixed-point iteration algorithm is turned into a quadratically convergent scheme for a system of nonlinear equations. Most of the usual methods for obtaining the roots of a system of nonlinear equations rely on expanding the equation system about the roots in a Taylor series, and neglecting the higher order terms. Rearrangement of the resulting truncated system then results in the usual Newton-Raphson and Halley type approximations. In this paper the introduction of unit root functions avoids the direct expansion of the nonlinear system about the root, and relies, instead, on approximations which enable the unit root functions to considerably widen the radius of convergence of the iteration method. Methods for obtaining higher order rates of convergence and larger radii of convergence are discussed.

Walker, Kevin P. [Engineering Science Software, Inc.; Sham, Sam [ORNL

2012-01-01

52

The split common fixed-point problem for demicontractive mappings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the very recent work by Censor and Segal (2009 J. Convex Anal. 16 587-600) and inspired by Xu (2006 Inverse Problems 22 2021-34) and Yang (2004 Inverse Problems 20 1261-6), we investigate an algorithm for solving the split common fixed-point problem for the class of demicontractive operators in a Hilbert space. Our results improve and/or develop previously discussed feasibility problems and related algorithms. It is worth mentioning that the convex feasibility formalism is at the core of the modeling of many inverse problems and has been used to model significant real-world problems, for instance, in sensor networks, in radiation therapy treatment planning, in computerized tomography and data compression, see Censor et al (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2353-65) and Combettes (1996 Adv. Imaging Electron. Phys. 95 155-270) and references therein.

Moudafi, A.

2010-05-01

53

Examples involving shrinking conditions of fixed point theorems

space and f a selfmap satisfying: (Sl) theze exist=- k in [Ot1) such that d(f(x), f(y)) ~ k(x, y) for all x, y in X. Then there exists a unique fixed point u in X, and fo" each x in X, the sequence [f (x)} converges to u. As Bar acn's theorem... shrinking conditions for a selfmap of a metric space: (Sl) i'or some k in [G, i), d(f(x), f(v)j ? k d(x, y) for each x, y in X (S2) there exists a k in I~0, 1) such that for each x 'n X there exists n(x) in Z with ( n(x) n(x)) d. f(x) , f(y) ; ? k d...

Sharp, Douglas Andrew

1970-01-01

54

This work performs an analysis of basic optical properties of zoom lenses with a fixed distance between object and image points and a fixed position of the image-space focal point. Formulas for the calculation of paraxial parameters of such optical systems are derived and the calculation is presented on examples. PMID:24977815

Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri

2014-06-30

55

Phase diagram and fixed-point structure of two-dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino models

We study the phases and fixed-point structure of two-dimensional supersymmetric Wess-Zumino models with one supercharge. Our work is based on the functional renormalization group (RG) formulated in terms of a manifestly off-shell supersymmetric flow equation for the effective action. Within the derivative expansion, we solve the flow of the superpotential also including the anomalous dimension of the superfield. The models exhibit a surprisingly rich fixed-point structure with a discrete number of fixed-point superpotentials. Each fixed-point superpotential is characterized by its number of nodes and by the number of RG-relevant directions. In limiting cases, we find periodic superpotentials and potentials which confine the fields to a compact target space. The maximally IR-attractive fixed point has one relevant direction, the tuning of which distinguishes between supersymmetric and broken phases. For the Wess-Zumino model defined near the Gaussian fixed point, we determine the phase diagram and compute the corresponding ground-state masses.

Synatschke, Franziska; Gies, Holger; Wipf, Andreas [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

2009-10-15

56

Tin-filled multi-entrance fixed point

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the advantages, design possibilities, performance of the Multi-Entrance Fixed Point (MEFP) concept are described. The purpose of MEFP is to replace equalizing blocks in any temperature-controlled zone with phase transition of matter during melting or freezing. The phase transition in such a calibration is not intended to be the temperature standard itself, but only provides for spatial thermal homogeneity and temporal stability during comparison calibration. Knowing that some of the main uncertainty components in the uncertainty budget of the comparison calibrated thermometer are the radial and axial gradients in the isothermal zone and knowing that comparisons comprise by far the majority of all calibrations, the improvement of speed and quality of calibration is of significant importance. The tin-filled MEFP with multiple entrance tubes, designed in the Laboratory for Process Measurements allows for simultaneous calibration of several thermometers against a standard thermometer. MEFP prototypes filled with other materials and with other design characteristics are pending production. This concept allows the use of modest purity materials to fill the cell, since a standard thermometer is used as the calibration reference. During this investigation, thermometers were calibrated against a standard in the same furnace, using both the standard equalizing block and the MEFP. The measurement results indicate that the use of MEFP decreases the uncertainty contributions from temperature gradients and the stability of the bath by an order of magnitude, compared to the standard equalizing block.

Zvizdi?, D.; Šestan, D.

2013-09-01

57

Fixed and Floating Point The two most common representations of numbers in computers are

Lesson 7 Fixed and Floating Point The two most common representations of numbers in computers This representation is commonly used for integers. · Floating point representation: in addition to providing space and floating point numbers; fixed point representations are typically used for integer and boolean vari- ables

Shapiro, Bruce E.

58

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fixed point Open Ocean Observatory network (FixO3) seeks to integrate the 23 European open ocean fixed point observatories and to improve access to these key installations for the broader community. These will provide multidisciplinary observations in all parts of the oceans from the air-sea interface to the deep seafloor. Coordinated by the National Oceanography Centre, UK, FixO3 builds on the significant advances achieved through the previous Europe-funded FP7 programmes EuroSITES, ESONET and CARBOOCEAN. Started in September 2013 with a budget of 7 Million Euros over 4 years the project has 29 partners drawn from academia, research institutions and SME's. In addition 12 international experts from a wide range of disciplines comprise an Advisory Board. On behalf of the FixO3 Consortium, we present the programme that will be achieved through the activities of 12 Work Packages: 1. Coordination activities to integrate and harmonise the current procedures and processes. Strong links will be fostered with the wider community across academia, industry, policy and the general public through outreach, knowledge exchange and training. 2. Support actions to offer a) free access to observatory infrastructures to those who do not have such access, and b) free and open data services and products. 3. Joint research activities to innovate and enhance the current capability for multidisciplinary in situ ocean observation. Support actions include Transnational Access (TNA) to FixO3 infrastructure, meaning that European organizations can apply to free-of-charge access to the observatories for research and testing in two international calls during the project lifetime. The first call for TNA opens in summer 2014. More information can be found on FixO3 website (www.fixo3.eu/). Open ocean observation is currently a high priority for European marine and maritime activities. FixO3 will provide important data on environmental products and services to address the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and in support of the European Integrated Maritime Policy. The FixO3 network will provide free and open access to in situ fixed point data of the highest quality. It will provide a strong integrated framework of open ocean facilities in the Atlantic from the Arctic to the Antarctic and throughout the Mediterranean, enabling an integrated, regional and multidisciplinary approach to understand natural and anthropogenic change in the ocean.

Lampitt, Richard; Cristini, Luisa

2014-05-01

59

1. Abstract A simple BPSK communication,system is built using root-raised-cosine filters for both its transmitter and receiver sides, which depicts the design process using Simulink and Xilinx System Generator. Starting from choosing the algorithm and building the floating- point system with architecture information, the system is converted into fixed-point using our floating-point to fixed-point conversion (FFC) tool. 2. Motivation Can

Changchun Shi

60

Some Extensions of Discrete Fixed Point Theorems and Their Applications to the Game Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As is well-known in the game theory, fixed point theorems are useful to show the existence of Nash equilibrium. Since they are mathematical tools in continuous variables, it is expected that discrete fixed point theorems also useful to guarantee the existence of pure-strategy Nash equilibrium. In this talk, we review three types of discrete fixed point theorems, give some extensions, and apply them to non-cooperative games.

Kawasaki, Hidefumi

2009-09-01

61

In a recent survey conducted by AccelChip, Inc. (recently acquired by Xilinx), 53 percent of the respondents identified floating-point to fixed-point conversion as the most difficult aspect of implementing an algorithm on an FPGA. Many of the benefits of MATLAB that make it such a powerful algorithm development tool are reduced during the fixed-point conversion process. New mathematical errors are

Thomas Hill

62

Is There a Curse of Dimensionality for Contraction Fixed Points in the Worst Case?

an -approximation to the fixed point V = (V ) of a contraction mapping that maps a Banach space Bd of continuous and arithmetic oper- ations required to compute an -approximation to a fixed point V Bd increases exponentially Bd into itself where Bd is a space of continuous functions defined on a com- pact Sd IRd

Traub, Joseph F.

63

Fixed point theorems for convex contraction mappings on cone metric spaces

In 2007, Huang and Zhang [L.G. Huang, X. Zhang, Cone metric spaces and fixed point theorems of contractive mappings, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 332 (2007) 1468–1476] rediscovered normal cone metric spaces and obtained the Banach contraction principle for this setting. Later on, Rezapour and Hamlbarani [Sh. Rezapour, R. Hamlbarani, Some notes on the paper: Cone metric spaces and fixed point

Mohammad A. Alghamdi; Shahrazad H. Alnafei; Stojan Radenovi?; Naseer Shahzad

2011-01-01

64

Stability of fixed points and generalized critical behavior in multifield models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study models with three coupled vector fields characterized by O (N1) ?O (N2) ?O (N3) symmetry. Using the nonperturbative functional renormalization group, we derive ? functions for the couplings and anomalous dimensions in d dimensions. Specializing to the case of three dimensions, we explore interacting fixed points that generalize the O (N ) Wilson-Fisher fixed point. We find a symmetry-enhanced isotropic fixed point, a large class of fixed points with partial symmetry enhancement, as well as partially and fully decoupled fixed-point solutions. We discuss their stability properties for all values of N1,N2, and N3, emphasizing important differences to the related two-field models. For small numbers of field components, we find no stable fixed-point solutions, and we argue that this can be attributed to the presence of a large class of possible (mixed) couplings in the three-field and multifield models. Furthermore, we contrast different mechanisms for stability interchange between fixed points in the case of the two- and three-field models, which generically proceed through fixed-point collisions.

Eichhorn, A.; Mesterházy, D.; Scherer, M. Â. M.

2014-11-01

65

A Fixed Point Charge Model for Water Optimized to the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Properties

A Fixed Point Charge Model for Water Optimized to the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Properties Jeffrey R@ipst.umd.edu #12;1 Abstract A new fixed-point charge potential model for water has been developed, targeting the accurate prediction of the vapor-liquid coexistence properties over a broad temperature range. The model

66

Many flavor QCD as exploration of the walking behavior with the approximate IR fixed point

We present the first report of the LatKMI collaboration on the the lattice QCD simulation performed at the KMI computer, "$\\varphi$", for the cases of 4 flavors and 8 flavors, the latter being expected to be a candidate for the walking technicolor having an approximate scale invariance near the infrared fixed point. The simulation was carried out based on the highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) action. In this proceedings, we report preliminary results on the spectrum, analyzed through the chiral perturbation theory and the finite-size hyperscaling. We observe qualitatively different behavior of the 8-flavor case in contrast to the 4-flavor case which shows clear indication of the hadronic phase as in the usual QCD.

Yasumichi Aoki; Tatsumi Aoyama; Masafumi Kurachi; Toshihide Maskawa; Kei-ichi Nagai; Hiroshi Ohki; Akihiro Shibata; Koichi Yamawaki; Takeshi Yamazaki

2012-02-21

67

A New Co-C Eutectic Fixed-Point Cell for Thermocouple Calibration at

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eutectic Co-C is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed point beyond the freezing point of copper (). Some national metrology institutes have developed, characterized, and compared their Co-C fixed-point cells based on conventional designs. Indeed, the fixed-point cells constructed are directly inspired by the technologies applied to the fixed points of the ITS-90 to the lower levels of temperature. By studying the eutectic metal-carbon systems, is appears that the high temperatures of implementation give a set of difficulties, such as the strong mechanical stresses on the graphite crucibles, due to the important thermal expansion of the eutectic alloys during their phase transitions. If these devices are suitable with research activities to serve like primary standards, it is not envisaged to propose them for a direct application to the calibration activities for the industry. As regards the limited robustness of the conventional fixed-point cells constructed, an intensive use of these device would not be reasonable, in term of cost for example. In this paper, a new Co-C fixed-point design is introduced. This low cost device has been developed specifically for intensive use in thermocouple calibration activities, with the aim of achieving the lowest level of uncertainties as is practicable. Thus, in this paper, the metrological characterization of this device is also presented, and a direct comparison to a primary Co-C fixed-point cell previously constructed is discussed.

Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Jouin, D.; Mokdad, S.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

2014-07-01

68

While hardware\\/software partitioning has been shown to provide significant performance gains, most hardware\\/software partitioning\\u000a approaches are limited to partitioning computational kernels utilizing integers or fixed point implementations. Software developers\\u000a often initially develop an application using floating point representations built-in to most programming languages and later\\u000a convert the application to a fixed point representation—a potentially time consuming process. In this paper,

Lance Saldanha; Roman Lysecky

2009-01-01

69

G-CO Fixed points of rigid motions

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A rigid motion of the plane is a map of the plane to itself which preserves distances between points. Let $f$ be such a function.A point $x$ in the pla...

70

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously demonstrated the experimental control of chaos in a Modified Taylor-Couette system with hourglass geometry( Richard J. Wiener et al), Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2340 (1999).. Identifying fixed points susceptible to algorithms for the control of chaos is key. We seek to learn about this process in the accessible numerical model of the damped, driven pendulum. Following Baker(Gregory L. Baker, Am. J. Phys. 63), 832 (1995)., we seek points susceptible to the OGY(E. Ott, C. Grebogi, and J. A. Yorke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64), 1196 (1990). algorithm. We automate the search for fixed points that are candidates for control. We present comparisons of the space of candidate fixed points with the bifurcation diagrams and Poincare sections of the system. We demonstrate control at fixed points which do not appear on the attractor. We also show that the control algorithm may be employed to shift the system between non-communicating branches of the attractor.

Dittmore, Andrew; Trail, Collin; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard J.

2003-11-01

71

Existence of Tripled Fixed Points for a Class of Condensing Operators in Banach Spaces

We give some results concerning the existence of tripled fixed points for a class of condensing operators in Banach spaces. Further, as an application, we study the existence of solutions for a general system of nonlinear integral equations.

Karakaya, Vatan; Bouzara, Nour El Houda; Do?an, Kadri; Atalan, Yunus

2014-01-01

72

Hardware-Accelerated Collision Detection using Bounded-Error Fixed-Point Arithmetic

Hardware-Accelerated Collision Detection using Bounded-Error Fixed-Point Arithmetic Andreas Raabe,1, Germany {raabe, hochguer, anlauf}@cs.uni-bonn.de 2Computer Graphics Clausthal University, Germany zach

Zachmann, Gabriel

73

Schaefer-Krasnoselskii fixed point theorems using a usual measure of weak noncompactness

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some extension of a well-known fixed point theorem due to Burton and Kirk [T.A. Burton, C. Kirk, A fixed point theorem of Krasnoselskii-Schaefer type, Math. Nachr. 189 (1998) 423-431] for the sum of two nonlinear operators one of them compact and the other one a strict contraction. The novelty of our results is that the involved operators need not to be weakly continuous. Finally, an example is given to illustrate our results.

Garcia-Falset, J.; Latrach, K.; Moreno-Gálvez, E.; Taoudi, M.-A.

74

Realization of Open Copper Fixed-Point Cells for Thermocouple Calibration

BNM-LNE had studied Pt\\/Pd thermocouple behavior with the aim of adopting this type of sensor as an approximation of the ITS-90 above 660 °C. In order to complete a set of fixed-point cells which are available for the calibration of Pt\\/Pd thermocouples and other Pt-based thermocouples, BNM-LNE has recently developed an open copper fixed-point cell. This cell was developed as

Mohammed Megharfi; Eric Devin; Anne Royer; Ronan Morice

2003-01-01

75

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the results of an international star intercomparison of low-temperature fixed points is given. Between 1997 and 2005, 68 sealed triple-point cells (STPCs) of the twelve laboratories represented by the authors were investigated at PTB. The STPCs are used to realize the triple points of hydrogen, neon, oxygen and argon as defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990, ITS-90. The melting curves (MCs) of all STPCs have been measured on the same experimental equipment, adhering strictly to a single measurement program. This protocol enables separation of the effects influencing the MCs and direct comparison of the thermal behaviour of the STPCs, which are quite different with respect to design, age, gas source and filling technology. In the paper, special emphasis is given to the spread of the liquidus-point temperatures and to the uncertainty of their determination. Connections between the star intercomparison and completed and ongoing international activities are also discussed.

Fellmuth, B.; Wolber, L.; Head, D. I.; Hermier, Y.; Hill, K. D.; Nakano, T.; Pavese, F.; Peruzzi, A.; Rusby, R. L.; Shkraba, V.; Steele, A. G.; Steur, P. P. M.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Tew, W. L.; Wang, L.; White, D. R.

2012-06-01

76

24 CFR 50.16 - Decision points for policy actions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...16 Decision points for policy actions. Either an EA and FONSI or an EIS on all policy actions not meeting the criteria of...PECO shall request a determination by the AS/CPD. The EA and FONSI may be combined into a single...

2010-04-01

77

24 CFR 50.16 - Decision points for policy actions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...16 Decision points for policy actions. Either an EA and FONSI or an EIS on all policy actions not meeting the criteria of...PECO shall request a determination by the AS/CPD. The EA and FONSI may be combined into a single...

2014-04-01

78

24 CFR 50.16 - Decision points for policy actions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...16 Decision points for policy actions. Either an EA and FONSI or an EIS on all policy actions not meeting the criteria of...PECO shall request a determination by the AS/CPD. The EA and FONSI may be combined into a single...

2013-04-01

79

24 CFR 50.16 - Decision points for policy actions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

80

24 CFR 50.16 - Decision points for policy actions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

81

Calibration of Radiation Thermometry Fixed Points Using Au/Pt Thermocouples

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At NMIA, radiation thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a number of reference radiation thermometers which are themselves calibrated using fixed-point cells on the ITS-90 temperature scale (In, Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, and Au). The suitability of NMIA fixed-point cells used for standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) is evaluated by the comparison of ensembles of cells at each fixed point, and by participation in the international BIPM Key-Comparisons K3 and K4. However, the NMIA fixed-point cells used for radiation thermometry are typically much smaller (only 110 mm in length) and the thermowell length immersed in the metal much shorter (85 mm) than those used for SPRTs. Further, the insulation at the front of the crucible needs to accommodate the F/10 viewing cone of the radiation thermometers, so significant temperature gradients exist near the top of the crucible. As a consequence, the conduction errors obtained using SPRTs are too large to be of practical use. A convenient methodology based on the use of a Au/Pt thermocouple, together with a protective tube assembly to reduce conduction errors, has been developed. This allows the convenient measurement of the phase transition temperature traceable, at the 30 mK level, to the fixed-point cells used at NMIA to realize and maintain the ITS-90 scale. As the measurements are made in situ, the temperature environment, and hence the geometry and formation of the liquid-solid interface during melting and freezing, are similar to that occurring when used with radiation thermometers. Results are presented for ITS-90 fixed points up to Ag, establishing formal traceability of radiation thermometry fixed-point cells to NMIA's primary ITS-90 cells.

Jahan, F.; Ballico, M. J.

2011-01-01

82

Proposed Process for Estimating Definitive Temperatures of High-Temperature Fixed Points

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filter radiometric measurements of high-temperature fixed points will provide a means of realizing and disseminating the thermodynamic temperature for temperatures above the silver point, with uncertainties that are competitive with the defined ITS-90. This paper presents the analysis method proposed for determining the thermodynamic temperature of the melting transitions of Re-C, Pt-C, and Co-C eutectic fixed points by combining filter radiometer measurements by nine laboratories to obtain a single temperature for each fixed point. It discusses the key sources of error, the corrections applied for known systematic effects, and the uncertainties. These sources of error introduce correlation between the measured values; the paper describes how data can be combined in a way that accounts for that correlation.

Woolliams, E. R.; Bloembergen, P.; Machin, G.

2015-03-01

83

Multi-Mini-Eutectic Fixed-Point Cell for Type C Thermocouple Self-Calibration

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermocouples are generally calibrated using a series of standard fixed-point cells. However, thermocouples in use, particularly base metal and refractory thermocouples, exhibit significant calibration drift due to factors such as inhomogeneity growth. It is not possible to reliably determine the magnitude of this drift by removing the thermocouple for recalibration and instead, must be quantified by some form of in situ calibration. Here, a multi-mini-cell for the use with a metal sheathed W-Re thermocouple (Type C) was developed. The cell contains two layers of different eutectic materials in the same crucible, one in each compartment, separated by a thin graphite disk. The cobalt-carbon and iron-carbon eutectic materials were selected to prove the concept. In addition, thermal modeling was performed to predict the performance of this design of this multi-fixed point. A prototype multi-mini-fixed-point cell was constructed and tested, and results are reported. The overall performance, despite only very small amounts of each fixed-point material being used, is that the repeatability of the W-Re thermocouple (melt-to-melt) was found to be 1.8 or for the Fe-C and 1.5 or for the Co-C . The lack of drift in the thermocouple enabled the repeatability and stability of the principle of multi-mini-fixed points for self-calibration to be demonstrated.

Ongrai, O.; Pearce, J. V.; Machin, G.; Norranim, U.

2015-03-01

84

Large- and Small-Aperture Fixed-Point Cells of Cu, Pt C, and Re C

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extending the application of metal (carbide) carbon eutectic fixed-point cells to radiometry, e.g., for measurements in irradiance mode, requires fixed-point cells with large apertures. In order to make large-aperture cells more readily usable in furnace systems with smaller furnace tubes commonly used for small-aperture fixed-point cells, a novel cell design was developed. For each of Cu, Pt C, and Re C fixed points, two types of fixed-point cells were manufactured, the small- and large-aperture cell. For Pt C and Re C, the large-aperture cells were filled with a hyper-eutectic metal carbon mixture; for the small cells, a hypo-eutectic mixture was used for filling. For each material, the small and large cells were compared with respect to radiometric differences. Whereas plateau shape and melting temperature are in good agreement for the small- and large-aperture Cu cells, a larger difference was observed between small- and large-aperture cells of Pt C and Re C, respectively. The origin of these observations, attributed to the temperature distribution inside the furnace, ingot contamination during manufacture, and non-uniform ingot formation for the larger cells, is discussed. The comparison of measurements by a radiation thermometer and filter radiometer of the Re C and Pt C large-aperture cells showed large differences that could be explained only by a strong radiance distribution across the cavity bottom. Further investigations are envisaged to clarify the cause.

Anhalt, Klaus; Wang, Yunfen; Yamada, Yoshiro; Hartmann, Jürgen

2008-06-01

85

One-parameter semigroups of analytic functions, fixed points and the Koenigs function

Analogues of the Berkson-Porta formula for the infinitesimal generator of a one-parameter semigroup of holomorphic maps of the unit disc into itself are obtained in the case when, along with a Denjoy-Wolff point, there also exist other fixed points. With each one-parameter semigroup a so-called Koenigs function is associated, which is a solution, common for all elements of the one-parameter semigroup, of a certain functional equation (Schroeder's equation in the case of an interior Denjoy-Wolff point and Abel's equation in the case of a boundary Denjoy-Wolff point). A parametric representation for classes of Koenigs functions that takes account of the Denjoy-Wolff point and other fixed points of the maps in the one-parameter semigroup is presented. Bibliography: 19 titles.

Goryainov, Victor V; Kudryavtseva, Olga S [Volzhsky Institute of Humanities, Volgograd Region, Volzhsky (Russian Federation)

2011-07-31

86

On Finding a Fixed Point in a Boolean Network with Maximum Indegree 2

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding fixed points in discrete dynamical systems is important because fixed points correspond to steady-states. The Boolean network is considered as one of the simplest discrete dynamical systems and is often used as a model of genetic networks. It is known that detection of a fixed point in a Boolean network with n nodes and maximum indegree K can be polynomially transformed into (K+1)-SAT with n variables. In this paper, we focus on the case of K = 2 and present an O(1.3171n) expected time algorithm, which is faster than the naive algorithm based on a reduction to 3-SAT, where we assume that nodes with indegree 2 do not contain self-loops. We also show an algorithm for the general case of K = 2 that is slightly faster than the naive algorithm.

Akutsu, Tatsuya; Tamura, Takeyuki

87

Finding Non-Zero Stable Fixed Points of the Weighted Kuramoto model is NP-hard

The Kuramoto model when considered over the full space of phase angles [$0,2\\pi$) can have multiple stable fixed points which form basins of attraction in the solution space. In this paper we illustrate the fundamentally complex relationship between the network topology and the solution space by showing that determining the possibility of multiple stable fixed points from the network topology is NP-hard for the weighted Kuramoto Model. In the case of the unweighted model this problem is shown to be at least as difficult as a number partition problem, which we conjecture to be NP-hard. We conclude that it is unlikely that stable fixed points of the Kuramoto model can be characterized in terms of easily computable network invariants.

Richard Taylor

2015-02-24

88

Miniature Fixed-Point Cell Approaches for Monitoring of Thermocouple Stability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the European Metrology Research Project ENG08 "MetroFission," LNE-Cnam and NPL have undertaken cooperative research into the development of temperature measurement solutions for the next generation of nuclear fission power plants. Currently, in-pile temperature monitoring is usually performed with nickel-based (Type K or N) thermocouples. When these thermocouples are exposed to a neutron flux, the thermoelements transmute, leading to large and unknown drifts in output. In addition, it is impossible to routinely recalibrate the thermocouples after irradiation for obvious reasons of safety. To alleviate this problem, both LNE-Cnam and NPL have developed, via differing approaches, in situ calibration methods for the thermocouples. The self-validating thermocouple methodologies are based on the principle of a miniature fixed-point cell to be co-located with the thermocouple measurement junction in use. The drift of the thermocouple can be monitored and corrected for by regular determination of the output at the phase transition of the fixed-point material: in effect performing regular in situ calibration checks. The two institutes have constructed miniature fixed-point cells for use at three different temperatures; the freezing point of silver ; LNE-Cnam), the freezing point of copper ; LNE-Cnam and NPL), and the melting point of Fe-C (; NPL). This paper introduces the construction and validation of the miniature fixed-point cells prior to use, to ensure traceability to the ITS-90. A comparison of the performance of the two cell designs is discussed, where typical industrial Type N thermocouples have been used for measurement of the fixed-point cells. Such initial measurements demonstrate the feasibility of each of these two approaches.

Failleau, G.; Elliott, C. J.; Deuzé, T.; Pearce, J. V.; Machin, G.; Sadli, M.

2014-07-01

89

Parallel fixed point implementation of a radial basis function network in an FPGA.

This paper proposes a parallel fixed point radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN), implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) trained online with a least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The processing time and occupied area were analyzed for various fixed point formats. The problems of precision of the ANN response for nonlinear classification using the XOR gate and interpolation using the sine function were also analyzed in a hardware implementation. The entire project was developed using the System Generator platform (Xilinx), with a Virtex-6 xc6vcx240t-1ff1156 as the target FPGA. PMID:25268918

de Souza, Alisson C D; Fernandes, Marcelo A C

2014-01-01

90

Parameter estimation by fixed point of function of information processing intensity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new method of estimating the dispersion of a distribution which is based on the surprising property of a function that measures information processing intensity. It turns out that this function has a maximum at its fixed point. Fixed-point equation is used to estimate the parameter of the distribution that is of interest to us. The main result consists in showing that only part of available experimental data is relevant for the parameters estimation process. We illustrate the estimation method by using the example of an exponential distribution.

Jankowski, Robert; Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W.

2014-12-01

91

Parallel Fixed Point Implementation of a Radial Basis Function Network in an FPGA

This paper proposes a parallel fixed point radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN), implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) trained online with a least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The processing time and occupied area were analyzed for various fixed point formats. The problems of precision of the ANN response for nonlinear classification using the XOR gate and interpolation using the sine function were also analyzed in a hardware implementation. The entire project was developed using the System Generator platform (Xilinx), with a Virtex-6 xc6vcx240t-1ff1156 as the target FPGA. PMID:25268918

de Souza, Alisson C. D.; Fernandes, Marcelo A. C.

2014-01-01

92

Standard reference materials: Application of some metal SRM's as thermometric fixed points

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equipment and procedures are described for the realization of liquid-solid phase equilibrium states of some pure metals as thermometric fixed points for platinum resistance thermometry. The design and techniques for assembling fixed point cells using Standard Reference Materials (SRM) 740 (zinc), 43h (zinc), 42g (tin), 741 (tin), 44f (aluminum), 746 (cadmium), and 743 (mercury) are given and the results of the measurements using the purer of these metal SRM's are analyzed and evaluated. The reproducibility of temperature measurements with these metal SRM's is shown to be about plus or minus 0.1 mK.

Furukawa, G. T.; Riddle, J. L.; Bigge, W. R.; Pfeiffer, E. R.

1982-08-01

93

One loop beta functions and fixed points in higher derivative sigma models

We calculate the one loop beta functions of nonlinear sigma models in four dimensions containing general two- and four-derivative terms. In the O(N) model there are four such terms and nontrivial fixed points exist for all N{>=}4. In the chiral SU(N) models there are in general six couplings, but only five for N=3 and four for N=2; we find fixed points only for N=2, 3. In the approximation considered, the four-derivative couplings are asymptotically free but the coupling in the two-derivative term has a nonzero limit. These results support the hypothesis that certain sigma models may be asymptotically safe.

Percacci, Roberto; Zanusso, Omar [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2Y5 (Canada); SISSA, via Beirut 4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

2010-03-15

94

Fixed Point Results for G-?-Contractive Maps with Application to Boundary Value Problems

We unify the concepts of G-metric, metric-like, and b-metric to define new notion of generalized b-metric-like space and discuss its topological and structural properties. In addition, certain fixed point theorems for two classes of G-?-admissible contractive mappings in such spaces are obtained and some new fixed point results are derived in corresponding partially ordered space. Moreover, some examples and an application to the existence of a solution for the first-order periodic boundary value problem are provided here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results. PMID:24895655

Roshan, Jamal Rezaei

2014-01-01

95

Bilateral Comparison of Aluminum Fixed-Point Cells Using Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of Project EURAMET 1114 (Bilateral comparison of a freezing point of aluminum) in the field of thermometry is to compare realization of a freezing point of aluminum (660.323 °C) between the Dutch national laboratory VSL and the Slovenian national laboratory MIRS/UL-FE/LMK using a long-stem 25 ? standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). Both laboratories had participated in a number of inter-comparisons on the level of EURAMET and also on BIPM CCT level (VSL). MIRS/UL-FE/LMK laboratory recently acquired a new fixed-point cell which had to be validated in the process of intercomparison. A quartz-sheathed SPRT was selected and calibrated at MIRS/UL-FE/LMK at the aluminum freezing point and at the water triple point. A second set of measurements was made on the same SPRT and at the same fixed points at VSL (NL). After its return, the SPRT was again recalibrated at MIRS/UL-FE/LMK. In the comparison the W value of the SPRT was used. The results of the internal and external intercomparisons confirmed that the new aluminum cell of the MIRS/UL/FE-LMK realizes a temperature that agrees with the VSL aluminum fixed point within the uncertainty limits of both laboratories. Furthermore, the results of this bilateral-comparison were compared with results that both laboratories achieved in the EURAMET K4 (Project 820) and were found to be in agreement.

Bojkovski, J.; Peruzzi, A.; Bosma, R.; Batagelj, V.

2011-08-01

96

Fixed-point distributions of short-range Ising spin glasses on hierarchical lattices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fixed-point distributions for the couplings of Ising spin glasses with nearest-neighbor interactions on hierarchical lattices are investigated numerically. Hierarchical lattices within the Migdal-Kadanoff family with fractal dimensions in the range 2.58 ?D ?7 , as well as a lattice of the Wheatstone-Bridge family with fractal dimension D ?3.58 are considered. Three initial distributions for the couplings are analyzed, namely, the Gaussian, bimodal, and uniform ones. In all cases, after a few iterations of the renormalization-group procedure, the associated probability distributions approached universal fixed shapes. For hierarchical lattices of the Migdal-Kadanoff family, the fixed-point distributions were well fitted either by stretched exponentials, or by q -Gaussian distributions; both fittings recover the expected Gaussian limit as D ?? . In the case of the Wheatstone-Bridge lattice, the best fit was found by means of a stretched-exponential distribution.

Almeida, Sebastião T. O.; Nobre, Fernando D.

2015-03-01

97

Fixed Points of Contractive Mappings in b-Metric-Like Spaces

We discuss topological structure of b-metric-like spaces and demonstrate a fundamental lemma for the convergence of sequences. As an application we prove certain fixed point results in the setup of such spaces for different types of contractive mappings. Finally, some periodic point results in b-metric-like spaces are obtained. Two examples are presented in order to verify the effectiveness and applicability of our main results. PMID:25143980

Hussain, Nawab; Roshan, Jamal Rezaei

2014-01-01

98

Long-Term Stability of WC-C Peritectic Fixed Point

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tungsten carbide-carbon peritectic (WC-C) melting transition is an attractive high-temperature fixed point with a temperature of . Earlier investigations showed high repeatability, small melting range, low sensitivity to impurities, and robustness of WC-C that makes it a prospective candidate for the highest fixed point of the temperature scale. This paper presents further study of the fixed point, namely the investigation of the long-term stability of the WC-C melting temperature. For this purpose, a new WC-C cell of the blackbody type was built using tungsten powder of 99.999 % purity. The stability of the cell was investigated during the cell aging for 50 h at the cell working temperature that tooks 140 melting/freezing cycles. The method of investigation was based on the comparison of the WC-C tested cell with a reference Re-C fixed-point cell that reduces an influence of the probable instability of a radiation thermometer. It was shown that after the aging period, the deviation of the WC-C cell melting temperature was with an uncertainty of.

Khlevnoy, B. B.; Grigoryeva, I. A.

2015-03-01

99

A fixed point formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry I: statement and proof

A fixed point formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry I: statement and proof-Roch theorem, in a form conjectured by J.-M. Bismut (cf. [B2, Par. (l), p. 353] and also Ch. Soul'e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6.2.3 Equivariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.3 Proof

KÃ¶hler, Kai

100

Solving variational inequality and fixed point problems by line searches and potential optimization

We introduce a general adaptive line search framework for solving fixed point and variational inequality problems. Our goals are to develop iterative schemes that (i) compute solutions when the underlying map satisfies properties weaker than contractiveness, for example, weaker forms of nonexpansiveness, (ii) are more efficient than the classical methods even when the underlying map is contractive, and (iii) unify

Thomas L. Magnanti; Georgia Perakis

2004-01-01

101

We consider a hybrid projection algorithm based on the shrinking projection method for two families of quasi- $\\\\phi $ -nonexpansive mappings. We establish strong convergence theorems for approximating the common element of the set of the common fixed points of such two families and the set of solutions of the variational inequality for an inverse-strongly monotone operator in the framework

Rabian Wangkeeree; Rattanaporn Wangkeeree

2009-01-01

102

AN ITERATIVE METHOD FOR VARIATIONAL INEQUALITY PROBLEMS AND FIXED POINT PROBLEMS IN HILBERT SPACES

In this paper, we introduce a new iterative scheme to investigate the problem of finding a common element of the set of fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping and the set of solutions of a variational inequality problem for a relaxed (?;r)-cocoercive, Lipschitz continuous mapping. Our results improve and extend the corresponding results of many others. 1. Introduction and preliminaries

MATEMATIQKI VESNIK; Xiaolong Qin; Meijuan Shang; Yongfu Su

103

On Computational Complexity of Counting Fixed Points in Symmetric Boolean Graph Automata

We study computational complexity of counting the fixed point con- figurations (FPs) in certain classes of graph automata viewed as discrete dy- namical systems. We prove that both exact and approximate counting of FPs in Sequential and Synchronous Dynamical Systems (SDSs and SyDSs, respec- tively) are computationally intractable, even when each node is required to update according to a symmetric

Predrag T. Tosica; Gul A. Agha

2005-01-01

104

On Complexity of Counting Fixed Point Configurations in Certain Classes of Graph Automata

We study computational complexity of counting the fixed point configurations (FPs) in certain discrete dynamical systems. We prove that counting FPs in Sequential and Synchronous Dynamical Systems (SDSs and SyDSs, respectively) is computationally intractable, even when each node is required to update according to a symmetric Boolean function. We also show that the problems of counting the garden of Eden

PREDRAG T. TO

105

Conformal Bootstrap Approach to O(N) Fixed Points in Five Dimensions

Whether O(N)-invariant conformal field theory exists in five dimensions with its implication to higher-spin holography was much debated. We find an affirmative result on this question by utilizing conformal bootstrap approach. In solving for the crossing symmetry condition, we propose a new approach based on specification for the low-lying spectrum distribution. We find the traditional one-gap bootstrapping is not suited since the nontrivial fixed point expected from large-N expansion sits at deep interior (not at boundary or kink) of allowed solution region. We propose two-gap bootstrapping that specifies scaling dimension of two lowest scalar operators. The approach carves out vast region of lower scaling dimensions and universally features two tips. We find that the sought-for nontrivial fixed point now sits at one of the tips, while the Gaussian fixed point sits at the other tip. The scaling dimensions of scalar operators fit well with expectation based on large-N expansion. We also find indication that the fixed point persist for lower values of N all the way down to N=1. This suggests that interacting unitary conformal field theory exists in five dimensions for all nonzero N.

Jin-Beom Bae; Soo-Jong Rey

2014-12-19

106

Constraints on ultraviolet-stable fixed points in supersymmetric gauge theories

We consider the possibility that some supersymmetric gauge theories which are not asymptotically free can be governed by ultraviolet-stable fixed points. If this scenario can be realized, gaugino masses will exhibit power-law running with scale, providing a possible solution to the supersymmetric flavor problem. While naive perturbative calculations hint at the appearance of ultraviolet-stable fixed points in certain theories, there are strong constraints following from limits on the scaling dimensions of gauge-invariant operators, positivity of central charges, and Cardy's conjectured constraint on the flow of the Euler coefficient in the stress tensor trace anomaly. Also, we prove that if ultraviolet-stable fixed points do exist, they cannot occur in the perturbative regime of a renormalizable model, and that all-orders results in the limit of large numbers of chiral superfields are necessarily inconclusive. However, we argue that the general idea of ultraviolet-stable fixed points in supersymmetric gauge theories is viable, and exhibit models that can satisfy all known constraints.

Stephen P. Martin; James D. Wells

2000-11-29

107

Viscosity approximation methods for equilibrium problems and fixed point problems in Hilbert spaces

In this paper, we introduce an iterative scheme by the viscosity approximation method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem and the set of fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping in a Hilbert space. Then, we prove a strong convergence theorem which is connected with Combettes and Hirstoaga's result [P.L. Combettes, S.A. Hirstoaga,

Satoru Takahashi; Wataru Takahashi

2007-01-01

108

A new approach to the plotting of fixed points of renormalization groups in dynamic systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new geometric approach to the plotting of fixed points of renormalization groups in dynamic systems is developed. It is based on discrete approximations of corresponding equations which take scale invariance into account. The first results of a numerical investigation of these equations are presented.

Sinai, Ia. G.; Khanin, K. M.; Shchur, L. H.

109

1 MATH 1360 Computer Assignment I Introduction to Matlab: finding fixed points, flow diagrams://www.math.pitt.edu/~annav/1360/matlab and download the following files: flow.m subroutine for plotting the 1-D flow diagram(inline('x^2-1'),[-2 2]) plots the flow diagram for 12 xx in the interval 2

Vainchtein, Anna

110

ON SERIAL AND PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATIONS OF THE ERLANG FIXED POINT ITERATION SCHEME

ON SERIAL AND PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATIONS OF THE ERLANG FIXED POINT ITERATION SCHEME Andrew G Hart of the weighting constant. Finally, a comparison between the serial implementation and a number of parallel, including cellular and mobile radio networks, database management systems, computer networks and circuit

Pollett, Phil

111

Fixed point controllers and stabilization of the cart-pole system and the rotating pendulum

We consider stabilization of nonlinear systems in a special normal form as the cascade of a nonlinear subsystem and a linear subsystem. These systems do not possess any particular triangular structure. Despite this fact, we show how a backstepping type procedure applied to these systems naturally leads to a fixed point equation in the control input. We give conditions for

Reza Olfati-Saber

1999-01-01

112

Combined GPS/GLONASS precise point positioning with fixed GPS ambiguities.

Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

2014-01-01

113

Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

2014-01-01

114

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of project EURAMET 1127 (Bilateral comparison of triple point of mercury and melting point of gallium) in the field of thermometry is to compare realization of a triple point of mercury (-38.8344 °C) and melting point of gallium (29.7646 °C) between the Slovenian national laboratory MIRS/UL-FE/LMK and the Croatian national laboratory HMI/FSB-LPM using a long-stem 25 ? standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). MIRS/UL/FE-LMK participated in a number of intercomparisons on the level of EURAMET. On the other hand, the HMI/LPM-FSB laboratory recently acquired new fixed-point cells which had to be evaluated in the process of intercomparisons. A quartz-sheathed SPRT has been selected and calibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB at the triple point of mercury, the melting point of gallium, and the water triple point. A second set of measurements was made at MIRS/UL/FE-LMK. After its return, the SPRT was again recalibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB. In the comparison, the W value of the SPRT has been used. Results of the bilateral intercomparison confirmed that the new gallium cell of the HMI/LPM-FSB has a value that is within uncertainty limits of both laboratories that participated in the exercise, while the mercury cell experienced problems. After further research, a small leakage in the mercury fixed-point cell has been found.

Bojkovski, J.; Veliki, T.; Zvizdi?, D.; Drnovšek, J.

2011-08-01

115

Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.

Wos, L.; McCune, W.

1988-09-01

116

Synthetic foundations of cevian geometry, I: Fixed points of affine maps in triangle geometry

We give synthetic proofs of many new results in triangle geometry, focusing especially on fixed points of certain affine maps which are defined in terms of the cevian triangle $DEF$ of a point $P$ with respect to a given triangle $ABC$, as well as the cevian triangle of the isotomic conjugate $P'$ of $P$ with respect to $ABC$. We prove a formula for the cyclocevian map in terms of the isotomic and isogonal maps using an entirely synthetic argument, and show that the complement $Q$ of the isotomic conjugate $P'$ has many interesting properties. If $T_P$ is the affine map taking $ABC$ to $DEF$, we show synthetically that $Q$ is the unique ordinary fixed point of $T_P$ when $P$ is any point not lying on the sides of triangle $ABC$, its anti-complementary triangle, or the Steiner circumellipse of $ABC$. We also show that $T_P(Q')=P$ if $Q'$ is the complement of $P$, and that the affine map $T_P T_{P'}$ is either a homothety or a translation which always has the $P$-ceva conjugate of $Q$ as a fixed point. Finally, we show that $P$ lies on the Steiner circumellipse if and only if $T_PT_{P'}=K^{-1}$, where $K$ is the complement map for $ABC$. This paper forms the foundation for several more papers to follow, in which the conic on the 5 points $A,B,C,P,Q$ is studied and its center is characterized as a fixed point of the map $\\lambda=T_{P'} T_P^{-1}$.

Igor Minevich; Patrick Morton

2015-03-29

117

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an on-going requirement to perform scale comparisons above the silver point with reduced uncertainties. Previous comparisons have been performed with high stability lamps or radiation thermometers, neither of which were able to achieve the required uncertainty. Ideally a set of driftless unknown temperature fixed points would be used to compare scales, but up to now such artifacts did not exist. This study develops blind high-temperature comparison artifacts based on doped versions of the high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) Ni-C (nominal temperature ). At INMETRO three HTFP blackbodies were constructed, one of pure Ni-C and two doped with different levels of Cu. To ascertain the effect of doping on the transition temperature, the cells were compared to the reference pure Ni-C cell. The doped cells were then transported to NPL and their temperatures measured. NPL was not informed of the INMETRO result ensuring that the measurements remained blind. The cells were then returned to INMETRO and re-measured to establish their stability. The temperatures measured at INMETRO and NPL were then compared and showed very good equivalence of the scale at the fixed-point temperatures. The results of the comparison of the NPL and INMETRO temperature scale, at nominally , are reported, along with evidence of the stability of the artifacts determined from repeat measurements. These promising results indicate that it may be possible to make HTFPs with altered temperatures which are stable enough to serve as comparison artifacts.

Machin, G.; Teixeira, R.; Lu, X.; Lowe, D.

2015-03-01

118

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Temperature Field of a Fixed-Point Cavity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature field non-uniformity of a blackbody cavity is one of the components of uncertainty of fixed-point realization. Here a study of the design and opportunities of the temperature furnace used in VNIIM is described. The dependence of the uniformity of a temperature field on various factors is shown by results of numerical calculations of a temperature field of VNIIM's copper and gold fixed-point cells, realized with the software packages Elcut 5.3 and Ansys 11.0. A thermophysical model of the phase transition considered as steady state with convection and radiation heat exchange to an environment is applied. The basic focus is made on calculation of the radiation heat exchange between crucible elements and the environment and a furnace cavity, as a dominating component of the heat transfer. Results using analytically and numerically calculated angular factors of radiation of heat exchange are discussed. The data obtained in measurements of a temperature field of a cavity fixed point during phase transitions of copper and gold by a spectrocomparator with high sensitivity, are also shown here. Both theoretical calculation and experiment were realized at various distributions of temperature along an external surface of a crucible. Good agreement of results between steady-state calculation of a temperature field and the measured data with the best entry conditions is observed. The average value of non-uniformity of a temperature field along a cavity for points of phase transition of copper and gold for an 88 mm long graphite crucible with a 54 mm deep, 8 mm diameter cavity was 40 mK, and the temperature drop across the graphite wall was 20 mK. In this paper the reasons for occurrence of large gradients inside a fixed-point cavity during the phase transition, received during some experimental research, are also discussed.

Fuksov, V. M.; Pohodun, A. I.; Matveyev, M. S.

2011-01-01

119

Cryostat for Fixed-Point Calibration of Capsule-Type SPRTs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryostat for fixed-point calibration of capsule-type SPRTs (standard platinum resistance thermometers) was developed. Using this system, cryogenic fixed points defined on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) were realized. The cryogenic cells were argon, oxygen, neon, and two equilibrium-hydrogen (e-H2) cells, made by INRiM, Italy. The uncertainty of the realization of each fixed point was estimated to range from 0.53 mK to 0.43 mK ( k = 2). The realizations of the triple point of e-H2 using two sealed cells coincided within 0.1 mK. Therefore, we are able to calibrate capsule-type SPRTs down to 24.5561 K within an uncertainty of 1 mK ( k = 2) by this system. A closed-cycle helium gas refrigerator was used for the cryostat. Each sealed cell was designed so that it could accommodate three sealed cells in the thermometer wells made within the cell. Therefore, the cryostat was designed to accommodate only one sealed cell at a time. The base temperature of this liquid-free cryostat, when one sealed cell and three capsule-type SPRTs were attached for calibration, was ~17 K. For the realization of the triple point of e-H2, we used liquid helium for additional cooling. Adiabatic melting of the triple point was realized by controlling the inner-most radiation shield at a temperature very close to that of the triple point, and by applying a heat pulse by a heater directly wound to the cell. The amount of the heater power and the waiting time for the thermal equilibrium after each heat pulse were chosen in a way that the adiabatic melting could be finished within ~6 h for each cell. The triple point of each cryogenic fixed point was deduced from the equilibrium temperatures between the heat pulses and subsequent extrapolation to the liquidus point. For the oxygen cell, temperatures of two solid-solid transitions ( ?- ? and ?- ? transitions) were also measured, and the results were consistent with values reported in the literature within the designated uncertainty.

Yang, I.; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y.-G.; Gam, K. S.

2011-12-01

120

Rigorous high-precision enclosures of fixed points and their invariant manifolds

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well established concept of Taylor Models is introduced, which offer highly accurate C0 enclosures of functional dependencies, combining high-order polynomial approximation of functions and rigorous estimates of the truncation error, performed using verified arithmetic. The focus of this work is on the application of Taylor Models in algorithms for strongly non-linear dynamical systems. A method is proposed to extend the existing implementation of Taylor Models in COSY INFINITY from double precision coefficients to arbitrary precision coefficients. Great care is taken to maintain the highest efficiency possible by adaptively adjusting the precision of higher order coefficients in the polynomial expansion. High precision operations are based on clever combinations of elementary floating point operations yielding exact values for round-off errors. An experimental high precision interval data type is developed and implemented. Algorithms for the verified computation of intrinsic functions based on the High Precision Interval datatype are developed and described in detail. The application of these operations in the implementation of High Precision Taylor Models is discussed. An application of Taylor Model methods to the verification of fixed points is presented by verifying the existence of a period 15 fixed point in a near standard Henon map. Verification is performed using different verified methods such as double precision Taylor Models, High Precision intervals and High Precision Taylor Models. Results and performance of each method are compared. An automated rigorous fixed point finder is implemented, allowing the fully automated search for all fixed points of a function within a given domain. It returns a list of verified enclosures of each fixed point, optionally verifying uniqueness within these enclosures. An application of the fixed point finder to the rigorous analysis of beam transfer maps in accelerator physics is presented. Previous work done by Johannes Grote is extended to compute very accurate polynomial approximations to invariant manifolds of discrete maps of arbitrary dimension around hyperbolic fixed points. The algorithm presented allows for automatic removal of resonances occurring during construction. A method for the rigorous enclosure of invariant manifolds of continuous systems is introduced. Using methods developed for discrete maps, polynomial approximations of invariant manifolds of hyperbolic fixed points of ODEs are obtained. These approximations are outfit with a sharp error bound which is verified to rigorously contain the manifolds. While we focus on the three dimensional case, verification in higher dimensions is possible using similar techniques. Integrating the resulting enclosures using the verified COSY VI integrator, the initial manifold enclosures are expanded to yield sharp enclosures of large parts of the stable and unstable manifolds. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, we construct enclosures of the invariant manifolds of the Lorenz system and show pictures of the resulting manifold enclosures. To the best of our knowledge, these enclosures are the largest verified enclosures of manifolds in the Lorenz system in existence.

Wittig, Alexander N.

121

This article presents the exact solution of fixed points functions for the cycle of period four of the quadratic recurrence equations. The solution is demonstrated for the quadratic map and the logistic map. These recurrence equations, presenting the real domain, as well as the Mandelbrot set, presenting the complex domain, are at the very heart of dynamical systems and chaos theory. Up to now, the closed explicit solutions of fixed points functions have only been known for three bifurcation ranges: for the cycles of period one, two and three. With the discovery of the solution for cycle four, disclosed in this paper, further step has been made in our comprehension of simultaneous complexity and simplicity which represents the beauty of nature.

Gvozden Rukavina

2008-02-19

122

Families of Conformal Fixed Points of N=2 Chern-Simons-Matter Theories

We argue that a large class of N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theories in three dimensions have a continuous family of exact IR fixed points described by suitable quartic superpotentials, based on holomorphy. The entire family exists in the perturbative regime. A nontrivial check is performed by computing the 4-loop beta function of the quartic couplings, in the 't Hooft limit, with a large number of flavors. We find that the 4-loop beta function can only deform the family of 2-loop fixed points, and does not change the dimension of this family. We further present an explicit computation of a perturbative correction to the Zamolodchikov metric on this space of three-dimensional superconformal field theories.

Chi-Ming Chang; Xi Yin

2010-05-12

123

We investigate the regime of fully developed homogeneous turbulence of the Navier-Stokes (NS) equation in the presence of a stochastic forcing. Using the nonperturbative (functional) version of the renormalization group (NPRG), we avoid all the difficulties that plague standard RG approaches to NS turbulence and have hindered real progress in the calculation of multi-scaling. We obtain the fixed point solution of the NPRG flow equations, which corresponds to fully developed turbulence, in $d=2$ and $d=3$ dimensions. The striking feature of this fixed point is that it does not entail the usual scale invariance, because of the absence of a regular limit when the integral scale (the typical length scale of energy injection) tends to infinity. We indeed show, on the basis of exact flow equations in the large wave-number limit, how violations to the Kolmogorov scaling can emerge, leaving the accurate determination of the ensuing intermittent exponents for future work.

Léonie Canet; Bertrand Delamotte; Nicolás Wschebor

2014-11-28

124

Strong convergence algorithm for split equilibrium problems and hierarchical fixed point problems.

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of finding the approximate element of the common set of solutions of a split equilibrium problem and a hierarchical fixed point problem in a real Hilbert space. We establish the strong convergence of the proposed method under some mild conditions. Several special cases are also discussed. Our main result extends and improves some well-known results in the literature. PMID:24701164

Bnouhachem, Abdellah

2014-01-01

125

In this paper, we introduce a new iterative scheme that converges strongly to a common fixed point of a countable family of strictly pseudo-contractive mappings in a real Hilbert space which is also a solution of variational inequality problem related to quadratic minimization problems. Our results extend ones of Yao et al. [Math. and Comput. Modell. 52(9-10):1697-1705, 2010], Gu et al. [J. Appl. Math. 2011:17 p., 2011] and some authors. PMID:24255840

Chamnarnpan, Tanom; Wairojjana, Nopparat; Kumam, Poom

2013-01-01

126

The algebraic multigrid projection for eigenvalue problems; backrotations and multigrid fixed points

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The periods of the theorem for the algebraic multigrid projection (MGP) for eigenvalue problems, and of the multigrid fixed point theorem for multigrid cycles combining MGP with backrotations, are presented. The MGP and the backrotations are central eigenvector separation techniques for multigrid eigenvalue algorithms. They allow computation on coarse levels of eigenvalues of a given eigenvalue problem, and are efficient tools in the computation of eigenvectors.

Costiner, Sorin; Taasan, Shlomo

1994-01-01

127

On Complexity of Counting Fixed Point Configurations in Certain Classes of Graph Automata

Abstract We study computational,complexity of counting the fixed point configurations (FPs) in certain discrete dynamical systems. We prove that counting FPs in Sequential and Synchronous Dynamical Systems (SDSs and SyDSs, respectively) is computationally intractable, even when each node is required to update according to a symmetric,Boolean function. We also show that the problems of counting the garden of Eden configurations

Predrag T. To Sic

128

Strong Convergence Algorithm for Split Equilibrium Problems and Hierarchical Fixed Point Problems

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of finding the approximate element of the common set of solutions of a split equilibrium problem and a hierarchical fixed point problem in a real Hilbert space. We establish the strong convergence of the proposed method under some mild conditions. Several special cases are also discussed. Our main result extends and improves some well-known results in the literature. PMID:24701164

Bnouhachem, Abdellah

2014-01-01

129

Perturbed pendulum-like motions of a rigid body about a fixed point

This paper is devoted to a detailed investigation of the perturbed pendulum-like motions of a heavy rigid body about a fixed point. Canonical variables that allow one to simplify the analysis of homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits are introduced. Characteristic properties of perturbed pendulum-like motions of the body in inertial space are studied. A qualitative description of asymptotics of pendulum-like motions in a neighbourhood of split separatrices is given.

Igor N. Gashenenko

2012-12-09

130

Long-Term Monitoring of Thermocouple Stability with Miniature Fixed-Point Cells

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme ENG08 "MetroFission" project, two National Measurement Institutes, LNE-Cnam (France) and NPL (UK), have cooperatively developed methods of in situ validation of thermocouple output for application in next-generation nuclear fission power plants. Miniature fixed-point cells for use at three temperatures were constructed in the first step of this project: at the freezing point of silver (), the freezing point of copper (), and the melting point of the iron-carbon eutectic (). This paper reports the results of a second step in the study, where the robustness of the self-validation method has been investigated. Typical industrial Type N thermocouples have been employed with each of the miniature fixed-point devices installed, and repeatedly thermally cycled through the melting and freezing transitions of the fixed-point ingots. The devices have been exposed to a total of up to 90 h in the molten state. Furthermore, the LNE-Cnam devices were also subjected to fast cool-down rates, on five occasions, where the rate is estimated to have been between and . The devices are shown to be repeatable, reliable, and robust over the course of these tests. The drift of the Type N thermocouple has been identified separately to the behavior of the device. A reliable method for improving thermocouple performance and process control is therefore demonstrated. Requirements for implementation and the advantages of each approach for monitoring and correcting thermocouple drift are discussed, and an uncertainty budget for self-validation is presented.

Elliott, C. J.; Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Sadli, M.; Pearce, J. V.; Machin, G.

2014-04-01

131

Effective generic super-exponential stability of elliptic fixed points for symplectic vector fields

We consider linearly stable elliptic fixed points for a symplectic vector field and prove generic results of super-exponential stability for nearby solutions. Morbidelli and Giorgilli have proved a theorem of stability over super-exponentially long times if one consider an analytic lagrangian torus, invariant for an analytic hamiltonian system, with a diophantine translation vector which admit a sign definite torsion. Then, the solutions of the system move very little over times which are super-exponentially long with respect to the inverse of the distance to the invariant torus. The proof is in two steps: first the construction of a Birkhoff normal form at a high order, then the application of Nekhoroshev theory. Bounemoura has shown that the second step of this construction remains valid if the Birkhoff normal form linked to an elliptic fixed point belongs to a generic set among the formal series. To obtain a complete result, we also have to establish that most strongly non resonant elliptic fixed point in a Hamiltonian system admit a Birkhoff normal form in the set introduced by Bounemoura. We show here that this property is satisfied generically in the sense of the measure (prevalence) through infinite-dimensional probe spaces (that is an infinite number of parameter chosen at random) with methods similar to those developed in a paper of Gorodetski, Kaloshin and Hunt.

Laurent Niederman

2012-10-29

132

Isotopic effects in the neon fixed point: uncertainty of the calibration data correction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neon triple point is one of the defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). Although recognizing that natural neon is a mixture of isotopes, the ITS-90 definition only states that the neon should be of ‘natural isotopic composition’, without any further requirements. A preliminary study in 2005 indicated that most of the observed variability in the realized neon triple point temperatures within a range of about 0.5?mK can be attributed to the variability in isotopic composition among different samples of ‘natural’ neon. Based on the results of an International Project (EUROMET Project No. 770), the Consultative Committee for Thermometry decided to improve the realization of the neon fixed point by assigning the ITS-90 temperature value 24.5561?K to neon with the isotopic composition recommended by IUPAC, accompanied by a quadratic equation to take the deviations from the reference composition into account. In this paper, the uncertainties of the equation are discussed and an uncertainty budget is presented. The resulting standard uncertainty due to the isotopic effect (k = 1) after correction of the calibration data is reduced to (4 to 40)??K when using neon of ‘natural’ isotopic composition or to 30??K when using 20Ne. For comparison, an uncertainty component of 0.15?mK should be included in the uncertainty budget for the neon triple point if the isotopic composition is unknown, i.e. whenever the correction cannot be applied.

Steur, Peter P. M.; Pavese, Franco; Fellmuth, Bernd; Hermier, Yves; Hill, Kenneth D.; Seog Kim, Jin; Lipinski, Leszek; Nagao, Keisuke; Nakano, Tohru; Peruzzi, Andrea; Sparasci, Fernando; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, Anna; Tamura, Osamu; Tew, Weston L.; Valkiers, Staf; van Geel, Jan

2015-02-01

133

Estimating the Contribution of Impurities to the Uncertainty of Metal Fixed-Point Temperatures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of the uncertainty component attributable to impurities remains a central and important topic of fixed-point research. Various methods are available for this estimation, depending on the extent of the available information. The sum of individual estimates method has considerable appeal where there is adequate knowledge of the sensitivity coefficients for each of the impurity elements and sufficiently low uncertainty regarding their concentrations. The overall maximum estimate (OME) forsakes the behavior of the individual elements by assuming that the cryoscopic constant adequately represents (or is an upper bound for) the sensitivity coefficients of the individual impurities. Validation of these methods using melting and/or freezing curves is recommended to provide confidence. Recent investigations of indium, tin, and zinc fixed points are reported. Glow discharge mass spectrometry was used to determine the impurity concentrations of the metals used to fill the cells. Melting curves were analyzed to derive an experimental overall impurity concentration (assuming that all impurities have a sensitivity coefficient equivalent to that of the cryoscopic constant). The two values (chemical and experimental) for the overall impurity concentrations were then compared. Based on the data obtained, the pragmatic approach of choosing the larger of the chemical and experimentally derived quantities as the best estimate of the influence of impurities on the temperature of the freezing point is suggested rather than relying solely on the chemical analysis and the OME method to derive the uncertainty component attributable to impurities.

Hill, K. D.

2014-04-01

134

Structural stability of a dynamical system near a non-hyperbolic fixed point

We prove structural stability under perturbations for a class of discrete-time dynamical systems near a non-hyperbolic fixed point. We reformulate the stability problem in terms of the well-posedness of an infinite-dimensional nonlinear ordinary differential equation in a Banach space of carefully weighted sequences. Using this, we prove existence and regularity of flows of the dynamical system which obey mixed initial and final boundary conditions. The class of dynamical systems we study, and the boundary conditions we impose, arise in a renormalisation group analysis of the 4-dimensional weakly self-avoiding walk and the 4-dimensional n-component $|\\varphi|^4$ spin model.

Roland Bauerschmidt; David C. Brydges; Gordon Slade

2014-04-29

135

Uncertainty due to non-linearity in radiation thermometers calibrated by multiple fixed points

A new method to estimate the uncertainty due to non-linearity is described on the n= 3 scheme basis. The expression of uncertainty is mathematically derived applying the random walk method. The expression is simple and requires only the temperatures of the fixed points and a relative uncertainty value for each flux-doubling derived from the non-linearity measurement. We also present an example of the method, in which the uncertainty of temperature measurement by a radiation thermometer is calculated on the basis of non-linearity measurement.

Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

2013-09-11

136

Control of transient chaos in tent maps near crisis. I. Fixed point targeting

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combinatorial techniques are applied to the symbolic dynamics representing transient chaotic behavior in tent maps in order to solve the problem of Ott-Grebogi-Yorke control to the nontrivial fixed point occurring in such maps. This approach allows ``preimage overlap'' to be treated exactly. Closed forms for both the probability of control being achieved and the average number of iterations to control are derived. The results are discussed in relation to the work of Tél and shed new light on the transition to the control of permanent chaos.

Place, C. M.; Arrowsmith, D. K.

2000-02-01

137

Search for the IR fixed point in the Twisted Polyakov Loop scheme (II)

We measure the renormalized coupling in the Twisted Polyakov loop scheme for SU(3) gauge theory coupled with $N_f=12$ fundamental fermions. To find the infrared fixed point of this theory, we focus on the step scaling function for the renormalized coupling. We take the continuum limit using the linear function of $(a/L)^2$ and a constant fit function. We find that there is a sizeable systematic error due to the choice of the continuum extrapolation function in the low energy region. We will give some directions to reduce the systematic errors.

Etsuko Itou; Tatsumi Aoyama; Masafumi Kurachi; C. -J. David Lin; Hideo Matsufuru; Hiroshi Ohki; Tetsuya Onogi; Eigo Shintani; Takeshi Yamazaki

2010-11-02

138

Search for the IR fixed point in the twisted Polyakov loop scheme

We present a non-perturbative study of the running coupling constant in the Twisted Polyakov Loop (TPL) scheme. We investigate how the systematic and statistical errors can be controlled {\\it via} a feasibility study in SU(3) pure Yang-Mills theory. We show that our method reproduces the perturbative determination of the running coupling in the UV. In addition, our numerical result agrees with the theoretical prediction of this coupling constant in the IR. We also present our preliminary results for $N_f=12$ QCD, where an IR fixed point may be present.

Erek Bilgici; Antonino Flachi; Etsuko Itou; Masafumi Kurachi; C. -J. David Lin; Hideo Matsufuru; Hiroshi Ohki; Tetsuya Onogi; Eigo Shintani; Takeshi Yamazaki

2009-10-21

139

Finiteness of fixed equilibrium configurations of point vortices in the plane with a background flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a dynamic system consisting of n point vortices in an ideal plane fluid with a steady, incompressible and irrotational background flow, a more physically significant definition of a fixed equilibrium configuration is suggested. Under this new definition, if the complex polynomial w that determines the aforesaid background flow is non-constant, we have found an attainable generic upper bound \\frac{(m+n-1)!}{(m-1)!\\,n_1!\\cdots n_{i_0}!} for the number of fixed equilibrium configurations. Here, m = deg w, i0 is the number of species, and each ni is the number of vortices in a species. We transform the rational function system arising from fixed equilibria into a polynomial system, whose form is good enough to apply the BKK theory (named after Bernshtein (1975 Funct. Anal. Appl. 9 183-5), Khovanskii (1978 Funct. Anal. Appl. 12 38-46) and Kushnirenko (1976 Funct. Anal. Appl. 10 233-5)) to show the finiteness of its number of solutions. Having this finiteness, the required bound follows from Bézout's theorem or the BKK root count by Li and Wang (1996 Math. Comput. 65 1477-84).

Cheung, Pak-Leong; Ng, Tuen Wai

2014-10-01

140

Development of a new radiometer for the thermodynamic measurement of high temperature fixed points

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a new radiometer to measure the thermodynamic melting point temperatures of high temperature fixed points with ultra-low uncertainties. In comparison with the NPL's Absolute Radiation Thermometer (ART), the 'THermodynamic Optical Radiometer' (THOR) is more portable and compact, with a much lower size-of-source effect and improved performance in other parameters such as temperature sensitivity. It has been designed for calibration as a whole instrument via the radiance method, removing the need to calibrate the individual subcomponents, as required by ART, and thereby reducing uncertainties. In addition, the calibration approach has been improved through a new integrating sphere that has been designed to have greater uniformity.

Dury, M. R.; Goodman, T. M.; Lowe, D. H.; Machin, G.; Woolliams, E. R. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)

2013-09-11

141

Errors Analysis in GPS Precise Point Positioning: Impact of Ambiguity Fixing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GNSS geodetic positioning using the classical double-difference approach may have some limitations. For example, fixing ambiguities can be challenging for long baselines, while processing short baseline only give the relative displacement between the two stations. In this context and thanks to the continuous improvement of IGS GNSS orbit and clock products, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique appears in the literature as a powerful alternative. If all local Earth deformations are correctly taken into account, residuals of position time series may be used to assess the processing quality in terms of receiver performance and environment, constellation orbits and clocks error projection, and processing options pertinence. The main limitation of most of the current PPP processing strategies is that ambiguities can not be fixed to integer values. However, Mercier et al. (2008) demonstrated that GPS satellite “electronic” biases can be a priori identified in such a way that using a consistent set of GPS orbits, clocks and biases, phase ambiguities recover their integer nature. The CNES-CLS IGS Analysis Center is being providing such set of data since August 2010. This study evaluate the performance of PPP in front of the nowadays requirements of geodesy. We processed data from several IGS sites in order to compute coordinate series on a daily basis but also at higher frequencies (down to 30 second interval). We investigated both the impact of the processing batch duration from hours to several days and the cut-off elevation angle. Various spurious “non geophysical” signals (random, periodic, jumps...)appeared in our series. Especially artificial "midnight jumps" when adopting the usual 24-hours batch solutions (when satellite passes were cut at 0h). The impact of fixing ambiguities on PPP solutions has been investigated. We demonstrate that most of the artifacts affecting “floating” PPP solutions disappeared when ambiguities were fixed.

Perosanz, F.; Fund, F.; Mercier, F.; Loyer, S.; Capdeville, H.

2010-12-01

142

Calculation of the ``Rotating Wall'' Torque Near a Fixed Point Attractor.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rotating field asymmetry (the so-called ``rotating wall'') is often used to exert a torque on a non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap, spinning the plasma up to high rotation frequency (and high density). In recent experiments, the plasma state was observed to converge to an attracting fixed point where the applied torque balanced ambient torques.ootnotetextJ.R. Danielson and C.M. Surko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035001 (2005); also see invited talk by Danielson at this conference. At the fixed point, the nearly uniform plasma rotation frequency differs only slightly from the frequency of the rotating field asymmetry. This paper explains the attractor, using simple dynamical equations for the uniform plasma rotation frequency and temperature.ootnotetextT.M. O'Neil and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2163 (1998). Also, the paper calculates the torque due to the rotating field asymmetry near the attractor, that is, for small frequency difference. The calculated torque is consistent with the measured torque.

O'Neil, T. M.

2005-10-01

143

Stability of cobalt–carbon high temperature fixed points doped with iron and platinum

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature fixed points (HTFPs) are stable and repeatable and make comparison of temperature scales possible at a level of uncertainty not previously possible. However, they potentially lack objectivity if the fixed-point temperature is known. Five HTFPs were constructed, one pure Co–C, two Co–C doped with Fe and two Co–C doped with Pt of differing concentrations. The candidate dopants were identified through thermochemical modelling as likely to give maximum temperature shift with minimum increase in melting range. The temperature differences of the doped systems from the pure system were determined and it was found that the addition of Fe depressed the melting temperature and the addition of Pt elevated the melting temperature, qualitatively in line with the thermochemical modelling. The higher concentration doped HTFPs were then aged for approximately 100?h with continuous melting–freezing cycles and the difference to the undoped Co–C HTFP remeasured. These differences were found to agree with those of the unaged results within the measurement uncertainties, confirming artefact stability. It is clear that the doping of HTFPs is a powerful way of constructing stable and reliable high temperature scale comparison artefacts of unknown temperature.

K?azovická, L.; Lowe, D.; Machin, G.; Davies, H.; Rani, A.

2015-04-01

144

Temperature determination of the Si–SiC eutectic fixed point using thermocouples

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature of the Si–SiC eutectic fixed point for use in thermocouple thermometry has been determined. Three Si–SiC cells were fabricated from pure silicon powder within separate graphite crucibles. Each of the three cells was cycled through 17 melt–freeze cycles and subjected to temperatures above 1400?°C for a period of approximately 73?h, and none showed any sign of mechanical failure. The melting transition was measured using three types of thermocouple: one type S, one type B, and two Pt/Pd thermocouples calibrated at the fixed points of Ag, Cu, Fe–C, Co–C, and Pd (only for type B). The transition temperature, measured using the type S and two Pt/Pd thermocouples, was (1410.0 ± 0.8)?°C with k = 2. However, the measurement uncertainty using the type B thermocouple was as large as 1.5?°C (k = 2) due to the inhomogeneity of the thermocouple. The repeatability of the three Si–SiC cells was calculated to be 0.3?°C, and the extremes of the temperature measurement differed by 0.8?°C.

Suherlan; Kim, Yong-Gyoo; Joung, Wukchul; Yang, Inseok

2015-04-01

145

Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points

The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by 'ansys workbench'. Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

Wang, T.; Dong, W. [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China)] [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China); Liu, F. [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)] [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)

2013-09-11

146

Quantum-corrected drift-diffusion models: Solution fixed point map and finite element approximation

This article deals with the analysis of the functional iteration, denoted Generalized Gummel Map (GGM), proposed in [C. de Falco, A.L. Lacaita, E. Gatti, R. Sacco, Quantum-Corrected Drift-Diffusion Models for Transport in Semiconductor Devices, J. Comp. Phys. 204 (2) (2005) 533-561] for the decoupled solution of the Quantum Drift-Diffusion (QDD) model. The solution of the problem is characterized as being a fixed point of the GGM, which permits the establishment of a close link between the theoretical existence analysis and the implementation of a numerical tool, which was lacking in previous non-constructive proofs [N.B. Abdallah, A. Unterreiter, On the stationary quantum drift-diffusion model, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 49 (1998) 251-275, R. Pinnau, A. Unterreiter, The stationary current-voltage characteristics of the quantum drift-diffusion model, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 37 (1) (1999) 211-245]. The finite element approximation of the GGM is illustrated, and the main properties of the numerical fixed point map (discrete maximum principle and order of convergence) are discussed. Numerical results on realistic nanoscale devices are included to support the theoretical conclusions.

Falco, Carlo de [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Jerome, Joseph W. [Department of Mathematics, Northwestern University, 2033 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-2730 (United States); Sacco, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Matematica 'F.Brioschi', Politecnico di Milano, via Bonardi 9, 20133 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: riccardo.sacco@polimi.it

2009-03-20

147

Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by "ansys workbench". Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

Wang, T.; Dong, W.; Liu, F.

2013-09-01

148

A fixed point Kanade Lucas Tomasi tracker implementation for smart cameras

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the implementation of the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi tracking algorithm on a Digital Signal Processor with a 40-bit fixed-point Arithmetic Logic Unit built into a smart camera. The main goal of this work was to obtain realtime frame processing performance while loosing as little tracking accuracy as possible. This task was motivated by increasing demand for the application of smart cameras as main data processing units in large surveillance systems, where factors like cost and demand of space are excluding PCs from this role. In a first effort the modification of the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi to integer numbers was performed and then in the next step the influence on stability and accuracy of this modification was investigated. It is demonstrated how changing the numeric data type of intermediate results within the algorithm from float to integer, and decreasing the number of bits used to store variables, affects tracking accuracy. Nevertheless the DSP implementation can be used where the computation of optical flow based on a tracking algorithm needs to be done in real-time on an embedded platform where limited subpixel accuracy can be tolerated. As a further result of this implementation we can conclude that a DSP with a fixed-point arithmetic logic unit can be very effectively applied for complex computer vision tasks and is able deliver good performance even compared to high-end PC architectures.

Rosner, M.

2007-09-01

149

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control...Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed...

2010-10-01

150

? I =1 /2 rule for kaon decays derived from QCD infrared fixed point

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article gives details of our proposal to replace ordinary chiral S U (3 )L×S U (3 )R perturbation theory ? PT3 by three-flavor chiral-scale perturbation theory ? PT? . In ? PT? , amplitudes are expanded at low energies and small u ,d ,s quark masses about an infrared fixed point ?IR of three-flavor QCD. At ?IR , the quark condensate ?q ¯ q ?vac?0 induces nine Nambu-Goldstone bosons: ? ,K ,? , and a 0++ QCD dilaton ? . Physically, ? appears as the f0(500 ) resonance, a pole at a complex mass with real part ? mK . The ? I =1 /2 rule for nonleptonic K decays is then a consequence of ? PT? , with a KS? coupling fixed by data for ? ? ?? ? and KS?? ? . We estimate RIR?5 for the nonperturbative Drell-Yan ratio R =? (e+e-?hadrons)/? (e+e-??+?-) at ?IR and show that, in the many-color limit, ? /f0 becomes a narrow q q ¯ state with planar-gluon corrections. Rules for the order of terms in ? PT? loop expansions are derived in Appendix A and extended in Appendix B to include inverse-power Li-Pagels singularities due to external operators. This relates to an observation that, for ? ? channels, partial conservation of the dilatation current is not equivalent to ? -pole dominance.

Crewther, R. J.; Tunstall, Lewis C.

2015-02-01

151

Free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory: Application to quantum computing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension of free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (FRFP-OCT) to monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) is presented. The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361, (2009), 106]. The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor adjustment of the external fields.

Mishima, K.; Yamashita, K.

2011-01-01

152

Free-time and Fixed End-point Multi-target Optimal Control Theory: Application to Quantum Computing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extension of monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (FRFP-OCT) to monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) is presented. The features of our theory include optimization of the laser pulses with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima and K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361, 106 (2009)], where qubit system of interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction.

Mishima, Kenji; Yamashita, Koichi

2010-03-01

153

Spin Glass in a Field: A New Zero-Temperature Fixed Point in Finite Dimensions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using real-space renormalization group (RG) methods, we show that spin glasses in a field display a new kind of transition in high dimensions. The corresponding critical properties and the spin-glass phase are governed by two nonperturbative zero-temperature fixed points of the RG flow. We compute the critical exponents and discuss the RG flow and its relevance for three-dimensional systems. The new spin-glass phase we discovered has unusual properties, which are intermediate between the ones conjectured by droplet and full replica symmetry-breaking theories. These results provide a new perspective on the long-standing debate about the behavior of spin glasses in a field.

Angelini, Maria Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

2015-03-01

154

Point and Fixed Plot Sampling Inventory Estimates at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

This report provides calculation of systematic point sampling volume estimates for trees greater than or equal to 5 inches diameter breast height (dbh) and fixed radius plot volume estimates for trees < 5 inches dbh at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken County, South Carolina. The inventory of 622 plots was started in March 1999 and completed in January 2002 (Figure 1). Estimates are given in cubic foot volume. The analyses are presented in a series of Tables and Figures. In addition, a preliminary analysis of fuel levels on the SRS is given, based on depth measurements of the duff and litter layers on the 622 inventory plots plus line transect samples of down coarse woody material. Potential standing live fuels are also included. The fuels analyses are presented in a series of tables.

Parresol, Bernard, R.

2004-02-01

155

Matrix triangularization by fixed-point redundant CORDIC with constant scale factor

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a redundani CORDIC scheme where the scale factor is forced to be constant while computing angles for 2 x 1 plane rotations. Based on the scheme we present a fixed-point implementation of matrix triangularization by Luk''s parallel algorithm with the following additional features: (1) the final scaling operation is done by shifting (2) the number of iterations in CORDIC rotation unit is reduced by about 25 by expressing the direction of the rotation in radix-2 and radix-4 and (3) the conventional number representation of rotated output is obtained on-thefly not from a carry-propagate adder. The number of hardware modules and the speed are evaluated and compared with the previous CORDIC schemes.

Lee, Jeong-A.; Lang, Tomas

1990-11-01

156

We investigate universal behavior of isolated many-body systems far from equilibrium, which is relevant for a wide range of applications from ultracold quantum gases to high-energy particle physics. The universality is based on the existence of nonthermal fixed points, which represent nonequilibrium attractor solutions with self-similar scaling behavior. The corresponding dynamic universality classes turn out to be remarkably large, encompassing both relativistic as well as nonrelativistic quantum and classical systems. For the examples of nonrelativistic (Gross-Pitaevskii) and relativistic scalar field theory with quartic self-interactions, we demonstrate that infrared scaling exponents as well as scaling functions agree. We perform two independent nonperturbative calculations, first by using classical-statistical lattice simulation techniques and second by applying a vertex-resummed kinetic theory. The latter extends kinetic descriptions to the nonperturbative regime of overoccupied modes. Our results open ...

Orioli, A Pineiro; Berges, J

2015-01-01

157

Fixed-point analysis and realization of a blind beamforming algorithm

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the fixed-point analysis and realization of a blind beamforming algorithm. This maximum-power beamforming algorithm consists of the computation of a correlation matrix and its dominant eigenvector, and we propose that the later be accomplished by the power method. After analyzing the numerical stability of the power method, we derive a division-free form of the algorithm. Based on a block-Toeplitz assumption, we design an FIR filter based system to realize both the correlation computation and the power method. Our ring processor, which is optimized to implement digital filters, is used as the core of the architecture. A special technique for dynamically switching filter inputs is shown to double the system throughput. Finally we discuss the issue of hardware/software hybrid realization.

Xu, Fan; Fu, Dengwei; Willson, Alan N.

1999-11-01

158

Optimization of SPRT measurements of freezing in a zinc fixed-point cell

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model of solute and heat transport in extremely pure materials is described. Its purpose is to characterize the effect of impurities on the freezing curves of metals containing impurities at the level of less than 1 part per million. It is used to simulate experiments performed using a commercially available zinc fixed-point cell for SPRT calibrations. The aim is to determine the effect of different vertical temperature gradients on the freezing curve and to find out whether a range of conditions could be determined where there was a good fit between theory and experiment. For this fixed-point cell, agreement between the model and experiment improves as the distribution coefficient k ? 0. It is found that the model only agrees with the measured freezing curves over the entire freeze for a narrow range of furnace settings where the temperature profile is most uniform. We suggest that this is because if the furnace settings are not optimized, the solid does not grow uniformly, and freezing may continue in regions remote from the SPRT after the material in the vicinity of the SPRT has finished freezing, so distorting the freezing curve. This effect is not present in the model and so the method presented here enables optimization of the furnace to ensure the SPRT is surrounded by a liquid-solid interface over the entire freezing range. We find that the optimum thermal environment is extremely sensitive to the furnace settings; the optimum thermal environment is found when the temperature is slightly cooler at the top of the cell, as measured in the re-entrant well of the cell. We note that optimizing the freezing process is a necessary step towards using a thermal analysis to correct for the effects of impurities in the sample.

Pearce, J. V.; Veltcheva, R. I.; Lowe, D. H.; Malik, Z.; Hunt, J. D.

2012-06-01

159

Correlation Between Immersion Profile and Measured Value of Fixed-Point Temperature

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of thermal immersion effects in the melting and freezing points defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 is one of the vital issues of modern thermometry. In documents of the Consultative Committee for Thermometry, the deviation of the experimental immersion profile from the theoretical value of the hydrostatic effect at a height of about 3 cm to 5 cm from the thermometer well bottom is used for the estimation of the uncertainty due to unwanted thermal effects. This estimation assumes the occurrence of solely the hydrostatic effect all along the height of the well inner wall. Real distortions of the temperature gradient at the bottom and at the top part of the well caused by the change of heat-exchange conditions are not taken into account. To define more precisely the temperature gradient along the height of the well, a miniature PRT with a 30 mm sensitive element and a sheath length and diameter of about 60 mm and 6 mm, respectively, were used. Also, the measurements of fixed-points temperature at noticeably different slopes of immersion profiles due to variations of the thermometer heat exchange and phase transition realization conditions were produced by means of a standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). The measurements were carried out at the tin and zinc freezing points. The immersion curves measured with a miniature thermometer demonstrated an increase of the temperature during its lifting in the first 1 cm to 3 cm above the bottom of the well. The measurement results at the zinc freezing point by means of the SPRT have not confirmed the correlation between the immersion curves, the received value of the Zn freezing temperature, and the estimation of its uncertainty.

Shulgat, O. S.; Fuksov, V. M.; Ivanova, A. G.; Gerasimov, S. F.; Pokhodun, A. I.

2014-04-01

160

Bilateral comparison of tin fixed point cells between INMETRO and NPL

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 2011, a bilateral comparison of tin fixed point cells (231.928 °C) took place at the facilities of the Temperature group at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The comparison was with a standard from the Thermal Metrology Division of the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). It involved two cells: the test cell was an open one constructed in late 2010 at the INMETRO Thermometry Laboratory as part of an MSc research project; the reference cell was a sealed one, constructed in 2000 at NPL, traceable to the UK national standard tin point. The materials employed in the construction of the cells were from different suppliers. The cell design, dimensions and construction procedures were also different. Three standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs), each different models from different manufacturers, were used to undertake the comparison, one from INMETRO and two from NPL. The comparison was performed in quadruplicate, each combination using a different freezing plateau. The differing self-heating behaviour of the different SPRTs was taken into account. The methodology employed in this comparison is detailed in the present paper.

Silva, R. da; Veltcheva, R. I.; Gray, J.; Pearce, J. V.; Machin, G.; Teixeira, R. N.

2013-09-01

161

Rapid re-convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in precise point positioning

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integer ambiguity resolution at a single receiver can be achieved if the fractional-cycle biases are separated from the ambiguity estimates in precise point positioning (PPP). Despite the improved positioning accuracy by such integer resolution, the convergence to an ambiguity-fixed solution normally requires a few tens of minutes. Even worse, these convergences can repeatedly occur on the occasion of loss of tracking locks for many satellites if an open sky-view is not constantly available, consequently totally destroying the practicability of real-time PPP. In this study, in case of such re-convergences, we develop a method in which ionospheric delays are precisely predicted to significantly accelerate the integer ambiguity resolution. The effectiveness of this method consists in two aspects: first, wide-lane ambiguities can be rapidly resolved using the ionosphere-corrected wide-lane measurements, instead of the noisy Melbourne-Wübbena combination measurements; second, narrow-lane ambiguity resolution can be accelerated under the tight constraints derived from the ionosphere-corrected unambiguous wide-lane measurements. In the test at 90 static stations suffering from simulated total loss of tracking locks, 93.3 and 95.0% of re-convergences to wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguity resolutions can be achieved within five epochs of 1-Hz measurements, respectively, even though the time latency for the predicted ionospheric delays is up to 180 s. In the test at a mobile van moving in a GPS-adverse environment where satellite number significantly decreases and cycle slips frequently occur, only when the predicted ionospheric delays are applied can the rate of ambiguity-fixed epochs be dramatically improved from 7.7 to 93.6% of all epochs. Therefore, this method can potentially relieve the unrealistic requirement of a continuous open sky-view by most PPP applications and improve the practicability of real-time PPP.

Geng, Jianghui; Meng, Xiaolin; Dodson, Alan H.; Ge, Maorong; Teferle, Felix N.

2010-12-01

162

ACTION RECOGNITION IN VIDEOS USING FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL POINT TRAJECTORIES

ACTION RECOGNITION IN VIDEOS USING FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL POINT TRAJECTORIES Cyrille in videos, critical points, frequency analysis of motion trajectories. 1. INTRODUCTION Action recognition Rochelle, France ABSTRACT This paper focuses on human action recognition in video se- quences. A method

163

We explore the nonperturbative renormalization group flow of quantum Einstein gravity (QEG) on an infinite dimensional theory space. We consider 'conformally reduced' gravity where only fluctuations of the conformal factor are quantized and employ the local potential approximation for its effective average action. The requirement of 'background independence' in quantum gravity entails a partial differential equation governing the scale dependence of the potential for the conformal factor which differs significantly from that of a scalar matter field. In the infinite dimensional space of potential functions we find a Gaussian as well as a non-Gaussian fixed point which provides further evidence for the viability of the asymptotic safety scenario. The analog of the invariant cubic in the curvature which spoils perturbative renormalizability is seen to be unproblematic for the asymptotic safety of the conformally reduced theory. The scaling fields and dimensions of both fixed points are obtained explicitly and possible implications for the predictivity of the theory are discussed. Spacetime manifolds with R{sup d} as well as S{sup d} topology are considered. Solving the flow equation for the potential numerically we obtain examples of renormalization group trajectories inside the ultraviolet critical surface of the non-Gaussian fixed point. The quantum theories based upon some of them show a phase transition from the familiar (low energy) phase of gravity with spontaneously broken diffeomorphism invariance to a new phase of unbroken diffeomorphism invariance; the latter phase is characterized by a vanishing expectation value of the metric.

Reuter, M.; Weyer, H. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

2009-07-15

164

When multiple strategies can be used to solve a type of problem, the observed response time distributions are often mixtures of multiple underlying base distributions each representing one of these strategies. For the case of two possible strategies, the observed response time distributions obey the fixed-point property. That is, there exists one reaction time that has the same probability of being observed irrespective of the actual mixture proportion of each strategy. In this paper we discuss how to compute this fixed-point, and how to statistically assess the probability that indeed the observed response times are generated by two competing strategies. Accompanying this paper is a free R package that can be used to compute and test the presence or absence of the fixed-point property in response time data, allowing for easy to use tests of strategic behavior. PMID:25170893

van Maanen, Leendert; de Jong, Ritske; van Rijn, Hedderik

2014-01-01

165

In this paper, we describe an InGaAs detector based radiation thermometer (IRT) and new design of fixed-point blackbodies, including Sn, Zn, Al and Cu, for the establishment of a temperature scale from 200 °C to 1085 °C at the National Institute of Metrology of China. The construction and calibration of the IRT with the four fixed-point blackbodies are described. Characteristics of the IRT, such as the size-of-source effect, the amplifier performance and its stability are determined. The design of the four fixed-points, with 10 mm diameter of aperture and 0.9999 emissivity, is described. The uncertainty of the scale realization is elaborated.

Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Wang, J.; Lu, X. [Division of Thermometry and Materials Evaluation, National Institute of Metrology, Beijing, China, 100013 (China)] [Division of Thermometry and Materials Evaluation, National Institute of Metrology, Beijing, China, 100013 (China)

2013-09-11

166

Development of High-Temperature Fixed Points of Unknown Temperature Suitable for Key Comparisons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last key comparison of local realizations of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 above the silver point, which used high stability tungsten strip lamps, it became clear that these artifacts can no longer be used to evaluate the real calibration and measuring capabilities (CMCs) of the participant laboratories. The intrinsic uncertainty of the lamps is actually larger than the claimed CMCs of most national laboratories. Ideally a set of driftless robust artifacts, preferably of unknown temperature, should be used for this purpose, as this would allow CMCs to be probed at the highest level. Currently such artifacts do not exist. High-temperature fixed points (HTFPs) have been the subject of intense study for more than 10 years. The research has come to an advanced state so much that the temperatures of some of them are well known to be within 1 K. This has rendered their use as comparison artifacts questionable as any comparison would not be blind. To address this issue, doped HTFPs have been developed which have had their transition temperature altered from that of the eutectic composition. Two Ni-C-Cu cells and two Ni-C-Sn were constructed by Inmetro with different quantities of Cu and Sn, respectively. These were compared to a reference Ni-C cell (nominal transition temperature of 1329 C) and the temperature differences from the pure state determined. In this paper the design, construction, and results of long-term stability are described. These promising results indicate that it is possible to make HTFPs with altered temperatures which are stable enough to serve as comparison artifacts.

Teixeira, R.; Machin, G.; Orlando, A.

2014-04-01

167

Realization of the WC-C peritectic fixed point at NIM and NMIJ

Three WC-C peritectic fixed point cells, constructed from different sources of tungsten with different nominal purities, were measured at NIM and NMIJ. The three cells were constructed at NMIJ by NIM and NMIJ staffs, and T{sub 90} values of the three cells were measured at NMIJ during the period 31 Aug. to 25 Dec. 2009. Thereafter, the three cells were then transported to NIM, and T{sub 90} values of these cells were measured from 7 Dec. 2011 to 9 Jan. 2012. The results showed that T{sub 90} values of the three cells measured at the two institutes agreed within 0.4 °C with the combined scale comparison uncertainty of 1.7 °C (k= 2). The main component of the uncertainty is not the uncertainty due to impurities of the cells but the scale uncertainty and the stability of the measurement system. From these results it can be concluded that the WC-C cell is stable enough to provide new means of international high-temperature scale comparison above 3000 K.

Wang, T.; Bai, C.; Yuan, Z.; Dong, W.; Lu, X. [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China)] [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China); Sasajima, N.; Yamada, Y.; Ara, C. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST (NMIJ, AIST), Tsukuba (Japan)

2013-09-11

168

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, when using space-time processing techniques with multiple antennas for mobile radio communication, real-time weight adaptation is necessary. Due to the progress of integrated circuit technology, dedicated processor implementation with ASIC or FPGA can be employed to implement various wireless applications. This paper presents a resource and performance evaluation of the QRD-RLS systolic array processor based on fixed-point CORDIC algorithm with FPGA. In this paper, to save hardware resources, we propose the shared architecture of a complex CORDIC processor. The required precision of internal calculation, the circuit area for the number of antenna elements and wordlength, and the processing speed will be evaluated. The resource estimation provides a possible processor configuration with a current FPGA on the market. Computer simulations assuming a fading channel will show a fast convergence property with a finite number of training symbols. The proposed architecture has also been implemented and its operation was verified by beamforming evaluation through a radio propagation experiment.

Yokoyama, Yoshiaki; Kim, Minseok; Arai, Hiroyuki

169

We investigate universal behavior of isolated many-body systems far from equilibrium, which is relevant for a wide range of applications from ultracold quantum gases to high-energy particle physics. The universality is based on the existence of nonthermal fixed points, which represent nonequilibrium attractor solutions with self-similar scaling behavior. The corresponding dynamic universality classes turn out to be remarkably large, encompassing both relativistic as well as nonrelativistic quantum and classical systems. For the examples of nonrelativistic (Gross-Pitaevskii) and relativistic scalar field theory with quartic self-interactions, we demonstrate that infrared scaling exponents as well as scaling functions agree. We perform two independent nonperturbative calculations, first by using classical-statistical lattice simulation techniques and second by applying a vertex-resummed kinetic theory. The latter extends kinetic descriptions to the nonperturbative regime of overoccupied modes. Our results open new perspectives to learn from experiments with cold atoms aspects about the dynamics during the early stages of our universe.

A. Pineiro Orioli; K. Boguslavski; J. Berges

2015-03-09

170

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (ECG), are gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Earlier studies have shown that EEG and ECG show versatility with individuals and every individual has distinct EEG and ECG spectrum. EEG (which can be recorded from the scalp due to the effect of millions of neurons) may contain noise signals such as eye blink, eye movement, muscular movement, line noise, etc. Similarly, ECG may contain artifact like line noise, tremor artifacts, baseline wandering, etc. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG and ECG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper proposes a technique for the removal of eye blink artifact from EEG and ECG signal using fixed point or FastICA algorithm of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). For validation, FastICA algorithm has been applied to synthetic signal prepared by adding random noise to the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. FastICA algorithm separates the signal into two independent components, i.e. ECG pure and artifact signal. Similarly, the same algorithm has been applied to remove the artifacts (Electrooculogram or eye blink) from the EEG signal.

Mishra, Puneet; Singla, Sunil Kumar

2013-01-01

171

The hysteresis phenomenon can significantly affect the behavior of magnetic cores in electrical machines and devices. This paper presents a finite element solution of periodic steady state magnetic field problems in soft materials with scalar hysteresis. The Jiles-Atherton model is employed for the generation of symmetric B-H loops and it is coupled with the Fixed Point Technique for handling magnetic nonlinearities. The proposed procedure is applied to a hysteretic model problem whose analytical solution is available. The results show that the Fixed Point Technique can efficiently deal with non-single valued material characteristics under periodic operating conditions.

Chiampi, M.; Repetto, M. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica Industriale] [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica Industriale; Chiarabaglio, D. [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Torino (Italy)] [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Torino (Italy)

1995-11-01

172

Influence of the Cavity Length on the Behavior of Hybrid Fixed-Point Cells Constructed at INRIM

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid cells with double carbon/carbon sheets are used at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) for the realization of both pure metal fixed points and high-temperature metal-carbon eutectic points. Cells for the Cu and Co-C fixed points have been prepared to be used in the high-temperature fixed-point project of the Comité Consultatif de Thermométrie. The results of the evaluation processes were not completely satisfactory for the INRIM cells because of their low transition temperatures with respect to the best cells, and of a rather large melting range for the Co-C cell. A new design of the cells was devised, and considerable improvements were achieved with respect to the transition temperature, and the plateau shape and duration. As for the Cu point, the duration of the freezing plateaux increased by more than 50 % and the freezing temperature increased by 18 mK. As for the Co-C point, the melting temperature, expressed in terms of the point of inflection of the melting curve, increased by about 70 mK. The melting range of the plateaux, expressed as a difference was reduced from about 180 mK to about 130 mK, with melting times increased by about 50 %, as a consequence of an improvement of flatness and run-off of the plateaux.

Battuello, M.; Girard, F.; Florio, M.

2015-03-01

173

Surveying avian species during the breeding season is important to land managers for monitoring population trends and relative abundance. During spring 2003, we estimated species richness and abundance of breeding birds on 60 plots on Fort Riley Military Installation, KS. We used strip-transects and fixed-radius point counts conducted on the same plots but on different days. Our 100-m radius point

RUSSELL D. JAPUNTICH; DONALD P. ALTHOFF; PHILIP S. GIPSON; JEFFREY S. PONTIUS

174

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study forms part of the European Metrology Research Programme project implementing the New Kelvin to assign thermodynamic temperatures to a selected set of high-temperature fixed points (HTFPs), Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. A realistic thermal model of these HTFPs, developed in finite volume software ANSYS FLUENT, was constructed to quantify the uncertainty associated with the temperature drop across the back wall of the cell. In addition, the widely applied software package, STEEP3 was used to investigate the influence of cell emissivity. The temperature drop, , relates to the temperature difference due to the net loss of heat from the aperture of the cavity between the back wall of the cavity, viewed by the thermometer, defining the radiance temperature, and the solid-liquid interface of the alloy, defining the transition temperature of the HTFP. The actual value of can be used either as a correction (with associated uncertainty) to thermodynamic temperature evaluations of HTFPs, or as an uncertainty contribution to the overall estimated uncertainty. In addition, the effect of a range of furnace temperature profiles on the temperature drop was calculated and found to be negligible for Cu, Co-C, and Pt-C and small only for Re-C. The effective isothermal emissivity is calculated over the wavelength range from 450 nm to 850 nm for different assumed values of surface emissivity. Even when furnace temperature profiles are taken into account, the estimated emissivities change only slightly from the effective isothermal emissivity of the bare cell. These emissivity calculations are used to estimate the uncertainty in the temperature assignment due to the uncertainty in the emissivity of the blackbody.

Castro, P.; Machin, G.; Bloembergen, P.; Lowe, D.; Whittam, A.

2014-07-01

175

NIST / ITS-90 Fixed-Point Cell Mini-Workshop NIST, Building 221, Room B005, Gaithersburg, MD 20899

NIST / ITS-90 Fixed-Point Cell Mini-Workshop NIST, Building 221, Room B005, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 Attendee Are you a US citizen or permanent resident? Yes No If No, you are required to FAX a NIST-1260 form to Teresa Vicente at 301-948-2067. The NIST-1260 may be obtained from Stephanie Halton and must be submitted

Magee, Joseph W.

176

@eeinfo.kaist.ac.kr) Abstract: A fixed-point multimedia co-processor is designed and integrated into an ARM-10 based mobile shader with ARM-10 co-processor architecture realizes advanced 3-D graphics algorithms and various multimedia functions. Different from conventional ARM co-processor architecture, the multimedia co-processor

Yoo, Hoi-Jun

177

The hybrid steepest descent method is an algorithmic solution to the variational inequality problem over the fixed point set of nonlinear mapping and applicable to broad range of convexly constrained nonlinear inverse problems in real Hilbert space. In this paper, we show that the strong convergence theorem [Yamada, I. (2001). The hybrid steepest descent method for the variational inequality problem

Isao Yamada; Nobuhiko Ogura

2005-01-01

178

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the FFT-based homogenization method of Moulinec and Suquet has been established as a fast, accurate and robust tool for obtaining effective properties in linear elasticity and conductivity problems. In this work we discuss FFT-based homogenization for elastic problems at large deformations, with a focus on the following improvements. Firstly, we exhibit the fixed point method introduced by Moulinec and Suquet for small deformations as a gradient descent method. Secondly, we propose a Newton-Krylov method for large deformations. We give an example for which this methods needs approximately 20 times less iterations than Newton's method using linear fixed point solvers and roughly times less iterations than the nonlinear fixed point method. However, the Newton-Krylov method requires 4 times more storage than the nonlinear fixed point scheme. Exploiting the special structure we introduce a memory-efficient version with 40 % memory saving. Thirdly, we give an analytical solution for the micromechanical solution field of a two-phase isotropic St.Venant-Kirchhoff laminate. We use this solution for comparison and validation, but it is of independent interest. As an example for a microstructure relevant in engineering we discuss finally the application of the FFT-based method to glass fiber reinforced polymer structures.

Kabel, Matthias; Böhlke, Thomas; Schneider, Matti

2014-12-01

179

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following Baker(Gregory L. Baker, Am. J. Phys. 63), 832 (1995).), we have employed the OGY(E. Ott, C. Grebogi, and J. A. Yorke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64), 1196 (1990).) algorithm to achieve control of the damped, driven pendulum in a chaotic regime of its parameter space, in numerical simulations. We have automated the search for fixed points that are candidates for control. We present comparisons of the space of candidate fixed points with the bifurcation diagrams and Poincare sections of the system. We have demonstrated that control may be established at points which do not appear on the attractor and that the control algorithm may be employed to shift the system between non-communicating branches of the attractor.

Dittmore, Andrew; Trail, Collin; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard

2003-05-01

180

None has studied the well-posedness of common fixed points in fuzzy metric space. In this paper, our target is to develop the well-posedness of common fixed points in fuzzy metric space. Also using weakly compatibility, implicit relation, property (E.A.) and strict contractive conditions, we have established the unique common fixed point for three self mappings and also for four self mappings in fuzzy metric space.

Sumit Mohinta; T. K. Samanta

2011-04-16

181

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiulcer activity of Linum usitatissimum fixed oil against aspirin-, indomethacin-, ethanol-, reserpine-, serotonin- and stress-induced gastric ulceration in rats and histamine-induced gastric ulceration in guinea pigs. Attempts were also made to evaluate the in vitro anticholinergic and antihistaminic activity and in vivo antisecretary and antiulcer activity of oil following pylorus ligation in rats. L. usitatissimum fixed oil exhibited significant antiulcer activity against different ulcerogens in experimental animal models. The fixed oil significantly inhibited acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig and rat ileums, respectively, suggesting its anticholinergic and antihistaminic activity. The oil also exhibited significant inhibitory effect on gastric secretion/total acidity and aspirin-induced gastric ulceration in pylorus-ligated rats. The lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory (anticholinergic) effects of the oil could probably have contributed towards antiulcer activity. L. usitatissimum fixed oil may be considered to be a drug of natural origin which possesses significant antiulcer activity. The present observation is the first experimental data showing antiulcer activity of L. usitatissimum fixed oil. PMID:20405222

Kaithwas, Gaurav; Majumdar, Dipak K

2010-06-01

182

A fixed point in Coptic Chronology: the solar eclipse of 10 March, 601

We reconsider the description of a solar eclipse in the Coptic ostracon in the Egyptian museum, Turin, confirming its identification with the solar eclipse of 10 march 601. This provides one of very few fixed dates in Coptic chronology. We comment on the rarity of such descriptions.

John Ray; Gerry Gilmore

2006-07-22

183

Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue as a Starting Point for PrPSc Detection by ELISA

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue are regularly employed in TSE diagnosis by IHC, the standard by which all other diagnostic protocols are currently judged. While IHC affords advantages over diagnostic approaches that typically utilize fresh or frozen tissue, such as Western blot...

184

. We give a new proof of the Jantzen sum formula for integral representations of Chevalley schemes over Spec Z, except for three exceptional cases. This is done by applying the fixed point formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry\\u000a to generalized flag varieties. Our proof involves the computation of the equivariant Ray-Singer torsion for all equivariant\\u000a bundles over complex

Christian Kaiser; Kai Köhler

2002-01-01

185

A new hybrid projection iterative scheme is introduced to approximate a common element of the solution set of a generalized\\u000a mixed equilibrium problem, the solution set of a variational inequality problem, and the set of fixed points of a relatively\\u000a weak nonexpansive mapping in the Banach spaces. The obtained results generalize and improve the recent results announced by\\u000a many other

Ya-qin Wang; Liu-chuan Zeng

2011-01-01

186

A vertical cobalt-carbon (Co-C) eutectic fixed point cell was constructed at PTB to demonstrate its use for improvement of the calibration of noble-metal thermocouples at temperatures above 1100 °C. The melting and freezing temperatures of the Co-C eutectic were measured in different high-temperature furnaces at PTB and INMETRO (Brazil) to show its stability by using a Pt\\/Pd thermocouple. The reproducibility

F. Edler; A. C. Baratto

2005-01-01

187

Background Excessive sequential stereotypy of behavioral patterns (sequential super-stereotypy) in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is thought to involve dysfunction in nigrostriatal dopamine systems. In sequential super-stereotypy, patients become trapped in overly rigid sequential patterns of action, language, or thought. Some instinctive behavioral patterns of animals, such as the syntactic grooming chain pattern of rodents, have sufficiently complex and stereotyped serial structure to detect potential production of overly-rigid sequential patterns. A syntactic grooming chain is a fixed action pattern that serially links up to 25 grooming movements into 4 predictable phases that follow 1 syntactic rule. New mutant mouse models allow gene-based manipulation of brain function relevant to sequential patterns, but no current animal model of spontaneous OCD-like behaviors has so far been reported to exhibit sequential super-stereotypy in the sense of a whole complex serial pattern that becomes stronger and excessively rigid. Here we used a hyper-dopaminergic mutant mouse to examine whether an OCD-like behavioral sequence in animals shows sequential super-stereotypy. Knockdown mutation of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT) causes extracellular dopamine levels in the neostriatum of these adult mutant mice to rise to 170% of wild-type control levels. Results We found that the serial pattern of this instinctive behavioral sequence becomes strengthened as an entire entity in hyper-dopaminergic mutants, and more resistant to interruption. Hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice have stronger and more rigid syntactic grooming chain patterns than wild-type control mice. Mutants showed sequential super-stereotypy in the sense of having more stereotyped and predictable syntactic grooming sequences, and were also more likely to resist disruption of the pattern en route, by returning after a disruption to complete the pattern from the appropriate point in the sequence. By contrast, wild-type mice exhibited weaker forms of the fixed action pattern, and often failed to complete the full sequence. Conclusions Sequential super-stereotypy occurs in the complex fixed action patterns of hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice. Elucidation of the basis for sequential super-stereotypy of instinctive behavior in DAT knockdown mutant mice may offer insights into neural mechanisms of overly-rigid sequences of action or thought in human patients with disorders such as Tourette's or OCD. PMID:15710042

Berridge, Kent C; Aldridge, J Wayne; Houchard, Kimberly R; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

2005-01-01

188

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the activities of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project HiTeMS one work package is devoted to the development and testing of industrial solutions for long-standing temperature measurement problems at the highest temperatures. LNE-Cnam, NPL, TUBITAK-UME have worked on the design of high temperature fixed points (HTFP) suitable for in-situ temperature monitoring to be implemented in the facilities of CEA (Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives). Several high temperature fixed point cells were constructed in these three national metrology institutes (NMIs) using a rugged version of cells based on the hybrid design of the laboratory HTFP developed and continuously improved at LNE-Cnam during the last years. The fixed points of interest were Co-C, Ru-C and Re-C corresponding to melting temperatures of 1324 °C, 1953 °C and 2474 °C respectively. The cells were characterised at the NMIs after their construction. Having proved robust enough, they were transported to CEA and tested in an induction furnace and cycled from room temperature to temperatures much above the melting temperatures (> +400 °C) with extremely high heating and cooling rates (up to 10 000 K/h). All the cells withstood the tests and the melting plateaus could be observed in all cases.

Sadli, Mohamed; Bourson, Frédéric; Diril, Ahmet; Journeau, Christophe; Lowe, Dave; Parga, Clemente

2014-08-01

189

Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. Let Q:C?C be a fixed contraction and S,T:C?C be two nonexpansive mappings such that Fix(T)??. Consider the following two-step iterative algorithm: \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a $$\\\\begin{array}{@{}rll}x_{n+1}&=&\\\\alpha_{n}Qx_{n}+(1-\\\\alpha_{n})Ty_{n},\\\\\\\\[1.5mm]y_{n}&=&\\\\beta_{n}Sx_{n}+(1-\\\\beta_{n})x_{n},\\\\quad n\\\\geq0.\\\\end{array}$$\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a It is proven that under appropriate conditions, the above iterative sequence {x\\u000a \\u000a n\\u000a } converges strongly to \\u000a \\u000a which solves some variational inequality depending on

Yonghong Yao; Yeong-Cheng Liou; Giuseppe Marino

2009-01-01

190

Motion of a vertical wall fixed on springs under the action of surface waves

A two-dimensional unsteady hydroelastic problem of interaction between surface waves and a moving vertical wall fixed on springs\\u000a is studied. An analytical solution of the problem is constructed using a linear approximation, and a numerical solution within\\u000a the framework of a nonlinear model of a potential fluid flow is found by a complex boundary element method. By means of analysis

A. A. Korobkin; S. V. Stukolov; I. V. Sturova

2009-01-01

191

The EuroSITES network: Integrating and enhancing fixed-point open ocean observatories around Europe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EuroSITES is a 3 year (2008-2011) EU collaborative project (3.5MEuro) with the objective to integrate and enhance the nine existing open ocean fixed point observatories around Europe (www.eurosites.info). These observatories are primarily composed of full depth moorings and make multidisciplinary in situ observations within the water column as the European contribution to the global array OceanSITES (www.oceansites.org). In the first 18 months, all 9 observatories have been active and integration has been significant through the maintenance and enhancement of observatory hardware. Highlights include the enhancement of observatories with sensors to measure O2, pCO2, chlorophyll, and nitrate in near real-time from the upper 1000 m. In addition, some seafloor missions are also actively supported. These include seafloor platforms currently deployed in the Mediterranean, one for tsunami detection and one to monitor fluid flow related to seismic activity and slope stability. Upcoming seafloor science missions in 2010 include monitoring benthic biological communities and associated biogeochemistry as indicators of climate change in both the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. EuroSITES also promotes the development of innovative sensors and samplers in order to progress capability to measure climate-relevant properties of the ocean. These include further developing current technologies for autonomous long-term monitoring of oxygen consumption in the mesopelagic, pH and mesozooplankton abundance. Many of these science missions are directly related to complementary activities in other European projects such as EPOCA, HYPOX and ESONET. In 2010 a direct collaboration including in situ field work will take place between ESONET and EuroSITES. The demonstration mission MODOO (funded by ESONET) will be implemented in 2010 at the EuroSITES PAP observatory. Field work will include deployment of a seafloor lander system with various sensors which will send data to shore in real time via the EuroSITES water column infrastructure. EuroSITES Data management is led by NOCS, UK with CORIOLIS, France as one of the Global Data assembly centre (GDAC) for both EuroSITES and OceanSITES. EuroSITES maintains the OceanSITES and GEO philosophy of open access to data in near real-time. With a common data policy and standardised data formats (OceanSITES NetCDF) EuroSITES is increasing the potential users of in situ ocean datasets and the societal benefit of these data. For instance, CORIOLIS is central to the ever increasing contribution of EuroSITES as an upstream data provider to the GMES project MyOcean (both real-time and delayed-mode data). Outreach and knowledge transfer of EuroSITES activities and results are also a key component to the project with a dedicated outreach website, Fact Sheet, cruise diaries and educational tools being developed in the first 18 months. In 2010 a film will be released to represent the network and this will be distributed to a wide audience through the European network of aquaria and at other outreach events. In addition, the EuroSITES project and it's relevance to global ocean observation initiatives continues to be actively promoted at both scientific and non-specialist meetings and events. By the end of EuroSITES in April 2011, the 9 core ocean observatories will be well integrated. Each observatory will have enhanced infrastructure to include both physical and biogeoechemical sensors. Science missions in the ocean interior and seafloor/subseafloor will have progressed European ocean observational capability significantly. Collaborations will have taken place or will be at an advanced stage of planning with related European and international projects including ESONET FP6 NoE and the NSF funded Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) (400M over 5 years). EuroSITES will continue to develop it's contribution to the ocean component of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) through task AR-09-03c 'Global Ocean Observing Systems' and related societal benefit areas.

Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; EuroSITES Consortium

2010-05-01

192

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (OCT) in the density-matrix representation to deal with quantum systems showing dissipation. Our theory is more general and flexible for tailoring optimal laser pulses in order to control quantum dynamics with dissipation than the conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point OCT in that the optimal temporal duration of laser pulses can also be optimized exactly. To show the usefulness of our theory, it is applied to the generation and maintenance of the vibrational entanglement of carbon monoxide adsorbed on the copper (100) surface, CO/Cu(100). We demonstrate the numerical results and clarify how to combat vibrational decoherence as much as possible by the tailored shapes of the optimal laser pulses. It is expected that our theory will be general enough to be applied to a variety of dissipative quantum dynamics systems because the decoherence is one of the quantum phenomena sensitive to the temporal duration of the quantum dynamics.

Mishima, K.; Yamashita, K.

2009-07-01

193

Two-stage fixed-bed gasifier with selectable middle gas off-take point

A two-stage fixed bed coal gasifier wherein an annular region is in registry with a gasification zone underlying a devolatilization zone for extracting a side stream of high temperature substantially tar-free gas from the gasifier. A vertically displaceable skirt means is positioned within the gasifier to define the lower portion of the annular region so that vertical displacement of the skirt means positions the inlet into the annular region in a selected location within or in close proximity to the gasification zone for providing a positive control over the composition of the side stream gas.

Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01

194

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

2004-04-28

195

This article is an empirical evaluation of the choice of fixed cutoff points in assessing the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) test statistic as a measure of goodness-of-fit in Structural Equation Models. Using simulation data, the authors first examine whether there is any empirical evidence for the use of a universal cutoff, and then compare the practice of using the point estimate of the RMSEA alone versus that of using it jointly with its related confidence interval. The results of the study demonstrate that there is little empirical support for the use of .05 or any other value as universal cutoff values to determine adequate model fit, regardless of whether the point estimate is used alone or jointly with the confidence interval. The authors' analyses suggest that to achieve a certain level of power or Type I error rate, the choice of cutoff values depends on model specifications, degrees of freedom, and sample size. PMID:19756246

Chen, Feinian; Curran, Patrick J.; Bollen, Kenneth A.; Kirby, James; Paxton, Pamela

2009-01-01

196

A fixed point formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry I: statement and proof

. We consider arithmetic varieties endowed with an action of the group scheme of n-th roots of unity and we define equivariant arithmetic K\\u000a \\u000a 0-theory for these varieties. We use the equivariant analytic torsion to define direct image maps in this context and we prove\\u000a a Riemann-Roch theorem for the natural transformation of equivariant arithmetic K\\u000a \\u000a 0-theory induced by the

Kai Köhler; Damian Roessler

2001-01-01

197

A fixed point formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry I: statement and proof

We consider arithmetic varieties endowed with an action of the group scheme of n-th roots of unity and we define equivariant arithmetic K0- theory for these varieties. We use the equivariant analytic torsion to define direct image maps in this context and we prove a Riemann-Roch theo- rem for the natural transformation of equivariant arithmetic K0-theory induced by the restriction

Kai Kohler; Damian Roessler

1998-01-01

198

Routes to chaos in the Hopf-saddle-node bifurcation for fixed points of 3D-diffeomorphisms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical phenomena are studied near a Hopf-saddle-node bifurcation of fixed points of 3D-diffeomorphisms. The interest lies in the neighbourhood of weak resonances of the complex conjugate eigenvalues. The 1 : 5 case is chosen here because it has the lowest order among the weak resonances, and therefore it is likely to have a most visible influence on the bifurcation diagram. A model map is obtained by a natural construction, through perturbation of the flow of a Poincaré-Takens normal form vector field. Global bifurcations arise in connection with a pair of saddle-focus fixed points: homoclinic tangencies occur near a sphere-like heteroclinic structure formed by the 2D stable and unstable manifolds of the saddle points. Strange attractors occur for nearby parameter values and three routes are described. One route involves a sequence of quasi-periodic period doublings of an invariant circle where loss of reducibility also takes place during the process. A second route involves intermittency due to a quasi-periodic saddle-node bifurcation of an invariant circle. Finally a route involving heteroclinic phenomena is discussed. Multistability occurs in several parameter subdomains: we analyse the structure of the basins for a case of coexistence of a strange and a quasi-periodic attractor and for coexistence of two strange attractors. By construction, the phenomenology of the model map is expected in generic families of 3D diffeomorphisms. In memoriam: Floris Takens.

Vitolo, Renato; Broer, Henk; Simó, Carles

2010-08-01

199

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homotopy continuation methods (HCM) can be used to find the zeros of nonlinear equations. An advantage of HCM is that this method is able resolve divergence problems which might be faced by classical methods. In this paper, we utilize Ostrowski-HCM (OHCM) with quadratic Bezier homotopy function (QBHF) and linear fixed-point (LFP) function in order to improve the accuracy of solutions. We compare the performance of our proposed method with Newton's method (NM) and Ostrowski's method (OM). The results obtained indicate that Ostrowski-HCM with these additional functions performs better compared to the Newton's and Ostrowski's methods.

Nor, Hafizudin Mohamad; Rahman, Amirah; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md.; Majid, Ahmad Abd.

2014-12-01

200

A Polynomial Time Algorithm for Counting Integral Points in Polyhedra when the Dimension Is Fixed

We prove that for any dimension d there exists a polynomial time algorithm for counting integral points in polyhedra in the d-dimensional Euclidean space. Previously such algorithms were known for dimensions d=1,2,3, and 4 only

Alexander I. Barvinok

1993-01-01

201

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 423, Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 03-02-002-0308, within CAU 423. Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles[mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The UDP is approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest of the northwest corner of Building 03-60, the Auto Maintenance Shop. Corrective Action Unit 423 is comprised of the UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60. The UDP received waste oil products from the Auto Maintenance Shop, a light-duty fleet maintenance shop in the Area 3 compound, from 1965 to 1989 or 1990 (DOE/NV, 1997).

DOE /NV

1999-06-19

202

We introduce the concept of fuzzy Ciric-Matkowski contractive mappings as a generalization of fuzzy Meir-Keeler type contractions. We also introduce a class $\\Psi_1$ of gauge functions $\\psi:(0,1]\\to(0,1]$ in the sense that, for any $r\\in(0,1)$, there exists $\\rho\\in(r,1)$ such that $1-r> \\tau >1-\\rho$ implies $\\psi(\\tau)\\geq 1-r$. We show that fuzzy $\\psi$-contractive mappings ($\\psi\\in\\Psi_1$) are fuzzy Ciric-Matkowski contractive mappings. Then, we present a characterization of $M$-Cauchy sequences in fuzzy metric spaces. This characterization is used to establish new fuzzy fixed point theorems. Our results include those of Mihet (Fuzzy $\\psi$-contractive mappings in non-Archimedean fuzzy metric spaces, Fuzzy Sets Syst. 159(2008) 739--744.), Wardowski (Fuzzy contractive mappings and fixed points in fuzzy metric spaces, Fuzzy Sets Syst. 222(2013) 108--114) and others. Examples are given to support the results.

Mortaza Abtahi

2014-10-20

203

Metformine : le point sur les mcanismes d'action Metformin: new insights on the mechanisms of action

1 Metformine : le point sur les mÃ©canismes d'action Metformin: new insights on the mechanisms-SalpÃªtriÃ¨re (AP-HP), UniversitÃ© Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Paris, France Mots-clÃ©s : Metformine Â DiabÃ¨te de type 2 Â AMPK Â MÃ©tabolisme Ã©nergÃ©tique Keywords : Metformin Â Type 2 diabetes Â AMPK Â Energy

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

204

This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are inactive or abandoned. However, some leachfields may still receive liquids from runoff during storm events. Results from the 2000-2001 site characterization activities conducted by International Technology (IT) Corporation, Las Vegas Office are documented in the Corrective Action Investigation Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This document is located in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 262. Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. (DOE/NV, 2001).

K. B. Campbell

2002-06-01

205

Numerical Modeling of Heat Flux in Fixed-Point Cells Due to the Hydrostatic-Head Effect

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the numerical analysis of a particular thermal effect, which occurs during the calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometers in fixed-point cells. The temperature within the fixed-point cell varies linearly with the immersion depth due to the hydrostatic-head effect, so a quasi-linear temperature gradient in the vertical direction is inherently present. If there is a temperature gradient, a resulting heat flux will appear. This heat flux flows across the thermal conductivities, which change with depth, so the resulting temperature field is distorted. The key issue that is tackled in this article is the magnitude of these temperature deviations and their influence on the measurement accuracy. This effect should not be confused with the perturbing heat exchange toward the thermal enclosure and ambient. These are independent effects that are in real systems superimposed on each other. To get a better insight into this phenomenon, a numerical model based on a finite-difference method was developed. The model allows the simulation of the measurement of the thermometer immersion profile and of the use of different bushings, as two of the methods for assessing the thermal effects. The results of the modeling showed that there is an inherent difference between the temperature measured by the thermometer sensor and the temperature at the point of the phase transition, even if the immersion depth was infinite and there was no perturbing heat exchange toward the thermal enclosure and ambient. Nevertheless, in several cases the thermometer would still almost perfectly follow the immersion-profile curve. The only exception is near the bottom of the cell, where a small deviation from the immersion profile was observed. This is in agreement with previously presented experimental results, where this behavior was noticed, but never satisfactorily explained.

Batagelj, V.; Bojkovski, J.; Drnovšek, J.

2011-12-01

206

Perceiving the Direction of Articulatory Motion in Point-Light Actions

Human observers are able to perceive the motion direction of actions (either forward or backward) on the basis of the articulatory, relative motion of the limbs, even when the actions are shown under point-light conditions. However, most studies have focused on the action of walking. The primary purpose of the present study is to further investigate the perception of articulatory motion in different point-light actions (walking, crawling, hand walking, and rowing). On each trial, participants were presented with a forward or backward moving person and they had to decide on the direction of articulatory motion of the person. We analyzed sensitivity (d') as well as response bias (c). In addition to the type of action, the diagnosticity of the available information was manipulated by varying the visibility of the body parts (full body, only upper limbs, or only lower limbs) and the viewpoint from which the action was seen (from frontal view to sagittal view). We observe that, depending on the specific action, perception of direction of motion is driven by different body parts. Implications for the possible existence of a life detector, i.e., an evolutionarily old and innate visual filter that is tuned to quickly and automatically detect the presence of a moving living organism and direct attention to it, are discussed. PMID:25526397

Davila, Alex; Schouten, Ben; Verfaillie, Karl

2014-01-01

207

Perceiving the direction of articulatory motion in point-light actions.

Human observers are able to perceive the motion direction of actions (either forward or backward) on the basis of the articulatory, relative motion of the limbs, even when the actions are shown under point-light conditions. However, most studies have focused on the action of walking. The primary purpose of the present study is to further investigate the perception of articulatory motion in different point-light actions (walking, crawling, hand walking, and rowing). On each trial, participants were presented with a forward or backward moving person and they had to decide on the direction of articulatory motion of the person. We analyzed sensitivity (d') as well as response bias (c). In addition to the type of action, the diagnosticity of the available information was manipulated by varying the visibility of the body parts (full body, only upper limbs, or only lower limbs) and the viewpoint from which the action was seen (from frontal view to sagittal view). We observe that, depending on the specific action, perception of direction of motion is driven by different body parts. Implications for the possible existence of a life detector, i.e., an evolutionarily old and innate visual filter that is tuned to quickly and automatically detect the presence of a moving living organism and direct attention to it, are discussed. PMID:25526397

Davila, Alex; Schouten, Ben; Verfaillie, Karl

2014-01-01

208

A Phase-Field Solidification Model of Almost Pure ITS-90 Fixed Points

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional axisymmetric phase-field model of thermo-solutal solidification in freezing-point cells used for calibrating standard platinum resistance thermometers for realization and dissemination of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 is presented. The cell is essentially a graphite crucible containing an ingot of very pure metal (of order 99.9999 %). A graphite tube is inserted along the axis of the ingot to enable immersion of the thermometer in the metal. In this study, the metal is tin (freezing temperature of ). During the freezing of these cells, a steady, reproducible temperature is realized, with a defined temperature that can be used to calibrate thermometers with uncertainties mK. The model is applied to understand the effect of experimental parameters, such as initiation technique and furnace homogeneity, on the measured freezing curve. Results show that freezing curves whose behavior is consistent with the Scheil theory of solidification can be obtained with a specific furnace temperature profile, and provided that the freeze is of a long duration, the results are consistent with previous one-dimensional models and experiments. Morphological instability is observed with the inner interface initiation technique, causing the interface to adopt a cellular structure. This elevates the measured temperature, in accordance with the Gibbs-Thomson effect. In addition, the influence of initiation techniques on the solidification behavior is examined. The model indicates that an initially smooth inner mantle can `de-wet' from the thermometer well-forming agglomerated solid droplets, following recalescence, under certain conditions. This manifests as a measured temperature depression due to the Gibbs-Thomson effect, with a magnitude of to in simulations. The temperature rises to that of the stable outer mantle as freezing progresses and the droplets re-melt. It is demonstrated that the effect occurs below a critical mantle thickness. A physical explanation for the origin of the effect is offered showing that it is consistent with solid-state de-wetting phenomena. Consideration is also given to the limitations of the current model configuration.

Large, M. J.; Pearce, J. V.

2014-07-01

209

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use scaling and renormalization-group techniques to analyze the leading nonanalyticities in a Fermi liquid. We show that a physically motivated scaling hypothesis reproduces the results known from perturbation theory for the density of states, the density-of-states fluctuations, the specific heat, the spin susceptibility, and the nematic magnetic susceptibility. We also discuss the absence of nonanalytic terms in the density susceptibility. We then use a recent effective field theory for clean electron systems to derive the scaling hypothesis by means of renormalization-group techniques. This shows that the exponents (although not the prefactors) of the nonanalyticities that were previously derived by means of perturbative techniques are indeed exact, and can be understood as the leading corrections to scaling at the stable Fermi-liquid fixed point.

Belitz, D.; Kirkpatrick, T. R.

2014-01-01

210

The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) and in collaboration with the Root River Municipal Stormwater Permit Group monitored eight urban source areas representing six types of source areas in or near Madison, Wis. in an effort to improve characterization of particle-size distributions in urban stormwater by use of fixed-point sample collection methods. The types of source areas were parking lot, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and mixed use. This information can then be used by environmental managers and engineers when selecting the most appropriate control devices for the removal of solids from urban stormwater. Mixed-use and parking-lot study areas had the lowest median particle sizes (42 and 54 (u or mu)m, respectively), followed by the collector street study area (70 (u or mu)m). Both arterial street and institutional roof study areas had similar median particle sizes of approximately 95 (u or mu)m. Finally, the feeder street study area showed the largest median particle size of nearly 200 (u or mu)m. Median particle sizes measured as part of this study were somewhat comparable to those reported in previous studies from similar source areas. The majority of particle mass in four out of six source areas was silt and clay particles that are less than 32 (u or mu)m in size. Distributions of particles ranging from 500 (u or mu)m were highly variable both within and between source areas. Results of this study suggest substantial variability in data can inhibit the development of a single particle-size distribution that is representative of stormwater runoff generated from a single source area or land use. Continued development of improved sample collection methods, such as the depth-integrated sample arm, may reduce variability in particle-size distributions by mitigating the effect of sediment bias inherent with a fixed-point sampler.

Selbig, William R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

2011-01-01

211

This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (Corrective Action Unit 423) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is comprised of Corrective Action Site 03-02-002-0308. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423. The scope of this Correction Action Decision Document consists of the following: ? Develop corrective action objectives. ? Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. ? Develop corrective action alternatives. ? Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. ? Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit. In January 1998, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). A hydrocarbon plume was found to emanate from near the bottom of the Underground Discharge Point to the west. The plume encompasses approximately 65 square meters (700 square feet). The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon level detected was 2,400 milligrams per kilogram. No other contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels. Details of the investigation can be found in Appendix A of this document. Based on the potential exposure pathways identified during the Data Quality Objectives process, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for Corrective Action Unit 423: ? Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soil containing contaminants of concern. ? Prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. Based on the review of existing data, future land use assumption, and current operations at the Tonopah Test Range, the following alternatives were developed for consideration at the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point: ? Alternative 1 - No Action ? Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls ? Alternative 3 - Partial Excavation, Disposal, and Administrative Controls ? Alternative 4 - In Situ Bioremediation The corrective action alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423 is Alternative 2, Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. The preferred corrective action alternative was evaluated on technical merit, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. The alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The alternative also meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will reduce potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils.

NONE

1998-06-01

212

This work performs a paraxial analysis of three-component zoom lens with a fixed position of image-space focal point and a distance between object and image points, which is composed of three tunable-focus elements. Formulas for the calculation of paraxial parameters of such optical systems are derived and the calculation is presented on examples. PMID:25401855

Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri

2014-11-01

213

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45

Alfred N. Wickline

2004-01-01

214

Optical fixing the positions of the off-shore objects applying the method of two reference points

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paper presents the optical method of fixing the off-shore objects positions from the land. The method is based on application of two reference points, having the geographical coordinates defined. The first point was situated high on the sea shore, where also the camera was installed. The second point was intended for use to determine the topocentric horizon plane and it was situated at the water-level. The first section of the Paper contains the definition of space and disposed therein reference systems: connected with the Earth, water-level and the camera system. The second section of the Paper provides a description of the survey system model and the principles of the Charge Coupled Device - CCD array pixel's coordinates (plate coordinates) transformation into the geographic coordinates located on the water-level. In the final section there are presented the general rules of using the worked out method in the optical system. W artykule przedstawiono optyczn? metod? wyznaczania pozycji obiektów nawodnych z l?du. Oparto j? na dwóch punktach odniesienia o znanych wspó?rz?dnych geograficznych. Pierwszy umiejscowiono wysoko na brzegu morza i przeznaczono do zamontowania kamery. Drugi przeznaczono do okre?lania p?aszczyzny horyzontu topocentrycznego i umiejscowiono na poziomie lustra wody. W pierwszej cz??ci artyku?u zdefi niowano przestrze? i rozmieszczone w niej uk?ady odniesienia: zwi?zany z Ziemi?, poziomem lustra wody i kamer?. Drug? cz??? artyku?u stanowi opis modelu uk?adu pomiarowego oraz zasad transformacji wspó?rz?dnych piksela (t?owych) z matrycy CCD na wspó?rz?dne geograficzne punktu umiejscowionego na poziomie lustra wody. W cz??ci ko?cowej zaprezentowano ogólne zasady wykorzystywania opracowanej metody w systemie optycznym.

Naus, Krzysztof; Szulc, Dariusz

2014-06-01

215

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 556, Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, is located in Areas 6 and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 556 is comprised of four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: •06-20-04, National Cementers Dry Well •06-99-09, Birdwell Test Hole •25-60-03, E-MAD Stormwater Discharge and Piping •25-64-01, Vehicle Washdown and Drainage Pit These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

Grant Evenson

2007-02-01

216

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2007-02-01

217

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing work to improve the uniformity of vertically mounted furnaces, manufactured by Carbolite (e.g., Type TZF12/75—three-zone furnace capable of 1200 °C, with 75 mm inner bore) along the axis and across the working tube and/or equalizing block is reported. This involves adjusting the size of the end zones, the position of the control thermometers, and the use of cascade-control methods. Means regularly used at NPL to reduce electrical noise in some commercially available ac furnaces through a reduction in the voltage used to “fire” the heaters, and better use of thyristor controllers (by extending their cycle time) are described. The need to shield the controllers from local magnetic fields is described. With these measures, the electrical noise from ac furnaces can approach that of dc furnaces, without the large cost of a dc power supply. The application of new data analysis techniques (Allan deviation) will be shown to improve the representation of uninterrupted fixed-point traces (as used in ingot verification rather than PRT calibration). Reduction of statistical noise on the temperature measurements has been achieved for data on the freezing plateau by determining the statistically optimum averaging time. This shows that the statistical uncertainty in the determination of the temperature of a particular freezing plateau is less than 25 ?K and that noise (drift) from other sources, possibly due to variations in room temperature, starts to become appreciable over periods longer than a few tens of minutes. The measurement of freezing and melting plateaux at this level is aided by the introduction of new ASL-F900 bridge(s), and quieter/larger standard resistor baths.

Head, D. I.; Gray, J.; de Podesta, M.

2009-02-01

218

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An apparently unnoticed analogy between the torque-free motion of a rotating rigid body about a fixed point and the propagation of light in anisotropic media is stated. First, a new plane construction for visualizing this torque-free motion is proposed. This method uses an intrinsic representation alternative to angular momentum and independent of…

Bellver-Cebreros, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Danta, Marcelo

2009-01-01

219

Probabilistic Model of Error in Fixed-Point Arithmetic Gaussian Pyramid Antoine M´eler John A. Ruiz pyramid is an important tool in computer vision and image processing. The existence of a fast algorithm with linear computational complexity makes it feasible to implement the half-octave Gaussian pyramid

Crowley, James L.

220

We introduce an iterative process for finding an element of a common fixed point of a finite family of Bregman weak relatively nonexpansive mappings. Our theorems improve and unify most of the results that have been proved for this important class of nonlinear operators. PMID:24757423

2014-01-01

221

Evaluation of color spatio-temporal interest points for human action recognition.

This paper considers the recognition of realistic human actions in videos based on spatio-temporal interest points (STIPs). Existing STIP-based action recognition approaches operate on intensity representations of the image data. Because of this, these approaches are sensitive to disturbing photometric phenomena, such as shadows and highlights. In addition, valuable information is neglected by discarding chromaticity from the photometric representation. These issues are addressed by color STIPs. Color STIPs are multichannel reformulations of STIP detectors and descriptors, for which we consider a number of chromatic and invariant representations derived from the opponent color space. Color STIPs are shown to outperform their intensity-based counterparts on the challenging UCF sports, UCF11 and UCF50 action recognition benchmarks by more than 5% on average, where most of the gain is due to the multichannel descriptors. In addition, the results show that color STIPs are currently the single best low-level feature choice for STIP-based approaches to human action recognition. PMID:24577192

Everts, Ivo; van Gemert, Jan C; Gevers, Theo

2014-04-01

222

In this study, a multiple sample dispenser for precisely metered fixed volumes was successfully designed, fabricated, and fully characterized on a plastic centrifugal lab-on-a-disk (LOD) for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays. The dispenser, namely, a centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser (C-MUFID) was designed with microfluidic structures based on the theoretical modeling about a centrifugal circumferential filling flow. The designed LODs were fabricated with a polystyrene substrate through micromachining and they were thermally bonded with a flat substrate. Furthermore, six parallel metering and dispensing assays were conducted at the same fixed-volume (1.27??l) with a relative variation of ±0.02??l. Moreover, the samples were metered and dispensed at different sub-volumes. To visualize the metering and dispensing performances, the C-MUFID was integrated with a serpentine micromixer during parallel centrifugal mixing tests. Parallel biochemical single-end-point assays were successfully conducted on the developed LOD using a standard serum with albumin, glucose, and total protein reagents. The developed LOD could be widely applied to various biochemical single-end-point assays which require different volume ratios of the sample and reagent by controlling the design of the C-MUFID. The proposed LOD is feasible for point-of-care diagnostics because of its mass-producible structures, reliable metering/dispensing performance, and parallel biochemical single-end-point assays, which can identify numerous biochemical. PMID:25610516

La, Moonwoo; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

2015-01-01

223

Co-C and Pd-C Fixed Points for the Evaluation of Facilities and Scales Realization at INRIM and NMC

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hybrid cells for realizing the Co-C and Pd-C fixed points and constructed at Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) were used for an evaluation of facilities and procedures adopted by INRIM and National Metrology Institute of Singapore (NMC) for the realization of the solid-liquid phase transitions of high-temperature fixed points and for determining their transition temperatures. Four different furnaces were used for the investigations, i.e., two single-zone furnaces, one of them of the direct-heating type, and two identical three-zone furnaces. The transition temperatures were measured at both institutes by adopting different procedures for realizing the radiation scales, i.e., at INRIM a scheme based on the extrapolation of fixed-point interpolated scales and an International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) approach at NMC. The point of inflection (POI) of the melting curves was determined and assumed as a practical representation of the melting temperature. Different methods for deriving the POI were used, and differences as large as some hundredths of a kelvin were found with the different approaches. The POIs of the different melting curves were analyzed with respect to the different possible operative conditions with the aim of deriving reproducibility figures to improve the estimated uncertainty. As regard to the institutes inter-comparison, differences of 0.13 K and 0.29 K were found between INRIM and NMC determinations at the Co-C and Pd-C points, respectively. Such differences are compatible with the combined standard uncertainties of the comparison, which are estimated to be 0.33 K and 0.36 K at the Co-C and Pd-C points, respectively.

Battuello, M.; Wang, L.; Girard, F.; Ang, S. H.

2014-04-01

224

The discovery of mirror neurons compellingly shows that the monkey premotor area F5 is active not only during the execution but also during the observation of goal-directed motor acts. Previous studies have addressed the functioning of the mirror-neuron system at the single-unit level. Here, we tackled this research question at the network level by analysing local field potentials in area F5 while the monkey was presented with goal-directed actions executed by a human or monkey actor and observed either from a first-person or third-person perspective. Our analysis showed that rhythmic responses are not only present in area F5 during action observation, but are also modulated by the point of view. Observing an action from a subjective point of view produced significantly higher power in the low-frequency band (2-10 Hz) than observing the same action from a frontal view. Interestingly, an increase in power in the 2-10 Hz band was also produced by the execution of goal-directed motor acts. Independently of the point of view, action observation also produced a significant decrease in power in the 15-40 Hz band and an increase in the 60-100 Hz band. These results suggest that, depending on the point of view, action observation might activate different processes in area F5. Furthermore, they may provide information about the functional architecture of action perception in primates. PMID:25442357

Caggiano, Vittorio; Giese, Martin; Thier, Peter; Casile, Antonino

2015-02-01

225

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the Schrödinger equation for a relativistic point particle in an external one-dimensional ?-function potential. Using dimensional regularization, we investigate both bound and scattering states, and we obtain results that are consistent with the abstract mathematical theory of self-adjoint extensions of the pseudodifferential operator H =?p2+m2 . Interestingly, this relatively simple system is asymptotically free. In the massless limit, it undergoes dimensional transmutation and it possesses an infrared conformal fixed point. Thus it can be used to illustrate nontrivial concepts of quantum field theory in the simpler framework of relativistic quantum mechanics.

Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Shalaby, A. M.; Wiese, U.-J.

2014-06-01

226

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Against the background of Swedish preschool's historical and traditional functions in Swedish society, this article focuses on some of the choice points and their implications for professional and organisational development in preschool. By combining feminist pragmatism and feminist action research, some analytical points are made regarding the…

Gillberg, Claudia

2011-01-01

227

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Sites Office's (NNSA/NSO's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 516 consists of six Corrective Action Sites: 03-59-01, Building 3C-36 Septic System; 03-59-02, Building 3C-45 Septic System; 06-51-01, Sump Piping, 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris; 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping; and 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the NTS, CAU 516 is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls, and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information and process knowledge on the expected nature and extent of contamination of CAU 516 are insufficient to select preferred corrective action alternatives; therefore, additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Sites Office

2003-04-28

228

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

NONE

1997-10-27

229

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

DOE /NV

1997-10-01

230

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 - Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 - Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 - Clean Out Box and Piping; and (7) 22-19-04 - Vehicle Decontamination Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of an acceptable corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 516. Corrective action investigation activities were performed between July 22 and August 14, 2003, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Supplemental sampling was conducted in late 2003 and early 2004.

Alfred N. Wickline

2004-04-01

231

We implement several warm-start strategies in interior-point methods for linear programming (LP). We study the situation in\\u000a which both the original LP instance and the perturbed one have exactly the same dimensions. We consider different types of\\u000a perturbations of data components of the original instance and different sizes of each type of perturbation. We modify the\\u000a state-of-the-art interior-point solver PCx

Elizabeth John; E. Alper Y?ld?r?m

2008-01-01

232

We describe the creation of a set of point-light movies depicting 43 communicative gestures and 43 noncommunicative, pantomimed actions. These actions were recorded using a motion capture system that is worn on the body and provides accurate capture of the positions and movements of individual fingers. The movies created thus include point-lights on the fingers, allowing for representation of actions and gestures that would not be possible with a conventional, line-of-sight-based motion capture system. These videos would be suitable for use in cognitive and cognitive neuroscientific studies of biological motion and gesture perception. Each video is described, along with an H statistic indicating the consistency of the descriptive labels that 20 observers gave to the actions. We also produced a scrambled version of each movie, in which the starting position of each point was randomized but its local motion vector was preserved. These scrambled movies would be suitable for use as control stimuli in experimental studies. As supplementary materials, we provide QuickTime movie files of each action, along with text files specifying the three-dimensional coordinates of each point-light in each frame of each movie. PMID:23073730

Zaini, Hazlin; Fawcett, Jonathan M; White, Nicole C; Newman, Aaron J

2013-06-01

233

Determination of the sinking and terminating points of action unit on humanoid skull through GFEAD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes modeling and computational analysis technique for design of humanoid head that can generate human-like facial expression. Current humanoid prototypes utilize either traditional servo motors or other form of bulky actuators such as air muscles to deform soft elastomeric skin that in turn creates facial expression. However, these prior methods have inherent drawbacks and do not resemble human musculature. In this paper, we report the advances made in design of humanoid head using shape memory alloy actuators. These muscle-like actuators are often in discrete form and finite in number. This brings up the fundamental question regarding their arrangement and location of terminating and sinking points for each action unit. We address this question by developing a Graphical Facial Expression Analysis and Design (GFEAD) technique that can be used to optimize the space, analyze the deformation behavior, and determine the effect of actuator properties. GFEAD will be described through generic mathematical models and analytical geometry confining the discussion to two-dimensional planes. The implementation of the graphical method will be presented by considering different practical cases.

Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank

2011-04-01

234

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of nding a common element of the set of xed points F (S) of a nonexpansive mapping S and the set of solutions A of the variational inequality for a monotone, Lipschitz continuous mappingA. We introduce a hybrid extragradient-like approximation method which is based on the well-known extragradient method and

Lu-Chuan Ceng; Nicolas Hadjisavvas; Ngai-Ching Wong

2010-01-01

235

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the one-loop renormalization-group evolution of extended sectors of Yukawa-type couplings. It is shown that Landau poles, which usually provide the necessary low-energy upper bounds that saturate quickly with increasing initial value conditions, lead in some cases to the opposite behavior: some of the low-energy couplings decrease and become vanishingly small for increasingly large initial conditions. We write down the general criteria for this to happen in typical situations, highlighting a concept of repulsive quasifixed points, and illustrate the case both within a two-Yukawa toy model as well as in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. In the latter case, we consider the theoretical upper bounds on the various couplings, identifying regimes where ?kl3,?'kkk,??3kl are dynamically suppressed due to the Landau pole. We stress the importance of considering a large number of couplings simultaneously. This leads altogether to a phenomenologically interesting seesaw effect in the magnitudes of the various R-parity violating couplings, complementing and in some cases improving the existing limits.

Mambrini, Y.; Moultaka, G.

2002-06-01

236

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 556, Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 556 is comprised of four corrective action sites (CASs): • 06-20-04, National Cementers Dry Well • 06-99-09, Birdwell Test Hole • 25-60-03, E-MAD Stormwater Discharge and Piping • 25-64-01, Vehicle Washdown and Drainage Pit The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 556 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities began on February 7 and were completed on June 19, 2008, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 556 data were evaluated based on the data quality assessment process, which demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 556 that required the completion of a corrective action. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 556 revealed the following: • Corrective Action Sites 06-20-04, 06-99-09, and 25-64-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination above the FAL was identified in the surface and/or shallow subsurface soils at the outfall and around Catch Basin 2, and in soils contained within the catch basins and the manhole at CAS 25-60-03. A corrective action of close in place with a soil removal action and use restriction (UR) was completed at CAS 25-60-03. The PCB-contaminated soils were removed from the outfall area and around Catch Basin 2, and disposed of at a Nevada Test Site landfill as part of a removal action. The catch basins and the manhole were sealed shut by filling them with grout. The end of the outfall pipe was plugged using grout, covered with soil, and the area was regraded. A UR was applied to the entire stormwater system at CAS 25-60-03, which includes the three catch basins, manhole, and associated piping. No further action is the corrective action for CASs 06-20-04, 06-99-09, and 25-64-01. The liquids in the test holes at CAS 06-99-09 were removed for disposal and the features were filled with grout as a best management practice. The drainage pipe between the vehicle washdown pad and the drainage pit at CAS 25-64-01 was sealed at each end as a best management practice. The corrective actions were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. They were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The corrective actions meet all applicable federal and state regulations for closure of the site and will reduce potential exposure pathways to the contaminated media to an acceptable level at CAU 556. Therefore, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office provides the following recommendations: • Maintain a UR for the entire stormwater drainage system (i.e., three catch basins, one manhole, and associated piping) at CAS 25-60-03. • No further corrective action for CAU 556. • A Notice of Completion to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

Grant Evenson

2008-09-01

237

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To categorise thermocouples in batches, manufacturers state an expected operating tolerance for when the thermocouples are as-new. In use, thermocouple behaviour can rapidly change and the tolerance becomes invalid, especially when used at high temperatures (i.e. above 1000?°C) as the processes leading to de-calibration, such as oxidation and contamination, can be very fast and lead to erroneous readings. In-situ thermocouple self-validation provides a method to track the drift and correct the thermocouple reading in real-time, but it must be shown to be reliable. Two miniature temperature fixed-point cells designed at NPL for in-situ thermocouple self-validation, the first containing a Pt-C eutectic alloy and the second containing a Ru-C eutectic alloy, have been exposed to temperatures close to their melting point for 2200?h and 1570?h, respectively, and continuously, for up to three months. Recalibration after this long-term high-temperature exposure, where a tantalum-sheathed thermocouple was always in place, is used to show that no significant change of the temperature reference point (the melting temperature) has occurred in either the Pt-C ingot or the Ru-C ingot, over timescales far longer than previously demonstrated and approaching that required by industry for practical use of the device.

Elliott, C. J.; Greenen, A.; Lowe, D.; Pearce, J. V.; Machin, G.

2015-04-01

238

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of single-receiver integer ambiguity resolution in recent years has made the GPS precise point positioning (PPP) technique a valuable tool in measuring centimeter-level displacements epoch by epoch at a single station. A good application for this technique is identifying ground motions in an earthquake and tsunami early warning system. With a single receiver, PPP with ambiguity resolution can reproduce the positioning accuracy of conventional differential positioning techniques, but does not depend on any nearby reference stations which may also be displaced during an earthquake. As a result, the PPP data processing is more straightforward and efficient, suggesting that onsite displacement estimation can be carried out semi-autonomously at each GPS station and only a small amount of data, i.e. 3D displacements rather than raw measurements in the differential positioning, need to be transmitted to warning centers. Due to these merits and as part of a NASA-sponsored research effort, we have developed an operational real-time PPP system for Western North America, a vast region of tectonic deformation and significant seismic risk. A group of about 75 real-time GPS stations throughout North America and located far from western US coast (>300 km) is employed to estimate satellite-specific corrections (i.e. satellite clocks and fractional-cycle biases) with the predicted satellite orbits provided by the IGS (International GNSS Services). We note that our PPP implementation is challenged by geophysical constraints in North America and so all clients in the zone of deformation are outside the coverage of the reference network, and thus measurement errors originating in the atmosphere, satellite orbits and clocks are less correlated between the reference stations and the PPP clients. Despite this difficulty, the horizontal positioning accuracy at each PPP station is around 1 cm while the vertical better than 5 cm. This accuracy is sufficient to optimally combine the 1-Hz PPP-derived displacements with collocated (100 Hz) accelerometer data using a Kalman filter to estimate total displacement waveforms with millimeter-level accuracy. We also report on the testing of our approach in a simulated real-time environment for the 2006 Mw 6.0 Parkfield and 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquakes.

Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Fang, P.; Haase, J. S.

2012-12-01

239

Multizone Furnace for Analysis of Fixed-Point Realizations in the Range from 1,000°C to 1,700°C

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the development of a laboratory furnace specially designed for analysis of fixed-point plateau realizations in the range from 1,000 °C to 1,700 °C that enables control of various temperature distribution settings along the heating zone length is presented. A total of 13 thermocouples are built into the furnace tube wall to control the temperature as well as to measure the temperature distribution. The furnace is divided into seven independently controlled heating zones. Each heating zone comprises a MoSi2 heating element and its dedicated DC power supply module. The furnace temperature is controlled by manipulating the output voltage of each power supply to control the temperature of each heating element, as estimated from its electrical resistance. The heating power and temperature measurement are fully controlled by a computer using an application written in Lab VIEW, allowing very flexible furnace control. The furnace can be used in air as well as in an inert atmosphere. Measurements of the temperature distribution of the furnace during a melting-point realization are presented.

Hiti, M.; Bojkovski, J.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.

2008-02-01

240

Fixed Roles and Situated Actions

Two visions have shaped research and theory on gender for at least 60 years. The older vision treats the genders as distinct\\u000a roles that are strongly socialized and make women and men inherently different in all circumstances. The newer one treats\\u000a gender as reflecting effects of different social structural relations, and it sees women and men as capable of displaying\\u000a wide-ranging

Murray Webster Jr; Lisa Slattery Rashotte

2009-01-01

241

A left-handers' performance advantage in interactive sports is assumed to result from their relative rarity compared to right-handers. Part of this advantage may be explained by athletes facing difficulties anticipating left-handers' action intentions, particularly when anticipation is based on kinematic cues available at an early stage of an opponent's movement. Here we tested whether the type of volleyball attack is predicted better against right- vs. left-handed opponents' movements and whether such handedness effects are evident at earlier time points in skilled players than novices. In a video-based experiment volleyball players and novices predicted the type of shot (i.e., smash vs. lob) of left- and right-handed volleyball attacks occluded at six different time points. Overall, right-handed attacks were better anticipated than left-handed attacks, volleyball players outperformed novices, and performance improved in later occlusion conditions. Moreover, in skilled players the handedness effect was most pronounced when attacks were occluded 480ms prior to hand-ball-contact, whereas in novices it was most evident 240ms prior to hand-ball-contact. Our findings provide further evidence of the effect of an opponent's handedness on action outcome anticipation and suggest that its occurrence in the course of an opponent's unfolding action likely depends on an observers' domain-specific skill. PMID:25689236

Loffing, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

2015-04-01

242

This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well.

D. S. Tobiason

2003-07-01

243

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of GNSS data is constantly being used in hydrology. One of the key applications is the characterization of river's longitudinal profiles, an information required to develop hydrological and hydrodynamic studies and to evaluate the quality of data obtained through space altimetry techniques. Some factors illustrate the challenge of establishing quality altimetry data from a GNSS receivers to obtain rivers profiles in Amazon Basin. GNSS reference network is sparse, the distance between survey points and reference stations is large, rivers have an extension of several thousands of kilometers. All these factors contribute in limiting the efficiency of classical techniques of GNSS data processing like double difference. In the present work we use the Gins-PC software developed at CNES / GRGS. We discuss the capability of the PPP kinematic with integer ambiguities fixing strategy implemented in GINS-PC in processing GPS data to calculate river's longitudinal profiles in the Amazon Basin. The profiles will be processed using data obtained from GPS receivers on boarding boats along the rivers of Amazon Basin such as Negro river, Madeira river and Amazon/Solimões river. For this purpose, field campaings were conducted between 2005 and 2010 by ANA ( Brazilian National Water Agency), CPRM (Brazilian Geologic Survey), IRD (French Institute of Research by Development), Hybam ( Hydrology of Amazon Basin), PROSUL (Research project by CNPQ/UFRJ) and FOAM (From Ocean to inland waters Altimetry Monitoring) river section project. Under the proposed framework, these profiles will be then compared with profiles obtained by water level variation data using altimetry data from tracks of the Jason-2 and ENVISAT missions. The profiles will be also used to levelling some gauge stations in Amazon Basin and gauge data will be used to obtain a temporal variation of these profiles. However some gauges are strongly affected by charge effects, mainly caused by the hydrological cycle of the Amazon basin. These effects can produce a variation of about 10 cm in amplitude of vertical coordinates also obtained by GPS. Therefore, we use GRACE data to convert the hydrologic load into crustal displacements to remove these effects.

Moreira, D. M.; Calmant, S.; Perosanz, F.; Santos, A.; Santos Da Silva, J.; Seyler, F.; Ramillien, G. L.; Monteiro, A.; Rotunno, O.; Shum, C.

2011-12-01

244

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

DOE/NV

1999-05-20

245

Telomere length homeostasis is essential for the long-term survival of stem cells, and its set point determines the proliferative capacity of differentiated cell lineages by restricting the reservoir of telomeric repeats. Knockdown and overexpression studies in human tumor cells showed that the shelterin subunit TPP1 recruits telomerase to telomeres through a region termed the TEL patch. However, these studies do not resolve whether the TPP1 TEL patch is the only mechanism for telomerase recruitment and whether telomerase regulation studied in tumor cells is representative of nontransformed cells such as stem cells. Using genome engineering of human embryonic stem cells, which have physiological telomere length homeostasis, we establish that the TPP1 TEL patch is genetically essential for telomere elongation and thus long-term cell viability. Furthermore, genetic bypass, protein fusion, and intragenic complementation assays define two distinct additional mechanisms of TPP1 involvement in telomerase action at telomeres. We demonstrate that TPP1 provides an essential step of telomerase activation as well as feedback regulation of telomerase by telomere length, which is necessary to determine the appropriate telomere length set point in human embryonic stem cells. These studies reveal and resolve multiple TPP1 roles in telomere elongation and stem cell telomere length homeostasis. PMID:25128433

Sexton, Alec N.; Regalado, Samuel G.; Lai, Christine S.; Cost, Gregory J.; O’Neil, Colleen M.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Gregory, Philip D.; Jaenisch, Rudolf

2014-01-01

246

47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fixed stations in Alaska. The frequency pairs listed in paragraph (d) of this section are assignable for point-to-point duplex radiotelephone communications between private and public fixed stations in Alaska. Fixed stations in Alaska authorized...

2010-10-01

247

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This single-subject research study was designed to examine the effects of point-of-view video modeling (POVM) on the symbolic play actions and play-associated language of four preschool students with autism. A multiple baseline design across participants was conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of using POVM as an intervention for…

Bonnet, Lauren Kravetz

2012-01-01

248

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

2013-01-01

249

This document constitutes an addendum to the March 2000, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points (TTR) as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-51-001-0355 – Photo Shop UDP, Drains in CAU 429. It should be noted that there are no changes to CAU 406. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

250

This corrective action investigation plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 262 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): Underground Storage Tank (25-02-06), Septic Systems A and B (25-04-06), Septic System (25-04-07), Leachfield (25-05-03), Leachfield (25-05-05), Leachfield (25-05-06), Radioactive Leachfield (25-05-08), Leachfield (25-05-12), and Dry Well (25-51-01). Situated in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), sites addressed by CAU 262 are located at the Reactor-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Test Cell C; and Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facilities. The R-MAD, Test Cell C, and E-MAD facilities supported nuclear rocket reactor and engine testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The activities associated with the testing program were conducted between 1958 and 1973. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the site include oil/diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and tritium. The scope of the corrective action field investigation at the CAU will include the inspection of portions of the collection systems, sampling the contents of collection system features in situ of leachfield logging materials, surface soil sampling, collection of samples of soil underlying the base of inlet and outfall ends of septic tanks and outfall ends of diversion structures and distribution boxes, collection of soil samples from biased or a combination of biased and random locations within the boundaries of the leachfields, collection of soil samples at stepout locations (where needed) to further define lateral and vertical extent of contamination, conduction of discrete field screening, and logging of soil borings and collection of geotechnical samples to assess soil characteristics. Historical information indicates that significant quantities of radioactive material were produced during the rocket engine testing program, some of which was disposed of in radioactive waste disposal systems (posted leachfields) at each of these locations. Process and sanitary effluents were generated and disposed of in other leachfields. The results of this field investigation will be used to develop and evaluate corrective action alternatives for these CASs.

NNSA /NV

2000-07-20

251

A note on gauge-fixing in the electroweak sector of UED with BLKTs

In Universal Extra-Dimensional Models with one compact space like extra dimension, a $Z_2$ symmetry is imposed upon the action to have the chiral fermions present in the Standard Model. Orbifolding results into two fixed points along this extra space like direction. One is allowed to add operators which respect the symmetry of the theory at these fixed points. The coefficients of these operators are in general free parameters. In this note we will discuss the procedure of gauge-fixing when only kinetic terms involving fields are added to the boundary fixed points. We further discuss, the composition and masses of Goldstone and any physical scalar that emerges after the symmetry breaking in this set up with different choices of gauge.

Anindya Datta; Avirup Shaw

2014-08-04

252

This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for two sites located at the Bullen Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the five sites located at the Bullen Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, two sites are recommended for no further action. Sites at the Bullen Point radar installation recommended for no further action are: Old Landfill/Dump Site East (LF06) and Drum Storage Area (SS10).

Karmi, S.

1996-05-24

253

This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for four sites located at the Oliktok Point radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the eight sites located at the Oliktok Point installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, four sites are recommended for no further action.

Karmi, S.

1996-06-03

254

PointFix: Learning from fixing individual condition violations

Building a duty roster for staff at an organization can be a very difficult task due to complex and interdependent conditions that a scheduler has to follow. When an automated scheduling system is used to make this process smoother, the users can face other problems. Most automated scheduling systems are designed for producing rosters almost entirely from scratch. This does

Ulas Bardak; Seiya Hasegawa; Takayuki Saito

2009-01-01

255

India, the largest economy of South Asia, has recently announced its National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). This is of special significance given the mounting pressure on fast growing economies like India, China and Brazil from the developed countries for a commitment with legally binding obligations. Developed nations want these countries to be more efficient in energy use and

2008-01-01

256

Introduction: Forward deployed military medical units can provide sophisticated medical care with limited resources. Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) may facilitate care and expedite diagnosis. This study assessed the accuracy of results for POCT for non-serum samples (pleural, peritoneal, and cerebrospinal fluid) using iSTAT and Piccolo hand-held devices compared with results obtained using a hospital chemistry analyzer. Methods: Pleural, peritoneal, and cerebrospinal fluids obtained during routine care were simultaneously analyzed on a Vitros 5600 automated clinical chemistry hospital analyzer, iSTAT, and Piccolo POCT devices. Results: POCT results were highly correlated with the Vitros 5600 for pleural fluid LDH, glucose, and triglycerides (TG); for peritoneal fluid bilirubin, TG, glucose, albumin, and protein; and glucose for cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion: POCT results for non-serum samples from pleural, peritoneal, and cerebrospinal fluid correlate with standard hospital chemistry analysis. The results of this study demonstrate potential for possible new diagnostic roles for POCT in resource-limited environments. PMID:25285247

Davis, Konrad; Helman, Donald; Abadie, Jude

2014-01-01

257

A multidensity integral-equation theory for polymerization into freely jointed hard-sphere homonuclear chain fluids proposed earlier [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 106}, 1940 (1997)] is extended to the case of multicomponent heteronuclear chain polymerization. The theory is based on the analytical solution of the polymer Percus{endash}Yevick (PPY) approximation for the totally flexible sticky two-point (S2P) model of associating fluids. The model consists of an n-component mixture of hard spheres of different sizes with species 2,{hor_ellipsis},n{minus}1 bearing two sticky sites A and B, randomly distributed on its surface, and species 1 and n with only one B and A site per particle, respectively. Due to some specific restrictions imposed on the possibility of forming bonds between particles of various species, the present version of the S2P model represents an associating fluid that is able to polymerize into a mixture of heteronuclear chain macromolecules. The structural properties of such a model are studied in the complete-association limit and compared with computer-simulation results for homonuclear hard-sphere chain mixtures, symmetrical diblock copolymers, alternating copolymers, and homonuclear hard-sphere chains in a hard-sphere solvent. Some results for the case of partial association are also presented. The PPY theory represents a quantitatively successful theory for the mixtures of short homonuclear chains and the short copolymer systems studied here. We also expect that the theory will prove to be of the same order of accuracy in investigating the case of partial association. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Lin, C. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York11794-3400 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York11794-3400 (United States); Kalyuzhnyi, Y.V. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York11794-3400 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York11794-3400 (United States); [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Svientsitskoho 1, 290011Lviv (Ukraine); Stell, G. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York11794-3400 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York11794-3400 (United States)

1998-04-01

258

This document constitutes an addendum to the July 1999, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 423: Area 3 Building 0360 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-02-002-0308, Underground Discharge Point. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

259

This document constitutes an addendum to the July 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

260

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bilateral comparison has been organized between VSL, The Netherlands, and BIM, Bulgaria, of the realisations of the international temperature scale ITS-90 at the fixed points of Hg, H2O, Ga, In, Sn and Zn using a long-stem SPRT of very good stability as the transfer device. This comparison is registered as EURAMET project T-K3.1 in the BIPM key comparison database and its results are linked to those of key comparison CCT-K3. This comparison was organized in the framework of Phare project BG 2005/017-353.02.02, Lot 1, and is in this framework financed by the EU. This project ran from March 2008 to the end of February 2009. For all points of the measurements, a good agreement between the results obtained by BIM and in CCT-K3 could be demonstrated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Nedialkov, Sasho; Bosma, Rien; Dierikx, Erik

2013-01-01

261

The problem of the effect of a longitudinal point impulse at the edge of a thin conical shell is considered. The motion of the shell is described by two-dimensional equations corresponding to the second low-frequency long-wavelength approximation in the theory of elasticity. They are investigated using the matched asymptotic expansion method. The quasifront phenomenon in the theory of two-dimensional shells

Yu. D. Kaplunov; Ye. V. Nol'de

1995-01-01

262

Holographic fermionic fixed points in d=3

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a top-down string theory holographic model of strongly interacting relativistic 2 + 1-dimensional fermions, paying careful attention to the discrete symmetries of parity and time reversal invariance. Our construction is based on probe D7-branes in AdS 5 × S 5, stabilized by internal fluxes. We find three solutions, a parity and time reversal invariant conformal field theory which can be viewed as a particular deformation of Coulomb interacting graphene, a parity and time reversal violating but gapless field theory and a system with a parity and time reversal violating charge gap. We show that the Chern-Simons-like electric response function, which is generated perturbatively at one-loop order by parity violating fermions and which is protected by a no-renormalization theorem at orders beyond one loop, indeed appears with the correctly quantized coefficient in the charge gapped theory. In the gapless parity violating solution, the Chern-Simons response function obtains quantum corrections which we compute in the holographic theory.

Davis, Joshua L.; Omid, Hamid; Semenoff, Gordon W.

2011-09-01

263

Fixed-Point-Like Theorems on Subspaces

}. Proof of Claim A.2. Part (a). Let u= (u1, . . . ,uk) and v = (v1, . . . ,vk) in (E¯?)k such that ?E¯(u)= span { e¯1 +u1, . . . , e¯k +uk } = ?E¯(v)= span { e¯1 + v1, . . . , e¯k + vk } . (A.2) Then, there exist some real numbers ?i j (i= 1, . . . ,k, j... charts at E and F, respectively, such thatUE?UF #6;= ?. We will prove that ?F ???1E is smooth (i.e., C?). We let {e1, . . . ,ek} and { f1, . . . , fk} be two orthonormal bases of E and F, respectively. Let (v1, . . . ,vk) = ?F ? ??1E (u1, . . . ,uk) and u...

Bich, Philippe; Cornet, Bernard

2004-08-26

264

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Shinichi Suzuki developed the Suzuki method of violin instruction in Japan shortly after World War II. The University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point (UWSP) is home to the American Suzuki Institute, founded in 1971 by UWSP professor of violin, Margery V. Aber, who was an admirer of Suzuki's teaching method. This digital collection presents moving image footage recorded in 1976, when Suzuki spent two weeks at the American Suzuki Institute, giving lectures and demonstrations, as well as teaching both master classes and group classes. A search on the site for Suzuki will retrieve 35 videos in an easily browsed list. Additional instructions for searching by topic are given in the introductory essay, and it is also possible to search by the titles of musical compositions. For example, a keyword search on twinkle yields 5 recordings of Suzuki's students playing "Twinkle, twinkle little star" or other Twinkle variations.

265

Homeostatic responses critically adjust synaptic strengths to maintain stability in neuronal networks. Compensatory adaptations to prolonged excitation include induction of Polo-like kinases (Plks) and degradation of spine-associated Rap GTPase-activating protein (SPAR) to reduce synaptic excitation, but mechanisms that limit overshooting and allow refinement of homeostatic adjustments remain poorly understood. We report that Plks produce canonical pathway-mediated activation of the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) transcription factor in a process that requires the kinase activity of Plks. Chronic elevated activity, which induces Plk expression, also produces Plk-dependent activation of NF-?B. Deficiency of NF-?B, in the context of exogenous Plk2 expression or chronic elevated neuronal excitation, produces exaggerated homeostatic reductions in the size and density of dendritic spines, synaptic AMPA glutamate receptor levels, and excitatory synaptic currents. During the homeostatic response to chronic elevated activity, NF-?B activation by Plks subsequently opposes Plk-mediated SPAR degradation by transcriptionally upregulating SPAR in mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo. Exogenous SPAR expression can rescue the overshooting of homeostatic reductions at excitatory synapses in NF-?B-deficient neurons responding to elevated activity. Our data establish an integral feedback loop involving NF-?B, Plks, and SPAR that regulates the end point of homeostatic synaptic adaptation to elevated activity and are the first to implicate a transcription factor in the regulation of homeostatic synaptic responses. PMID:24133254

Mihalas, Anca B.; Araki, Yoichi; Huganir, Richard L.

2013-01-01

266

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cook-Levin computational-"complexity"(C-C) algorithmic-equivalence reduction-theorem reducibility equivalence to renormalization-(semi)-group phase-transitions critical-phenomena statistical-physics universality-classes fixed-points, is exploited with Gauss modular/clock-arithmetic/model congruences = signal X noise PRODUCT reinterpretation. Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS(SON of "TRIZ"): Category-Semantics(C-S) tabular list-format truth-table matrix analytics predicts and implements "noise"-induced phase-transitions (NITs) to accelerate versus to decelerate Harel [Algorithmics(1987)]-Sipser[Intro. Theory Computation(1997) algorithmic C-C: "NIT-picking" to optimize optimization-problems optimally(OOPO). Versus iso-"noise" power-spectrum quantitative-only amplitude/magnitude-only variation stochastic-resonance, this "NIT-picking" is "noise" power-spectrum QUALitative-type variation via quantitative critical-exponents variation. Computer-"science" algorithmic C-C models: Turing-machine, finite-state-models/automata, are identified as early-days once-workable but NOW ONLY LIMITING CRUTCHES IMPEDING latter-days new-insights!!!

Siegel, J.; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2011-03-01

267

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ROTH+CO. AG (Switzerland) was designated by METAS for participation in the MRA in the field of thermometry. To demonstrate its technical competence, ROTH+CO. AG asked VSL (the Netherlands) for a bilateral comparison of SPRT calibration at the ITS-90 fixed points of Ar, Hg, H2O, Ga, In, Sn, Zn and Al. The comparison, designated as EURAMET.T-K3.5, was initiated in February 2013 (with the preparation of the technical protocol) and completed in July 2014 (with the CCT approval of the final report). The results showed a satisfactory degree of equivalence between VSL and ROTH+CO. AG, and were successfully linked to EUROMET.T-K3 and CCT-K3 key comparisons. As a consequence, ROTH+CO. AG is now able to support CMCs for the services covered by this comparison and publish them in the KCDB. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Peruzzi, A.; Bruin-Barendregt, C.; Bosma, R.; Senn, R.

2014-01-01

268

Gauge fixing may be done in different ways. We show that using the chain structure to describe a constrained system enables us to use either a full gauge, in which all gauged degrees of freedom are determined, or a partial gauge, in which some first class constraints remain as subsidiary conditions to be imposed on the solutions of the equations of motion. We also show that the number of constants of motion depends on the level in a constraint chain in which the gauge fixing condition is imposed. The relativistic point particle, electromagnetism, and the Polyakov string are discussed as examples and full or partial gauges are distinguished.

Shirzad, A. [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P. O. Box 5531, Tehran 19395 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2007-08-15

269

FloatingÂPoint for CS 267 February 8, 1996 11:50 am Slide 1 What can you learn about Floating for CS 267, ( Profs. J.W . Demmel of UCB & A. Edelman of MIT ) 8 Feb. 1996 #12; FloatingÂPoint for CS 267 ... ) Integers FixedÂPoint FloatingÂPoint #12; FloatingÂPoint for CS 267 February 8, 1996 11:50 am Slide 3

California at Berkeley, University of

270

Saddle points of stringy action

It is shown that Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory has a countable family of static globally regular solutions which are purely magnetic but uncharged. The discrete spectrum of masses of these solutions is bounded from above by the mass of extremal Gibbons-Maeda solution. As follows from linear stability analysis all solutions are unstable.

Piotr Bizon

1993-04-28

271

1 Appendix 2 Newcastle University Athena SWAN Action Plan 2012-15 The action plan will address five for an Athena SWAN Silver Award with a view to the University achieving Silver status by 2015. Silver Award of Athena SWAN at University Executive Board given full support and encouragement to all academic

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

272

Lattice QCD with fixed topology

The overlap Dirac operator, which satisfies the Ginsparg-Wilson relation, realizes exact chiral symmetry on the lattice without any unphysical doubler modes. To perform the path integrals, one should, however, note that the overlap fermion determinant has discontinuities where the topology is ill-defined, its locality is doubtful, and the numerical cost is suddenly enhanced. An interesting solution would be to concentrate on a fixed topological sector in the full configuration space. In this thesis, we test a gauge action which automatically satisfies Luescher's admissibility condition, as well as an additional (large) negative mass Wilson fermion action in the quenched study (with no light quark). Both of them would keep the topology along the HMC simulations. The quark potential and the topology stability are investigated with different lattice sizes and different couplings. The results of quenched QCD in the $\\epsilon$-regime are also presented as an example of the lattice studies with fixed topology. Remarkable quark mass and topology dependences of meson correlators allow us to determine the fundamental parameters of the effective theory, in which the exact chiral symmetry with the Ginsparg Wilson relation plays a crucial role.

Hidenori Fukaya

2006-06-26

273

A Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming Framework for Fixed Path ...

Each vehicle robot starts from a fixed start point and moves toward a goal point ... motion planning, autonomous underwater vehicles, acoustic communication mixed ... nonlinear control strategy for an underwater vehicle that achieved global

2013-06-10

274

Gauge covariant actions from strings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive Yang-Mills vertex operators for (super)string theory whose BRST invariance requires only the free gauge-covariant field equation and no gauge condition. The gauge transformation and conformal transformation of these vertex operators are studied. Standard conformal field theory methods yield the three-point vertices directly in gauge-invariant form and S-matrices in terms of free field strengths for vector states, which allows arbitrary gauge choices. As examples we give three and four-vector (super)string tree amplitudes in this form, and find the field theory actions that give the first three orders in the slope. Also, on the String Field Theory side, we construct the Zinn-Justin-Batalin-Vilkovisky action for tachyons and gauge bosons from Witten's 3-string vertex of the bosonic open string without gauge fixing. Through canonical transformations, we find the off-shell, local, gauge-covariant action up to 3-point terms, satisfying the usual field theory gauge transformations. Perturbatively, it can be extended to higher-point terms. It also gives a new gauge condition in field theory which corresponds to the Feynman-Siegel gauge on the world-sheet. Finally, we combine two partons as a vector state on a random lattice, which is another approach for strings quantization. In the ladder approximation, we find propagators of such states (after tuning the mass to vanish). We also construct some diagrams which are very similar to 3-string vertices in string field theory for the first oscillator mode. Attaching 3 such lattice states to these vertices, we get Yang-Mills and cubic interactions up to 3-point as from bosonic string (field) theory. This gives another view of a gauge field as a bound state in a theory whose only fundamental fields are scalars.

Feng, Haidong

275

Hamiltonian analysis of R+T2 action

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the gravitational action which is a linear combination of the Hilbert-Palatini term and a term quadratic in torsion and possessing local Poincaré invariance. Although this action yields the same equations of motion as General Relativity, the detailed Hamiltonian analysis without gauge fixing reveals some new points never shown in the Hilbert-Palatini formalism. These include that an additional term containing torsion appears in the spatial diffeomorphism constraint and that the primary second-class constraints have to be imposed in a manner different from that in the Hilbert-Palatini case. These results may provide valuable lessons for further study of Hamiltonian systems with torsion.

Yang, Jian; Banerjee, Kinjal; Ma, Yongge

2012-03-01

276

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ziff needs you to help him fix his buildings! With your tool bag, you will fix windows, doors, and roofs. Sounds easy right? It may not be as easy as you may think. You will need to use what you have learned in math class to make new ones that fit just right. You will get your own Cyberchase Master Builder certificate when the job is done!

2008-01-01

277

\\u000a A tumor system not only consists of diverse cell types but also comprises all components of action insofar that these components\\u000a are oriented in terms of diverse cell types. Thus, it is necessary to decode paradox situations of cellular rationalization,\\u000a deformation, and communication processes or, in other words, to uncover inconsistencies within tumor cell compartments or\\u000a distinct topologies of aggregated

Albrecht Reichle

278

A rigid mount and method of mounting for a wavefront sensor. A wavefront dissector, such as a lenslet array, is rigidly mounted at a fixed distance relative to an imager, such as a CCD camera, without need for a relay imaging lens therebetween.

Neal, Daniel R. (Tijeras, NM)

2000-01-01

279

Future Fixed Target Facilities

We review plans for future fixed target lepton- and hadron-scattering facilities, including the 12 GeV upgraded CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab, neutrino beam facilities at Fermilab, and the antiproton PANDA facility at FAIR. We also briefly review recent theoretical developments which will aid in the interpretation of the data expected from these facilities.

Melnitchouk, Wolodymyr

2009-01-01

280

Fixed Automation Drum Programmers

Y3 Fixed Automation Drum Programmers Pneumatic or Hydraulic Cylinders Xn - Pumps Heaters Data Motors X1 X3 ..................... - Conveyor Belts X4 Y1 Y4 - Robot Arms Solenoid Valves Moving U E N C E C O N T R O L Pneumatic or Hydraulic Motors L O G I C C I R C U I T - Lifting Devices

Rimon, Elon

281

Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness in the Western world. However, treatment options for diabetic retinopathy are limited and display poor efficacy with marked patient-to-patient variation in therapeutic outcomes. Discovery of new molecular entities acting on mechanistically novel biological pathways remains as one of the key research priorities in diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, given the variable success of the existing treatment modalities, a targeted and personalized drug development strategy could be more fruitful for rational and successful transition of preclinical discoveries to the clinical realm. This review is focused on cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive native cannabinoid, as an emerging and novel therapeutic modality based on systematic studies in animal models of inflammatory retinal diseases including diabetic retinopathy - one of the retinal diseases associated with vascular neuroinflammation. We present the postulated and preclinically documented novel mechanisms that may underlie cannabidiol mode of action in diabetic retinopathy. We discuss the interindividual variation in pharmacokinetic pathways as well as in the SLC29A1 gene, a molecular target for cannabidiol. We emphasize that the novel mode of action of cannabidiol and the previous failures with nontargeted interventions in diabetic retinopathy collectively demand a more rational and personalized clinical development strategy for compounds that have shown promise at the preclinical stage. Moreover, it is noteworthy that ophthalmology, as a medical specialty, has fewer examples (e.g., compared to oncology) of personalized medicine and biomarker applications thus far. Understanding the biological action of cannabidiol in preclinical studies is therefore a rational first step to proactively map the pertinent biomarker strategies in clinical proof of concept studies in diabetic retinopathy, and to allow advances at the hitherto neglected intersection of personalized medicine and ophthalmology. PMID:20953236

Liou, GI; El-Remessy, AB; Ibrahim, AS; Caldwell, RB; Khalifa, YM; Gunes, A; Nussbaum, JJ

2010-01-01

282

Procedures for Behavioral Experiments in Head-Fixed Mice

The mouse is an increasingly prominent model for the analysis of mammalian neuronal circuits. Neural circuits ultimately have to be probed during behaviors that engage the circuits. Linking circuit dynamics to behavior requires precise control of sensory stimuli and measurement of body movements. Head-fixation has been used for behavioral research, particularly in non-human primates, to facilitate precise stimulus control, behavioral monitoring and neural recording. However, choice-based, perceptual decision tasks by head-fixed mice have only recently been introduced. Training mice relies on motivating mice using water restriction. Here we describe procedures for head-fixation, water restriction and behavioral training for head-fixed mice, with a focus on active, whisker-based tactile behaviors. In these experiments mice had restricted access to water (typically 1 ml/day). After ten days of water restriction, body weight stabilized at approximately 80% of initial weight. At that point mice were trained to discriminate sensory stimuli using operant conditioning. Head-fixed mice reported stimuli by licking in go/no-go tasks and also using a forced choice paradigm using a dual lickport. In some cases mice learned to discriminate sensory stimuli in a few trials within the first behavioral session. Delay epochs lasting a second or more were used to separate sensation (e.g. tactile exploration) and action (i.e. licking). Mice performed a variety of perceptual decision tasks with high performance for hundreds of trials per behavioral session. Up to four months of continuous water restriction showed no adverse health effects. Behavioral performance correlated with the degree of water restriction, supporting the importance of controlling access to water. These behavioral paradigms can be combined with cellular resolution imaging, random access photostimulation, and whole cell recordings. PMID:24520413

Guo, Zengcai V.; Hires, S. Andrew; Li, Nuo; O'Connor, Daniel H.; Komiyama, Takaki; Ophir, Eran; Huber, Daniel; Bonardi, Claudia; Morandell, Karin; Gutnisky, Diego; Peron, Simon; Xu, Ning-long; Cox, James; Svoboda, Karel

2014-01-01

283

Procedures for behavioral experiments in head-fixed mice.

The mouse is an increasingly prominent model for the analysis of mammalian neuronal circuits. Neural circuits ultimately have to be probed during behaviors that engage the circuits. Linking circuit dynamics to behavior requires precise control of sensory stimuli and measurement of body movements. Head-fixation has been used for behavioral research, particularly in non-human primates, to facilitate precise stimulus control, behavioral monitoring and neural recording. However, choice-based, perceptual decision tasks by head-fixed mice have only recently been introduced. Training mice relies on motivating mice using water restriction. Here we describe procedures for head-fixation, water restriction and behavioral training for head-fixed mice, with a focus on active, whisker-based tactile behaviors. In these experiments mice had restricted access to water (typically 1 ml/day). After ten days of water restriction, body weight stabilized at approximately 80% of initial weight. At that point mice were trained to discriminate sensory stimuli using operant conditioning. Head-fixed mice reported stimuli by licking in go/no-go tasks and also using a forced choice paradigm using a dual lickport. In some cases mice learned to discriminate sensory stimuli in a few trials within the first behavioral session. Delay epochs lasting a second or more were used to separate sensation (e.g. tactile exploration) and action (i.e. licking). Mice performed a variety of perceptual decision tasks with high performance for hundreds of trials per behavioral session. Up to four months of continuous water restriction showed no adverse health effects. Behavioral performance correlated with the degree of water restriction, supporting the importance of controlling access to water. These behavioral paradigms can be combined with cellular resolution imaging, random access photostimulation, and whole cell recordings. PMID:24520413

Guo, Zengcai V; Hires, S Andrew; Li, Nuo; O'Connor, Daniel H; Komiyama, Takaki; Ophir, Eran; Huber, Daniel; Bonardi, Claudia; Morandell, Karin; Gutnisky, Diego; Peron, Simon; Xu, Ning-long; Cox, James; Svoboda, Karel

2014-01-01

284

Twenty nine patients with genital fixed drug eruptions were studied during one year. In 15 the genitalia were exclusively affected, whereas the other 14 had cutaneous lesions in addition. It was striking that those whose lesions were exclusively genital reported for consultation much earlier. Drug history was the mainstay of diagnosis. Provocation tests with graded doses of the suspected drug(s) were undertaken in all cases. Tetracycline was the commonest causative drug, followed by oxyphenbutazone and acetylsalicylic acid. Images PMID:3949352

Sehgal, V H; Gangwani, O P

1986-01-01

285

Sensorimotor adaptation modifies action effects on sensory binding.

Previous studies have shown that performing a motor action toward a target decreases the perceptual asynchrony observed in a temporal order judgment (TOJ) of a change in the target's visual attributes. We examined the temporal limit of this effect and whether this temporal limit can be extended through sensorimotor adaptation. Participants performed a TOJ task related to changes of the position and color of a visual stimulus in a perceptual and a motor task. A fixed change (color or position) occurred 250 or 500 ms following an auditory cue (perceptual task) or the end of a manual reaching action (motor task), whereas the variable change (position or color) occurred randomly within a time window of ±200 ms locked to the fixed change. The points of subjective simultaneity (PSSs) revealed that performing a voluntary action decreased the temporal asynchrony observed in the perceptual task, but only in the 250-ms delay condition. In Experiment 2, the fixed change occurred 1 s after either an auditory cue or the end of a manual reaching action, and the variable change occurred either simultaneously (new sensorimotor contingencies, 60 % of trials) or within a time window of ±200 ms (40 % of trials). The PSSs revealed that temporal asynchrony decreased in the motor task, but only after adaptation to the 1-s delay. Taken together, these data show that voluntary motor action affects the temporal binding of visual attributes for a period of less than 500 ms after the end of the action. Sensorimotor adaptation can nevertheless extend this time interval, at least up to 1 s. PMID:25280521

Corveleyn, Xavier; López-Moliner, Joan; Coello, Yann

2015-02-01

286

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: fixed fiveoverfive ...

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: fixed five-over-five wood windows with five-light hoppers with concrete sills; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

287

Fixed target facility at the SSC

The question of whether a facility for fixed target physics should be provided at the SSC must be answered before the final technical design of the SSC can be completed, particularly if the eventual form of extraction would influence the magnet design. To this end, an enthusiastic group of experimentalists, theoreticians and accelerator specialists have studied this point. The accelerator physics issues were addressed by a group led by E. Colton whose report is contained in these proceedings. The physics addressable by fixed target was considered by many of the Physics area working groups and in particular by the Structure Function Group. This report is the summary of the working group which considered various SSC fixed target experiments and determined which types of beams and detectors would be required. 13 references, 5 figures.

Loken, S.C.; Morfin, J.G.

1985-01-01

288

to hold aU the other items fo r FIX 10, which will be ou t in February. We do have LaCs this time! Thanks to all who responded to my plea. I know the writers will be glad to sec your responses to thei r work. Make a New Year's Resolution to keep... commenting. or to start if you haven't LoC-ed in a whi le. Plea~ Our stories for this holiday issue couldn't have been more well?mixed than if I'd commissioned them individually! There's a li tt le of everything: humor, crime-fighting. sex and sentimentali...

Multiple Contributors

1990-01-01

289

, stapling, mailing ... these parts tend to sap the energy and become a tiresome, repetitive task. To be a zine editor, you must first love the series you're doing a zine about. Second, you must be creative. Third, you must also be a business woman. I... 1933 Bancroft Street Camarillo, California 93010 Ah, another FIX - and one of the best yet! "Rehearsal." An adorable and erotic tale. I loved S' s line: "How could I find another partner as weird as you?" "Cabrillo Carnival." A nice 'missing scene...

Multiple Contributors

1993-01-01

290

different. ? t~me We have only three stories, two short, one longer. First, there's a new chapter of "Lost" -- with Chris and Manfred beginning to get acquainted. Then, "Sleeping Arrangements", which marks a writing debut for Jennifer Holland. I...'s just beautiful. And Chris, well, Chris knows how I feel about her work, but I love the portrait she did for "Photograph." I hope to see more of her artwork popping up in S&H fanzines. That's about all -- except thanks for THE FIX, my friend...

Multiple Contributors

1988-01-01

291

Fixed Sagittal Plane Imbalance

Study Design?Literature review. Objective?To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods?A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results?Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis?Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction. PMID:25396111

Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh A.

2014-01-01

292

The drug fenofibrate has received major attention as a novel medical treatment for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and other diabetes-induced microvascular complications. This interest stems from two recent large, well-designed clinical trials that demonstrated large reductions in the progression of DR and the need for laser intervention, in addition to a reduction in renal and neurological outcomes, in patients with type 2 diabetes. In both trials, the greatest benefit on DR progression was observed in those patients with DR at baseline. Originally considered a lipid-modifying drug, it now appears that multiple mechanisms may underpin the benefit of fenofibrate on diabetic microvascular end points. Fenofibrate regulates the expression of many different genes, with a range of beneficial effects on lipid control, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell apoptosis. These factors are believed to be important in the development of DR regardless of the underlying diabetes etiology. Cell experiments have demonstrated improved survival of retinal endothelial and pigment epithelial cells in conjunction with reduced stress signaling under diabetic conditions. Further, fenofibrate improves retinal outcomes in rodent models of diabetes and retinal neovascularization. Given the results of these preclinical studies, further clinical trials are needed to establish the benefits of fenofibrate in other forms of diabetes, including type 1 diabetes. In DR management, fenofibrate could be a useful adjunctive treatment to modifiable risk factor control and regular ophthalmic review. Its incorporation into clinical practice should be continually revised as more information becomes available. PMID:24264394

Noonan, Jonathan E; Jenkins, Alicia J; Ma, Jian-Xing; Keech, Anthony C; Wang, Jie Jin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

2013-12-01

293

The drug fenofibrate has received major attention as a novel medical treatment for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and other diabetes-induced microvascular complications. This interest stems from two recent large, well-designed clinical trials that demonstrated large reductions in the progression of DR and the need for laser intervention, in addition to a reduction in renal and neurological outcomes, in patients with type 2 diabetes. In both trials, the greatest benefit on DR progression was observed in those patients with DR at baseline. Originally considered a lipid-modifying drug, it now appears that multiple mechanisms may underpin the benefit of fenofibrate on diabetic microvascular end points. Fenofibrate regulates the expression of many different genes, with a range of beneficial effects on lipid control, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell apoptosis. These factors are believed to be important in the development of DR regardless of the underlying diabetes etiology. Cell experiments have demonstrated improved survival of retinal endothelial and pigment epithelial cells in conjunction with reduced stress signaling under diabetic conditions. Further, fenofibrate improves retinal outcomes in rodent models of diabetes and retinal neovascularization. Given the results of these preclinical studies, further clinical trials are needed to establish the benefits of fenofibrate in other forms of diabetes, including type 1 diabetes. In DR management, fenofibrate could be a useful adjunctive treatment to modifiable risk factor control and regular ophthalmic review. Its incorporation into clinical practice should be continually revised as more information becomes available. PMID:24264394

Noonan, Jonathan E.; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Ma, Jian-Xing; Keech, Anthony C.; Wang, Jie Jin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

2013-01-01

294

potential of several fixed point charges in Rn. This question goes back to J. C. Maxwell [12] and. M. Morse [14]. .... same sign on a straight line. On the .... Second type is of an obtuse triangle ?ABC, and then (for the obtuse angle A) the Voronoi ..... Newton polygon of S. By ? ?? we denote the partial order on the set of plane.

2006-06-12

295

Background: Facilitation is considered a way of enabling clinicians to implement evidence into practice by problem solving and providing support. Practice development is a well-established movement in the United Kingdom that incorporates the use of facilitators, but in Canada, the role is more obtuse. Few investigations have observed the process of facilitation as described by individuals experienced in guideline implementation in North America. AimTo describe the tacit knowledge regarding facilitation embedded in the experiences of nurses implementing evidence into practice. Methods: Twenty nurses from across Canada were purposively selected to attend an interactive knowledge translation symposium to examine what has worked and what has not in implementing evidence in practice. This study is an additional in-depth analysis of data collected at the symposium that focuses on facilitation as an intervention to enhance evidence uptake. Critical incident technique was used to elicit examples to examine the nurses’ facilitation experiences. Participants shared their experiences with one another and completed initial data analysis and coding collaboratively. The data were further thematically analyzed using the qualitative inductive approach of constant comparison. Results: A number of factors emerged at various levels associated with the successes and failures of participants’ efforts to facilitate evidence-based practice. Successful implementation related to: (a) focus on a priority issue, (b) relevant evidence, (c) development of strategic partnerships, (d) the use of multiple strategies to effect change, and (e) facilitator characteristics and approach. Negative factors influencing the process were: (a) poor engagement or ownership, (b) resource deficits, (c) conflict, (d) contextual issues, and (e) lack of evaluation and sustainability. Conclusions: Factors at the individual, environmental, organizational, and cultural level influence facilitation of evidence-based practice in real situations at the point-of-care. With a greater understanding of factors contributing to successful or unsuccessful facilitation, future research should focus on analyzing facilitation interventions tailored to address barriers and enhance facilitators of evidence uptake. PMID:23796066

Dogherty, Elizabeth J; Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; Vandyk, Amanda Digel; Keeping-Burke, Lisa

2013-01-01

296

Active microrheology: Fixed-velocity versus fixed-force

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In active microrheology, a probe particle is driven by an external force through a complex medium and its motion studied in order to infer properties of the embedding material. It is conducted in two limiting forms: either the probe is propelled by a fixed force, as with magnetic tweezers, or it is driven at a fixed velocity, as with optical tweezers. Recent work has shown that the mean probe motion can be interpreted as an effective material viscosity, but that this viscosity depends on whether the fixed-force or fixed-velocity mode is employed. We compute the effective viscosity probed by fixed-velocity active microrheology of a dilute colloidal dispersion. A comparison is made between this new result and the effective viscosity probed in the fixed-force mode. In the absence of hydrodynamic interactions, the particle-phase contributions to the effective viscosity for the two modes differ by exactly a factor of two. A simple scaling argument has been previously advanced to rationalize this difference: in the fixed-force mode, the probe is free to diffuse, and thus the relaxation time scale is set by the relative diffusivity between probe and bath. However, in the fixed-velocity mode, thermal motion of the probe particle is "frozen out" because the probe cannot diffuse; the relaxation rate is thus halved. The ratio of the two rates is independent of how quickly the probe particle is driven through the suspension—the extent and shape of microstructural deformation is the same for the two cases. In contrast, when the suspended particles interact hydrodynamically, the distortions to the suspension microstructure in the fixed-velocity versus fixed-force modes differ. We show that, depending on the strength of the hydrodynamic interactions, the ratio of the fixed-velocity to the fixed-force microstructural contributions to the effective viscosity may be as small as 1.3, and only approaches 2.0 when hydrodynamic interactions among the particles are negligibly weak. While this ratio varies both as a function of the strength of the deformation imposed and of the strength of hydrodynamic interactions, the fixed-velocity effective viscosity agrees qualitatively with that already measured for the fixed-force mode: the colloidal dispersion thins in the limit of weak hydrodynamic interactions; and it first thins and then thickens in the limit of strong hydrodynamic interactions, as the strength of deformation increases, recovering characteristics of shear-(force-) thinning and thickening well known in colloidal dispersions. The agreement between the two, and with traditional macrorheological approaches, shows that both fixed-force and fixed-velocity provide a useful tool for the interrogation of complex fluids.

Swan, James W.; Zia, Roseanna N.

2013-08-01

297

Humidity Fixed Points of Binary Saturated Aqueous Solutions

An evaluated compilation of equilibrium relative humidities in air versus temperature from pure phase to approximately 105 pascal (1 atm) in pressure is presented for 28 binary saturated aqueous solutions. The relative humidities of the solutions range from about 3 to 98 percent. Using a data base from 21 separate investigations comprising 1106 individual measurements, fits were made by the

Lewis Greenspan

298

Regression Fixed Point Clusters: Motivation, Consistency and Simulations

from the Old Faithful Geyser in the Yellowstone National Park, collected in August 1985. The duration of an eruption of the geyser is modeled here as dependent on the waiting time since the previous eruption Figure 1.1: Old Faithful Geyser data. between ``waiting'' and ``duration'', corresponding

Hennig, Christian

299

Optimization of evacuation instructions as a fixed-point problem

phone: +31 15 2785475 fax: +31 15 2783179 s.p.hoogendoorn@tudelft.nl May 2011 Abstract In this paper) people act out of a user- instead of system-optimal thinking. Giving optimized instructions to the people et al. (in press, 2011)), we developed a metaheuristic for the optimization of evacuation guidance

Bierlaire, Michel

300

Fixed points of dictionary learning algorithms for sparse representations

applications such as audio compression [1], image denoising [2], image and audio inpainting [3] or [4 and approximation quality. Index Terms--Machine learning algorithms, Dictionar- ies, Optimization, Sparse coding I

Boyer, Edmond

301

Fixed points and variational principles with applications to capability ...

the history and important developments in this direction. ... Section 4 contains a brief summary of the main issues of the (static) capability theory and ...... a person's capability set at time k might reject voluntary choices of the person at time k ? 1.

2014-03-27

302

EECS 452 Lecture 3 Today: Fixed point programming

Ã? 26 + 1 Ã? 25 + 1 Ã? 24 + 1 Ã? 23 + 1 Ã? 22 + 0 Ã? 21 + 0 Ã? 20 = 11111002 (or 1111100b) . What if I want to write it in hexadecimal (hex) form (base 16)? 124 = 7 Ã? 161 + 12 Ã? 160 = 7C16 (or 0x7C, or 7Ch) is evaluated by: 1 Ã? 23 + 0 Ã? 22 + 0 Ã? 21 + 1 Ã? 20 (= 910) The number 156 in hexadecimal ("hex", or base 16

Hero, Alfred O.

303

Dislocation pinningdepinning transition: Fixed-point analysis Daniel G. Tekleab

observed in L12 intermetallic compounds. In such materials, the strength increases with increasing in the presence of cross-slip pinning. These models generally seek applica- tion to L12 intermetallic compounds

Daw, Murray S.

304

Bandwidth assignment for reliable fixed broadband wireless Grit Claen

reliable fixed broadband wireless networks under outage probability constraints. We introduce a joint model, in the context of this work, refers to terrestrial point-to-point digital radio communications, usually employing Author manuscript, published in "12th IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

305

24 CFR 81.46 - Remedial actions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...remedial actions, including suspension, probation, reprimand or settlement, against...purchasing mortgages from a lender. Probation means that, for a fixed period of...automatically to more severe sanctions than probation, e.g., suspension, if...

2010-04-01

306

LANDSLIDE DATA FIX BEFORE NON-GEOLOGISTS "FIX" THE LANDSLIDE

LANDSLIDE DATA FIX BEFORE NON- GEOLOGISTS "FIX" THE LANDSLIDE NICHOLS, Kyle K., Department, and WRIGHT, Stephen, Department of Geology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 Landslides are an unpredictable but common Earth process. Since landslides do not occur on a knowable schedule, it is difficult

Nichols, Kyle K.

307

Gauge fixing of stringlike models via OSp(D/2)

Within the formalism of OSrho(D/2) supersymmetry, wherein extended BRST transformations correspond to supertranslations, the authors fix the gauge of bosonic stringlike models in the form, par. deltag = 0, ..sqrt..g = rho. The action has no propagating or interacting conformal ghosts and the Srho(2) symmetry between the ghosts is manifest.

Delbourgo, R.; Jarvis, P.D.; Zhang, R.B.; Thompson, G.

1988-02-01

308

47 CFR 78.108 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Minimum path lengths for fixed links. 78.108 Section 78.108 Telecommunication...78.108 Minimum path lengths for fixed links. (a) The distance between end points of a fixed link must equal or exceed the value set...

2012-10-01

309

47 CFR 74.644 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Minimum path lengths for fixed links. 74.644 Section 74.644 Telecommunication...74.644 Minimum path lengths for fixed links. (a) The distance between end points of a fixed link must equal or exceed the value set...

2013-10-01

310

47 CFR 74.644 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Minimum path lengths for fixed links. 74.644 Section 74.644 Telecommunication...74.644 Minimum path lengths for fixed links. (a) The distance between end points of a fixed link must equal or exceed the value set...

2011-10-01

311

47 CFR 74.644 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Minimum path lengths for fixed links. 74.644 Section 74.644 Telecommunication...74.644 Minimum path lengths for fixed links. (a) The distance between end points of a fixed link must equal or exceed the value set...

2010-10-01

312

47 CFR 78.108 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Minimum path lengths for fixed links. 78.108 Section 78.108 Telecommunication...78.108 Minimum path lengths for fixed links. (a) The distance between end points of a fixed link must equal or exceed the value set...

2011-10-01

313

47 CFR 74.644 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

314

47 CFR 78.108 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Minimum path lengths for fixed links. 78.108 Section 78.108 Telecommunication...78.108 Minimum path lengths for fixed links. (a) The distance between end points of a fixed link must equal or exceed the value set...

2010-10-01

315

47 CFR 78.108 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

316

47 CFR 74.644 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

317

47 CFR 78.108 - Minimum path lengths for fixed links.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

318

Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

2013-01-01

319

Higher derivative corrections to O-plane actions: NS-NS sector

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We classify all possible two- and four-derivative couplings of bulk NS-NS sector fields to a single O p-plane which are compatible with diffeomorphism invariance and B-field gauge invariance. This is applicable to type IIA or IIB superstrings or to the bosonic string. We then consider this general action in various classes of backgrounds that admit a U(1) isometry and determine the constraints on the couplings from consistency with T-duality. We show that this consistency requires the two-derivative action to vanish, and the entire non-linear four-derivative action is fixed up to one overall constant which can be determined by comparison with a two-point scattering amplitude. The resulting action is consistent with all previously computed couplings.

Robbins, Daniel; Wang, Zhao

2014-05-01

320

Action selection and action value in frontal-striatal circuits

Summary The role that frontal-striatal circuits play in normal behavior remains unclear. Two of the leading hypotheses suggest that these circuits are important for action selection or reinforcement learning. To examine these hypotheses we carried out an experiment in which monkeys had to select actions in two different task conditions. In the first (random) condition actions were selected on the basis of perceptual inference. In the second (fixed) condition the animals used reinforcement from previous trials to select actions. Examination of neural activity showed that the representation of the selected action was stronger in lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and occurred earlier in the lPFC than it did in the dorsal striatum (dSTR). In contrast to this, the representation of action values, in both the random and fixed conditions was stronger in the dSTR. Thus, the dSTR contains an enriched representation of action value, but it followed frontal cortex in action selection. PMID:22681697

Seo, Moonsang; Lee, Eunjeong; Averbeck, Bruno B.

2012-01-01

321

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, learners use measurement to help Ziff fix up his house. Learners use a ruler to make measurements and then cut new windows, doors, etc. to make fixes to the house. There are six rounds in this game.

2012-10-30

322

[The latest developments in glaucoma therapy using fixed combination products].

Modern fixed-combination products simplify medication dose regimen without sacrificing their effectiveness.Potential benefits of the therapy with fixed-combination products are enhanced tolerability increased convenience,better compliance,cost and time economy and removal of the wash out effect. Regarding intraocular pressure lowering effect, fixed-combination agents are superior to monotherapy with the two medication components, with the exception of Duotrav that is not superior to travoprost action.Fixed-combination products are noninferior to concomitant administration of the two components of medication (nonfixed-combination agents) relative to their ocular hypotensive efficacy with the exception of Ganfort that is however inferior to concurrent administration of both the bimatoprost and timolol. PMID:22428293

C?lug?ru, M; C?lug?ru, D

2011-01-01

323

Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

1997-04-01

324

3. Sustainable Agriculture: Issues and Action Points

1 number of rainy days and increased frequency of El NiÒo events. The scientists also note degradation of crop land by saltwater penetration up to 100m inland in the Bay of Bengal during the dry season, caused by sea level rise, storm surges, erosion, and excessive ground water withdrawal. There has also been significant loss of coral reefs, with likely

Aditi K

325

Hypervascular mediastinal masses: action points for radiologists.

Hypervascular mediastinal masses are a distinct group of rare diseases that include a subset of benign and malignant entities. Characteristic features and known association with syndromes and genetic mutations assist in achieving a diagnosis. Imaging allows an understanding of the vascularity of the lesion and should alert the radiologist and clinician to potential hemorrhagic complications and avoid percutaneous CT guided biopsies. In such cases, pre-procedure embolization and surgical biopsy maybe considered for better control of post procedure hemorrhage. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate the clinical features and radiologic spectrum of hypervascular mediastinal masses, and discuss the associated clinical and genetic syndromes. We will present an imaging algorithm to determine further evaluation and subsequently guide treatment. PMID:25557510

Cabral, Fernanda C; Trotman-Dickenson, Beatrice; Madan, Rachna

2015-03-01

326

75 FR 70704 - Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office [Docket No. 2010-4] Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972 AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice of inquiry;...

2010-11-18

327

47 CFR 22.603 - 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. 22.603 Section 22.603 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Point-To-Point Operation § 22.603 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. Before filing applications for...

2013-10-01

328

47 CFR 22.603 - 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. 22.603 Section 22.603 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Point-To-Point Operation § 22.603 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. Before filing applications for...

2010-10-01

329

47 CFR 22.603 - 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. 22.603 Section 22.603 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Point-To-Point Operation § 22.603 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. Before filing applications for...

2014-10-01

330

47 CFR 22.603 - 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. 22.603 Section 22.603 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Point-To-Point Operation § 22.603 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. Before filing applications for...

2012-10-01

331

47 CFR 22.603 - 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. 22.603 Section 22.603 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Point-To-Point Operation § 22.603 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. Before filing applications for...

2011-10-01

332

Neutron Electric Dipole Moment at Fixed Topology

We describe the finite volume effects of CP-odd quantities, such as the neutron electric dipole moment and the anapole moment in the $\\theta$-vacuum, under different topological sectors. We evaluate the three-point Green's functions for the electromagnetic current in a fixed non-trivial topological sector in order to extract these CP-odd observables. We discuss the role of zero modes in the CP-odd Green's function and show that, in the quenched approximation, there is a power divergence in the quark mass for CP-odd quantities at finite volume.

Keh-Fei Liu

2009-07-03

333

Fixing the Pole in the Pyramid

We revisit the problem of the hidden sector Landau pole in the Pyramid Scheme. There is a fixed line in the plane of hidden sector gauge coupling and a Yukawa coupling between the trianon fields. We postulate that the couplings flow to this line, at a point where the hidden sector gauge coupling is close to the strong coupling edge of its perturbative regime. Below the masses of the heavier trianons, the model quickly flows to a confining N_F=N_C=3 supersymmetric gauge theory, as required by phenomenological considerations. We study possible discrete R-symmetries, which guarantee, among other things, that the basin of attraction of the fixed line has full co-dimension in the space of R-allowed couplings. The Yukawa couplings required to get the fixed line violate the pyrma-baryon symmetries we invoked in previous work to find a dark matter candidate. Omitting one of them, we have a dark matter candidate, and an acceptable RG flow down from the unification scale, if the confinement scale of the hidden sector group is lowered from 5 to 2 TeV.

Tom Banks; Jean-François Fortin; Scott Kathrein

2009-12-07

334

Coset space dimensional reduction and gauge fixing over the supercircle

In this paper the constraints of CSDR are solved for vector gauge fields over a coset space IOSp(1/2, R)/OSp(1/2, R) including supertranslations (extended BRST transformations) and ordinary translations (rotations on the circle). The gauge-fixing action incorporates standard ghost and multiplier fields (and their modes) but is nonpolynomial in an additional scalar field {phi} and its modes. There is a new {phi}-BRST invariance with respect to {phi} dependent gauge transformations, a bosonic counterpart of the usual ghost-BRST invariance. In the Abelian case, {phi} can be integrated out, leading to a formalism equivalent to ordinary covariant gauge-fixing.

Jarvis, P.D. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Tasmania, Box 252c, GPO, Hobart Tasmania 7001 (AU))

1989-01-01

335

Funding human services: fixed utility versus fixed budget.

It is argued in this paper that government allocations for human services based on inputs rather than outcomes, reduce efficiency in social and health service provision. An alternative system of budgeting or contracting on the basis of cost-per-closed case and case outcome is discussed. An interdependency between fixed budget and fixed utility models of allocation is affirmed. The locus of decision-making for operationalizing this interdependency is seen as the program and budget review panel to which operating agencies and government departments must submit financial and program accounting information from year to year. In isolation, the fixed budget approach degenerates into routine allocation or contract renewal with a focus on such input and output variables as volume of service and unit cost, and the fixed utility approach, into political stalemate. Simulated examples are given to demonstrate how allocation on the basis of inputs and outputs alone provides an incentive to inefficiency, and a fixed utility orientation to efficiency. PMID:10311890

McCready, D J; Rahn, S L

1986-01-01

336

Relational Abstract Domains for the Detection of Floating-Point

ESOP'2004 Relational Abstract Domains for the Detection of Floating-Point Run-Time Errors Antoine-time error. Floating-Point Nowadays, embedded software use floating-point numbers instead of fixed-point. Floating-point numbers are complex, not always understood by programmers. Floating-point numbers

MinÃ©, Antoine

337

Intel I/O, Floating point o DOS System Calls

Intel I/O, Floating point o DOS System Calls o Floating point 2 #12; Floating Point o integer: 1, 2, 3, 4 o fixed point: 100.001, 100.002, 123.456 o floating point: 100 x 103 , 101 x 103 , 123 x 105 o in the floating point

Biagioni, Edoardo S.

338

Mobile versus fixed site lithotripsy.

The efficacy of a mobile Dornier HM4 lithotriptor, was compared with that of a fixed site Siemens Lithostar. A total of 115 calculi in 98 patients were treated, 55 on the mobile Dornier and 60 on the Lithostar. The groups were similar except for stone size, the mean of the Lithostar group being 11 mm compared with 7.7 mm in the Dornier group. Fragmentation rates were not significantly different, 88% and 75% on the mobile and fixed site machines, respectively and, at 3 months follow-up 66% and 46% were stone free or with fragments of less than 2 mm. There were no serious complications, and the incidence of mild complications was similar in the two groups. We conclude that the mobile Dornier HM4 is an effective lithotriptor and can offer several advantages over fixed site machines. PMID:1929134

Lewis, C.; Burgess, N. A.; Feneley, R. C.; Matthews, P. N.

1991-01-01

339

Passive Dynamic Walking with Symmetric Fixed Flat Feet

Biped robots are inherently hybrid systems due to their intermittent, switching dynamics resulting from foot\\/ground impacts. It is well known that stable (passive) limit cycles for such mechanisms can be induced on shallow slopes without actuation. Most studies of passive dynamics to date have considered point or curved feet. In this paper, we consider passive bipeds with fixed flat feet.

Joohyung Kim; Chong-Ho Choi; M. W. Spong

2007-01-01

340

14. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF FIXED SPAN SUPERSTRUCTURE AT ...

14. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF FIXED SPAN SUPERSTRUCTURE AT FENDER SYSTEM, SHOWING MOVABLE SPAN LOCKS IN CLOSED POSITION; NOTE CHANNEL LIGHT, CENTER LOCKING POINT AND SLIDER TO LEFT OF IT (taken in March 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

341

Dynamic Visual Tracking for Manipulators Using an Uncalibrated Fixed Camera

This paper presents a new controller for controlling a number of feature points on a robot manipulator to trace desired trajectories specified on the image plane of a fixed camera. It is assumed that the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the camera are not calibrated. A new adaptive algorithm is developed to estimate the unknown parameters online, based on three

Hesheng Wang; Yun-hui Liu; Dongxiang Zhou

2007-01-01

342

Robust estimators for the fixed effects panel data model

Summary The presence of outlying observations in panel data can affect the classical estimates in a dramatic way. Nevertheless, the common practice seems to disregard the problem. The aim of this work is to study robust regression techniques in the fixed effects linear panel data framework. Robustness of the procedures is investigated by means of breakdown point computations and simulation

Maria Caterina Bramati; Christophe Croux

2007-01-01

343

Fixed Schedules Can Support 21st-Century Skills

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The common belief among school librarians is that a flexibly scheduled school library program as opposed to a fixed schedule program is the best choice. After all, there are distinct advantages to the flexible program: students are served at the point of need, skills are not taught in isolation, and collaborative lessons are developed with…

Formanack, Gail; Pietsch, Laura

2011-01-01

344

Averaging Schemes for Solving Fived Point and Variational Inequality Problems

We develop and study averaging schemes for solving fixed point and variational inequality problems. Typically, researchers have established convergence results for solution methods for these problems by establishing ...

Magnanti, Thomas L.

345

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Capillary Action: In this section of USGS Water Science for School's you will learn how capillary action is important for moving water (and all of the things that are dissolved in it) around. It is defined as the movement of water within the spaces of a porous material due to the forces of adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension.

346

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity that can be used as a lab or demonstration, learners use Lactaid® and lactose to demonstrate the concept of enzyme action. Learners test a drop of milk and Lactaid® for the presence of glucose using glucose test paper. Learners also discover the color range of glucose test paper readings. In addition, learners construct paper models to help visualize enzyme action.

Jane Crumlish

2009-01-01

347

Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

Johnson, William R.

2011-01-01

348

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...action with regard to Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No...action with regard to Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No...order the licensee of Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No...hydrogen following a severe reactor accident and a resulting...

2012-11-27

349

Integrating assist feature print fixing with OPC

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenge in model-based assist feature placement is to find optimal placements while satisfying mask rules and preventing AF printing. There are numerous strategies for achieving this ranging from fully rule-based methods to pixel-based inversion. Our proposed solution is to identify the optimal locations of assist features using modeling information based strictly on optics and resist stack optical characteristics. Once these positions have been found, preliminary AFs can be placed. At this point suggested sizes and shapes can be identified, although these can later be modified. In a later step, MRC cleanup, printability fixing, and main-pattern OPC can be performed simultaneously. This has the advantage of allowing the use of the full process model to predict the location of OPC edges accurately, and use calibrated or 3d mask models to determine assist feature printing behavior. This correction is done while maintaining MRC constraints. In this flow, an AF placement field, generated from the pre-OPC target patterns, can be used to provide accurate guidance on how to move assist features to get the most benefit while keeping other constraints in mind. Using this method, a range of printability fixing strategies, guided by placement benefits, is available. We present data showing that the benefit of AF placements can be determined from optical parameters, on target (non-OPC) data, and that this method leads to beneficial yet compliant masks.

Barnes, Levi D.; Poonawala, Amyn; Painter, Benjamin D.; Jost, Andrew M.; Takei, TJ; Li, Yong

2009-03-01

350

Partial gauge fixing and equivariant cohomology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a gauge theory with gauge group G, it is sometimes useful to find an equivalent formulation in terms of a nontrivial gauge subgroup H ?G. This amounts to fixing the gauge partially from G down to H. We study this problem systematically, both from the algebraic and from the path integral points of view. We find that the usual BRST cohomology must be replaced by an equivariant version and that the ghost Lagrangian must always include quartic ghost terms, even at tree level. Both the Cartan and Weil models for equivariant cohomology play a role and find natural interpretations within the physics framework. Applications include the construction of D-brane models of emergent space, the 't Hooft Abelian projection scenario in quantum chromodynamics and the formulation of the low-energy effective theories of grand unified models.

Ferrari, Frank

2014-05-01

351

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase transitions of pure substances provide the key reference temperatures, otherwise known as "defining fixed points", of the International Temperature Scale. At temperatures below the triple point of mercury (234.3156 K), the substances involved are gases at room temperature and include the triple points of hydrogen (13.8033 K), neon (24.5561 K), oxygen (54.3584 K) and argon (83.8058 K). The Consultative Committee for Thermometry also provides a list of "secondary reference points" whose quality approaches (or is equivalent to) that of the defining fixed points of the ITS Here, we report direct measurements of the triple point of krypton on the ITS-90, review the historical measurements that CCT WG2 relied upon for its 1996 assessment, and demonstrate that the triple point of krypton is a "first quality" secondary reference point. Based on our measurements, the temperature of the triple point of krypton is 115.7755 K ± 0.3 mK (k=1).

Hill, K. D.

2013-09-01

352

Access "The Action Level"® Questions online at: http://www.acgih.org/products/joeh/alquestions.htm Access "The Action Level"® Answers online at: http://www.acgih.org/products/joeh/alanswers.htm Access "The Action Level"® Registration Form online at: https://www.acgih.org/products/joeh/alregfrm.htm "The Action Level"®, a self-study, continuing education program, provides a convenient and interesting opportunity for individuals to expand their knowledge in relevant areas of industrial hygiene, as well as occupational and environmental safety and health. The program is approved by both the American Board of Industrial Hygiene, and the Board of Certified Safety Professionals, which award Certification Maintenance (CM) points and Continuance of Certification (COC) points, respectively, for successful participation. Participants must read each issue of the Journal, answer "The Action Level"® questions, and return the completed answer sheet at the end of that issue's "The Action Level"® column. To earn the designated CM or COC credit, a score of 70 percent or better is required within a 12-month period. Certified Industrial Hygienists and Certified Associate Industrial Hygienists may earn 2 points per year. Certified Safety Professionals may earn 1.2 points per year. Enrollment is possible each month, but points are awarded only four times each year-in March, June, September, and December-to participants who score an average of 70 percent or better within each three-month period. If you register in April 2015, you will receive 0.5 CM point and/or 0.3 COC point after you have completed answers sheets for April, May and June, 2015, and scored a 70 percent or better average on them (only in your first quarter of enrollment, if enrolling in the middle of the quarter, will you be permitted to submit answer sheets for two months and receive full credit; three answer sheets are required for all other quarters). In the next quarter, you'll receive 0.5 CM point and/or 0.3 COC point after satisfactorily completing answer sheets for the July, August and September, 2015 issues, and so on. To enroll, complete the registration form and the answer sheet at the end of this "The Action Level"® column. The cost is $219 (ACGIH®/AIHA members)/$249 (nonmembers) for one year. Nonmembers are encouraged to become members to take advantage of the member discount. For more information regarding ACGIH® membership, call 513-742-2020, or apply on-line at http://www.acgih.org/members/memberform.htm . Checks must be in U.S. currency, drawn on a U.S. bank, and payable to ACGIH®. We also accept AmEx, MasterCard, Discover and Visa. This continuing education program fee is separate from the Journal subscription cost. The fee covers administration costs, and is nonrefundable. Submissions must be received by the date listed on each answer sheet. Continuing Education-"The Action Level"® Registration Form & Answer Sheet. PMID:25746125

Pierce, J Thomas

2015-04-01

353

The fixed-interval scallop in human affairs

“Fixed-interval scalloping” is used to describe certain everyday patterns of behavior in textbooks and other educational communications. This is a misleading use of the term. It implies that the behavior is accounted for by the schedule, when, in fact, many other variables are operating. This paper reviews eleven such variables and the research evidence on them. These variables provide a more adequate account of complex behavior and point up areas of limited knowledge requiring further research in both laboratory and applied settings. Extrapolating from basic research on human fixed-performance suggests that there are phenomena of mutual interest to both basic and applied behavior analysts. PMID:22478564

Poppen, Roger

1982-01-01

354

Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)

2001-01-01

355

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of this video, we derive the law of mass action from one example of a picture of molecular collisions. For this course, we use the "law of mass action" to refer to an idea that chemical reaction kinetic rates can be expressed using products of the abundances of reactants raised to exponents. Studying cooperativity and Hill functions in the second part of the video allows us to investigate a simple example of bistability in the third video segment.

2013-06-21

356

Fixed target flammable gas upgrades

In the past, fixed target flammable gas systems were not supported in an organized fashion. The Research Division, Mechanical Support Department began to support these gas systems for the 1995 run. This technical memo describes the new approach being used to supply chamber gasses to fixed target experiments at Fermilab. It describes the engineering design features, system safety, system documentation and performance results. Gas mixtures provide the medium for electron detection in proportional and drift chambers. Usually a mixture of a noble gas and a polyatomic quenching gas is used. Sometimes a small amount of electronegative gas is added as well. The mixture required is a function of the specific chamber design, including working voltage, gain requirements, high rate capability, aging and others. For the 1995 fixed target run all the experiments requested once through gas systems. We obtained a summary of problems from the 1990 fixed target run and made a summary of the operations logbook entries from the 1991 run. These summaries primarily include problems involving flammable gas alarms, but also include incidents where Operations was involved or informed. Usually contamination issues were dealt with by the experimenters. The summaries are attached. We discussed past operational issues with the experimenters involved. There were numerous incidents of drift chamber failure where contaminated gas was suspect. However analyses of the gas at the time usually did not show any particular problems. This could have been because the analysis did not look for the troublesome component, the contaminant was concentrated in the gas over the liquid and vented before the sample was taken, or that contaminants were drawn into the chambers directly through leaks or sub-atmospheric pressures. After some study we were unable to determine specific causes of past contamination problems, although in argon-ethane systems the problems were due to the ethane only.

Schmitt, R.; Squires, B.; Gasteyer, T.; Richardson, R.

1996-12-01

357

Final consolidated action plan to Tiger Team

This document contains the planned actions to correct the deficiences identified in the Tiger Team Assessments of Sandia California (August 1990) and Sandia New Mexico (May 1991). Information is also included on the management structures, estimated costs, root causes, prioritization and schedules for the Action Plan. This Plan is an integration of the two individual Action Plans to provide a cost effective, integrated program for implementation by Sandia and monitoring by DOE. This volume (I) contains the findings and actions concerning the environment. Tables 4.2 and 4.7 summarize the annual costs estimated for completing the actions. The total costs for completion of all the actions are estimated to be $283 million over a 12 year period; the majority of the actions to be completed and costs incurred in the first five years. Resources are provided from DOE-ER/WM, the DOE/DP landlord funds (one time, physical fixes), and from the Sandia Indirect Budget.

Not Available

1992-10-01

358

SFT Action for Separated D-branes

We present an action for Cubic String Field Theory with one embedding coordinate treated separately. We truncate the action at level (3,9), but unlike many other works we do not impose twist symmetry. We also allow arbitrary zero-modes for the direction considered special. Our action provides a starting point for the study of numerous configurations of D-branes.

Longton, Matheson

2012-01-01

359

SFT Action for Separated D-branes

We present an action for Cubic String Field Theory with one embedding coordinate treated separately. We truncate the action at level (3,9), but unlike many other works we do not impose twist symmetry. We also allow arbitrary zero-modes for the direction considered special. Our action provides a starting point for the study of numerous configurations of D-branes.

Matheson Longton

2012-03-20

360

Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications

This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-01

361

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise involves identifying symmetry in crystals and using that information to assign crystals to crystal systems and point groups. Students examine cardboard models and wooden blocks and fill their symmetry elements into a table. Then they figure out what what crystal system and point group each sample belongs to and fill in another table.

Dexter Perkins

362

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Multiple Domestic, Alaskan, and Hawaiian Compulsory Reporting Points AGENCY...High Altitude Reporting Point, and one Hawaiian Reporting Point. No regulatory actions...high altitude reporting point, and one Hawaiian reporting point to match the...

2012-07-10

363

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

2010-01-01

364

Theta vacuum physics from QCD at fixed topology

We propose a method to obtain physical quantities in the theta vacuum from those at fixed topology, which are different by finite size effects. Extending the work by Brower et al., we derive the formula to estimate these finite size corrections for arbitrary correlators in terms of the topological susceptibility and the theta dependence. Applying this formula, we show that topological susceptibility can be measured through two-point functions of pseudoscalar operator.

Sinya Aoki; Hidenori Fukaya; Shoji Hashimoto; Tetsuya Onogi

2007-10-24

365

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded over 40 years ago by an economist, Practical Action's aim is to help impoverished people "use technology to challenge poverty", to gain "access to technical options and knowledge", and "influence the social, economic and institutional systems for innovation and use of technology." The "Downloads" tab has a link to "Practical Answers" that cover almost two dozen themes and lets users browse the extensive library, submit technical questions to expert, and it also provides users with a section entitled "Share" which documents peoples' experience with Practical Action. Visitors will also find the "Featured Articles" section of the Downloads useful and full of such practical information as "Build Your Own Tippy Tap", for hand washing after toileting and a "Solar Voltaic System Design Info Sheet" that covers electrical design issues. Back on the homepage, visitors will find links to their social networking, e-newsletter, and the latest from their series of blogs.

366

Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5?-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

2014-01-01

367

Renormalization group scale-setting from the action—a road to modified gravity theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The renormalization group (RG) corrected gravitational action in Einstein-Hilbert and other truncations is considered. The running scale of the RG is treated as a scalar field at the level of the action and determined in a scale-setting procedure recently introduced by Koch and Ramirez for the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. The scale-setting procedure is elaborated for other truncations of the gravitational action and applied to several phenomenologically interesting cases. It is shown how the logarithmic dependence of the Newton's coupling on the RG scale leads to exponentially suppressed effective cosmological constant and how the scale-setting in particular RG-corrected gravitational theories yields the effective f(R) modified gravity theories with negative powers of the Ricci scalar R. The scale-setting at the level of the action at the non-Gaussian fixed point in Einstein-Hilbert and more general truncations is shown to lead to universal effective action quadratic in the Ricci tensor.

Domazet, Silvije; Štefan?i?, Hrvoje

2012-12-01

368

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Determine the dew point temperature for your classroom through a hands-on experiment. Use humidity and temperature probes to investigate the temperature at which it would rain in your classroom! Learn about water density and the conditions necessary to produce fog or rain.

2012-07-19

369

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

1988-01-01

370

How to print floating-point numbers accurately

We present algorithms for accurately converting floating-point numbers to decimal representation. The key idea is to carry along with the computation an explicit representation of the required rounding accuracy.We begin with the simpler problem of converting fixed-point fractions. A modification of the well-known algorithm for radix-conversion of fixed-point fractions by multiplication explicitly determines when to terminate the conversion process; a

Guy L. Steele Jr; Jon L. White

2004-01-01

371

Why people don't develop effective corrective actions

Finding the root causes of problems is only half the story. Before a problem is fixed, someone must develop effective corrective actions. Why, even when the root causes are staring them in the face, do so many people still fail to develop effective corrective actions? This paper will draw on the observations of the authors' experience with incident investigators and

M. Paradies; E. Skompski

2002-01-01

372

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the realization of the International Temperature Scale in the range from 234.3 K (mercury triple point) to 1084.62°C (copper freezing point) at the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FSB), University of Zagreb. The system for the realization of the ITS-90 consists of the sealed fixed-point cells (mercury triple point, water triple point and gallium melting point) and the apparatus designed for the optimal realization of open fixed-point cells which include the gallium melting point, tin freezing point, zinc freezing point, aluminum freezing point, and copper freezing point. The maintenance of the open fixed-point cells is described, including the system for filling the cells with pure argon and for maintaining the pressure during the realization.

Zvizdic, Davor; Veliki, Tomislav; Grgec Bermanec, Lovorka

2008-06-01

373

Fixed drug eruptions with modafinil

Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of narcolepsy associated excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep disorder related to shift work, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, presently it is being used as a lifestyle medicine; in India, it has been misused as an “over the counter” drug. Modafinil is known to have several cutaneous side effects. Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug induced reaction pattern characterized by recurrence of eruption at the same site of the skin or mucous membrane with repeated systemic administration. Only two case reports exist in the literature describing modafinil induced FDE until date. Here, we report two similar cases. The increasing use of this class of drug amongst the medical personnel might be posing a threat to the proper use and encouraging subsequent abuse. There might be a considerable population using these drugs unaware of the possible adverse effects. Authorities should be more alert regarding the sale and distribution of such medicines.

Ghoshal, Loknath; Sinha, Mausumi

2015-01-01

374

This paper includes reports on several biological fixed film systems in wastewater and hazardous waste treatment. Biological treatment of a refinery wastewater was studied in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) unit coupled with polyurethane foam (PUF) as a porous biomass support attached on both sides of the biodisks. The RBC-PUF bioreactor exhibited better performance than conventional RBCs for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH{sub 3}-N, phenol, hydrocarbons, and suspended solids because of higher concentrations of active biomass. Successful performance of an anaerobic-aerobic treatment process using a combination of RCBs with activated sludge was achieved for treating a dye wastewater. Two high-rate trickling filters, cross-flow (CF) and vertical flow, were examined over a two year period for biological treatment of seafood processing wastewater. Results suggested superior performance of CF plastic media with substrate removal following a pseudo half-order kinetic reaction. Submerged structured packings in biofilm reactors were tested and characterized for a wide range of applications. Their efficiency was discussed in terms of contaminant removals and SS retention.

Chen, J.M.; Lim, B.S.; Al-Ghusain, I.A.; Hao, O.J.; Lin, C.F.; Davis, A.P.; Kim, M.H.; Huang, J.

1993-06-01

375

Fixed-base poles and eigenvectors from transmission zeros

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to identify building eigenproperties for fixed base conditions, applicable to cases where measurements are from seismic excitation is presented. The approach extracts the fixed base poles from a state space realization where the input is the free field and the output is the base motion, which is assumed rigid. The formulation holds for arbitrary damping distributions and provides, in addition to the poles, the fixed base eigenvectors at any point where the structural response is measured. The approach is built on the fact that the transmission zeros of the foundation transfer matrix can be extracted from measurements and that these zeros are the poles of the fixed base system. Under the premise of linearity and finite dimensionality the method is exact when the map from the free field to the foundation coordinates is itself exact. In practice modal truncation is inevitable and approximation from this source is mitigated using a pseudo-static correction that for a half-space proves a function of the foundation geometry but not of the shear wave velocity. Performance of the approach is examined in simulations and an application in a real structure is illustrated.

Bernal, Dionisio

2014-03-01

376

The influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on halitosis.

Halitosis is a widely spread condition. There are numerous causes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on the occurrence of halitosis. 55 patients in an orthodontic practice were monitored at three points in time after application of orthodontic appliance (T1: immediately after application, T2: 4 weeks after application, T3: 3 months after application). Monitoring included patient self-evaluation, plaque index, tongue coating index and organoleptic measurement. The subjective parameters taste, dry mouth and breath odor did not show statistical differences. However, with the presence of fixed orthodontic appliances, confidence when performing dental hygiene decreased statistically significantly (p = 0.003). Additionally, the tongue coating index showed a statistically significant difference between T1 and T2 (p = 0.012) as well as T1 and T3 (p ? 0.001). Analogous results were found for organoleptic measurement (T1 and T2 [p = 0.002]; T1 and T3 [p ? 0.001]) and plaque index (T1 and T2/ T3 [p ? 0.001]). Fixed orthodontic appliances lead to a statistically significant increase of the plaque and tongue coating indices. A statistically significant increase was also observed with organoleptic measurement scores. The suspected positive correlation between halitosis and fixed orthodontic appliances was confirmed. Halitosis can be an important indicator of oral health during orthodontic treatment and can serve as a motivating factor for adequate patient oral health care maintenance. PMID:24554561

Zurfluh, Monika A; van Waes, Hubertus J M; Filippi, Andreas

2013-01-01

377

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's learn how to use the lines on graphs (the x & y axis) to plot information. Choose any of the activities below to test your knowledge of identifying the coordinates correctly. Meteoroid Coordinates Soccer Coordinates Donut Coordinates Graphing Points Save the Zogs!-Using Linear Equations Using your coordinate plane knowledge and linear equations help to rescue the Zogs! Can you find the axis for these problems too? What have you noticed about linear equations? What do the lines in linear equations look ...

Izzy

2012-02-07

378

The history of photovoltaics (PV's) is traced from 1958 and Vanguard I to the present with emphasis on cost factors modern developments, and practical applications. Overseas applications, particularly in developing countries without electrical distribution, are pointed out. The current situation in PV's is discussed. Companies involved and current technologies are reviewed. The average single-crystal PV module is cited at $9.50\\/watt

Best

1982-01-01

379

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...portion of O'Leary Lake, Moss Point, MS, on April 28- 29, 2012. This action...boat race on O'Leary Lake, Moss Point, MS on April 28-29, 2012. This event...

2012-03-14

380

Software Faults Fixing Effort: Analysis and Prediction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software developers spend significant amount of their time fixing faults. However, not many papers have addressed the effort needed to fix software faults. This paper is focused on comprehensive analysis of the fix implementation effort and factors that affect it, as well as on predicting the level of effort based on information recorded in software change requests. The work is based on data related to 1200 failures, extracted from the change tracking system of a large NASA mission. Our results show that (1) 83% of the total fix implementation effort was associated with only 20% of failures. (2) Both safety critical failures and post-release failures required three times more effort to fix compared to non-critical and pre-release counterparts, respectively. (3) Failures with fixes spread across multiple components and/or across multiple types of software artifacts required more effort. The spread across artifacts was more costly than spread across components. (4) Surprisingly, some types of faults associated with later life-cycle did not require significant effort, especially if only one type of artifact was fixed. (5) The level of fix implementation effort was predicted with 73% accuracy. The medium level fix implementation effort was classified more successfully than both low and high levels.

Hamill, Maggie; Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

2014-01-01

381

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...special local regulation for a portion of Robertson Lake & O'Leary Lake, Moss Point, MS. This action...

2013-02-12

382

Evolutionary quantum cosmology in a gauge-fixed picture

We study the classical and quantum models of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time, coupled to a perfect fluid, in the context of the consensus and a gauge-fixed Lagrangian frameworks. It is shown that, either in the usual or in the gauge-fixed actions, the evolution of the Universe based on the classical cosmology represents a late time power law expansion, coming from a big-bang singularity in which the scale factor goes to zero for the standard matter, and tending towards a big-rip singularity in which the scale factor diverges for the phantom fluid. We then employ the familiar canonical quantization procedure in the given cosmological setting to find the cosmological wave functions in the corresponding minisuperspace. Using a gauge-fixed (reduced) Lagrangian, we show that it may lead to a Schroedinger equation for the quantum-mechanical description of the model under consideration, the eigenfunctions of which can be used to construct the time dependent wave function of the Universe. We use the resulting wave function in order to investigate the possibility of the avoidance of classical singularities due to quantum effects by means of the many-worlds and ontological interpretation of quantum cosmology.

Vakili, Babak [Department of Physics, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Chalous Branch, P. O. Box 46615-397, Chalous (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-05-15

383

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on point estimation. The author provides examples, exercises, and applets about the topic. More specifically, they concern estimators, method of moments, maximum likelihood, Bayes' estimators, best unbiased estimators, and sufficient, complete and ancillary statistics. Additionally, the author provides links to external resources for students looking to engage in a more in-depth study of the topic. This is simply one lesson in a series of seventeen. They are easily accessible as the author has created the site in an online textbook format.

Siegrist, Kyle

384

Reflections on Working with Virtual Action Learning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper brings together the reflections of the authors on their shared and individual experiences of virtual action learning. Whilst many conclusions are shared, there are also some points of difference in practices.

Pedler, Mike; Hauser, Bernhard; Caulat, Ghislaine

2014-01-01

385

Optimal graph algorithms on a fixed-size linear array

Parallel algorithms for computing the minimum spanning tree of a weighted undirected graph, and the bridges and articulation points of an undirected graphs on a fixed-size linear array of processors are presented. For a graph of n vertices, the algorithms operate on a linear array of rho processors and require O(n/sup 2//rho) time for all rho, 1 less than or equal to rho -- n. In particular, using n processors the algorithms require O(n) time which is optimal on this model. The paper describes two approaches to limit the communication requirements for solving the problems. The first is a divide-and-conquer strategy applied to Sollin's algorithm for finding the minimum spanning tree of a graph. The second uses a novel data-reduction technique that constructs an auxiliary graph with no more that 2n - 2 edges, whose bridges and articulation points are the bridges and articulation points of the original graph.

Doshi, K.A.; Varman, P.J.

1987-04-01

386

An obstacle to the development of direct action version of electromagnetism was that in the end it failed to fulfill its initial promise of avoiding the problem of infinite Coulomb self-energy in the Maxwell theory of the classical point charge. This paper suggests a small but significant modification of the traditional direct action theory which overcomes that obstacle. Self-action is retained but the associated energy is rendered finite and equal to zero in the special case of null motion.

M. Ibison

2008-10-30

387

Quick-Release Pin With Lever Action

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lever-action quick-release pin operated more easily. Mechanism operated with gloved hand. In modified version, lever added to handle to facilitate actuation. Lever action reduces actuation force. Lever-action pin operated by squeezing on any point of moveable ends of lever and handle together between thumb and forefinger or by simply grasping and squeezing handle and lever with entire hand in more natural grasp.

Trevino, Robert C.

1995-01-01

388

Fixed mirror solar concentration for electrical generation

The fixed-mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) is a recent discovery that has a unique geometry that is attractive for solar electric generation systems needing concentration. Its geometry is such that the mirrors can be built in a fixed position and supported directly on the ground. This provides a significant reduction in cost of the collector, which is the dominant cost item

C. E. Backus

1975-01-01

389

Gauge fixing by unitary transformations in QCD

The unitary gauge fixing technique is applied to the QCD hamiltonian formulated in terms of angular variables. It is demonstrated that in this formulation projections on the physical Hilbert space are unnecessary to separate physical and unphysical degrees of freedom. Therefore the application of the unitary gauge fixing technique can be extended to the operator level.

Dieter Stoll

1994-08-15

390

Overfeed fixed-bed combustion of wood

Research on the combustion of wood on a fixed grate with a separate supply of combustion air is described in this paper. From the layer of the wood on the grate, only fixed carbon was burned in the primary combustion chamber in the presence of primary air, whereas the volatiles were burned subsequently in the secondary combustion chamber in the

Janez Oman; Matija Tuma

1999-01-01

391

Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

2002-01-01

392

Gaining Insight into an Organization's Fixed Assets.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to school district implementation of June 2001 Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Statement 34 designed to change how schools report fixed assets. Includes planning for GASB implementation, conducting fixed-asset inventories, and making time for GASB reporting. (PKP)

Hardy, Elisabet

2003-01-01

393

78 FR 20705 - Fixed Income Roundtable

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...34-69275; File No. 4-660] Fixed Income Roundtable AGENCY: Securities...efficiency, and other aspects of fixed income markets. The roundtable...securities, corporate bonds, and asset-backed securities markets...structure for corporate bonds and asset-backed securities. The...

2013-04-05

394

Affirmative Action Guidelines: An Appropriate Response.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The forthcoming Equal Employment Opportunity Commission affirmative action guidelines are designed to encourage voluntary compliance. They seek to establish a rational system designed to identify the effects of discrimination in the work place. Case law points to work force analysis as a base for government approved action. (Author/IRT)

Leach, Daniel E.

1978-01-01

395

Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions -Individual Fellowships

Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions - Individual Fellowships Felix Beckendorf National Contact Point Mobility, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Potsdam, 16.05.2014 #12;Contents Â· Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions in Horizon 2020 Â· General Information & Eligibility Criteria Â· Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual

Potsdam, UniversitÃ¤t

396

Influence of fixed electric charges on potential profile across the squid axon membrane

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential profile for a model of squid axon membrane has been determined for two physiological states: resting and action states. The non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation has been solved by considering the volumetric charge densities due to charges dissolved in an electrolytic solution and fixed on both glycocalyx and cytoplasmatic proteins. Results showing the features of the potential profile along the outer electrolytic region are similar for both resting and action states. However, the potential fall along glycocalyx at action state is lower than at resting. A small variation in the Na + concentration drastically affects the surface membrane potentials and vice versa. We conclude that effects on the potential profile due to surface lipidic bilayer charge and contiguous electric double layers are more relevant than those provoked by fixed charges distributed along the cell cytoplasm.

Cortez, C. M.; Cruz, F. A. O.; Silva, D.; Costa, L. F.

2008-03-01

397

Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all projects, independent on the application. The effort is estimated to be even higher as expected, as also self-calibration will be an issue to handle a possibly instable camera calibration. To overcome some of the encountered problems with the very specific features of UAV flights a software UAVision was developed based on Open Source libraries to produce input data for bundle adjustment of UAV images by PAMS. The empirical test results show a considerable improvement in the matching of tie points. The results do, however, show that the Open Source bundle adjustment was not applicable to this type of imagery. This still leaves the possibility to use the improved tie point correspondences in the commercial AT package.

Gülch, E.

2012-07-01

398

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR...Spectrum for Fixed-Satellite Services in the 37...Bands AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission published...technical rules for satellite systems in the...

2010-12-13

399

Halitosis manifestation and prevention means for patients with fixed teeth dentures.

The objective of this research is to analyse the causal relationship between construction of fixed bridge dentures and the intensity of halitosis manifestations, as well as to establish basic hygiene requirements for construction of fixed dentures which would completely exclude retention of food particles and avoid bad breath. 48 patients (36 men and 12 women), who use fixed dentures for 2-10 years, have been involved in this research. 26 patients wore fixed bridge dentures made of punched tooth crowns, the other 22 patients wore cast fixed dentures. The obtained measurements of halitosis magnitude point to the close connection between bad breath and the construction of fixed dentures. Fixed dentures with tooth crown laps, saddle intermediate parts, as well as denture constructions, which impede complex of mouth hygiene measures, cause bad breath. In this research, the condition of patients' teeth, periodontium, and oral cavity hygiene have been evaluated as satisfactory; the tongue is not perceptibly coated, and patients etiologically have not experienced problems caused by respiratorial or gastrointestinal diseases. The examined patients have not complained of xerostomia problems. In conclusion, it should be admitted that fixed dentures, which make difficult or even completely impede the complex of oral cavity hygiene measures, intensify the development of halitosis. PMID:16254469

Zigurs, Guntis; Vidzis, Aldis; Brinkmane, Anda

2005-01-01

400

The striatum is a major input site of the basal ganglia, which play an essential role in decision making. Previous studies have suggested that subareas of the striatum have distinct roles: the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) functions in habitual action, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in goal-directed actions, and the ventral striatum (VS) in motivation. To elucidate distinctive functions of subregions of the striatum in decision making, we systematically investigated information represented by phasically active neurons in DLS, DMS, and VS. Rats performed two types of choice tasks: fixed- and free-choice tasks. In both tasks, rats were required to perform nose poking to either the left or right hole after cue-tone presentation. A food pellet was delivered probabilistically depending on the presented cue and the selected action. The reward probability was fixed in fixed-choice task and varied in a block-wise manner in free-choice task. We found the following: (1) when rats began the tasks, a majority of VS neurons increased their firing rates and information regarding task type and state value was most strongly represented in VS; (2) during action selection, information of action and action values was most strongly represented in DMS; (3) action-command information (action representation before action selection) was stronger in the fixed-choice task than in the free-choice task in both DLS and DMS; and (4) action-command information was strongest in DLS, particularly when the same choice was repeated. We propose a hypothesis of hierarchical reinforcement learning in the basal ganglia to coherently explain these results. PMID:25716849

Doya, Kenji

2015-01-01

401

Fixed and mobile multi-beam communications experiment payload

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multibeam communications satellite has become possible due to recent advances in launch vehicle technology. The Japanese national project to launch a 2-ton class geostationary satellite, Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI), is now in progress. On-board equipment is developed for fixed and mobile multibeam satellite communication systems using Ka, S, and C bands. Key technologies such as large-diameter and high-precision reflectors, a low sidelobe-cluster feeder, a precise antenna-pointing control system, a monolithic IC satellite switch, a monolithic IC transponder, a multiport amplifier and a distributed supervisory and control system are planned to be flight-verified in this project.

Tanaka, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Kazuo; Ohtomo, Isao; Samejima, Shuichi

402

Fixed and mobile satellite communication systems for ETS-VI

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in launch vehicle technology have made multibeam communication satellites realistic. The Japanese national project to launch a 2-ton class geostationary satellite, ETS-VI (Engineering Test Satellite-VI), is in progress. NTT involves the development of on-board equipment for fixed and mobile multibeam satellite communication systems using Ka, S and C bands. Key technologies to be flight-verified are: large-diameter, high-precision reflectors, a low sidelobe cluster feeder, precise antenna pointing control system, monolithic IC satellite switch, monolithic IC transponder, Multi-Port Amplifier, and distributed supervisory and control system.

Nakagawa, Kazuo; Kawai, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayoshi

403

Calibration of a Photodiode Array Spectrometer Against the Copper Point

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method to calibrate photodiode array spectrometers in the spectral radiance mode using a fixed-point blackbody as a reference source. Fixed-point blackbodies are characterized by their excellent emissivity, uniformity, and stability, which make them superior to both conventional standard lamps and variable temperature blackbodies. The temperature of these fixed points is accurately determined being traceable to either the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90) or thermodynamically through radiometric standards. The potential advantage of the fixed-point traceability chain is that it can be universally reproduced without recourse to any hierarchical calibrations or standards. The paper presents the calibration system and discusses the limitations of such an approach. The method used obtained an uncertainty of around 1.4 % () associated with radiance responsivity across the spectral region from 550 nm to 1050 nm, which is comparable to what is readily achieved with a lamp-tile or lamp-illuminated spherical source.

Salim, S. G. R.; Woolliams, E. R.; Fox, N. P.

2014-04-01

404

Experiences with Light Weight Fixed Wing Aerial Mapping UAVs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UAVs seem to be the next "cloud" like topic, not only in geomatics. Unmanned Airborne Vehicles are not a wonder-tool, but a complementary approach to resolve some tasks more efficiently than before or at all. Since 2006 we commercially apply fixed wing, light weight UAVs for aerial mapping purposes. In this paper we like to share our experiences with UAVs of less than 5 kg and illuminate some limitations as well as potentials. Whereas multicopters seem to be in use everywhere, fixed wing UAVs more frequently seem to be applied in specific and geospatially oriented applications. Having processed several hundred UAV aerial mapping projects there forms a stable picture of this technology. Our impressions on durability, handling, and reliability of fixed wing UAVs get presented. We report on our day-to-day experiences and point to often simple hurdles to overcome. Various cameras were flown, different approaches of handling their geometries with different software packages were undertaken. Remarks to achieved geometric accuracies as well as the consequences of using dual frequency GPS instead of simple yet great single frequency GPS are discussed. All of this packed into the subsequent paper.

Mayr, W.

2014-11-01

405

ON LYAPUNOV FAMILIES AROUND COLLINEAR LIBRATION POINTS

Evolution details of the planar and vertical Lyapunov families around the three collinear libration points in the restricted three-body problem were studied. Researches before were generally restricted to be within the colliding orbits with the primaries and for fixed mass parameters {mu}. In this paper, members after colliding orbits were computed. With increasing {mu}, how these families evolve was studied.

Hou, X. Y.; Liu, L. [Astronomy Department, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: lliu@nju.edu.cn

2009-06-15

406

Dynamic strategies for fixed-income investment

The last 30 years have witnessed an enormous growth in fixed-income markets. How long-term fixed-income strategies should be implemented for the welfare of investors has become a major concern of bond managers. This study makes use of stochastic optimal control to formulate a multi-period portfolio selection model and implements it using backward recursion algorithm to find numerically the optimal allocation

James J. Kung

2008-01-01

407

Mycorrhizae of nitrogen-fixing legumes

Most plant species form mycorrhizae, which are symbiotic fungus-root associations. Many plants can also form symbioses with specific bacteria or actinomycetes which produce root nodules and fix atmospheric nitrogen within these nodules. The tripartite mycorrhiza-legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is the subject of this review. Mycorrhizal nitrogen-fixing legumes include many important temperate and tropical crops, e.g. clover, lucerne, beans (Phaseolus andVicia), peas, soybean,

D. S. Hayman

1986-01-01

408

Techniques for Practical Fixed-Parameter Algorithms

The fixed-parameter approach is an algorithm design technique for solving combinatorially hard (mostly NP-hard) problems. For some of these problems, it can lead to algorithms that are both effi- cient and yet at the same time guaranteed to find optimal solutions. Focusing on their application to solving NP-hard problems in practice, we survey three main techniques to develop fixed-parameter algorithms,

Falk Hüffner; Rolf Niedermeier; Sebastian Wernicke

2008-01-01

409

Sodium transport in filamentous nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria

Two filamentous, nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria were examined for their salt tolerance and sodium (Na+) transport.Anabaena torulosa, a saline form, grew efficiently and fixed nitrogen even at 150 mM salt (NaCl) concentration while,Anabaena L-31, a fresh water cyanobacterium, failed to grow beyond 35 mM NaCl.Anabaena torulosa showed a rapidly saturating kinetics of Na+ transport with a high affinity for Na+\\u000a (K

Shree Kumar Apte; Joseph Thomas

1983-01-01

410

Fixed-target physics at Fermilab

The Fermilab Energy Saver is now successfully commissioned and fixed-target experimentation at high energy (800 GeV) has begun. In addition, a number of new experiments designed to exploit the unique features of the Tevatron are yet to come on-line. In this talk, we will review recent accomplishments in the fixed-target program and describe experiments in progress and others yet to come.

Bjorken, J.D.

1985-03-01

411

Preliminary Measurements of the Xenon Triple Point

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since the construction and definition of the highly successful International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90), one severe deficiency of the scale has been recognized, without a reliable remedy. The problem is the fact that the only then available high-quality fixed point between the argon triple point and the water triple point was the mercury triple point, which unfortunately is situated rather closely to the water triple point, thus having an extremely strong influence on the interpolation function of SPRTs in the range. Already before 1990, measurements on possible fixed points better placed in this temperature range have been investigated, such as the triple points of krypton and xenon. However, results have been rather elusive, mainly regarding the rather large melting range of their transition. A turning point was the 2005 paper from the National Research Council (NRC, Canada), where it was established that the relatively high content of krypton was the culprit for the large melting range of the xenon transitions published previously. Indeed, measurements on a xenon sample with very low krypton content produced a very high-quality plateau, of the same level as other ITS-90 fixed points. However, no follow-up measurements have been reported, and thus neither have comparison measurements been reported. Shortly, after the appearance of the NRC paper, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM, Italy) acquired a batch of the same high-purity xenon as used by NRC with the aim of preparing a few sealed cells with it and trying to reproduce the NRC results. However, with the start of the Neon Project (Euromet Project 770), the realization of these intentions had to be postponed until now. Last December, three cells of different design have been filled with this high-quality xenon and preliminary results of the measurements on the triple point are reported.

Steur, P. P. M.; Giraudi, D.

2014-04-01

412

Final consolidated action plan to Tiger Team. Volume 1

This document contains the planned actions to correct the deficiences identified in the Tiger Team Assessments of Sandia California (August 1990) and Sandia New Mexico (May 1991). Information is also included on the management structures, estimated costs, root causes, prioritization and schedules for the Action Plan. This Plan is an integration of the two individual Action Plans to provide a cost effective, integrated program for implementation by Sandia and monitoring by DOE. This volume (I) contains the findings and actions concerning the environment. Tables 4.2 and 4.7 summarize the annual costs estimated for completing the actions. The total costs for completion of all the actions are estimated to be $283 million over a 12 year period; the majority of the actions to be completed and costs incurred in the first five years. Resources are provided from DOE-ER/WM, the DOE/DP landlord funds (one time, physical fixes), and from the Sandia Indirect Budget.

Not Available

1992-10-01

413

Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China’s third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L), in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp.), but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible. PMID:25405474

Paerl, Hans W.; Xu, Hai; Hall, Nathan S.; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Yali; Rossignol, Karen L.; Dong, Linghan; McCarthy, Mark J.; Joyner, Alan R.

2014-01-01

414

Excessive anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs have caused an alarming increase in harmful cyanobacterial blooms, threatening sustainability of lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Hypertrophic Lake Taihu, China's third largest freshwater lake, typifies this predicament, with toxic blooms of the non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. dominating from spring through fall. Previous studies indicate N and P reductions are needed to reduce bloom magnitude and duration. However, N reductions may encourage replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria. This potentially counterproductive scenario was evaluated using replicate, large (1000 L), in-lake mesocosms during summer bloom periods. N+P additions led to maximum phytoplankton production. Phosphorus enrichment, which promoted N limitation, resulted in increases in N2 fixing taxa (Anabaena spp.), but it did not lead to significant replacement of non-N2 fixing with N2 fixing cyanobacteria, and N2 fixation rates remained ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, P enrichment failed to increase phytoplankton production relative to controls, indicating that N was the most limiting nutrient throughout this period. We propose that Microcystis spp. and other non-N2 fixing genera can maintain dominance in this shallow, highly turbid, nutrient-enriched lake by outcompeting N2 fixing taxa for existing sources of N and P stored and cycled in the lake. To bring Taihu and other hypertrophic systems below the bloom threshold, both N and P reductions will be needed until the legacy of high N and P loading and sediment nutrient storage in these systems is depleted. At that point, a more exclusive focus on P reductions may be feasible. PMID:25405474

Paerl, Hans W; Xu, Hai; Hall, Nathan S; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Wu, Yali; Rossignol, Karen L; Dong, Linghan; McCarthy, Mark J; Joyner, Alan R

2014-01-01

415

47 CFR 80.381 - Frequencies for operational fixed stations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for operational fixed stations. 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Operational Fixed Stations § 80.381 Frequencies for operational fixed stations....

2010-10-01

416

47 CFR 80.381 - Frequencies for operational fixed stations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for operational fixed stations. 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Operational Fixed Stations § 80.381 Frequencies for operational fixed stations....

2011-10-01

417

50 CFR 660.219 - Fixed gear identification and marking.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gear identification and marking. 660.219 Section...STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.219 Fixed gear identification and marking. (a) Gear...

2010-10-01

418

50 CFR 660.211 - Fixed gear fishery-definitions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gear fishery-definitions. 660.211 Section 660...STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.211 Fixed gear fishery—definitions. These definitions...

2010-10-01

419

47 CFR 80.381 - Frequencies for operational fixed stations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for operational fixed stations. 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Operational Fixed Stations § 80.381 Frequencies for operational fixed stations....

2013-10-01

420

47 CFR 80.381 - Frequencies for operational fixed stations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for operational fixed stations. 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Operational Fixed Stations § 80.381 Frequencies for operational fixed stations....

2012-10-01

421

46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing...feet). (2) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system...capable of automatic discharge upon heat detection...pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system...alarm to indicate the discharge of the...

2012-10-01

422

46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing...feet). (2) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system...capable of automatic discharge upon heat detection...pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system...alarm to indicate the discharge of the...

2014-10-01

423

46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing...feet). (2) A fixed gas fire extinguishing system...capable of automatic discharge upon heat detection...pre-engineered fixed gas fire extinguishing system...alarm to indicate the discharge of the...

2011-10-01

424

46 CFR 28.320 - Fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

425

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2014-10-01

426

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2010-10-01

427

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2012-10-01

428

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2013-10-01

429

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2011-10-01

430

50 CFR 660.219 - Fixed gear identification and marking.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed gear identification and marking. 660.219 Section...STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.219 Fixed gear identification and marking. (a) Gear...

2012-10-01

431

50 CFR 660.219 - Fixed gear identification and marking.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed gear identification and marking. 660.219 Section...STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.219 Fixed gear identification and marking. (a) Gear...

2014-10-01

432

50 CFR 660.219 - Fixed gear identification and marking.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed gear identification and marking. 660.219 Section...STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.219 Fixed gear identification and marking. (a) Gear...

2013-10-01

433

50 CFR 660.219 - Fixed gear identification and marking.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed gear identification and marking. 660.219 Section...STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.219 Fixed gear identification and marking. (a) Gear...

2011-10-01

434

47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387 Section 80...STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The...

2014-10-01

435

47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387 Section 80...STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The...

2012-10-01

436

47 CFR 80.387 - Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. 80.387 Section 80...STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Alaska Fixed Stations § 80.387 Frequencies for Alaska fixed stations. (a) The...

2013-10-01

437

29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910...HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression... Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. ...type approved for the system's application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to...

2011-07-01

438

29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910...HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression... Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. ...type approved for the system's application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to...

2014-07-01

439

29 CFR 1910.162 - Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. 1910...HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Fixed Fire Suppression... Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent. ...type approved for the system's application. Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to...

2013-07-01

440

78 FR 57250 - Federal Credit Union Ownership of Fixed Assets

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Federal Credit Union Ownership of Fixed Assets AGENCY: National Credit Union...credit union (FCU) ownership of fixed assets to help FCUs better understand...its operations.\\1\\ NCUA's fixed assets rule interprets and...

2013-09-18

441

Action knowledge, visuomotor activation, and embodiment in the two action systems

Scientific interest in the relationship between cognition and action has increased markedly in the past several years, fueled by the discovery of mirror neurons in monkey prefrontal and parietal cortex and by the emergence of a movement in cognitive psychology, termed the embodied cognition framework, which emphasizes the role of simulation in cognitive representations. Guided by a functional neuroanatomic model called the Two Action Systems account, which posits numerous points of differentiation between structure- and function-based actions, we focus on two of the major issues under recent scrutiny: the relationship between representations for action production and recognition, and the role of action in object representations. We suggest that mirror neurons in humans are not critical for full action understanding, and that only function-based (and not structure-based) action is a component of embodied object concepts. PMID:20392282

Buxbaum, Laurel J.; Kalénine, Solène

2015-01-01

442

Vibration suppression of fixed-time jib crane maneuvers

A jib crane consists of a pendulum-like end line attached to a rotatable jib. Within this general category of cranes there exist devices with multiple degrees of freedom including variable load-line length and variable jib length. These cranes are commonly used for construction and transportation applications. Point-to-point payload maneuvers using jib cranes are performed so as not to excite the spherical pendulum modes of their cable and payload assemblies. Typically, these pendulum modes, although time-varying, exhibit low frequencies. The resulting maneuvers are therefore performed slowly, contributing to high construction and transportation costs. The crane considered here consists of a spherical pendulum attached to a rigid jib. The other end of the jib is attached to a direct drive motor for generating rotational motion. A general approach is presented for determining the open-loop trajectories for the jib rotation for accomplishing fixed-time, point-to-point, residual oscillation free, symmetric maneuvers. These residual oscillation free trajectories purposely excite the pendulum modes in such a way that at the end of the maneuver the oscillatory degrees of freedom are quiescent. Simulation results are presented with experimental verification.

Parker, G.G.; Petterson, B.; Dohrmann, C.R.; Robinett, R.D.

1995-02-01

443

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

Mumford, Alan, Ed.

444

Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan Â©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

445

Fixed-Width Group CSD Multiplier Design

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an error compensation method for fixed-width group canonic signed digit (GCSD) multipliers that receive a W-bit input and generate a W-bit product. To efficiently compensate for the truncation error, the encoded signals from the GCSD multiplier are used for the generation of the error compensation bias. By Synopsys simulations, it is shown that the proposed method leads to up to 84% reduction in power consumption and up to 78% reduction in area compared with the fixed-width modified Booth multipliers.

Kim, Yong-Eun; Cho, Kyung-Ju; Chung, Jin-Gyun; Huang, Xinming

446

76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...regulation governing the operation of the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The...

2011-09-30

447

Melting Point, Boiling Point, and Symmetry

The relationship between the melting point of a compound and its chemical structure remains poorly understood. The melting point of a compound can be related to certain of its other physical chemical properties. The boiling point of a compound can be determined from additive constitutive properties, but the melting point can be estimated only with the aid of nonadditive constitutive

Robert Abramowitz; Samuel H. Yalkowsky

1990-01-01

448

MPI Point-to-Point Communication

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module details and differentiates the various types of point-to-point communication available in MPI. Point-to-point communication involves transmission of a message between a pair of processes, as opposed to collective communication, which involves a group of processes.

449

The Asymptotics of MM-Estimators for Linear Regression with Fixed Designs

MM-estimators achieve simultaneous high efficiency and high breakdown point over contamination neighborhoods. Inference based on these estimators relies on their asymptotic properties, which have been studied for the case of random covariates. In this paper we show that, under relatively mild regularity conditions, MM-estimators for linear regression models are strongly consistent when the design is fixed. Moreover, their strong consistency

Matias Salibian-Barrera

2006-01-01

450

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated whether two children with developmental disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance through an Automatic Pointing Assistive Program (APAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e. a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and is able to intercept mouse click action). Initially, both participants…

Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Shih, Ching-Tien

2009-01-01

451

Spectral dimensions from the spectral action

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized spectral dimension DS(T ) provides a powerful tool for comparing different approaches to quantum gravity. In this work, we apply this formalism to the classical spectral actions obtained within the framework of almost-commutative geometry. Analyzing the propagation of spin-0, spin-1 and spin-2 fields, we show that a nontrivial spectral dimension arises already at the classical level. The effective field theory interpretation of the spectral action yields plateau structures interpolating between a fixed spin-independent DS(T )=dS for short and DS(T )=4 for long diffusion times T . Going beyond effective field theory the spectral dimension is completely dominated by the high-momentum properties of the spectral action, yielding DS(T )=0 for all spins. Our results support earlier claims that high-energy bosons do not propagate.

Alkofer, Natália; Saueressig, Frank; Zanusso, Omar

2015-01-01

452

Note on tachyon actions in string theory

A number of spacetime fields in string theory (notably the metric, dilaton, bosonic and type 0 bulk closed-string tachyon, and bosonic open-string tachyon) have the following property: whenever the spacetime field configuration factorizes in an appropriate sense, the matter sector of the world-sheet theory factorizes into a tensor product of two decoupled theories. Since the beta functions for such a product theory necessarily also factorize, this property strongly constrains the form of the spacetime action encoding those beta functions. We show that this constraint alone--without needing actually to compute any of the beta functions--is sufficient to fix the form of the two-derivative action for the metric-dilaton system, as well as the potential for the bosonic open-string tachyon. We also show that no action consistent with this constraint exists for the closed-string tachyon coupled to the metric and dilaton.

Headrick, Matthew [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454 (United States)

2009-02-15

453

Action spectrum for phototherapy of psoriasis

Using a monochromator the action spectrum for ultraviolet phototherapy of psoriasis was determined for radiation between 254 and 313 nm and compared to the action spectrum for erythema of uninvolved adjacent skin. Daily exposures of different doses of 254, 280, 290, 296, 300, 304 and 313 nm radiation were observed. Wavelengths of 254, 280, 290 nm were erythemogenic but not therapeutic even at 10 to 50 times the minimal erythema dose. At the other wavelengths studied, the 2 action spectra were similar. In general, fixed daily doses cleared at lower cumulative dose than did incrementally increased daily doses. The small number of suberythemogenic exposure doses required suggests that monochromatic radiation may have advantages over broadband sources.

Parrish, J.A.; Jaenicke, K.F.

1981-05-01

454

Point-to-Point Car Racing: an Initial Study of Evolution Versus Temporal Difference Learning

This paper considers variations on an extremely simple form of car racing, the challenge being to visit as many way-points as possible in a fixed amount of time. The simplicity of the models enables a very thorough evaluation of various learning algorithms and control architectures, and enables other researchers to work on the same models with relative ease. The models

Simon M. Lucas; Julian Togelius

2007-01-01

455

Fast integer programming in fixed Friedrich Eisenbrand

Fast integer programming in fixed dimension Friedrich Eisenbrand MPI--I--2003--NWG2002 February 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany eisen@mpisb.mpg.de #12; Abstract It is shown that the optimum of an integer of previous algorithms, which are based on Lenstra's algorithm and binary search. It follows that an integer

456

"If the Water Is Nasty, Fix It."

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After taking an environmental inventory of their community, seventh-graders in a Denver-area middle school decided to tackle the drinking water problem and fix it. The school is one of seven participating in Earth Force, an environmental and community-service-learning program based in Alexandria, Virginia. The program's progress and six-step…

Boston, Bruce O.

1999-01-01

457

Improved fixed bed models for metal biosorption

This paper describes the application of two new mathematical models, derived from an existing model with two adjustable parameters, to simulate the breakthrough curves of metal biosorption in fixed bed columns. No new adjustable parameters are introduced into the modified models. The models offer a fast and accurate alternative to the conventional mass balance-based models which are much more complicated

K. H Chu

2004-01-01

458

Fixed drug eruption caused by sulfaguanidine.

We report a patient who developed a fixed drug eruption (FDE) due to sulfaguanidine. This drug has not been previously implicated as a cause of FDE. The diagnosis was confirmed by an oral provocation and a biopsy of the lesion. Oral provocations with other sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine, were well tolerated. PMID:8075454

Arias, J; Fernández-Rivas, M; Martinez, M; Senent, C

1994-01-01

459

Fixed Drug Eruption Caused by Sulfaguanidine

We report a patient who developed a fixed drug eruption (FDE) due to sulfaguanidine. This drug has not been previously implicated as cause of FDE. The diagnosis was confirmed by an oral provocation and a biopsy of the lesion. Oral provocations with other sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine, were well tolerated.Copyright © 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

J. Arias; M. Fernández-Rivas; M. Martinez; C. Senent

1994-01-01

460

Memories of Bug Fixes Sunghun Kim

, and reengineering, D.2.8 [Software Engineering]: Metrics Â Product metrics, K.6.3 [Management of ComputingMemories of Bug Fixes Sunghun Kim Department of Computer Science University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, CA, USA hunkim@cs.ucsc.edu Kai Pan Department of Computer Science University

Whitehead, James

461

Physics landscape-fixed target energies

An introductory review is presented of physics issues and opportunities at Fermilab fixed-target energies. Included are discussions of precision electroweak studies; deep inelastic lepton scattering; heavy quark production, spectroscopy, and decays; perturbative QCD; prompt photon production; massive lepton production; and spin dependence. 79 refs., 7 figs.

Berger, E.L.

1989-10-01

462

Fixed-Role Therapy With Multiple Paraphilias

Paraphilias, or sexually deviant behaviors, are especially difficult to address when an individual displaysmore than one sexual deviation at one time. Acase of an incarcerated forensic client who displayed symptoms of sadism, masochism, and hebephilia is described. Fixed-role therapy (FRT), a dramaturgical approach to treatmentwhere a client enacts a new character or role based on how he or she would

James Horley

2005-01-01

463

Fixed Drug Eruption Due to Ornidazole

A 56-year-old male developed an ulcer on his glans penis and mucosae of upper and lower lips 3 days after taking ofloxacin, cephalexin, and ornidazole. Clinically, a provisional diagnosis of fixed drug eruption was made. The causative drug was confirmed by an oral provocation test which triggered a reactivation of all lesions only with ornidazole. PMID:25484435

Gupta, Ramji

2014-01-01

464

Fixed drug eruption due to ornidazole.

A 56-year-old male developed an ulcer on his glans penis and mucosae of upper and lower lips 3 days after taking ofloxacin, cephalexin, and ornidazole. Clinically, a provisional diagnosis of fixed drug eruption was made. The causative drug was confirmed by an oral provocation test which triggered a reactivation of all lesions only with ornidazole. PMID:25484435

Gupta, Ramji

2014-11-01

465

Stress tolerant crops from nitrogen fixing trees

Notes are given on the nutritional quality and uses of: pods of Geoffroea decorticans, a species tolerant of saline and limed soils and saline water; seeds of Olneya tesota which nodulates readily and fixes nitrogen and photosynthesizes at low water potential; and pods of Prosopis chilensis and P. tamarugo which tolerate long periods without rain. 3 references.

Becker, R.; Saunders, R.M.

1983-01-01

466

Differential diagnosis. Fixed or removable prosthesis.

These clinical cases demonstrate that the choice for fixed or removable prostheses is a complex decision. The factors to be evaluated include the patient's past dental history of treatment and self-care, the patient's state of health, the patient's psychologic motivation and personality profile, her or his economic status, and, finally, the dentist's skill and available consultative services. Ultimately, the patient must become a cotherapist and be given the opportunity to participate in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and after care. The cases presented here also demonstrate the use of short-term, immediate, interim provisional, and long-term definitive prostheses that may be used for fixed or removable prostheses. These choices require the dentist to make exquisite judgments about the users of fixed or removable prosthesis, especially if a patient is phobic about wearing removable prostheses. Fortunately, the state of the art in implant prostheses has advanced so favorably that the choices are now between fixed, removable, or implant prostheses. PMID:3475221

Silverman, S I

1987-07-01

467

non-slash stories. feel f ree to submit them. I'm hoping to put the fix on a t? ... ice-a-year schedUl e , wh ich ' ... ould mean the next issue should appear in April o r May. I would also like to go to this la rg e r size (or the publication...

Multiple Contributors

1995-01-01

468

The Perennial Reform: Fixing School Time

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presidential commissions, parents, academics, and employers have proposed the same solutions, again and again, for fixing the time students spend in school: (1) Add more days to the annual school calendar; (2) Change to year-round schools; (3) Add instructional time to the daily schedule; and (4) Extend the school day. Three reasons--cost,…

Cuban, Larry

2008-01-01

469

Florida Educational Fixed Capital Outlay Budgeting.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1979, the Florida legislature commissioned a comprehensive evaluation of the state's educational fixed capital outlay (EFCO) program, through which the state funded all capital projects at all levels of public education. The study, completed for the 1980 legislative session, comprised 18 topical reports including EFCO funding recipients,…

King, Candice A.; Carpenter, James L.

470

An interior point algorithm for nonlinear minimax problems

Jan 22, 2009 ... Newton interior point method for nonlinear programming in [5], extending ... In light of the success of some interior-point methods to this class of ..... STOP end if. Step 2: Inner iterations: (µ is fixed to µl throughout this step). Set (vk ...... modeling language that allows the optimisation problems to be written in a.

2009-01-22

471

An Efficient Interior-Point Method for Convex Multicriteria ...

specified above by solving the single-objective optimization problem min. zT f(x) ... problem is linear or strictly convex quadratic and the set of feasible points is fixed, i. e. ... interior-point algorithm as presented in [22] is rehearsed in short.

2004-02-25

472

Normal approximation for coverage models over binomial point processes

We give error bounds which demonstrate optimal rates of convergence in the CLT for the total covered volume and the number of isolated shapes, for germ-grain models with fixed grain radius over a binomial point process of $n$ points in a toroidal spatial region of volume $n$. The proof is based on Stein's method via size-biased couplings.

Larry Goldstein; Mathew D. Penrose

2008-01-01

473

29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of three-fourths inch for metal ladders, except as covered...connections shall have smooth transition with original members and...employed to protect dissimilar metals from electrolytic action when such metals are joined. (6)...

2012-07-01

474

29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of three-fourths inch for metal ladders, except as covered...connections shall have smooth transition with original members and...employed to protect dissimilar metals from electrolytic action when such metals are joined. (6)...

2014-07-01

475

29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of three-fourths inch for metal ladders, except as covered...connections shall have smooth transition with original members and...employed to protect dissimilar metals from electrolytic action when such metals are joined. (6)...

2013-07-01

476

Effects of Earth-Fixed vs Head-Fixed Targets on Static Ocular Counterroll

Objective To investigate whether static ocular counterroll (OCR) gain is reduced during viewing of an earth-fixed vs a head-fixed target. Methods Twelve healthy individuals were recruited. The target consisted of a red fixation cross against a grid pattern at a viewing distance of 33 cm. The target was mounted on a wall (earth fixed) or was coupled to the head (head fixed). Changes in mean torsional eye position were plotted as a function of head position steps (0°±25° in 5° steps), and sigmoidal fits were performed. Mean static OCR gain was calculated by taking the derivative of the fitted functions. Results Mean static OCR gain was 40% lower with a head-fixed target (?0.084) than with an earth-fixed target (?0.141) (P<.001). Conclusion The reduction in static OCR gain during viewing of a head-fixed target indicates that static OCR is partially negated when a target moves with the head. PMID:20385936

Chandrakumar, Manokaraananthan; Hirji, Zahra; Goltz, Herbert C.; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Blakeman, Alan W.; Colpa, Linda; Wong, Agnes M. F.

2011-01-01

477

ACTIONS AND PARTIAL ACTIONS OF INDUCTIVE CONSTELLATIONS

ACTIONS AND PARTIAL ACTIONS OF INDUCTIVE CONSTELLATIONS VICTORIA GOULD AND CHRISTOPHER HOLLINGS Abstract. Inductive constellations are one-sided analogues of inductive cat- egories which correspond constellation on a set, before introducing the Szendrei expansion of an induc- tive constellation, which

478

ACTIONS AND PARTIAL ACTIONS OF INDUCTIVE CONSTELLATIONS

ACTIONS AND PARTIAL ACTIONS OF INDUCTIVE CONSTELLATIONS VICTORIA GOULD AND CHRISTOPHER HOLLINGS Abstract. Constellations were recently introduced by the authors as one- sided analogues of categories: a constellation is equipped with a partial multi- plication for which `domains' are defined but, in general

Gould, Victoria

479

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria have been isolated from sugar- cane in an endophytic and beneficial interaction that promotes plant growth. In this work, for the first time, the involvement of ethylene signalling in this inter- action was investigated by molecular characterizing members of this pathway in sugarcane. The expres- sion pattern of a putative ethylene receptor (SCER1) and two putative ERF transcription

J. J. V. Cavalcante; C. Vargas; E. M. Nogueira; F. Vinagre; K. Schwarcz; J. I. Baldani; P. C. G. Ferreira; A. S. Hemerly

2007-01-01

480

Characterizing configurations of fire ignition points through spatiotemporal point processes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-caused forest fires are usually regarded as unpredictable but often exhibit trends towards clustering in certain locations and periods. Characterizing such configurations is crucial for understanding spatiotemporal fire dynamics and implementing preventive actions. Our objectives were to analyse the spatiotemporal point configuration and to test for spatiotemporal interaction. We characterized the spatiotemporal structure of 984 fire ignition points in a study area of Galicia, Spain, during 2007-2011 by the K-Ripley's function. Our results suggest the presence of spatiotemporal structures for time lags of less than two years and ignition point distances in the range 0-12 km. Ignition centre points at time lags of less than 100 days are aggregated for any inter-event distance. This cluster structure loses strength as the time lag increases, and at time lags of more than 365 days this cluster structure is not significant for any lag distance. Our results also suggest spatiotemporal interdependencies at time lags of less than 100 days and inter-event distances of less than 10 km. At time lags of up to 365 days spatiotemporal components are independent for any point distance. These results suggest that risk conditions occur locally and are short-lived in this study area.

Comas, C.; Costafreda-Aumedes, S.; Vega-Garcia, C.

2014-04-01