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Sample records for flat plate dual

  1. Dual polarization flat plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.

    Rectangular waveguides with radiating slots are used in groups to form planar array microwave antennas with large apertures and small depth. Such flat plate antennas are widely used on spacecraft and aircraft. Typically, flat plate antennas provide fixed linear polarization. The present paper describes a new flat plate antenna which produces two coincident beams that are distinguished by their orthogonal linear polarizations. The antenna has two ports, one for each of the coicident beams. Completely external to the antenna, connecting a simple network to those terminal ports enables the antenna to provide right circular polarization from one port and left from the other. A different external network enables the antenna to have arbitrarily adjustable polarizations.

  2. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  3. Effects of velocity profile and inclination on dual-jet-induced pressures on a flat plate in a crosswind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakubowski, A. L.; Schetz, J. A.; Moore, C. L.; Joag, R.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine surface pressure distributions on a flat plate with dual subsonic, circular jets exhausting from the surface into a crossflow. The jets were arranged in both side-by-side and tandem configurations and were injected at 90 deg and 60 deg angles to the plate, with jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 2.2 and 4. The major objective of the study was to determine the effect of a nonuniform (vs uniform) jet velocity profile, simulating the exhaust of a turbo-fan engine. Nonuniform jets with a high-velocity outer annulus and a low-velocity core induced stronger negative pressure fields than uniform jets with the same mass flow rate. However, nondimensional lift losses (lift loss/jet thrust lift) due to such nonuniform jets were lower than lift losses due to uniform jets. Changing the injection angle from 90 deg to 60 deg resulted in moderate (for tandem jets) to significant (for side-by-side jets) increases in the induced negative pressures, even though the surface area influenced by the jets tended to reduce as the angle decreased. Jets arranged in the side-by-side configuration led to significant jet-induced lift losses exceeding, in some cases, lift losses reported for single jets.

  4. Experimental study of surface pressures induced on a flat plate and a body of revolution by various dual jet configurations. [wind tunnel tudies of a jet in a cross flow for V/STOL applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Jakubowski, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the angle of a jet to a crossflow, the performance of dual jet configurations, and a jet injected from a body of revolution as opposed to a flat plate were investigated during experiments conducted in the 7x10 tunnel at NASA Ames at Velocities from 14.5 m/sec to 35.8 m/sec (47.6 to 117.4 ft/sec.). Pressure distributions are presented for single and dual jets over a range of velocity ratios from 2 to 10, spacings from 2 to 6 diameters and injection angles of 90, 75, 60, and 105 degrees. For the body of revolution tests, the ratio of the jet to body diameters was set as large (1/2) in order to be more representative of V/STOL aircraft applications. Flat plate tests involved dual jets both aligned and in side by side configurations. The effects of the various parameters and the differences between the axisymmetric and planar body geometrics on the nature, size, shape, and strength of the interaction regions on the body surfaces are shown. Some flowfield measurements are also presented, and it is shown that a simple analysis is capable of predicting the trajectories of the jets.

  5. Turbulent flows near flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, R.; Imamura, T.; Doi, M.

    1980-08-01

    The method to study the effect of the plate moving in the homogeneous or isotropic turbulence is presented. The crucial point of this method is to solve the Orr-Sommerfeld like equation, which is satisfied by the kernel of the Wiener-Hermite expansion of the velocity field, under the inhomogeneous boundary condition. In the special case of constant mean flow, our method gives the same result as that of Hunt and Graham and succeeds in explaining the experimental results of Thomas and Hancock. The method is also applied to the case of nonuniform mean flow, where the shear effect comes up.

  6. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  7. Development of flat-plate solar plate collector: Evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramzon, B.; Yaron, I.

    1981-11-01

    In the present study the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector is analyzed theoretically for the case in which the working fluid may undergo a phase change within the tubes of the collector. In addition to the common domestic applications, such a collector - evaporator may be used as a generator of vapors for the production of mechanical or electrical energy, e.g., solar water pumps, solar power stations, etc., as well as for solar - powered absorption refrigeration machines, distillation installations, etc.

  8. Flat plate puncture test convergence study.

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Spencer; Ammerman, Douglas James; Molitoris, David; Tso, Chi-Fung; Yaksh, Mike

    2010-10-01

    The ASME Task Group on Computational Mechanics for Explicit Dynamics is investigating the types of finite element models needed to accurately solve various problems that occur frequently in cask design. One type of problem is the 1-meter impact onto a puncture spike. The work described in this paper considers this impact for a relatively thin-walled shell, represented as a flat plate. The effects of mesh refinement, friction coefficient, material models, and finite element code will be discussed. The actual punch, as defined in the transport regulations, is 15 cm in diameter with a corner radius of no more than 6 mm. The punch used in the initial part of this study has the same diameter, but has a corner radius of 25 mm. This more rounded punch was used to allow convergence of the solution with a coarser mesh. A future task will be to investigate the effect of having a punch with a smaller corner radius. The 25-cm thick type 304 stainless steel plate that represents the cask wall is 1 meter in diameter and has added mass on the edge to represent the remainder of the cask. The amount of added mass to use was calculated using Nelm's equation, an empirically derived relationship between weight, wall thickness, and ultimate strength that prevents punch through. The outer edge of the plate is restrained so that it can only move in the direction parallel to the axis of the punch. Results that are compared include the deflection at the edge of the plate, the deflection at the center of the plate, the plastic strains at radius r=50 cm and r=100 cm , and qualitatively, the distribution of plastic strains. The strains of interest are those on the surface of the plate, not the integration point strains. Because cask designers are using analyses of this type to determine if shell will puncture, a failure theory, including the effect of the tri-axial nature of the stress state, is also discussed. The results of this study will help to determine what constitutes an adequate

  9. Collation of quarterly reports on air flat plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar 2 air flat plate collectors are described. The development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet of collector area are described. Three instrumented panels were completely assembled with glazing and insulation. Manufacture of the last seven prototype collectors was completed in October 1977.

  10. Handbook of Structural Stability Part I: Buckling of Flat Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, George; Becker, Herbert

    1957-01-01

    The various factors governing buckling of flat plates are critically reviewed and the results are summarized in a comprehensive series of charts and tables. Numerical values are presented for buckling coefficients of flat plates with various boundary conditions and applied loadings. The effects of plasticity are incorporated in non dimensional buckling charts utilizing the three-parameter description of stress-strain curves.

  11. Thermal equivalency study for steel propulsion shafting and flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Dikshit, V.A.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    The electroslag strip surfacing (ESS) process despite its advantage of high deposition rates, low base metal dilutions, and uniform penetrations, over unknown in the United States and has only recently started to gain acceptance as a feasible process for surfacing on large components, e.g., propulsion shafting. Electroslag strip surfacing was made on service scale shaft and on various flat plates using the same surfacing materials and parameters. Thermal history measurements were made by chromel-alumel thermocouples mounted on the shaft and the flat plates. The data were collected by a computer-controlled data acquisition system and subsequently postprocessed using commercial spreadsheet/graphics software programs. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and the flat plates showed a strong dependence on the interpass preheat temperature, but was independent of the maximum temperature. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and flat plate of the same thickness, and for the 76 and 127 mm thick flat plates were found to match very closely. This led to the conclusion that the thermal history results for 127 mm thick shaft and 127 to 67 mm thick flat plates made from similar steels show thermal equivalence for ESS and provide the justification for using 67 to 127 mm thick plates instead of 127 mm thick service scale shafting for process characterization.

  12. Advanced solar box and flat plate collector cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Grupp, M.; Bergler, H.

    1992-12-31

    Several new solar cooker systems have been developed at Synopsis during the last years: advanced box type cookers, featuring an optimized heat transfer from the absorber into the cooking vessel; flat plate cookers, based on a particular two-way collector with air as transfer fluid; flat plate cookers with heat-pipe transfer; specialized cookers for the baking of bread and flat bread. The working principle of these cookers is described, the structure of a thermal simulation model and results of thermal tests are presented. The results of the first year of local production and use of advanced boxes in India are reported.

  13. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, B.W.

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  14. Ice Particle Impacts on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Ruggeri, Charles; Struk, Peter M.; Pereira, Mike; Revilock, Duane; Kreeger, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted at the Ballistic Laboratory of NASA Glenn Research Center to study the impact of ice particles on a stationary flat surface target set at 45 degrees with respect to the direction of motion of the impinging particle (Figure 1). The experiment is part of NASA efforts to study the physics involved in engine power-loss events due to ice-crystal ingestion and ice accretion formation inside engines. These events can occur when aircraft encounter high-altitude convective weather.

  15. Flat plate electrohydrodynamic heat pipe experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehrke, R. I.; Sebits, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Performance capabilities of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flat heat pipes were investigated using Freon 113 and Freon 11 as working fluids. All of the pipes employed straight rod electrodes to form axial liquid flow channels and tranverse grooves for capillary surface wetting. Results show: (1) the EHD pipe will prime under load, (2) voltage controlled conductance can be achieved by varying the active area of the evaporator, and (3) the average evaporator conductances measured in these experiments were consistent with those obtained in other experiments with heat pipes of similar surface geometry using the same or similar working fluids.

  16. Incipient transition phenomena in compressible flows over a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The full three-dimensional time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a Fourier-Chebyshev method to study the stability of compressible flows over a flat plate. After the code is validated in the linear regime, it is applied to study the existence of the secondary instability mechanism in the supersonic regime.

  17. Certification and verification for Calmac flat plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector is presented. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, installation, operation, and maintenance manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.

  18. Energy distribution of proton microbeam transmitted through two flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, G. U. L.; Rajta, I.; Bereczky, R. J.; Tőkési, K.

    2015-07-01

    The transmission of 1 MeV proton microbeam passing between two parallel flat plates was investigated. Three different materials were used in our experiments. As insulators we used Polytetrafluoroethylene and borosilicate glass plates and glass with gold layer on the surface as conductor. The surface of the plates was parallel to the beam axis and one of the plates was moved towards the beam. The energy distribution and the deflection of the transmitted beam were measured as the function of the sample distance relative to the beam. We found systematic differences between the behaviour of the metallic and insulator samples. The proton microbeam suffered significant deflection towards the sample surface due to the image acceleration when using conductor material. In case of the glass and Polytetrafluoroethylene plates the beam was deflected into the opposite direction, and the incident protons did not suffer significant energy loss, which is the consequence of the guiding effect.

  19. Strength of Rectangular Flat Plates Under Edge Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuman, Louis; Back, Goldie

    1931-01-01

    Flat rectangular plates of duralumin, stainless iron, monel metal, and nickel were tested under loads applied at two opposite edges and acting in the plane of the plate. The edges parallel to the direction of loading were supported in V grooves. The plates were all 24 inches long and varied in width from 4 to 24 inches by steps of 4 inches, and in thickness from 0.015 to 0.095 inch by steps of approximately 0.015 inch. There were also a few 1, 2, 3, and 6 inch wide specimens. The loads were applied in the testing machine at the center of a bar which rested along the top of the plate. Load was applied until the plate failed to take any more load. The tests show that the loads carried by the plates generally reached a maximum for the 8 or 12 inch width and that there was relatively small drop in load for the greater widths. Deflection and set measurement perpendicular to the plane of the plate were taken and the form of the buckle determined. The number of buckles were found to correspond in general to that predicted by the theory of buckling of a plate uniformly loaded at two opposite edges and simply supported at the edges.

  20. Turbulent thermal boundary layer on a permeable flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Vigdorovich, I. I.

    2007-06-15

    Scaling laws are established for the profiles of temperature, turbulent heat flux, rms temperature fluctuation, and wall heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with transpiration. In the case of blowing, the temperature distribution represented in scaling variables outside the viscous sublayer has a universal form known from experimental data for flows over impermeable flat plates. In the case of suction, the temperature distribution is described by a one-parameter family of curves. A universal law of heat transfer having the form of a generalized Reynolds analogy provides a basis for representation of the heat flux distributions corresponding to different Reynolds numbers and transpiration velocities in terms of a function of one variable. The results are obtained without invoking any special closure hypotheses.

  1. Wave interaction with dual circular porous plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Arpita; Gayen, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we investigated the reflection and the transmission of a system of two symmetric circular-arc-shaped thin porous plates submerged in deep water within the context of linear theory. The hypersingular integral equation technique has been used to analyze the problem mathematically. The integral equations are formulated by applying Green's integral theorem to the fundamental potential function and the scattered potential function into a suitable fluid region, and then using the boundary condition on the porous plate surface. These are solved approximately using an expansion-cum-collocation method using the behaviour of the potential functions at the tips of the plates. This method ultimately produces a very good numerical approximation for the reflection and the transmission coefficients and hydrodynamic force components. The numerical results are depicted graphically against the wave number for a variety of layouts of the arc. Some results are compared with known results for similar configurations of dual rigid plate systems available in the literature with good agreement.

  2. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, W. G.

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin film technology. A thin film solar absorber suited for high speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polmeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested.

  3. Simulation of the Flow Over a Flat Dimpled Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mode, Jeffrey Michael

    Passive flow control achieved by surface dimpling can be an effective strategy for reducing drag around bluff bodies - an example of substantial popular interest being the flow around a golf ball. While the general effect of dimples causing a delay of boundary layer separation is well known, the mechanisms contributing to this phenomena are subtle and not thoroughly understood. Numerical models offer a powerful approach for studying drag reduction, however simulation strategies are challenged by complex geometries, and in applications the introduction of ad hoc turbulence models which introduce additional uncertainty. These and other factors provide much of the motivation for the current study, which focused on the numerical simulations of the flow over a simplified configuration consisting of a dimpled flat plate. The principal goals of the work are to understand the performance of the numerical methodology, and gain insight into the underlying physics of the flow. Direct numerical simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using a fractional step method was employed, with the dimpled flat plate represented using an immersed boundary method. The dimple geometry utilizes a fixed dimple aspect ratio, with dimples arranged in a single spanwise row. The grid sizes considered ranged from approximately 3 to 99 million grid points. Reynolds numbers of 3000 and 4000 based on the inlet laminar boundary layer thickness were simulated. A turbulent boundary layer was induced downstream of the dimples for Reynolds numbers which did not transition for the flow over an undimpled flat plate. First and second order statistics of the boundary layer that develops agree reasonably well with those for turbulent channel flow and flat plate boundary layers in the sublayer and buffer layers, but differ in the outer layer. Inspection of flow visualizations suggest that early transition is promoted by thinning of the boundary layer, initiation of shear layer instabilities

  4. Qualification testing of flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Griffith, J. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The placement of photovoltaic modules in various applications, in climates and locations throughout the world, results in different degrees and combinations of environmental and electrical stress. Early detection of module reliability deficiencies via laboratory testing is necessary for achieving long, satisfactory field service. This overview paper describes qualification testing techniques being used in the US Department of Energy's flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic development program in terms of their significance, rationale for specified levels and durations, and test results.

  5. Modular array field designs for tracking flat-plate photovoltaic systems, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, J. A.

    1987-06-01

    This report addresses the optimization of utility-sized, tracking flat-plate photovoltaic power systems. Structures optimized were one single-axis and one dual-axis tracking system using currently available system designs as baseline engineering reference points. Passive thermal-hydraulic tracking drive systems were evaluated and Freon-hydraulic units were found to be cost-effective in single-axis tracking. Building block configurations ranging in size from 35 kW to 5 MW were established using the optimized single- and dual-axis tracking structures, and their reliability and availability were analyzed. A 1-MW single-axis building block design was selected to develop engineering plans for a 100-MW PV power plant designed to operate unattended. Eleven-percent efficient PV panels at $220/sq m were used in the study, and single-axis, flat-plate tracking systems were found to be significantly more cost-effective than dual-axis systems. A prototype tracking array was built and tested at Sandia, where cost and performance data supported lower economic projections for large PV tracking arrays.

  6. Pure and aerated water entry of a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Z. H.; Causon, D. M.; Qian, L.; Mingham, C. G.; Mai, T.; Greaves, D.; Raby, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the entry of a rigid square flat plate into pure and aerated water. Attention is focused on the measurement and calculation of the slamming loads on the plate. The experimental study was carried out in the ocean basin at Plymouth University's COAST laboratory. The present numerical approach extends a two-dimensional hydro-code to compute three-dimensional hydrodynamic impact problems. The impact loads on the structure computed by the numerical model compare well with laboratory measurements. It is revealed that the impact loading consists of distinctive features including (1) shock loading with a high pressure peak, (2) fluid expansion loading associated with very low sub-atmospheric pressure close to the saturated vapour pressure, and (3) less severe secondary reloading with super-atmospheric pressure. It is also disclosed that aeration introduced into water can effectively reduce local pressures and total forces on the flat plate. The peak impact loading on the plate can be reduced by half or even more with 1.6% aeration in water. At the same time, the lifespan of shock loading is prolonged by aeration, and the variation of impulse is less sensitive to the change of aeration than the peak loading.

  7. LDEF transverse flat plate heat pipe experiment /S1005/. [Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, G. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the Transverse Flat Plate Heat Pipe Experiment. A transverse flat plate heat pipe is a thermal control device that serves the dual function of temperature control and mounting base for electronic equipment. In its ultimate application, the pipe would be a lightweight structure member that could be configured in a platform or enclosure and provide temperature control for large space structures, flight experiments, equipment, etc. The objective of the LDEF flight experiment is to evaluate the zero-g performance of a number of transverse flat plate heat pipe modules. Performance will include: (1) the pipes transport capability, (2) temperature drop, and (3) ability to maintain temperature over varying duty cycles and environments. Performance degradation, if any, will be monitored over the length of the LDEF mission. This information is necessary if heat pipes are to be considered for system designs where they offer benefits not available with other thermal control techniques, such as minimum weight penalty, long-life heat pipe/structural members.

  8. Reconfiguration of a flexible flat plate under snow loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Frédérick; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Snow and wind constitute two of the main sources of mechanical loading on terrestrial plants. Plants bend and twist with large amplitude to bear these loads. For the past ten years, various authors have sought to decompose the problem of plant reconfiguration under fluid flow into its fundamental mechanical ingredients by studying the reconfiguration of simple flexible structures such as beams, plates, rods and strips. Here, we adopt a similar approach to these studies and consider the snow interception of a flexible flat plate. We performed two sets of experiments on thin flexible rectangular plates supported at their center: in the first one, a plate was subjected to real snowing events; in the second one, a plate was loaded with glass beads acting as a granular media similar to snow. Moreover, a theoretical model coupling the Elastica formulation to a loading with a set angle of repose is developed. The model is found to be in good agreement with the experiments on glass beads. Asymptotic scaling laws can be found similarly to the Vogel exponents of reconfiguring structures. For the real snow loading, it is found that the cohesive force in snow which is highly dependent on the snow temperature complicate things greatly.

  9. Cost estimates for flat plate and concentrator collector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1982-01-01

    The current module and installation costs for the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program's grid-connected systems are significantly higher than required for economic viability of this alternative. Attention is accordingly given to the prospects for installed module cost reductions in flat plate, linear focus Fresnel concentrator, and point focus Fresnel concentrator candidate systems. Cost projections indicate that all three systems would meet near-term and midterm goals, provided that module costs of $2.80/W(p) and $0.70/W(p), respectively, are met. The point focus Fresnel system emerges as the most viable for the near term.

  10. Environmental testing of flat plate solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J.; Dumas, L.; Hoffman, A.

    1978-01-01

    Commercially available flat-plate solar cell modules have been subjected to a variety of environmental tests designed to simulate service conditions. Among the tests are those simulating heat and rain, wind-driven rains, humidity and freezing, humidity and heat, humidity with a voltage bias, salt fog, hail impact, and fungus infestation. Tests for optical surface soiling and the combined effects of temperature, humidity and UV irradiation are under development. A correlation has been demonstrated between degradation caused by the qualification tests and such observed field effects as power loss.

  11. A study of microwave leakage through perforated flat plates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.

    1972-01-01

    A simple formula useful for predicting leakage through a circular hole array in a metallic flat plate is presented. A correction is given for plate thickness. The formula is applicable to arrays having either a 60-deg (staggered) or 90-deg (square) hole pattern, but is restricted to the case of (1) an obliquely incident plane wave with the E field polarized normal to the plane of incidence, and (2) large transmission loss. When theoretical values were compared to experimental data obtained on test samples having transmission losses greater than 20 dB, the agreement between theory and experiment was typically better than 1 dB at S band and 2 dB at X band.

  12. Forced Convection and Sedimentation Past a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelekasis, Nikolaos A.; Acrivos, Andreas

    1995-01-01

    The steady laminar flow of a well-mixed suspension of monodisperse solid spheres, convected steadily past a horizontal flat plate and sedimenting under the action of gravity, is examined. It is shown that, in the limit as Re approaches infinity and epsilon approaches 0, where Re is the bulk Reynolds number and epsilon is the ratio of the particle radius a to the characteristic length scale L, the analysis for determining the particle concentration profile has several aspects in common with that of obtaining the temperature profile in forced-convection heat transfer from a wall to a fluid stream moving at high Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Specifically, it is found that the particle concentration remains uniform throughout the O(Re(exp -1/2)) thick Blasius boundary layer except for two O(epsilon(exp 2/3)) thin regions on either side of the plate, where the concentration profile becomes non-uniform owing to the presence of shear-induced particle diffusion which balances the particle flux due to convection and sedimentation. The system of equations within this concentration boundary layer admits a similarity solution near the leading edge of the plate, according to which the particle concentration along the top surface of the plate increases from its value in the free stream by an amount proportional to X(exp 5/6), with X measuring the distance along the plate, and decreases in a similar fashion along the underside. But, unlike the case of gravity settling on an inclined plate in the absence of a bulk flow at infinity considered earlier, here the concentration profile remains continuous everywhere. For values of X beyond the region near the leading edge, the particle concentration profile is obtained through the numerical solution of the relevant equations. It is found that, as predicted from the similarity solution, there exists a value of X at which the particle concentration along the top side of the plate attains its maximum value phi(sub m) and that, beyond this

  13. Unsteady Aerodynamics on a Pitching Plunging Flat Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Adam; Ukeiley, Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Biology has shown that natural fliers utilize unsteady flow mechanisms to enhance their lift characteristics in low Reynolds number flight regimes. This study will investigate the interaction between the leading edge vortices (LEVs) and tip vortices over a low aspect ratio flat plate being subjected to a pitch-plunge kinematic motion. Previous studies have shown the creation of stable vortices off the leading edge at the three quarter span location between times 0.25 and 0.50 in the kinematic motion. This study furthers previous knowledge by mapping the flow field around these vortex cores. This will allow for an understanding into the interaction of the LEV with tip vortices and how the LEVs convect downstream. Specifically we look to validate the interactions between these vortex systems leading to enhanced lift as has been demonstrated in very low Reynolds number numerical simulations. A combination of two dimensional and stereo Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) is used to measure the flow field around the flat plate at various spanwise and chordwise locations. The PIV measurements are triggered by the dynamic motion rig allowing for phase averaging at key locations throughout the motion cycle.

  14. Parallel-Plate Electrostatic Dual Mass Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, James J.; Dyck, Christopher W.; Huber, Robert J.

    1999-07-22

    A surface-micromachined two-degree-of-freedom system that was driven by parallel-plate actuation at antiresonance was demonstrated. The system consisted of an absorbing mass connected by folded springs to a drive mass. The system demonstrated substantial motion amplification at antiresonance. The absorber mass amplitudes were 0.8-0.85 pm at atmospheric pressure while the drive mass amplitudes were below 0.1 pm. Larger absorber mass amplitudes were not possible because of spring softening in the drive mass springs. Simple theory of the dual-mass oscillator has indicated that the absorber mass may be insensitive to limited variations in strain and damping. This needs experimental verification. Resonant and antiresonant frequencies were measured and compared to the designed values. Resonant frequency measurements were difficult to compare to the design calculations because of time-varying spring softening terms that were caused by the drive configuration. Antiresonant frequency measurements were close to the design value of 5.1 kHz. The antiresonant frequency was not dependent on spring softening. The measured absorber mass displacement at antiresonance was compared to computer simulated results. The measured value was significantly greater, possibly due to neglecting fringe fields in the force expression used in the simulation.

  15. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  16. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 5: Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B.; Alexander, P.; Burger, D.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstrate solar cell fabrication and module assembly process technologies required to meet the cost, lifetime, production capacity, and performance goals of the FSA Project. R&D efforts expended by Government, Industry, and Universities in developing processes capable of meeting the projects goals during volume production conditions are summarized. The cost goals allocated for processing were demonstrated by small volume quantities that were extrapolated by cost analysis to large volume production. To provide proper focus and coverage of the process development effort, four separate technology sections are discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and module assembly.

  17. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 5: Process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, B.; Alexander, P.; Burger, D.

    1986-10-01

    The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstrate solar cell fabrication and module assembly process technologies required to meet the cost, lifetime, production capacity, and performance goals of the FSA Project. R&D efforts expended by Government, Industry, and Universities in developing processes capable of meeting the projects goals during volume production conditions are summarized. The cost goals allocated for processing were demonstrated by small volume quantities that were extrapolated by cost analysis to large volume production. To provide proper focus and coverage of the process development effort, four separate technology sections are discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and module assembly.

  18. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W.; Mcdonald, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1975, the U.S. Government contracted the Jet Propulsion Lab. to develop, by 1985, in conjunction with industry, the photovoltaics (PV) module and array technology required for widespread use of photovoltaics as a significant terrestrial energy source. As a result, a project that eventually became known as the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was formed to manage an industry, university, and Government team to perform the necessary research and development. The original goals were to achieve widespread commercial use of PV modules and arrays through the development of technology that would allow them to be profitably sold for $1.07/peak watts (1985 dollars). A 10% module conversion efficiency and a 20 year lifetime were also goals. It is intended that the executive summary provide the means by which one can gain a perspective on 11 years of terrestrial photovoltaic research and development conducted by the FSA Project.

  19. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  20. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 7: Module encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20 year (later decreased to 30 year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized include the development of low cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that meet the FSA cost and performance goals.

  1. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  2. Flat-plate /vapor-chamber/ heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Marcus, B. D.; Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of heat pipes constructed in the form of flat-plate panels. The test panels were constructed of copper with methyl alcohol as the working fluid. Capillary grooves etched on the internal surfaces provided evaporation and condensation heat-transfer coefficients on the order of 1600 Btu/hr-sq ft-deg F. Two panels were launched on board a sounding rocket; the payload reached an altitude of 140 miles, and zero gravity was achieved for almost six minutes. The panel with working fluid inside demonstrated a heat input flux of 2.5 watts/sq cm, with only a 3 to 5 C temperature difference throughout the entire panel.

  3. Exploratory loading techniques. [in holographic nondestructive testing of flat metal plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M., III

    1976-01-01

    Interferometric holographic nondestructive testing of aluminum, copper, and steel flat plates is reported. Structural weaknesses under positive pressure, negative pressure, heating, and cooling are discussed.

  4. Dual valve plate two-way pressure relief valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Robert J.

    1994-02-01

    There is disclosed a two-way valve which includes dual valve plates to be positioned between first and second chambers having varying pressure therein, to relieve excess pressure in either chamber by permitting fluid flow from one chamber to the other. The valve includes a body portion having disposed therein dual valve plates. In the equilibrium state, the first valve plate is spring biased against the valve body in the direction of the first chamber to seal off any flow through the valve. The second valve plate is separately spring biased against the first valve plate in the direction of the second chamber, scaling off flow between the valve plates. When the pressure of the first chamber is greater than the pressure of the second chamber by a pre-determined amount, the first and second valve plates move away from the valve body permitting fluid flow from the first chamber to the second chamber.

  5. Rarefied flow past a flat plate at incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dogra, Virendra K.; Moss, James N.; Price, Joseph M.

    1988-01-01

    Results of a numerical study using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are presented for the transitional flow about a flat plate at 40 deg incidence. The plate has zero thickness and a length of 1.0 m. The flow conditions simulated are those experienced by the Shuttle Orbiter during reentry at 7.5 km/s. The range of freestream conditions are such that the freestream Knudsen number values are between 0.02 and 8.4, i.e., conditions that encompass most of the transitional flow regime. The DSMC simulations show that transitional effects are evident when compared with free molecule results for all cases considered. The calculated results demonstrate clearly the necessity of having a means of identifying the effects of transitional flow when making aerodynamic flight measurements as are currently being made with the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicles. Previous flight data analyses have relied exclusively on adjustments in the gas-surface interaction models without accounting for the transitional effect which can be comparable in magnitude. The present calculations show that the transitional effect at 175 km would increase the Space Shuttle Orbiter lift-drag ratio by 90 percent over the free molecule value.

  6. Effects of an upstream tetrahedron on the circular cylinder-flat plate juncture flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R. F.; Hsu, C. M.; Chen, C.

    2015-07-01

    A technique of installing a tetrahedron at the upstream corner of the circular cylinder-flat plate juncture is developed to control the characteristic horseshoe vortices appearing in the natural juncture flow. The Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter are within the range of 500-2900. The flow patterns and time-averaged velocity fields in the vertical symmetry plane and a horizontal plane near the flat plate of the natural and tetrahedron-controlled juncture flows are examined by using the laser-assisted particle flow visualization method and particle image velocimetry in a towing water tank. The flow approaching the circular cylinder-flat plate juncture can induce a characteristic horseshoe vortical flow consisting of a single vortex, dual vortex, or triple vortex. These horseshoe vortices appearing in the natural case may be changed to a characteristic mode of vortical flow, reverse flow, or forward flow when a tetrahedron is installed at the upstream corner of the juncture. The appearance of the vortical flow, reverse flow, or forward flow mode depends on the geometric parameters of normalized axial length, expansion angle, and tilt angle as well as the flow parameter of the Reynolds number. The vortical flow mode appears at small axial length of tetrahedron. The forward flow mode appears at the large axial length of tetrahedron. When the forward flow mode appears, the boundary-layer upstream of the circular cylinder does not separate. Therefore, the horseshoe vortices induced in the natural juncture flow disappear. The data bank consists of the design parameters of axial length, tilt angle, and expansion angle of the tetrahedron, which is provided as a figure.

  7. Friction pull plug welding: dual chamfered plate hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coletta, Edmond R. (Inventor); Cantrell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW) is a solid state repair process for defects up to one inch in length, only requiring single sided tooling (OSL) for usage on flight hardware. Early attempts with FPPW followed the matching plug/plate geometry precedence of the successful Friction Push Plug Welding program, however no defect free welds were achieved due to substantial plug necking and plug rotational stalling. The dual chamfered hole has eliminated plug rotational stalling, both upon initial plug/plate contact and during welding. Also, the necking of the heated plug metal under a tensile heating/forging load has been eliminated through the usage of the dual chamfered plate hole.

  8. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  13. 78 FR 31577 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 2, 2013 (78 FR... COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel...

  14. Elastic Buckling Under Combined Stresses of Flat Plates with Integral Waffle-like Stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris F; Levin, L Ross; Troutman, John L

    1954-01-01

    Theory and experiment were compared and found in good agreement for the elastic buckling under combined stresses of long flat plates with integral waffle-like stiffening in a variety of configurations. For such flat plates, 45 degree waffle stiffening was found to be the most effective of the configurations for the proportions considered over the widest range of combinations of compression and shear.

  15. Elastic Buckling under Combined Stresses of Flat Plates with Integral Waffle-Like Stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris F.; Levin, L. Ross; Troutman, John L.

    1953-01-01

    Theory and experiment were compared and found in good agreement for the elastic Buckling under combined stresses of long flat plates with integral waffle-like stiffening in a variety of configurations. For such flat plates, 45deg waffle stiffening was found to be the most effective of the configurations for the proportions considered over the widest range of combinations of compression and shear.

  16. Dual valve plate two-way pressure relief valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Robert J.

    1993-02-01

    This patent application discloses a two-way valve which includes dual valve plates to be positioned between first and second chambers having varying pressure therein, to relieve excess pressure in either chamber by permitting fluid flow from one chamber to the other. The valve includes a body portion having disposed therein dual valve plates. In the equilibrium state, the first valve plate is spring biased against the valve body in the direction of the first chamber to seal off any flow through the valve. The second valve plate is separately spring biased against the first valve plate in the direction of the second chamber, sealing off flow between the valve plates. When the pressure of the first chamber is greater than the pressure of the second chamber by a predetermined amount, the first and second valve plates move away from the valve body permitting fluid flow from the first chamber to the second chamber. When the pressure of the second chamber exerted on the second valve plate through apertures in the first valve plate is greater than the pressure of the first chamber by a predetermined amount, the second valve plate moves away from the face of the first valve plate permitting fluid flow from the second chamber to the first chamber.

  17. Flow past a normal flat plate undergoing inline oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaledi, Hatef A.; Andersson, Helge I.; Barri, Mustafa; Pettersen, Bjørnar

    2012-09-01

    The flow past an inline oscillating normal flat plate has been considered with the view to explore the variety of wake phenomena which arise even at the low Reynolds number (Re) equal to 100 based on the free stream velocity and the width of the plate. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were integrated in time over a wide range of excitation frequencies and amplitudes. A wake flow regime map was produced on the basis of the 24 computer simulations. For a certain excitation amplitude, the wake vortex shedding is first antisymmetric at low excitation frequencies fe. When fe is increased the wake first becomes chaotic and thereafter turns into a symmetric shedding mode, for instance the S-II mode with a binary vortex pair on each side of the wake. If fe is increased even further, more complex symmetric wake patterns may occur before the wake ultimately turns into chaos. Symmetric wakes are thus only observed in a band of intermediate excitation frequencies and then with the dominating flow frequency locked-on to fe. In one particular case, the S-II mode in the very near wake turned into what might be considered as a new S-IV mode which comprised four different vortex pairs per shedding cycle. In spite of the low Re considered, several cases exhibited distinct three-dimensionalities whereas some other cases remained strictly 2D. In some of the cases, at least, the transition from 2D to 3D wake flow was ascribed to a "mode competition." Finally, for one of the two-dimensional cases the Reynolds number was first increased to 300 and then to 500 and a complex three-dimensional wake flow was observed. However, even at Re = 100, two-dimensional computer simulations are unable to reproduce the three-dimensional wake flow characteristics reported from the present study.

  18. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  19. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  20. Characteristics of transition in a flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myung-Ryul; Choi, Haecheon; Kang, Shin-Hyoung

    1998-11-01

    A direct numerical simulation of the spatially evolving transition in a flat-plate boundary layer is performed in the region of ( 115000<= Re_x<= 340000 ) with ( 1537× 99× 128 ) grid points. Inflow disturbances, similar to the two dimensional T-S wave combined with three dimensional waves, are generated on the upstream wall through time-dependent localized blowing and suction. A ( Λ ) vortex, consisting of two legs, is identified at a downstream location of blowing and suction. Soon a hairpin vortex, consisting of a head and two legs, is formed from the ( Λ ) vortex through the self induction mechanism. At a later time new hairpin vortices are successively produced behind the first hairpin vortex. At the final stage six hairpin vortices are observed. As the vortices move downstream in time, the legs of the ( Λ ) vortex get stronger and become quasi-streamwise vortices, while the head of the hairpin vortex changes into an ( Ω ) shape. Near the end of the computational domain the hairpin vortices and quasi-streamwise vortices are entangled with each other and convect downstream together; these phenomena are compared with the characteristics of a turbulent spot. It is shown that the spikes and saw-tooth like jumps in the streamwise velocity signals, observed in experiments, are associated with the heads and legs of the hairpin vortices, respectively.

  1. Wind Loads on Flat Plate Photovoltaic Array Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.; Zimmerman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays were investigated. Local pressure distributions and total aerodynamic forces on the arrays are shown. Design loads are presented to cover the conditions of array angles relative to the ground from 20 deg to 60 deg, variable array spacings, a ground clearance gap up to 1.2 m (4 ft) and array slant heights of 2.4 m (8 ft) and 4.8 m (16 ft). Several means of alleviating the wind loads on the arrays are detailed. The expected reduction of the steady state wind velocity with the use of fences as a load alleviation device are indicated to be in excess of a factor of three for some conditions. This yields steady state wind load reductions as much as a factor of ten compared to the load incurred if no fence is used to protect the arrays. This steady state wind load reduction is offset by the increase in turbulence due to the fence but still an overall load reduction of 2.5 can be realized. Other load alleviation devices suggested are the installation of air gaps in the arrays, blocking the flow under the arrays and rounding the edges of the array. A wind tunnel test plan to supplement the theoretical study and to evaluate the load alleviation devices is outlined.

  2. Flat-plate solar array progress and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, W. T.; Henry, P. K.

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has achieved progress in a broad range of technical activities since that reported at the Fourth European Communities Conference. A particularly important analysis has been completed recently which confirms the adoption into practice by the U.S. Photovoltaic (PV Industry, of all the low-cost module technology elements proposed at the 16th Project Integration Meeting for a $2.80/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars) design approach in the fall of 1980. This work presents along with a projection, using the same techniques, for what is believed to be a very credible ribbon-based module design for less that $0.55/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars). Other areas to be reported upon include low-cost Si feedstock refinement; ribbon growth; process sequence development for cells; environmental isolation; engineering science investigations; and module testing progress.

  3. Flat-plate solar array progress and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.; Henry, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has achieved progress in a broad range of technical activities since that reported at the Fourth European Communities Conference. A particularly important analysis has been completed recently which confirms the adoption into practice by the U.S. Photovoltaic (PV Industry, of all the low-cost module technology elements proposed at the 16th Project Integration Meeting for a $2.80/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars) design approach in the fall of 1980. This work presents along with a projection, using the same techniques, for what is believed to be a very credible ribbon-based module design for less that $0.55/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars). Other areas to be reported upon include low-cost Si feedstock refinement; ribbon growth; process sequence development for cells; environmental isolation; engineering science investigations; and module testing progress.

  4. On the instability of hypersonic flow past a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackaby, Nicholas; Cowley, Stephen; Hall, Philip

    1990-01-01

    The instability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows over flat plates is considered. The viscosity of the fluid is taken to be governed by Sutherland's law, which gives a much more accurate representation of the temperature dependence of fluid viscosity at hypersonic speeds than Chapman's approximate linear law; although at lower speeds the temperature variation of the mean state is less pronounced so that the Chapman law can be used with some confidence. Attention is focussed on the so-called (vorticity) mode of instability of the viscous hypersonic boundary layer. This is thought to be the fastest growing inviscid disturbance at hypersonic speeds; it is also believed to have an asymptotically larger growth rate than any viscous or centrifugal instability. As a starting point the instability of the hypersonic boundary layer which exists far downstream from the leading edge of the plate is investigated. In this regime the shock that is attached to the leading edge of the plate plays no role, so that the basic boundary layer is non-interactive. It is shown that the vorticity mode of instability of this flow operates on a significantly different lengthscale than that obtained if a Chapman viscosity law is assumed. In particular, it is found that the growth rate predicted by a linear viscosity law overestimates the size of the growth rate by O(M(exp 2). Next, the development of the vorticity mode as the wavenumber decreases is described, and it is shown that acoustic modes emerge when the wavenumber has decreased from it's O(1) initial value to O(M (exp -3/2). Finally, the inviscid instability of the boundary layer near the leading edge in the interaction zone is discussed and particular attention is focussed on the strong interaction region which occurs sufficiently close to the leading edge. It is found that the vorticity mode in this regime is again unstable, and that it is concentrated in the transition layer at the edge of the boundary layer where the temperature

  5. Changes in Flat Plate Wake Characteristics Obtained With Decreasing Plate Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for four different Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and at constant plate length. The value of ?/D varies by a factor of approximately 20 in the computations (? being the boundary layer momentum thickness at the trailing edge). The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in wake characteristics as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing ?/D). Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low ?/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the largest ?/D case (for all practical purposes shedding becomes almost intermittent). Other characteristics that are significantly altered with increasing ?/D are the roll-up of the detached shear layers and the magnitude of fluctuations in shedding period. These effects are explored in depth. The effects of changing ?/D on the distributions of the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics are discussed.

  6. Dual current readout for precision plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1970-01-01

    Bistable amplifier prevents damage in the low range circuitry of a dual scale ammeter. It senses the current and switches automatically to the high range circuitry as the current rises above a preset level.

  7. Average properties of compressible laminar boundary layer on flat plate with unsteady flight velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Franklin K; Ostrach, Simon

    1957-01-01

    The time-average characteristics of boundary layers over a flat plate in nearly quasi-steady flow are determined. The plate may be either insulated or isothermal. The time averages are found without specifying the plate velocity explicitly except that it is positive and has an average value.

  8. Flat-plate magnifier for magnifying the view of a distant object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasaki, Masataka; Kodaira, Takehiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Takei, Tsuneo

    2014-09-01

    An optically magnifying device for viewing a distant object is proposed. Since this device can be made in the form of a thin plate and can also have a large viewing area, a flat-plate magnifier is realized. The flat-plate magnifier mounted onto an eyeglass frame as a substitute for each lens provides a light-weight, hands-free magnifier. The flat-plate magnifier is made as a 3 to 4-mm-thick plastic plate and can be made up to 30 to 40 mm in diameter. The flat-plate magnifier is a two-dimensional array of magnifying modules and each magnifying module consists of a micromagnifier and a ray angle adjuster. The micromagnifier comprises a concave mirror and a convex mirror and magnifies the view. The ray angle adjuster is a transparent wedge and expands the viewing area. The flat-plate magnifier is designed so that the achromatic condition is satisfied by cancelling the angular dispersion produced by the micromagnifier with that of the ray angle adjuster. A prototype of the flat-plate magnifier with a diameter of 9 mm and a magnification power of 3 was demonstrated.

  9. Analytical predictions of liquid and air photovoltaic/thermal flat-plate collector performance

    SciTech Connect

    Raghuraman, P.; Hendrie, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Two separate one-dimensional analyses have been developed for the prediction of the thermal and electrical performance of both liquid and air flat-plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. The analyses account for the temperature difference between the primary insolation absorber (the photovoltaic cells) and the secondary absorber (a thermal absorber flat plate). The results of the analyses are compared with test measurements, and therefrom, design recommendations are made to maximize the total energy extracted from the collectors.

  10. Use of Radiometrically Calibrated Flat-Plate Calibrators in Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2015-08-01

    Most commonly used, low-temperature, infrared thermometers have large fields of view sizes that make them difficult to be calibrated with narrow aperture blackbodies. Flat-plate calibrators with large emitting surfaces have been proposed for calibrating these infrared thermometers. Because the emissivity of the flat plate is not unity, its radiance temperature is wavelength dependent. For calibration, the wavelength pass band of the device under test should match that of the reference infrared thermometer. If the device under test and reference radiometer have different pass bands, then it is possible to calculate the corresponding correction if the emissivity of the flat plate is known. For example, a correction of at is required when calibrating a infrared thermometer with a "" radiometrically calibrated flat-plate calibrator. A method is described for using a radiometrically calibrated flat-plate calibrator that covers both cases of match and mismatch working wavelength ranges of a reference infrared thermometer and infrared thermometers to be calibrated with the flat-plate calibrator. Also, an application example is included in this paper.

  11. Dual passband dichroic plate for X-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    A need arose in the Deep Space Network for a dichroic plate that would simultaneously pass two desired frequency bands in the X-band region. In addition, the plate must be totally reflective for S-band frequencies. A dielectrically loaded dichroic plate is described that was developed to meet this need. The unique microwave properties that the new dichroic plate had to possess were: (1) insertion losses of less than 0.04 dB for X-band uplink frequencies centered at 7167 MHz and for X-band downlink frequencies centered at about 8425 MHz; (2) insertion losses that met the low loss requirements at 30 deg incidence angle simultaneously for both parallel and perpendicular polarizations; (3) total reflectivity at S-band frequencies; and (4) ability to maintain these electrical characteristics while passing 100 kW of CW power at X-band or while reflecting 100 kW of CW power at S-band. The dual passband dichroic plate is a thick metallic plate having an array of periodic round holes filled with Teflon plugs. Test results on an experimental prototype plate indicate that it is technically possible to design a dielectrically filled dichroic plate that meets all of the technical requirements.

  12. Interference effects on the hypersonic, rarefied flow about a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is used to study the hypersonic, rarified flow interference effects on a flat plate caused by nearby surfaces. Calculations focus on shock-boundary-layer and shock-lip interactions in hypersonic inlets. Results are presented for geometries consisting of a flat plate with different leading-edge shapes over a flat lower wall and a blunt-edge flat plate over a 5-degree wedge. The problems simulated correspond to a typical entry flight condition of 7.5 km/s at altitudes of 75 to 90 km. The results show increases in predicted local heating rates for shock-boundary-layer and shock-lip interactions that are quantitatively similar to those observed experimentally at much higher densities.

  13. Flow over a traveling wavy foil with a passively flapping flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nansheng; Peng, Yan; Liang, Youwen; Lu, Xiyun

    2012-05-01

    Flow over a traveling wavy foil with a passively flapping flat plate has been investigated using a multiblock lattice Boltzmann equation and the immersed boundary method. The foil undergoes prescribed undulations in the lateral direction and the rigid flat plate has passive motion determined by the fluid structure interaction. This simplified model is used to study the effect of the fish caudal fin and its flexibility on the locomotion of swimming animals. The flexibility of the caudal fin is modeled by a torsion spring acting about the pivot at the conjuncture of the wavy foil and the flat plate. The study reveals that the passively oscillating flat plate contributes half of the propulsive force. The flexibility, represented by the nondimensional natural frequency F, plays a very important role in the movement and propulsive force generation of the whole body. When the plate is too flexible, the drag force is observed. As the flat plate becomes more rigid, the propulsive force that is generated when the undulation is confined to last part of the wavy foil becomes larger. The steady movement occurs at F=5. These results are consistent with the observations of some swimming animals in nature.

  14. Designing dual-plate meteoroid shields: A new analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, H. F.; Bamford, R.; Chen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Physics governing ultrahigh velocity impacts onto dual-plate meteor armor is discussed. Meteoroid shield design methodologies are considered: failure mechanisms, qualitative features of effective meteoroid shield designs, evaluating/processing meteoroid threat models, and quantitative techniques for optimizing effective meteoroid shield designs. Related investigations are included: use of Kevlar cloth/epoxy panels in meteoroid shields for the Halley's Comet intercept vehicle, mirror exposure dynamics, and evaluation of ion fields produced around the Halley Intercept Mission vehicle by meteoroid impacts.

  15. Dual locked plating of unstable bicondylar tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ufuk; Parmaksizoglu, Atilla Sancar

    2015-07-01

    The operative treatment of displaced bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is challenging. The displaced condyles must be reduced, depressed plateaus must be elevated and adequately supported and early rehabilitation must be encouraged in order to obtain good clinical results. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with dual locked plates using raft screws with MIPO technique and autologous bone grafting. We hypothesized that in this group of patients dual locked plating reduces the complication rates by avoiding loss of reduction due to the accomplished rigid fixation. Twenty-two consecutive patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures (AO Type C) were included in this study. The mean follow up was 26 months. Bone healing was achieved in all patients with 3 cases of superficial and 1 case of deep infection. Secondary loss of reduction, secondary loss of alignment, early post-traumatic arthritis were not observed in this study. The Lysholm knee score showed an average of 80.5 points (range: 61.5-90) at the final follow up assessment. Optimal fixation of the fracture with dual locked plating which allows immediate motion and partial weight bearing may be an alternative concept to prevent secondary loss of reduction to obtain a good clinical outcome. PMID:26021666

  16. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  17. Investigating wake patterns and propulsive frequencies of a flat plate under pitching motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moubogha Moubogha, Joseph; Astolfi, Jacques Andre

    Fundamental mechanisms of swimming are explored using a simple geometry device - flat plate - in pure-pitching motion in a hydrodynamic tunnel. The experiments are carried out at different Reynolds numbers based on the plate length c. Pitching motion is generated for reduced frequencies k between 0 and 2 and for an angular amplitude of 10 deg. Velocity fields are obtained in the wake of the plate using Particle Image Velocimetry and measurements of drag coefficients are estimated from mean velocity profiles. This study confirms the occurrence of a threshold oscillation frequency beyond which the plate enters a propulsive regime and the wake features organized structures. In this case an inversion of the typical Karman vortex street is observed. The evolution of mean transverse velocity profiles in the wake of the plate shows that the usual wake profile with velocity deficit - plate with drag - can be transformed into a jet - plate with thrust - above a certain reduced frequency. Phd Student Mechanical Engineering Departement.

  18. Friction-factor data for flat-plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Childs, Dara W.

    1992-01-01

    Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.

  19. Friction factor data for flat plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Tae Woong

    1989-01-01

    Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.

  20. Design and performance of tubular flat-plate solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushima, T.; Ikeda, D.; Kanagawa, H.

    1996-12-31

    With the growing interest in conserving the environmental conditions, much attention is being paid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), which has high energy-conversion efficiency. Many organizations have conducted studies on tubular and flat type SOFCs. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) has studied a combined tubular flat-plate SOFC, and already presented the I-V characteristics of a single cell. Here, we report the construction of a stack of this SOFC cell and successful generation tests results.

  1. Computation of Tone Noise From Supersonic Jet Impinging on Flat Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Blech, Richard A. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    A supersonic jet impinging normally on a flat plate has both practical importance and theoretical interests. The physical phenomenon is not fully understood yet. Research concentrates either on the hydrodynamics (e.g., lift loss for STOVL) or on the aeroacoustic loading. In this paper, a finite volume scheme - the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method - is employed to numerically study the near-field noise of an underexpanded supersonic jet from a converging nozzle impinging normally on a flat plate. The numerical approach is of the MILES type (monotonically integrated large eddy simulation). The computed results compare favorably with the experimental findings.

  2. Experimental study on flat plate air solar collector using a thin sand layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lati, Moukhtar; Boughali, Slimane; Bouguettaia, Hamza; Mennouche, Djamel; Bechki, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    A flat plate air solar collector was constructed in the laboratory of New and Renewable Energy in Arid Zones LENREZA, Ouargla University-South East Algeria. The absorber of the flat plate air solar collector was laminated with a thin layer of local sand. This acted as a thermal storage system (packed bed) with a collecting area of 2.15 m2 (0.86 m × 2.5 m). It was noticed that the solar heater integrated with the thermal storage material delivered comparatively higher temperatures; thus, giving a better efficiency than the air heater without the thermal storage system.

  3. Wrinkling Phenomena of Thin Flat Plates Subjected to Shear Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, F

    1931-01-01

    This report covers a series of tests on thin flat elastic strips restrained at two parallel edges and subjected to shear by conversely directed stresses. Theoretical treatments, particularly those of Lilly, Southwell and Skan, and Timoshenko are briefly outlined. The problem to be solved by these tests was to find out whether, and to what extent the conditions and assumptions upon which the calculations are based are complied with in the tests. Three materials were used: celluloid, duralumin, brass. Owing to the high elastic deformability of celluloid, it was not only possible to observe the beginning but also to ascertain the type of deflection. The test data on celluloid was affirmed by the experiments with duralumin and brass.

  4. Flat-plate module efficiency versus cost tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Five Year Research Plan energy cost methodology and in depth analyses based on the extensive data that are relevant to PV systems are used to facilitate the accomplishment of the $0.15/kWh energy cost goal. An equation is given for the five year energy cost methodology. The allocation guidelines are designed to be consistent with flat solar array (FSA) milestones for module cost, module efficiency, and the programmatic goal for energy cost. They are research targets that appear to be achievable, given prior accomplishments and planned activities in the areas of low cost silicon purification, low cost sheet material, high efficiency cell processing, low cost, long life encapsulants, and automated fabrication method. Extensive sensitivity analysis work has been performed that shows that these guidelines represent an efficient way to meet the intent of the DOE program.

  5. Interaction of part-through cracks in a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksel, B.; Erdogan, F.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of the line spring model is determined. The effect of interaction between two and three cracks is investigated, and extensive numerical results which may be useful in applications are provided. Line spring model with Reissner's plate theory is formulated to be used for any number and configurations of cracks provided that there is symmetry. This model is used to find stress intensity factors for elliptic internal cracks, elliptic edge cracks and two opposite elliptic edge cracks. Despite the simplicity of the line spring model, the results are found to be close.

  6. The flow around an inclined flat plate of finite width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narumi, A.; Kato, S.; Terada, K.; Izumi, R.; Yanase, T.

    1985-07-01

    The flow around an inclined finite width plate was experimentally studied using oil film and oil point techniques. At the front surface, leading edge separation does not occur and the flow becomes more laminar than in the case with angle of incidence zero, though the flow yaws towards the side edge and separates from it. The flow at the back surface is characterized by a side edge vortex, a flow separated near the side edge of the leading edge, and a flow separated at the middle of the leading edge. The characteristics of these flows are discussed.

  7. OVERFLOW Validation for Predicting Plume Impingement of Underexpanded Axisymmetric Jets onto Angled Flat Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry C.; Klopfer, Goetz

    2011-01-01

    This report documents how OVERFLOW, a computational fluid dynamics code, predicts plume impingement of underexpanded axisymmetric jets onto both perpendicular and inclined flat plates. The effects of the plume impinging on a range of plate inclinations varying from 90deg to 30deg are investigated and compared to the experimental results in Reference 1 and 2. The flow fields are extremely complex due to the interaction between the shock waves from the free jet and those deflected by the plate. Additionally, complex mixing effects create very intricate structures in the flow. The experimental data is very limited, so these validation studies will focus only on cold plume impingement on flat and inclined plates. This validation study will help quantify the error in the OVERFLOW simulation when applied to stage separation scenarios.

  8. Inelastic Stability Analysis Of Uniaxially Compressed Flat Rectangular Isotropic CCSS Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibearugbulem, O. M.; Eziefula, U. G.; Onwuka, D. O.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the inelastic stability of a thin flat rectangular isotropic plate subjected to uniform uniaxial compressive loads using Taylor-Maclaurin series formulated deflection function. The plate has clamped and simply supported edges in both characteristic directions (CCSS boundary conditions). The governing equation is derived using a deformation plasticity theory and a work principle. Values of the plate buckling coefficient are calculated for aspect ratios from 0.1 to 2.0 at intervals of 0.1. The results compared favourably with the elastic stability values and the percentage differences ranged from -0.353% to -7.427%. Therefore, the theoretical approach proposed in this study is recommended for the inelastic stability analysis of thin flat rectangular isotropic plates under uniform in-plane compression.

  9. A graphical approach to the efficiency of flat-plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A nomogram is described which can be used to determine the thermal performance of flat plate solar collectors, resulting in two performance factors: the net absorptance and the net heat loss coefficient. The nomogram takes into account angle of incidence, collector slope, absorber plate design, insulating materials, thicknesses, optical properties of absorbing surfaces and glazing materials, and flow factors. A case example is given to illustrate the use of the nomogram.

  10. Flat Plate Wake Velocity Statistics Obtained With Circular And Elliptic Trailing Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near wake of a flat plate with circular and elliptic trailing edges is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. The plate length and thickness are the same in both cases. The separating boundary layers are turbulent and statistically identical. Therefore the wake is symmetric in the two cases. The emphasis in this study is on a comparison of the wake-distributions of velocity components, normal intensity and fluctuating shear stress obtained in the two cases.

  11. Time dependent shear stress and temperature distribution over an insulated flat plate moving at hypersonic speed.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodkiewicz, C. M.; Gupta, R. N.

    1971-01-01

    The laminar two-dimensional flow over a stepwise accelerated flat plate moving with hypersonic speed at zero angle of attack is analysed. The governing equations in the self-similar form are linearized and solved numerically for small times. The solutions obtained are the deviations of the velocity and the temperature profiles from those of steady state. The presented results may be used to find the first order boundary layer induced pressure on the plate.

  12. Effects of the foil flatness on irradiation performance of U10Mo monolithic mini-plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaltun, Hakan; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Rabin, Barry H.

    2015-09-03

    Monolithic plate-type fuels comprise of a high density, low enrichment, U10Mo fuel foil encapsulated in a cladding material. This concept generates several fabrication challenges such as flatness, centering or thickness variation. There are concerns, if these parameters have implications on overall performance. To investigate these inquiries, the effects of the foil flatness were studied. For this, a representative plate was simulated for an ideal case. The simulations were repeated for additional cases with various foil curvatures to evaluate the effects on the irradiation performance. The results revealed that the stresses and strains induced by fabrication process are not affected by the flatness of the foil. Furthermore, fabrication stresses in the foil are relieved relatively fast in the reactor. The effects of the foil flatness on peak irradiation stressstrains are minimal. There is a slight increase in temperature for the case with maximum curvature. The major impact is on the displacement characteristics. Furthermore, while the case with a flat foil produces a symmetrical swelling, if the foil is curved, more swelling occurs on the thin-cladding side and the plate bows during irradiation.

  13. Effects of the foil flatness on irradiation performance of U10Mo monolithic mini-plates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ozaltun, Hakan; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Rabin, Barry H.

    2015-09-03

    Monolithic plate-type fuels comprise of a high density, low enrichment, U10Mo fuel foil encapsulated in a cladding material. This concept generates several fabrication challenges such as flatness, centering or thickness variation. There are concerns, if these parameters have implications on overall performance. To investigate these inquiries, the effects of the foil flatness were studied. For this, a representative plate was simulated for an ideal case. The simulations were repeated for additional cases with various foil curvatures to evaluate the effects on the irradiation performance. The results revealed that the stresses and strains induced by fabrication process are not affected bymore » the flatness of the foil. Furthermore, fabrication stresses in the foil are relieved relatively fast in the reactor. The effects of the foil flatness on peak irradiation stressstrains are minimal. There is a slight increase in temperature for the case with maximum curvature. The major impact is on the displacement characteristics. Furthermore, while the case with a flat foil produces a symmetrical swelling, if the foil is curved, more swelling occurs on the thin-cladding side and the plate bows during irradiation.« less

  14. Simulations of the transient flow generated from a started flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Leqin; Ma, Xudan; Li, Zhifeng; Wu, Peng; Wu, Dazhuan

    2012-11-01

    Transient operations are commonly founded in fluid machineries such as the starting, stopping, and variations of rotor speeds, etc. Flow generated from a started flat plate is of fundamental importance. Experiments have been done to observe the flow evolution in current researches. And in order to explore the flow in more detailed scale, some vortex methods with high resolution and other numerical methods were developed to solve various related problems by some researchers. But the promotion of vortex method to engineering application is rare due to its complexity and difficulty in specifying the boundary conditions. In order to build up a method of numerical study for such problems, a simplified model is built up with a flat plate. The development of two-dimensional viscous incompressible flow generated from an impulsively started and uniformly accelerated infinitesimally thin flat plate is simulated numerically. A dynamic mesh(DM) method based on the spring analogue and local remeshing is applied to realize the mesh motion caused by the started plate. Researches show that the mesh quality will decline under large grid shear force during the updating process. To conquer this problem, a region near the plate is separated to guarantee the mesh quality at location of interest which is the innovation of the present paper. All computations at least cover a period during which the plate translates 6 times its length. The simulated instantaneous velocity profiles, flow structures and drag coefficients under several Reynolds numbers (20⩽ Re⩽126) and accelerations (20 m/s2⩽ a⩽152 m/s2) are presented and compared with existing results in literatures. Comparisons are found to be satisfactory, confirming the validity of the current proposed method(region separated DM). The proposed DM method is firstly used to study the transient flow generated from a started flat plate and can be used in further study of transient characteristics during transient operations of turbo

  15. Flat Plate Solar Array Project: Proceedings of the 20th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Progress made by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project during the period November 1981 to April 1982 is reported. Project analysis and integration, technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation, cell and module formation, engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis are covered.

  16. An investigation of the turbulence scale tensor in a flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. D.; Donaldson, C. D.; Sandri, G.

    1979-01-01

    A differential equation for the scale tensor in turbulent flow is developed from basic considerations and applied to the flow of a constant-density fluid in the boundary layer on a flat plate. Results from preliminary runs of a computer implementation are discussed.

  17. Thin flat plate with linear spring as mechanical stop. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.H.

    1997-06-01

    A mechanical device has been developed which dissipates mechanical energy simply and reliably, without generating debris. The device basically consists of a stack of thin flat metal layers, forming a flexible plate, and a mechanical spring to buffer the impact of the moving object. Equations have been developed which allow the design of such devices for particular applications.

  18. Hot-air flat-plate solar collector-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains design data, performance specifications, and drawings for hot-air flat-plate solar-energy collector. Evaluation consists of tests on thermal performance time constance, and incidence angle modifier test. Results are presented in table and graph form and are analyzed in detail.

  19. Fundamental and subharmonic transition to turbulence in zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayadi, Taraneh; Hamman, Curtis W.; Moin, Parviz

    2012-09-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, recent simulations of transition to turbulence in compressible (M = 0.2), zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layers triggered by fundamental (Klebanoff K-type) and subharmonic (Herbert H-type) secondary instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves are highlighted.

  20. Preliminary design review package on air flat plate collector for solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines to be used in the development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet (10-4 ft x 8 ft panels) of collector area are presented. Topics discussed include: (1) verification plan; (2) thermal analysis; (3) safety hazard analysis; (4) drawing list; (5) special handling, installation and maintenance tools; (6) structural analysis; and (7) selected drawings.

  1. Design and installation package for the Sunmat Flat Plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The information used in evaluating the design of a liquid flat plate solar collector is reported. Included in this package are subsystem performance specification, installation, operation and maintenance manuals, collector sizing guides, and detailed drawings of the single-glazed collector.

  2. A Didactic Experiment and Model of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment performed with a home-made flat-plate solar collector, carried out together with high-school students. To explain the experimental results, we propose a model that describes the heating process of the solar collector. The model accounts quantitatively for the experimental data. We suggest that solar-energy topics should…

  3. Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.

    SciTech Connect

    Dechant, Lawrence; Smith, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by

  4. Safety review package for University of Central Florida flat-plate heat pipe experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    A flat-plate heat pipe (FPHP) experiment has been set up for micro-gravity tests on a NASA supplied aircraft. This report presents an analysis on various components of the experimental setup to certify that it will satisfy the flight safety and operation requirements.

  5. Evaluation of the flat-plate solar collector system for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athey, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    This evaluation of the flat-plate collector system was designed to determine the number of flat-plate collectors required to generate a given amount of electricity with optimum efficiency. Variable parameters are the temperature of the heat-transport fluid, both to and from the collector field. In the analysis, the efficiency of the flat-plate collectors was coupled to the efficiency of the thermal cycle to calculate optimal overall system efficiencies. Overall system efficiencies for the system are on the order of 3.5 per cent or less. Over two million 4 ft-by-4 ft collectors would be required to produce 100,000 kW(e). Based on the results, it can be shown that the limiting factor in the use of the flat-plate collector system for electric power generation is the efficiency of the collectors. An increase in the overall system efficiency can occur only if the collector efficiency can be increased at higher surface temperatures.

  6. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on Photovoltaic Metallization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic Metallization Research forum, under the sponsorship of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project consisted of five sessions, covering: (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques, and (5) future metallization challenges.

  7. Measurement of transitional boundary layer on a flat plate using a computational Preston tube method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, W. P.; Kang, S. H.

    1995-11-01

    The development of the transitional boundary layers on a flat plate in uniform and non-uniform incoming flows was experimentally investigated. The mean velocity profiles and the wall shear stresses on a flat plate were measured in the wakes which were generated by circular cylinders and a flat plate ahead of the test plate. A computational Preston tube method (CPM) originally proposed by Nitsche et al. (1983) was adopted and refined to measure the skin friction coefficients in the transitional boundary layer. The CPM was verified as a useful tool to measure the skin-friction over the transitional boundary layer with reasonable accuracy. As the turbulence level in the wakes increased, the starting and ending points of the transition moved progressively upstream. For the same turbulence intensities, the transition was delayed with increase of the length scale. The skin-friction coefficients at the downstream stations in the wake flow were considerably and consistently smaller than the values in the equilibrium turbulent boundary layer of the uniform flow. The transition length for the cases of the plate-wake were shorter than those for the cases of the cylinder-wake as well as the uniform flow.

  8. Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over a Moving Vertical Flat Plate in an External Fluid Flow with Viscous Dissipation Effect

    PubMed Central

    Bachok, Norfifah; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity) differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface. PMID:23577156

  9. Farallon plate dynamics prior to the Laramide orogeny: Numerical models of flat subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sibiao; Currie, Claire A.

    2016-01-01

    The Laramide orogeny (~ 80-50 Ma) was an anomalous period of mountain-building in the western United States that occurred more than 1000 km inboard of the Farallon Plate subduction margin. It is widely believed that this orogeny is coincident with a period of flat (subhorizontal) subduction. However, the factors that caused the Farallon Plate to evolve from a normal (steep) geometry to flat subduction are not well understood. Three proposed factors are: (1) a westward (trenchward) increase in North America motion, (2) an increased slab suction force owing to the presence of thick Colorado Plateau lithosphere, and (3) subduction of a low-density oceanic plateau. This study uses 2D upper mantle scale numerical models to investigate these factors. The models show that trenchward continental motion is the primary control on subduction geometry, with decreasing slab dip as velocity increases. However, this can only create low-angle subduction, as the Farallon Plate was old (> 100 Myr) and denser than the mantle. A transition to flat subduction requires: (1) subduction of a buoyant oceanic plateau that includes an 18-km-thick crust that does not undergo metamorphic densification and an underlying depleted harzburgite layer, and (2) a slab break-off at the landward side of the plateau. The break-off removes the dense frontal slab, and flat subduction develops as the buoyant plateau deflects the slab upward. The slab suction force has only a minor effect on slab flattening, but the thickness of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere controls the depth of the flat slab. With a continental velocity of 4 cm/yr and a 400-km-wide oceanic plateau, flat subduction develops within 15 Ma after plateau subduction. The flat slab underthrusts the continent at ~ 200 km depth, eventually extending > 1500 km inboard of the trench.

  10. Large amplitude flexural vibration of thin elastic flat plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandalia, K. A. V.

    1972-01-01

    The general equations governing the large amplitude flexural vibration of any thin elastic shell using curvilinear orthogonal coordinates are derived and consist of two coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations in the normal displacement w and the stress function F. From these equations, the governing equations for the case of shells of revolution or flat plates can be readily obtained as special cases. The material of the shell or plate is isotropic and homogeneous and Hooke's law for the two-dimensional case is valid. It is suggested that the difference between the hardening type of nonlinearity in the case of flat plates and straight beams and the softening type of nonlinearity in the case of shells and rings can, in general, be traced to the amount of curvature present in the underformed median surface of the structure concerned.

  11. 78 FR 50378 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... steel products from Japan. See Diffusion- Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 78 FR 23905 (April 23, 2013). The current deadline for the... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From...

  12. Spray Formation during the Impact of a Flat Plate on Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, An; Duncan, James H.

    2015-11-01

    Spray formation during the impact of a flat plate on a water surface is studied experimentally. The plate is mounted on a two-axis carriage that can slam the plate vertically into the water surface as the carriage moves horizontally along a towing tank. The plate is 122 cm by 38 cm and oriented with adjustable pitch and roll angle. The port (lower) edge of the plate is positioned with a 3-mm gap from one of the tank walls. A laser sheet is created in a plane oriented perpendicular to the axis of the horizontal motion of the carriage. The temporal evolution of the spray within the light sheet is measured with a cinematic laser induced fluorescence technique at a frame rate of 800 Hz. Experiments are performed with a fixed plate trajectory in a vertical plane, undertaken at various speeds. Two types of spray are found when the plate has nonzero pitch and roll angles. The first type is composed of a cloud of high-speed droplets and ligaments generated as the port edge of the plate hits the water surface during the initial impact. The second type is a thin sheet of water that grows from the starboard edge of the plate as it moves below the local water level. The geometrical features of the spray are found to be dramatically affected by the impact velocity. The support of the Office of Naval Research under grant N000141310587 is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Heat transfer enhancement downstream of vortex generators on a flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, A.Y.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation was conducted in order to better understand the augmentation of forced convective heat transfer when a single row of counter-rotating vortex blades is attached to a flat surface. The major emphasis of the work is to study the way in which vortex generators augment the heat transfer coefficient of an initially-laminar boundary layer over a flat, constant heat flux surface exposed to favorable free stream pressure gradients. Particular emphasis is placed on the relationship between the geometry of vortex generators and the augmentation of local and overall heat transfer coefficients. The behavior of the boundary layer downstream of vortex generators is partially explored. This dissertation includes results of an experimental investigation that indicates the amount of heat transfer enhancement depends on the vortex blade height and arrangement on the plate surface. The local enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient was increased up to 300% over that for a plain flat plate mainly because of high turbulence produced over the region adjacent to the plate surface, resulting in increased mixing of the slower fluid near the plate surface with the free stream. A set of guidelines for the design of more efficient surface with vortex generators was proposed.

  14. Experimental investigation of effects of jet decay rate on jet-induced pressures on a flat plate: Tabulated data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Ousterhout, D. S.; Warcup, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Tabular data are presented for an experimental study of the effects of jet decay rate on the jet-induced pressure distribution on a flat plate for a single jet issuing at right angle to the flat plate into a uniform crossflow. The data are presented in four sections: (1) presents the static nozzle calibration data; (2) lists the plate surface static pressure data and integrated loads; (3) lists the jet centerline trajectory data; and (4) lists the centerline dynamic pressure data.

  15. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

  16. Acoustic radiation damping of flat rectangular plates subjected to subsonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen Heitman

    1993-01-01

    The acoustic radiation damping for various isotropic and laminated composite plates and semi-infinite strips subjected to a uniform, subsonic and steady flow has been predicted. The predictions are based on the linear vibration of a flat plate. The fluid loading is characterized as the perturbation pressure derived from the linearized Bernoulli and continuity equations. Parameters varied in the analysis include Mach number, mode number and plate size, aspect ratio and mass. The predictions are compared with existing theoretical results and experimental data. The analytical results show that the fluid loading can significantly affect realistic plate responses. Generally, graphite/epoxy and carbon/carbon plates have higher acoustic radiation damping values than similar aluminum plates, except near plate divergence conditions resulting from aeroelastic instability. Universal curves are presented where the acoustic radiation damping normalized by the mass ratio is a linear function of the reduced frequency. A separate curve is required for each Mach number and plate aspect ratio. In addition, acoustic radiation damping values can be greater than or equal to the structural component of the modal critical damping ratio (assumed as 0.01) for the higher subsonic Mach numbers. New experimental data were acquired for comparison with the analytical results.

  17. Resonant Interaction of a Rectangular Jet with a Flat-Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Fagan, A. F.; Clem, M. M.; Brown, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    A resonant interaction between a large aspect ratio rectangular jet and a flat-plate is addressed in this experimental study. The plate is placed parallel to but away from the direct path of the jet. At high subsonic conditions and for certain relative locations of the plate, the resonance accompanied by an audible tone is encountered. The trends of the tone frequency variation exhibit some similarities to, but also marked differences from, corresponding trends of the well-known edge-tone phenomenon. Under the resonant condition flow visualization indicates a periodic flapping motion of the jet column. Phase-averaged Mach number data obtained near the plate's trailing edge illustrate that the jet cross-section goes through large contortions within the period of the tone. Farther downstream a clear 'axis switching' takes place. These results suggest that the assumption of two-dimensionality should be viewed with caution in any analysis of the flow.

  18. Three-dimensional transition characteristics in the wake of an inclined flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Pettersen, B.; Andersson, H. I.; Narasimhamurthy, V. D.

    2011-12-01

    The transition phenomena in the wake of an inclined flat plate at angle of attack 25 degrees are investigated numerically. The Reynolds number, based on the free-stream velocity, plate width and kinematic viscosity, between 275 and 800 has been considered. The Strouhal number versus Reynolds number curves were plotted and compared with two-dimensional simulation data. In the present three-dimensional simulation results, for Reynolds number above 350, the Strouhal numbers converge to a constant value and multiple basic frequencies are detected at certain Reynolds numbers. The spanwise wavelength of secondary structure is estimated by using the autocorrelation method. In the range of Reynolds numbers investigated the spanwise wavelengths, non-dimensionalized by the plate projected width, have a constant value which is consistent with the second instability wavelength detected in the case with the plate normal to the flow.

  19. Separation over a flat plate-wedge configuration at oceanic Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study of flow over a two-dimensional flat plate-wedge configuration is presented. The investigation encompasses a range of Reynolds numbers characteristics of conditions encountered by deep submersible oceanic vehicles. Flow separation, similar to that found on high speed aircraft control surfaces, is reported and discussed in light of the laminar or transitional nature of the separated shear layer. As discovered in previous high Mach number studies of plate-wedge or ramp configurations, the dependency of the size of the separated region on free stream Reynolds number is reversed for laminar and transitional types of flow separation.

  20. Accuracy of the Kirchoff formula in determining acoustic shielding with the use of a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrielsen, R. E.; Davis, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    It has been suggested that if jet engines of aircraft were placed at above the wing instead of below it, the wing would provide a partial shielding of the noise generated by the engines relative to observers on the ground. The shielding effects of an idealized three-dimensional barrier in the presence of an idealized engine noise source was predicted by the Kirchoff formula. Based on the good agreement between experimental measurements and the numerical results of the current study, it was concluded that the Kirchoff approximation provides a good qualitative estimate of the acoustic shielding of a point source by a rectangular flat plate for measurements taken in the far field of the flat plate at frequencies ranging from 1 kHz to 20 kHz. At frequencies greater than 4 kHz the Kirchoff approximation provides accurate quantitative predictions of acoustic shielding.

  1. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  2. On the nonlinear stability of viscous modes within the Rayleigh problem on an infinite flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. C.; Otto, S. R.; Lilley, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    The stability has been investigated of the unsteady flow past an infinite flat plate when it is moved impulsively from rest, in its own plane. For small times the instantaneous stability of the flow depends on the linearized equations of motion which reduce in this problem to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. It is known that the flow for certain values of Reynolds number, frequency and wave number is unstable to Tollmien-Schlichting waves, as in the case of the Blasius boundary layer flow past a flat plate. With increase in time, the unstable waves only undergo growth for a finite time interval, and this growth rate is itself a function of time. The influence of finite amplitude effects is studied by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that the stability characteristics are markedly changed both by the consideration of the time evolution of the flow, and by the introduction of finite amplitude effects.

  3. Accurate stratospheric particle size distributions from a flat plate collection surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Flat plate particle collections have revealed the presence of a remarkable variety of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial material in the stratosphere. It is found that the ratio of terrestrial to extraterrestrial material and the nature of the material collected may vary significantly over short time scales. These fluctuations may be related to massive injections of volcanic ash, emissions from solid fuel rockets, or variations in the micrometeoroid flux. The variations in particle number density can be of great importance to the earth's atmospheric radiation balance, and, therefore, its climate. With the objective to assess the number density of solid particles in the stratosphere, an examination has been conducted of all particles exceeding 1 micron in average diameter for a representative suite of particles obtained from a single flat plate collection surface. Attention is given to solid particle size distributions in the stratosphere, and the origin of important stratospheric particle types.

  4. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    SciTech Connect

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  5. Application of wave mechanics theory to fluid dynamics problems: Flat plate flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzywoblocki, M. Z. V.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the flow in the laminar boundary layer along an infinitely long flat plate are discussed. The flow may be disturbed or not, depending on the situation. The physical, natural aspects of the flow, either a laminar flow free from disturbances or a flow which originally is a laminar one with disturbances superimposed upon it. Oscillograms of turbulence in wind tunnel tests and in the wake of a cylinder are presented.

  6. Recommendations for the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial photovoltaic solar panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treble, F. C.

    1976-01-01

    A review of recommendations for standardizing the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial solar panels is given to develop an international standard code of practice for performance rating. Required data to characterize the performance of a solar panel are listed. Other items discussed are: (1) basic measurement procedures; (2) performance measurement in natural sunlight and simulated sunlight; (3) standard solar cells; (4) the normal incidence method; (5) global method and (6) definition of peak power.

  7. Maximum lift/drag ratio of flat plates with bluntness and skin friction at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    Newtonian theory is used to derive a simple expression for the maximum lift/drag ratio of flat plates with bluntness and skin friction at hypersonic speeds. The bluntness drag is assumed to be independent of angle of attack. Because the effect of skin friction is of second order over the angle of attack range for maximum lift/drag ratio, it was assumed constant. As an example, the expression is applied to the Space Shuttle.

  8. Flat-plate collector performance evaluation. The case for a solar simulation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Harlamert, P.

    1973-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining the performance of flat-plate solar collector using a simulated sun. Collector test variables that will help establish the basis for the indoor test facility at the Lewis Research Center are discussed. The use of the indoor testing should permit a standard test for the convenient and accurate determination of collector performance. Preliminary test results are reported as an example of the type of collector performance data to be expected from the simulation approach.

  9. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  10. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An efficient, low cost, flat-plate solar collector was developed. Computer aided mathematical models of the heat process in the collector were used in defining absorber panel configuration; determining insulation thickness; and in selecting the number, spacing, and material of the covers. Prototypes were built and performance tested. Data from simulated operation of the collector are compared with predicted loads from a number of locations to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  11. Visualization of leading edge vortices on a series of flat plate delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Francis M.; Ng, T. Terry; Nelson, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of flow visualization data obtained as part of NASA Grant NAG2-258 is presented. During the course of this study, many still and high speed motion pictures were taken of the leading edge vortices on a series of flat plate delta wings at varying angles of attack. The purpose is to present a systematic collection of photographs showing the state of vortices as a function of the angle of attack for the four models tested.

  12. Atmospheric corrosion of batten and enclosure materials for flat-plate solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    As part of the Solar Reliability and Materials Program at Argonne National Laboratory, the atmospheric-corrosion-monitoring project is to assess the materials used for battens and enclosures for flat-plate solar collectors. Sensors at nine test sites have provided atmospheric data. Other data have been obtained by analyzing corrosion samples that were exposed for varying periods of time. This interim report summarizes the results of the first test period.

  13. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering from irregularly shaped, thin, metallic flat plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, Fred B.; Vedeler, Erik; Koch, Melissa B.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an application of the method of moments to calculate the electromagnetic scattering from irregularly shaped, thin, metallic flat plates in free space. In the present technique, an irregularly shaped plate is enclosed by a rectangle on which the surface-current density is then expressed in terms of subdomain functions by dividing the rectangle into subsections. A shape function is introduced to ensure zero current outside the patch. The surface-current density is determined using the electric field integral equation (EFIE) approach in conjunction with the method of moments, and from a knowledge of the surface-current density, the electromagnetic scattering from a plate is calculated. Using this technique, the electromagnetic scattering from a hexagonal plate; an equilateral triangular plate; an equilateral triangular plate with a concentric, equilateral triangular hole and an inverted, equilateral triangular hole; and a diamond-shaped plate is computed and compared with the numerical results obtained by using the Electromagnetic Surface Patch (ESP) code developed by Ohio State University. The numerical results compare favorably with the measurements performed on these shapes in the Langley Experimental Test Range facility.

  14. Three-beam interferogram analysis method for surface flatness testing of glass plates and wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunderland, Zofia; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    When testing transparent plates with high quality flat surfaces and a small angle between them the three-beam interference phenomenon is observed. Since the reference beam and the object beams reflected from both the front and back surface of a sample are detected, the recorded intensity distribution may be regarded as a sum of three fringe patterns. Images of that type cannot be succesfully analyzed with standard interferogram analysis methods. They contain, however, useful information on the tested plate surface flatness and its optical thickness variations. Several methods were elaborated to decode the plate parameters. Our technique represents a competitive solution which allows for retrieval of phase components of the three-beam interferogram. It requires recording two images: a three-beam interferogram and the two-beam one with the reference beam blocked. Mutually subtracting these images leads to the intensity distribution which, under some assumptions, provides access to the two component fringe sets which encode surfaces flatness. At various stages of processing we take advantage of nonlinear operations as well as single-frame interferogram analysis methods. Two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D CWT) is used to separate a particular fringe family from the overall interferogram intensity distribution as well as to estimate the phase distribution from a pattern. We distinguish two processing paths depending on the relative density of fringe sets which is connected with geometry of a sample and optical setup. The proposed method is tested on simulated data.

  15. In-Flight Boundary-Layer Transition of a Large Flat Plate at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; Frederick, M. A.; Tracy, R. R.; Matisheck, J. R.; Vanecek, N. D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate the pressure distribution, local-flow conditions, and boundary-layer transition characteristics on a large flat plate in flight at supersonic speeds up to Mach 2.00. The tests used a NASA testbed aircraft with a bottom centerline mounted test fixture. The primary objective of the test was to characterize the local flow field in preparation for future tests of a high Reynolds number natural laminar flow test article. A second objective was to determine the boundary-layer transition characteristics on the flat plate and the effectiveness of using a simplified surface coating. Boundary-layer transition was captured in both analog and digital formats using an onboard infrared imaging system. Surface pressures were measured on the surface of the flat plate. Flow field measurements near the leading edge of the test fixture revealed the local flow characteristics including downwash, sidewash, and local Mach number. Results also indicated that the simplified surface coating did not provide sufficient insulation from the metallic structure, which likely had a substantial effect on boundary-layer transition compared with that of an adiabatic surface. Cold wall conditions were predominant during the acceleration to maximum Mach number, and warm wall conditions were evident during the subsequent deceleration.

  16. Numerical modeling of the transitional boundary layer over a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dimitry; Chorny, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Our example is connected with fundamental research on understanding how an initially laminar boundary layer becomes turbulent. We have chosen the flow over a flat plate as a prototype for boundary-layer flows around bodies. Special attention was paid to the near-wall region in order to capture all levels of the boundary layer. In this study, the numerical software package OpenFOAM has been used in order to solve the flow field. The results were used in a comparative study with data obtained from Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The composite SGS-wall model is presently incorporated into a computer code suitable for the LES of developing flat-plate boundary layers. Presently this model is extended to the LES of the zero-pressure gradient, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. In current study the time discretization is based on a second order Crank-Nicolson/Adams-Bashforth method. LES solver using Smagorinsky and the one-equation LES turbulence models. The transition models significantly improve the prediction of the onset location compared to the fully turbulent models.LES methods appear to be the most promising new tool for the design and analysis of flow devices including transition regions of the turbulent flow.

  17. Modeling of frost crystal growth over a flat plate using artificial neural networks and fractal geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahavvor, Ali Reza

    2016-06-01

    In the present study artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to predict frost thickness and density on a cold flat plate having constant surface temperature under forced convection for different ambient conditions. These methods are very applicable in this area because phase changes such as melting and solidification are simulated by conventional methods but frost formation is a most complicated phase change phenomenon consists of coupled heat and mass transfer. Therefore conventional mathematical techniques cannot capture the effects of all parameters on its growth and development because this process influenced by many factors and it is a time dependent process. Therefore, in this work soft computing method such as artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to do this manner. The databases for modeling are generated from the experimental measurements. First, multilayer perceptron network is used and it is found that the back-propagation algorithm with Levenberg-Marquardt learning rule is the best choice to estimate frost growth properties due to accurate and faster training procedure. Second, fractal geometry based on the Von-Koch curve is used to model frost growth procedure especially in frost thickness and density. Comparison is performed between experimental measurements and soft computing methods. Results show that soft computing methods can be used more efficiently to determine frost properties over a flat plate. Based on the developed models, wide range of frost formation over flat plates can be determined for various conditions.

  18. Weak incident shock interactions with Mach 8 laminar boundary layers. [of flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, L. G., II; Johnson, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    Weak shock-wave interactions with boundary layers on a flat plate were investigated experimentally in Mach 8 variable-density tunnel for plate-length Reynolds numbers. The undisturbed boundary layers were laminar over the entire plate length. Pressure and heat-transfer distributions were obtained for wedge-generated incident shock waves that resulted in pressure rises ranging from 1.36 to 4.46 (both nonseparated and separated boundary-layer flows). The resulting heat-transfer amplifications ranged from 1.45 to 14. The distributions followed established trends for nonseparated flows, for incipient separation, and for laminar free-interaction pressure rises. The experimental results corroborated established trends for the extent of the pressure rise and for certain peak heat-transfer correlations.

  19. Skin friction and Reynolds stress measurements for a turbulent boundary layer following manipulation using flat plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.

    1986-01-01

    Research has been undertaken to experimentally study the alterations in turbulent boundary-layer properties due to turbulence manipulation using thin flat plates. Plate geometry and placement within the boundary layer were selected to coincide with recent studies. Direct, local measurements of skin friction and Reynolds stresses were made within the boundary layer downstream of the manipulator devices for cases with an approach momentum thickness Reynolds number of 3700. A strong tendency for recovery of the Reynolds stresses was observed, accompanied by local skin-friction reductions of up to 15 percent. The mean velocity profile in the manipulated flow displayed the same similarity shape in the logarithmic region as a natural boundary layer, but had an enhanced wake component. The results indicate that the plate wake plays an important role in the boundary layer response to this sort of manipulation.

  20. On the structure, stabilization, and dual response of flat-burner flames

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.A.; Zhu, D.L.; Law, C.K.

    1995-03-01

    A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been conducted on the structure and stabilization dynamics of the classical planar flame over a flat, porous burner. The specific issue addressed is the apparent dual response nature of the flat-burner flames in that previous studies have shown the existence of two flame speeds for either a given heat loss rate or a given flame standoff distance. The present study demonstrates that the flame response is actually unique when the flame burning rate is considered to be the independent variable, that the turning point behavior of the flame response is a manifestation of system nonmonotonicity rather than extinction, and that the flat-burner flame does not appear to possess distinct extinction states. Results obtained from computation simulation of the flame structure with detailed transport and chemistry agree well with the experimental temperature and major species profiles determined through laser Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Biomechanical study comparing a new combined rod-plate system with conventional dual-rod and plate systems.

    PubMed

    Sha, Mo; Ding, Zheng-Qi; Ting, Hu S; Kang, Liang-Qi; Zhai, Wen-Liang; Liu, Hui

    2013-02-01

    Most anterior spinal instrumentation systems are designed as either a plate or dual-rod system and have corresponding limitations. Dual-rod designs may offer greater adjustability; however, this system also maintains a high profile and lacks a locking design. Plate systems are designed to be stiffer, but the fixed configuration is not adaptable to the variety of vertebral body shapes. The authors designed a new combined rod-plate system (D-rod) to overcome these limitations and compared its biomechanical performance with the conventional dual-rod and plate system. Eighteen pig spinal specimens were divided into 3 groups (6 per group). An L1 corpectomy was performed and fixed with the D-rod (group A; n=6), Z-plate (Sofamor Danek, Memphis, Tennessee) (group B; n=6), or Ventrofix (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania) (group C; n=6) system. T13-L2 range of motion was measured with a 6 degrees of freedom (ie, flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) spine simulator under pure moments of 6.0 Nm. The D-rod and Ventrofix specimens were significantly stiffer than the Z-plate specimens (P<.05) based on results obtained from lateral bending and flexion-extension tests. The D-rod and Z-plate specimens were significantly stiffer than the Ventrofix specimens (P<.05) in axial rotation. The D-rod combines the advantages of the plate and dual-rod systems, where the anterior rod exhibits the design of a low-profile locking plate, enhanced stability, and decreased interference of the surrounding vasculature. The posterior rods function in compression and distraction, and the dual-rod system offers greater adjustability and control over screw placement. The results indicate that it may provide adequate stability for anterior thoracolumbar reconstruction. PMID:23383624

  2. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  3. Flat-plate boiloff calorimeters for testing of thermal insulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Johnson, W. L.; Kelly, A. O.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Swanger, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Cryostats have been developed and standardized for laboratory testing of thermal insulation systems in a flat-plate configuration. Boiloff calorimetry is the measurement principle for determining the effective thermal conductivity (ke) and heat flux (q) of test specimens under a wide range of actual conditions. Cryostat-500 is thermally guarded to measure absolute thermal performance when calibrated with a known reference via an adjustable-edge guard ring. With liquid nitrogen as the energy meter, the cold boundary temperature can be adjusted to any temperature between 77 K and approximately 300 K by the interposition of a thermal resistance layer between the cold mass and the specimen. A low thermal conductivity suspension system has compliance rods that adjust for specimen thickness and compression force. Material type, thickness, density, flatness, compliance, outgassing, and temperature sensor placement are important test considerations, and edge effects and calibration techniques for the apparatus are crucial. Over the full vacuum pressure range, the thermal performance capability is nearly four orders of magnitude. The horizontal configuration provides key advantages over the vertical cylindrical cryostats for testing at ambient pressure conditions. Cryostat-500’s design and test methods, other flat-plate boiloff calorimeters, and results for select thermal insulation materials (composites, foams, aerogels) are discussed.

  4. Vortex Formation, Shedding and Energy Harvesting from a Cyber-Physical Pitching Flat Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Kyohei; Breuer, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    We examine the dynamics and energy harvesting capabilities of an elastically mounted flat plate undergoing large amplitude limit cycle oscillations in a uniform flow. All experiments are performed using a cyber-physical system, wherein the structural inertia, stiffness and damping are numerically simulated using a position-following feedback algorithm. The cyber-physical system also allows for implementation of nonlinear spring and damping coefficients, which control the plate dynamics and subsequent energy harvesting characteristics. Analysis of the plate kinematics and the fluid flow over the plate and in the wake (measured using PIV) are used to understand the interplay between structural motion and vortex formation at the sharp leading and trailing edges of the plate. By varying the structural properties of the system we systematically analyze the formation, strength, stability and separation of the leading edge vortex, as well as the dependence on kinematic parameters and Reynolds number. Connections to previous results on vortex formation time and bluff body aerodynamics are discussed. This research is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

  5. Vortex shedding in flow past an inclined flat plate at high incidencea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Pettersen, Bjørnar; Andersson, Helge I.; Narasimhamurthy, Vagesh D.

    2012-08-01

    The properties of asymmetric wake patterns behind a flat plate inclined at angles of attack 20°, 25°, and 30° are investigated. The Reynolds number based on the inflow velocity and the plate width is 1000. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations are performed by direct numerical simulations. Compared to the three-dimensional simulations, the two-dimensional calculations predict a significantly lower pressure on the rear surface of the plate, which consequently leads to very high drag and lift forces on the plate. The asymmetric mean wake flow, turbulence properties, and coherent patterns in the three-dimensional simulations are analysed by time- and phase-averaged techniques. Unlike the symmetric wake flow, the vortices shed from the leading and trailing edges of an inclined plate possess unequal strength with the trailing edge vortex having higher strength. It is observed that the present three-dimensional simulations predict results which compare well with the experimental data. In addition, wake instabilities in the form of oblique modes and vortex dislocations are observed in the 20° angle of attack case. It is found that this intrinsic instability is most likely due to the low incidence angle rather than the prevailing low Reynolds numbers.

  6. Momentum transport in the wake of a finite-length thin flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, Arman; Wood, David H.; Martinuzzi, Robert J.

    2015-11-01

    A comparison of the wakes of thin flat plates with aspect ratios (AR) 1.0, 1.6, 2.0 and 3.2, normal to a uniform stream, are conducted based on Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) at Re=1200. Typical anti-symmetric Karman shedding of high AR plates, AR>2.0, is initiated by detachments at the plate corners. Shear layer detachment on the longer edges triggers shedding from the shorter edges. Thus, there is only a single shedding frequency detected in the wake. At lower AR, however, an interaction between adjacent shear layers occurs prior to detachment, which elongates the base vortex, i.e. from 1.56H for AR=3.2 to 2.69H for AR=1.6. This change of shedding mechanism has significant impact on wake structures and instantaneous pressure loads. The dominant shear layers on the longer sides appear to maintain the Karman shedding at higher AR. Karman shedding is intermittently interrupted for lower AR plates due to shear layer interactions, which increases the turbulence kinetic energy, production and dissipation rates and Reynolds stresses. To better understand dependence of the wake topology on AR, mean and fluctuating flow variables are evaluated at various locations along the chord. Moreover, comparisons to wakes of finite-height cylinders and circular plates are considered. This work is supported by AITF and NSERC fellowship grants.

  7. Preliminary Measurements From A New Flat Plate Facility For Aerodynamic Research

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; D. W. Nigg; E. J. Walsh; D. Hernon; M.R.D. Davies

    2005-03-01

    This paper details the design and preliminary measurements used in the characterisation of a new flat plate research facility. The facility is designed specifically to aid in the understanding of entropy generation throughout the boundary layer with special attention given to non-equilibrium flows. Hot-wire measurements were obtained downstream of two turbulence generating grids. The turbulence intensity, integral and dissipation length scale ranges measured are 1.6%-7%, 5mm-17mm and 0.7mm-7mm, respectively. These values compared well to existing correlations. The flow downstream of both grids was found to be homogenous and isotropic. Flow visualisation is employed to determine aerodynamic parameters such as flow 2-dimensionality and the effect of the flap angle on preventing separation at the leading edge. The flow was found to be 2-dimensional over all measurement planes. The non-dimensional pressure distribution of a modern turbine blade suction surface is simulated on the flat plate through the use of a variable upper wall. The Reynolds number range based on wetted plate length and inlet velocity is 70,000-4,000,000.

  8. Modification of parabolic dish antenna pattern using two symmetrically placed circular flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Glen C.

    1987-12-01

    This study aims to formulate a method of predicting the far field pattern of a parabolic dish antenna with two moveable flat plates mounted symmetrically on either side of the feed horn. The approach taken has been to first analyze the radiation pattern of the antenna with the disks at certain heights out from the surface of the dish. To do this the near-field radiation in amplitude and phase was measured over a plane surface in the near-field and the values were then transformed into the far field using a Fast Fourier Transform. Far field pattern values of the antenna were directly measured for each setting of the plates. The results obtained from the Fast Fourier Transform of the near field data were in good agreement with the values obtained by measurement. Finally, an approximate model of the antenna was developed and implemented as a computer program. This model, while relatively unsophisticated, provided some insights into the changes in the near field phase distribution caused by the moveable circular flat plates.

  9. Fundamental Study of Local Heat Transfer in Forced Convective Boiling of Ammonia on Vertical Flat Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Arima, Hirofumi; Ikegami, Yasuyuki

    In the present study, the fundamental experiments that investigate characteristics of local heat transfer in forced convective boiling on vertical flat plate with 2-mm channel height are taken to realize plate type compact evaporator for OTEC or STEC. The experiments are performed with ammonia as the working fluid. The experiments are also carried out with the following test conditions; saturated pressure = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 MPa, mass flux = 7.5, 10, 15 kg/(m2•s), heat flux = 15, 20, 25 kW/m2 and inlet quality = 0.1 ~ 0.4 [-]. The result shows that the wall superheated temperature of forced convective boiling is lower than that of pool boiling. And the heat transfer coefficient increases with an increase in quality and the decrease in the local heat flux and saturated pressure for prescribed experimental conditions. However, local heat transfer coefficients are not affected by mass fluxes in the prescribed experimental conditions. An empirical correlation that can predict the local heat transfer coefficient on vertical flat plate within experimental conditions is also proposed.

  10. Investigation of heat transfer with film cooling to a flat plate in a shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurgelewicz, Scott A.

    1989-12-01

    The heat transfer occurring through turbulent boundary layers in modern gas turbines is not well understood. The heat transferred to a flat plate though a turbulent boundary layer presents many similarities without the complex flow patterns. The gas used in this study was air. The flow behind a passing shock wave in a shock tube was used to simulate the high temperature ratio flows found in gas turbines. Highly responsive heat flux gages were used to measure the temperature history of a flat plate exposed to the flow. High speed digital recorders were used to sample and store the information. Heat transfer rates were determined from temperature history using a computer program and a quadrature method. The temperature history was numerically averaged to filter out noise effects before it was used to calculate the heat flux. It was found that low shock Mach numbers produced measured heat flux rates that were predictable by theory. At higher Mach numbers the rounded leading edge of the plate produced reflections that increased the measured heat flux as the Mach number increased; but theory, dependent on incident shock Mach number, underpredicted these actual values. Film cooling flows were then studied under the same flow conditions. Ratios of heat transfer coefficients with blowing ratios of approximately two to three produced the best agreement with correlations. The effects of free stream turbulence on the heat flux with film cooling were also briefly studied.

  11. Vortex formation and drag on low aspect ratio, normal flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringuette, Matthew James

    Experiments were done to investigate the role of vortex formation in the drag force generation of low aspect ratio, normal flat plates starting from rest. This very simplified case is a first, fundamental step toward understanding the more complicated flow of hovering flight, which relies primarily on drag for propulsion. The relative importance of the plate's free end, or tip, with varying aspect ratio was also studied. Identifying the relationship among aspect ratio, vortex formation, and drag force can provide insight into the wing aspect ratios and kinematics found nature, with the eventual goal of designing man-made flapping wing micro air vehicles. The experiments were carried out using flat plate models in a towing tank at a moderate Reynolds number of 3000. Two aspect ratios, 6 and 2, were considered, the latter in order to have a highly tip-dominated case. A force balance measured the time-varying drag, and multiple, perpendicular sections of the flow velocity were measured quantitatively using digital particle image velocimetry. Vorticity fields were calculated from the velocity data, and features in the drag force for different aspect ratios were related to the vortex dynamics. Finally, since the flow is highly three-dimensional, dye flow visualization was done to characterize its structure and to augment the two-dimensional digital particle image velocimetry data.

  12. Heat transfer investigation in the junction region of circular cylinder normal to a flat plate at 90 deg location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Hinckel, J. N.

    1984-12-01

    External heat-transfer rates were measured on a flat plate in the junction region of a circular cylinder mounted normal to the plate at a location 90 deg from the stagnation point. This configuration simulates the junction of the shroud with gas-turbine vanes. Heat-transfer results are presented for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers for a Mach number of 0.14 with gas temperatures of approximately 750 deg R over a flat plate at room temperature. The measurements were made in air for a unit Reynolds number, Re/cm, range of 11,000 to 58,000. Heat-transfer measurements were conducted in the 70-ft long, 4-in. diameter shock tube. A shock-wave reflection technique was used to produce a flow Mach number of 0.14. Thin-film platinum heat gages were mounted on the flat plate and along the line of the stagnation point of the cylinder to measure the local heat flux in the junction region. The experimental heat-transfer data were correlated with the laminar and turbulent boundary-layer theories for the flat plate. With the cylinder the heat fluxes on the flat plate were greatly increased in the junction region compared to the heat flux for the plate alone.

  13. Exergy efficiency analysis of a flat plate solar collector using graphene based nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Z.; Alim, M. A.; Janajreh, Isam

    2015-10-01

    The thermal efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector is largely affected by the thermal conductivity of the fluid used. In this paper, we theoretically analyzed the heat transfer performance, the entropy generation rate, and the exergy efficiency of the two different graphene based nanofluids (graphene/Acetone and graphene/water). From the analyses, it is revealed that by inserting a small amount of graphene nanoparticles in water, exergy efficiency could be enhanced by 21%, comparing to conventional fluids and entropy generation is decreased by 4%. However, the graphene/water nanofluid shows a lower entropy generation. This characteristic suggests that graphene/water nanofluid is a better candidate for flat solar thermal application.

  14. Vortex shedding experiment with flat and curved bluff plates in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, D.; Nesman, T.; Howard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Vortex shedding experiments were conducted in a water flow facility in order to simulate the strong discrete 4000-Hz vibration detected in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) which is thought to be associated with the SSME LOX inlet tee splitter vanes on the Main Injector. For the case of a flat vane with a blunt trailing edge excited by flow induced vortex shedding, lock-in with the first bending mode of the plate was observed. A curved vane displayed similar behavior, with the lock-in being a more discrete higher amplitude response. Aluminum vanes were employed to decouple the first vane bending mode from the vortex shedding mode. The application of an asymmetric 30-deg trailing edge bevel to both the flat and curved vanes was found to greatly reduce the strength of the shed vortices.

  15. In-Flight Boundary-Layer Transition on a Large Flat Plate at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Fredericks, Michael Alan; Tracy, Richard R.; Matisheck, Jason R.; Vanecek, Neal D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate the pressure distribution, local flow conditions, and boundary-layer transition characteristics on a large flat plate in flight at supersonic speeds up to Mach 2.0. The primary objective of the test was to characterize the local flow field in preparation for future tests of a high Reynolds number natural laminar flow test article. The tests used a F-15B testbed aircraft with a bottom centerline mounted test fixture. A second objective was to determine the boundary-layer transition characteristics on the flat plate and the effectiveness of using a simplified surface coating for future laminar flow flight tests employing infrared thermography. Boundary-layer transition was captured using an onboard infrared imaging system. The infrared imagery was captured in both analog and digital formats. Surface pressures were measured with electronically scanned pressure modules connected to 60 surface-mounted pressure orifices. The local flow field was measured with five 5-hole conical probes mounted near the leading edge of the test fixture. Flow field measurements revealed the local flow characteristics including downwash, sidewash, and local Mach number. Results also indicated that the simplified surface coating did not provide sufficient insulation from the metallic structure, which likely had a substantial effect on boundary-layer transition compared with that of an adiabatic surface. Cold wall conditions were predominant during the acceleration to maximum Mach number, and warm wall conditions were evident during the subsequent deceleration. The infrared imaging system was able to capture shock wave impingement on the surface of the flat plate in addition to indicating laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer transition.

  16. Drag measurements of an axisymmetric nacelle mounted on a flat plate at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of diverter wedge half-angle and nacelle lip height on the drag characteristics of an assembly consisting of a nacelle fore cowl from a typical high-speed civil transport (HSCT) and a diverter mounted on a flat plate. Data were obtained for diverter wedge half-angles of 4.0 deg, 6.0 deg, and 8.0 deg and ratios of the nacelle lip height above a flat plate to the boundary-layer thickness (h(sub n)/delta) of approximately 0.87 to 2.45. Limited drag data were also obtained on a complete nacelle/diverter configuration that included fore and aft cowls. Although the nacelle/diverter drag data were not corrected for base pressures or internal flow drag, the data are useful for comparing the relative drag of the configuration tested. The tests were conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 1.50, 1.80, 2.10, and 2.40 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 2.00 x 10(exp 6) to 5.00 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The results of this investigation showed that the nacelle/diverter drag essentially increased linearly with increasing h(sub n)/delta except near 1.0 where the data showed a nonlinear behavior. This nonlinear behavior was probably caused by the interaction of the shock waves from the nacelle/diverter configuration with the flat-plate boundary layer. At the lowest h(sub n)/delta tested, the diverter wedge half-angle had virtually no effect on the nacelle/diverter drag. However, as h(sub n)/delta increased, the nacelle/diverter drag increased as diverter wedge half-angle increased.

  17. Evaluation of All-Day-Efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  18. Leaf wetness duration measurement: comparison of cylindrical and flat plate sensors under different field conditons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentelhas, Paulo C.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Santos, Eduardo A.

    2007-03-01

    In general, leaf wetness duration (LWD) is a key parameter influencing plant disease epidemiology, since it provides the free water required by pathogens to infect foliar tissue. LWD is used as an input in many disease warning systems, which help growers to decide the best time to spray their crops against diseases. Since there is no observation standard either for sensor or exposure, LWD measurement is often problematic. To assess the performance of electronic sensors, LWD measurements obtained with painted cylindrical and flat plate sensors were compared under different field conditions in Elora, Ontario, Canada, and in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The sensors were tested in four different crop environments—mowed turfgrass, maize, soybean, and tomatoes—during the summer of 2003 and 2004 in Elora and during the winter of 2005 in Piracicaba. Flat plate sensors were deployed facing north and at 45° to horizontal, and cylindrical sensors were deployed horizontally. At the turfgrass site, both sensors were installed 30 cm above the ground, while at the crop fields, the sensors were installed at the top and inside the canopy (except for maize, with a sensor only at the top). Considering the flat plate sensor as a reference (Sentelhas et al. Operational exposure of leaf wetness sensors. Agric For Meteorol 126:59-72, 2004a), the results in the more humid climate at Elora showed that the cylindrical sensor overestimated LWD by 1.1-4.2 h, depending on the crop and canopy position. The main cause of the overestimation was the accumulation of big water drops along the bottom of the cylindrical sensors, which required much more energy and, consequently, time to evaporate. The overall difference between sensors when evaporating wetness formed during the night was around 1.6 h. Cylindrical sensors also detected wetness earlier than did flat plates—around 0.6 h. Agreement between plate and cylinder sensors was much better in the drier climate at Piracicaba. These

  19. Velocity and temperature profiles in near-critical nitrogen flowing past a horizontal flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Boundary layer velocity and temperature profiles were measured for nitrogen near its thermodynamic critical point flowing past a horizontal flat plate. The results were compared measurements made for vertically upward flow. The boundary layer temperatures ranged from below to above the thermodynamic critical temperature. For wall temperatures below the thermodynamic critical temperature there was little variation between the velocity and temperature profiles in three orientations. In all three orientations the point of crossing into the critical temperature region is marked by a significant flattening of the velocity and temperature profiles and also a decrease in heat transfer coefficient.

  20. Flow field analysis studies downstream of a cooling hole on a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranakoti, Ganesh; Marathe, Parag

    2014-10-01

    Flow field analysis is carried out computationally on a flat plate with 35° stream-wise coolant injection through a cylindrical film cooling hole. ANSYS Fluent 13.0 is used to perform computations using k-ɛrealizable turbulence model with enhanced wall functions. The Reynolds number ReD based on free stream velocity and diameter of hole is 15885 with blowing ratio M=0.5 and density ratio D.R=1.2. Streamlines are studied downstream of the film cooling hole in the present study.

  1. Design of high-Reynolds-number flat-plate experiments in the NTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, William S.

    1988-01-01

    The design of an experiment to measure skin friction and turbulent boundary layer characteristics at Reynolds numbers exceeding 1 x 10 to the 9th is described. The experiment will be conducted in a zero-pressure-gradient flow on a flat plate in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The development of computational codes to analyze the aerodynamic loads and the blockage is documented. Novel instrumentation techniques and models, designed to operate in cryogenic environments, are presented. Special problems associated with aerodynamic loads, surface finish, and hot-wire anemometers are discussed.

  2. Heat transfer from impinging jets to a flat plate with conical and ring protuberances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrycak, P.

    1984-11-01

    An experimental investigation of heat transfer from round jets, impinging normally on a flat plate with exchangeable, heat transfer enhancing protuberances, has been carried out, and the pertinent literature surveyed, for Reynolds numbers ranging from 14,000 to 67,000, and nozzle diameters from 3.18 to 9.52 mm. The experimental data at the stagnation point indicated laminar flow, and a significant enhancement of heat transfer there, due to the introduction of the spike protuberance; the ring protuberance reduced the local heat flux somewhat. Data have also been correlated by means of dimensional analysis and compared with the conical flow theory.

  3. Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, M. A.

    For designers and engineers of solar energy-related systems, the Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for the US and its territories. The data in the manual were modeled using hourly values of direct beam and diffuse horizontal solar radiation from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct beam solar radiation for 1961-1990.

  4. Design of high-Reynolds-number flat-plate experiments in the NTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, W. S.; Peterson, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The design of an experiment to measure skin friction and turbulent boundary-layer characteristics at Reynolds numbers exceeding one billion is described. The experiment will be conducted in a zero-pressure-gradient flow on a flat plate in the National Transonic Facility. The development of computational codes to analyze the aerodynamic loads and the blockage is documented. Novel instrumentationn techniques and models, designed to operate in cryogenic environments, are presented. Special problems associated with aerodynamic loads, surface finish, and hot-wire anemometers are discussed.

  5. Operational demonstration of a field of high performance flat plate collectors with isothermal heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, V.; Klippel, E.

    1983-12-01

    A solar plant with 21 sq m of highly efficient flat plate collectors and which requires no electricity is described. Heat transport is provided by saturated steam that condenses in a four cubic meter storage tank. The operation temperature is set by the buffer gas pressure between 100 and 140 C, and an absorption chiller is simulated as a heat consumer. The solar collectors were observed to exhibit high performance. Heat transport and temperature control offered high reliability and the thermal stratification in the tank was satisfactory. The positive result permits the design and construction of larger solar plants following the same technical principles.

  6. PLIF Temperature and Velocity Distributions in Laminar Hypersonic Flat-plate Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OByrne, S.; Danehy, P. M.; Houwing, A. F. P.

    2003-01-01

    Rotational temperature and velocity distributions have been measured across a hypersonic laminar flat-plate boundary layer, using planar laser-induced fluorescence. The measurements are compared to a finite-volume computation and a first-order boundary layer computation, assuming local similarity. Both computations produced similar temperature distributions and nearly identical velocity distributions. The disagreement between calculations is ascribed to the similarity solution not accounting for leading-edge displacement effects. The velocity measurements agreed to within the measurement uncertainty of 2 % with both calculated distributions. The peak measured temperature was 200 K lower than the computed values. This discrepancy is tentatively ascribed to vibrational relaxation in the boundary layer.

  7. Development of a Flat-plate Cryogenic Oscillating Heat Pipe for Improving HTS Magnet Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, K.; Mito, T.; Yanagi, N.; Tamura, H.

    A new method of including cryogenic oscillating heat pipes (OHPs) in the HTS coil windings as a thermal transport device has been studied. In this work, two type of OHPs are tested in low temperature. Employed working fluids are H2, Ne, N2. We have attained high performance thermal property using a bent-pipe cryogenic OHP as a prototype. Obtained effective conductivities have reached to 46000 W/m K. Then a flat-plate cryogenic OHP has been developed, that is suitable for imbedding in magnet windings. Preliminary experiments have been conducted and the result has been promising.

  8. Flat-plate solar array project: Government and industry responding to national needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, J. Patrick; Knecht, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    This document recounts the accomplishments of the 11-year Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, which is recognized as one of the most successful and comprehensive technology-transfer efforts ever achieved through government-sponsored research and development. Few Federal research projects can claim the degree of industry involvement that was a fundamental aspect of the FSA Project. This philosophy in turn led to an extraordinary transfer of technology to the private sector, and assured that a maximum amount of the taxpayers' dollars were devoted to research of primary importance to the technology's commercialization.

  9. Investigation of the Interaction of External Disturbances with Roughened Flat Plate Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.; Dietz, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of an external disturbance with a laminar boundary layer over a flat plate with distributed roughness is investigated using combined experimental and numerical methods. The experiment is modeled with an unsteady boundary layer code using second order backward differencing. The simulation includes the second order scattering from roughness elements at and near the first streamwise station of predicted boundary layer instability. A comparison of experimental measurements of the boundary layer perturbation due to the wake from a vibrating ribbon with the computed first order forced boundary layer perturbation showed excellent agreement. Second order roughness induced eigenfunctions from boundary layer theory are examined and compared with other forms of excitation

  10. A study of optimal average lift production by a flapping flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Michele; Ringuette, Matthew; Gharib, Mory

    2004-11-01

    Flapping wings generate vortices, which are believed to be among the primary means used by insects to fly. The exact mechanism producing enough lift force to hover, however, remains a puzzle that researchers have tackled in various ways; here we shed additional light on the problem, using an evolutionary algorithm to maximize the lift produced by the flapping motion of a flat plate. We analyze the optimal result using force measurements combined with DPIV of the resulting flow, to relate the vorticity dynamics of the optmized system to high lift production. Our results highlight the dominant role of the tip vortex in unsteady lift production.

  11. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU). [flat plate solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a cost effective process sequence that has the potential for the production of flat plate photovoltaic modules which meet the price goal in 1986 of 70 cents or less per Watt peak is described. The major accomplishments include (1) an improved AR coating technique; (2) the use of sand blast back clean-up to reduce clean up costs and to allow much of the Al paste to serve as a back conductor; and (3) the development of wave soldering for use with solar cells. Cells were processed to evaluate different process steps, a cell and minimodule test plan was prepared and data were collected for preliminary Samics cost analysis.

  12. Floquet stability analysis of the wake of an inclined flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Pettersen, Bjørnar; Andersson, Helge I.; Narasimhamurthy, Vagesh D.

    2013-09-01

    The route from a time-periodic two-dimensional wake flow to a three-dimensional flow has been investigated by means of linear Floquet stability analysis. The critical Reynolds number for the onset of three-dimensional instabilities in the wake behind a flat plate with an angle of attack α in the range from 20° to 30° with respect to the free stream was determined. For all three angles considered, in the lower wavelength range, the two-dimensional base flow first became unstable with respect to the sub-harmonic mode C. Although the critical Reynolds number decreased with increasing angle of attack, the spanwise wavelength remained close to two times the projected plate width. Qualitatively different transition scenarios were obtained for the three angles of attack with a particularly simple scenario for α = 30°.

  13. Thermal performance predictions of flat-plate solar collector air heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneill, T. C.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program was written that models heat exchanges occurring within flat plate solar air collectors and which computes the incoming solar flux and heat losses to the environment. Internal collector temperatures and thermal efficiencies are predicted for either steady state or transient cases from finite difference solutions to a set of energy balance equations. These relations are written for thermal modes that are generated and linked together by the internal deck logic. The program was utilized in a study of three types of air collectors. The first two configurations employed crossflow impingement along the backside of their absorbers to augment heat transfer coefficients developed at those surfaces, while the third used a rock matrix absorber to expand its surface area for heat transfer. In addition, the first collector replaced the conventional stationary plate absorber of the second design by a traveling belt.

  14. Laminar-Boundary-Layer Oscillations and Transition on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubauer, G B; Skramstad, H K

    1948-01-01

    This is an account of an investigation in which oscillations were discovered in the laminar boundary layer along a flat plate. These oscillations were found during the course of an experiment in which transition from laminar to turbulent flow was being studied on the plate as the turbulence in the wind stream was being reduced to unusually low values by means of damping screens. The first part of the paper deals with experimental methods and apparatus, measurements of turbulence and sound, and studies of transition. A description is then given of the manner in which oscillations were discovered and how they were found to be related to transition, and then how controlled oscillations were produced and studied in detail.

  15. Experimental studies on the tripping behavior of narrow T-stiffened flat plates subjected to hydrostatic pressure and underwater shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budweg, H. L.; Shin, Y. S.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the static and dynamic responses of a specific stiffened flat plate design. The air-backed rectangular flat plates of 6061-T6 aluminum with an externally machined longitudinal narrow-flanged T-stiffener and clamped boundary conditions were subjected to static loading by water hydropump pressure and shock loading from an eight pound TNT charge detonated underwater. The dynamic test plate was instrumented to measure transient strains and free field pressure. The static test plate was instrumented to measure transient strains, plate deflection, and pressure. Emphasis was placed upon forcing static and dynamic stiffener tripping, obtaining relevant strain and pressure data, and studying the associated plate-stiffener behavior.

  16. Frequency-domain prediction of broadband trailing edge noise from a blunt flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwang-Se; Cheong, Cheolung

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an efficient methodology for frequency-domain prediction of broadband trailing edge noise from a blunt flat plate where non-zero pressure gradient may exist in its boundary layer. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by developing new models for point pressure spectra within the boundary layer over a flat plate, and (ii) by deriving a simple formula to approximate the effect of convective velocity on the radiated noise spectrum. Firstly, two types of point pressure spectra-required as input data to predict the trailing edge noise in the frequency domain-are used. One is determined using the semi-analytic (S-A) models based on the boundary-layer theory combined with existing empirical models. It is shown that the prediction using these models show good agreements with the measurements where zero-pressure gradient assumption is valid. However, the prediction show poor agreement with that obtained from large eddy simulation results where negative (favorable) pressure gradient is observed with the boundary layer. Based on boundary layer characteristics predicted using the large eddy simulations, new model for point wall pressure spectra is proposed to account for the effect of favorable pressure gradient over the blunt flat plate on the wall pressure spectra. Sound spectra that were predicted using these models are compared with measurements to validate the proposed prediction scheme. The advantage of the semi-analytic model is that it can be applied to problems at Reynolds numbers for which the empirical model is not available. In addition, it is expected that the current models can be applied to the cases where favorable pressure gradient exists in the boundary layer over a blunt flat plate. Secondly, in order to quantitatively analyze contributions of the pressure field within the turbulent boundary layer on the flat plate to trailing edge noise, total pressure over the surface of airfoil is decomposed into its two constituents

  17. Experimental study on the start up performance of flat plate pulsating heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chaofa; Jia, Li

    2011-06-01

    An experimental system of flat plate pulsating heat pipe was established and experimental research was carried out in this system to know the mechanism of heat transfer, start-up and operating characteristics. The factors, such as filling rate, heating power, heating method etc, which have great influence on the thermal performance of the plate pulsating heat pipe were discussed. The results indicate that heating power and filling rate are the important factors for the start-up of the plate pulsating heat pipe. The different start-up power is needed with different filling rate, and the start-up of the heat pipe in case of bottom heated is much easier than that of top heated. Increasing the heating power and enlarging the heating area can make the start-up easier. Heating power can also affect the start-up time of heat pipe under the condition of bottom heated, while it does not have some influence to the heat pipe of top heated. The thermal resistance of plate pulsating heat pipe is related with the heating power, and the higher the heating power is, the smaller the thermal resistance is. But the best filling rate which the heat pipe needs is different with different heating methods, and the performance of the heat pipe in the case of bottom heated is better than the others.

  18. Lowering the ignition voltage by the dual microhollow cathode configuration for multichannel flat panel lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Il; Park, Ki Wan; Lee, Sung Won; Baik, Hong Koo

    2006-03-20

    We have developed a dual microhollow cathode configuration, employing one power supply circuit with a resistor that is suitable for lamp starting without additional power supplier. We also investigated their electrical characteristics and photo images, varying the applied voltage. The electrical and optical measurements showed that the discharge passed through four distinct stages: no discharges, the first microhollow cathode discharges, the both of the first and second microhollow cathode discharges, and finally the main discharge. As a result, the V{sub s} and E{sub s}/p of a dual microhollow configuration were lower by a factor of about 2 than those of a diode at 40 Torr. We have also observed that the parallel operation can be possible with a single resistor in nine channels flat panel lamp.

  19. Flat-plate solar-collector performance data base and user's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, D. L.; Kolar, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    The reader is provided with a thorough understanding on the type of collector thermal performance information which is required in active system design and analysis. Thermal performance test data on 109 commercially available solar collectors which were evaluated in a single, uniform test program, the Interim Solar Collector Test (ISCT) Program are given. In addition to recounting the ISCT program and its results, the an introduction is given on the engineering and physics of a flat-plate solar collector operation. A step-by-step analysis of heat gains and losses is provided to help the reader understand both the source and applicability of the parameters used to describe collector thermal performance. A brief description of the engineering basis for the ASHRAE Standard 93-77 test procedure and the method are included. To demonstrate the sensitivity to variations of collector performance parameters of the annual output of representative solar heating systems, three sets of F-Chart (4.0) system performance predictions are given. Finally, a sensitivity analysis study is presented which considers the heat loss and optical gain parameters of flat-plate collectors, in terms of how they affect the overall solar heating system solar fraction.

  20. A detailed numerical model for flat-plate solar thermal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cadafalch, J.

    2009-12-15

    A one-dimensional transient numerical model for flat-plate solar thermal devices is here presented. The model permits the analysis of different configurations and components such as multiple-glazing, transparent insulation, air-gaps, surface coatings, opaque insulation and energy accumulation in water or PCM internal stores. In order to obtain information of practical interest, the solar thermal devices are modelled following virtual testing procedures in accordance to the experimental test methods described by European and International standards. This paper describes the basis of the model and shows some comparison of numerical and experimental data as an example of the validation process that has been carried out in order to assess the credibility of the numerical model. For simplicity, the explanation is restricted to standard multiple-glazed flat-plate collectors. The use of the model in other more complicated configurations as in transparently insulated covers or integrated collector storage devices with phase change materials will be presented in other separate papers. (author)

  1. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  2. Relaminarization of the boundary layer over a flat plate in shock tube experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinckel, J. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.

    1986-06-01

    The relaminarization of the boundary layer over a flat plate in the shock tube was investigated by using the partially reflected shock wave technique. The flow Mach number was approximately 0.14, which corresponds to the inleft flow Mach number for the first row of vanes in a gas turbine. The thin film platinum heat gauges were used to measure the heat transfer rate and the Stanton number was calculated from the oscilloscope voltage traces. The Reynolds number was varied by changing the operation pressure of the shock tube and the values varied from 2.3 x 10 to the 4th to 5.3 x 10 to the 5th. For a Reynolds number range of 7 x 10 to the 4th to 3.5 x 10 to the 5th, the relaminarization of the boundary layer was observed. This phenomenon is due to the decay of the turbulence level in the flow as the reflected shock wave moves upstream from the flat plate. As the Reynolds number increased, the relaminarization was delayed and the delay was related to the turbulence generated by the reflected shock wave.

  3. Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules

    SciTech Connect

    DeBlasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

    1990-01-01

    This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Experimental testing of various heat transfer structures in a flat plate thermal energy storage unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Maike; Fiß, Michael; Klemm, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    For solar process heat applications with steam as the working fluid and varying application parameters, a novel latent heat storage concept has been developed using an adaptation of a flat plate heat exchanger as the storage concept. Since the pressure level in these applications usually does not exceed 30 bar, an adaptation with storage material chambers arranged between heat transfer medium chambers is possible. Phase change materials are used as the storage medium, so that the isothermal evaporation of steam during discharging of the storage is paired with the isothermal solidification of the storage material. Heat transfer structures can be inserted into the chambers to adjust the power level for a given application. By combining the required number of flat plate heat exchanger compartments and inserting the appropriate heat transfer structure, the design can easily be adjusted for the required power level and capacity for a specific application. Within this work, the technical feasibility of this concept is proven. The dependence of the operating characteristics on the geometry of the heat exchanger is identified. A focus is on varying the power density by integrating conductive heat structures in the PCM.

  5. An experimental study of flow separation over a flat plate with 2D transverse grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Emily Michelle

    Nature has long been an inspiration for research in engineering. In particular, the biological surfaces of aquatic swimmers have been studied for their potential as drag reducing surfaces. The hydrodynamic benefit of riblets, or grooves embedded parallel to the flow, which appear on many aquatic biological surfaces, have been well documented and implemented in practical engineering applications. However the skin of dolphins is embedded with grooves that run perpendicular to the flow of water over their bodies. It is theorized that the transverse grooves present on dolphin skin trap vortices between them, creating a partial slip condition over the surface and inducing turbulence augmentation in the boundary layer, thus controlling boundary layer separation over the dolphin's skin. Similarly, sharks are covered with scales that are flexible at the base and capable of bristling, forming grooves running transverse to the flow. It is theorized that the scales bristle when encountering a reversing flow, thereby trapping vortices between the scales and, similarly, delaying boundary layer separation. In an attempt to test this hypothesis and study these affects, a spinning cylinder was used in a water tunnel to induce separation over a flat plate with 2 mm, rectangular transverse grooves and sinusoidal grooves of similar scaling. The results were compared to tripped, turbulent boundary layer separation occurring over a flat plate without grooves using time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The strength of the adverse pressure gradient was varied, and the observed delay in flow separation and other affects upon the boundary layer are discussed.

  6. Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deblasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

    1990-01-01

    This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time.

  7. Biomechanical Performance of Lateral Versus Dual Locking Plates for Calcaneal Fractures.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Abby B; Owen, John R; Gilbert, Todd M; Romash, Michael M; Wayne, Jennifer S; Adelaar, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Given the high rates of wound complications with a standard lateral extensile incision, small dual incision techniques might result in less soft tissue destruction. The goal of the present study was to compare the biomechanical performance between a single locking plate and a dual locking plating system for an intra-articular calcaneal fracture model. A Sanders IIB type joint depression calcaneal fracture was created in 10 paired, fresh-frozen, cadaveric calcanei (age 47 ± 12, range 35 to 78 years). The calcanei of each pair were randomly assigned for fixation using either a lateral locking reconstruction plate or lateral and medial locking reconstruction plates. The specimens were axially loaded in cyclic fashion for 1000 cycles, followed by load to failure. The relative fragment movement was monitored optically in both the sagittal and the coronal planes. The amount of overall construct displacement increased with cycling, although no difference was found between the plating techniques. For fragment movement during cycling, the lateral joint fragment migrated anteroinferiorly along the fracture line relative to the tuberosity fragment for dual plated specimens by a small, but statistically significant, amount. This same translation was smaller for lateral plated specimens but was not found to be significant. During load to failure testing, no statistically significant differences were found for construct stiffness. A tendency was seen toward more interfragmentary motion in the sagittal plane (lateral joint fragment movement relative to the fracture line), with less movement overall in the coronal plane (anterior fragment translation and twist) for dual plating, although the difference from the lateral plate was not statistically significant. The present study demonstrated that for this calcaneal fracture model, the dual plating technique experienced a small amount of fragment translation during cycling that was significantly different statistically from that

  8. Flow field and thermal characteristics induced by a rotationally oscillating heated flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Moise

    The objective of this dissertation is the study the flow and heat transfer in the vicinity of a rectangular flat heated plate of subject to rotational oscillations. Of interest is the effect of the flow field on the thermal characteristics of the plate's surface. A constant heat flux is applied to both sides while the plate is rotated about a fixed edge at a frequency of 2 rad/s in an infinite domain at atmospheric pressure. A computational simulation of the flow with FLUENT reveals a hooked-shape vortex tube around the free edges of the plate, which is confirmed by the flow visualization with smoke particles. During the flapping cycle, vortices form and grow progressively on one face while they shed from the opposite, until they are completely detached from both surfaces at stroke reversal. A data acquisition system uses a numerical computing and programming software (MATLAB) to track the surface temperature recorded by J- type thermocouples at desired locations on the plate. Both experimental and computational results agree with local surface temperature profiles characterized by a transient unsteady periodic variation followed by a steady periodic phase. These characteristics are symmetrical about the median plane of the plate, which is normal to its axis of rotation. The cooling rate of the surface, proportional to the frequency of rotation, depends on the angular position of the plate and the spatial location on the plate's surface. However, the highest heat transfer coefficient is recorded at free edges, especially in the corners swept by strong tip vortices shedding in two orthogonal directions. Conclusions of the present study are used to explain the role of ear flapping in the metabolic heat regulation of large mammals such as elephants. Flow visualization and surface temperature measurements of full size rigid and flexible elephant ear-shape models were carried out. Results indicate improved interaction between the shedding vortex and the model's boundary

  9. Flow and heat transfer of ferrofluids over a flat plate with uniform heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, W. A.; Khan, Z. H.; Haq, R. U.

    2015-04-01

    The present work is dedicated to analyze the flow and heat transport of ferrofluids along a flat plate subjected to uniform heat flux and slip velocity. A magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the plate. Moreover, three different kinds of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, CoFe2O4, Mn-ZnFe2O4 are incorporated within the base fluid. We have considered two different kinds of base fluids (kerosene and water) having poor thermal conductivity as compared to solid magnetic nanoparticles. Self-similar solutions are obtained and are compared with the available data for special cases. A simulation is performed for each ferrofluid mixture by considering the dominant effects of slip and uniform heat flux. It is found that the present results are in an excellent agreement with the existing literature. The variation of skin friction and heat transfer is also performed at the surface of the plate and then the better heat transfer and of each mixture is analyzed. Kerosene-based magnetite Fe3O4 provides the higher heat transfer rate at the wall as compared to the kerosene-based cobalt ferrite and Mn-Zn ferrite. It is also concluded that the primary effect of the magnetic field is to accelerate the dimensionless velocity and to reduce the dimensionless surface temperature as compared to the hydrodynamic case, thereby increasing the skin friction and the heat transfer rate of ferrofluids.

  10. Interaction of a Rectangular Jet with a Flat-Plate Placed Parallel to the Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Brown, C. A.; Bridges, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is carried out addressing the flowfield and radiated noise from the interaction of a large aspect ratio rectangular jet with a flat plate placed parallel to but away from the direct path of the jet. Sound pressure level spectra exhibit an increase in the noise levels for both the 'reflected' and 'shielded' sides of the plate relative to the free-jet case. Detailed cross-sectional distributions of flowfield properties obtained by hot-wire anemometry are documented for a low subsonic condition. Corresponding mean Mach number distributions obtained by Pitot-probe surveys are presented for high subsonic conditions. In the latter flow regime and for certain relative locations of the plate, a flow resonance accompanied by audible tones is encountered. Under the resonant condition the jet cross-section experiences an 'axis-switching' and flow visualization indicates the presence of an organized 'vortex street'. The trends of the resonant frequency variation with flow parameters exhibit some similarities to, but also marked differences with, corresponding trends of the well-known edgetone phenomenon.

  11. Raman scattering measurements within a flat plate boundary layer in an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, Damien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2007-08-01

    High temperature air chemistry is a crucial issue concerning next reusable space vehicle thermal protection system. The aim of this paper is to measure N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} densities and characteristic temperatures thanks to spontaneous Raman scattering within the boundary layer of a stainless steel flat plate cooled down at 300 K. This shear-flow test configuration is considered as a nonequilibrium air plasma test case. Vibrational and rotational temperatures are determined by comparing experimental spectra with computed ones. The density calculation is performed using the ratio of first vibrational transition intensities for both cases with and without plasma at 38 hPa. Several sections were investigated between 15 and 40 mm from the leading edge. All these sections exhibit a classical boundary layer pattern. The rotational temperature is completely in equilibrium with the plate and reaches 2500 K at the outer edge of the boundary layer. On the contrary, the vibrational temperature drops to 1500 K near of the plate and is about 5000 K in the freestream. Molecular densities are smaller than expected at equilibrium, about 60% of the equilibrium value in the freestream for N{sub 2}.

  12. A formal derivation for the Blasius similarity solution for flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The Blasius solution is a classical solution for a laminar boundary layer attached to a semi-infinite flat plate. The key of the solution strategy is to reduce the boundary layer equations, which are PDEs, to a set of ODEs, using a similarity variable transform. Conceptually, the similarity suggests that the velocity profile in each transverse cross-section appears ``self-similar''. In many classical text books and typical classroom lectures on fluid mechanics, the existence of the similarity solution is argued heuristically. The similarity variable is defined a priori so as to collapse the PDEs. It appears somewhat mystical that the PDEs can be perfectly reduced via such an approach. Here we present a rigorous derivation for the existence of a similarity solution, which naturally arises from the fact that there is no apparent streamwise length scale for a semi-infinite plate. Conversely, a similarity solution cannot exist if the plate size is finite. This derivation can be useful in fluids education, in topics including similarity, scaling arguments, and boundary layer theory.

  13. A method for measuring skin friction drag on a flat plate in contaminated gas flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oetting, R. B.; Patterson, G. K.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for measuring friction drag in turbulent gas and gas/particle flows over flat plates is presented, and preliminary results are reported. A 0.25-in.-thick 72 x 6-in. Al plate is suspended by six horizontal support air bearings and four vertical alignment air bearings between fixed dummy plates and leading-edge and trailing-edge fairings in the 32-in.-high 48-in.-wide 11-ft-long test section of a closed-circuit atmospheric wind tunnel operating at 50-150 ft/sec. Particles of Fe and Al oxides of diameter 20-150 microns and density up to 0.3 lb particles per lb air are injected via a 6 x 0.167-in. nozzle; turbulence is induced by a roughened section of the leading-edge fairing; and friction drag is measured using a load-cell pressure transducer. Sample results are shown in a graph, demonstrating good agreement with theoretical drag calculations.

  14. Dual-exposure technique for extending the dynamic range of x-ray flat panel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisniega, A.; Abella, M.; Desco, M.; Vaquero, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an approach to extend the dynamic range of x-ray flat panel detectors by combining two acquisitions of the same sample taken with two different x-ray photon flux levels and the same beam spectral configuration. In order to combine both datasets, the response of detector pixels was modelled in terms of mean and variance using a linear model. The model was extended to take into account the effect of pixel saturation. We estimated a joint probability density function (j-pdf) of the pixel values by assuming that each dataset follows an independent Gaussian distribution. This j-pdf was used for estimating the final pixel value of the high-dynamic-range dataset using a maximum likelihood method. The suitability of the pixel model for the representation of the detector signal was assessed using experimental data from a small-animal cone-beam micro-CT scanner equipped with a flat panel detector. The potential extension in dynamic range offered by our method was investigated for generic flat panel detectors using analytical expressions and simulations. The performance of the proposed dual-exposure approach in realistic imaging environments was compared with that of a regular single-exposure technique using experimental data from two different phantoms. Image quality was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and analysis of profiles drawn on the images. The dynamic range, measured as the ratio between the exposure for saturation and the exposure equivalent to instrumentation noise, was increased from 76.9 to 166.7 when using our method. Dual-exposure results showed higher contrast-to-noise ratio and contrast resolution than the single-exposure acquisitions for the same x-ray dose. In addition, image artifacts were reduced in the combined dataset. This technique to extend the dynamic range of the detector without increasing the dose is particularly suited to image samples that contain both low and high attenuation regions.

  15. Reliability evaluation of hermetic dual in-line flat microcircuit packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.; Conaway, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    The relative strengths and weaknesses of 35 commonly used hermetic flat and dual in-line packages were determined and used to rank each of the packages according to a numerical weighting scheme for package attributes. The list of attributes included desirable features in five major areas: lead and lead seal, body construction, body materials, lid and lid seal, and marking. The metal flat pack and multilayer integral ceramic flat pack and DIP received the highest rankings, and the soft glass Cerdip and Cerpak types received the lowest rankings. Loss of package hermeticity due to lead and lid seal problems was found to be the predominant failure mode from the literature/data search. However, environmental test results showed that lead and lid seal failures due to thermal stressing was only a problem with the hard glass (Ceramic) body DIP utilizing a metal lid and/or bottom. Insufficient failure data were generated for the other package types tested to correlate test results with the package ranking.

  16. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  17. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields. Phase III, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.D.; Zimmerman, D.K.

    1981-04-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads.

  18. Potential of size reduction of flat-plate solar collectors when applying MWCNT nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, M.; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, S.

    2013-06-01

    Flat-plate solar collector is the most popular type of collector for hot water system to replace gas or electric heater. Solar thermal energy source is clean and infinite to replace fossil fuel source that is declining and harmful to the environment. However, current solar technology is still expensive, low in efficiency and takes up a lot of space. One effective way to increase the efficiency is by applying high conductivity fluid as nanofluid. This paper analyzes the potential of size reduction of solar collector when MWCNT nanofluid is used as absorbing medium. The analysis is based on different mass flow rate, nanoparticles mass fraction, and presence of surfactant in the fluid. For the same output temperature, it can be observed that the collector's size can be reduced up to 37% of its original size when applying MWCNT nanofluid as the working fluid and thus can reduce the overall cost of the system.

  19. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexandre; Gaouyat, Lucie; Nicolay, Delphine; Carletti, Timoteo; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-10-20

    We present a multi-objective genetic algorithm we developed for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector. This collector consists of a waffle-shaped Al substrate with NiCrOx cermet and SnO(2) anti-reflection conformal coatings. Optimal geometrical parameters are determined in order to (i) maximize the solar absorptance α and (ii) minimize the thermal emittance ε. The multi-objective genetic algorithm eventually provides a whole set of Pareto-optimal solutions for the optimization of α and ε, which turn out to be competitive with record values found in the literature. In particular, a solution that enables α = 97.8% and ε = 4.8% was found. PMID:25607321

  20. A model for correlating flat plate film cooling effectiveness for rows of round holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecuyer, M. R.; Soechting, F. O.

    1985-09-01

    An effective method of cooling, that has found widespread application in aircraft gas turbines, is the injection of a film of cooling air through holes into the hot mainstream gas to provide a buffer layer between the hot gas and the airfoil surface. Film cooling has been extensively investigated and the results have been reported in the literature. However, there is no generalized method reported in the literature to predict the film cooling performance as influenced by the major variables. A generalized film cooling correlation has been developed, utilizing data reported in the literature, for constant velocity and flat plate boundary layer development. This work provides a basic understanding of the complex interaction of the major variables effecting film cooling performance.

  1. Calculation of oblique-shock-wave laminar-boundary-layer interaction on a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, U.; Reshotko, E.

    1980-01-01

    A finite difference solution to the problem of the interaction between an impinging oblique shock wave and the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is presented. The boundary layer equations coupled with the Prandtl-Meyer relation for the external flow are used to calculate the flow field. A method for the calculation of the separated flow region is presented and discussed. Comparisons between this theory and the experimental results of other investigators show fairly good agreement. Results are presented for the case of a cooled wall with an oncoming flow at Mach number 2.0 without and with suction. The results show that a small amount of suction greatly reduces the extent of the separated region in the vicinity of the shock impingement location.

  2. PV Reliability Development Lessons from JPL's Flat Plate Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Key reliability and engineering lessons learned from the 20-year history of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and thin film module reliability research activities are presented and analyzed. Particular emphasis is placed on lessons applicable to evolving new module technologies and the organizations involved with these technologies. The user-specific demand for reliability is a strong function of the application, its location, and its expected duration. Lessons relative to effective means of specifying reliability are described, and commonly used test requirements are assessed from the standpoint of which are the most troublesome to pass, and which correlate best with field experience. Module design lessons are also summarized, including the significance of the most frequently encountered failure mechanisms and the role of encapsulate and cell reliability in determining module reliability. Lessons pertaining to research, design, and test approaches include the historical role and usefulness of qualification tests and field tests.

  3. Characterizing a burst leading-edge vortex on a rotating flat plate wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anya R.; Medina, Albert; Spooner, Hannah; Mulleners, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Identifying, characterizing, and tracking incoherent vortices in highly separated flows is of interest for the development of new low-order models for unsteady lift prediction. The current work examines several methods to identify vortex burst and characterize a burst leading-edge vortex. Time-resolved stereoscopic PIV was performed on a rotating flat plate wing at Re = 2500. The burst process was found to occur at mid-span and is characterized by axial flow reversal, the entrainment of opposite-sign vorticity, and a rapid expansion of vortex size. A POD analysis revealed that variations in certain mode coefficients are indicative of the flow state changes characteristics of burst. During burst, the leading-edge vortex evolves to a region of inhomogeneous vorticity distributed over a large area. Several methods of defining the vortex size and circulation are evaluated and a combination of these can be used to characterize the leading-edge vortex both pre- and post-burst.

  4. Comparison of DAC and MONACO DSMC Codes with Flat Plate Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    Various implementations of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method exist in academia, government and industry. By comparing implementations, deficiencies and merits of each can be discovered. This document reports comparisons between DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) and MONACO. DAC is NASA's standard DSMC production code and MONACO is a research DSMC code developed in academia. These codes have various differences; in particular, they employ distinct computational grid definitions. In this study, DAC and MONACO are compared by having each simulate a blunted flat plate wind tunnel test, using an identical volume mesh. Simulation expense and DSMC metrics are compared. In addition, flow results are compared with available laboratory data. Overall, this study revealed that both codes, excluding grid adaptation, performed similarly. For parallel processing, DAC was generally more efficient. As expected, code accuracy was mainly dependent on physical models employed.

  5. Flat-plate techniques for measuring reflectance of macro-algae (Ulva curvata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, Amina; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Schwarzschild, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We tested the consistency and accuracy of flat-plate spectral measurements (400–1000 nm) of the marine macrophyte Ulva curvata. With sequential addition of Ulva thallus layers, the reflectance progressively increased from 6% to 9% with six thalli in the visible (VIS) and from 5% to 19% with ten thalli in the near infrared (NIR). This progressive increase was simulated by a mathematical calculation based on an Ulva thallus diffuse reflectance weighted by a transmittance power series. Experimental and simulated reflectance differences that were particularly high in the NIR most likely resulted from residual water and layering structure unevenness in the experimental progression. High spectral overlap existed between fouled and non-fouled Ulva mats and the coexistent lagoon mud in the VIS, whereas in the NIR, spectral contrast was retained but substantially dampened by fouling.

  6. A preliminary investigation of boundary-layer transition along a flat plate with adverse pressure gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Doenhoff, Albert E

    1938-01-01

    Boundary-layer surveys were made throughout the transition region along a smooth flat plate placed in an airstream of practically zero turbulence and with an adverse pressure gradient. The boundary-layer Reynolds number at the laminar separation point was varied from 1,800 to 2,600. The test data, when considered in the light of certain theoretical deductions, indicated that transition probably began with separation of the laminar boundary layer. The extent of the transition region, defined as the distance from a calculated laminar separation point to the position of the first fully developed turbulent boundary-layer profile, could be expressed as a constant Reynolds number run of approximately 70,000. Some speculations are presented concerning the application of the foregoing concepts, after certain assumptions have been made, to the problem of the connection between transition on the upper surface of an airfoil at high angles of attack and the maximum lift.

  7. Direct numerical simulation of laminar-turbulent flow over a flat plate at hypersonic flow speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, I. V.; Novikov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    A method for direct numerical simulation of a laminar-turbulent flow around bodies at hypersonic flow speeds is proposed. The simulation is performed by solving the full three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The method of calculation is oriented to application of supercomputers and is based on implicit monotonic approximation schemes and a modified Newton-Raphson method for solving nonlinear difference equations. By this method, the development of three-dimensional perturbations in the boundary layer over a flat plate and in a near-wall flow in a compression corner is studied at the Mach numbers of the free-stream of M = 5.37. In addition to pulsation characteristic, distributions of the mean coefficients of the viscous flow in the transient section of the streamlined surface are obtained, which enables one to determine the beginning of the laminar-turbulent transition and estimate the characteristics of the turbulent flow in the boundary layer.

  8. LOVEL: a low-velocity aerodynamic heating code for flat-plates, wedges, and cones

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, A.L.

    1981-12-01

    The LOVEL computer program calculates the boundary-layer edge conditions for subsonic and supersonic flow over flat-plate, wedge, and cone geometries for freestream Mach conditions (M/sub infinity/ < 3. Cold-wall heat-transfer calculations use reference temperature correlations based on boundary-layer edge Mach number to compute fluid properties. The first part of this report describes the theory used in the computation of the cold-wall heat-transfer rates; the second part describes in detail the input/output format for the LOVEL computer program. Outputs include freestream conditions, boundary-layer edge conditions, cold-wall heat-transfer rates, plots of heating rates, and punched-card output for use in ablation and in-depth transient heat-conduction computer codes.

  9. A new solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, W.; Wilcox, S.

    1994-06-01

    A new solar radiation data manual is nearing completion by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Analytic Studies Division under the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project and the Photovoltaic Solar Radiation Research Task. These tasks are funded and monitored by the Photovoltaics Branch of the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The new manual is entitled Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors. For designers and engineers of solar energy related systems, it gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The data in the manual are modeled using diffuse horizontal and direct beam solar radiation values from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct beam solar radiation for 1961-1990. This paper describes what is contained in the new data manual and how it was developed.

  10. Viscous flow past a nacelle isolated and in proximity of a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouladi, Kamran

    1992-01-01

    Linearized-theory design procedures have proven to be useful in preliminary design stages of supersonic aircraft configurations. These procedures are impaired, however, by their inability to account for certain nonlinear effects inherent in complicated flows. The present computations are aimed at providing necessary information for correction and improvement of a particular linearized design method. Three-dimensional, viscous, supersonic flows past nacelle and nacelle-flat plate configurations are investigated. The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind-biased, finite-volume method. A hybrid domain decomposition technique is utilized to ease the grid generation task. Computations were made for an unit Reynolds number of 2.0 million per foot and Freestream Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, and 2.3.

  11. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 3: Silicon sheet: Wafers and ribbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briglio, A.; Dumas, K.; Leipold, M.; Morrison, A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the Silicon Sheet Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was the development of one or more low cost technologies for producing silicon sheet suitable for processing into cost-competitive solar cells. Silicon sheet refers to high purity crystalline silicon of size and thickness for fabrication into solar cells. Areas covered in the project were ingot growth and casting, wafering, ribbon growth, and other sheet technologies. The task made and fostered significant improvements in silicon sheet including processing of both ingot and ribbon technologies. An additional important outcome was the vastly improved understanding of the characteristics associated with high quality sheet, and the control of the parameters required for higher efficiency solar cells. Although significant sheet cost reductions were made, the technology advancements required to meet the task cost goals were not achieved.

  12. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, J. W.; Borzoni, J. T.; Holland, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relevant design parameters in the fabrication of a solar collector for heating liquids were examined. The objective was to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost, flat-plate solar collector with high collection efficiency, high durability, and requiring little maintenance. Computer-aided math models of the heat transfer processes in the collector assisted in the design. The preferred physical design parameters were determined from a heat transfer standpoint and the absorber panel configuration, the surface treatment of the absorber panel, the type and thickness of insulation, and the number, spacing and material of the covers were defined. Variations of this configuration were identified, prototypes built, and performance tests performed using a solar simulator. Simulated operation of the baseline collector configuration was combined with insolation data for a number of locations and compared with a predicted load to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  13. Experimental study of boundary layer transition on a heated flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, K. H.; Reshotko, E.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed investigation to the document momentum and thermal development of boundary layers undergoing natural transition on a heated flat plate was performed. Experimental results of both overall and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional, and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are presented. Measurements were done in a low-speed, closed-loop wind tunnel with a freestream velocity of 100 ft/s and zero pressure gradient over a range of freestream turbulence intensities from 0.4 to 6 percent. The distributions of skin friction, heat transfer rate, and Reynolds shear stress were all consistent with previously published data. Reynolds analogy factors for momentum thickness Reynolds number, Re(sub theta) less than 2300 were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for an unheated starting length and uniform heat flux. A small dependence of turbulence results on the freestream turbulence intensity was observed.

  14. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 6: Engineering sciences and reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Smokler, M. I.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project activities directed at developing the engineering technology base required to achieve modules that meet the functional, safety, and reliability requirements of large scale terrestrial photovoltaic systems applications are reported. These activities included: (1) development of functional, safety, and reliability requirements for such applications; (2) development of the engineering analytical approaches, test techniques, and design solutions required to meet the requirements; (3) synthesis and procurement of candidate designs for test and evaluation; and (4) performance of extensive testing, evaluation, and failure analysis of define design shortfalls and, thus, areas requiring additional research and development. A summary of the approach and technical outcome of these activities are provided along with a complete bibliography of the published documentation covering the detailed accomplishments and technologies developed.

  15. Boundary layer flow of air over water on a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John; Alving, Amy E.; Joseph, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    A non-similar boundary layer theory for air blowing over a water layer on a flat plate is formulated and studied as a two-fluid problem in which the position of the interface is unknown. The problem is considered at large Reynolds number (based on x), away from the leading edge. A simple non-similar analytic solution of the problem is derived for which the interface height is proportional to x(sub 1/4) and the water and air flow satisfy the Blasius boundary layer equations, with a linear profile in the water and a Blasius profile in the air. Numerical studies of the initial value problem suggests that this asymptotic, non-similar air-water boundary layer solution is a global attractor for all initial conditions.

  16. Experiments on the stability of the flat-plate boundary layer with suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, G. A.; Saric, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the VPI and SU Stability Wind Tunnel on a flat-plate wind-tunnel model equipped with porous suction panels. Detailed hot-wire measurements were conducted in the laminar boundary layer to investigate the stabilizing effects of suction on growing Tollmien-Schlichting waves, which were introduced into the boundary layer using a vibrating ribbon. Special care was taken to minimize external disturbances and to avoid extraneous experimental bias. The measurements, which included mean-flow and disturbance-amplitude profiles across the boundary layer, showed that suction applied through discrete porous strips can be as effective as suction applied continuously over a much longer streamwise length. The measurements also showed that suction is more effective when placed forward, nearer to the region of neutral stability, than when placed in the region of maximum growth rate. These results also provided meaningful comparison with recent theory.

  17. Time domain numerical calculations of unsteady vortical flows about a flat plate airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Yu, Ping; Scott, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    A time domain numerical scheme is developed to solve for the unsteady flow about a flat plate airfoil due to imposed upstream, small amplitude, transverse velocity perturbations. The governing equation for the resulting unsteady potential is a homogeneous, constant coefficient, convective wave equation. Accurate solution of the problem requires the development of approximate boundary conditions which correctly model the physics of the unsteady flow in the far field. A uniformly valid far field boundary condition is developed, and numerical results are presented using this condition. The stability of the scheme is discussed, and the stability restriction for the scheme is established as a function of the Mach number. Finally, comparisons are made with the frequency domain calculation by Scott and Atassi, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of each approach are assessed.

  18. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  19. Urea separation in flat-plate microchannel hemodialyzer; experiment and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tuhy, Alana R; Anderson, Eric K; Jovanovic, Goran N

    2012-06-01

    Two flat-plate microchannel hemodialyzers were constructed consisting of two identical laminae separated by a 20[μm] thick ultrafiltration membrane (Gambro AN69). Each lamina contains a parallel array of microchannels 100[μm] deep, 200[μm] wide, and 5.6[cm] or 9.9[cm] in length respectively. Urea was removed from the aqueous stream containing 1.0[g] urea per liter de-ionized water in the blood side, by countercurrent contact with pure de-ionized water in the dialysate side of the flat-plate hemodialyzer. In all cases volumetric flow rate of water in the dialysate side was equal or less than the volumetric flow rate in the blood side, which is in large contrast to commercial applications of hollow-fiber hemodialyzers where dialysate flow is severalfold larger than blood flow rate. A three-dimensional finite volume mass transport model, built entirely from the first principles with no adjustable parameters, was written in FORTRAN. The results of the mathematical model excellently predict experimental results. The fractional removals of urea predicted by the model are within 2.7%-11% of experimentally obtained values for different blood and dialysate velocities/flow rates in microchannels, and for different transmembrane pressures. The overall mass transfer coefficient was calculated using the urea outlet concentrations obtained at various average velocities (1.0-5.0[cm/s]) in the blood and dialysate, and two nominal transmembrane pressures (∆P(tm) = 0 and 10,000.[Pa]). Overall mass transfer coefficients obtained experimentally ranged from 0.068 to 0.14 [cm/min]. The numerical model predicted an average overall mass transfer coefficient of 0.08 [cm/min]. This value is 60% higher than those found in commercial dialyzers (~0.05[cm/min]). PMID:22374475

  20. Interaction of a synthetic jet with a flat plate boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampunggoon, Prakit

    The interaction of a 2-dimensional modeled synthetic jet with a flat plate boundary layer is investigated numerically using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver. A simple, two-dimensional synthetic jet configuration along with a flat plate, laminar Blasius boundary layer was used in the current study. The oscillating diaphragm of the actuator is modeled in a realistic manner as a moving boundary in an effort to accurately compute the flow inside the jet cavity. The primary focus of the current study is on describing the dynamics of the synthetic jet in the presence of external crossflow. However, in addition, simulations of the jet with quiescent external flow have also been performed. A systematic framework was put forth for characterizing the jet that consists of computing the various moments of the velocity profile along with an integral measure of the profile skewness. A comprehensive parametric study has been carried out where the diaphragm amplitude, external flow Reynolds number, boundary layer thickness, and slot dimensions are varied; and the scaling of the jet characteristics with parameters is examined. The simulations also allow us to extract some interesting flow physics associated with the vortex dynamics of the jet and to elucidate the effect of external cross flow on jet development. In addition, a low-dimensional model for jet velocity profile is proposed and tested. Finally, the so-called "virtual aero-shaping" effect of synthetic jets is examined and the current simulations indicate a simple scaling of this effect with the dynamical characteristics of the jet and external crossflow.

  1. Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Subcomponent Flat Plate Impact Testing for Space Shuttle Orbiter Return to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Brand, Jeremy H.; Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the Space Shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) and various debris materials which could potentially shed on ascent and impact the Orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS DYNA to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the Orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic material model properties of materials of interest, sub-component impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and full-scale impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This paper discusses the second level subcomponent test program in detail and its application to the LS DYNA model validation process. The level two testing consisted of over one hundred impact tests in the NASA Glenn Research Center Ballistic Impact Lab on 6 by 6 in. and 6 by 12 in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated three types of debris projectiles: BX 265 External Tank foam, ice, and PDL 1034 External Tank foam. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile. The information obtained from this testing validated the LS DYNA damage prediction models and provided a certain level of confidence to begin performing analysis for full-size RCC test articles for returning NASA to flight with STS 114 and beyond.

  2. On the flow generated by rotating flat plates of low aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVoria, Adam C.

    Low-aspect-ratio propulsors typically allow for high maneuverability at low-to-moderate speeds. This has made them the subject of much recent research aimed at employing such appendages on autonomous vehicles which are required to navigate tumultuous environments. This experimental investigation focuses on the fluid dynamic aspects associated with overly-simplified versions of such biologically-inspired propulsors. In doing so, fundamental contributions are made to the research area. The unsteady, three-dimensional flow of a low-aspect-ratio, trapezoidal flat plate undergoing rotation from rest at a 90° angle of attack and Reynolds numbers of O(103) is investigated experimentally. The objectives are to develop a straightforward protocol for vortex saturation, and to understand the effects of the root-to-tip flow for different velocity programs. The experiments are conducted in a glass-walled tank, and digital particle image velocimetry is used to obtain planar velocity measurements. A formation-parameter definition is investigated and is found to reasonably predict the state corresponding to the pinch-off of the initial tip vortex across the velocity programs tested. The flow in the region near the tip is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number over the range studied. The component normal to the plate is unaffected by total rotational amplitude while the tangential component has dependence on this angle. Also, an estimate of the first tip-vortex pinch-off time is obtained from the near-tip velocity data and agrees very well with values estimated using circulation. The angle of incidence of the bulk root-to-tip flow relative to the plate normal becomes more oblique with increasing rotational amplitude. Accordingly, the peak magnitude of the tangential velocity is also increased and as a result advects fluid momentum away from the plate at a higher rate. The more oblique impingement of the root-to-tip flow for increasing rotational amplitude is shown to have a

  3. Measurements of Conversion Efficiency for a Flat Plate Thermophotovoltaic System Using a Photonic Cavity Test System

    SciTech Connect

    E.J. Brown; C.T. Ballinger; S.R. Burger; G.W. Charache; L.R. Danielson; D.M. DePoy; T.J. Donovan; M. LoCascio

    2000-05-30

    The performance of a 1 cm{sup 2} thermophotovoltaic (TPV) module was recently measured in a photonic cavity test system. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was measured at a radiator temperature of 1076 C and a module temperature of 29.9 C. This experiment achieved the highest direct measurement of efficiency for an integrated TPV system. Efficiency was calculated from the ratio of the peak (load matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. Measurements of these two parameters were made simultaneously to assure the validity of the measured efficiency value. This test was conducted in a photonic cavity which mimicked a typical flat-plate TPV system. The radiator was a large, flat graphite surface. The module was affixed to the top of a copper pedestal for heat absorption measurements. The heat absorption rate was proportional to the axial temperature gradient in the pedestal under steady-state conditions. The test was run in a vacuum to eliminate conductive and convective heat transfer mechanisms. The photonic cavity provides the optimal test environment for TPV efficiency measurements because it incorporates all important physical phenomena found in an integrated TPV system: high radiator emissivity and blackbody spectral shape, photon recycling, Lambertian distribution of incident radiation and complex geometric effects. Furthermore, the large aspect ratio between radiating surface area and radiator/module spacing produces a view factor approaching unity with minimal photon leakage.

  4. Confined swirling jet impingement on a flat plate at moderate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrada, M. A.; Del Pino, C.; Ortega-Casanova, J.

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of a swirling jet issuing from a pipe and impinging on a flat smooth wall is analyzed numerically by means of axisymmetric simulations. The axial velocity profile at the pipe outlet is assumed flat while the azimuthal velocity profile is a Burger's vortex characterized by two non-dimensional parameters; a swirl number S and a vortex core length δ. We concentrate on the effects of these two parameters on the mechanical characteristics of the flow at moderate Reynolds numbers. Our results for S =0 are in agreement with Phares et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 418, 351 (2000)], who provide a theoretical determination of the wall shear stress under nonswirling impinging jets at high Reynolds numbers. In addition, we show that the swirl number has an important effect on the jet impact process. For a fixed nozzle-to-plate separation, we found that depending on the value of δ and the Reynolds number Re, there is a critical swirl number, S =S∗(δ ,Re), above which recirculating vortex breakdown bubbles are observed in the near axis region. For S >S∗, the presence of these bubbles enhances the transition from a steady to a periodic regime. For S

  5. Aerothermodynamics of compressible flow past a flat plate in the slip-flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi-Yang; Dai, Yi; Li, Genong; Hu, Yitao; Lai, Ming-Chia

    2015-11-01

    Compressible flow past a flat plate in the slip-flow regime features a very simple geometry and flow field, but it retains the most relevant and interesting physics in high-speed rarefied gas dynamics. In the slip-flow regime, the aerothermodynamic issues, especially the recovery factors and the convection heat transfer correlation, are the focus of this presentation. We first present the detailed similarity equations, especially the transformed Maxwell's slip and jump boundary conditions, and the equations for the Chapman-Rubesin parameter as well as how we incorporate the variable gas properties and the constitutive scaling model for the Knudsen layer in the similarity equations. The similarity solutions are compared with results published by E. R. van Driest [NACA Technical Note 2597, 1952]. We point out that van Driest's solutions were computed by using no-slip and no-jump boundary conditions. The recovery factor and Nusselt number of the plate are shown as functions of the Reynolds number and the Mach number. Finally, the similarity solutions are also compared with simulations of a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model solving the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations with slip and jump boundary conditions.

  6. Geometry Transition in the Cocos Plate, from Flat-Steep to Constant Dip: Smooth or Abrupt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Clayton, R. W.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Valdés-González, C. M.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Córdoba-Montiel, F.

    2013-05-01

    Subduction of the Cocos Plate beneath North America has a variable and complex behavior along the Middle-American Trench. Initially, its geometry was delineated from regional seismicity. In the last 10 years, seismic experiments have illuminated some details in the geometry. They have reported, from NW to SE an abrupt dip transition, from 50 to 26°, as the result of a tear that splits Cocos North from Cocos South; then there is a smooth transition to a horizontal geometry under central Mexico. Further southeast, under the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the Cocos plate shows a constant ~26° subduction dip. This last transition has been assumed to be smooth from the sparse seismicity in the region. A first glimpse of the slab geometry under Oaxaca, shows the slab continues to be flat at least until 97.5°W longitude, where the slab suddenly changes to a ~55° dip to the northeast. This occurs at a distance of ~75 km from the Pico de Orizaba volcano, which is a similar distance as the active Popocatepetl volcano from the place where the slab dives into the mantle along the Meso-American Subduction Experiment line, in central Mexico. East of this region, receiver function images show an abrupt change in the geometry and length of the slab.

  7. Heat Transfer on a Flat Plate with Uniform and Step Temperature Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.

    2005-01-01

    Heat transfer associated with turbulent flow on a step-heated or cooled section of a flat plate at zero angle of attack with an insulated starting section was computationally modeled using the GASP Navier-Stokes code. The algebraic eddy viscosity model of Baldwin-Lomax and the turbulent two-equation models, the K- model and the Shear Stress Turbulent model (SST), were employed. The variations from uniformity of the imposed experimental temperature profile were incorporated in the computations. The computations yielded satisfactory agreement with the experimental results for all three models. The Baldwin- Lomax model showed the closest agreement in heat transfer, whereas the SST model was higher and the K-omega model was yet higher than the experiments. In addition to the step temperature distribution case, computations were also carried out for a uniformly heated or cooled plate. The SST model showed the closest agreement with the Von Karman analogy, whereas the K-omega model was higher and the Baldwin-Lomax was lower.

  8. Microscale 3D collagen cell culture assays in conventional flat-bottom 384-well plates.

    PubMed

    Leung, Brendan M; Moraes, Christopher; Cavnar, Stephen P; Luker, Kathryn E; Luker, Gary D; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture systems such as cell-laden hydrogels are superior to standard two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures for many drug-screening applications. However, their adoption into high-throughput screening (HTS) has been lagging, in part because of the difficulty of incorporating these culture formats into existing robotic liquid handling and imaging infrastructures. Dispensing cell-laden prepolymer solutions into 2D well plates is a potential solution but typically requires large volumes of reagents to avoid evaporation during polymerization, which (1) increases costs, (2) makes drug penetration variable and (3) complicates imaging. Here we describe a technique to efficiently produce 3D microgels using automated liquid-handling systems and standard, nonpatterned, flat-bottomed, 384-well plates. Sub-millimeter-diameter, cell-laden collagen gels are deposited on the bottom of a ~2.5 mm diameter microwell with no concerns about evaporation or meniscus effects at the edges of wells, using aqueous two-phase system patterning. The microscale cell-laden collagen-gel constructs are readily imaged and readily penetrated by drugs. The cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutics was monitored by bioluminescence and demonstrated that 3D cultures confer chemoresistance as compared with similar 2D cultures. Hence, these data demonstrate the importance of culturing cells in 3D to obtain realistic cellular responses. Overall, this system provides a simple and inexpensive method for integrating 3D culture capability into existing HTS infrastructure. PMID:25510473

  9. Detached Eddy Simulation of Film Cooling over a GE Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Subrata

    2005-01-01

    The detached eddy simulation of film cooling has been utilized for a proprietary GE plate-pipe configuration. The blowing ratio was 2.02, the velocity ratio was 1.26, and the temperature ratio was 1.61. Results indicate that the mixing processes downstream of the hole are highly anisotropic. DES solution shows its ability to depict the dynamic nature of the flow and capture the asymmetry present in temperature and velocity distributions. Further, comparison between experimental and DES time-averaged effectiveness is satisfactory. Numerical values of span-averaged effectiveness show better prediction of the experimental values at downstream locations than a steady state Glenn HT solution. While the DES method shows obvious promise, there are several issues that need further investigation. Despite an accurate prediction in the hole vicinity, the simulation still falls short in the region x = 10d to 100d. This should be investigated. Also the model used flat plate. Actual turbine blade should be modeled in the future if additional finding is available.

  10. Computational Analysis of Vortex Formation Over a Plunge Oscillating Flat Plate with Various Slip Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmore, John; Sharif, Muhammad; Lang, Amy

    2010-11-01

    A thorough understanding of small scale aerodynamics is important for the design of micro air vehicles. Since they fly in the same Re regime as that of insects, these animals can provide biologically inspired designs. This study looks at how an alteration to the surface slip condition affects the aerodynamic flow over a wing at low Re. Butterflies have small scales (on the order of 100 microns in length) that line the surface of their wings, and it is hypothesized that these scales can affect the slip condition over their wings altering vortex formation and possibly leading to improved flight characteristics. As an initial test to this hypothesis, the flow over an infinitely thin, two-dimensional flat plate was studied using the CFD software FLUENT. The no-slip condition was modified by directly altering the shear stress distribution over the plate. In addition, the action of flapping was simulated by varying the angle of attack as a function of time between -60 and 60 degrees. Multiple shear stress distributions, varying from shear free to no-slip, and multiple flapping frequencies were tested to discern the effects on vortex formation; lift and drag were also analyzed.

  11. Microscale 3-D collagen cell culture assays in conventional flat-bottom 384-well plates

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Brendan M.; Moraes, Christopher; Cavnar, Stephen; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional culture systems such as cell-laden hydrogels are superior to standard 2-D monolayer cultures for many drug-screening applications. However, their adoption in high throughput screening (HTS) have been lagging, in part due to the difficulty of incorporating these culture formats into existing robotic liquid handling and imaging infrastructures. Dispensing cell-laden pre-polymer solutions into 2-D well-plates is a potential solution, but typically requires large volumes of reagents to avoid evaporation during polymerization, which increases cost, makes drug penetration variable and imaging complex. Here we describe a technique to efficiently produce 3-D ‘microgels’ using automated liquid handling systems and standard, non-patterned, flat-bottomed, 384-well plates. Sub-millimeter-diameter, cell-laden collagen gels are deposited on the bottom of ~2.5 mm-diameter microwell with no concerns over evaporation and meniscus effects at the edges of wells, using aqueous two-phase system patterning. The microscale cell-laden collagen-gel constructs are readily imaged and readily penetrated by drugs. Cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutics were monitored by bioluminescence and demonstrates that 3-D cultures confer chemoresistance, as compared to similar 2-D culture. This data hence, demonstrates the importance of culturing cells in 3-D to obtain realistic cellular responses. Overall, this system provided a simple and inexpensive method for integrating 3-D culture capability into existing HTS infrastructure. PMID:25510473

  12. Unsteady heat-flux measurements of second-mode instability waves in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat-flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors, and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are consistent with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was used to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  13. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a flat-plate planform model of an advanced fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, Brian E.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Gatlin, Gregory M.; Oneil, Pat

    1994-01-01

    A flat-plate wind tunnel model of an advanced fighter configuration was tested in the NASA LaRC Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel and the 16- by 24-inch Water Tunnel. The test objectives were to obtain and evaluate the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a candidate configuration for the integration of several new innovative wing designs. The flat plate test allowed for the initial evaluation of the candidate planform and was designated as the baseline planform for the innovative wing design study. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained over a range of freestream dynamic pressures from 7.5 psf to 30 psf (M = 0.07 to M = 0.14) and angles-of-attack from 0 to 40 deg. The aerodynamic data are presented in coefficient form for the lift, induced drag, and pitching moment. Flow-visualization results obtained were photographs of the flow pattern over the flat plate model in the water tunnel for angles-of-attack from 10 to 40 deg. The force and moment coefficients and the flow-visualization photographs showed the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics due to attached flow and vortical flow over the flat plate model. Comparison between experiment and linear theory showed good agreement for the lift and induced drag; however, the agreement was poor for the pitching moment.

  14. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  15. Critical Compressive Stress for Flat Rectangular Plates Supported Along All Edges and Elastically Restrained Against Rotation along the Unloaded Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z

    1942-01-01

    A chart is presented for the values of the coefficient in the formula for the critical compressive stress at which buckling may be expected to occur in flat rectangular plates supported along all edges and, in addition, elastically restrained against rotation along the unloaded edges. The mathematical derivations of the formulas required in the construction of the chart are given.

  16. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

  17. 78 FR 19734 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products From Japan; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    .... Please consult the Commission's rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011), available on the Commission's Web site at http... COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products From Japan; Institution...

  18. 78 FR 69371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 78 FR 23905 (April 23... Countervailing Duty Investigations, 76 FR 61042 (October 3, 2011). All Others Rate Section 735(c)(5)(A) of the... International Trade Administration Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From...

  19. Rapid Fabrication of Flat Plate Cavity Phosphor Thermography Test Models for Shuttle Return-to-Flight Aero-Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.; Powers, Michael A.; Nevins, Stephen C.; Griffith, Mark S.; Wainwright, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    Methods, materials and equipment are documented for fabricating flat plate test models at NASA Langley Research Center for Shuttle return-to-flight aeroheating experiments simulating open and closed cavity interactions in Langley s hypersonic 20-Inch Mach 6 air wind tunnel. Approximately 96 silica ceramic flat plate cavity phosphor thermography test models have been fabricated using these methods. On one model, an additional slot is machined through the back of the plate and into the cavity and vented into an evacuated plenum chamber to simulate a further opening in the cavity. After sintering ceramic to 2150 F, and mounting support hardware, a ceramic-based two-color thermographic phosphor coating is applied for global temperature and heat transfer measurements, with fiducial markings for image registration.

  20. Design of a Deformed Flat Plate to Compensate the Gain Loss Due to the Gravity-Induced Surface Distortion of Large Reflector Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W.; Rengarajan, S.; Cramer, P., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a novel design of a deformed flat plate, wherein known amounts of distortion are introduced in a compensating flat plate, to recover the gain-loss due to the gravity-induced surface deformations of a large reflector antenna.

  1. Mathematical modelling of heat transfer in liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Wiesław; Dziewa, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in the liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes. The proposed method considers the model of collector tube as one with distributed parameters. In the suggested method one tube of the collector is taken into consideration. In this model the boundary conditions can be time-dependent. The proposed model is based on solving the equation describing the energy conservation on the fluid side. The temperature of the collector tube wall is determined from the equation of transient heat conduction. The derived differential equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method of iterative character. All thermo-physical properties of the operating fluid and the material of the tube wall can be computed in real time. The time-spatial heat transfer coefficient at the working fluid side can be also computed on-line. The proposed model is suitable for collectors working in a parallel or serpentine tube arrangement. As an illustration of accuracy and effectiveness of the suggested method the computational verification was carried out. It consists in comparing the results found using the presented method with results of available analytic solutions for transient operating conditions. Two numerical analyses were performed: for the tube with temperature step function of the fluid at the inlet and for the tube with heat flux step function on the outer surface. In both cases the conformity of results was very good. It should be noted, that in real conditions such rapid changes of the fluid temperature and the heat flux of solar radiation, as it was assumed in the presented computational verification, do not occur. The paper presents the first part of the study, which aim is to develop a mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in liquid flat-plate solar collectors. The experimental verification of the method is a second part of the study and

  2. Detailed flowfield and surface properties for high Knudsen number planar jet impingement at an inclined flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chunpei; He, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents two sets of analytical exact solutions for collisionless gas flows from a planar exit, impinging at an inclined flat plate. These analytical results are obtained by using gaskinetic theories. The first set of solutions are for a diffuse reflective plate surface, and the other set of solutions are for a specular reflective plate surface. A virtual nozzle exit is adopted to aid analyzing the specular reflective plate scenario. New formulas for plate surface properties, including velocity slips, pressure, shear stress, and heat flux distributions, are provided. For both problems, the flowfield exact solutions are investigated as well. Numerical simulations with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method are performed to validate these new analytical results, and good agreement is obtained for flows with high Knudsen numbers. The results consider effects from many factors, such as the plate inclination angle, geometry ratios, and exit gas and plate properties (such as exit gas bulk density, gas speed ratio, and exit gas and plate temperatures). Compared with past work, these new solutions are more comprehensive and practical. The results also illustrate that if the plate is quite close to the nozzle exit, it is improper to adopt the traditional treatments of a point source and a simple cosine function.

  3. A new dual-plate slipometer for measuring slip between molten polymers and extrusion die materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzer, A. M.; Giacomin, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we study the slip behaviors common to plastics die extrusion metals or platings using a new instrument called a dual-plate slipometer. By dual-plate, we mean that whereas the stationary plate incorporates a local shear stress transducer, the moving plate does not. The stationary plate and transducer are made of one stainless steel, but the moving plate is made from, or plated with, different extrusion die materials under study. This new instrument allows slip velocity to be measured without having to build a new shear stress transducer from each extrusion metal or plating under study. We explore the effect of extrusion die composition and die metal surface morphology on the slip properties of polyolefins using a sliding plate rheometer. In this work, we studied the slip behaviors of polyolefins on four common plastics die extrusion metals or platings, without having to build a new shear stress transducer from each. Specifically, our new method replaces the moving plate; with each of the four die metals or platings under study without changing the stainless steel material of the shear stress transducer and its stationary plate. Our experiments include high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, and polypropylene (PP) on four different die metals or platings. We use steady simple shear to obtain shear stress versus nominal shear rate for different gaps, from which we can then deduce the slip velocity using the Mooney analysis. We then fit four slip models to our experimental measurements, and we find the Hatzikiriakos hyperbolic sine model to be accurate, even for the measured inflections in the slip velocity as a function of shear stress curves. Our analysis includes detailed characterization of the die metal plating surfaces, including measurements of the composition of the sliding plates by energy dispersive spectroscopy, surface energy by contact angle goniometry, and surface roughness by both white light interference and stylus

  4. Experimental investigation of a large aspect ratio flat plate encountering a steam-wise gust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulleners, Karen; Mancini, Peter; Jones, Anya

    2015-11-01

    While humans are capable of mimicking, and even outperform, the kinematic capabilities of natural flyers, birds and insects are still way ahead of us when it comes to anticipating and dealing with turbulent and gusty flow conditions. To tailor and improve flight control capabilities of low Reynolds number flyers in real weather, we need to bridge this gap of knowledge. As a first step, we experimentally studied the aerodynamic influence of a simplified stream-wise gust on a large aspect ratio flat plate. The experiments were conduction in the 7 × 1 . 5 × 1 m3 towing tank at UMD which was equipped with a 4-axis computer-controlled motion system. The effect of a stream-wise gust was simulated by accelerating or decelerating the wing to a new constant velocity after an initial constant surge. A high-speed camera and light sheet optics were attached to the tow carriage allowing for time-resolved particle image velocimetry along the entire motion in addition to direct force measurements. A proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field was carried out to study the time scales related to changes induced by the sudden acceleration or deceleration in addition to analyzing the size, position and trajectory of prominent vortices and associated forces during the gust encounter.

  5. Drag measurements of blunt stores tangentially mounted on a flat plate at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to measure the drag of blunt stores (hemispherical noses and afterbodies) tangentially mounted in various arrays on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.90, 2.16,and 2.86 and at a nominal Reynolds number of 2X10 to the 6th power per foot. The arrays consisted of two and three stores mounted in lateral, tandem, or staggered arrangements. The relative position of the stores in the arrays was varied while the drag of only one store was measured to determine the effect of spacing on the store drag. Store-on-store interference was determined by comparing the drag of a single store with the drag of the store in an array. The results indicate virtually all arrangements and spacings which were tested had favorable store-on-store interference (drag reduction) across the Mach number range. Tabulated data, schlieren photographs, and shadowgraphs are included.

  6. Enhancement of microalgae production by embedding hollow light guides to a flat-plate photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yahui; Huang, Yun; Liao, Qiang; Fu, Qian; Zhu, Xun

    2016-05-01

    To offset the adverse effects of light attenuation on microalgae growth, hollow polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) tubes were embedded into a flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR) as light guides. In this way, a fraction of incident light could be transmitted and emitted to the interior of the PBR, providing a secondary light source for cells in light-deficient regions. The average light intensity of interior regions 3-6cm from surfaces with 70μmolm(-2)s(-1) incident light was enhanced 2-6.5 times after 3.5days cultivation, resulting in a 23.42% increase in biomass production to that cultivated in PBR without PMMA tubes. The photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae in the proposed PBR was increased to 12.52%. Moreover, the installation of hollow PMMA tubes induced turbulent flow in the microalgae suspension, promoting microalgae suspension mixing. However, the enhanced biomass production was mainly attributed to the optimized light distribution in the PBR. PMID:26868153

  7. Two-dimensional scanner apparatus. [flaw detector in small flat plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, G. W.; Bankston, B. F. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-Y scanner utilizes an eddy current or ultrasonic current test probe to detect surface defects in small flat plates and the like. The apparatus includes a scanner which travels on a pair of slide tubes in the X-direction. The scanner, carried on a carriage which slides in the Y-direction, is driven by a helix shaft with a closed-loop helix groove in which a follower pin carried by scanner rides. The carriage is moved incrementally in the Y-direction upon the completion of travel of the scanner back and forth in the X-direction by means of an indexing actuator and an indexing gear. The actuator is in the form of a ratchet which engages ratchet gear upon return of the scanner to the indexing position. The indexing gear is rotated a predetermined increment along a crack gear to move carriage incrementally in the Y-direction. Thus, simplified highly responsive mechanical motion may be had in a small lightweight portable unit for accurate scanning of small area.

  8. Leading-edge vortex burst on a low-aspect-ratio rotating flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Albert; Jones, Anya R.

    2016-08-01

    This study experimentally investigates the phenomenon of leading-edge-vortex burst on rotating flat plate wings. An aspect-ratio-2 wing was driven in pure rotation at a Reynolds number of Re=2500 . Of primary interest is the evolution of the leading-edge vortex along the wing span over a single-revolution wing stroke. Direct force measurements of the lift produced by the wing revealed a single global lift maximum relatively early in the wing stroke. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was applied to several chordwise planes to quantify the structure and strength of the leading-edge vortex and its effect on lift production. This analysis revealed opposite-sign vorticity entrainment into the core of the leading-edge vortex, originating from a layer of secondary vorticity along the wing surface. Coincident with the lift peak, there emerged both a concentration of opposite vorticity in the leading-edge-vortex core, as well as axial flow stagnation within the leading-edge-vortex core. Planar control volume analysis was performed at the midspan to quantify the contributions of vorticity transport mechanisms to the leading-edge-vortex circulation. The rate of circulation annihilation by opposite-signed vorticity entrainment was found to be minimal during peak lift production, where convection balanced the flux of vorticity resulting in stagnation and eventually reversal of axial flow. Finally, vortex burst was found to be correlated with swirl number, where bursting occurs at a swirl threshold of Sw<0.6 .

  9. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

    1986-01-01

    Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

  10. Investigation into the causes of browning in EVA encapsulated flat plate PV modules

    SciTech Connect

    Holley, W.H. Jr.; Agro, S.C.; Galica, J.P.; Thoma, L.A.; Yorgensen, R.S.; Ezrin, M.; Klemchuk, P.; Lavigne, G.; Thomas, H.

    1994-12-31

    The problem of browning in a number of EVA encapsulated flat plate photovoltaic modules has led to the questioning of EVA as a suitable material for such applications. By isolating the variables that could possibly lead to EVA browning, such as module construction, types of glass superstrates, additives, and processing conditions, the authors have been able to determine those significant specific variables that seem to have the most influence on discoloration.When standard-cure EVA-based laminates were exposed to accelerated UV aging, measurable yellowing of those laminates was evident after only one to two weeks exposure, and visual discoloration was observed after four to six weeks. Some samples yellowed quickly and some not at all, and there were significant differences in the rates of discoloration between standard-cure and fast-cure EVA. This paper looks at the results of these studies, especially focusing on the effect of additives in the EVA on the rate of yellowing, and discusses how preliminary results can be used to reformulate EVA encapsulants.