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Sample records for flat-plate solar array

  1. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W.; Mcdonald, R.

    1986-01-01

    In 1975, the U.S. Government contracted the Jet Propulsion Lab. to develop, by 1985, in conjunction with industry, the photovoltaics (PV) module and array technology required for widespread use of photovoltaics as a significant terrestrial energy source. As a result, a project that eventually became known as the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was formed to manage an industry, university, and Government team to perform the necessary research and development. The original goals were to achieve widespread commercial use of PV modules and arrays through the development of technology that would allow them to be profitably sold for $1.07/peak watts (1985 dollars). A 10% module conversion efficiency and a 20 year lifetime were also goals. It is intended that the executive summary provide the means by which one can gain a perspective on 11 years of terrestrial photovoltaic research and development conducted by the FSA Project.

  2. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 5: Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B.; Alexander, P.; Burger, D.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstrate solar cell fabrication and module assembly process technologies required to meet the cost, lifetime, production capacity, and performance goals of the FSA Project. R&D efforts expended by Government, Industry, and Universities in developing processes capable of meeting the projects goals during volume production conditions are summarized. The cost goals allocated for processing were demonstrated by small volume quantities that were extrapolated by cost analysis to large volume production. To provide proper focus and coverage of the process development effort, four separate technology sections are discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and module assembly.

  3. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 5: Process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, B.; Alexander, P.; Burger, D.

    1986-10-01

    The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstrate solar cell fabrication and module assembly process technologies required to meet the cost, lifetime, production capacity, and performance goals of the FSA Project. R&D efforts expended by Government, Industry, and Universities in developing processes capable of meeting the projects goals during volume production conditions are summarized. The cost goals allocated for processing were demonstrated by small volume quantities that were extrapolated by cost analysis to large volume production. To provide proper focus and coverage of the process development effort, four separate technology sections are discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and module assembly.

  4. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 7: Module encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20 year (later decreased to 30 year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized include the development of low cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that meet the FSA cost and performance goals.

  5. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  6. Flat-plate solar array progress and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, W. T.; Henry, P. K.

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has achieved progress in a broad range of technical activities since that reported at the Fourth European Communities Conference. A particularly important analysis has been completed recently which confirms the adoption into practice by the U.S. Photovoltaic (PV Industry, of all the low-cost module technology elements proposed at the 16th Project Integration Meeting for a $2.80/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars) design approach in the fall of 1980. This work presents along with a projection, using the same techniques, for what is believed to be a very credible ribbon-based module design for less that $0.55/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars). Other areas to be reported upon include low-cost Si feedstock refinement; ribbon growth; process sequence development for cells; environmental isolation; engineering science investigations; and module testing progress.

  7. Flat-plate solar array progress and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.; Henry, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has achieved progress in a broad range of technical activities since that reported at the Fourth European Communities Conference. A particularly important analysis has been completed recently which confirms the adoption into practice by the U.S. Photovoltaic (PV Industry, of all the low-cost module technology elements proposed at the 16th Project Integration Meeting for a $2.80/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars) design approach in the fall of 1980. This work presents along with a projection, using the same techniques, for what is believed to be a very credible ribbon-based module design for less that $0.55/Wp (1980 U.S. Dollars). Other areas to be reported upon include low-cost Si feedstock refinement; ribbon growth; process sequence development for cells; environmental isolation; engineering science investigations; and module testing progress.

  8. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  9. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the Design of Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays for Central Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Flat Plate Solar Array Project, focuses on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt level central station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat plate central station or other large scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost effective configurations. Design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory reserch activities are investigated. Technical issues are examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect/engineer and laboratory researcher. Topics on optimum source circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements, and array operation and maintenance are discussed.

  10. Flat Plate Solar Array Project: Proceedings of the 20th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Progress made by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project during the period November 1981 to April 1982 is reported. Project analysis and integration, technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation, cell and module formation, engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis are covered.

  11. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on Photovoltaic Metallization Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic Metallization Research forum, under the sponsorship of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project consisted of five sessions, covering: (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques, and (5) future metallization challenges.

  12. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems

    SciTech Connect

    1983-11-15

    A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

  13. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

  14. Flat-plate solar array project: Government and industry responding to national needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, J. Patrick; Knecht, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    This document recounts the accomplishments of the 11-year Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, which is recognized as one of the most successful and comprehensive technology-transfer efforts ever achieved through government-sponsored research and development. Few Federal research projects can claim the degree of industry involvement that was a fundamental aspect of the FSA Project. This philosophy in turn led to an extraordinary transfer of technology to the private sector, and assured that a maximum amount of the taxpayers' dollars were devoted to research of primary importance to the technology's commercialization.

  15. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 4: High-efficiency solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leipold, M.; Cheng, L.; Daud, T.; Mokashi, A.; Burger, D.; Christensen, E. (Editor); Murry, J. (Editor); Bengelsdorf, I. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The High Efficiency Solar Cell Task was assigned the objective of understanding and developing high efficiency solar cell devices that would meet the cost and performance goals of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The need for research dealing with high efficiency devices was considered important because of the role efficiency plays in reducing price per watt of generated energy. The R&D efforts conducted during the 1982 to 1986 period are summarized to provide understanding and control of energy conversion losses associated with crystalline silicon solar cells. New levels of conversion efficiency were demonstrated. Major contributions were made both to the understanding and reduction of bulk and surface losses in solar cells. For example, oxides, nitrides, and polysilicon were all shown to be potentially useful surface passivants. Improvements in measurement techniques were made and Auger coefficients and spectral absorption data were obtained for unique types of silicon sheets. New modelling software was developed including a program to optimize a device design based on input characteristics of a cell.

  16. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 3: Silicon sheet: Wafers and ribbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briglio, A.; Dumas, K.; Leipold, M.; Morrison, A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the Silicon Sheet Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was the development of one or more low cost technologies for producing silicon sheet suitable for processing into cost-competitive solar cells. Silicon sheet refers to high purity crystalline silicon of size and thickness for fabrication into solar cells. Areas covered in the project were ingot growth and casting, wafering, ribbon growth, and other sheet technologies. The task made and fostered significant improvements in silicon sheet including processing of both ingot and ribbon technologies. An additional important outcome was the vastly improved understanding of the characteristics associated with high quality sheet, and the control of the parameters required for higher efficiency solar cells. Although significant sheet cost reductions were made, the technology advancements required to meet the task cost goals were not achieved.

  17. PV Reliability Development Lessons from JPL's Flat Plate Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Key reliability and engineering lessons learned from the 20-year history of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and thin film module reliability research activities are presented and analyzed. Particular emphasis is placed on lessons applicable to evolving new module technologies and the organizations involved with these technologies. The user-specific demand for reliability is a strong function of the application, its location, and its expected duration. Lessons relative to effective means of specifying reliability are described, and commonly used test requirements are assessed from the standpoint of which are the most troublesome to pass, and which correlate best with field experience. Module design lessons are also summarized, including the significance of the most frequently encountered failure mechanisms and the role of encapsulate and cell reliability in determining module reliability. Lessons pertaining to research, design, and test approaches include the historical role and usefulness of qualification tests and field tests.

  18. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 6: Engineering sciences and reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Smokler, M. I.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project activities directed at developing the engineering technology base required to achieve modules that meet the functional, safety, and reliability requirements of large scale terrestrial photovoltaic systems applications are reported. These activities included: (1) development of functional, safety, and reliability requirements for such applications; (2) development of the engineering analytical approaches, test techniques, and design solutions required to meet the requirements; (3) synthesis and procurement of candidate designs for test and evaluation; and (4) performance of extensive testing, evaluation, and failure analysis of define design shortfalls and, thus, areas requiring additional research and development. A summary of the approach and technical outcome of these activities are provided along with a complete bibliography of the published documentation covering the detailed accomplishments and technologies developed.

  19. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

    1986-01-01

    Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

  20. Flat-plate solar array project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: Ten years of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Elmer

    1985-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, a Government-sponsored photovoltaics project, was initiated in January 1975 (previously named the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project) to stimulate the development of PV systems for widespread use. Its goal then was to develop PV modules with 10% efficiency, a 20-year lifetime, and a selling price of $0.50 per peak watt of generating capacity (1975 dollars). It was recognized that cost reduction of PV solar-cell and module manufacturing was the key achievement needed if PV power systems were to be economically competitive for large-scale terrestrial use.

  1. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU). [flat plate solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a cost effective process sequence that has the potential for the production of flat plate photovoltaic modules which meet the price goal in 1986 of 70 cents or less per Watt peak is described. The major accomplishments include (1) an improved AR coating technique; (2) the use of sand blast back clean-up to reduce clean up costs and to allow much of the Al paste to serve as a back conductor; and (3) the development of wave soldering for use with solar cells. Cells were processed to evaluate different process steps, a cell and minimodule test plan was prepared and data were collected for preliminary Samics cost analysis.

  2. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Crystal Gowth for High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, K. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A Workshop on Crystal Growth for High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells was held December 3 and 4, 1984, in San Diego, California. The Workshop offered a day and a half of technical presentations and discussions and an afternoon session that involved a panel discussion and general discussion of areas of research that are necessary to the development of materials for high-efficiency solar cells. Topics included the theoretical and experimental aspects of growing high-quality silicon crystals, the effects of growth-process-related defects on photovoltaic devices, and the suitability of various growth technologies as cost-effective processes. Fifteen invited papers were presented, with a discussion period following each presentation. The meeting was organized by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These Proceedings are a record of the presentations and discussions, edited for clarity and continuity.

  3. Summary of flat-plate solar array project documentation: Abstracts of published documents, 1975-1986, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts of final reports, or the latest quarterly or annual, of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Contractor of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in-house activities are presented. Also presented is a list of proceedings and publications, by author, of work connected with the project. The aim of the program has been to stimulate the development of technology that will enable the private sector to manufacture and widely use photovoltaic systems for the generation of electricity in residential, commercial, industrial, and Government applications at a cost per watt that is competitive with utility generated power. FSA Project activities have included the sponsoring of research and development efforts in silicon refinement processes, advanced silicon sheet growth techniques, higher efficiency solar cells, solar cell/module fabrication processes, encapsulation, module/array engineering and reliability, and economic analyses.

  4. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  5. A summary report on the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachare, R.; Moacanin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings and technical discussions of a workshop on Transparent Conducting Polymers (TCP) for solar cell applications are reported. This is in support of the Device Research Task of the Flat-Flate Solar Array Project. The workshop took place on January 11 and 12, 1985, in Santa Barbara, California. Participants included university and industry researchers. The discussions focused on the electronic and optical properties of TCP, and on experimental issues and problems that should be addressed for high-efficiency solar cell application.

  6. Overview - Flat-plate technology. [review of Low Cost Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Progress and continuing plans for the joint NASA/DoE program at the JPL to develop the technologies and industrial processes necessary for mass production of low-cost solar arrays (LSA) which produce electricity from solar cells at a cost of less than $0.70/W are reviewed. Attention is given to plans for a demonstration Si refinement plant capable of yielding 1000 MT/yr, and to a CVD process with chlorosilane, which will yield material at a cost of $21/kg. Ingot and shaped-sheet technologies, using either Czochralski growth and film fed growth methods have yielded AM1 15% efficient cells in an automated process. Encapsulation procedures have been lowered to $14/sq m, and robotics have permitted assembled cell production at a rate of 10 sec/cell. Standards are being defined for module safety features. It is noted that construction of a pilot Si purification plant is essential to achieving the 1986 $0.70/W cost goals.

  7. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells. Flat-Plate Solar Array Project of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program: 10 years of progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Elmer

    1985-01-01

    The objectives were to develop the flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) array technologies required for large-scale terrestrial use late in the 1980s and in the 1990s; advance crystalline silicon PV technologies; develop the technologies required to convert thin-film PV research results into viable module and array technology; and to stimulate transfer of knowledge of advanced PV materials, solar cells, modules, and arrays to the PV community. Progress reached on attaining these goals, along with future recommendations are discussed.

  8. Module performance and failure analysis area: Flat-plate solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornstrom, E.

    1984-01-01

    A redesign of the initial (Group I) Mobile Solar Block V module was done and documented. Manufacturing experience and accelerated test data from Group I formed the basis for the redesign. Ten Block V Group II modules were submitted for evaluation and the results are presented.

  9. Intermediate load modules for test and evaluation: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a 36 stainless steel solar module were built. The first version was built as a commercial module for marine applications and was purchased for evaluation by JPL. Design deficiencies were identified as a result of the evaluation. The second version was built and the improvements that resulted from design changes are described. Assembly problems, electrical performance, and qualification test results are provided.

  10. Process Research On Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM). [flat plate solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance-limiting mechanisms in large-grain (greater than 1 to 2 mm in diameter) polycrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated by fabricating a matrix of 4 sq cm solar cells of various thickness from 10 cm x 10 cm polycrystalline silicon wafers of several bulk resistivities. Analysis of the illuminated I-V characteristics of these cells suggests that bulk recombination is the dominant factor limiting the short-circuit current. The average open-circuit voltage of the polycrystalline solar cells is 30 to 70 mV lower than that of co-processed single-crystal cells; the fill-factor is comparable. Both open-circuit voltage and fill-factor of the polycrystalline cells have substantial scatter that is not related to either thickness or resistivity. This implies that these characteristics are sensitive to an additional mechanism that is probably spatial in nature. A damage-gettering heat-treatment improved the minority-carrier diffusion length in low lifetime polycrystalline silicon, however, extended high temperature heat-treatment degraded the lifetime.

  11. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  12. Summary of flat-plate solar array project documentation. Abstracts of published documents, 1975 to June 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Technologies that will enable the private sector to manufacture and widely use photovoltaic systems for the generation of electricity in residential, commercial, industrial, and government applications at a cost per watt that is competitive with other means is investigated. Silicon refinement processes, advanced silicon sheet growth techniques, solar cell development, encapsulation, automated fabrication process technology, advanced module/array design, and module/array test and evaluation techniques are developed.

  13. Proceedings of the Flat-plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on High-efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachare, R.

    1985-01-01

    The high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells research forum addressed high-efficiency concepts, surface-interface effects, bulk effects, modeling and device processing. The topics were arranged into six interactive sessions, which focused on the state-of-the-art of device structures, identification of barriers to achieve high-efficiency cells and potential ways to overcome these barriers.

  14. Flat-plate photovoltaic array design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented which integrates the results of specific studies in the areas of photovoltaic structural design optimization, optimization of array series/parallel circuit design, thermal design optimization, and optimization of environmental protection features. The analysis is based on minimizing the total photovoltaic system life-cycle energy cost including repair and replacement of failed cells and modules. This approach is shown to be a useful technique for array optimization, particularly when time-dependent parameters such as array degradation and maintenance are involved.

  15. Flat-plate solar array project process development area process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Three sets of samples were laser processed and then cell processed. The laser processing was carried out on P-type and N-type web at laser power levels from 0.5 joule/sq cm to 2.5 joule/sq cm. Six different liquid dopants were tested (3 phosphorus dopants, 2 boron dopants, 1 aluminum dopant). The laser processed web strips were fabricated into solar cells immediately after laser processing and after various annealing cycles. Spreading resistance measurements made on a number of these samples indicate that the N(+)P (phosphorus doped) junction is approx. 0.2 micrometers deep and suitable for solar cells. However, the P(+)N (or P(+)P) junction is very shallow ( 0.1 micrometers) with a low surface concentration and resulting high resistance. Due to this effect, the fabricated cells are of low efficiency. The maximum efficiency attained was 9.6% on P-type web after a 700 C anneal. The main reason for the low efficiency was a high series resistance in the cell due to a high resistance back contact.

  16. Flat-plate solar array project process development area: Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Several different techniques to simultaneously diffuse the front and back junctions in dendritic web silicon were investigated. A successful simultaneous diffusion reduces the cost of the solar cell by reducing the number of processing steps, the amount of capital equipment, and the labor cost. The three techniques studied were: (1) simultaneous diffusion at standard temperatures and times using a tube type diffusion furnace or a belt furnace; (2) diffusion using excimer laser drive-in; and (3) simultaneous diffusion at high temperature and short times using a pulse of high intensity light as the heat source. The use of an excimer laser and high temperature short time diffusion experiment were both more successful than the diffusion at standard temperature and times. The three techniques are described in detail and a cost analysis of the more successful techniques is provided.

  17. Advanced solar box and flat plate collector cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Grupp, M.; Bergler, H.

    1992-12-31

    Several new solar cooker systems have been developed at Synopsis during the last years: advanced box type cookers, featuring an optimized heat transfer from the absorber into the cooking vessel; flat plate cookers, based on a particular two-way collector with air as transfer fluid; flat plate cookers with heat-pipe transfer; specialized cookers for the baking of bread and flat bread. The working principle of these cookers is described, the structure of a thermal simulation model and results of thermal tests are presented. The results of the first year of local production and use of advanced boxes in India are reported.

  18. Flat-plate solar array project process development area, process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The program is designed to investigate the fabrication of solar cells on N-type base material by a simultaneous diffusion of N-type and P-type dopants to form an P(+)NN(+) structure. The results of simultaneous diffusion experiments are being compared to cells fabricated using sequential diffusion of dopants into N-base material in the same resistivity range. The process used for the fabrication of the simultaneously diffused P(+)NN(+) cells follows the standard Westinghouse baseline sequence for P-base material except that the two diffusion processes (boron and phosphorus) are replaced by a single diffusion step. All experiments are carried out on N-type dendritic web grown in the Westinghouse pre-pilot facility. The resistivities vary from 0.5 (UC OMEGA)cm to 5 (UC OMEGA)cm. The dopant sources used for both the simultaneous and sequential diffusion experiments are commercial metallorganic solutions with phosphorus or boron components. After these liquids are applied to the web surface, they are baked to form a hard glass which acts as a diffusion source at elevated temperatures. In experiments performed thus far, cells produced in sequential diffusion tests have properties essentially equal to the baseline N(+)PP(+) cells. However, the simultaneous diffusions have produced cells with much lower IV characteristics mainly due to cross-doping of the sources at the diffusion temperature. This cross-doping is due to the high vapor pressure phosphorus (applied as a metallorganic to the back surface) diffusion through the SiO2 mask and then acting as a diffusant source for the front surface.

  19. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  20. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads. The arrays located at the outer boundary of an array field have a protective influence on the interior arrays of the field. A significant decrease of the array wind loads were recorded in the wind tunnel test on array panels located behind a fence and/or interior to the array field compared to the arrays on the boundary and unprotected from the wind. The magnitude of this decrease was the same whether caused by a fence or upwind arrays.

  1. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, W. G.

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin film technology. A thin film solar absorber suited for high speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polmeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested.

  2. Wind Loads on Flat Plate Photovoltaic Array Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.; Zimmerman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays were investigated. Local pressure distributions and total aerodynamic forces on the arrays are shown. Design loads are presented to cover the conditions of array angles relative to the ground from 20 deg to 60 deg, variable array spacings, a ground clearance gap up to 1.2 m (4 ft) and array slant heights of 2.4 m (8 ft) and 4.8 m (16 ft). Several means of alleviating the wind loads on the arrays are detailed. The expected reduction of the steady state wind velocity with the use of fences as a load alleviation device are indicated to be in excess of a factor of three for some conditions. This yields steady state wind load reductions as much as a factor of ten compared to the load incurred if no fence is used to protect the arrays. This steady state wind load reduction is offset by the increase in turbulence due to the fence but still an overall load reduction of 2.5 can be realized. Other load alleviation devices suggested are the installation of air gaps in the arrays, blocking the flow under the arrays and rounding the edges of the array. A wind tunnel test plan to supplement the theoretical study and to evaluate the load alleviation devices is outlined.

  3. Development of flat-plate solar plate collector: Evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramzon, B.; Yaron, I.

    1981-11-01

    In the present study the thermal performance of a flat plate solar collector is analyzed theoretically for the case in which the working fluid may undergo a phase change within the tubes of the collector. In addition to the common domestic applications, such a collector - evaporator may be used as a generator of vapors for the production of mechanical or electrical energy, e.g., solar water pumps, solar power stations, etc., as well as for solar - powered absorption refrigeration machines, distillation installations, etc.

  4. Environmental testing of flat plate solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J.; Dumas, L.; Hoffman, A.

    1978-01-01

    Commercially available flat-plate solar cell modules have been subjected to a variety of environmental tests designed to simulate service conditions. Among the tests are those simulating heat and rain, wind-driven rains, humidity and freezing, humidity and heat, humidity with a voltage bias, salt fog, hail impact, and fungus infestation. Tests for optical surface soiling and the combined effects of temperature, humidity and UV irradiation are under development. A correlation has been demonstrated between degradation caused by the qualification tests and such observed field effects as power loss.

  5. Proceedings of the Flat-plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the High-speed Growth and Characterization of Crystals for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, K. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental phenomena, applications, and characterization including stress/strain and other problem areas that limit the rate of growth of crystals suitable for processing into efficient, cost-effective solar cells are discussed. Melt spinning, ribbon growth, rapid solidification, laser recrystallization, and ignot growth of silicon and metals are also discussed.

  6. Cost estimates for flat plate and concentrator collector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1982-01-01

    The current module and installation costs for the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program's grid-connected systems are significantly higher than required for economic viability of this alternative. Attention is accordingly given to the prospects for installed module cost reductions in flat plate, linear focus Fresnel concentrator, and point focus Fresnel concentrator candidate systems. Cost projections indicate that all three systems would meet near-term and midterm goals, provided that module costs of $2.80/W(p) and $0.70/W(p), respectively, are met. The point focus Fresnel system emerges as the most viable for the near term.

  7. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  8. Certification and verification for Calmac flat plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector is presented. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, installation, operation, and maintenance manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.

  9. A Didactic Experiment and Model of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment performed with a home-made flat-plate solar collector, carried out together with high-school students. To explain the experimental results, we propose a model that describes the heating process of the solar collector. The model accounts quantitatively for the experimental data. We suggest that solar-energy topics should…

  10. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  11. Experimental study on flat plate air solar collector using a thin sand layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lati, Moukhtar; Boughali, Slimane; Bouguettaia, Hamza; Mennouche, Djamel; Bechki, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    A flat plate air solar collector was constructed in the laboratory of New and Renewable Energy in Arid Zones LENREZA, Ouargla University-South East Algeria. The absorber of the flat plate air solar collector was laminated with a thin layer of local sand. This acted as a thermal storage system (packed bed) with a collecting area of 2.15 m2 (0.86 m × 2.5 m). It was noticed that the solar heater integrated with the thermal storage material delivered comparatively higher temperatures; thus, giving a better efficiency than the air heater without the thermal storage system.

  12. Hot-air flat-plate solar collector-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains design data, performance specifications, and drawings for hot-air flat-plate solar-energy collector. Evaluation consists of tests on thermal performance time constance, and incidence angle modifier test. Results are presented in table and graph form and are analyzed in detail.

  13. Design and installation package for the Sunmat Flat Plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The information used in evaluating the design of a liquid flat plate solar collector is reported. Included in this package are subsystem performance specification, installation, operation and maintenance manuals, collector sizing guides, and detailed drawings of the single-glazed collector.

  14. Recommendations for the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial photovoltaic solar panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treble, F. C.

    1976-01-01

    A review of recommendations for standardizing the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial solar panels is given to develop an international standard code of practice for performance rating. Required data to characterize the performance of a solar panel are listed. Other items discussed are: (1) basic measurement procedures; (2) performance measurement in natural sunlight and simulated sunlight; (3) standard solar cells; (4) the normal incidence method; (5) global method and (6) definition of peak power.

  15. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields. Phase III, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.D.; Zimmerman, D.K.

    1981-04-01

    The results of an experimental analysis (boundary layer wind tunnel test) of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays are presented. Local pressure coefficient distributions and normal force coefficients on the arrays are shown and compared to theoretical results. Parameters that were varied when determining the aerodynamic forces included tilt angle, array separation, ground clearance, protective wind barriers, and the effect of the wind velocity profile. Recommended design wind forces and pressures are presented, which envelop the test results for winds perpendicular to the array's longitudinal axis. This wind direction produces the maximum wind loads on the arrays except at the array edge where oblique winds produce larger edge pressure loads.

  16. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An efficient, low cost, flat-plate solar collector was developed. Computer aided mathematical models of the heat process in the collector were used in defining absorber panel configuration; determining insulation thickness; and in selecting the number, spacing, and material of the covers. Prototypes were built and performance tested. Data from simulated operation of the collector are compared with predicted loads from a number of locations to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  17. Atmospheric corrosion of batten and enclosure materials for flat-plate solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    As part of the Solar Reliability and Materials Program at Argonne National Laboratory, the atmospheric-corrosion-monitoring project is to assess the materials used for battens and enclosures for flat-plate solar collectors. Sensors at nine test sites have provided atmospheric data. Other data have been obtained by analyzing corrosion samples that were exposed for varying periods of time. This interim report summarizes the results of the first test period.

  18. Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, M. A.

    For designers and engineers of solar energy-related systems, the Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for the US and its territories. The data in the manual were modeled using hourly values of direct beam and diffuse horizontal solar radiation from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct beam solar radiation for 1961-1990.

  19. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  20. Flat-plate collector performance evaluation. The case for a solar simulation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Harlamert, P.

    1973-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining the performance of flat-plate solar collector using a simulated sun. Collector test variables that will help establish the basis for the indoor test facility at the Lewis Research Center are discussed. The use of the indoor testing should permit a standard test for the convenient and accurate determination of collector performance. Preliminary test results are reported as an example of the type of collector performance data to be expected from the simulation approach.

  1. Modular array field designs for tracking flat-plate photovoltaic systems, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, J. A.

    1987-06-01

    This report addresses the optimization of utility-sized, tracking flat-plate photovoltaic power systems. Structures optimized were one single-axis and one dual-axis tracking system using currently available system designs as baseline engineering reference points. Passive thermal-hydraulic tracking drive systems were evaluated and Freon-hydraulic units were found to be cost-effective in single-axis tracking. Building block configurations ranging in size from 35 kW to 5 MW were established using the optimized single- and dual-axis tracking structures, and their reliability and availability were analyzed. A 1-MW single-axis building block design was selected to develop engineering plans for a 100-MW PV power plant designed to operate unattended. Eleven-percent efficient PV panels at $220/sq m were used in the study, and single-axis, flat-plate tracking systems were found to be significantly more cost-effective than dual-axis systems. A prototype tracking array was built and tested at Sandia, where cost and performance data supported lower economic projections for large PV tracking arrays.

  2. A new solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, W.; Wilcox, S.

    1994-06-01

    A new solar radiation data manual is nearing completion by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Analytic Studies Division under the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project and the Photovoltaic Solar Radiation Research Task. These tasks are funded and monitored by the Photovoltaics Branch of the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The new manual is entitled Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors. For designers and engineers of solar energy related systems, it gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for 239 stations in the United States and its territories. The data in the manual are modeled using diffuse horizontal and direct beam solar radiation values from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct beam solar radiation for 1961-1990. This paper describes what is contained in the new data manual and how it was developed.

  3. Flat-plate solar-collector performance data base and user's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, D. L.; Kolar, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    The reader is provided with a thorough understanding on the type of collector thermal performance information which is required in active system design and analysis. Thermal performance test data on 109 commercially available solar collectors which were evaluated in a single, uniform test program, the Interim Solar Collector Test (ISCT) Program are given. In addition to recounting the ISCT program and its results, the an introduction is given on the engineering and physics of a flat-plate solar collector operation. A step-by-step analysis of heat gains and losses is provided to help the reader understand both the source and applicability of the parameters used to describe collector thermal performance. A brief description of the engineering basis for the ASHRAE Standard 93-77 test procedure and the method are included. To demonstrate the sensitivity to variations of collector performance parameters of the annual output of representative solar heating systems, three sets of F-Chart (4.0) system performance predictions are given. Finally, a sensitivity analysis study is presented which considers the heat loss and optical gain parameters of flat-plate collectors, in terms of how they affect the overall solar heating system solar fraction.

  4. Potential of size reduction of flat-plate solar collectors when applying MWCNT nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, M.; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, S.

    2013-06-01

    Flat-plate solar collector is the most popular type of collector for hot water system to replace gas or electric heater. Solar thermal energy source is clean and infinite to replace fossil fuel source that is declining and harmful to the environment. However, current solar technology is still expensive, low in efficiency and takes up a lot of space. One effective way to increase the efficiency is by applying high conductivity fluid as nanofluid. This paper analyzes the potential of size reduction of solar collector when MWCNT nanofluid is used as absorbing medium. The analysis is based on different mass flow rate, nanoparticles mass fraction, and presence of surfactant in the fluid. For the same output temperature, it can be observed that the collector's size can be reduced up to 37% of its original size when applying MWCNT nanofluid as the working fluid and thus can reduce the overall cost of the system.

  5. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, J. W.; Borzoni, J. T.; Holland, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relevant design parameters in the fabrication of a solar collector for heating liquids were examined. The objective was to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost, flat-plate solar collector with high collection efficiency, high durability, and requiring little maintenance. Computer-aided math models of the heat transfer processes in the collector assisted in the design. The preferred physical design parameters were determined from a heat transfer standpoint and the absorber panel configuration, the surface treatment of the absorber panel, the type and thickness of insulation, and the number, spacing and material of the covers were defined. Variations of this configuration were identified, prototypes built, and performance tests performed using a solar simulator. Simulated operation of the baseline collector configuration was combined with insolation data for a number of locations and compared with a predicted load to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  6. A detailed numerical model for flat-plate solar thermal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cadafalch, J.

    2009-12-15

    A one-dimensional transient numerical model for flat-plate solar thermal devices is here presented. The model permits the analysis of different configurations and components such as multiple-glazing, transparent insulation, air-gaps, surface coatings, opaque insulation and energy accumulation in water or PCM internal stores. In order to obtain information of practical interest, the solar thermal devices are modelled following virtual testing procedures in accordance to the experimental test methods described by European and International standards. This paper describes the basis of the model and shows some comparison of numerical and experimental data as an example of the validation process that has been carried out in order to assess the credibility of the numerical model. For simplicity, the explanation is restricted to standard multiple-glazed flat-plate collectors. The use of the model in other more complicated configurations as in transparently insulated covers or integrated collector storage devices with phase change materials will be presented in other separate papers. (author)

  7. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexandre; Gaouyat, Lucie; Nicolay, Delphine; Carletti, Timoteo; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-10-20

    We present a multi-objective genetic algorithm we developed for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector. This collector consists of a waffle-shaped Al substrate with NiCrOx cermet and SnO(2) anti-reflection conformal coatings. Optimal geometrical parameters are determined in order to (i) maximize the solar absorptance α and (ii) minimize the thermal emittance ε. The multi-objective genetic algorithm eventually provides a whole set of Pareto-optimal solutions for the optimization of α and ε, which turn out to be competitive with record values found in the literature. In particular, a solution that enables α = 97.8% and ε = 4.8% was found. PMID:25607321

  8. Exergy efficiency analysis of a flat plate solar collector using graphene based nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Z.; Alim, M. A.; Janajreh, Isam

    2015-10-01

    The thermal efficiency of a flat plate solar thermal collector is largely affected by the thermal conductivity of the fluid used. In this paper, we theoretically analyzed the heat transfer performance, the entropy generation rate, and the exergy efficiency of the two different graphene based nanofluids (graphene/Acetone and graphene/water). From the analyses, it is revealed that by inserting a small amount of graphene nanoparticles in water, exergy efficiency could be enhanced by 21%, comparing to conventional fluids and entropy generation is decreased by 4%. However, the graphene/water nanofluid shows a lower entropy generation. This characteristic suggests that graphene/water nanofluid is a better candidate for flat solar thermal application.

  9. Thermal performance predictions of flat-plate solar collector air heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneill, T. C.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program was written that models heat exchanges occurring within flat plate solar air collectors and which computes the incoming solar flux and heat losses to the environment. Internal collector temperatures and thermal efficiencies are predicted for either steady state or transient cases from finite difference solutions to a set of energy balance equations. These relations are written for thermal modes that are generated and linked together by the internal deck logic. The program was utilized in a study of three types of air collectors. The first two configurations employed crossflow impingement along the backside of their absorbers to augment heat transfer coefficients developed at those surfaces, while the third used a rock matrix absorber to expand its surface area for heat transfer. In addition, the first collector replaced the conventional stationary plate absorber of the second design by a traveling belt.

  10. Conceptual design study of concentrator enhanced solar arrays for space applications. Performance evaluation of 5 KW and 20 KW systems in Si and GaAs at 1 AU employing a flat plate trough concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A simple, efficient and very lightweight preliminary design for a 5 KW and 20 KW BOL output concentrated array evolved and is described by drawings. The relative effectiveness of this design, as compared to an unconcentrated planar array of equal power output, was measured by comparing power to mass performance of and the solar cell area required by each. Improvements in power to mass performance as high as 42% together with array area size reduction of 57% are possible in GaAs systems. By contrast, when the same concentrator design is applied to silicon systems, no improvement in power to mass can be obtained although array area reductions as high as 35% are obtainable.

  11. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  12. Relative potentials of concentrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Schwartz, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.

  13. Mathematical modelling of heat transfer in liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, Wiesław; Dziewa, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in the liquid flat-plate solar collector tubes. The proposed method considers the model of collector tube as one with distributed parameters. In the suggested method one tube of the collector is taken into consideration. In this model the boundary conditions can be time-dependent. The proposed model is based on solving the equation describing the energy conservation on the fluid side. The temperature of the collector tube wall is determined from the equation of transient heat conduction. The derived differential equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method of iterative character. All thermo-physical properties of the operating fluid and the material of the tube wall can be computed in real time. The time-spatial heat transfer coefficient at the working fluid side can be also computed on-line. The proposed model is suitable for collectors working in a parallel or serpentine tube arrangement. As an illustration of accuracy and effectiveness of the suggested method the computational verification was carried out. It consists in comparing the results found using the presented method with results of available analytic solutions for transient operating conditions. Two numerical analyses were performed: for the tube with temperature step function of the fluid at the inlet and for the tube with heat flux step function on the outer surface. In both cases the conformity of results was very good. It should be noted, that in real conditions such rapid changes of the fluid temperature and the heat flux of solar radiation, as it was assumed in the presented computational verification, do not occur. The paper presents the first part of the study, which aim is to develop a mathematical model for simulating the transient processes which occur in liquid flat-plate solar collectors. The experimental verification of the method is a second part of the study and

  14. Design optimization of sinusoidal glass honeycomb for flat plate solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurrin, J. C.; Buchberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design of honeycomb made of sinusoidally corrugated glass strips was optimized for use in water-cooled, single-glazed flat plate solar collectors with non-selective black absorbers. Cell diameter (d), cell height (L), and pitch/diameter ratio (P/d) maximizing solar collector performance and cost effectiveness for given cell wall thickness (t sub w) and optical properties of glass were determined from radiative and convective honeycomb characteristics and collector performance all calculated with experimentally validated algorithms. Relative lifetime values were estimated from present materials costs and postulated production methods for corrugated glass honeycomb cover assemblies. A honeycomb with P/d = 1.05, d = 17.4 mm, L = 146 mm and t sub w = 0.15 mm would provide near-optimal performance over the range delta T sub C greater than or equal to 0 C and less than or equal to 80 C and be superior in performance and cost effectiveness to a non-honeycomb collector with a 0.92/0.12 selective black absorber.

  15. Need for and evaluation of hail protection devices for solar flat plate collectors. Final report, June 1978-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P R; Cox, M; de Winter, F

    1980-03-01

    A brief summary of the hail risk work previously done under this contract is given, and a summary evaluation of hail impact resistance standards currently being developed is presented. Simulated hail impact test data, field data, and the impact resistance of commercially available glazings are discussed. The use of screens for protection against hail and the threat of vandalism to solar flat plate collectors are discussed. (WHK)

  16. Preliminary design review package on air flat plate collector for solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines to be used in the development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet (10-4 ft x 8 ft panels) of collector area are presented. Topics discussed include: (1) verification plan; (2) thermal analysis; (3) safety hazard analysis; (4) drawing list; (5) special handling, installation and maintenance tools; (6) structural analysis; and (7) selected drawings.

  17. Evaluation of the flat-plate solar collector system for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athey, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    This evaluation of the flat-plate collector system was designed to determine the number of flat-plate collectors required to generate a given amount of electricity with optimum efficiency. Variable parameters are the temperature of the heat-transport fluid, both to and from the collector field. In the analysis, the efficiency of the flat-plate collectors was coupled to the efficiency of the thermal cycle to calculate optimal overall system efficiencies. Overall system efficiencies for the system are on the order of 3.5 per cent or less. Over two million 4 ft-by-4 ft collectors would be required to produce 100,000 kW(e). Based on the results, it can be shown that the limiting factor in the use of the flat-plate collector system for electric power generation is the efficiency of the collectors. An increase in the overall system efficiency can occur only if the collector efficiency can be increased at higher surface temperatures.

  18. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  19. Dual polarization flat plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.

    Rectangular waveguides with radiating slots are used in groups to form planar array microwave antennas with large apertures and small depth. Such flat plate antennas are widely used on spacecraft and aircraft. Typically, flat plate antennas provide fixed linear polarization. The present paper describes a new flat plate antenna which produces two coincident beams that are distinguished by their orthogonal linear polarizations. The antenna has two ports, one for each of the coicident beams. Completely external to the antenna, connecting a simple network to those terminal ports enables the antenna to provide right circular polarization from one port and left from the other. A different external network enables the antenna to have arbitrarily adjustable polarizations.

  20. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  1. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  2. Comparison of the effects of Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles on the performance of a solar flat-plate collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Madhavan, Venkata Ramanan; Mohan, Mukunthan

    2015-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of solar flat-plate collectors further, a study had been carried out wherein the conventional working fluid was replaced by nanofluids. A 25-L/day solar flat-plate water heater with collector area of 0.5 {m}^2 has been designed and fabricated. The thermosyphon system of the solar water heater was monitored at 15 locations using T-type thermocouples. Alumina and CuO nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and X-ray diffraction techniques and dispersed using ultrasonic mechanism. To stabilize the system at an optimum level, the collector is operated with volume fractions of 0.2% and 0.4% of synthesized Al2O3 and CuO nanoparticles mixed with distilled water and used in the solar flat-plate collector. The temperature profile was compared with different volume fractions of the nanoparticles in the flowing medium. Enhanced heat transfer was observed in the solar flat-plate collector using nanoparticles, and hence, it is inferred that addition of nanoparticles improves the efficiency of the solar water heaters. This paper details the temperature profile observed in the collectors, variation of insolation over the day, and change in efficiency both on the primary side (collector) and on the secondary side (storage tank) of the solar water heater.

  3. The economic payoff for a state-of-the-art high-efficiency flat-plate crystalline silicon solar cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, Donald B.; Callaghan, W. T.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986 during the flat-plate solar array project, silicon solar cells 4.0 sq cm in area were fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a conversion efficiency of 20.1 percent (AM1.5-global). Sixteen cells were processed with efficiencies measuring 19.5 percent (AM1.5 global) or better. These cells were produced using refined versions of conventional processing methods, aside from certain advanced techniques that bring about a significant reduction in a major mechanism (surface recombination) that limits cell efficiency. Wacker Siltronic p-type float-zone 0.18-ohm-cm wafers were used. Conversion efficiencies in this range have previously been reported by other researchers, but generally on much smaller (0.5 vs. 4.0 cm) devices which have undergone sophisticated and costly processing steps. An economic analysis is presented of the potential payoffs for this approach, using the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) methodology. The process sequence used and the assumptions made for capturing the economies of scale are presented.

  4. Ink jet assisted metallization for low cost flat plate solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, K. F.; Vest, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Computer-controlled ink-jet-assisted metallization of the front surface of solar cells with metalorganic silver inks offers a maskless alternative method to conventional photolithography and screen printing. This method can provide low cost, fine resolution, reduced process complexity, avoidance of degradation of the p-n junction by firing at lower temperature, and uniform line film on rough surface of solar cells. The metallization process involves belt furnace firing and thermal spiking. With multilayer ink jet printing and firing, solar cells of about 5-6 percent efficiency without antireflection (AR) coating can be produced. With a titanium thin-film underlayer as an adhesion promoter, solar cells of average efficiency 8.08 percent without AR coating can be obtained. This efficiency value is approximately equal to that of thin-film solar cells of the same lot. Problems with regard to lower inorganic content of the inks and contact resistance are noted.

  5. Comparative performance of twenty-three types of flat plate solar energy collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    Report compares efficiencies of 23 solar collectors for four different purposes: operating a Rankine-cycle engine, heating or absorption air conditioning, heating hot water, and heating a swimming pool.

  6. Atmospheric corrosion of batten and enclosure materials for flat-plate solar collectors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.F.

    1983-04-01

    As part of the Solar Reliability and Materials Program at Argonne National Laboratory, the atmospheric corrosion of candidate batten and enclosure materials were tested on outdoor racks parallel to the tilted solar-collected panels at nine National Solar Data Network (NSDN) sites, loceated in mild marine, mild industrial, and rural environments. The candidate materials evaluated include galvanized steel (G-90), aluminized steel (Type 2), aluminum (6061), and white polyester painted steel. Data analyses predicted that all the first three materials will last more than 20 years in the nine sites tested. However, repainting of the painted steel is probably needed within five years in a mild marine environment and five to ten years in a mild industrial or rural environment.

  7. Development of 400 F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors.

  8. Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under controlled conditions in a solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a solar simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the solar simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.

  9. Comparison under a simulated sun of two black-nickel-coated flat-plate solar collectors with a nonselective black-paint-coated collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    A performance evaluation was made of two, black nickel coated, flat plate solar collectors. Collector performance was determined under a simulated sun for a wide range of inlet temperatures, including the temperature required for solar powered absorption air conditioning. For a basis of comparison a performance test was made on a traditional, two glass, nonselective, black paint coated, flat plate collector. Performance curves and performance parameters are presented to point out the importance of the design variables which determine an efficient collector. A black nickel coated collector was found to be a good performer at the conditions expected for solar powered absorption air conditioning. This collector attained a thermal efficiency of 50 percent at an inlet temperature of 366 K (200 F) and an incident flux of 946 watts/sq m (300 Btu/hr-sq ft).

  10. The effect of contact spacing on the efficiency of flat plate solar collector plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, G. E.; Crha, S.

    1984-01-01

    Rather than use a continuous weld or solder for thermal contact in the attachment of an extended surface to an energy removal tube, attention is given to the use of discontinuous attachment through the uniform distribution of finite regions of contact. This scheme is applied to a solar energy collection system in which it was thought capable of yielding fabrication and reliability improvements. A nondimensional formulation and numerical solution of FEM modeling yields the sensitivity of collector thermal performance to weld-solder joint dimensions. The discontinuous weld is found to significantly degrade system performance in proportion to the fin surface Biot modulus, with the controlling parameter (with respect to weld dimensions) being the perimeter length at the weld location of contact.

  11. Collation of quarterly reports on air flat plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar 2 air flat plate collectors are described. The development and fabrication of a prototype air flat plate collector subsystem containing 320 square feet of collector area are described. Three instrumented panels were completely assembled with glazing and insulation. Manufacture of the last seven prototype collectors was completed in October 1977.

  12. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  13. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  14. Liquid flat plate collector and pump for solar heating and cooling systems: A collection of quarterly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development, fabrication, and delivery of solar subsystems consisting of a solar operated pump, and solar collectors which can be used in solar heating and cooling, or hot water, for single family, multifamily, or commercial applications is reported.

  15. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Workshop on the Science of Silicon Material Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Several areas of silicon material preparation were addressed including silicon production and purity, thermodynamics, kinetics, mechanisms, particle formation and growth, deposition in fluidized bed reactors, and chemical vapor deposition. Twenty-two papers were presented.

  16. Low-cost solar array progress and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that significant redirection has occurred in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaics Program, and thus in the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), since the 3rd European Communities Conference. The Silicon Materials Task has now the objective to sponsor theoretical and experimental research on silicon material refinement technology suitable for photovoltaic flat-plate solar arrays. With respect to the hydrochlorination reaction, a process proof of concept was completed through definition of reaction kinetics, catalyst, and reaction characteristics. In connection with the dichlorosilane chemical vapor desposition process, a preliminary design was completed of an experimental process system development unit with a capacity of 100 to 200 MT/yr of Si.Attention is also given to the silicon-sheet formation research area, environmental isolation research, the cell and module formation task, the engineering sciences area, and the module performance and failure analysis area.

  17. Flat-Plate Solar-Collector Performance Evaluation with a Solar Simulator as a Basis for Collector Selection and Performance Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    The use of a solar simulator for performance determination permits collector testing under standard conditions of wind, ambient temperature, flow rate and sun. The performance results determined with the simulator have been found to be in good agreement with outdoor performance results. The measured thermal efficiency and evaluation of 23 collectors are reported which differ according to absorber material (copper, aluminum, steel), absorber coating (nonselective black paint, selective copper oxide, selective black nickel, selective black chrome), type of glazing material (glass, Tedlar, Lexan, antireflection glass), the use of honeycomb material and the use of vacuum to prevent thermal convection losses. The collectors were given performance rankings based on noon-hour solar conditions and all-day solar conditions. The determination with the simulator of an all-day collector performance was made possible by tests at different incident angles. The solar performance rankings were made based on whether the collector is to be used for pool heating, hot water, absorption air conditioning, heating, or for a solar Rankine machine.

  18. Solar array drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Sturman, J. C.; Stanhouse, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A solar array drive system consisting of a solar array drive mechanism and the corresponding solar array drive electronics is being developed. The principal feature of the solar array drive mechanism is its bidirectional capability which enables its use in mechanical redundancy. The solar array drive system is of a widely applicable design. This configuration will be tested to determine its acceptability for generic mission sets. Foremost of the testing to be performed is the testing for extended duration.

  19. Development of 400/sup 0/F sealants for flat plate solar collector construction and installation. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, L.; Schubert, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    Twenty candidate sealants representing ten different polymer types were evaluated as potential solar collector sealants. Polymer types tested included epichlorohydrin rubber, EPDM rubber, silicone, polysulfide, acrylate rubber, and a fluoroelastomer. Initial screening of sealants consisted of measuring high temperature stability and adhesion retention. Several sealant compositions exhibited satisfactory performance in these tests and were selected for further evaluation. These materials were based on an EPDM rubber, a Viton fluoroelastomer, and silicone polymers. Further testing of these candidate materials included determination of adhesion retention under uv/water/heat conditions, fogging temperature, low temperature flexibility, and physical properties. Four silicone-based materials appeared to be suitable candidates for sealing solar collectors. These include Dow Corning 90-006-02 and 3120, General Electric 1200, and PR-1939 from Products Research and Chemical Corporation.

  20. Flat-plate magnifier for magnifying the view of a distant object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasaki, Masataka; Kodaira, Takehiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Takei, Tsuneo

    2014-09-01

    An optically magnifying device for viewing a distant object is proposed. Since this device can be made in the form of a thin plate and can also have a large viewing area, a flat-plate magnifier is realized. The flat-plate magnifier mounted onto an eyeglass frame as a substitute for each lens provides a light-weight, hands-free magnifier. The flat-plate magnifier is made as a 3 to 4-mm-thick plastic plate and can be made up to 30 to 40 mm in diameter. The flat-plate magnifier is a two-dimensional array of magnifying modules and each magnifying module consists of a micromagnifier and a ray angle adjuster. The micromagnifier comprises a concave mirror and a convex mirror and magnifies the view. The ray angle adjuster is a transparent wedge and expands the viewing area. The flat-plate magnifier is designed so that the achromatic condition is satisfied by cancelling the angular dispersion produced by the micromagnifier with that of the ray angle adjuster. A prototype of the flat-plate magnifier with a diameter of 9 mm and a magnification power of 3 was demonstrated.

  1. A study of microwave leakage through perforated flat plates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.

    1972-01-01

    A simple formula useful for predicting leakage through a circular hole array in a metallic flat plate is presented. A correction is given for plate thickness. The formula is applicable to arrays having either a 60-deg (staggered) or 90-deg (square) hole pattern, but is restricted to the case of (1) an obliquely incident plane wave with the E field polarized normal to the plane of incidence, and (2) large transmission loss. When theoretical values were compared to experimental data obtained on test samples having transmission losses greater than 20 dB, the agreement between theory and experiment was typically better than 1 dB at S band and 2 dB at X band.

  2. Glory Solar Array Deployment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Glory spacecraft uses Orbital Sciences Corporation Space Systems Group's LEOStar-1 bus design, with deployable, four-panel solar arrays. This conceptual animation reveals Glory's unique solar a...

  3. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  4. Solar collector array

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  5. Solar maximum: Solar array degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    The 5-year in-orbit power degradation of the silicon solar array aboard the Solar Maximum Satellite was evaluated. This was the first spacecraft to use Teflon R FEP as a coverglass adhesive, thus avoiding the necessity of an ultraviolet filter. The peak power tracking mode of the power regulator unit was employed to ensure consistent maximum power comparisons. Telemetry was normalized to account for the effects of illumination intensity, charged particle irradiation dosage, and solar array temperature. Reference conditions of 1.0 solar constant at air mass zero and 301 K (28 C) were used as a basis for normalization. Beginning-of-life array power was 2230 watts. Currently, the array output is 1830 watts. This corresponds to a 16 percent loss in array performance over 5 years. Comparison of Solar Maximum Telemetry and predicted power levels indicate that array output is 2 percent less than predictions based on an annual 1.0 MeV equivalent election fluence of 2.34 x ten to the 13th power square centimeters space environment.

  6. Handbook of Structural Stability Part I: Buckling of Flat Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, George; Becker, Herbert

    1957-01-01

    The various factors governing buckling of flat plates are critically reviewed and the results are summarized in a comprehensive series of charts and tables. Numerical values are presented for buckling coefficients of flat plates with various boundary conditions and applied loadings. The effects of plasticity are incorporated in non dimensional buckling charts utilizing the three-parameter description of stress-strain curves.

  7. ISS Solar Array Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  8. Solar-Array Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    A convenient solar-array simulator has been built for testing systems powered by solar cells. Built for evaluating power extension package in Space Shuttle, the circuit produces the V/I curves of photocell sources; even duplicating transient behavior under partial illumination associated with morning and evening penumbra.

  9. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  10. Electrostatically clean solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore Garry (Inventor); Krumweide, Duane Eric (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Provided are methods of manufacturing an electrostatically clean solar array panel and the products resulting from the practice of these methods. The preferred method uses an array of solar cells, each with a coverglass where the method includes machining apertures into a flat, electrically conductive sheet so that each aperture is aligned with and undersized with respect to its matched coverglass sheet and thereby fashion a front side shield with apertures (FSA). The undersized portion about each aperture of the bottom side of the FSA shield is bonded to the topside portions nearest the edges of each aperture's matched coverglass. Edge clips are attached to the front side aperture shield edges with the edge clips electrically and mechanically connecting the tops of the coverglasses to the solar panel substrate. The FSA shield, edge clips and substrate edges are bonded so as to produce a conductively grounded electrostatically clean solar array panel.

  11. Solar array automation limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumble, Terry M.

    1990-01-01

    Significant progress in the automation of the spacecraft electrical power systems has been made within the past few years. This is especially important with the development of the space station and the increasing demand on the electrical power systems for future satellites. The key element of the spacecraft power system, the solar arrays which supply the power, will have to grow to supply many tens of kilowatts of power within the next twenty years. This growth will be accompanied by the problems associated with large distributed power systems. The growth of the arrays, the on-array management problems and potential solutions to array degradation or failure are discussed. Multilowatt arrays for unmanned spacecraft with comments on the implications of array degradation for manned spacecraft are discussed.

  12. Flat plate puncture test convergence study.

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Spencer; Ammerman, Douglas James; Molitoris, David; Tso, Chi-Fung; Yaksh, Mike

    2010-10-01

    The ASME Task Group on Computational Mechanics for Explicit Dynamics is investigating the types of finite element models needed to accurately solve various problems that occur frequently in cask design. One type of problem is the 1-meter impact onto a puncture spike. The work described in this paper considers this impact for a relatively thin-walled shell, represented as a flat plate. The effects of mesh refinement, friction coefficient, material models, and finite element code will be discussed. The actual punch, as defined in the transport regulations, is 15 cm in diameter with a corner radius of no more than 6 mm. The punch used in the initial part of this study has the same diameter, but has a corner radius of 25 mm. This more rounded punch was used to allow convergence of the solution with a coarser mesh. A future task will be to investigate the effect of having a punch with a smaller corner radius. The 25-cm thick type 304 stainless steel plate that represents the cask wall is 1 meter in diameter and has added mass on the edge to represent the remainder of the cask. The amount of added mass to use was calculated using Nelm's equation, an empirically derived relationship between weight, wall thickness, and ultimate strength that prevents punch through. The outer edge of the plate is restrained so that it can only move in the direction parallel to the axis of the punch. Results that are compared include the deflection at the edge of the plate, the deflection at the center of the plate, the plastic strains at radius r=50 cm and r=100 cm , and qualitatively, the distribution of plastic strains. The strains of interest are those on the surface of the plate, not the integration point strains. Because cask designers are using analyses of this type to determine if shell will puncture, a failure theory, including the effect of the tri-axial nature of the stress state, is also discussed. The results of this study will help to determine what constitutes an adequate

  13. Thermal equivalency study for steel propulsion shafting and flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Dikshit, V.A.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    The electroslag strip surfacing (ESS) process despite its advantage of high deposition rates, low base metal dilutions, and uniform penetrations, over unknown in the United States and has only recently started to gain acceptance as a feasible process for surfacing on large components, e.g., propulsion shafting. Electroslag strip surfacing was made on service scale shaft and on various flat plates using the same surfacing materials and parameters. Thermal history measurements were made by chromel-alumel thermocouples mounted on the shaft and the flat plates. The data were collected by a computer-controlled data acquisition system and subsequently postprocessed using commercial spreadsheet/graphics software programs. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and the flat plates showed a strong dependence on the interpass preheat temperature, but was independent of the maximum temperature. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and flat plate of the same thickness, and for the 76 and 127 mm thick flat plates were found to match very closely. This led to the conclusion that the thermal history results for 127 mm thick shaft and 127 to 67 mm thick flat plates made from similar steels show thermal equivalence for ESS and provide the justification for using 67 to 127 mm thick plates instead of 127 mm thick service scale shafting for process characterization.

  14. Ultralightweight solar array technology

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, P.; Kurland, R.

    1982-06-01

    Flat fold array technology is described, and performance for a range of missions and power levels is predicted. The array employs large area flat panel flexible substrates. The solar cells are adhesively bonded to a thin Kapton substrate to form individual panel assemblies. Any number of these panel assemblies may be joined together to make a blanket assembly. A container assembly protects each blanket assembly when stowed, and a tension guide wire assembly controls the flexible blanket shape when fully extended. Blanket extension and retraction are achieved through a motor powered lightweight trilongeron coilable lattice mast assembly. Ground and zero gravity flight tests on prototype array assemblies are successful.

  15. TRMM Solar Array Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This final report presents conclusions/recommendations concerning the TRMM Solar Array; deliverable list and schedule summary; waivers and deviations; as-shipped performance data, including flight panel verification matrix, panel output detail, shadow test summary, humidity test summary, reverse bias test panel; and finally, quality assurance summary.

  16. A graphical approach to the efficiency of flat-plate collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A nomogram is described which can be used to determine the thermal performance of flat plate solar collectors, resulting in two performance factors: the net absorptance and the net heat loss coefficient. The nomogram takes into account angle of incidence, collector slope, absorber plate design, insulating materials, thicknesses, optical properties of absorbing surfaces and glazing materials, and flow factors. A case example is given to illustrate the use of the nomogram.

  17. Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Workshop on Low-Cost Polysilicon for Terrestrial Photovoltaic Solar-Cell Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Sessions conducted included: polysilicon material requirements; economics; process development in the U.S.; international process development; and polysilicon market and forecasts. Twenty-one papers were presented and discussed.

  18. Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project workshop on low-cost polysilicon for terrestrial photovoltaic solar-cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 21 papers in this workshop proceedings. Topics covered include: polysilicon material requirements; economics; process developments in the USA and internationally; and the polysilicon market and forecasts. (LEW)

  19. Solar array subsystems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, P. W.; Miller, F. Q.; Badgley, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs of a number of technology areas are examined for a LEO, 500 kW solar array. A baseline system conceptual design is developed and the life cycle costs estimated in detail. The baseline system requirements and design technologies are then varied and their relationships to life cycle costs quantified. For example, the thermal characteristics of the baseline design are determined by the array materials and masses. The thermal characteristics in turn determine configuration, performance and hence life cycle cost.

  20. Installation package for air flat plate collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Solar 2 dimensions are four feet by eight feet by two and one half inches. The collector weighs 130 pounds and has an effective solar collection area of over 29.5 square feet. This area represents 95 percent of the total surface of the collector. The installation, operation and maintenance manual, safety hazard analysis, special handling instructions, materials list, installation concept drawings, warranty and certification statement are included in the installation package.

  1. Operational demonstration of a field of high performance flat plate collectors with isothermal heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, V.; Klippel, E.

    1983-12-01

    A solar plant with 21 sq m of highly efficient flat plate collectors and which requires no electricity is described. Heat transport is provided by saturated steam that condenses in a four cubic meter storage tank. The operation temperature is set by the buffer gas pressure between 100 and 140 C, and an absorption chiller is simulated as a heat consumer. The solar collectors were observed to exhibit high performance. Heat transport and temperature control offered high reliability and the thermal stratification in the tank was satisfactory. The positive result permits the design and construction of larger solar plants following the same technical principles.

  2. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  3. Solar array construction

    DOEpatents

    Crouthamel, Marvin S.; Coyle, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    An interconnect tab on each cell of a first set of circular solar cells connects that cell in series with an adjacent cell in the set. This set of cells is arranged in alternate columns and rows of an array and a second set of similar cells is arranged in the remaining alternate columns and rows of the array. Three interconnect tabs on each solar cell of the said second set are employed to connect the cells of the second set to one another, in series and to connect the cells of the second set to those of the first set in parallel. Some tabs (making parallel connections) connect the same surface regions of adjacent cells to one another and others (making series connections) connect a surface region of one cell to the opposite surface region of an adjacent cell; however, the tabs are so positioned that the array may be easily assembled by depositing the cells in a certain sequence and in proper orientation.

  4. High Voltage Space Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. C.; Hillard, G. B.; Vayner, B. V.; Galofaro, J. T.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent tests performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and elsewhere have shown promise in the design and construction of high voltage (300-1000 V) solar arrays for space applications. Preliminary results and implications for solar array design will be discussed, with application to direct-drive electric propulsion and space solar power.

  5. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  6. Incipient transition phenomena in compressible flows over a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The full three-dimensional time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a Fourier-Chebyshev method to study the stability of compressible flows over a flat plate. After the code is validated in the linear regime, it is applied to study the existence of the secondary instability mechanism in the supersonic regime.

  7. Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support research and development for an Experimental Process System Development Unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the slane-to-silicon process are reported. The design activity was completed. About 95% of purchased equipment was received. The draft of the operations manual was about 50% complete and the design of the free-space system continued. The system using silicon power transfer, melting, and shotting on a psuedocontinuous basis was demonstrated.

  8. Flat-plate solar-array project. Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support R and D for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) are reported. About 95% of purchased equipment is received and will be reshipped to the West Coast location. The Data Collection System is completed. In the area of melting/consolidation, to the system using silicon powder transfer, melting and shotting on a pseudocontinuous basis is demonstrated. It is proposed to continue the very promising fluid bed work.

  9. Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The process technology for the manufacture of semiconductor-grade silicon in a large commercial plant by 1986, at a price less than $14 per kilogram of silicon based on 1975 dollars is discussed. The engineering design, installation, checkout, and operation of an Experimental Process System Development unit was discussed. Quality control of scaling-up the process and an economic analysis of product and production costs are discussed.

  10. Low cost Czochralski crystal growing technology. Near implementation of the flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction of the low cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    Equipment developed for the manufacture of over 100 kg of silicon ingot from one crucible by rechanging from another crucible is described. Attempts were made to eliminate the cost of raising the furnace temperature to 250 C above the melting point of silicon by using an RF coil to melt polycrystalline silicon rod as a means of rechanging the crucible. Microprocessor control of the straight growth process was developed and domonstrated for both 4 inch and 6 inch diameter. Both meltdown and melt stabilization processes were achieved using operator prompting through the microprocessor. The use of the RF work coil in poly rod melting as a heat sink in the accelerated growth process was unsuccessful. The total design concept for fabrication and interfacing of the total cold crucible system was completed.

  11. Flat-plate solar-array project. Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    The engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support R and D for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) are reported. About 95% of purchased equipment is received and will be reshipped to the West Coast location. The Data Collection System is completed. In the area of melting/consolidation, to the system using silicon powder transfer, melting and shotting on a pseudocontinuous basis is demonstrated. It is proposed to continue the very promising fluid bed work.

  12. Flat-plate solar array project. Task 1: Silicon material: Investigation of the hydrochlorination of SiC1sub4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mui, J. Y. P.

    1981-01-01

    A two inch-diameter stainless steel reactor was designed to operate at pressure up to 500 psig and at temperature up to 600 C in order to study the hydrochlorination of silicon tetrachloride and metallurgical grade (m.g.) silicon metal to trichlorosilane. The hydrochlorination apparatus is described and operation safety and pollution control are discussed.

  13. Concentrator-Enhanced Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    Deployable solar array for satellites uses slanted low-mass planar mirrors as walls of trough to triple light falling on GaAs solar cells forming bottom of trough. Power-to-mass ratio of new design 42 percent higher than planar array of same power output.

  14. Evaluation of All-Day-Efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  15. Solar array stepping to minimize array excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Mahabaleshwar K. P. (Inventor); Liu, Tung Y. (Inventor); Plescia, Carl T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical oscillations of a mechanism containing a stepper motor, such as a solar-array powered spacecraft, are reduced and minimized by the execution of step movements in pairs of steps, the period between steps being equal to one-half of the period of torsional oscillation of the mechanism. Each pair of steps is repeated at needed intervals to maintain desired continuous movement of the portion of elements to be moved, such as the solar array of a spacecraft. In order to account for uncertainty as well as slow change in the period of torsional oscillation, a command unit may be provided for varying the interval between steps in a pair.

  16. Turbulent thermal boundary layer on a permeable flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Vigdorovich, I. I.

    2007-06-15

    Scaling laws are established for the profiles of temperature, turbulent heat flux, rms temperature fluctuation, and wall heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with transpiration. In the case of blowing, the temperature distribution represented in scaling variables outside the viscous sublayer has a universal form known from experimental data for flows over impermeable flat plates. In the case of suction, the temperature distribution is described by a one-parameter family of curves. A universal law of heat transfer having the form of a generalized Reynolds analogy provides a basis for representation of the heat flux distributions corresponding to different Reynolds numbers and transpiration velocities in terms of a function of one variable. The results are obtained without invoking any special closure hypotheses.

  17. Unsteady heat-flux measurements of second-mode instability waves in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat-flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors, and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are consistent with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was used to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  18. Qualification testing of flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Griffith, J. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The placement of photovoltaic modules in various applications, in climates and locations throughout the world, results in different degrees and combinations of environmental and electrical stress. Early detection of module reliability deficiencies via laboratory testing is necessary for achieving long, satisfactory field service. This overview paper describes qualification testing techniques being used in the US Department of Energy's flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic development program in terms of their significance, rationale for specified levels and durations, and test results.

  19. Solar Array Tracking Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D)more » convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed at compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This is a view of a solar cell blanket deployed on a water table during the Solar Array deployment test. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Arrays provide power to the spacecraft. The arrays are mounted on opposite sides of the HST, on the forward shell of the Support Systems Module. Each array stands on a 4-foot mast that supports a retractable wing of solar panels 40-feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, in full extension. The arrays rotate so that the solar cells face the Sun as much as possible to harness the Sun's energy. The Space Telescope Operations Control Center at the Goddard Space Center operates the array, extending the panels and maneuvering the spacecraft to focus maximum sunlight on the arrays. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST Solar Array was designed by the European Space Agency and built by British Aerospace. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST.

  1. TRMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Basic requirement of 978.59 watts per Panel output @ 58.9 volts B.O.L. was met on an average basis per agreement with NASA. Lower grade Cells were used on the shadowed Panel (Boom shadow) to maximize available power to the Spacecraft. The average output @ 58.9 volts was 991 watts. The outputs of the four t4) Panels ranged from 960 to 1,022 watts. The Panels successfully passed environmental testing at TRW to the contract specification and subsequent testing at NASA which involved output measurements at elevated temperatures. As this type of Array had never previously been built by TRW (aluminum Substrate with 4 cm x 4.4 cm GaAs Cells), the TRMM Program was a development effort combined with a Qual and Flight production effort. The most significant technical problem was Cell cracking during Qual thermal cycling. The cracking problem was determined to be generic within our Solar Array factory in the application of GaAs Cells to our designs. As a result, a TRW funded manufacturing process verification panel (known as the Manufacturing Verification Panel) was built to demonstrate our ability to properly apply GaAs Cells. The original Qual Panel comprised three (3) design variations with respect to Coverglass-to-Cell and Cell-to-Substrate adhesives. The intent was to qualify multiple designs in case one or more failed. When two of the three combinations failed due to excessive Cell breakage during thermal cycling, NASA was reluctant to allow Flight production based on the one remaining good Qual Panel Quadrant. This issue was pivotal for continuing the contract. Facts and recommendations are as follows: (1) The cause of the excessive cracking was never determined. and (2) The areas where the excessive cracking occurred utilized DC93-500 glassing adhesive which was NASA approved, and had been widely used by TRW on a multitude of projects.

  2. Low-cost solar array structure development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  3. Flexible solar-array mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    One of the key elements of the flexible rolled-up solar array system is a mechanism to deploy, retract, and store the flexible solar-cell arrays. The selection of components, the design of the mechanism assembly, and the tests that were performed are discussed. During 6 months in orbit, all mission objectives were satisfied, and inflight performance has shown good correlation with preflight analyses and tests.

  4. Advanced photovoltaic solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard M.; Stella, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program, started in mid-1987, is currently in progress to fabricate prototype wing hardware that will lead to wing integration and testing in 1989. The design configuration and key details are reviewed. A status of prototype hardware fabricated to date is provided. Results from key component-level tests are discussed. Revised estimates of array-level performance as a function of solar cell device technology for geosynchronous missions are given.

  5. Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules

    SciTech Connect

    DeBlasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

    1990-01-01

    This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Experimental testing of various heat transfer structures in a flat plate thermal energy storage unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Maike; Fiß, Michael; Klemm, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    For solar process heat applications with steam as the working fluid and varying application parameters, a novel latent heat storage concept has been developed using an adaptation of a flat plate heat exchanger as the storage concept. Since the pressure level in these applications usually does not exceed 30 bar, an adaptation with storage material chambers arranged between heat transfer medium chambers is possible. Phase change materials are used as the storage medium, so that the isothermal evaporation of steam during discharging of the storage is paired with the isothermal solidification of the storage material. Heat transfer structures can be inserted into the chambers to adjust the power level for a given application. By combining the required number of flat plate heat exchanger compartments and inserting the appropriate heat transfer structure, the design can easily be adjusted for the required power level and capacity for a specific application. Within this work, the technical feasibility of this concept is proven. The dependence of the operating characteristics on the geometry of the heat exchanger is identified. A focus is on varying the power density by integrating conductive heat structures in the PCM.

  7. Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deblasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

    1990-01-01

    This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time.

  8. Pure and aerated water entry of a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Z. H.; Causon, D. M.; Qian, L.; Mingham, C. G.; Mai, T.; Greaves, D.; Raby, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the entry of a rigid square flat plate into pure and aerated water. Attention is focused on the measurement and calculation of the slamming loads on the plate. The experimental study was carried out in the ocean basin at Plymouth University's COAST laboratory. The present numerical approach extends a two-dimensional hydro-code to compute three-dimensional hydrodynamic impact problems. The impact loads on the structure computed by the numerical model compare well with laboratory measurements. It is revealed that the impact loading consists of distinctive features including (1) shock loading with a high pressure peak, (2) fluid expansion loading associated with very low sub-atmospheric pressure close to the saturated vapour pressure, and (3) less severe secondary reloading with super-atmospheric pressure. It is also disclosed that aeration introduced into water can effectively reduce local pressures and total forces on the flat plate. The peak impact loading on the plate can be reduced by half or even more with 1.6% aeration in water. At the same time, the lifespan of shock loading is prolonged by aeration, and the variation of impulse is less sensitive to the change of aeration than the peak loading.

  9. Unsteady Aerodynamics on a Pitching Plunging Flat Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Adam; Ukeiley, Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Biology has shown that natural fliers utilize unsteady flow mechanisms to enhance their lift characteristics in low Reynolds number flight regimes. This study will investigate the interaction between the leading edge vortices (LEVs) and tip vortices over a low aspect ratio flat plate being subjected to a pitch-plunge kinematic motion. Previous studies have shown the creation of stable vortices off the leading edge at the three quarter span location between times 0.25 and 0.50 in the kinematic motion. This study furthers previous knowledge by mapping the flow field around these vortex cores. This will allow for an understanding into the interaction of the LEV with tip vortices and how the LEVs convect downstream. Specifically we look to validate the interactions between these vortex systems leading to enhanced lift as has been demonstrated in very low Reynolds number numerical simulations. A combination of two dimensional and stereo Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) is used to measure the flow field around the flat plate at various spanwise and chordwise locations. The PIV measurements are triggered by the dynamic motion rig allowing for phase averaging at key locations throughout the motion cycle.

  10. Feasibility Study of Solar Dome Encapsulation of Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The technical and economic advantages of using air-supported plastic enclosures to protect flat plate photovoltaic arrays are described. Conceptual designs for a fixed, latitude-tilt array and a fully tracking array were defined. Detailed wind loads and strength analyses were performed for the fixed array. Detailed thermal and power output analyses provided array performance for typical seasonal and extreme temperature conditions. Costs of each design as used in a 200 MWe central power station were defined from manufacturing and material cost estimates. The capital cost and cost of energy for the enclosed fixed-tilt array were lower than for the enclosed tracking array. The enclosed fixed-tilt array capital investment was 38% less, and the levelized bus bar energy cost was 26% less than costs for a conventional, glass-encapsulated array design. The predicted energy cost for the enclosed fixed array was 79 mills/kW-h for direct current delivered to the power conditioning units.

  11. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  12. High voltage solar array experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennerud, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    The interaction between the components of a high voltage solar array and a simulated space plasma is studied to obtain data for the design of a high voltage solar array capable of 15kW at 2 to 16kV. Testing was conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5-m long by 1.5-m diameter having a plasma source which simulated the plasma conditions existing in earth orbit between 400 nautical miles and synchronous altitude. Test samples included solar array segments pinholes in insulation covering high voltage electrodes, and plain dielectric samples. Quantitative data are presented in the areas of plasma power losses, plasma and high voltage induced damage, and dielectric properties. Limitations of the investigation are described.

  13. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  14. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  15. The Stardust solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasner, S.; Sharmit, K.; Stella, P. M.; Craig, C.; Mumaw, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Stardust program, part of NASA's Discovery Missions was launched on February 7. 1999. It's seven-year mission is to gather interstellar dust and material from the comet Wild-2 and return the material to earth in January 2006. In order to accomplish this mission, the satellite will orbit the sun a total of three times, traversing distances from a little under 1 AU to 2.7 AU. On April 18 2002 , the Stardust spacecraft reached its furthest distance and broke the record for being the farthest spacecraft from the sun powered by solar energy, The Stardust solar panels were built with standard off the shelf 10 Ohm-cm high efficiency silicon solar cells. These solar cells are relatively inexpensive and have shown excellent characteristics under LILT conditions. In order to accommodate the varying temperature and intensity conditions on the electrical power subsystem, an electronic switch box was designed to reconfigure the string length and number of swings depending on the mission phase. This box allowed the use of an inexpensive direct energy transfer system for the electrical power system architecture. The solar panels and electrical power system have met all requirements. Telemetry data from the solar panels at 2.7 AU are in excellent agreement with flight predictions.

  16. Small satellite solar array substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, John N.; Rosanova, Giulio

    1994-01-01

    The SMall EXplorer (SMEX) Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) spacecraft was developed to investigate plasma physics of auroral phenomena at high orbital altitude. The FAST satellite comprises a variety of deployable booms with sensors on the ends, and instruments that protrude from the main body of the spacecraft to obtain the plasma and electromagnetic fields data. This required the plasma disturbance around the satellite to be kept to a minimum. A non deployable, body mounted solar array was implemented. This led to the design of a light weight solar array substrate with a high degree of structural integrity.

  17. Soldered solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, H. C.

    1982-06-01

    The ability of soldered interconnects to withstand a combination of long life and severe environmental conditions was investigated. Improvements in joint life from the use of solder mixes appropriate to low temperature conditons were studied. Solder samples were placed in a 150 C oven for 5 weeks (= 12 yr at 80 C, or 24 at 70 C according to Arrhenius's rule). Conventional and high solder melting point array samples underwent 1000 thermal cycles between -186 and 100 C. Results show that conventional and lead rich soldered arrays can survive 10 yr geostationary orbit missions.

  18. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  19. Energy distribution of proton microbeam transmitted through two flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, G. U. L.; Rajta, I.; Bereczky, R. J.; Tőkési, K.

    2015-07-01

    The transmission of 1 MeV proton microbeam passing between two parallel flat plates was investigated. Three different materials were used in our experiments. As insulators we used Polytetrafluoroethylene and borosilicate glass plates and glass with gold layer on the surface as conductor. The surface of the plates was parallel to the beam axis and one of the plates was moved towards the beam. The energy distribution and the deflection of the transmitted beam were measured as the function of the sample distance relative to the beam. We found systematic differences between the behaviour of the metallic and insulator samples. The proton microbeam suffered significant deflection towards the sample surface due to the image acceleration when using conductor material. In case of the glass and Polytetrafluoroethylene plates the beam was deflected into the opposite direction, and the incident protons did not suffer significant energy loss, which is the consequence of the guiding effect.

  20. Flat-plate /vapor-chamber/ heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Marcus, B. D.; Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of heat pipes constructed in the form of flat-plate panels. The test panels were constructed of copper with methyl alcohol as the working fluid. Capillary grooves etched on the internal surfaces provided evaporation and condensation heat-transfer coefficients on the order of 1600 Btu/hr-sq ft-deg F. Two panels were launched on board a sounding rocket; the payload reached an altitude of 140 miles, and zero gravity was achieved for almost six minutes. The panel with working fluid inside demonstrated a heat input flux of 2.5 watts/sq cm, with only a 3 to 5 C temperature difference throughout the entire panel.

  1. A lightweight inflatable solar array

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, P.K.; Williams, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    L`Garde and Phillips Laboratory have developed a light weight deployable solar array wing in the 200-1000 watt range, on the Inflatable Torus Solar Array Technology Demonstration (ITSAT Demo) Project. The power density of a flight unit could be as high as 93 W/kg for a 200 Watt-class wing, including structure and deployment mechanisms. In Phase 1, a proof of concept torus and array was constructed and deployed in the laboratory. During Phase 2, a revised torus and array were constructed and tested at L`Garde and the Naval Research Lab. The qualification tests included random vibration, deployment in a thermal vacuum chamber, natural frequency determination, and thermal cycling. The flight design uses 2 mil thick crystalline Si cells on an AO protected flexible Kapton film substrate folded accordion style for stowage. The support structure is a rectangular frame comprised of two inflated then rigidized cylinders, the array stowage box and its cover. The cylinders, flattened, folded and stored for launch, are deployed by inflating with N{sub 2} and rigidized by straining the cylinder laminate material controllably beyond the elastic limit. The engineering protoflight array was designed for optimum power density but, due to availability, some of the components came from excess production runs. Because of this, the actual power density of the test article was 59 W/kg, or 36% less than the baseline flight array. However, using components as designed, the projected 93 w/kg can be achieved. Due to simple deployment mechanism, the cost of an ITSAT-type solar array is about one-half that of competing systems.

  2. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-31D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  3. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  4. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  5. Photoelectric solar cell array

    SciTech Connect

    Lidorenko, N.S.; Afian, V.V.; Martirosian, R.G.; Ryabikov, S.V.; Strebkov, D.S.; Vartanian, A.V.

    1983-11-29

    A photoelectric solar cell device comprises a dispersing element exposed to the sun's radiation and followed in the optical path by photocells having different spectral sensitivities. Each photocell has its working surface so oriented that the light beam with the wavelength corresponding to the maximum spectral sensitivity of that photocell impinges on its working surface. The dispersing element is a hologram representing light sources with different wavelengths. The photocells are positioned in the image planes of the light sources producing the light beams of the corresponding wavelengths.

  6. Space solar arrays and concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habraken, Serge; Defise, Jean-Marc; Collette, Jean-Paul; Rochus, Pierre; D'Odemont, Pierre-Alexis; Hogge, Michel

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents some research activities conducted at the Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL) in the field of space solar arrays and concentration. With the new generation of high efficiency solar cells, solar concentration brings new insights for future high power spacecrafts. A trade-off study is presented in this paper. Two different trough concentrators, and a linear Fresnel lens concentrator are compared to rigid arrays. Thermal and optical behaviors are included in the analysis. Several technical aspects are discussed: Off-pointing with concentrators induces collection loss and illumination non uniformity, reducing the PV efficiency. Concentrator deployment increases the mission risk. Reflective trough concentrators are attractive and already proven. Coating is made of VDA (Aluminum). A comprehensive analysis of PV conversion increase with protected silver is presented. Solar concentration increases the heat load on solar cells, while the conversion efficiency is significantly decreasing at warm temperatures. To conclude, this paper will point out the new trends and the key factors to be addressed for the next generation of solar generators.

  7. International ultraviolet explorer solar array power degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic electrical performance of each International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) solar array panel is evaluated as a function of several prevailing variables (namely, solar illumination, array temperature and solar cell radiation damage). Based on degradation in the current-voltage characteristics of the array due to solar cell damage accumulated over time by space charged particle radiations, the available IUE solar array power is determined for life goals up to 10 years. Best and worst case calculations are normalized to actual IUE flight data (available solar array power versus observatory position) to accurately predict the future IUE solar array output. It is shown that the IUE solar array can continue to produce more power than is required at most observatory positions for at least 5 more years.

  8. Urea separation in flat-plate microchannel hemodialyzer; experiment and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tuhy, Alana R; Anderson, Eric K; Jovanovic, Goran N

    2012-06-01

    Two flat-plate microchannel hemodialyzers were constructed consisting of two identical laminae separated by a 20[μm] thick ultrafiltration membrane (Gambro AN69). Each lamina contains a parallel array of microchannels 100[μm] deep, 200[μm] wide, and 5.6[cm] or 9.9[cm] in length respectively. Urea was removed from the aqueous stream containing 1.0[g] urea per liter de-ionized water in the blood side, by countercurrent contact with pure de-ionized water in the dialysate side of the flat-plate hemodialyzer. In all cases volumetric flow rate of water in the dialysate side was equal or less than the volumetric flow rate in the blood side, which is in large contrast to commercial applications of hollow-fiber hemodialyzers where dialysate flow is severalfold larger than blood flow rate. A three-dimensional finite volume mass transport model, built entirely from the first principles with no adjustable parameters, was written in FORTRAN. The results of the mathematical model excellently predict experimental results. The fractional removals of urea predicted by the model are within 2.7%-11% of experimentally obtained values for different blood and dialysate velocities/flow rates in microchannels, and for different transmembrane pressures. The overall mass transfer coefficient was calculated using the urea outlet concentrations obtained at various average velocities (1.0-5.0[cm/s]) in the blood and dialysate, and two nominal transmembrane pressures (∆P(tm) = 0 and 10,000.[Pa]). Overall mass transfer coefficients obtained experimentally ranged from 0.068 to 0.14 [cm/min]. The numerical model predicted an average overall mass transfer coefficient of 0.08 [cm/min]. This value is 60% higher than those found in commercial dialyzers (~0.05[cm/min]). PMID:22374475

  9. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. (a) Cargo tanks may have sighting ports as a secondary...

  14. Elastic Buckling Under Combined Stresses of Flat Plates with Integral Waffle-like Stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris F; Levin, L Ross; Troutman, John L

    1954-01-01

    Theory and experiment were compared and found in good agreement for the elastic buckling under combined stresses of long flat plates with integral waffle-like stiffening in a variety of configurations. For such flat plates, 45 degree waffle stiffening was found to be the most effective of the configurations for the proportions considered over the widest range of combinations of compression and shear.

  15. Elastic Buckling under Combined Stresses of Flat Plates with Integral Waffle-Like Stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Norris F.; Levin, L. Ross; Troutman, John L.

    1953-01-01

    Theory and experiment were compared and found in good agreement for the elastic Buckling under combined stresses of long flat plates with integral waffle-like stiffening in a variety of configurations. For such flat plates, 45deg waffle stiffening was found to be the most effective of the configurations for the proportions considered over the widest range of combinations of compression and shear.

  16. Drag measurements of blunt stores tangentially mounted on a flat plate at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to measure the drag of blunt stores (hemispherical noses and afterbodies) tangentially mounted in various arrays on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.90, 2.16,and 2.86 and at a nominal Reynolds number of 2X10 to the 6th power per foot. The arrays consisted of two and three stores mounted in lateral, tandem, or staggered arrangements. The relative position of the stores in the arrays was varied while the drag of only one store was measured to determine the effect of spacing on the store drag. Store-on-store interference was determined by comparing the drag of a single store with the drag of the store in an array. The results indicate virtually all arrangements and spacings which were tested had favorable store-on-store interference (drag reduction) across the Mach number range. Tabulated data, schlieren photographs, and shadowgraphs are included.

  17. Reconfiguration of a flexible flat plate under snow loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Frédérick; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Snow and wind constitute two of the main sources of mechanical loading on terrestrial plants. Plants bend and twist with large amplitude to bear these loads. For the past ten years, various authors have sought to decompose the problem of plant reconfiguration under fluid flow into its fundamental mechanical ingredients by studying the reconfiguration of simple flexible structures such as beams, plates, rods and strips. Here, we adopt a similar approach to these studies and consider the snow interception of a flexible flat plate. We performed two sets of experiments on thin flexible rectangular plates supported at their center: in the first one, a plate was subjected to real snowing events; in the second one, a plate was loaded with glass beads acting as a granular media similar to snow. Moreover, a theoretical model coupling the Elastica formulation to a loading with a set angle of repose is developed. The model is found to be in good agreement with the experiments on glass beads. Asymptotic scaling laws can be found similarly to the Vogel exponents of reconfiguring structures. For the real snow loading, it is found that the cohesive force in snow which is highly dependent on the snow temperature complicate things greatly.

  18. Characteristics of transition in a flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myung-Ryul; Choi, Haecheon; Kang, Shin-Hyoung

    1998-11-01

    A direct numerical simulation of the spatially evolving transition in a flat-plate boundary layer is performed in the region of ( 115000<= Re_x<= 340000 ) with ( 1537× 99× 128 ) grid points. Inflow disturbances, similar to the two dimensional T-S wave combined with three dimensional waves, are generated on the upstream wall through time-dependent localized blowing and suction. A ( Λ ) vortex, consisting of two legs, is identified at a downstream location of blowing and suction. Soon a hairpin vortex, consisting of a head and two legs, is formed from the ( Λ ) vortex through the self induction mechanism. At a later time new hairpin vortices are successively produced behind the first hairpin vortex. At the final stage six hairpin vortices are observed. As the vortices move downstream in time, the legs of the ( Λ ) vortex get stronger and become quasi-streamwise vortices, while the head of the hairpin vortex changes into an ( Ω ) shape. Near the end of the computational domain the hairpin vortices and quasi-streamwise vortices are entangled with each other and convect downstream together; these phenomena are compared with the characteristics of a turbulent spot. It is shown that the spikes and saw-tooth like jumps in the streamwise velocity signals, observed in experiments, are associated with the heads and legs of the hairpin vortices, respectively.

  19. Rarefied flow past a flat plate at incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dogra, Virendra K.; Moss, James N.; Price, Joseph M.

    1988-01-01

    Results of a numerical study using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method are presented for the transitional flow about a flat plate at 40 deg incidence. The plate has zero thickness and a length of 1.0 m. The flow conditions simulated are those experienced by the Shuttle Orbiter during reentry at 7.5 km/s. The range of freestream conditions are such that the freestream Knudsen number values are between 0.02 and 8.4, i.e., conditions that encompass most of the transitional flow regime. The DSMC simulations show that transitional effects are evident when compared with free molecule results for all cases considered. The calculated results demonstrate clearly the necessity of having a means of identifying the effects of transitional flow when making aerodynamic flight measurements as are currently being made with the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicles. Previous flight data analyses have relied exclusively on adjustments in the gas-surface interaction models without accounting for the transitional effect which can be comparable in magnitude. The present calculations show that the transitional effect at 175 km would increase the Space Shuttle Orbiter lift-drag ratio by 90 percent over the free molecule value.

  20. PEP solar array definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The power extension package (PEP) is a solar array system that will be used on the space transportation system to augment the power of the Orbiter vehicle and to extend the time the vehicle may stay in orbit. The baseline configuration of the PEP is reviewed. The programmatic aspects of the design covering the development plan, the manufacturing facility plan and the estimated costs and risks are presented.

  1. Flat-plate module efficiency versus cost tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Five Year Research Plan energy cost methodology and in depth analyses based on the extensive data that are relevant to PV systems are used to facilitate the accomplishment of the $0.15/kWh energy cost goal. An equation is given for the five year energy cost methodology. The allocation guidelines are designed to be consistent with flat solar array (FSA) milestones for module cost, module efficiency, and the programmatic goal for energy cost. They are research targets that appear to be achievable, given prior accomplishments and planned activities in the areas of low cost silicon purification, low cost sheet material, high efficiency cell processing, low cost, long life encapsulants, and automated fabrication method. Extensive sensitivity analysis work has been performed that shows that these guidelines represent an efficient way to meet the intent of the DOE program.

  2. Flow past a normal flat plate undergoing inline oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaledi, Hatef A.; Andersson, Helge I.; Barri, Mustafa; Pettersen, Bjørnar

    2012-09-01

    The flow past an inline oscillating normal flat plate has been considered with the view to explore the variety of wake phenomena which arise even at the low Reynolds number (Re) equal to 100 based on the free stream velocity and the width of the plate. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were integrated in time over a wide range of excitation frequencies and amplitudes. A wake flow regime map was produced on the basis of the 24 computer simulations. For a certain excitation amplitude, the wake vortex shedding is first antisymmetric at low excitation frequencies fe. When fe is increased the wake first becomes chaotic and thereafter turns into a symmetric shedding mode, for instance the S-II mode with a binary vortex pair on each side of the wake. If fe is increased even further, more complex symmetric wake patterns may occur before the wake ultimately turns into chaos. Symmetric wakes are thus only observed in a band of intermediate excitation frequencies and then with the dominating flow frequency locked-on to fe. In one particular case, the S-II mode in the very near wake turned into what might be considered as a new S-IV mode which comprised four different vortex pairs per shedding cycle. In spite of the low Re considered, several cases exhibited distinct three-dimensionalities whereas some other cases remained strictly 2D. In some of the cases, at least, the transition from 2D to 3D wake flow was ascribed to a "mode competition." Finally, for one of the two-dimensional cases the Reynolds number was first increased to 300 and then to 500 and a complex three-dimensional wake flow was observed. However, even at Re = 100, two-dimensional computer simulations are unable to reproduce the three-dimensional wake flow characteristics reported from the present study.

  3. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  4. On the instability of hypersonic flow past a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackaby, Nicholas; Cowley, Stephen; Hall, Philip

    1990-01-01

    The instability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows over flat plates is considered. The viscosity of the fluid is taken to be governed by Sutherland's law, which gives a much more accurate representation of the temperature dependence of fluid viscosity at hypersonic speeds than Chapman's approximate linear law; although at lower speeds the temperature variation of the mean state is less pronounced so that the Chapman law can be used with some confidence. Attention is focussed on the so-called (vorticity) mode of instability of the viscous hypersonic boundary layer. This is thought to be the fastest growing inviscid disturbance at hypersonic speeds; it is also believed to have an asymptotically larger growth rate than any viscous or centrifugal instability. As a starting point the instability of the hypersonic boundary layer which exists far downstream from the leading edge of the plate is investigated. In this regime the shock that is attached to the leading edge of the plate plays no role, so that the basic boundary layer is non-interactive. It is shown that the vorticity mode of instability of this flow operates on a significantly different lengthscale than that obtained if a Chapman viscosity law is assumed. In particular, it is found that the growth rate predicted by a linear viscosity law overestimates the size of the growth rate by O(M(exp 2). Next, the development of the vorticity mode as the wavenumber decreases is described, and it is shown that acoustic modes emerge when the wavenumber has decreased from it's O(1) initial value to O(M (exp -3/2). Finally, the inviscid instability of the boundary layer near the leading edge in the interaction zone is discussed and particular attention is focussed on the strong interaction region which occurs sufficiently close to the leading edge. It is found that the vorticity mode in this regime is again unstable, and that it is concentrated in the transition layer at the edge of the boundary layer where the temperature

  5. Forced Convection and Sedimentation Past a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelekasis, Nikolaos A.; Acrivos, Andreas

    1995-01-01

    The steady laminar flow of a well-mixed suspension of monodisperse solid spheres, convected steadily past a horizontal flat plate and sedimenting under the action of gravity, is examined. It is shown that, in the limit as Re approaches infinity and epsilon approaches 0, where Re is the bulk Reynolds number and epsilon is the ratio of the particle radius a to the characteristic length scale L, the analysis for determining the particle concentration profile has several aspects in common with that of obtaining the temperature profile in forced-convection heat transfer from a wall to a fluid stream moving at high Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Specifically, it is found that the particle concentration remains uniform throughout the O(Re(exp -1/2)) thick Blasius boundary layer except for two O(epsilon(exp 2/3)) thin regions on either side of the plate, where the concentration profile becomes non-uniform owing to the presence of shear-induced particle diffusion which balances the particle flux due to convection and sedimentation. The system of equations within this concentration boundary layer admits a similarity solution near the leading edge of the plate, according to which the particle concentration along the top surface of the plate increases from its value in the free stream by an amount proportional to X(exp 5/6), with X measuring the distance along the plate, and decreases in a similar fashion along the underside. But, unlike the case of gravity settling on an inclined plate in the absence of a bulk flow at infinity considered earlier, here the concentration profile remains continuous everywhere. For values of X beyond the region near the leading edge, the particle concentration profile is obtained through the numerical solution of the relevant equations. It is found that, as predicted from the similarity solution, there exists a value of X at which the particle concentration along the top side of the plate attains its maximum value phi(sub m) and that, beyond this

  6. Analytical predictions of liquid and air photovoltaic/thermal flat-plate collector performance

    SciTech Connect

    Raghuraman, P.; Hendrie, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Two separate one-dimensional analyses have been developed for the prediction of the thermal and electrical performance of both liquid and air flat-plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. The analyses account for the temperature difference between the primary insolation absorber (the photovoltaic cells) and the secondary absorber (a thermal absorber flat plate). The results of the analyses are compared with test measurements, and therefrom, design recommendations are made to maximize the total energy extracted from the collectors.

  7. Use of Radiometrically Calibrated Flat-Plate Calibrators in Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2015-08-01

    Most commonly used, low-temperature, infrared thermometers have large fields of view sizes that make them difficult to be calibrated with narrow aperture blackbodies. Flat-plate calibrators with large emitting surfaces have been proposed for calibrating these infrared thermometers. Because the emissivity of the flat plate is not unity, its radiance temperature is wavelength dependent. For calibration, the wavelength pass band of the device under test should match that of the reference infrared thermometer. If the device under test and reference radiometer have different pass bands, then it is possible to calculate the corresponding correction if the emissivity of the flat plate is known. For example, a correction of at is required when calibrating a infrared thermometer with a "" radiometrically calibrated flat-plate calibrator. A method is described for using a radiometrically calibrated flat-plate calibrator that covers both cases of match and mismatch working wavelength ranges of a reference infrared thermometer and infrared thermometers to be calibrated with the flat-plate calibrator. Also, an application example is included in this paper.

  8. Evaluation of space station solar array technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The research concerning lightweight solar array assemblies since 1970 is reported. A bibliography of abstracts of documents used for reference during this period is included along with an evaluation of available solar array technology. A list of recommended technology programs is presented.

  9. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  10. Fluctuating pressures measured beneath a high-temperature, turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate at Mach number of 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Albertson, Cindy W.

    1989-01-01

    Fluctuating pressures were measured beneath a Mach 5, turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with an array of piezoresistive sensors. The data were obtained with a digital signal acquisition system during a test run of 4 seconds. Data sampling rate was such that frequency analysis up to 62.5 kHz could be performed. To assess in situ frequency response of the sensors, a specially designed waveguide calibration system was employed to measure transfer functions of all sensors and related instrumentation. Pressure time histories were approximated well by a Gaussian prohibiting distribution. Pressure spectra were very repeatable over the array span of 76 mm. Total rms pressures ranged from 0.0017 to 0.0046 of the freestream dynamic pressure. Streamwise, space-time correlations exhibited expected decaying behavior of a turbulence generated pressure field. Average convection speed was 0.87 of freestream velocity. The trendless behavior with sensor separation indicated possible systematic errors.

  11. A simplified solar cell array modelling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the energy conversion/self sufficiency efforts of DSN engineering, it was necessary to have a simplified computer model of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system. This article describes the analysis and simplifications employed in the development of a PV cell array computer model. The analysis of the incident solar radiation, steady state cell temperature and the current-voltage characteristics of a cell array are discussed. A sample cell array was modelled and the results are presented.

  12. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  13. SEPS solar array design and technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.; Young, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The technology developments required and a preliminary design of a lightweight 25 kW solar array for the solar electric propulsion stage (SEPS) have been defined. The requirements for a 65 W/Kg SEPS solar array system requires significant component weight reductions over present state-of-the-art flexible solar arrays in both electrical and structural-mechanical designs. A requirement for operation from 0.3 au to 6.0 au presents a wide range of temperature environments as well as severe combined thermal/vacuum/UV radiation environments. Additional requirements are capability for partial array retraction operation, and capability for full retraction and automatic preloading for survival of the Shuttle reentry environment. An assessment of current lightweight flexible solar array technology is made against the SEPS solar array requirements and new technology requirements are defined. A preliminary design and the operating characteristics of a flat-fold solar array system meeting the SEPS requirements is presented. A full-width, 10-ft-tall functional array model, including representative welded electrical modules and a model astromast, was fabricated and tested.

  14. Flow over a traveling wavy foil with a passively flapping flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nansheng; Peng, Yan; Liang, Youwen; Lu, Xiyun

    2012-05-01

    Flow over a traveling wavy foil with a passively flapping flat plate has been investigated using a multiblock lattice Boltzmann equation and the immersed boundary method. The foil undergoes prescribed undulations in the lateral direction and the rigid flat plate has passive motion determined by the fluid structure interaction. This simplified model is used to study the effect of the fish caudal fin and its flexibility on the locomotion of swimming animals. The flexibility of the caudal fin is modeled by a torsion spring acting about the pivot at the conjuncture of the wavy foil and the flat plate. The study reveals that the passively oscillating flat plate contributes half of the propulsive force. The flexibility, represented by the nondimensional natural frequency F, plays a very important role in the movement and propulsive force generation of the whole body. When the plate is too flexible, the drag force is observed. As the flat plate becomes more rigid, the propulsive force that is generated when the undulation is confined to last part of the wavy foil becomes larger. The steady movement occurs at F=5. These results are consistent with the observations of some swimming animals in nature.

  15. Deployment simulation for 3rd generation solar array GSR3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verne, C.; Rouchon, M.

    1989-01-01

    Deployment tests for different solar arrays are described. The Spacebus solar array deployment is tested in two dimensions. The Spot 4 array deployment is tested in three dimensions. A mock-up deployment test on an air cushion is compared to results obtained using simulation software. The third generation solar array concept equipped with Adele hinges is compared to previous solar array models. The need for greater accuracy and reliability in the deployment analysis of these third generation solar arrays is stressed.

  16. Interference effects on the hypersonic, rarefied flow about a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method is used to study the hypersonic, rarified flow interference effects on a flat plate caused by nearby surfaces. Calculations focus on shock-boundary-layer and shock-lip interactions in hypersonic inlets. Results are presented for geometries consisting of a flat plate with different leading-edge shapes over a flat lower wall and a blunt-edge flat plate over a 5-degree wedge. The problems simulated correspond to a typical entry flight condition of 7.5 km/s at altitudes of 75 to 90 km. The results show increases in predicted local heating rates for shock-boundary-layer and shock-lip interactions that are quantitatively similar to those observed experimentally at much higher densities.

  17. Friction-factor data for flat-plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Childs, Dara W.

    1992-01-01

    Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.

  18. Friction factor data for flat plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Tae Woong

    1989-01-01

    Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.

  19. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  20. Space Station Freedom Solar Array design development

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, C. )

    1993-01-01

    The design of Space Station Freedom's Solar Array (SSFSA) is reviewed highlighting the key design performance goals, challenges, design description, and development testing objectives, results and plans. Study results are discussed which illustrate many of the more important design decision.

  1. Computation of Tone Noise From Supersonic Jet Impinging on Flat Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Blech, Richard A. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    A supersonic jet impinging normally on a flat plate has both practical importance and theoretical interests. The physical phenomenon is not fully understood yet. Research concentrates either on the hydrodynamics (e.g., lift loss for STOVL) or on the aeroacoustic loading. In this paper, a finite volume scheme - the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method - is employed to numerically study the near-field noise of an underexpanded supersonic jet from a converging nozzle impinging normally on a flat plate. The numerical approach is of the MILES type (monotonically integrated large eddy simulation). The computed results compare favorably with the experimental findings.

  2. SEP solar array shuttle flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elms, R.V. Jr.; Young, L.E.; Hill, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and ground verification testing project is underway at LMSC to support a SEP solar array shuttle flight experiment. A full-scale developmental SEP solar array wing is being refurbished for flight in an Orbiter scheduled for launch in early 1983. The experiment hardware design and the on-orbit test operations that are planned to meet the experiment objective are described. 1 ref.

  3. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    A state-of-the-art solar-panel array demonstration site at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center provides a unique opportunity for studying the latest in high-efficiency solar photovoltaic cells. This five-kilowatt solar-array site (see Figure 1) is a technology-transfer and commercialization success for NASA. Among the solar cells at this site are cells of a type that was developed in Dryden Flight Research Center s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program for use in NASA s Helios solar-powered airplane. This cell type, now denoted as A-300, has since been transferred to SunPower Corporation of Sunnyvale, California, enabling mass production of the cells for the commercial market. High efficiency separates these advanced cells from typical previously commercially available solar cells: Whereas typical previously commercially available cells are 12 to 15 percent efficient at converting sunlight to electricity, these advanced cells exhibit efficiencies approaching 23 percent. The increase in efficiency is due largely to the routing of electrical connections behind the cells (see Figure 2). This approach to increasing efficiency originated as a solution to the problem of maximizing the degree of utilization of the limited space available atop the wing of the Helios airplane. In retrospect, the solar cells in use at this site could be used on Helios, but the best cells otherwise commercially available could not be so used, because of their lower efficiencies. Historically, solar cells have been fabricated by use of methods that are common in the semiconductor industry. One of these methods includes the use of photolithography to define the rear electrical-contact features - diffusions, contact openings, and fingers. SunPower uses these methods to produce the advanced cells. To reduce fabrication costs, SunPower continues to explore new methods to define the rear electrical-contact features. The equipment at the demonstration site includes

  4. Solar electric propulsion thruster interactions with solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of interactions of spacecraft-generated and naturally occurring plasmas with high voltage solar array components on an advanced solar electric propulsion system proposed for the Halley's Comet rendezvous mission was investigated. The spacecraft-generated plasma consists of mercury ions and neutralizing electrons resulting from the operation of ion thrusters (the charge-exchange plasma) and associated hollow cathode neutralizers. Quantitative results are given for the parasitic currents and power coupled into solar arrays with voltage fixed as a function of position on the array.

  5. Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.

  6. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project are described for the period April through June 1978. The Project is assigned responsibility for advancing solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  7. LSA Low-cost Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period October through December, 1977 are reported. The LSSA Project is assigned responsibility for advancing silicon solar array technology while encouraging industry to reduce the price of arrays to a level at which photovoltaic electric power systems will be competitive with more conventional power sources early in the next decade. Set forth are the goals and plans with which the Project intends to accomplish this and the progress that was made during the quarter.

  8. Anti-static coat for solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellas, C. N.

    1982-06-01

    A Kapton based composite material, suitable as a substrate for flexible solar arrays, was designed, constructed and tested under electron energies ranging from 5 to 30 keV. The rear of the array under adverse eclipse conditions (-197 C) produced voltages well below the discharge threshold. An antistatic coat suitable as a front cover for solar arrays is also described. The thermal and optical transmission characteristics were tested and are satisfactory, but the UV and particle degradation of the Tedlar material needs to be evaluated.

  9. Landsat 7 Solar Array Testing Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This paper covers the extensive Landsat 7 solar array flight qualification testing effort. Details of the mechanical design of the solar array and its retention/release system are presented. A testing chronology is provided beginning with the onset of problems encountered at the subsystem level and carrying through the third and final powered-spacecraft ground deployment test. Design fixes and other changes are explained in the same order as they became necessary to flight-qualify the array. Some interesting lessons learned are included along with key references.

  10. An investigation of the turbulence scale tensor in a flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. D.; Donaldson, C. D.; Sandri, G.

    1979-01-01

    A differential equation for the scale tensor in turbulent flow is developed from basic considerations and applied to the flow of a constant-density fluid in the boundary layer on a flat plate. Results from preliminary runs of a computer implementation are discussed.

  11. Average properties of compressible laminar boundary layer on flat plate with unsteady flight velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Franklin K; Ostrach, Simon

    1957-01-01

    The time-average characteristics of boundary layers over a flat plate in nearly quasi-steady flow are determined. The plate may be either insulated or isothermal. The time averages are found without specifying the plate velocity explicitly except that it is positive and has an average value.

  12. Fundamental and subharmonic transition to turbulence in zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayadi, Taraneh; Hamman, Curtis W.; Moin, Parviz

    2012-09-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, recent simulations of transition to turbulence in compressible (M = 0.2), zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layers triggered by fundamental (Klebanoff K-type) and subharmonic (Herbert H-type) secondary instabilities of Tollmien-Schlichting waves are highlighted.

  13. Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.

    SciTech Connect

    Dechant, Lawrence; Smith, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by

  14. Safety review package for University of Central Florida flat-plate heat pipe experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Louis C.

    1998-01-01

    A flat-plate heat pipe (FPHP) experiment has been set up for micro-gravity tests on a NASA supplied aircraft. This report presents an analysis on various components of the experimental setup to certify that it will satisfy the flight safety and operation requirements.

  15. Mass properties survey of solar array technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Robert

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the technologies, electrical performance, and mass characteristics of many of the presently available and the more advanced developmental space solar array technologies is presented. Qualitative trends and quantitative mass estimates as total array output power is increased from 1 kW to 5 kW at End of Life (EOL) from a single wing are shown. The array technologies are part of a database supporting an ongoing solar power subsystem model development for top level subsystem and technology analyses. The model is used to estimate the overall electrical and thermal performance of the complete subsystem, and then calculate the mass and volume of the array, batteries, power management, and thermal control elements as an initial sizing. The array types considered here include planar rigid panel designs, flexible and rigid fold-out planar arrays, and two concentrator designs, one with one critical axis and the other with two critical axes. Solar cell technologies of Si, GaAs, and InP were included in the analyses. Comparisons were made at the array level; hinges, booms, harnesses, support structures, power transfer, and launch retention mountings were included. It is important to note that the results presented are approximations, and in some cases revised or modified performance and mass estimates of specific designs.

  16. The ADM-AEOLUS Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, S.; Ferrando, E.; Contini, R.; Blok, R.; Heijden, R. vd; Caon, A.; Labruyere, G.; Strobl, G.; Koestler, W.; Zimmermann, W.

    2008-09-01

    ADM Aeolus is an Earth Explorer Core Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). The satellite is provided with a deployable solar array fully equipped with European state of the art Triple Junction (TJ) GaAs solar cells.The structural part and mechanisms of the ADM Aeolus Solar Array (SA) is a derivate of the Dutch Space FRED solar array concept. This FRED type solar array has already been used on Jules Verne (Automated Transfer Vehicle) and Giove-A. Both satellites has been successfully launched and the Solar Arrays are working nominally.The ADM Aeolus spacecraft (S/C) is powered by two deployable wings. Each of them composed by three panels and with a panel size of 1.1×2.2 m2, so that the total area is about 14.5 m2;. European TJ solar cells (27% efficiency class) embodying an integral protection diode were selected to meet the power budget, necessary for the installed payload. The principal one is an Atmospheric LAser Doppler INstrument (ALADIN), a novel system whose development is a strategic goal for ESA.This SA program is a challenging development in terms of solar cell qualification because of the extensive characterisation and qualification campaign performed for the cell and the integral diode components. Especially for protection diode a long duration high temperature test was performed in order to simulate and cover all lifetime stresses.Main drivers for PVA design are the power requirement at the end of life and the requested protection against atomic oxygen erosion.This paper describes : The results achieved during the qualification phase, from bare cell level to the coupon level, The design activity, mainly focused on the prediction of EOL performances, The acceptance phase at panel levels, which has verified the suitability of the design assumption and manufacturing workmanship.

  17. Concentrator enhanced solar arrays design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lott, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a 25 kW concentrator enhanced lightweight flexible solar array are presented. The study was organized into five major tasks: (1) assessment and specification of design requirements; (2) mechanical design; (3) electric design; (4) concentrator design; and (5) cost projection. The tasks were conducted in an iterative manner so as to best derive a baseline design selection. The objectives of the study are discussed and comparative configurations and mass data on the SEP (Solar Electric Propulsion) array design, concentrator design options and configuration/mass data on the selected concentrator enhanced solar array baseline design are presented. Design requirements supporting design analysis and detailed baseline design data are discussed. The results of the cost projection analysis and new technology are also discussed.

  18. Low cost silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravi, K. V.; Serreze, H. B.; Bates, H. E.; Morrison, A. D.; Jewett, D. N.; Ho, J. C. T.; Schwuttke, G. H.; Ciszek, T. F.; Kran, A.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous growth methodology for silicon solar cell ribbons deals with capillary effects, die effects, thermal effects and crystal shape effects. Emphasis centers on the shape of the meniscus at the ribbon edge as a factor contributing to ribbon quality with respect to defect densities. Structural and electrical characteristics of edge defined, film-fed grown silicon ribbons are elaborated. Ribbon crystal solar cells produce AMO efficiencies of 6 to 10%.

  19. Integral Glass Encapsulation for Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress in the development of permanent, integral glass encapsulation of terrestrial solar photovoltaic arrays by electrostatic bonding is reported. Two basic types of electrostatically bonded modules were demonstrated and their reliability proven in accelerated environmental testing. Economic analyses indicate that electrostatic bonding can be a cost effective, practical, and automatable process for large-scale production of arrays with lifetimes of more than 20 years.

  20. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  1. Demonstration of transparent solar array module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the design, development, fabrication and testing of IR transparent solar array modules. Three modules, consisting of a baseline design using back surface reflector cells, and two modules using gridded back contact, IR transparent cells, were subjected to vacuum thermal balance testing to verify analytical predictions of lower operating emperature and increased efficiency. As a result of this test program, LMSC has verified that a significant degree of IR transparency can be designed into a flexible solar array. Test data correlates with both steady state and transient thermal analysis.

  2. GPM Solar Array Gravity Negated Deployment Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, Jonathan; Johnson, Chris; Lewis, Jesse; Dear, Trevin; Stewart, Alphonso

    2014-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) successfully developed a g-negation support system for use on the solar arrays of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Satellite. This system provides full deployment capability at the subsystem and observatory levels. In addition, the system provides capability for deployed configuration first mode frequency verification testing. The system consists of air pads, a support structure, an air supply, and support tables. The g-negation support system was used to support all deployment activities for flight solar array deployment testing.

  3. Accuracy of the Kirchoff formula in determining acoustic shielding with the use of a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrielsen, R. E.; Davis, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    It has been suggested that if jet engines of aircraft were placed at above the wing instead of below it, the wing would provide a partial shielding of the noise generated by the engines relative to observers on the ground. The shielding effects of an idealized three-dimensional barrier in the presence of an idealized engine noise source was predicted by the Kirchoff formula. Based on the good agreement between experimental measurements and the numerical results of the current study, it was concluded that the Kirchoff approximation provides a good qualitative estimate of the acoustic shielding of a point source by a rectangular flat plate for measurements taken in the far field of the flat plate at frequencies ranging from 1 kHz to 20 kHz. At frequencies greater than 4 kHz the Kirchoff approximation provides accurate quantitative predictions of acoustic shielding.

  4. On the nonlinear stability of viscous modes within the Rayleigh problem on an infinite flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. C.; Otto, S. R.; Lilley, G. M.

    1994-01-01

    The stability has been investigated of the unsteady flow past an infinite flat plate when it is moved impulsively from rest, in its own plane. For small times the instantaneous stability of the flow depends on the linearized equations of motion which reduce in this problem to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. It is known that the flow for certain values of Reynolds number, frequency and wave number is unstable to Tollmien-Schlichting waves, as in the case of the Blasius boundary layer flow past a flat plate. With increase in time, the unstable waves only undergo growth for a finite time interval, and this growth rate is itself a function of time. The influence of finite amplitude effects is studied by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. It is found that the stability characteristics are markedly changed both by the consideration of the time evolution of the flow, and by the introduction of finite amplitude effects.

  5. Accurate stratospheric particle size distributions from a flat plate collection surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Flat plate particle collections have revealed the presence of a remarkable variety of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial material in the stratosphere. It is found that the ratio of terrestrial to extraterrestrial material and the nature of the material collected may vary significantly over short time scales. These fluctuations may be related to massive injections of volcanic ash, emissions from solid fuel rockets, or variations in the micrometeoroid flux. The variations in particle number density can be of great importance to the earth's atmospheric radiation balance, and, therefore, its climate. With the objective to assess the number density of solid particles in the stratosphere, an examination has been conducted of all particles exceeding 1 micron in average diameter for a representative suite of particles obtained from a single flat plate collection surface. Attention is given to solid particle size distributions in the stratosphere, and the origin of important stratospheric particle types.

  6. Large amplitude flexural vibration of thin elastic flat plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandalia, K. A. V.

    1972-01-01

    The general equations governing the large amplitude flexural vibration of any thin elastic shell using curvilinear orthogonal coordinates are derived and consist of two coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations in the normal displacement w and the stress function F. From these equations, the governing equations for the case of shells of revolution or flat plates can be readily obtained as special cases. The material of the shell or plate is isotropic and homogeneous and Hooke's law for the two-dimensional case is valid. It is suggested that the difference between the hardening type of nonlinearity in the case of flat plates and straight beams and the softening type of nonlinearity in the case of shells and rings can, in general, be traced to the amount of curvature present in the underformed median surface of the structure concerned.

  7. Integral glass encapsulation for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.

    1977-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding has been used to join silicon solar cells to borosilicate glass without the aid of any organic binders or adhesives. The results of this investigation have been to demonstrate, without question, the feasibility of this process as an encapsulation technique. The potential of ESB for terrestrial solar arrays was clearly shown. The process is fast, reproducible, and produces a permanent bond between glass and silicon that is stronger than the silicon itself. Since this process is a glass sealing technique requiring no organics it makes moisture tight sealing of solar cells possible.

  8. Flat Plate Wake Velocity Statistics Obtained With Circular And Elliptic Trailing Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near wake of a flat plate with circular and elliptic trailing edges is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. The plate length and thickness are the same in both cases. The separating boundary layers are turbulent and statistically identical. Therefore the wake is symmetric in the two cases. The emphasis in this study is on a comparison of the wake-distributions of velocity components, normal intensity and fluctuating shear stress obtained in the two cases.

  9. Simulations of the transient flow generated from a started flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Leqin; Ma, Xudan; Li, Zhifeng; Wu, Peng; Wu, Dazhuan

    2012-11-01

    Transient operations are commonly founded in fluid machineries such as the starting, stopping, and variations of rotor speeds, etc. Flow generated from a started flat plate is of fundamental importance. Experiments have been done to observe the flow evolution in current researches. And in order to explore the flow in more detailed scale, some vortex methods with high resolution and other numerical methods were developed to solve various related problems by some researchers. But the promotion of vortex method to engineering application is rare due to its complexity and difficulty in specifying the boundary conditions. In order to build up a method of numerical study for such problems, a simplified model is built up with a flat plate. The development of two-dimensional viscous incompressible flow generated from an impulsively started and uniformly accelerated infinitesimally thin flat plate is simulated numerically. A dynamic mesh(DM) method based on the spring analogue and local remeshing is applied to realize the mesh motion caused by the started plate. Researches show that the mesh quality will decline under large grid shear force during the updating process. To conquer this problem, a region near the plate is separated to guarantee the mesh quality at location of interest which is the innovation of the present paper. All computations at least cover a period during which the plate translates 6 times its length. The simulated instantaneous velocity profiles, flow structures and drag coefficients under several Reynolds numbers (20⩽ Re⩽126) and accelerations (20 m/s2⩽ a⩽152 m/s2) are presented and compared with existing results in literatures. Comparisons are found to be satisfactory, confirming the validity of the current proposed method(region separated DM). The proposed DM method is firstly used to study the transient flow generated from a started flat plate and can be used in further study of transient characteristics during transient operations of turbo

  10. Application of wave mechanics theory to fluid dynamics problems: Flat plate flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzywoblocki, M. Z. V.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the flow in the laminar boundary layer along an infinitely long flat plate are discussed. The flow may be disturbed or not, depending on the situation. The physical, natural aspects of the flow, either a laminar flow free from disturbances or a flow which originally is a laminar one with disturbances superimposed upon it. Oscillograms of turbulence in wind tunnel tests and in the wake of a cylinder are presented.

  11. Maximum lift/drag ratio of flat plates with bluntness and skin friction at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    Newtonian theory is used to derive a simple expression for the maximum lift/drag ratio of flat plates with bluntness and skin friction at hypersonic speeds. The bluntness drag is assumed to be independent of angle of attack. Because the effect of skin friction is of second order over the angle of attack range for maximum lift/drag ratio, it was assumed constant. As an example, the expression is applied to the Space Shuttle.

  12. Design and performance of tubular flat-plate solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushima, T.; Ikeda, D.; Kanagawa, H.

    1996-12-31

    With the growing interest in conserving the environmental conditions, much attention is being paid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), which has high energy-conversion efficiency. Many organizations have conducted studies on tubular and flat type SOFCs. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) has studied a combined tubular flat-plate SOFC, and already presented the I-V characteristics of a single cell. Here, we report the construction of a stack of this SOFC cell and successful generation tests results.

  13. Time dependent shear stress and temperature distribution over an insulated flat plate moving at hypersonic speed.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodkiewicz, C. M.; Gupta, R. N.

    1971-01-01

    The laminar two-dimensional flow over a stepwise accelerated flat plate moving with hypersonic speed at zero angle of attack is analysed. The governing equations in the self-similar form are linearized and solved numerically for small times. The solutions obtained are the deviations of the velocity and the temperature profiles from those of steady state. The presented results may be used to find the first order boundary layer induced pressure on the plate.

  14. Visualization of leading edge vortices on a series of flat plate delta wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Francis M.; Ng, T. Terry; Nelson, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of flow visualization data obtained as part of NASA Grant NAG2-258 is presented. During the course of this study, many still and high speed motion pictures were taken of the leading edge vortices on a series of flat plate delta wings at varying angles of attack. The purpose is to present a systematic collection of photographs showing the state of vortices as a function of the angle of attack for the four models tested.

  15. Efficient structures for geosynchronous spacecraft solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    A prototype deployer for the STACBEAM (Stacking Triangular Articulated Compact Beam) is being developed. The STACBEAM is an accordian-folded solar array blanket. The prototype was constructed as a point design for support of a 23.9-kW blanket and is described.

  16. Heat Lamps Solder Solar Array Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, P. J.; Crouthamel, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Interconnection tabs in a nine-solar-cell array have been soldered simultaneously with radiant heat. Cells and tabs are held in position for soldering by sandwiching them between compliant silicone-rubber vacuum platen and transparent polyimide sealing membrane. Heat lamps warm cells, producing smooth, flat solder joints of high quality.

  17. Low-cost Solar Array (LSA) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project during the period January through March 1978 is reported. It includes task reports on silicon material processing, large-area silicon sheet development, encapsulation materials testing and development, project engineering and operations, and manufacturing techniques, plus the steps taken to integrate these efforts.

  18. Low cost silicon solar cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, F. T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. A project value of approximately $250/sq m and $2/watt is projected, based on mass production capacity demand. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.

  19. LDEF transverse flat plate heat pipe experiment /S1005/. [Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, G. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the Transverse Flat Plate Heat Pipe Experiment. A transverse flat plate heat pipe is a thermal control device that serves the dual function of temperature control and mounting base for electronic equipment. In its ultimate application, the pipe would be a lightweight structure member that could be configured in a platform or enclosure and provide temperature control for large space structures, flight experiments, equipment, etc. The objective of the LDEF flight experiment is to evaluate the zero-g performance of a number of transverse flat plate heat pipe modules. Performance will include: (1) the pipes transport capability, (2) temperature drop, and (3) ability to maintain temperature over varying duty cycles and environments. Performance degradation, if any, will be monitored over the length of the LDEF mission. This information is necessary if heat pipes are to be considered for system designs where they offer benefits not available with other thermal control techniques, such as minimum weight penalty, long-life heat pipe/structural members.

  20. In-Flight Boundary-Layer Transition of a Large Flat Plate at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; Frederick, M. A.; Tracy, R. R.; Matisheck, J. R.; Vanecek, N. D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate the pressure distribution, local-flow conditions, and boundary-layer transition characteristics on a large flat plate in flight at supersonic speeds up to Mach 2.00. The tests used a NASA testbed aircraft with a bottom centerline mounted test fixture. The primary objective of the test was to characterize the local flow field in preparation for future tests of a high Reynolds number natural laminar flow test article. A second objective was to determine the boundary-layer transition characteristics on the flat plate and the effectiveness of using a simplified surface coating. Boundary-layer transition was captured in both analog and digital formats using an onboard infrared imaging system. Surface pressures were measured on the surface of the flat plate. Flow field measurements near the leading edge of the test fixture revealed the local flow characteristics including downwash, sidewash, and local Mach number. Results also indicated that the simplified surface coating did not provide sufficient insulation from the metallic structure, which likely had a substantial effect on boundary-layer transition compared with that of an adiabatic surface. Cold wall conditions were predominant during the acceleration to maximum Mach number, and warm wall conditions were evident during the subsequent deceleration.

  1. Measurement of transitional boundary layer on a flat plate using a computational Preston tube method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, W. P.; Kang, S. H.

    1995-11-01

    The development of the transitional boundary layers on a flat plate in uniform and non-uniform incoming flows was experimentally investigated. The mean velocity profiles and the wall shear stresses on a flat plate were measured in the wakes which were generated by circular cylinders and a flat plate ahead of the test plate. A computational Preston tube method (CPM) originally proposed by Nitsche et al. (1983) was adopted and refined to measure the skin friction coefficients in the transitional boundary layer. The CPM was verified as a useful tool to measure the skin-friction over the transitional boundary layer with reasonable accuracy. As the turbulence level in the wakes increased, the starting and ending points of the transition moved progressively upstream. For the same turbulence intensities, the transition was delayed with increase of the length scale. The skin-friction coefficients at the downstream stations in the wake flow were considerably and consistently smaller than the values in the equilibrium turbulent boundary layer of the uniform flow. The transition length for the cases of the plate-wake were shorter than those for the cases of the cylinder-wake as well as the uniform flow.

  2. Numerical modeling of the transitional boundary layer over a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dimitry; Chorny, Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Our example is connected with fundamental research on understanding how an initially laminar boundary layer becomes turbulent. We have chosen the flow over a flat plate as a prototype for boundary-layer flows around bodies. Special attention was paid to the near-wall region in order to capture all levels of the boundary layer. In this study, the numerical software package OpenFOAM has been used in order to solve the flow field. The results were used in a comparative study with data obtained from Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The composite SGS-wall model is presently incorporated into a computer code suitable for the LES of developing flat-plate boundary layers. Presently this model is extended to the LES of the zero-pressure gradient, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. In current study the time discretization is based on a second order Crank-Nicolson/Adams-Bashforth method. LES solver using Smagorinsky and the one-equation LES turbulence models. The transition models significantly improve the prediction of the onset location compared to the fully turbulent models.LES methods appear to be the most promising new tool for the design and analysis of flow devices including transition regions of the turbulent flow.

  3. Modeling of frost crystal growth over a flat plate using artificial neural networks and fractal geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahavvor, Ali Reza

    2016-06-01

    In the present study artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to predict frost thickness and density on a cold flat plate having constant surface temperature under forced convection for different ambient conditions. These methods are very applicable in this area because phase changes such as melting and solidification are simulated by conventional methods but frost formation is a most complicated phase change phenomenon consists of coupled heat and mass transfer. Therefore conventional mathematical techniques cannot capture the effects of all parameters on its growth and development because this process influenced by many factors and it is a time dependent process. Therefore, in this work soft computing method such as artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to do this manner. The databases for modeling are generated from the experimental measurements. First, multilayer perceptron network is used and it is found that the back-propagation algorithm with Levenberg-Marquardt learning rule is the best choice to estimate frost growth properties due to accurate and faster training procedure. Second, fractal geometry based on the Von-Koch curve is used to model frost growth procedure especially in frost thickness and density. Comparison is performed between experimental measurements and soft computing methods. Results show that soft computing methods can be used more efficiently to determine frost properties over a flat plate. Based on the developed models, wide range of frost formation over flat plates can be determined for various conditions.

  4. Solar array synthesis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faith, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Photovoltaic characteristics have been measured on solar cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons to fluences ranging from 1 x 10 to the 13th power e/sq cm to 1 x 10 to the 16th power e/sq cm, for cell temperatures ranging from 123 K to 473 K and for illumination intensities ranging from 5m W/sq cm to 1830m W/sq cm. Empirical equations have been derived from these measurements to describe the behavior of light generated current, open circuit voltage and I-V curve shape over various portions of these temperature/illumination ranges. Both 10 ohms/cm and 17 ohms/cm n-p silicon solar cells were tested, and similar analytical expressions were formulated for easy comparison between the two resistivities.

  5. (abstract) Scaling Nominal Solar Cell Impedances for Array Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert L; Wallace, Matthew T.; Iles, Peter

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a task the objective of which is to characterize solar cell array AC impedance and develop scaling rules for impedance characterization of large arrays by testing single solar cells and small arrays. This effort is aimed at formulating a methodology for estimating the AC impedance of the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) cruise and lander solar arrays based upon testing single cells and small solar cell arrays and to create a basis for design of a single shunt limiter for MPF power control of flight solar arrays having very different inpedances.

  6. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  7. Investigation of test methods, material properties and processes for solar cell encapsulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1983-01-01

    Low cost encapsulation materials for the Flat Plate Solar Array Program (FSA) are investigated. The goal of the program is to identify, test, evaluate and recommend encapsulation materials and processes for the fabrication of cost effective and long life solar modules. Accelerated aging techniques for module component lifetime studies, investigation of candidate outer cover films and continued evaluation of soil repellant coatings are also included.

  8. Low cost solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iles, P. A.; Mclennan, H.

    1975-01-01

    Limitations in both space and terrestial markets for solar cells are described. Based on knowledge of the state-of-the-art, six cell options are discussed; as a result of this discussion, the three most promising options (involving high, medium and low efficiency cells respectively) were selected and analyzed for their probable costs. The results showed that all three cell options gave promise of costs below $10 per watt in the near future. Before further cost reductions can be achieved, more R and D work is required; suggestions for suitable programs are given.

  9. Gallium arsenide solar array subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs of a number of technology areas are examined for a gallium arsenide space solar array. Four specific configurations were addressed: (1) a 250 KWe LEO mission - planer array; (2) a 250 KWe LEO mission - with concentration; (3) a 50 KWe GEO mission planer array; (4) a 50 KWe GEO mission - with concentration. For each configuration, a baseline system conceptual design was developed and the life cycle costs estimated in detail. The baseline system requirements and design technologies were then varied and their relationships to life cycle costs quantified. For example, the thermal characteristics of the baseline design are determined by the array materials and masses. The thermal characteristics in turn determine configuration, performance, and hence life cycle costs.

  10. Solar Array Verification Analysis Tool (SAVANT) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Long, KIenwyn J.; Curtis, Henry B.; Gardner, Barbara; Davis, Victoria; Messenger, Scott; Walters, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Modeling solar cell performance for a specific radiation environment to obtain the end-of-life photovoltaic array performance has become both increasingly important and, with the rapid advent of new types of cell technology, more difficult. For large constellations of satellites, a few percent difference in the lifetime prediction can have an enormous economic impact. The tool described here automates the assessment of solar array on-orbit end-of-life performance and assists in the development and design of ground test protocols for different solar cell designs. Once established, these protocols can be used to calculate on-orbit end-of-life performance from ground test results. The Solar Array Verification Analysis Tool (SAVANT) utilizes the radiation environment from the Environment Work Bench (EWB) model developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center s Photovoltaic and Space Environmental Effects Branch in conjunction with Maxwell Technologies. It then modifies and combines this information with the displacement damage model proposed by Summers et al. (ref. 1) of the Naval Research Laboratory to determine solar cell performance during the course of a given mission. The resulting predictions can then be compared with flight data. The Environment WorkBench (ref. 2) uses the NASA AE8 (electron) and AP8 (proton) models of the radiation belts to calculate the trapped radiation flux. These fluxes are integrated over the defined spacecraft orbit for the duration of the mission to obtain the total omnidirectional fluence spectra. Components such as the solar cell coverglass, adhesive, and antireflective coatings can slow and attenuate the particle fluence reaching the solar cell. In SAVANT, a continuous slowing down approximation is used to model this effect.